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Sample records for churchrock mining district

  1. Development of risk maps to minimize uranium exposures in the Navajo Churchrock mining district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rock Tommy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decades of improper disposal of uranium-mining wastes on the Navajo Nation has resulted in adverse human and ecological health impacts as well as socio-cultural problems. As the Navajo people become increasingly aware of the contamination problems, there is a need to develop a risk-communication strategy to properly inform tribal members of the extent and severity of the health risks. To be most effective, this strategy needs to blend accepted risk-communication techniques with Navajo perspectives such that the strategy can be used at the community level to inform culturally- and toxicologically-relevant decisions about land and water use as well as mine-waste remediation. Objective The objective of this study was to develop GIS-based thematic maps as communication tools to clearly identify high risk exposure areas and offer alternatives to minimize public and ecological health impacts. Methods Thematic maps were produced that incorporated data derived from environmental sampling and public health surveys. The maps show the location and quality of unregulated water resources and identify regulated water sources that could be used as alternatives. In addition, the maps show the location of contaminated soil and sediment areas in which disturbance of surface deposits should be avoided. Preliminary feedback was collected from an informal Navajo working group to assess the clarity and efficacy of this proposed communication method. Results The working group found the maps to be both clear and effective, and made suggestions for improvements, such as the addition of more map features. The working group predicted that once the maps are presented to the public, water hauling and soil use behaviors will change, and dialogue with chapter officials will be initiated to accelerate further risk reduction efforts. Implications Because risk communication is complicated by language barriers, lack of infrastructure, and historical mistrust

  2. Mining induced seismicity in the Ruhr coal mining district, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kasper D.; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian; Erstling, Stefanie; Brüstle, Andrea; Wlecklik, Dennis

    2013-04-01

    In 2012 four hard coal mines (at about 1000 m depth) were operating in Germany, three of them are in the Ruhr coal mining district. The mining method used (longwall mining in combination with caving) causes induced earthquakes due to the stress redistribution in the surrounding rock. Seismic events of magnitude 1.2 and larger are generally perceived by the population and thus trigger a wide interest. The Ruhr-University of Bochum routinely monitors the seismicity and its temporal evolution and energy release since the 1980s. The current seismological network consists of 14 stations (broad-band and short-period seismometers) in the Ruhr area. Six stations are located at the Ruhr-University Bochum at distances of approximately 20-40 km to the active coal fields. The remaining 8 stations are located in the vicinity of the mines (app. 1 to 5 km from the active mining). The magnitude of completeness is 0.9 throughout the entire Ruhr coal mining district with a local magnitude of completeness of 0.7 depending on the network configuration. In general, the identified earthquakes have a horizontal location uncertainty of 3 km. The routine detection and location of the seismicity is done by classical methods, e. g. based on first arrivals, and advanced methods like array techniques or cross-correlation of waveforms of master events with recorded seismograms from selected stations. Additionally selected event clusters are studied in more detail by reprocessing sub-datasets with methods like cluster analysis or consistent phase-picking. Reassessing this unique dataset of 30 years continuous recordings with newly developed methods and modern data processing techniques can provide new insights of the nature of mining induced seismicity. This methods may also be usable in the field of geothermal energy, unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs or underground storage of carbon dioxide which also deals with the detection and handling of large amounts of small magnitude earthquakes.

  3. Fertility and occupation: mining districts in prewar Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosk, C

    1981-01-01

    Although many theories of demographic transition claim that diffusion of deliberate family limitation reaches the agrarian segments of populations last, research has shown that the fertility of mining regions usually exceeds that of farming villages during the transition. Examination of Japanese coal mining regions during the mid-1920s, reveals that the mining districts had lower natality than surrounding rural districts. The lower natality rate was apparently caused by lower marital fertility, and not by excessivly high mortality rates. Mortality was found to be only slightly higher in the mining areas, lending credence to the view that health was less robust in mining areas. Japanese mining areas differ from their European counterparts, which are characterized by excessive natality levels. Regression analysis was used to confirm these conclusions. The model advanced by the author to explain the lower fertility levels seen in the Japanese mining areas as compared to European mining areas involves the higher level of employment opportunities that were available outside the home for Japanese females in mining districts. PMID:11633196

  4. Asturian mercury mining district (Spain) and the environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, A; Álvarez, R; Loredo, J

    2013-11-01

    Mercury is of particular concern amongst global environmental pollutants, with abundant contaminated sites worldwide, many of which are associated with mining activities. Asturias (Northwest of Spain) can be considered an Hg metallogenic province with abundant epithermal-type deposits, whose paragenetic sequences include also As-rich minerals. These mines were abandoned long before the introduction of any environmental regulations to control metal release from these sources. Consequently, the environment is globally affected, as high metal concentrations have been found in soils, waters, sediments, plants, and air. In this paper, a characterization of the environmental affection caused by Hg mining in nine Asturian mine sites is presented, with particular emphasis in Hg and As contents. Hg concentrations found in the studied milieu are similar and even higher than those reported in previous studies for other mercury mining districts (mainly Almadén and Idrija). Furthermore, the potential adverse health effects of exposure to these elements in the considered sites in this district have been assessed.

  5. Mercury pollution issues in mining districts (Armenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Sahakyan, Lilit; Belyaeva, Olga; Torosyan, Nver

    2015-04-01

    The issue of mercury (Hg) due to its chemical and geochemical peculiarities and a negative impact it produces on human health has a long history. Existence of international projects devoted to Hg research (AMAP Technical Background Report, 2013) and elaboration on a new convention to combat Hg pollution (http://www.mercuryconvention.org/Home/tabid/3360/Default.aspx) prove that Hg has already become a global concern. Presently, data on Armenia's area pollution with Hg available in international literature sources and reports are scarce and cover pollution sources only. According to published data (AMAP Technical Background Report, 2013), in 2009 summary emission of Hg on the entire territory of the Republic of Armenia made 222,723 kg, considerable shares of which fell on primary copper production (88,057 kg), cement production (57,094 kg), production of gold from large mines (46,728 kg), waste and other losses due to breakage and disposal in landfill (29,995 kg); besides, some quantities originated from amalgams, combustion of different-type fuel and garbage, and so on. One should mind, that these are calculated statistical data, which reflect neither a complete list of Hg pollution sources nor a realistic picture of levels of Hg pollution of different environmental compartments and risks. Local monitoring data on Hg pollution are not sufficient either. This abstract is aimed at revealing of Hg pollution problems in some of Armenia's mining regions through generalization of data on complex investigations implemented at the Center for Ecological-Noosphere Studies NAS RA between 2005 and 2011, and is focused on Hg pollution of different environmental compartments: water - atmosphere - soil - farm produce - atmospheric precipitation - human bio-substrates. The obtained data indicate that as a result of ore mining and processing Hg enters onto the surface, travels through air and water migration streams and finally brings to pollution of all environmental compartments

  6. 76 FR 35396 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone... the purpose of mining for chemical grade limestone within mining claims on National Forest System land... publication dates. A Notice of Availability for the Section 30 Limestone Mining Project Draft EIS...

  7. Mercury speciation on three European mining districts by XANES techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbri, J. M.; Garcia-Noguero, E. M.; Guerrero, B.; Kocman, D.; Bernaus, A.; Gaona, X.; Higueras, P.; Alvarez, R.; Loredo, J.; Horvat, M.; Ávila, M.

    2009-04-01

    The mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of mercury in the environment depend on the chemical species in which is present in soil, sediments, water or air. In this work we used synchrotron radiation to determine mercury species in geological samples of three mercury mining districts: Almadén (Spain), Idria (Slovenia) and Asturias (Spain). The aim of this study was to find differences on mobility and bioavailability of mercury on three mining districts with different type of mineralization. For this porpoises we selected samples of ore, calcines, soils and stream sediments from the three sites, completely characterized by the Almadén School of Mines, Josef Stefan Institute of Ljubljana and Oviedo School of Mines. Speciation of mercury was carried out on Synchrotron Laboratories of Hamburg (HASYLAB) by XANES techniques. Spectra of pure compounds [HgCl2, HgSO4, HgO, CH3HgCl, Hg2Cl2 (calomel), HgSred (cinnabar), HgSblack (metacinnabar), Hg2NCl0.5(SO4)0.3(MoO4)0.1(CO3)0.1(H2O) (mosesite), Hg3S2Cl2 (corderoite), Hg3(SO4)O2 (schuetteite) y Hg2ClO (terlinguaite)] were obtained on transmittance mode. The number and type of the compounds required to reconstruct experimental spectra for each sample was obtained by PCA analysis and linear fitting of minimum quadratics of the pure compounds spectra. This offers a semiquantitative approach to the mineralogical constitution of each analyzed sample. The results put forward differences on the efficiency of roasting furnaces from the three studied sites, evidenced by the presence of metacinnabar on the less efficient (Almadén and Asturias) and absence on the most efficient (Idria). For the three studied sites, sulfide species (cinnabar and metacinnabar) were largely more abundant than soluble species (chlorides and sulfates). On the other hand, recent results on the mobility of both Hg and As on the target sites will be presented. These results correlate with the related chemical species found by XANES techniques.

  8. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    W.Wilopo; R.Resili; D.P.E. Putra

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  9. Tectonogeochemical features and metallogenic prognosis in the Xiaolongtan copper mining district, Binchuan, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Mingqin; SONG Huanbin; SU Xunqing

    2007-01-01

    The Xiaolongtan copper mining district is an important area in Dali, West Yunnan, where porphyry copper deposits occur, and copper orebodies are controlled by fault or contact zone structures between porphyry massifs and country rocks. Based on detailed field investigation and deep-going analysis, the authors systematically studied the tectonogeochemical features of this mining district, proposed the principle and foundation of metallogenic prognosis, and delineated the most potential mineralization target area.

  10. Contribution of mine wastes to atmospheric metal deposition in the surrounding area of an abandoned heavily polluted mining district (Rio Tinto mines, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonia; de la Rosa, Jesús D; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Caliani, Juan C; Gonzalez, Isabel; Romero, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The present study seeks to estimate the impact of abandoned mine wastes on the levels and chemical profile of total atmospheric deposition in one of the oldest and largest mining districts in Europe (Rio Tinto mines, Iberian Pyrite Belt), on the basis of a complete geochemical characterization of particulate matter samples periodically collected in five sampling stations located around the mining district between March 2009 and February 2011. The annual levels of total bulk deposition (soluble and insoluble fractions) registered in the Rio Tinto Mining District ranged between 18 and 43 g/m(2) depending on the distance from the sampling station with regard to the mine waste deposits. As a general pattern in the area, high mass levels of Zn and Cu were deposited in a range of 9-62 mg/m(2) not only in the insoluble but also in the soluble fraction. Other potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn and Bi showed greater deposition fluxes in the locations closest to the mine waste deposits. A principal component analysis with a Multilinear Regression Analysis certifies the presence of two common sources in the mining area: 1) a mineral factor composed mainly of elements derived from silicate minerals (Al, Ca, Sr, Ti, Li, Mg, Mn, K, Na and Fe), mixed with other anthropogenic species (NH4(+), SO4(2-), NO3(-)) within the village closest to the mine; and 2) a marine factor composed of Na, Cl, Mg, SO4(2-) and Sr. In addition, a mine waste factor made up of toxic elements (Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Ba, Pb, Sn, Cd and Bi) has been recognized in the sampling sites exposed to dust-bearing winds downwind of the mining area, suggesting that mine wastes are a relevant source of heavy-mineral particles with potentially adverse environmental effects to surrounding soils, plants and humans.

  11. Complete Analytical Data for Samples of Jurassic Igneous Rocks in the Bald Mountain Mining District, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents all petrographic, major oxide, and trace element data for a set of 109 samples collected during an investigation of Jurassic igneous rocks in the Bald Mountain mining district, Nevada. Igneous rocks in the district include the Bald Mountain stock, quartz-feldspar porphyry dikes, basaltic andesite dikes, aplite sills, and rare lamprophyre dikes. These rocks, although variably altered near intrusion-related mineral deposits, are fresh in many parts of the district. Igneous rocks in the district are hosted by Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  12. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities. PMID:25354433

  13. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities.

  14. Mass loading of Hg in the Monte Amiata mining district, Southern Tuscany (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimondi V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg transport in natural environments is of concern because Hg bioaccumulates in the food web. Particularly methyl-Hg is the form of Hg of major concern as it is highly toxic to humans and is ingested through food consumption, dominantly fish. Quantification of Hg mass loads in watersheds draining Hg mine districts allows (1 the identification of sources of contamination, (2 the evaluation of the effect of Hg on the environment, and (3 the identification of processes affecting Hg transport. This study focuses on the determination of Hg loads in the Paglia River, which drains the Hg district of Monte Amiata (Italy, world’s 4th largest Hg producing district. Mass loads were determined for total Hg, particulate Hg, and dissolved Hg. Data obtained from two sampling campaigns carried out in 2011 indicated that up to 34 g/d of Hg were transported during the rainy season, of which up to 99% was as particulate Hg. Maximum Hg loads were related to runoff from the Abbadia San Salvatore mine (ASSM, and thus, this mine is the main source of Hg to the Paglia River basin. Data indicate that particulate Hg has been deposited along with river sediment, forming a natural sink where resultant chemical reactions promote conversion of Hg from particulate matter to dissolved Hg. These results suggest that mining of Hg has affected this area. Even today, 30 years after the cessation of mining, considerable amounts of Hg are continuously transported downstream from mined areas by local rivers.

  15. Rock roadway complementary support technology in Fengfeng mining district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Xiantao; Jiang Yaodong; Jiang Cong; Ma Zhenqian; Zhan Shaojian; Zhang Kexue; He Changhai

    2014-01-01

    This paper takes No. 52 return uphill roadway of Yangquhe coal mine as a research project. Based on the research, especially its geological condition, indoor experiments, numerical simulation and theoretical analysis were employed to determine the difficult coefficients of Yangquhe project. By using these means, the difficult coefficients of the deep rock engineering were determined. From a study of the effects of crustal stress and the roof mechanism on roadway stability, the transformation mechanism in Yangquhe coal mine has been determined. As a result of this research, the interactive support technology of pre-stressed cable mesh was developed and the technology tested in mining engineering, which proved to be feasible.

  16. Geochemical characterization of slags, other mines wastes, and their leachates from the Elizabeth and Ely mines (Vermont), the Ducktown mining district (Tennessee), and the Clayton smelter site (Idaho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, Nadine M.; Seal, Robert R., II; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Meier, Allen L.; Briggs, Paul H.

    2003-01-01

    Waste-rock material produced at historic metal mines contains elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements. Two types of mine waste were examined in this study: sintered waste rock and slag. The samples were collected from the Elizabeth and Ely mines in the Vermont copper belt (Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits), from the Copper Basin mining district near Ducktown, Tennessee (Besshi-type massive sulfide deposits), and from the Clayton silver mine in the Bayhorse mining district, Idaho (polymetallic vein and replacement deposits). The data in this report are presented as a compilation with minimal interpretation or discussion. A detailed discussion and interpretation of the slag data are presented in a companion paper. Data collected from sintered waste rock and slag include: (1) bulk rock chemistry, (2) mineralogy, (3) and the distribution of trace elements among phases for the slag samples. In addition, the reactivity of the waste material under surficial conditions was assessed by examining secondary minerals formed on slag and by laboratory leaching tests using deionized water and a synthetic solution approximating precipitation in the eastern United States.

  17. Human-induced Geomorphic Changes caused by Coal Mining: The Example of Mining Subsidence in the Ruhr District (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnischmacher, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    For the first time, an area-wide and large-scale calculation of differences in elevation between 1892 and today was conducted for the Ruhr District (Germany), a metropolitan region influenced by subsidence due to deep-seam coal mining starting in the middle of the 19th century. Elevation data on historical maps from 1892 was digitised with the help of a Geographic Information System and the interpolated historical surface was intersected with a current Digital Elevation Model, in order to calculate the differences in elevation. As a result, the highest values of elevation differences, amounting to more than 25 m, were observed within the coal-fields of the former coal mine "Zollverein" which is distinguished for its long mining history and its World Heritage status. A comparison of single reliable elevation data, derived from surface levelling data of the land registry office, with the interpolated values from 1892 reveals an astonishing correlation with differences of not more than 1 m. Two examples from the cities of Essen and Dortmund analysed in detail reveal that not only depressions but also elevation features are affected by mining subsidence. These kinds of surface transformations are not visible in the field without a comparison of digital topographical models. The change detections allow for a correlation with mining activities, because most of the mining subsidence areas are located next to a former coal mine. Furthermore, tectonic features of the Carboniferous strata are reflected by the location of subsidence areas, since they are located along synclines with a gentle dip of coal seams or confined by the location of predominant faults. The average amount of surface lowering was calculated for all maps digitised and analysed, resulting in a mean net value of 1.6 m or 13.9 mm per year (1892-2007) for the total area un-der investigation (2,827 km2). Even that mean surface lowering rate exceeds nearly all of the highest denudation rates of river catchments

  18. Artisanal small-scale mining: Potential ecological disaster in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe

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    Siduduziwe Ncube-Phiri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, over-stripping of overburden, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury. These environmental impacts are a result of destructive mining, wasteful mineral extraction and processing practices and techniques used by the artisanal small-scale miners. This paper explores the ecological problems caused by ASM in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe. It seeks to determine the nature and extent to which the environment has been damaged by the ASM from a community perspective. Interviews, questionnaires and observations were used to collect qualitative data. Results indicated that the nature of the mining activities undertaken by unskilled and under-equipped gold panners in Mzingwane District is characterised by massive stripping of overburden and burning of bushes, leading to destruction of large tracts of land and river systems and general ecosystem disturbance. The research concluded that ASM in Mzingwane District is an ecological time bomb, stressing the need for appropriate modifications of the legal and institutional frameworks for promoting sustainable use of natural resources and mining development in Zimbabwe. Government, through the Ministry of Small Scale and Medium Enterprises, need to regularise and formalise all gold mining activities through licensing, giving permanent claims and operating permits to panners in order to recoup some of the added costs in the form of taxes. At the local level, the Mzingwane Rural District Council (MRDC together with the Environmental Management Agency (EMA need to design appropriate environmental education and awareness programmes targeting the local community and gold panners.

  19. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire extinguishing,the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine.The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation,namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district,increasing the air pressure of the working face,and filling the ground surface fractures.A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire.When the measures fail to increase the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber,the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  20. Practical application of pressure regulating technology for fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-feng; JIA Bao-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the simulated laboratory experiment of pressure balance for fire ex-tinguishing, the pressure regulating technology was summarized for the fire district in Meiyukou Coal Mine. The technology includes three measures for air pressure regulation, namely applying the pressure regulating chamber to balance the air pressure of fire district, increasing the air pressure of the working face, and filling the ground surface fractures. A good effect was obtained to prevent and extinguish the fire. When the measures fail to in-crease the pressure of working face or to regulate that of air chamber, the measure to fill the ground surface fractures will play an important role.

  1. Intoxication by mining revenues. San Marcos district politics after twelve years of Antamina’s presence

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Salas Carreño

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the changes in local politicstaken place in the district of San Marcos (Huari, Ancash) associatedwith the arrival of the Canon Minero – a fraction of taxes paid byAntamina mining company to the Peruvian State. Canon Minero hasincreased sudden and spectacularly the municipality’s funds so muchthat currently San Marcos in «ones of the Peruvian richest districts».The paper pays attention to the municipal elections of 2006 and theimplementation of the Plan Piloto...

  2. Cadmium Accumulation in Periphyton from an Abandoned Mining District in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jacob R; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    The Rush Mining District along the Buffalo River in Arkansas has a significant history of zinc and lead mining operations. The tails and spoils of these operations deposit heavy amounts of raw ore into streams. One element commonly found in the earth's crust that becomes a minor constituent of the deposition is cadmium. Periphyton samples from Rush Creek and Clabber Creek, two creeks within the Rush Mining District were measured for cadmium as well as two creeks with no history of mining, Spring Creek and Water Creek. Periphyton samples from Rush and Clabber Creek contained mean cadmium concentrations of 436.6 ± 67.3 and 93.38 ± 8.67 µg/kg, respectively. Spring Creek and Water Creek had a mean cadmium concentration of 40.49 ± 3.40 and 41.78 ± 3.99 µg/kg within periphyton. The results indicate increased metal concentrations in algal communities from mined areas. As periphyton is the base of the aquatic food chain, it acts as a conduit for movement of cadmium in the food web. PMID:27130541

  3. PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE AUTOGENIC SUCCESSION IN MINED AREAS IN THE BRAZILIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 0.6% of the Brazilian Federal District´s territory have been degraded by mining. The evaluation of plantsuccession on such sites can be a useful tool to define strategies for reclamation. Thus, woody species of fifteen exploited sites,abandoned to succession for 20 - 47 years, were surveyed. All woody plants present on the sites were identified and counted for theevaluation of frequency, density and dominance of plant species naturally established on the mined spoils. Results show a plant densitybelow 5% and a species density below 15% compared to values measured in native areas. Ten out 98 species found on the mined areasaccounted for 52.9% of woody plants dominance. Capacity of re-growing from roots of some Savanna species is shaping thecommunities and the succession on exploited sites. About ¾ of native species found on the mined areas are able to re-grow from roots,and they made up to 89% of dominance and 96% of plant s density. Results point out to the need of boosting ecological successionthrough revegetation works on mined areas in the Brazilian Federal District.

  4. Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Franson, J. Christian; French, John B.; May, Thomas; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Warner, Sarah E.; Weber, John; Mosby, David

    2013-01-01

    Mining and smelting in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District has caused widespread contamination of soils with lead (Pb) and other metals. Soils from three study sites sampled in the district contained from approximately 1,000–3,200 mg Pb/kg. Analyses of earthworms [33–4,600 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw)] collected in the district showed likely high Pb exposure of songbirds preying on soil organisms. Mean tissue Pb concentrations in songbirds collected from the contaminated sites were greater (p concentrations in livers (mg Pb/kg dw) were as follows: northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) = 0.11–3.0 (reference) and 1.3–30 (contaminated) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) = 0.43–8.5 (reference) and 7.6–72 (contaminated). Of 34 adult and juvenile songbirds collected from contaminated sites, 11 (32 %) had hepatic Pb concentrations that were consistent with adverse physiological effects, 3 (9 %) with systemic toxic effects, and 4 (12 %) with life-threatening toxic effects. Acid-fast renal intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are indicative of Pb poisoning, were detected in kidneys of two robins that had the greatest renal Pb concentrations (952 and 1,030 mg/kg dw). Mean activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells, a well-established bioindicator of Pb poisoning in birds, was decreased by 58–82 % in songbirds from the mining sites. We conclude that habitats within the mining district with soil Pb concentrations of ≥1,000 mg Pb/kg are contaminated to the extent that they are exposing ground-feeding songbirds to toxic concentrations of Pb.

  5. Mass loading of Hg in the Monte Amiata mining district, Southern Tuscany (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rimondi V.; Costagliola P.; Gray J. E.; Lattanzi P.; Nannucci M.; Salvadori A.; Vaselli O.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) transport in natural environments is of concern because Hg bioaccumulates in the food web. Particularly methyl-Hg is the form of Hg of major concern as it is highly toxic to humans and is ingested through food consumption, dominantly fish. Quantification of Hg mass loads in watersheds draining Hg mine districts allows (1) the identification of sources of contamination, (2) the evaluation of the effect of Hg on the environment, and (3) the identification of processes affecting Hg ...

  6. Petrography Of The Basement Complex Of Maddhapara Mining (Production Level) Dinajpur District, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Md. Saidul; Quamruzzaman, Chowdhury; Monir, Md. Minhaj Uddin; Jahan, Sakura; Begum, Momtaj

    2014-01-01

    This research work deals with the petrography of the Palaeoproterozoic Basement Complex (production level) Maddhapara Granite mining project area, Dinajpur district, Bangladesh. Tectonically the study area is a continuation of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ), where the Basement Complex is overlain by the Tertiary thin to moderate sediment sequence. The present study has been performed on the basis of collected samples which are taken from the production level at the elevation of about...

  7. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment.

  8. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  9. Mine water management. Modification of the mine water management in the Ruhr district within the decommissioning of the hard coal mining; Grubenwasserhaltung. Aenderung der Grubenwasserhaltung im Ruhrrevier im Zuge der Stilllegung des Steinkohlenbergbaues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwelp, Tassilo [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dortmund (Germany). Dezernat 63 - Zentrale Grubenwasserhaltung, Grubenwassernstieg, Schachtverfuellung

    2013-03-15

    Within the so-called Legacy Agreement regarding the overcoming of the burdens in perpetuity of the coal mining of the RAG AG (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany), the Federal States North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany) and Saarland (Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the RAG Foundation (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) have regulated the mine water drainage in the decommissioning of the mines. Under this aspect, the department 'Mining and energy in NRW' of the district government Arnsberg (Federal Republic of Germany) as the mining authority increasingly is concerned with the topic mine water in the Ruhr district. In this context, the district government Arnsberg is responsible for an organized mine water control after the withdrawal of the hard coal mining. The main aims of this are the protection of the surface area being mined and mine safety aspects. As part of the withdrawal from the deposit, the rise of the mine water level has to be planned and controlled carefully in order to avoid adverse impacts at the surface of the area to be mined.

  10. Automated realtime detection of mining induced seismicity in the Ruhr coal mining district, Germany, using master waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kasper D.; Wlecklik, Dennis; Friederich, Wolfgang; Wehling-Benatelli, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The exploitation of the subsurface by mining, geothermal or petroleum production causes seismic events in the surrounding areas. Shallow focal depths can lead to perceptible ground motions in densely populated areas and in rare cases to damages even for small events (magnitude smaller than 3.5). Thus, the monitoring of this kind of activities is necessary and increasingly requested by governmental agencies. A reliable detection and localisation of small events generally requires a dense and therefore expensive local seismic station network. At the end of 2014 and beginning of 2015, a dense seismic network of 12 stations was set up as a test case in the area of the black coal mine Prosper-Haniel in the Ruhr district, Germany. This network was capable of detecting almost 400 events within 4 weeks. A cluster analysis identified 135 events of magnitude -0.7 or higher, which could be located. This cluster analysis was also used to construct master events for running a real-time single-station cross-correlation detector in the Seiscomp3 software. The results of the real-time cross-correlation detector are compared to the results of the cluster analysis with respect to the number, magnitudes and locations of the events. This two-step monitoring of the source area provides a cost efficient way for long term monitoring of the mining activity.

  11. Intoxication by mining revenues. San Marcos district politics after twelve years of Antamina’s presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Salas Carreño

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and analyses the changes in local politicstaken place in the district of San Marcos (Huari, Ancash associatedwith the arrival of the Canon Minero – a fraction of taxes paid byAntamina mining company to the Peruvian State. Canon Minero hasincreased sudden and spectacularly the municipality’s funds so muchthat currently San Marcos in «ones of the Peruvian richest districts».The paper pays attention to the municipal elections of 2006 and theimplementation of the Plan Piloto de Mantenimiento de la InfraestructuraPública, a program of temporary work for all San Marcos’citizens. The latter was key for launching a novel alliance betweenthe municipality and the rural population, particularly with the ConoSur composed by hamlets which were traditionally unimportantactors in district politics. Hence, district politics had stopped to bedominated by the struggle between two factions of former landlordfamilies and had become articulated by the opposition between therural hamlets and the town of San Marcos with the emergence ofethnic political claims. Also, local politics ceased to revolve aroundAntamina and has become entangled with struggles over the administrationof Canon Minero. Rural communities which have directnegotiations with Antamina remain important political actors whichare independent from the municipality and are even oppose to it.

  12. Study on gold mineralization in the El Callao Mining District, Venezuela. Implication of "invisible" gold remobilization for the deposit formation.

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, German

    2012-01-01

    The Colombia Mine is localized in the El Callao Mining District Venezuela. It has Au reserves of 23 million ounces (= 740 t Au), which make it the largest gold mine in Guayana Craton, and grant it the label of giant gold deposit (i.e. > 500 t Au). The mineralization is hosted by the Paleoproterozoic El Callao formation, which is constituted by Fe-rich tholeiitic basalts that were formed in a plateau oceanic setting. Exploitation in the mine is focused on three "vein systems", known as América...

  13. Study on Association between Spatial Distribution of Metal Mines and Disease Mortality: A Case Study in Suxian District, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Metal mines release toxic substances into the environment and can therefore negatively impact the health of residents in nearby regions. This paper sought to investigate whether there was excess disease mortality in populations in the vicinity of the mining area in Suxian District, South China. The spatial distribution of metal mining and related activities from 1985 to 2012, which was derived from remote sensing imagery, was overlapped with disease mortality data. Three hotspot areas with high disease mortality were identified around the Shizhuyuan mine sites, i.e., the Dengjiatang metal smelting sites, and the Xianxichong mine sites. Disease mortality decreased with the distance to the mining and smelting areas. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. The risk of dying according to disease mortality rates was analyzed within 7–25 km buffers. The results suggested that there was a close relationship between the risk of disease mortality and proximity to the Suxian District mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type and scale of mining activities, the area influenced by mining and so on.

  14. Soil eco-physiological indicators from a coal mining area in El Bierzo District (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Puente, Fco. Javier; Mejuto Mendieta, Marcos; Cardona García, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Gallego, Vergelina; García Álvarez, Avelino

    2010-05-01

    CIEMAT. Avda. Complutense, 22. 28040 Madrid. Spain. The El Bierzo carboniferous basin (León, N.W. of Spain) is placed in a tenth of the surface of this district, in the area called "Bierzo Alto". Coal has been mined in El Bierzo from the late XVIII century, having been intensely exploited during the XX century. The mining activity has left a heritage of withdrawed mining structures. Nowadays some mining activity remains in the area, and new exploitations based on open pit processes, cause the burial of natural soil with overlaying mine tailings. Characterization and study of the edaphic landscapes in the area is a necessary activity within the framework of its overall restoration planning, also providing fundamental information for the design and monitoring of waste coal recovery activities. For this work eight zones were chosen, representing the spatial variability within the upper basin of the Rodrigatos river, into the Bierzo Alto, including reference areas not affected by mining activities. In addition three mine tailings outside the area are included in this work to cover the variability of restoration processes. After a first study, based on physical, physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of soils, we have continued the study including some eco-physiological parameters. The objective of this work is to identify potential soil disruption, its extent and causes. Soil microbial activity is influenced by a wide set of soil characteristics. Eco-physiological parameters analysed in this work are: • Microbial Biomass carbon • Basal Respirometry • Maximum respiratory rate Microbial biomass carbon was analysed according the Substrate Induced Respirometry (SIR) method. Relational parameters such as metabolic quotient (CO2-C/Cmic) and the Cmic/Corg ratio have been obtained from these variables. Our results shown that soil microbial biomass carbon is strongly influenced by the water holding capacity (WHC) of the samples (R=0,895) as well as by organic

  15. Remote Detection and Mapping of Supergene Iron Oxides in the Cripple Creek Mining District, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranik, D. L.; Kruse, F. A.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Atkinson, W. W.

    1990-01-01

    The Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) was flown over the Cripple Creek mining district in south-central Colorado to improve the geological understanding of the district. As part of the study, an airborne mapping technique was developed for the discrimination of the ferric iron minerals hematite, goethite, and jarosite, minerals often important indicators of the distribution of economic mineralization. A software technique was developed which uses the binary encoding of spectral slopes to identify the mineral hematite from the group goethite/jarosite. Mixtures of hematite and goethite can also be detected with GERIS data. The study included district-wide field mapping and spectral measurements to evaluate the accuracy of the image classifications. The ARC/INFO geographic information system (GIS) was a useful tool which allowed quantitative comparison of the field mapping and GERIS image data sets. The study results demonstrate the ability to discriminate individual iron minerals using imaging spectroscopy, and the development of a rapid mapping technique useful in the reconnaissance stage of minerals exploration.

  16. Selected Metals in Sediments and Streams in the Oklahoma Part of the Tri-State Mining District, 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2009-01-01

    The abandoned Tri-State mining district includes 1,188 square miles in northeastern Oklahoma, southeastern Kansas, and southwestern Missouri. The most productive part of the Tri-State mining district was the 40-square mile part in Oklahoma, commonly referred to as 'the Picher mining district' in north-central Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The Oklahoma part of the Tri-State mining district was a primary producing area of lead and zinc in the United States during the first half of the 20th century. Sulfide minerals of cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that remained in flooded underground mine workings and in mine tailings on the land surface oxidized and dissolved with time, forming a variety of oxide, hydroxide, and hydroxycarbonate metallic minerals on the land surface and in streams that drain the district. Metals in water and sediments in streams draining the mining district can potentially impair the habitat and health of many forms of aquatic and terrestrial life. Lakebed, streambed and floodplain sediments and/or stream water were sampled at 30 sites in the Oklahoma part of the Tri-State mining district by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality from 2000 to 2006 in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Quapaw and Seneca-Cayuga Tribes of Oklahoma. Aluminum and iron concentrations of several thousand milligrams per kilogram were measured in sediments collected from the upstream end of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees. Manganese and zinc concentrations in those sediments were several hundred milligrams per kilogram. Lead and cadmium concentrations in those sediments were about 10 percent and 0.1 percent of zinc concentrations, respectively. Sediment cores collected in a transect across the floodplain of Tar Creek near Miami, Oklahoma, in 2004 had similar or greater concentrations of those metals than sediment cores collected at the upstream end of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees. The greatest concentrations of

  17. Review of Lead-Zinc Mining Impact on Landscape in the Tri-State Mining District using Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, K. D.; Yeboah-Forson, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Tri-State lead and zinc mining district in SW Missouri, SE Kansas, and NE Oklahoma encompasses nearly 2,500 sq. miles of land and at its peak accounted for half of the US zinc (23,000,000 tons) production that surpassed one billion dollars in economic value. Once these lead and zinc rich ores were extracted, mining and milling sites were abandoned leaving behind a new landscape with numerous environmental challenges. Since 1970, most of the sites have been targeted for remediation and reclamation by federal and state agencies including the EPA. In order to capture the full extent of the impact of lead and zinc mining in the Tri-State area, numerous geoscientific approaches including data from small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) were employed to investigate the influence of mining in the study area. The study presented here is focused on observational assessment of the existing landscape using multiple commercial high-definitions data from UAVs to study different sites across areas of concern in the three states. Primary results (images) gathered and analyzed DEM and GIS data from abandoned mines showed the potential to provide a quick snapshot of successful or unsuccessful remediated areas. Although research and remediation of the Tri-State mining district are a continuous process, evidence from this geomorphic study suggest that UAVs can provide a quick overview of the remediated landscape or serve as a primary background tool for a more detail site-specific environmental study.

  18. Risk: For Whom? Representations of Mining Activity by Different Social Actors in the Molango Manganese District of Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán-Vázquez, Minerva; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown high levels of manganese exposure and neurocognitive damage in the population living in the mining zone in Molango, Mexico. One of the objectives of the Intersectoral Group on Environmental Management for the mining district has been to provide public participation in the risk management plan. To achieve this, it is important to know how the different social actors represent the mining activity. The objectives of this study were to characterize the social representations of the mining activity by different social actors. A qualitative design was used based on in-depth interviews of residents, public officials, and a mining company representative. The analysis was conducted according to themes for each group of actors. Essentially, distinct social representations of the different mining activities were identified. Residents viewed mining activities as synonymous with contamination and, therefore, as having affected all areas of their environment, health, and daily life. These activities were seen as a collective risk. The public officials and the mining company held that there was no evidence of harm and saw mining activities as a generator of regional development. Harm to health and the environment were seen as a stance taken by the communities in order to obtain economic benefits from the company. These images of the "other" are shaped by social, political, and cultural factors. They make it difficult for the actors to reach cooperative agreements and thereby affect progress on the risk management plan. Decisionmakers need to take these differences into account when promoting social participation.

  19. Structural reinterpretation of the Ajo mining district, Pima County, Arizona, based on paleomagnetic and geochronologic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Ajo mining district of southern Arizona is divided into two main structural blocks by the Gibson Arroyo fault. The eastern Camelback Mountain block contains the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary porphyry copper deposit which has been previously thought to be associated with the displaced apex of a large intrusion exposed by deeper erosion in the western Cardigan Peak block. However, unpublished U-Pb data support a mid-Tertiary age for the western intrusion. The following sequence of mid-Tertiary events in the district are indicated: 1) emplacement of the western intrusion, 2) movement along the Gibson Arroyo fault, 3) unroofing and perhaps tilting of the pluton approx 70o to the south along with the Camelback Mountain block, 4) syntectonic depositions of the Locomotive Fanglomerate and the Ajo Volcanics, 5) continued uplift and tilting to the south totaling 40o to 60o, 6) intrusion of the youngest dikes with attendant alteration and remagnetization of the host rocks, and 7) minor (?) oblique movement along the Gibson Arroyo fault.-from Authors

  20. Structural geology mapping using PALSAR data in the Bau gold mining district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-08-01

    The application of optical remote sensing data for geological mapping is difficult in the tropical environment. The persistent cloud coverage, dominated vegetation in the landscape and limited bedrock exposures are constraints imposed by the tropical climate. Structural geology investigations that are searching for epithermal or polymetallic vein-type ore deposits can be developed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data in tropical/sub-tropical regions. The Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo has been selected for this study. The Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits, but gold mineralization at Bau is much more structurally controlled. Geological analyses coupled with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing data were used to detect structural elements associated with gold mineralization. The PALSAR data were used to perform lithological-structural mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Structural elements were detected along the SSW to NNE trend of the Tuban fault zone and Tai Parit fault that corresponds to the areas of occurrence of the gold mineralization in the Bau Limestone. Most of quartz-gold bearing veins occur in high-angle faults, fractures and joints within massive units of the Bau Limestone. The results show that four deformation events (D1-D4) in the structures of the Bau district and structurally controlled gold mineralization indicators, including faults, joints and fractures are detectable using PALSAR data at both regional and district scales. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide preliminary information for exploration potentially interesting areas of epithermal or polymetallic vein-type mineralization using the PALSAR data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  1. Environmental control on water quality; cases studies from Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Chapter A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Berger, Byron R.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental controls on water quality were the focus of our study in a portion of the Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Samples representing areas outside known mineralized areas, in undisturbed mineralized areas, and in mined areas were chemically and isotopically analyzed. The results are related to geologic, hydrologic, and climatic data. Streams in background areas outside the mineralized zones reflect normal weathering of volcanically derived rocks. The waters are generally dilute, slightly alkaline in pH, and very low in metals. As these streams flow into mineralized zones, their character changes. In undisturbed mineralized areas, discharge into streams of ground water through hydrologically conductive fractures can be traced with chemistry and, even more effectively, with sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate. Generally, these tracers are much more subtle than in those areas where mining has produced adits and mine-waste piles. The influence of drainage from these mining relicts on water quality is often dramatic, especially in unusually wet conditions. In one heavily mined area, we were able to show that the unusually wet weather in the winter and spring greatly degraded water quality. Addition of calcite to the acid, metalrich mine drainage raised the stream pH and nearly quantitatively removed the metals through coprecipitation and (or) adsorption onto oxyhydroxides. This paper is divided into four case studies used to demonstrate our results. Each addresses the role of geology, hydrology, mining activity and (or) local climate on water quality. Collectively, they provide a comprehensive look at the important factors affecting water quality in this portion of the Battle Mountain mining district.

  2. Zinc and lead poisoning in wild birds in the Tri-State Mining District (Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Dalgam, J.; Dudding, S.; French, J.B.; Mateo, R.; Miesner, J.; Sileo, L.; Spann, J.

    2004-01-01

    contaminated with Pb, Cd, and Zn from mining, milling and smelting. Metals have been dispersed heterogeneously throughout the District in the form of milled mine waste ('chat'), as flotation tailings and from smelters as aerial deposition or slag. This study was conducted to determine if the habitat has been contaminated to the extent that the assessment populations of wild birds are exposed to toxic concentrations of metals. American robins (Turdus migratorius), northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), and waterfowl had increased Pb tissue concentrations (p concentrations from reference birds, and the exposure of songbirds to Pb was comparable with that of birds observed at other sites severely contaminated with Pb. Mean activities of the Pb-sensitive enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were decreased by >50% in red blood cells in these birds (p concentrations of Pb that have been associated with impaired biological functions and external signs of poisoning. Cadmium was increased in kidneys of songbirds (p concentrations in liver and kidney of waterfowl were significantly higher (p concentrations of Zn associated with mining in the District accounted for the pancreatitis previously observed in five waterfowl from the District. The District is the first site at which free-flying wild birds have been found to be suffering severe effects of Zn poisoning.

  3. Gold-silver mining districts, alteration zones, and paleolandforms in the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2015-09-25

    The Bodie Hills is a ~40 by ~30 kilometer volcanic field that straddles the California-Nevada state boundary between Mono Lake and the East Walker River. Three precious metal mining districts and nine alteration zones are delineated in Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic and Mesozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks that comprise the volcanic field. Cumulative production from the mining districts, Bodie, Aurora, and Masonic, is 3.4 million ounces of gold and 28 million ounces of silver. Small amounts of mercury were produced from the Potato Peak, Paramount-Bald Peak, and Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zones; a native sulfur resource in the Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zone has been identified by drilling. There are no known mineral resources in the other six alteration zones, Red Wash-East Walker River, East Brawley Peak, Sawtooth Ridge, Aurora Canyon, Four Corners, and Spring Peak. The mining districts and alteration zones formed between 13.4 and 8.1 Ma in predominantly ~15–9 Ma volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills volcanic field. Ages of hydrothermal minerals in the districts and zones are the same as, or somewhat younger than, the ages of volcanic host rocks.

  4. Trace-elements Exposure Levels in Artisanal “Galamsey” Mines in Wassa-West District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Nuviadenu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess trace-elements exposure levels in artisanal mines within the Wassa-West District of Ghana, Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA method was used to analyse fingernails of some miners. Mean concentrations were recorded for four trace-elements, namely mercury (Hg: 8.14 μg/g, gold (Au: 1.09 μg/g, Arsenic (As: 5.53 μg/g and antimony (Sb: 0.60 μg/g. These concentration levels and their health implications for the miners, as well as the environment impact of artisanal mining activities and some remedial mitigation actions were analysed.

  5. Mercury isotope fractionation during ore retorting in the Almadén mining district, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2013-01-01

    Almadén, Spain, is the world's largest mercury (Hg) mining district, which has produced over 250,000 metric tons of Hg representing about 30% of the historical Hg produced worldwide. The objective of this study was to measure Hg isotopic compositions of cinnabar ore, mine waste calcine (retorted ore), elemental Hg (Hg0(L)), and elemental Hg gas (Hg0(g)), to evaluate potential Hg isotopic fractionation. Almadén cinnabar ore δ202Hg varied from − 0.92 to 0.15‰ (mean of − 0.56‰, σ = 0.35‰, n = 7), whereas calcine was isotopically heavier and δ202Hg ranged from − 0.03‰ to 1.01‰ (mean of 0.43‰, σ = 0.44‰, n = 8). The average δ202Hg enrichment of 0.99‰ between cinnabar ore and calcines generated during ore retorting indicated Hg isotopic mass dependent fractionation (MDF). Mass independent fractionation (MIF) was not observed in any of the samples in this study. Laboratory retorting experiments of cinnabar also were carried out to evaluate Hg isotopic fractionation of products generated during retorting such as calcine, Hg0(L), and Hg0(g). Calcine and Hg0(L) generated during these retorting experiments showed an enrichment in δ202Hg of as much as 1.90‰ and 0.67‰, respectively, compared to the original cinnabar ore. The δ202Hg for Hg0(g) generated during the retorting experiments was as much as 1.16‰ isotopically lighter compared to cinnabar, thus, when cinnabar ore was roasted, the resultant calcines formed were isotopically heavier, whereas the Hg0(g) generated was isotopically lighter in Hg isotopes.

  6. Evaluation of mercury stress in plants from the Almadén mining district by analysis of phytochelatins and their hg complexes.

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, Miquel; Martinez Coronado, Alba; Higueras Higueras, Pablo Leon; Ariño, Cristina; DÍaz Cruz, JosÉ Manuel; Dago, Ángela; González, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate plant response to Hg stress, glutathione, phytochelatins, and their Hg complexes were analyzed using HPLC with amperometric detection in samples of Asparagus acutifolius grown in the Almaden mining district ́(Ciudad Real, Spain), one of the most Hg-contaminated sites in the world. Soils of the Almaden mining district, and specifically from the Almadenejos zone, are highly contaminated, with some zones having values above 4,000 μg Hg g−1 soil. Although soil...

  7. Mercury pollution on district of Dimembe river system North Sulawesi, Indonesia, due to traditional gold mining activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhuan, D.; Atteng, O.; Dondokambey, A.; Randuk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small scale gold mining is a environmental problem. Small-scale gold mining (SSGM) is common in mineral endowed developing countries. It offers an important means of livehood and has served as a safety net in times of natural calamities or economic distress. In north Sulawesi Province alone, approximately 22,000 small-scale gold miners were active in 1998, and produced an estimated 10 tonnes of gold bullion. Activities of traditional / illegal gold mining (PETI) in Dimembe of district, which is located in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi Province. The major environmental concern associated with PETI in mercury pollution from processing of gold-bearing ore. In both the inorganic and organic forms, mercury is one of the most toxic substances to humans. One of the environmental pollution is water pollution on district of Dimembe river system that is probably caused by the use of mercury (Hg) in processing mine ore. This mercury is used in an iron rolling vessel, wllich is called tromol. Mercury concentration at employed in this operation reaches 1 kg out of 30 kg ore. Sampling stage was conducted at Warat river, downstream Taiawaan river, Merut river and Kadumut river on late April 2002 by BAPEDALDA team together with Health Laboratory staff. Material which were sampled was water. Sampling methods carried out were bottle sample immersed about 10 cm below the water surface. The analysis method used was mercury analyzer. The analysis result show that total concentration of mercury range from 1. 69 to 25. 54 ppb. This concentration is closed to Water Quality Standard IV Class that is 0.005 mg/L (Regulation Government No. 82/2001). The result of this research indicate that the district of Dimembe river system in the gold mining area have been contaminated by mercury.

  8. Metals mobility in tailings coming from the mining district of Guanajuato, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of different tailings from the mining district of Guanajuato, Mexico were carried out, including a tailing from an abandoned dam 20 years ago, a dam in operation and another coming from the mixture of different companies. The three tailings presented alkaline conditions, normal salinity, aerobic environment with oxidative tendency, low humidity, very low capacity of cationic exchange, and absence of organic matter. These conditions restrict the metal mobility. The mineralogical analysis showed that the tailings contained mainly quartz, calcite and magnetite. Tailings coming from the mixture of different companies had greater total concentrations (mg/kg) of Mn (1042.8), Al (12919.8), Fe (23911.3), Cr (71.3), Pb (24.6) and Cu (19.8). The highest concentration of Zn was observed at the abandoned tailing (53.3 mg/kg). No significant concentrations of Cd and Hg were observed, although Pb (24.6 mg/kg) and Cr (71.4 mg/kg) were detected. Leaching tests indicated that metals cannot be leached in percentages higher than 0.1%, and so these tailings do not represent an environmental risk. The low leaching of metals in the studied tailings was consistent with the mineralogical and physicochemical prevailing conditions, the low acid drainage generation potential and the high degree of stability observed in the tests of metals fractionation. The mineralogical characteristics were determined by X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  9. Recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in the coal-mining district of Jiaozuo, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pinghua; Chen, Jiansheng

    2012-06-01

    Investigations in the Jiaozuo coal-mining district (China) aim to link water-inrush aquifers with the sources of groundwater recharge. Concentrations of TDS, HCO{3/-}, Cl- and Na+ in the groundwater samples gradually decrease with increasing depth; in contrast, the factor 1 value of the Q-mode analysis gradually increases, which indicates that the deep groundwater may upflow, recharging the aquifers near the faulted zone. Some groundwater samples (above the local meteoric water line and `evaporation line 1') may originate from recharge by infiltrating local rainfall. Spring and river samples are symmetrically distributed on the regression line of the Ordovician and Carboniferous limestone aquifer groundwater (δ2H = 3.76 × δ18O - 31.77) and may, therefore, originate from groundwater recharge in the northern Taihang mountains. This mechanism is supported by the observation that groundwater levels change with rainfall. According to radiocarbon residence-time estimates, two groundwater sample sites may have been recharged during the late glacial stage.

  10. Study on the quality of site in the mining district gangue of abandoned place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guo-bin; LI Ying; WU Xiang-yun

    2008-01-01

    Being as an example of Fuxin, gangue abandoned place was classified gangue hill and dump. It was built 68 piece of temporary standard fields, which physical and chemical character of soil were researched and analyzed. The quality of district site was estimated, and five type abandoned place were gotten. Stopping draining cash less than 7 a and draining cash gangue hill was regarded as Ⅰ gangue hill. Stopping draining gangue age limit 7-15 a and herbage abundance being CO1p level was regarded as Ⅱ gangue hill.Stopping draining gangue age limit 15~25 a and herbage abundance CO2p level was re-garded as Ⅲ gangue hill. Stopping draining cash gangue age limit over 25 a and herbage abundance CO3p level was regarded as Ⅳ gangue hill. Dump being formed the under-ground layer dug up and stacked in the course of mining was regarded asVgangue hill.The results show that every typical abandoned place can plant vegetable.

  11. Sulfur in Coal and Its Environmental Impact from Yanzhou Mining District, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂建; 彭子成; 杨萍玥; 王桂梁

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The concentrations of sulfur are rela tively high in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. When coals are burned, leached and washed, sul fur will be released in the form of sulfide and H2S, which then react with O2, waterand other substances to change into vitriol, and in some places it may form acid rain. And they will im pact water environment, acidify the soil and do great harm to plants and human health. In this paper, on the basis of the data from the Yanzhou mining district, the distribution and concen trations of sulfur are analyzed and the existing forms of sulfur are studied. The variation of sul fur and its impact on the environments also are described when coal is used.

  12. Clay minerals on Mars: Riotinto mining district (Huelva, Spain) as Earth analogue for acidic alteration pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, C.; Cuadros, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Nieto, J. M.; Michalski, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Combined satellite and in-situ measurements of Mars surface have detected mineral assemblages indicating processes for which Earth analogues exist. Among them, aluminous clay-sulfate assemblages have been observed, which suggest alteration by acidic fluids. The Riotinto mining district (SW Spain) provides an Earth analogue site for such Martian processes. The parent rocks belong to an Upper Palaeozoic (Late Famennian-Tournaisian) volcano-sedimentary complex including siliciclastic sediments and mafic and felsic volcanics, all of which underwent hydrothermal alteration. The oxidation of an extensive pyrite-rich orebody provided mild to extreme acidic fluxes that leached the surrounding rocks for over 20 million years. The mineral assemblages are strongly dependent on their acidic alteration intensity. The observed mineralogical parageneses and leaching conditions for our sites at Riotinto are consistent with three alteration sequences: i) Mild: containing a range of clay minerals from vermiculite to kaolinite, with a wide variety of crystal order and mixed-layering; ii) Intermediate: containing smectite to kaolinite with jarosite-group phases; iii) Advanced: containing kaolinite, jarosite-group phases, and iron oxides. Our findings suggest that, even within this general scheme, the specific alteration pathways can be different.

  13. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  14. Long term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: Implications for water resources management and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Water resources management and restoration strategies, and subsequently ecological and human life quality, are highly influenced by the presence of short and long term cycles affecting the intensity of a targeted pollution. On this respect, a typical acid mine drainage (AMD) groundwater from a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) was studied to unravel the effect of long term weather changes in water flow rate and metal pollutants concentration. Three well differentiated polluting stages were observed and the specific geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological processes involved (pyrite and enclosing rocks dissolution, evaporitic salts precipitation-redisolution and pluviometric long term fluctuations) were discussed. Evidencing the importance of including longer background monitoring stage in AMD management and restoration strategies, the present study strongly advise a minimum 5-years period of AMD continuous monitoring previous to the design of any AMD remediation system in regions with dry Mediterranean climate.

  15. Bald Mountain gold mining district, Nevada: A Jurassic reduced intrusion-related gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, C.J.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Bald Mountain mining district has produced about 2 million ounces (Moz) of An. Geologic mapping, field relationships, geochemical data, petrographic observations, fluid inclusion characteristics, and Pb, S, O, and H isotope data indicate that An mineralization was associated with a reduced Jurassic intrusion. Gold deposits are localized within and surrounding a Jurassic (159 Ma) quartz monzonite porphyry pluton and dike complex that intrudes Cambrian to Mississippian carbonate and clastic rocks. The pluton, associated dikes, and An mineralization were controlled by a crustal-scale northwest-trending structure named the Bida trend. Gold deposits are localized by fracture networks in the pluton and the contact metamorphic aureole, dike margins, high-angle faults, and certain strata or shale-limestone contacts in sedimentary rocks. Gold mineralization was accompanied by silicification and phyllic alteration, ??argillic alteration at shallow levels. Although An is typically present throughout, the system exhibits a classic concentric geochemical zonation pattern with Mo, W, Bi, and Cu near the center, Ag, Pb, and Zn at intermediate distances, and As and Sb peripheral to the intrusion. Near the center of the system, micron-sized native An occurs with base metal sulfides and sulfosalts. In peripheral deposits and in later stages of mineralization, Au is typically submicron in size and resides in pyrite or arsenopyrite. Electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses show that arsenopyrite, pyrite, and Bi sulfide minerals contain 10s to 1,000s of ppm Au. Ore-forming fluids were aqueous and carbonic at deep levels and episodically hypersaline at shallow levels due to boiling. The isotopic compositions of H and O in quartz and sericite and S and Pb in sulfides are indicative of magmatic ore fluids with sedimentary sulfur. Together, the evidence suggests that Au was introduced by reduced S-bearing magmatic fluids derived from a reduced intrusion. The reduced

  16. Metallogeny and geodynamics of the Aktiuz Boordu Mining District, Northern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenchuraeva, R. D.; Borisov, F. I.; Pak, N. T.; Malyukova, N. N.

    2008-03-01

    The Aktiuz-Boordu Mining District is located in the Northern Tien Shan in the eastern part of Kyrgyzstan. The region is characterized by nappe-folding structures and comprises strongly deformed Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic sedimentary, volcano-sedimentary, and metamorphic sequences. Metamorphic rocks are represented by crystalline schists, para- and orthogneisses, marble, migmatite, amphibolite and eclogite lenses. These rocks are thought to be the oldest in the Northern Tien Shan. The 2780-Ma Aktiuz complex has a total thickness of 2800-2900 m. Available U-Pb zircon age data for the Kemin Group migmatites yield ages of 2200 ± 50 Ma. Based upon their geological setting, multistage metamorphism and isotopic ages of retrograde metamorphism (1.1-1.9 Ga), these rocks reach a few kilometers in thickness and are subdivided into Archaean and Paleoproterozoic. The Archaean and Paleoproterozoic basement metamorphic rocks contain mineralization of various ages and types, including porphyry Cu, Au-sulphide, Au-Bi, barite, epithermal base metal and Au-Ag, REE and rare-metals. Two ore fields have been identified within the Aktiuz-Boordu Mining District, they are: (1) Taldybulak-Boordu, with Au, base metal, and porphyry Cu systems; (2) Aktiuz, with REE, rare- and base-metal deposits. Within the Paleozoic Taldybulak-Boordu volcanic structure, deposits and occurrences of Au are present at Taldybulak Levoberezhny, Chimbulak Zapadny, Karamoko and Kuranjailyau; of Pb at Boordu, Taldybulak Stary, Chimbulak Vostochny and Chimbulak Zapadny; of Mo at Karabulak, and of Cu at Berkut-Kashka. Almost all are found along the periphery of deeply eroded volcanoes. Rock types in the Taldybulak-Boordu ore field mainly comprise chlorite-amphibole and amphibole schists, amphibolites, and migmatites of the Paleoproterozoic Kuperlisay suite. The younger Paleoproterozoic Kokbulak and Kapchigay suites are represented by mica schists and granite gneisses, which are separated from the Kuperlisay suite

  17. The magmatic history of the Vetas-California mining district, Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla Figueroa, Luis C.; Bissig, Thomas; Valencia, Víctor; Hart, Craig J. R.

    2013-08-01

    The Vetas-California Mining District (VCMD), located in the central part of the Santander Massif (Colombian Eastern Cordillera), based on U-Pb dating of zircons, records the following principal tectono-magmatic events: (1) the Grenville Orogenic event and high grade metamorphism and migmatitization between ˜1240 and 957 Ma; (2) early Ordovician calc-alkalic magmatism, which was synchronous with the Caparonensis-Famatinian Orogeny (˜477 Ma); (3) middle to late Ordovician post-collisional calc-alkalic magmatism (˜466-436 Ma); (4) late Triassic to early Jurassic magmatism between ˜204 and 196 Ma, characterized by both S- and I-type calc-alkalic intrusions and; (5) a late Miocene shallowly emplaced intermediate calc-alkaline intrusions (10.9 ± 0.2 and 8.4 ± 0.2 Ma). The presence of even younger igneous rocks is possible, given the widespread magmatic-hydrothermal alteration affecting all rock units in the area. The igneous rocks from the late Triassic-early Jurassic magmatic episodes are the volumetrically most important igneous rocks in the study area and in the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. They can be divided into three groups based on their field relationships, whole rock geochemistry and geochronology. These are early leucogranites herein termed Alaskites-I (204-199 Ma), Intermediate rocks (199-198 Ma), and late leucogranites, herein referred to as Alaskites-II (198-196 Ma). This Mesozoic magmatism is reflecting subtle changes in the crustal stress in a setting above an oblique subduction of the Panthalassa plate beneath Pangea. The lower Cretaceous siliciclastic Tambor Formation has detrital zircons of the same age populations as the metamorphic and igneous rocks present in the study area, suggesting that the provenance is related to the erosion of these local rocks during the late Jurassic or early Cretaceous, implying a local supply of sediments to the local depositional basins.

  18. An assessment of the radiological scenario around uranium mines in Singhbhum East district, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R M; Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Patra, A C; Lenka, P; Dubey, J S; Jha, V N; Puranik, V D

    2012-07-01

    The present work deals with the prevalent radiological scenario around uranium-mining sites in the Singhbhum East district of Jharkhand state, India. The concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) was estimated from 27 soil samples collected around three regions in the study area, namely Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U in Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions were found to be 128.6, 95.7 and 49.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Similarly for (232)Th and (40)K the activity concentrations were found to be 57.3, 78.4, 68.9 and 530, 425 and 615 Bq kg(-1) in the Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions, respectively, which are comparable with other reported values worldwide, except for some high values. The calculated gamma dose rate, obtained from the concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the samples, was compared with the observed dose rate in air. A good correlation (0.96) was observed between the calculated and the observed gamma dose rate. The annual outdoor effective dose rate was estimated and the values falls between 0.04-0.3, 0.07-0.3 and 0.07-.14 mSv y(-1) with mean values of 0.14, 0.12 and 0.11 mSv y(-1) for the Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions, respectively. The terrestrial dose rates in all the three regions are comparable with other reported values worldwide, except for a few high values in Greece, Rio Grande Do Norte (Brazil) and Kalpakkam (India). PMID:22155799

  19. Assessment of metal contamination in groundwater and soils in the Ahangaran mining district, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Behzad; Mehrabani, Shiva; Rafiei, Behrouz; Yaghoubi, Behrouz

    2015-12-01

    In this study, 28 groundwater and 13 soil samples from Ahangaran mining district in Hamedan Province, west of Iran were collected to evaluate the level of contamination. Average concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sb, and Ni in groundwater samples were 1.39, 3.73, 2.18, 9.37, 2.35, 4.44, and 5.50 μg/L (wet season), and 11.64, 4.92, 4.32, 14.77, 5.43, 4.12, and 0.98 μg/L (dry season), respectively. Results of groundwater samples analysis showed that the average of analyzed metals in the wet and dry seasons were below the permissible limits, except As in the dry season which displays concentrations that exceed US EPA water quality criteria recommended for drinking water. Also, the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values in each sampling station were less than the critical index limit and were suitable for drinking. Factor analysis revealed that variables influential to groundwater quality in one season may not be as important in another season. Average concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn in soil samples were 2.61, 31.44, 0.51, 55.90, 1284.9, 21.26, and 156.04 mg kg(-1), respectively. The results of the geoaccumulation index (I geo) showed the following decreasing order: Pb > Zn > Cu > As > Sb > Cd > Ag. Potential ecological risk index (RI) suggests that the contamination in the investigated area is moderate to very high risk and the ranking of the contaminants in decreasing order is Ag > Sb > Pb > Cd > As > Cu > Zn.

  20. Hydrogeochemical effects of a bulkhead in the Dinero mine tunnel, Sugar Loaf mining district, near Leadville, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katie; Mills, Taylor J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dinero mine drainage tunnel is an abandoned, draining mine adit near Leadville, Colorado, that has an adverse effect on downstream water quality and aquatic life. In 2009, a bulkhead was constructed (creating a mine pool and increasing water-table elevations behind the tunnel) to limit drainage from the tunnel and improve downstream water quality. The goal of this study was to document changes to hydrology and water quality resulting from bulkhead emplacement, and to understand post-bulkhead changes in source water and geochemical processes that control mine-tunnel discharge and water quality. Comparison of pre-and post-bulkhead hydrology and water quality indicated that tunnel discharge and zinc and manganese loads decreased by up to 97 percent at the portal of Dinero tunnel and at two downstream sites (LF-537 and LF-580). However, some water-quality problems persisted at LF-537 and LF-580 during high-flow events and years, indicating the effects of the remaining mine waste in the area. In contrast, post-bulkhead water quality degraded at three upstream stream sites and a draining mine tunnel (Nelson tunnel). Water-quality degradation in the streams likely occurred from increased contributions of mine-pool groundwater to the streams. In contrast, water-quality degradation in the Nelson tunnel was likely from flow of mine-pool water along a vein that connects the Nelson tunnel to mine workings behind the Dinero tunnel bulkhead. Principal components analysis, mixing analysis, and inverse geochemical modeling using PHREEQC indicated that mixing and geochemical reactions (carbonate dissolution during acid weathering, precipitation of goethite and birnessite, and sorption of zinc) between three end-member water types generally explain the pre-and post-bulkhead water composition at the Dinero and Nelson tunnels. The three end members were (1) a relatively dilute groundwater having low sulfate and trace element concentrations; (2) mine pool water, and (3) water that

  1. Mercury pollution from the artisanal mining in Yani gold district, Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Pura; Freixas, Anna; Bascompta, Marc; María Aranibar, Ana; Villegas, Karla; María García-Noguero, Eva; Higueras, Pablo; Cielito Saraiva, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Artisanal gold mining is the main economic activity in the Yani district, Northern Bolivia. In this area abundant orogenic gold deposits constituted by quartz veins hosted in paleozoic turbiditic series that contain either free gold or associated with pyrite. Gold is recovered in processing plants by gravimetric methods using shaking tables in several communities of this district. Previously, miners ground the mineral in ball mills together with mercury. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of mercury used in the gold recovering process to the environment and human health in the Yani district. The assessment was based on the analysis of human hair, sediments and water from the river nearby the processing plant and drinking water from the fountain that supplies these communities. 47 samples of hair from miners and other people from the Yani and Señor de Mayo communities were obtained in 2014 and 52 samples in 2015. All were analysed to evaluate the mercury exposure in these places. The results from the 2014 sampling show a wide range of Hg concentration in hair, especially in Señor de Mayo, with values up to 136 μg/g THg. However, in 2015 among the 43 residents in Señor de Mayo, 29 (67%) exhibit concentrations higher than 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 5.36 μg/g THg. On the other hand, in Yani only 40% have concentrations above 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 2.34 μg/g THg. The content in Hg in most of the hair samples exhibit values above the tolerable limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1 μg/g Hg) and the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2 μg/g Hg). These high Hg concentrations are found not only in miners but also in the other members of the community, in spite of low fish consumption in this area. Part of the hair was analysed before and after cleaning. Usually in the second case the content of Hg is reduced, but still show high Hg levels, then probably the atmosphere is polluted with Hg and population is

  2. Contamination by mercury in air of the mining district of San Martin de Loba in Bolivar's Department, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal, considered a highly toxic pollutant. In its elemental state is volatile, making it easy to transport over long distances through the atmosphere, so that environmental pollution caused by it is a serious problem worldwide. Activities such as gold mining, where metallic Hg is used, have contributed with its global distribution, affecting ecosystems and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in air in gold mining areas in Southern Bolivar, particularly in the mining district of San Martin de Loba, in the municipalities of San Martin de Loba and Barranco de Loba (Mina Santa Cruz), Colombia. In situ analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, using a portable Ra-915 + Zeeman mercury analyzer. In Mina Santa Cruz, one of the most important gold mines in Colombia, concentrations of Hg in air ranged between 163.7 ± 6.6 and 40 455 ± 2154 mg/m3, while in the urban area of San Martin de Loba varied from 223.6 ± 20.8 to 27 140 ± 212.5 ng/m3. In those places where an amalgam burning process was taking place at the time of the measurements, Hg concentrations reached values of 40 455 ± 2154 ng/m3. These data imply a severe occupational exposure to Hg for operators and citizens living in cities located near mines. Therefore, it is important to regulate and control the use of Hg in gold mining, avoiding a chronic impact of the metal on the health of people and the environment. (author)

  3. Characterisation of sulphide-bearing waste-rock dumps using electrical resistivity imaging: the case study of the Rio Marina mining district (Elba Island, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Mauro; Servida, Diego; Lupis, Domenico

    2013-07-01

    Sulphide-bearing mine dumps are potential sources of pollution when acid mine drainage (AMD) occurs. Because the generation of AMD depends on the volume and composition of waste materials, their characterisation is crucial for the evaluation of geochemical hazards and for the design of remediation strategies to minimise their environmental impact. In this paper, a cost-effective strategy for the characterisation of an inactive mine dump in the Rio Marina mining district (Elba Island, Italy) using earth resistivity imaging (ERI) is presented. As no information regarding the nature of waste rocks is found in reports for the mine, five ERI profiles were acquired at the top of the waste pile. The results show that waste rocks are heterogeneous with a maximum thickness of 30 m. Due to the large amounts of dispersed sulphide minerals, the waste rocks are characterised by an electrically conductive geophysical signature in comparison to the surrounding resistive metamorphic bedrock. A geostatistical approach was adopted to estimate the elevation of the edges of the mine dump, and the net volume of the waste rocks was computed through a raster analysis of the elevations of the upper and lower boundaries of the mine dump. High-conductivity anomalies were detected within the core of the mine dump. The integration of the hydrogeological, geochemical and geological framework of the Rio Marina mining district suggests that these anomalies could be a geophysical signature of subsurface regions where AMD is currently generated or stored, thus representing sources of environmental pollution. PMID:23179723

  4. Characteristics of Coal Ashes in Yanzhou Mining District and Distribution of Trace Elements in Them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂建; 彭子成; 杨萍玥; 桂和荣; 王桂梁

    2001-01-01

    In the process of combustion of coal organic and inorganic materials in it will undergo a complex variation. Part of them will become volatiles and, together with coal smoke, enter into atmosphere, some will remain in micro-particulates such as ash and dust and find their way into atmosphere in the form of solid particles, and the rest will be retained in ash and slag. Coal ashes are the residues of organic and inorganic substances in coal left after coal combustion and the composition of coal ashes is dependent on that of minerals and organic matter in coal This paper deals with the chemical composition of coal ashes, the distribution of trace elements in them and their petrological characteristics, and also studies the relationship between the yield of coal ashes and the distribution of trace elements. In addition, a preliminary study is also under taken on the factors that affect the chemical composition of coal ashes. As viewed from the analyses of coal ash samples collected from the Yanzhou mining district, it can be seen clearly that coal ashes from the region studied are composed chiefly of crystalline materials, glassy ma terials and uncombusted organic matter and the major chemical compositions are SiO2, A12O3,Fe2O3, and CaO, as well as minor amounts of SO3, P2O5, Na2O, K2O and TiO2. During the combustion of coal, its trace elements will be redistributed and most of them are enriched in coal ashes. At the same time, the concentrations of the trace elements in flying ash are much higher than those of bottom ash, i.e. , with decreasing particle-size of coal ashes their concen trations will become higher and higher. So the contents of trace elements are negatively propor tional to the particle-size of coal ashes. There has been found a positive correlation between the trace elements Th, V, Zn, Cu and Pb and the yield of coal ashes while a negative correlation between C1 and the yield of coal ashes.

  5. Electrical resistivity imaging survey to detect uncharted mine galleries in the mining district of Linares, Jaén, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, J.; Rey, J.; Dueñas, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Benavente, J.

    2012-02-01

    The scarcity of information about the existence of old mining shafts and galleries in urban areas is an important issue for future urban development. Electrical resistivity tomography is a non-destructive geophysical technique that can detect and characterize such subsurface cavities based on differences in the behaviour of electrical current in the void and in the embedding rock. Here we present a study in which this technique was used to determine the location of old engineered structures around the city of Linares, southern Spain, and to relate these structures to the abandoned deep mines present in the area. Eight electrical resistivity imaging profiles were performed, with a total of 22 808 measurements. Correlations between geoelectrical anomalies allow detection of the depth and the direction of several galleries, as well as the voids that result from mining extraction. Given the depth at which these structures are located (in some cases less than 5 m), they pose an important risk for future construction projects in areas of urban expansion. This technique is shown to be a useful tool for locating areas that pose important urban risks and, by extension, for the decision-making process in territorial planning, especially in areas with a history of deep mining.

  6. ARTISANAL AND SMALL−SCALE MINING IN WASSA AMENFI EAST DISTRICT, (Ghana)

    OpenAIRE

    Ezeji Onyebuchi, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale mining in Ghana has been in existence as far back as pre-colonial era. The industry which is mostly controlled by Ghanaians is highly unregulated pre 1987 (Hilson, 2001). However, because of dwindling state of the economy, the government under the auspices of the German NGO; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) and the World Bank, decided to legalize small-scale mining as part of Economic Recovery Policies (ERP), allowing individuals to mine mine...

  7. 75 FR 71668 - Cibota National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Roca Honda Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... the Cibola National Forest. The proposed mine is located within portions of Sections 9, 10 and 16... surface disturbance associated with the mine haul roads is proposed for Sections 11, 17 and 20. The Cibola... notice and will be posted on the Cibola National Forest Web site. The draft environmental...

  8. A REIA Study of Marble Mining Activities in District- Nagaur (Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and unscientific mining poses severe threat to life, public property and continuation of mining in the area. Incompatible land uses, huge waste dumps and large scale land transformation have resulted in land degradation, ponding, flooding, water contamination and health hazards in Makrana mining area. Segregation of dumps, compatible land use, research and development activity for use of marble slurry are suggested measures for reclamation and restoration of the degraded land. While for the purpose of development and economic upliftment of people, there is a need for establishment of industrial project, but these have to be environmentally friendly. Therefore it is essential to assess the impacts of mining on different environmental parameters, before starting the mining operations, so that abatement measures could be planned in advance for eco-friendly mining in the area. Environmental impact assessment (EIA is a systematic process that examines the environmental consequences of development action like mining, cement, transport, river valley. EIA systematically examines booth beneficial and adverse consequences of the proposed project and ensures that these impacts are taken into account during the project design.

  9. Mn oxides as efficient traps for metal pollutants in a polyphase low-temperature Pliocene environment: A case study in the Tamra iron mine, Nefza mining district, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrée, Sophie; Ruffet, Gilles; De Putter, Thierry; Baele, Jean-Marc; Recourt, Philippe; Jamoussi, Fakher; Yans, Johan

    2010-05-01

    The Tamra mine, located in the Nefza mining district (NW Tunisia), exploits a 50 m-thick layer of Mio-Pliocene sediments that are heavily mineralized with Fe and other metals (Mn, Pb, Zn), especially in its eastern part, which is highly mineralized in Mn and known as the "manganiferous zone". The textural and geochemical studies of manganiferous minerals in the Tamra mine have allowed the determination of four main paragenetic stages. Stages 1 and 2 relate to the main pedogenetic event that gave rise to the currently exploited Fe ore deposit. The last two stages relate to mineralizing events closely connected with hydrothermal circulation and leaching of underlying mineralization of the Sidi Driss Pb-Zn sedex deposit, with subsequent crystallisation in the supergene environment. Stage 3 is characterized by the formation of massive romanechite, hollandite and Sr-cryptomelane, while stage 4 results in the formation of coronadite and chalcophanite. 39Ar- 40Ar analyses performed on hollandite (stage 3) and coronadite (stage 4) samples yielded ages of 4.7 ± 0.1 Ma and 3.35 ± 0.07 Ma, respectively. Tentative 39Ar- 40Ar analyses on chalcophanite provided aberrant results, due to the poor argon retention in this layer-structure mineral. The youngest age corresponds to the late phase of the late Alpine extension event in northern Tunisia, evidenced through an increased regional thermal gradient as well as by a N-S set of normal faults and fractures. The Tamra mine is obviously a polyphase mineral deposit, recording several distinct metal inputs, part of them originating from the underlying Sidi Driss Pb-Zn deposit, while another part is provided by hydrothermal circulations forced by the high thermal gradient. Three springs flowing from the Tamra ore series are regular sources for drinking water used by the local population. Although the Alpine thermal gradient could have facilitated extensive mixing between subsurface oxidizing meteoric fluids and deep reducing

  10. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.; X, Feng; C.W.N. Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% ...

  11. AGE AND ORIGIN OF BASE- AND PRECIOUS-METAL VEINS OF THE COEUR D'ALENE MINING DISTRICT, IDAHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleck, R J; Criss, R E; Eaton, G F; Cleland, R W; Wavra, C S; Bond, W D

    2000-11-07

    Ore-bearing quartz-carbonate veins of the Coeur d'Alene mining district yield {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of 0.74 to >1.60 for low-Rb/Sr, carbonate gangue minerals, similar to current ranges measured in Middle Proterozoic, high-Rb/Sr rocks of the Belt Supergroup. Stable-isotope and fluid-inclusion studies establish a genetic relationship between vein formation and metamorphic-hydrothermal systems of the region. These extraordinary {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios require accumulation of radiogenic {sup 87}Sr in a high Rb/Sr system over an extended period prior to incorporation of Sr into the veins by hydrothermal processes. Evaluation of the age and composition of potential sources of highly radiogenic Sr indicates that the ore-bearing veins of the Coeur d'Alene district formed within the last 200 Ma from components scavenged from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Belt Supergroup, the primary host-rocks of the district. These results are consistent with a Cretaceous or Early Tertiary age for these veins. Pb-Zn deposits that yield Pb isotope, K-Ar, and Ar-Ar results indicative of a Proterozoic age probably formed during deposition or diagenesis of the Belt Supergroup at 1350-1500 Ma, possibly as Sullivan-type syngenetic deposits. K-Ar and Rb-Sr apparent ages and {delta}{sup 18}O values of Belt Supergroup rocks decrease southward from the Coeur d'Alene district toward the Idaho batholith, normal to the trends of metamorphic isograds, fold axes, foliation, and the major reverse faults of the district. Isoclinal folding, thrust faulting, high-temperature metamorphism, granitic plutonism, and regional-scale metamorphic-hydrothermal activity is documented in the region between 140 Ma and 45 Ma, but no similar combination of events is recognized for Late Proterozoic time. Combined with Sr results from the veins, the evidence strongly favors formation of the ore-bearing carbonate veins of the district by fluids related to a complex metamorphic

  12. Toxic metal dispersion in mining areas: from point source to diffusion pollution. The case of the Mt. Amiata Hg mining district (Southern Tuscany - Italy): new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colica, Antonella; Chiarantini, Laura; Rimondi, Valentina; Benvenuti, Marco; Costagliola, Pilario; Lattanzi, Pierfranco; Paolieri, Mario; Rinaldi, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Rivers draining mining areas may contribute to the diffusion of contaminants through their dispersion and accumulation into different morphological river units. The Paglia River's catchment (southern Tuscany) hosts the SE portion of the Mt. Amiata mercury district, the third most important worldwide (exploited from 1880 to 1980 with a total production of 100,000 tonnes Hg) before becoming a tributary of the Tiber River, which directly flows into Mediterranean Sea. The goals of this study are: 1) to recognize and distinguish different morphological units along the Paglia River watercourse, 2) to determine spatial/temporal distribution and concentration of Hg (and other toxic elements, particularly As) in different units. The analysis of morphological units was made by mapping their evolution from the beginning of mining activity (1883) to present day along 43 km of the Paglia watercourse defining eleven morphological sections across this river, and one across one of its tributaries, the Siele Creek, which drains various Hg mines located upstream. Four fundamental morphological/sedimentary unit types have been distinguished: stream sediments, bar, floodplain, and terraces. The latter occur in various orders and age: Pleistocenic, pre-mining (i.e., dating before 1880), and coeval to the mining activity. A total of 100 samples were taken from the various units in the selected transects, georeferenced and then analyzed for their Hg and As contents by ICP-OES. Arsenic contents generally never exceed 10 mg/kg. The observed ranges are: stream sediments 4.1÷8.2 mg/kg; bars 4.1÷6.6 mg/kg; floodplains 3.8÷6.6 mg/kg; terrace coeval with mining activity 3.2÷10.1 mg/kg. Hg contents in present-day stream sediments and bars are extremely variable (0.2÷27.5 and 1.4÷22.4 mg/kg respectively), and show a sharp increase at the confluence with Siele Creek. Floodplain sediments may reach up to 98 mg/kg. Terraces coeval with mining activity also show variable Hg contents (0.1÷66

  13. Exploring Land use and Land cover change in the mining areas of Wa East District, Ghana using Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basommi, Prosper Laari; Guan, Qingfeng; Cheng, Dandan

    2015-11-01

    Satellite imagery has been widely used to monitor the extent of environmental change in both mine and post mine areas. This study uses Remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques for the assessment of land use/land cover dynamics of mine related areas in Wa East District of Ghana. Landsat satellite imageries of three different time periods, i.e., 1991, 2000 and 2014 were used to quantify the land use/cover changes in the area. Supervised Classification using Maximum Likelihood Technique in ERDAS was utilized. The images were categorized into five different classes: Open Savannah, Closed Savannah, Bare Areas, Settlement and Water. Image differencing method of change detection was used to investigate the changes. Normalized Differential Vegetative Index valueswere used to correlate the state of healthy vegetation. The image differencing showed a positive correlation to the changes in the Land use and Land cover classes. NDVI values reduced from 0.48 to 0.11. The land use change matrix also showed conversion of savannah areas into bare ground and settlement. Open and close savannah reduced from 50.80% to 36.5% and 27.80% to 22.67% respectively whiles bare land and settlement increased. Overall accuracy of classified 2014 image and kappa statistics was 83.20% and 0.761 respectively. The study revealed the declining nature of the vegetation and the significance of using satellite imagery. A higher resolution satellite Imagery is however needed to satisfactorily delineate mine areas from other bare areas in such Savannah zones.

  14. Terlinguacreekite, Hg32+O2 Cl2, a new mineral species from the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Gault, Robert A.; Paar, W.H.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Burns, P.C.; Cisneros, S.; Foord, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Terlinguacreekite, ideally Hg32+O2 Cl2, has a very pronounced subcell that is orthorhombic, space-group choices Imam, Imcm, Ima2 and 12cm, with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a 6.737(3), b 25.528(10), c 5.533(2) A??, V951.6(6) A??3, a:b:c 0.2639:1:0.2167, Z=8. The true symmetry, supercell unit-cell parameters, and details regarding the crystal structure are unknown. The strongest nine lines of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A?? (I)(subcell hkl)] are: 5.413(30)(011), 4.063(80)(121), 3.201(50)(080), 3.023(50)(161), 2.983(60)(240), 2.858(30)(211), 2.765(50)(002), 2.518(100b)(091, 251) and 2.026(30)(242). The mineral is found in an isolated area measuring approximately 1 ?? 0.5 m in the lower level of the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas (type locality), as mm-sized anhedral dark orange to reddish orange crusts of variable thickness on calcite, and rarely as 0.5 mm-sized aggregates of crystals of the same color. It has also been identified at the McDermitt mine, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A., where it occurs with kleinite and calomel in silicified volcanic rocks and sediments. Terlinguacreekite is a secondary phase, most probably formed from the alteration of primary cinnabar or native mercury. At Terlingua, most crusts are thin, almost cryptocrystalline, with no discernable forms, and are resinous and translucent to opaque. Crystals are up to 0.2 mm in length, subhedral, acicular to prismatic, elongation [001], with a maximum length-to-width ratio of 4:1. They are vitreous, transparent, and some crystals have brightly reflecting faces, which may be {010} and {110}. The streak is yellow, and the mineral is brittle with an uneven fracture, no observable cleavage, and is soft, nonfluorescent under both long- and short-wave ultraviolet light. D (calc.) is 9.899 g/cm3 (empirical formula). Material from the McDermitt mine is reversibly photosensitive, and turns from vivid orange to black in strong

  15. Isotopically constrained lead sources in fugitive dust from unsurfaced roads in the southeast Missouri mining district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.; Pribil, Michael; Hogan, John P; Wronkiewicz, David

    2016-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead (Pb) in fugitive dust suspended by a vehicle from 13 unsurfaced roads in Missouri was measured to identify the source of Pb within an established long-term mining area. A three end-member model using 207Pb/206Pb and concentration as tracers resulted in fugitive dust samples plotting in the mixing field of well characterized heterogeneous end members. End members selected for this investigation include the 207Pb/206Pb for 1) a Pb-mixture representing mine tailings, 2) aerosol Pb-impacted soils within close proximity to the Buick secondary recycling smelter, and 3) an average of soils, rock cores and drill cuttings representing the background conditions. Aqua regia total concentrations and 207Pb/206Pb of mining area dust suggest that 35.4–84.3% of the source Pb in dust is associated with the mine tailings mixture, 9.1–52.7% is associated with the smelter mixture, and 0–21.6% is associated with background materials. Isotope ratios varied minimally within the operational phases of sequential extraction suggesting that mixing of all three Pb mixtures occurs throughout. Labile forms of Pb were attributed to all three end members. The extractable carbonate phase had as much as 96.6% of the total concentration associated with mine tailings, 51.8% associated with smelter deposition, and 34.2% with background. The next most labile geochemical phase (Fe + Mn Oxides) showed similar results with as much as 85.3% associated with mine tailings, 56.8% associated with smelter deposition, and 4.2% associated with the background soil.

  16. Isotopically constrained lead sources in fugitive dust from unsurfaced roads in the southeast Missouri mining district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C; Pribil, Michael J; Hogan, John P; Wronkiewicz, David J

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic composition of lead (Pb) in fugitive dust suspended by a vehicle from 13 unsurfaced roads in Missouri was measured to identify the source of Pb within an established long-term mining area. A three end-member model using (207)Pb/(206)Pb and concentration as tracers resulted in fugitive dust samples plotting in the mixing field of well characterized heterogeneous end members. End members selected for this investigation include the (207)Pb/(206)Pb for 1) a Pb-mixture representing mine tailings, 2) aerosol Pb-impacted soils within close proximity to the Buick secondary recycling smelter, and 3) an average of soils, rock cores and drill cuttings representing the background conditions. Aqua regia total concentrations and (207)Pb/(206)Pb of mining area dust suggest that 35.4-84.3% of the source Pb in dust is associated with the mine tailings mixture, 9.1-52.7% is associated with the smelter mixture, and 0-21.6% is associated with background materials. Isotope ratios varied minimally within the operational phases of sequential extraction suggesting that mixing of all three Pb mixtures occurs throughout. Labile forms of Pb were attributed to all three end members. The extractable carbonate phase had as much as 96.6% of the total concentration associated with mine tailings, 51.8% associated with smelter deposition, and 34.2% with background. The next most labile geochemical phase (Fe + Mn Oxides) showed similar results with as much as 85.3% associated with mine tailings, 56.8% associated with smelter deposition, and 4.2% associated with the background soil.

  17. Mercury sources and bioavailability in lakes located in the mining district of Chibougamau, eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Stéphane; Lucotte, Marc; Teisserenc, Roman

    2011-01-01

    The presence of Hg in the fish of the lakes from the Cu–Zn–Au mining region of Chibougamau (Canada) represents a serious source of concern for the health of local sports and subsistence fishers. This study focuses on identifying the origin of Hg present in the sediments of lakes with mine wastes stored in tailing facilities located on their shores. In addition to C/N ratios and determination of total Hg, Methyl Hg and other metals, a series of lignin biomarkers were used to contrast the hi...

  18. Soil quality assessment using GIS-based chemometric approach and pollution indices: Nakhlak mining district, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Farid; Sheykhi, Vahideh; Salari, Mohammad; Bagheri, Adel

    2016-04-01

    This paper is a comprehensive assessment of the quality of soil in the Nakhlak mining district in Central Iran with special reference to potentially toxic metals. In this regard, an integrated approach involving geostatistical, correlation matrix, pollution indices, and chemical fractionation measurement is used to evaluate selected potentially toxic metals in soil samples. The fractionation of metals indicated a relatively high variability. Some metals (Mo, Ag, and Pb) showed important enrichment in the bioavailable fractions (i.e., exchangeable and carbonate), whereas the residual fraction mostly comprised Sb and Cr. The Cd, Zn, Co, Ni, Mo, Cu, and As were retained in Fe-Mn oxide and oxidizable fractions, suggesting that they may be released to the environment by changes in physicochemical conditions. The spatial variability patterns of 11 soil heavy metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) were identified and mapped. The results demonstrated that Ag, As, Cd, Mo, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn pollution are associated with mineralized veins and mining operations in this area. Further environmental monitoring and remedial actions are required for management of soil heavy metals in the study area. The present study not only enhanced our knowledge regarding soil pollution in the study area but also introduced a better technique to analyze pollution indices by multivariate geostatistical methods.

  19. A STUDY ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN COAL MINE WORKERS IN KHAMMAM DISTRICT, TELANGANA-INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annepaka Eliya Raju

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory system, representing an important adjunct to the various lung imaging studies. It also measures the function of lung capacity and chest wall mechanics to determine whether or not the patient has a lung problem. Spirometry gives an important clue in terms of respiratory chronic airway disorders and can predict early damage to pulmonary system. Occupational exposures to coal dust affect the different systems of the body. The present study has focused on the workers mined in coal workers (drilling and digging who are continuously exposed to air pollutants such as coal dust during duty hours in Khammam population. Thirty healthy non – smoker male working in coal mines for more than fifteen years formed the study group, while thirty healthy non–smoker males who are not exposed to air dust pollutants from hospital staff served as control group. The pulmonary function test was assessed using computerized spirometer. The pulmonary function tests (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, FEF25 – 75% and PEFR were significantly decreased in coal mine workers. The results suggest that there in a need to improve control measures and the health status of workers engaged in coal mine dust Pulmonary Function Testing (PFTs is a valuable tool for evaluating the particles.

  20. Stratigraphy of amethyst geode-bearing lavas and fault-block structures of the Entre Rios mining district, Paraná volcanic province, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉO A. HARTMANN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Entre Rios mining district produces a large volume of amethyst geodes in underground mines and is part of the world class deposits in the Paraná volcanic province of South America. Two producing basalt flows are numbered 4 and 5 in the lava stratigraphy. A total of seven basalt flows and one rhyodacite flow are present in the district. At the base of the stratigraphy, beginning at the Chapecó river bed, two basalt flows are Esmeralda, low-Ti type. The third flow in the sequence is a rhyodacite, Chapecó type, Guarapuava subtype. Above the rhyodacite flow, four basalt flows are Pitanga, high-Ti type including the two mineralized flows; only the topmost basalt in the stratigraphy is a Paranapanema, intermediate-Ti type. Each individual flow is uniquely identified from its geochemical and gamma-spectrometric properties. The study of several sections in the district allowed for the identification of a fault-block structure. Blocks are elongated NW and the block on the west side of the fault was downthrown. This important structural characterization of the mining district will have significant consequences in the search for new amethyst geode deposits and in the understanding of the evolution of the Paraná volcanic province.

  1. Institutional Analysis Of Policy In Asphalt Mining District Buton Southeast Sulawesi Province Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aris Mahmud; . Suratman; Muh.Yunus; Alwi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to determine the institutional form of formal informal institutional and transaction costs in mining policy implementation asphalt in Buton with reference to the institutional theory. This study used a qualitative research method with a case study approach. The technique of collecting data through in-depth interviews and documentation. Data were analyzed by using data reduction data presentation verification or conclusion. The results showed that the formal institutio...

  2. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively

  3. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively.

  4. Trace metals in fugitive dust from unsurfaced roads in the Viburnum Trend resource mining District of Missouri--implementation of a direct-suspension sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C; Wronkiewicz, David J; Pavlowsky, Robert T; Shi, Honglan

    2013-09-01

    Fugitive dust from 18 unsurfaced roadways in Missouri were sampled using a novel cyclonic fugitive dust collector that was designed to obtain suspended bulk samples for analysis. The samples were analyzed for trace metals, Fe and Al, particle sizes, and mineralogy to characterize the similarities and differences between roadways. Thirteen roads were located in the Viburnum Trend (VT) mining district, where there has been a history of contaminant metal loading of local soils; while the remaining five roads were located southwest of the VT district in a similar rural setting, but without any mining or industrial process that might contribute to trace metal enrichment. Comparison of these two groups shows that trace metal concentration is higher for dusts collected in the VT district. Lead is the dominant trace metal found in VT district dusts representing on average 79% of the total trace metal concentration, and was found moderately to strongly enriched relative to unsurfaced roads in the non-VT area. Fugitive road dust concentrations calculated for the VT area substantially exceed the 2008 Federal ambient air standard of 0.15μgm(-3) for Pb. The pattern of trace metal contamination in fugitive dust from VT district roads is similar to trace metal concentrations patterns observed for soils measured more than 40years ago indicating that Pb contamination in the region is persistent as a long-term soil contaminant. PMID:23659966

  5. Mass loads of dissolved and particulate mercury and other trace elements in the Mt. Amiata mining district, Southern Tuscany (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V; Costagliola, P; Gray, J E; Lattanzi, P; Nannucci, M; Paolieri, M; Salvadori, A

    2014-04-01

    Total dissolved and particulate mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and antimony (Sb) mass loads were estimated in different seasons (March and September 2011 and March 2012) in the Paglia River basin (PRB) (central Italy). The Paglia River drains the Mt. Amiata Hg district, one of the largest Hg-rich regions worldwide. Quantification of Hg, As, and Sb mass loads in this watershed allowed (1) identification of the contamination sources, (2) evaluation of the effects of Hg on the environment, and (3) determination of processes affecting Hg transport. The dominant source of Hg in the Paglia River is runoff from Hg mines in the Mt. Amiata region. The maximum Hg mass load was found to be related to runoff from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore Mine (ASSM), and up to 30 g day(-1) of Hg, dominantly in the particulate form, was transported both in high and low flow conditions in 2011. In addition, enrichment factors (EFs) calculated for suspended particulate matter (SPM) were similar in different seasons indicating that water discharge controls the quantities of Hg transported in the PRB, and considerable Hg was transported in all seasons studied. Overall, as much as 11 kg of Hg are discharged annually in the PRB and this Hg is transported downstream to the Tiber River, and eventually to the Mediterranean Sea. Similar to Hg, maximum mass loads for As and Sb were found in March 2011, when as much as 190 g day(-1) each of As and Sb were measured from sites downstream from the ASSM. Therefore, the Paglia River represents a significant source of Hg, Sb, and As to the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:24414225

  6. Element geochemistry and cleaning potential of the No. 11 coal seam from Antaibao mining district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Wenfeng; QIN; Yong; SONG; Dangyu; SANG; Shuxun; JIAN

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analyses of sulfur and 41 other elements in 8 channel samples of the No. 11 coal seam from Antaibao surface mine, Shanxi, China and 4 samples from the coal preparation plant of this mine, the distribution of the elements in the seam profile, their geochemical partitioning behavior during the coal cleaning and the genetic relationships between the both are studied. The conclusions are drawn as follows. The coal-forming environment was probably invaded by sea water during the post-stage of peatification, which results in the fact that the contents of As, Fe, S, etc. associated closely with sea water tend to increase toward the top of the seam, and that the kaolinite changes into illite and montmorillonite in the coal-sublayer near the roof. These elements studied are dominantly associated with kaolinite, pyrite, illite, montmorillonite, etc., of which the As, Pb, Mn, Cs, Co, Ni, etc. are mainly associated with sulfides, the Mo, V, Nb, Hf, REEs, Ta etc. mainly with kaolintie, the Mg, Al etc. mainly with epigenetic montmorillonite, and the Rb, Cr, Ba, Cu, K, Hg, etc. mainly with epigenetic illite. The physical coal cleaning is not only effective in the removal of ash and sulfur, but also in reducing the concentration of most major and trace elements. The elements Be, U, Sb, W, Br, Se, P, etc. are largely or partly organically bound showing a relatively low removability, while the removability of the other elements studied is more than 20%, of which the Mg, Mn, Hg, Fe, As, K, Al, Cs, and Cr associated mostly with the coarser or epigenetic minerals show a higher removability than that of ash. The distribution of the elements in the seam profile controls their partitioning behavior to a great degree during the coal cleaning processes.

  7. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

  8. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  9. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in plaster and mortar from structures in Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri (Tri-State Mining District)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Phyllis M. [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Pavlik, Jeffrey W. [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Sheets, Ralph W. [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Biagioni, Richard N. [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States)]. E-mail: rnb266f@smsu.edu

    2005-01-05

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate anecdotal evidence that within Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri, two counties within the Tri-State Mining District, granular mine tailings were commonly used in place of river sands in wall plasters and mortar. Interior wall plaster and mortar samples from structures in this mining district were analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and compared to samples from Springfield, MO (comparison site). The Jasper and Newton County samples showed elevated concentrations of the three elements, consistent with the inclusion of mine tailings, with a number of samples containing lead and cadmium at concentrations greater than EPA remediation targets for yard soil. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of the zinc ore minerals, sphalerite and hemimorphite, in high level samples. Thin section optical studies identified the major component of the aggregate as chert, a mineral abundant within the tailing piles. Because dust from crumbling plaster and mortar could represent an avenue for significant heavy metal exposure to building occupants, we suggest that there may be associated health consequences that should be further evaluated.

  10. Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States District of northeastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J; Whyte, Jeff J; Brumbaugh, William G; Tillitt, Donald E

    2005-06-01

    We assessed the exposure of fish from the Spring and Neosho Rivers in northeast Oklahoma, USA, to lead, zinc, and cadmium from historical mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Fish (n = 74) representing six species were collected in October 2001 from six sites on the Spring and Neosho Rivers influenced to differing degrees by mining. Additional samples were obtained from the Big River, a heavily contaminated stream in eastern Missouri, USA, and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and hemoglobin (Hb). Blood also was analyzed for delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The activity of ALA-D, an enzyme involved in heme synthesis, is inhibited by Pb. Concentrations of Fe and Hb were highly correlated (r = 0.89, p Neosho River system. PMID:16117126

  11. Environmental assessment of mercury contamination from the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining centre, Geita District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H; Appleton, J D; Lister, R; Smith, B; Chitamweba, D; Mkumbo, O; Machiwa, J F; Tesha, A L; Beinhoff, C

    2005-05-01

    This study presents the results of an environmental assessment of mercury (Hg) contamination in the Rwamagasa artisanal gold mining area, northwest Tanzania, and the potential downstream dispersion along the River Malagarasi to Lake Tanganyika. At the time of sampling, generally low concentrations of Hg (spp. increase from about 0.01 mg Hg/kg for the River Malagarasi delta to 0.07, 0.2, and 1.6 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa 'background', moderately and most contaminated sites. For piscivorous (Lates, Brycinus, and Hydrocynus spp.), insectivorous (Barbus spp.), and planktivorous (Haplochromis spp.) fish species, the 10-cm standardized Hg concentrations increase from about 0.006 mg/kg for the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika area to 0.5 and 3.5 mg/kg, respectively, for the Rwamagasa moderately and most contaminated sites. The low concentrations of Hg in fish from the Malagarasi River delta and Lake Tanganyika indicate that Hg contamination from the Rwamagasa area does not have a readily discernible impact on the biota of Lake Tanganyika. Many of the fish samples from Rwamagasa exceed guidelines for human consumption (0.5 mg/kg) as well as the WHO recommended limit for vulnerable groups (0.2 mg/kg). Tissue total Hg (THg) of all fish collected from the River Malagarasi-Lake Tanganyika subarea is well below these guidelines. Potential human exposure through consumption of 300 g/day of rice grown on Hg-contaminated soils is 5.5 microg/week. Consumption of 250 g Nile perch (Lates spp.), 500 g tilapia (Oreochromis spp.), and 250 g of catfish (Clarias spp.) each week would result in an intake of 65 microg Hg/week for people consuming only fish from the Mara and Mwanza regions of Lake Victoria and 116 microg Hg/week for people in the Rwamagasa area consuming tilapia and Nile perch from Lake Victoria and catfish from mining-impacted streams. This is lower than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of 300 microg for Hg in the diet set by the WHO and the FAO

  12. Environmental lead contamination in the Rudnaya Pristan--Dalnegorsk mining and smelter district, Russian far East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Braun, Margrit C; von Lindern, Ian H; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K; Kachur, Anatoli H; Yelpatyevsky, Pavel V; Elpatyevskaya, Vera P; Spalinger, Susan M

    2002-03-01

    A preliminary survey of a remote mining and smelting region of the Russian Far East (RFE) indicates significant soil lead contamination and a high probability of childhood lead poisoning. Lead concentrations in residential gardens (476-4310 mg/kg, Gmean=1626 mg/kg) and in roadside soils (2020-22900 mg/kg, Gmean=4420 mg/kg) exceed USEPA guidance for remediation. Preliminary biokinetic estimates of mean blood levels suggest that preschool children are at significant risk of lead poisoning from soil/dust ingestion with levels predicted to average 13-27 microg/dl. Samples of other pathways, such as air, water, paint, interior dust, and garden produce, and pediatric and occupational blood lead levels are needed. An assessment of the industry's ability to improve emissions controls and materials handling should also be undertaken. Global lessons in remediating contamination problems and preventing childhood lead poisoning must be applied in innovative ways to meet the logistical, social, and economic challenges in the RFE.

  13. Geochemistry, processes and environmental impact caused by the mining and auriferous ore process in the Marmato District (Caldas Department, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombia is the third gold producer in Latin America, Mining and processing of gold ore bodies are backward and it is well known that produce great deal of effects on the environment. This study puts emphasis on heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ag, As, Hg, Sb. Bi) released from mining, processing and tailings of gold-sulfide ore bodies from the Marmato Area, and the main objective is research about the geochemical behavior of such heavy metals (sources, dispersion, accumulation, chemical speciation, deposition and accumulation rates) taking surface waters, sediments and suspended particulate matter as geochemical sampling media. In order to asses the fate of these heavy metals, was planned a sampling programmed (summer and winter seasons) of surface waters. Sediments and suspended particulate matter, in streams (Aguas Claras. CascabeI, Pantanos. Marmato, Arquia, Chirapoto), two mine drainages and two processing effluents from the Marmato gold District (vein type), and in the Cauca River (Marmato Area). Analytical work in surface waters was carried out in the field, (physical-chemical parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, sulfides and flow) and in specialized analytical laboratories of Colombia (cyanides, COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand, TOC - Total Organic Carbon, TS - Total Solids. DS - Dissolved solids, NH3, chlorides. Dissolved heavy metals - Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ag, As, Hg, Sb. Bi). In sediments and suspended particulate matter is carrying out a gross geochemical speciation (non-detrital or geochemically reactive fraction and residual or inactive fraction) by leaching with HCl 0.5N and total contents analysis (acidic digestion -HF/ Perchloric acid) in specialized Laboratories of Colombia and Canada. Preliminary results of summer season sampling, showed that surface waters flowing from the Marmato Area are not appropriated neither as domestic supply, agriculture irrigation, aquatic life or industrial use (Cyanides (0.13 -3.8 mg/L), TS (9422-39952 mg/L. The

  14. Factors controlling localization of uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone, Gallup and Ambrosia Lake mining districts, McKinley County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Charles Thomas; Green, Morris W.

    1977-01-01

    Geologic studies were made at all of the uranium mines and prospects in the Dakota Sandstone of Early(?) and Late Cretaceous age in the Gallup mining district, McKinley County, New Mexico. Dakota mines in the adjacent Ambrosia Lake mining district were visited briefly for comparative purposes. Mines in the eastern part of the Gallup district, and in the Ambrosia Lake district, are on the Chaco slope of the southern San Juan Basin in strata which dip gently northward toward the central part of the basin. Mines in the western part of the Gallup district are along the Gallup hogback (Nutria monocline) in strata which dip steeply westward into the Gallup sag. Geologic factors which controlled formation of the uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone are: (1) a source of uranium, believed to be uranium deposits of the underlying Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age; (2) the accessibility to the Dakota of uranium-bearing solutions from the Morrison; (3) the presence in the Dakota of permeable sandstone beds overlain by impermeable carbonaceous shale beds; and (4) the occurrence within the permeable Dakota sandstone beds of carbonaceous reducing material as bedding-plane laminae, or as pockets of carbonaceous trash. Most of the Dakota uranium deposits are found in the lower part of the formation in marginal-marine distributary-channel sandstones which were deposited in the backshore environment. However, the Hogback no. 4 (Hyde) Mine (Gallup district) occurs in sandy paludal shale of the backshore environment, and another deposit, the Silver Spur (Ambrosia Lake district), is found in what is interpreted to be a massive beach or barrier-bar sandstone of the foreshore environment in the upper part of the Dakota. The sedimentary depositional environment most favorable for the accumulation of uranium is that of backshore areas lateral to main distributary channels, where levee, splay, and some distributary-channel sandstones intertongue with gray carbonaceous shales and

  15. Assessment and comparison of 1976-77 and 2002 water quality in mineshafts in the Picher Mining District, northeastern Oklahoma and southeastern Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHay, Kelli L.

    2003-01-01

    The Picher mining district was the site of lead and zinc mining from about 1900 to the mid-1970's. The primary sources of lead and zinc were the sulfide minerals, galena and sphalerite, disseminated in the cherty limestone of the Boone Formation. Water was pumped from the mines while still in operation; however, when mining ceased the mines began to fill with water. Elevated concentrations of metals with depth indicate there may be a substantial quantity of dissolved metals in the ground water. There is concern that the mine water may continue to seep to adjoining portions of the Boone aquifer and to creeks and streams in the area. Water was sampled from abandoned mineshafts in 2002 in the Picher mining area to assess water quality in the mines and to determine how water quality has changed since the late 1970s when similar sampling was conducted. Specific conductance in 2002 increased with depth in the mineshafts. The increases in specific conductance were very slight until the bottom 20 to 40 feet of the shaft where substantial increases occurred. The pH values in 2002 were generally uniform at the top of the water column and were generally neutral. The lowest pH values were measured at the base of most mineshafts. Concentrations of metals and major ions from samples in 2002 varied with depth and between shafts. Specific conductance in 2002 samples was less than in 1976-77 samples. The 1976-77 and 2002 data sets for pH had similar median values; however, the pH values from the 1976- 77 had a much greater range. Concentrations of metals, except copper, from water samples collected from the mineshafts in 2002 were significantly less than concentrations of metals from samples in 1976-77.

  16. Modeling and estimating manganese concentrations in rural households in the mining district of Molango, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Lugo, Marlene; Rodríguez-Dozal, Sandra; Rosas-Pérez, Irma; Alamo-Hernández, Urinda; Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio

    2015-12-01

    Airborne manganese (Mn) is considered the most hazardous route of exposure since Mn particles can enter into the body through the lung and may access the brain directly through olfactory uptake, thereby bypassing homeostatic excretory mechanisms. Environmental indoor and outdoor manganese concentrations in PM2.5 were monitored in ten rural households from two communities of Hidalgo, Mexico, from 2006 to 2007. Indoor and outdoor air samples of PM2.5 were collected using MiniVol samplers, and Mn concentrations in the filters were measured using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). An adjusted generalized linear mixed model was applied and then used for estimating indoor concentrations in non-monitored households. Our monitoring results showed a higher daily average concentration of indoor PM2.5 vs. outdoor PM2.5 (46.4 vs. 36.2 μg/m(3), respectively); however, manganese concentration in PM2.5 indoor and outdoor was 0.09 μg/m(3) in both sceneries. Predictor variables of indoor Mn concentration were outdoor Mn concentration (64.5% increase per 0.1 μg/m(3) change in Mn) and keeping the windows open (4.2% increase). Using these predictors, the average estimated indoor Mn concentration in PM2.5 was 0.07 μg/m(3) (SD = 0.05). Our results confirm the direct effect of outdoor Mn levels, opening house windows, and the distance to the mining chimney in indoor Mn levels in houses.

  17. Evolution of the Creede Caldera and its relation to mineralization in the Creede mining district, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Paul B.; Rye, Robert O.; Bethke, Philip M.

    2000-01-01

    At 25 Ma a major epithermal silver and base metal deposit formed in rhyolitic welded tuff near Creede, Colorado. Nearly 24000 metric tons of silver, appreciable lead, and small amounts of zinc, copper, and gold, have been produced from large, crustified veins under Bachelor and Bulldog Mountains north and northwest of Creede. Prior geologic, hydrologic, and stable-isotope studies showed that ore deposition was associated with the mixing and boiling of waters from diverse sources and suggester that a critical part of the ore-forming fluid may have originated within the ancient lake and sediments of the lacustrine Creede Formation that filled the Creede caldera. Two drill holes that sampled the heretofore hidden lower half of the Creede Formation are the focus of this book. The Creede caldera formed at 26.9 Ma within a high constructional plateau of silicic ashflows that covered and were sporadically interlayed with, intermediate lavas and lahars from large stratovolcanoes. The Creede caldera lake had an inflow evaporation balance that did not permit rapid filling to create a brim-full deep lake. Thus salts were evaporatively concentrated; but, with the exception of possible gypsum, no evaporite minerals preserved. Cool springs deposited travertine as mounds and contributed to limestone interlaminations within the sediment. The lake bottom was anoxic, and bacterial reduction of sulfate led to extreme sulfur isotopic fractionation in diagenetic pyrite. The caldera gradually resurged, converting the initial equant lake into an arcuate moat. Resurgent doming, alluvial fans, lacustrine sediments, ashfalls, and lava domes displaced water, lifted the lake so that it overlapped what later became the southern edge of the mineralized are, and eventually filled the basin. At 25.1 Ma an unseen pluton intruded beneath the northen part of the Creede district and created a convecting olume that drew in brine from the Creede caldera fill, meteotic water from highlands to the north

  18. Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States district of northeastern Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the exposure of fish from the Spring and Neosho Rivers in northeast Oklahoma, USA, to lead, zinc, and cadmium from historical mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Fish (n = 74) representing six species were collected in October 2001 from six sites on the Spring and Neosho Rivers influenced to differing degrees by mining. Additional samples were obtained from the Big River, a heavily contaminated stream in eastern Missouri, USA, and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and hemoglobin (Hb). Blood also was analyzed for ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The activity of ALA-D, an enzyme involved in heme synthesis, is inhibited by Pb. Concentrations of Fe and Hb were highly correlated (r = 0.89, p Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd typically were greatest in fish from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. The activity of ALA-D, but not concentrations of Hb or Fe, also differed significantly (p Enzyme activity was lowest in fish from mining-contaminated sites and greatest in reference fish, and was correlated negatively with Pb in most species. Statistically significant (p concentrations for inhibition were lower). Such among-species differences are consistent with previous studies. Enzyme activity was inhibited by more than 50% relative to reference sites in channel catfish from several TSMD sites. Collectively, our results indicate that Pb is both bioavailable and active biochemically in the Spring-Neosho River system. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  19. Hydrothermal systems in two areas of the Jemez volcanic field: Sulphur Springs and the Cochiti mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WoldeGabriel, G.

    1989-03-01

    K/Ar dates and oxygen isotope data were obtained on 13 clay separates (<2 ..mu..m) of thermally altered mafic and silicic rocks from the Cochiti mining district (SE Jemez Mountains) and Continental Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP) core hole VC-2A (Sulphur Springs, Valles caldera). Illite with K/sub 2/O contents of 6.68%--10.04% is the dominant clay in the silicic rocks, whereas interstratified illite/smectites containing 1.4%--5.74% K/sub 2/O constitute the altered andesites. Two hydrothermal alteration events are recognized at the Cochiti area (8.07 m.y., n = 1, and 6.5--5.6 m.y., n = 6). The older event correlates with the waning stages of Paliza Canyon Formation andesite volcanism (greater than or equal to13 to less than or equal to8.5 m.y.), whereas the younger event correlates with intrusions and gold- and silver-bearing quartz veins associated with the Bearhead Rhyolite (7.54--5.8 m.y.). The majority of K/Ar dates in the hydrothermally altered, caldera-fill rocks of core hole VC-2A (0.83--0.66 m.y., n = 4) indicate that hydrothermal alteration developed contemporaneously with resurgence and ring fracture Valles Rhyolite domes (0.89--0.54 m.y.). One date of 0 +- 0.10 m.y. in acid-altered landslide debris of postcaldera tuffs from the upper 13 m of the core hole probably correlates with Holocene hydrothermal activity possibly associated with the final phases of the Valles Rhyolite (0.13 m.y.).

  20. The difficulties in the development of mining tourism projects: the case of La Unión Mining District (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor M.Conesa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mine sites are atypical industrial sites because they encompass not only economic but also landscape and anthropologic components. The need of developing new economic opportunities in areas, where a “mining monoculture” was the economic backbone, has resulted in the re-interpretation of mining activity from a cultural viewpoint. Some traditional mining towns from both, recent and ancient times, have forgone mining activity and have become new tourist attractions sites. However, the process of developing tourism in these zones is not easy and necessarily incorporates social, economic and environmental requirements. This paper describes the constraints, possibilities and efforts that meet in the former mining town of La Unión, Southeast Spain. It will be investigated in a critic point of view the current projects that, though in low number, try to preserve the identity and history of the town while generating relatively significant economic incomes.

  1. Selection Criteria of Sites Suitable for Low- Level Radioactive U-mining and Milling wastes Disposal at Al-Missikat-Al-Aradiya District, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium mining and milling tailings are U-depleted but contain 230TH and 226Ra. These low-level radioactive wastes are disposed of in the near surface environment. Hydro geologically, suitable sites for disposal of these wastes should be characterized by:1) deep water-level,2) minimal precipitation,3) minimal exposure to flooding and 4) circular- shaped basins. Al-Missikat-Al-Aradiya District with future potential of U-mining and milling operations, a geomorphologic analysis led to the selection of four sites (sub basins) having the geomorphologic characteristics:1)elongation and circularity ratio≡1, 2) high track drainage density (limited infiltration),3) high stream frequency (deep water-table) and 4) moderate to low bifurcation ratio. These sites are further characterized geologically and structurally

  2. Histopathological alterations of the gills, liver and kidneys in Anabas Testudineus (Bloch) fish living in an unused lignite mine, Li District, Lamphun Povince, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenphet, S.; Thaworn, W.; Saenphet, K. [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Science

    2009-09-15

    The acidity of mine water generally makes it toxic to most organisms. The gills, kidneys and livers of Anabas testudineus Bloch fish inhabiting the acidic water (pH 2-4) of an unused lignite mine in Li District, Lamphun Province, Thailand were examined and compared to those of farmed fish. Tissue abnormalities were found in all investigated organs. Deterioration and telangiectasia of gill filaments were found. Liver tissue revealed hemorrhages, blood congestion and necrotic cells with mononuclear cell infiltration. In addition, hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the renal tubules with reduced lumens, aneurisms of the renal tubules, and contractions of the glomeruli in the Bowman's capsule were observed. These histopathological findings suggest the acidic water in this habitat causes severe damage to the internal organs of fish and consequently alter their physiological status. Since the water in this pond is utilized by local people, these findings highlight the need for adequate water treatment.

  3. Estimation of volume and mass and of changes in volume and mass of selected chat piles in the Picher mining district, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod

    2013-01-01

    From the 1890s through the 1970s the Picher mining district in northeastern Ottawa County, Oklahoma, was the site of mining and processing of lead and zinc ore. When mining ceased in about 1979, as much as 165–300 million tons of mine tailings, locally referred to as “chat,” remained in the Picher mining district. Since 1979, some chat piles have been mined for aggregate materials and have decreased in volume and mass. Currently (2013), the land surface in the Picher mining district is covered by thousands of acres of chat, much of which remains on Indian trust land owned by allottees. The Bureau of Indian Affairs manages these allotted lands and oversees the sale and removal of chat from these properties. To help the Bureau of Indian Affairs better manage the sale and removal of chat, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, estimated the 2005 and 2010 volumes and masses of selected chat piles remaining on allotted lands in the Picher mining district. The U.S. Geological Survey also estimated the changes in volume and mass of these chat piles for the period 2005 through 2010. The 2005 and 2010 chat-pile volume and mass estimates were computed for 34 selected chat piles on 16 properties in the study area. All computations of volume and mass were performed on individual chat piles and on groups of chat piles in the same property. The Sooner property had the greatest estimated volume (4.644 million cubic yards) and mass (5.253 ± 0.473 million tons) of chat in 2010. Five of the selected properties (Sooner, Western, Lawyers, Skelton, and St. Joe) contained estimated chat volumes exceeding 1 million cubic yards and estimated chat masses exceeding 1 million tons in 2010. Four of the selected properties (Lucky Bill Humbah, Ta Mee Heh, Bird Dog, and St. Louis No. 6) contained estimated chat volumes of less than 0.1 million cubic yards and estimated chat masses of less than 0.1 million tons in 2010. The total volume of all

  4. A method to determine expander spacing for steel pipelines in mining districts; Ein Verfahren zur Festlegung von Dehnerabstaenden fuer Stahlrohrleitungen im Bergbaugebiet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielberg, P. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany). Abt. Bergschaeden; Sroka, A. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Markscheidewesen und Geodaesie

    2004-10-01

    In the Ruhr district, pipelines of public and private infrastructure are made of cast iron, steel, plastics or asbestos cement. Legal framework, technical regulations and normative standards define which pipeline materials may be used for the transmission of which kind of product. Thus ground water endangering substances as well as inflammable or explosive products are only permitted to be transported in steel pipelines. Ground movements, due to underground mining, are transmitted via the soil to the pipeline and cause extra strain within the steel pipeline. In extreme cases, durable deformations may occur, characterized by an oval profile or a fold in the pipeline. To avoid or minimize damages, balancing elements are installed into the concerning pipeline, reducing the ground movements which might otherwise cause damages. The distance between the balancing elements is not arranged by random, but by a developed calculation method which represents the actual available standards in science and technology. The calculation method considers all relevant influencing variables with impacts on the movement behaviour of steel pipelines in mining areas like technical data of pipeline design (e.g. steel grade, wall thickness, weld seam quality), soil conditions (e.g. friction), laying depths of the pipelines, the operational impacts (working pressure, corrosion) and the mining impacts. By today, mining has caused no damages to steel pipelines secured by this calculation method. (orig.)

  5. Soil Erosion Assessment of The Post-Coal Mining Site in Kutai Kartanagera District, East Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkarnain Zulkarnain

    2014-01-01

    Besides of its positive economic impact, mining activity has negative impacts to the sustainability of community development and livelihoods as mining reclamation can’t restore the land condition to its original state. The objective of this study was to determine the main factor that caused soil erosion induced in post-coal mining and defined reclamation activity that caused soil erosion. The observed parameters were site reclamation age of each companies, soil physical properties (density, t...

  6. Study of radon exhalation rates using solid state nuclear track detectors in stone mining area of Aravali range in Pali region, district Faridabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well established that indoor radon-thoron and daughters are the largest contributor to total radiation dose received by populations. They account for more than 50% of the total dose and the radiation exposure beyond permissible levels can lead to deleterious effects on health. This fact necessitates extensive studies of natural radioactivity levels in the stone mining area of Aravali range in Faridabad. The stone mining area of Aravali Range in Pali, District Faridabad bears significant geological features. Radon exhalation from ground plays an important role in enhanced indoor radon levels and can pose grave health hazards to the workers and the residents. Exhalation rates (mass and surface) from stone samples of the area have been studied using LR-115, Type II nuclear track detectors. The mass and surface exhalation rates from crushed stone samples, also called stone dust varied in the range 3.41-9.11 mBq kg-1 h-1 and 75.9-202.7 mBq m-2 h-1, respectively. The study has revealed substantial presence of radionuclides in the samples collected from the mining area. (author)

  7. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  8. Arsenic content in groundwater from the southern part of the San Antonio-El Triunfo mining district, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurl, Jobst; Mendez-Rodriguez, Lía; Acosta-Vargas, Baudilio

    2014-10-01

    The San Antonio-El Triunfo mining district is located in a mountain region 60 km southeast of La Paz, the capital of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. Mining activities, focused on gold and silver extraction, which began in the second half of the 18th century; the main activity took place between 1878 and 1911. The minerals were treated through the cyanide method, burned, and smelted. In effect between 800,000 and 1 million tons of mine waste materials were scattered in an area of approximately 350-400 km2. This area contains today several byproducts as a result from arsenopyrite oxidation, such as arsenolite (As2O3). The aim of this study was to analyze groundwater composition in order to define the actual concentrations of relevant parameters to detect ore mining contaminations, especially in respect to arsenic. In the autumn of 2010, 29 groundwater samples were obtained using flow-through bailer or down-hole pump methods, and a total of 37 variables were measured in each sample. Arsenic (dissolved) exceeded the values established by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) (0.01 mg/L) in 41% of the monitored sites. The maximum concentration of arsenic found in one observation well was 0.45 mg/L. Four water samples, which were characterized by elevated concentration of boron (max. conc. 9.5 mg/L), fluoride (max. conc. 3.25 mg/L) and alkaline pH values (>9), showed a composition typical for hydrothermal water. Because all four samples had arsenic concentration under 0.008 mg/L, we conclude that no significant impact of arsenic from hydrothermal fluids is found in the study area.

  9. Levantamento florístico do estrato lenhoso das áreas mineradas no Distrito Federal Floristic survey of woody species in mined areas of Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerca 0,6% da área do Distrito Federal - DF encontra-se degradada pela mineração. Com o objetivo de identificar espécies que possam ser utilizadas em projetos de revegetação, a composição florística do estrato lenhoso das jazidas abandonadas à sucessão foi inventariada. Foram encontradas nesses locais 78 espécies nativas do Cerrado e 14 exóticas. Porém, apenas oito espécies nativas apresentaram freqüência > 50% nos locais minerados. Outras 18 espécies nativas apresentaram freqüências entre 25 e 50%, e as demais 74% das espécies encontradas registraram presença acidental nesses locais (freqüência 50% e as 18 acessórias (freqüência entre 25% - 50%, que juntas totalizam 78,9% da abundância do estrato lenhoso, são recomendadas para projetos de recuperação de áreas mineradas no Cerrado.Approximately 0.6% of the Federal District in Brazil is degraded by mining. To indicate native woody species for revegetation works, a floristic survey was carried out in abandoned mined sites. Seventy- eight native and 14 exotic cerrado species were found on the sites. However, only eight species showed to be constant in such environment (frequency > 50%.Eighteen other species presented frequencies between 25 and 50% and the remaining 74% were considered accidental to mined areas left to primary succession (frequency 50% plus the eighteen accessory-species (frequencies between 25 and 50%, which account for 78.9% of the woody-layer abundance, can be indicated for revegetation works of mined areas in the Brazilian cerrado.

  10. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Marlina, Dwi, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Wiratomo, Yogi, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Indraprasta PGRI University, Nangka Street No. 58C Tanjung Barat, South Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

  11. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area

  12. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia; Marlina, Dwi; Wiratomo, Yogi

    2014-03-01

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

  13. Alteration zone Mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mining Districts of Iran using Advanced Land Imager (ALI Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the capability of Earth Observing-1 (EO1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mining districts, SE Iran. Feature-oriented principal components selection, 4/2, 8/9, 5/4 band ratioing were applied to ALI data for enhancing the hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization, lithological units and vegetation. Mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF was tested to discriminate the hydrothermal alteration areas of porphyry copper mineralization from surrounding environment using the shortwave infrared bands of ALI. Results indicate that the tested methods are able to yield spectral information for identifying vegetation, iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals, lithological units and the discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered rocks using ALI data.

  14. Effects of Soil Composition and Mineralogy on the Bioaccessibility of Arsenic from Tailings and Soil in Gold Mine Districts of Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, Louise; Walker, Stephen R.; Wragg, Joanna; Parsons, Michael B.; Koch, Iris; Jamieson, Heather E.; Reimer, Kenneth J. (Queens); (Brit. Geo.); (Royal); (NRC)

    2010-10-20

    Bioaccessibility tests and mineralogical analyses were performed on arsenic-contaminated tailings and soils from gold mine districts of Nova Scotia, Canada, to examine the links between soil composition, mineralogy, and arsenic bioaccessibility. Arsenic bioaccessibility ranges from 0.1% to 49%. A weak correlation was observed between total and bioaccessible arsenic concentrations, and the arsenic bioaccessibility was not correlated with other elements. Bulk X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis shows arsenic in these near-surface samples is mainly in the pentavalent form, indicating that most of the arsenopyrite (As{sup 1-}) originally present in the tailings and soils has been oxidized during weathering reactions. Detailed mineralogical analyses of individual samples have identified up to seven arsenic species, the relative proportions of which appear to affect arsenic bioaccessibility. The highest arsenic bioaccessibility (up to 49%) is associated with the presence of calcium-iron arsenate. Samples containing arsenic predominantly as arsenopyrite or scorodite have the lowest bioaccessibility (<1%). Other arsenic species identified (predominantly amorphous iron arsenates and arsenic-bearing iron(oxy)hydroxides) are associated with intermediate bioaccessibility (1 to 10%). The presence of a more soluble arsenic phase, even at low concentrations, results in increased arsenic bioaccessibility from the mixed arsenic phases associated with tailings and mine-impacted soils.

  15. The nature of fracturing and stress distribution in quartzite around the 1128-M (3700-FT) level of the crescent mine, Coeur d'Alene mining district, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.H.; Skinner, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Silver and copper are the principal ores mined from the quartzite at the Crescent mine. Both the main ore-bearing veins and foliation in the quartzite are parallel to the nearly vertical formational contacts. Anisotropy of the quartzite is indicated by both dynamic and static tests. Disking and breakage of core from holes perpendicular to the foliation are about twice what they are in core from holes parallel to foliation. Natural cleavage as well as slabbing and blasting fractures around the tunnels are also controlled by the foliation. Extensive overcore deformation measurements indicate that most of the influence of the tunnels on the "free" stress field is between the rib and a depth of 2.7 m (1 tunnel diameter). The maximum principal stress axis in the free field is nearly horizontal; its magnitude is not much greater than the vertical component and calculations indicate a nearly hydrostatic free stress field. Stress considerably greater than the free field was measured between about 0.3-2.7 m behind the rib and is caused by a transfer of load from above the tunnel opening. Peak stress is in the vertical direction and about 1.7 m behind the rib. An air-injection survey shows that high permeabilities are confined to the highly fractured annulus around a tunnel to a depth of at least 0.6 m. Air-injection measurements could be taken in the interval of about 0.6-1.8 m, but more fractures with high permeabilities may also be present in the annulus from about 0.6-1.2 m. Permeabilities measured deeper than about 1.8 m by the air-injection technique are either very low or nonexistent. The absence of open and noncontinuous fractures beyond about 1.8 m is also indicated by very low porosities and permeabilities of core, very high stresses (which presumably would close fractures), the lack of stains or secondary fillings in disking fractures, a conspicuous lack of ground water in the tunnels, and the fact that fractures encountered in an experimental 0.9-m tunnel did not

  16. Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States District of northeastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J; Whyte, Jeff J; Brumbaugh, William G; Tillitt, Donald E

    2005-06-01

    We assessed the exposure of fish from the Spring and Neosho Rivers in northeast Oklahoma, USA, to lead, zinc, and cadmium from historical mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Fish (n = 74) representing six species were collected in October 2001 from six sites on the Spring and Neosho Rivers influenced to differing degrees by mining. Additional samples were obtained from the Big River, a heavily contaminated stream in eastern Missouri, USA, and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and hemoglobin (Hb). Blood also was analyzed for delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The activity of ALA-D, an enzyme involved in heme synthesis, is inhibited by Pb. Concentrations of Fe and Hb were highly correlated (r = 0.89, p fish from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. The activity of ALA-D, but not concentrations of Hb or Fe, also differed significantly (p fish from mining-contaminated sites and greatest in reference fish, and was correlated negatively with Pb in most species. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) linear regression models that included negative terms for blood Pb explained as much as 68% of the total variation in ALA-D activity, but differences among taxa were highly evident. Positive correlations with Zn were documented in the combined data for channel catfish (Icralurus punctatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), as has been reported for other taxa, but not in bass (Micropterus spp.) or carp. In channel catfish, ALA-D activity appeared to be more sensitive to blood Pb than in the other species investigated (i.e., threshold concentrations for inhibition were lower). Such among-species differences are consistent with previous studies. Enzyme activity was inhibited by more than 50% relative to reference sites in channel catfish from several TSMD sites. Collectively, our results indicate that Pb is both bioavailable and active biochemically in the Spring

  17. The Hidden Costs of Soil Mining to Agricultural Sustainability in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Machakos District Eastern Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onduru, D.D.; Jager, de A.; Gachini, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Soil nutrient budget studies are increasingly becoming important in determining the magnitude of nutrient mining in sub-Saharan Africa and its impacts on food production. A study of farms practicing low external input agriculture (LEIA) and conventional farming practices was made with regards to soi

  18. Soil Erosion Assessment of The Post-Coal Mining Site in Kutai Kartanagera District, East Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zulkarnain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Besides of its positive economic impact, mining activity has negative impacts to the sustainability of community development and livelihoods as mining reclamation can’t restore the land condition to its original state. The objective of this study was to determine the main factor that caused soil erosion induced in post-coal mining and defined reclamation activity that caused soil erosion. The observed parameters were site reclamation age of each companies, soil physical properties (density, texture, permeability, organic material and soil structure, rainfall rate, soil chemical properties, land cover and age of re-vegetation, plant cover. Analysis was carried out to determine the magnitude of erosion at each site unit, tolerable erosion and potential erosion level. Adequate reclamation action with good vegetative cover could be seen from erosion magnitude at five year reclamation age i.e. 1.7 ton/ha/ year- which lower than tolerable erosion i.e. 5.4 ton/ha/year. While inadequate reclamation action could be seen from erosion magnitude at nine year age of reclamation i.e. 201.1 ton/ha/year1 which higher than tolerable erosion i.e. 15.1 ton/ha/ year1. The erosion magnitude at the four month of reclamation age was 4.966,3 ton/ha with tolerable erosion was 5.3 ton/ha. The erosion magnitude that occurs in post-mining site was due to soil compaction that lowering soil permeability rate leading to slow growing of cover crop. This condition made the soil wasn’t covered from raindrop and water run-off.  In order to improve the soil condition of post-mining site into productive land, legume cover crop was recommended to be planted.

  19. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of deep groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer of the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Li; Peng, Wei-Hua; Gui, He-Rong

    2016-04-01

    There is little information available about the hydrochemical characteristics of deep groundwater in the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China. In this study, we report information about the physicochemical parameters, major ions, and heavy metals of 17 groundwater samples that were collected from the coal-bearing aquifer. The results show that the concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and potassium and sodium (K(+) + Na(+)) in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Chinese National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749-2006). The groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer was dominated by the HCO3·Cl-K + Na and HCO3·SO4-K + Na types. Analysis with a Gibbs plot suggested that the major ion chemistry of the groundwater was primarily controlled by weathering of rocks and that the coal-bearing aquifer in the Linhuan coal-mining district was a relatively closed system. K(+) and Na(+) originated from halite and silicate weathering reactions, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) originated from the dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum or anhydrite. Ion exchange reactions also had an influence on the formation of major ions in groundwater. The concentrations of selected heavy metals decreased in the order Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb. In general, the heavy metal concentrations were low; however, the Cr, Mn, and Ni concentrations in some of the groundwater samples exceeded the standards outlined by the WHO, the GB 5749-2006, and the Chinese National Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93). Analysis by various indices (% Na, SAR, and EC), a USSL diagram, and a Wilcox diagram showed that both the salinity and alkalinity of the groundwater were high, such that the groundwater could not be used for irrigating agricultural land without treatment. These results will be significant for water resource exploiting and utilization in

  20. Epithermal mineralization controlled by synextensional magmatism in the Guazapares Mining District of the Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Bryan P.; Busby, Cathy J.

    2015-03-01

    We show here that epithermal mineralization in the Guazapares Mining District is closely related to extensional deformation and magmatism during the mid-Cenozoic ignimbrite flare-up of the Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province, Mexico. Three Late Oligocene-Early Miocene synextensional formations are identified by detailed volcanic lithofacies mapping in the study area: (1) ca. 27.5 Ma Parajes formation, composed of silicic outflow ignimbrite sheets; (2) ca. 27-24.5 Ma Témoris formation, consisting primarily of locally erupted mafic-intermediate composition lavas and interbedded fluvial and debris flow deposits; (3) ca. 24.5-23 Ma Sierra Guazapares formation, composed of silicic vent to proximal ignimbrites, lavas, subvolcanic intrusions, and volcaniclastic deposits. Epithermal low-to intermediate-sulfidation, gold-silver-lead-zinc vein and breccia mineralization appears to be associated with emplacement of Sierra Guazapares formation rhyolite plugs and is favored where pre-to-synvolcanic extensional structures are in close association with these hypabyssal intrusions. Several resource areas in the Guazapares Mining District are located along the easternmost strands of the Guazapares Fault Zone, a NNW-trending normal fault system that hosts most of the epithermal mineralization in the mining district. This study describes the geology that underlies three of these areas, which are, from north to south: (1) The Monte Cristo resource area, which is underlain primarily by Sierra Guazapares formation rhyolite dome collapse breccia, lapilli-tuffs, and fluvially reworked tuffs that interfinger with lacustrine sedimentary rocks in a synvolcanic half-graben bounded by the Sangre de Cristo Fault. Deposition in the hanging wall of this half-graben was concurrent with the development of a rhyolite lava dome-hypabyssal intrusion complex in the footwall; mineralization is concentrated in the high-silica rhyolite intrusions in the footwall and along the

  1. 邯邢矿区大采深高承压水矿井防治水难点及对策%The difficulties and countermeasures of water inrush prevention of mine with deep mining depth and high pressure water in Handan-Xingtai mine district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春芳

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at some water inrush accidents happened in Handan-Xingtai mine district in recent years,the features of water inrush from the Ordovician limestone of the floor were sys-tematically analyzed. Combining with the example of water inrush,the disaster causing key fac-tors of water inrush from the Ordovician limestone of the floor for the coal mine with deep mining depth and high pressure water were deeply analyzed,and its prevention difficulties were system-atically elaborated,the targeted countermeasures of water inrush prevention that were advanced treatment of surface Ordovician area were proposed,which changed the treatment of one face to the treatment of one mining district or one level. The treatment targeted layer was changed from thin limestone to the top of aquifer in Ordovician limestone. The treatment was changed from a-head of mining to ahead of advancing in order to eliminate the geological faults of top of Ordovi-cian limestone from the source of water inrush and ensure the safety mining,which had a direc-ting significance for the coal mine with deep mining depth and high pressure water.%近年来针对邯邢矿区的一些突水事故,对底板奥灰突水特征进行了系统分析。结合突水实例,对大采深高承压水矿井底板奥灰突水致灾关键因素进行了深入剖析,系统地阐述了深部煤层开采底板奥灰水防治所面临的难题,针对性地提出了地面奥灰区域超前治理的防治水对策,变一面一治理为一个采区或一个水平进行治理;将治理目标层由薄层灰岩变为奥灰含水层顶部;变采前治理为掘前治理,目的在于从突水根源上消除奥灰岩顶部存在的地质缺陷,达到深部矿井安全开采的防治水目的,对大采深高承压水矿井防治奥灰水害具有重要的指导意义。

  2. A preliminary combined geochemical and rock-magnetic study of tailings of non-magnetic ores from Tlalpujahua-El Oro mining districts, Michoacán and Estado de México States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J.; Hernández-Bernal, M.; Corona-Chávez, P.

    2013-05-01

    Mining activities in Mexico have been continuously developed since 1550. Since then several thousands of million tons of waste produced as a result of the mining activity have been accumulated and scattered throughout the territory. These wastes can contain minerals with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, which show a distribution and mobility in the environment according to the chemical species in which are hosted. The Tlalpujahua - El Oro mining district (TOMD) concentrates an impressive number of mines and historical tailings. Due to their in-slope hydrographic position, the mining activities increase the risk of generating anthropogenic effluent that could contribute with a certain amount of mine-water with high contents of PTEs. Although magnetic methods have been widely applied to pollution studies of regions with high anthropogenic impact, its application to tailings is scarce in spite of the several studies that document the environmental effects as a result of the mining waste. We present the results obtained by combined geochemical and rock-magnetic studies in these tailings. Similarly to the traditional EPTs vs SiO2 diagrams, EPTs vs Fe show good linear (inverse) correlation with most of these health-risk elements. Fe concentrations determined magnetically from room-temperature susceptibility measurements agrees with those obtained by traditionally geochemical methods.

  3. Concentrations, spatial distribution, and risk assessment of soil heavy metals in a Zn-Pb mine district in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianying; Zhang, Hailong; Li, Xiangping; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Gaosheng

    2016-07-01

    China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. Lead and zinc mining and smelting can release hazardous heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Zn, and As into soils, exerting health risks to human by chronic exposure. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As in soil samples collected from a Pb-Zn mining area with exploitation history of 60 years were investigated. Health risks of the heavy metals in soil were evaluated using US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommended method. A geo-statistical technique (Kriging) was used for the interpolation of heavy metals pollution and Hazard Index (HI). The results indicated that the long-term Pb/Zn mining activities caused the serious pollution in the local soil. The concentrations of Cd, As, Pb, and Zn in topsoil were 40.3 ± 6.3, 103.7 ± 37.3, 3518.4 ± 896.1, and 10,413 ± 2973.2 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The spatial distribution of the four metals possessed similar patterns, with higher concentrations around Aayiken (AYK), Maseka (MSK), and Kuangshan (KS) area and more rapidly dropped concentrations at upwind direction than those at downwind direction. The main pollutions of Cd and Zn were found in the upper 60 cm, the Pb was found in the upper 40 cm, and the As was in the upper 20 cm. The mobility of metals in soil profile of study area was classed as Cd > Zn ≫ Pb > As. Results indicated that there was a higher health risk (child higher than adult) in the study area. Pb contributed to the highest Hazard Quotient (57.0 ~ 73.9 %) for the Hazard Index. PMID:27315126

  4. ESTIMATION OF THE MINING – WORK IMPACT ON SOIL, WATER AND AIR OF MOLDOVA NOUĂ, DISTRICT CARAŞ-SEVERIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Beutura

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the mine explotation were made in a period when their impact on the environment was given less importance and the norms concerning environmental protection was relatively few. The result obtained in this study reveals that the greatest impact of the water and soil are the scatered powder from the spoil banks and the heavy metals some of th heavy metals, like Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd into the soil, exceeded the intervention threshold.If the air pollution is not important, the pollution of water was founded in the river Boşneag.

  5. Biostratigraphy and structure of paleozoic host rocks and their relationship to Carlin-type gold deposits in the Jerritt Canyon mining district, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S.G.; Armstrong, A.K.; Harris, A.G.; Oscarson, R.L.; Noble, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Jerritt Canyon mining district in the northern Independence Range, northern Nevada, contains multiple, nearly horizontal, thrust masses of platform carbonate rocks that are exposed in a series of north- to northeast-elongated, tectonic windows through rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Roberts Mountains allochthon was emplaced during the Late Devonian to Early Mississippian Antler orogeny. These thrust masses contain structurally and stratigraphically controlled Carlin-type gold deposits. The gold deposits are hosted in tectonically truncated units of the Silurian to Devonian Hanson Creek and Roberts Mountains Formations that lie within structural slices of an Eastern assemblage of Cambrian to Devonian carbonate rocks. In addition, these multiply thrust-faulted and folded host rocks are structurally interleaved with Mississippian siliciclastic rocks and are overlain structurally by Cambrian to Devonian siliciclastic units of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. All sedimentary rocks were involved in thrusting, high-angle faulting, and folding, and some of these events indicate substantial late Paleozoic and/or Mesozoic regional shortening. Early Pennsylvanian and late Eocene dikes also intrude the sedimentary rocks. These rocks all were uplifted into a northeast-trending range by subsequent late Cenozoic Basin and Range faulting. Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks flank part of the range. Pathways of hydrothermal fluid flow and locations of Carlin-type gold orebodies in the Jerritt Canyon mining district were controlled by structural and host-rock geometries within specific lithologies of the stacked thrust masses of Eastern assemblage rocks. The gold deposits are most common proximal to intersections of northeast-striking faults, northwest-striking dikes, and thrust planes that lie adjacent to permeable stratigraphic horizons. The host stratigraphic units include carbonate sequences that contained primary intercrystalline permeability, which

  6. Concentration, distribution, and translocation of mercury and methylmercury in mine-waste, sediment, soil, water, and fish collected near the Abbadia San Salvatore mercury mine, Monte Amiata district, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Gray, J.E.; Costagliola, P.; Vaselli, O.; Lattanzi, P.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and translocation of mercury (Hg) was studied in the Paglia River ecosystem, located downstream from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore mine (ASSM). The ASSM is part of the Monte Amiata Hg district, Southern Tuscany, Italy, which was one of the world’s largest Hg districts. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg were determined in mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), sediment, water, soil, and freshwater fish collected from the ASSM and the downstream Paglia River. Concentrations of Hg in calcine samples ranged from 25 to 1500 μg/g, all of which exceeded the industrial soil contamination level for Hg of 5 μg/g used in Italy. Stream and lake sediment samples collected downstream from the ASSM ranged in Hg concentration from 0.26 to 15 μg/g, of which more than 50% exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 μg/g, the concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Stream and lake sediment methyl-Hg concentrations showed a significant correlation with TOC indicating considerable methylation and potential bioavailability of Hg. Stream water contained Hg as high as 1400 ng/L, but only one water sample exceeded the 1000 ng/L drinking water Hg standard used in Italy. Concentrations of Hg were elevated in freshwater fish muscle samples and ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 μg/g (wet weight), averaged 0.84 μg/g, and 96% of these exceeded the 0.3 μg/g (methyl-Hg, wet weight) USEPA fish muscle standard recommended to protect human health. Analysis of fish muscle for methyl-Hg confirmed that > 90% of the Hg in these fish is methyl-Hg. Such highly elevated Hg concentrations in fish indicated active methylation, significant bioavailability, and uptake of Hg by fish in the Paglia River ecosystem. Methyl-Hg is highly toxic and the high Hg concentrations in these fish represent a potential pathway of Hg to the human food chain.

  7. The Laramide Mesa formation and the Ojo de Agua caldera, southeast of the Cananea copper mining district, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Miller, Robert J.; Woodbourne, Keith L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mesa Formation extends from Cananea, Mexico, southeast to the Sonora River and is the main host rock of Laramide porphyry copper deposits in the Cananea District and at the Alacran porphyry prospect to the east. The Mesa consists of two members-a lower andesite and an upper dacite. The lowest part of the dacite member is a crystal tuff about 100 m thick. This tuff is the outfall of a caldera centered near the village of Ojo de Agua, dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 65.8 Ma ?0.4. The Ojo de Agua Caldera is about 9 km in diameter and is filled by a light gray biotite dacite tuff with abundant flattened pumice fragments. The volume of the caldera is estimated to be 24 km3.

  8. PHYTOSOCIOLOGY OF INVASIVE ALIEN THEROPHYTIC FLORA OF PEDDAGATTU, THE PROPOSED SITE FOR URANIUM MINING IN NALGONDA DISTRICT, TELANGANA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. BALEESHWAR REDDY1*, V. HANUMANTHA RAO AND V. VASUDEVA RAO2

    2014-10-01

    The present investigation reflects the findings of invasive alien species and phytosociological attributes at Peddagattu (Lambapur, Nalgonda district, Telangana, India. Phytosociology studies on Invasive alien species were collected during 2010-2012. Of 30 species of taxa are belonging to 29 genera and 17 families. Compositae is the most dominant family representing   with 6 species (20% followed by Malvaceae 4 species (13%, Solanaceae 3 species (10%, Amaranthaceae  and Leguminaceae with 2 species (7% each. About 60% of these alien species were introduced from Tropical America followed by Tropical Africa (13%, and Trop. C. America (7%. Among the species, Tridax procumbens shows the highest IVI value (12.94 and followed by Cleome viscose (7.12, Waltheria indica (6.13 and Parthenium hysterophorus (5.57 and Typha angustata (5.22.

  9. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrabi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA in the Central Lut region, hosted porphyry and vein-type polymetallic mineralization. The GaleChah-Shurab mining district is located in NW of the IEMA. Volcanic and subvolcanic bodies in the area are composed of calc-alkaline porphyry quartz-latite, porphyry dacite and rhyodacite and hornblende-biotite andesite, equivalent to I-type granite. They emplaced in Tertiary and intruded the Jurassic shale, siltstone and limestone basement (Shemshak Fm. The faults, joints and fractures, are the main controls on the mineralization, in forms of disseminated, vein, veinlet and minor stockwork and brecciation type mineralization of Pb, Zn, Cu, Sb and trace elements. Vein and veinlet of Pb+Zn±Cu±Sb in the Gale-Chah abandoned mine accompanied by carbonate and silicic alterations in association with galena, sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, bournonite and tetrahedrite as the hypogene ore minerals and their supergene products including cerussite, covellite, digenite and second-generation colloidal pyrite. The Pb+Zn+Cu+Sb mineralization associated with sericitic and silicic alterations in the Shurab abandoned mine, is composed of two types of mineralization, veinlet and brecciation vein in the porphyry dacite boundaries with Jurassic shale and sandstones, and the disseminated and disseminated-veinlet mineralization which is hosted by the altered porphyry dacite and rhyodacite intrusive rocks. The mineral assemblages are galena, sphalerite, stibnite, As-bearing pyrite, chalcopyrite and tetrahedrite-tennantite complex hypogene-sulfide ore as a hypogene ore, and malachite, covellite, cerussite and melancoitic pyrite as a sulfide-oxide supergene ore. The Pb+Zn+Sb±As±Ag polymetallic occurrence is associated with sericitic, carbonate and chloritic alteration assemblage in the Chupan occurrence, in two forms, I vein, veinlet-stockwork (30m depth confined to fault structures and II disseminated-replacement (below 70m mainly

  10. Metals mobility in tailings coming from the mining district of Guanajuato, Mexico; Movilidad de metales en jales procedentes del distrito minero de Guanajuato, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos G, M.; Avelar, J.; Yamamoto, L.; Ramirez, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Departamento de Fisiologia y Farmacologia, Laboratorio de Estudios Ambientales, Av. Universidad No. 904, Ciudad Universitaria, 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Medel R, A.; Godinez, L.; Rodriguez, F. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Subdireccion de Investigacion, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfadila, 76703 Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Guerra, R., E-mail: frodriguez@cideteq.mx [Centro de Innovacion Aplicada en Tecnologias Competitivas, A. C., Direccion de Investigacion, Omega No. 201, Fracc. Industrial Delta, 37545 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of different tailings from the mining district of Guanajuato, Mexico were carried out, including a tailing from an abandoned dam 20 years ago, a dam in operation and another coming from the mixture of different companies. The three tailings presented alkaline conditions, normal salinity, aerobic environment with oxidative tendency, low humidity, very low capacity of cationic exchange, and absence of organic matter. These conditions restrict the metal mobility. The mineralogical analysis showed that the tailings contained mainly quartz, calcite and magnetite. Tailings coming from the mixture of different companies had greater total concentrations (mg/kg) of Mn (1042.8), Al (12919.8), Fe (23911.3), Cr (71.3), Pb (24.6) and Cu (19.8). The highest concentration of Zn was observed at the abandoned tailing (53.3 mg/kg). No significant concentrations of Cd and Hg were observed, although Pb (24.6 mg/kg) and Cr (71.4 mg/kg) were detected. Leaching tests indicated that metals cannot be leached in percentages higher than 0.1%, and so these tailings do not represent an environmental risk. The low leaching of metals in the studied tailings was consistent with the mineralogical and physicochemical prevailing conditions, the low acid drainage generation potential and the high degree of stability observed in the tests of metals fractionation. The mineralogical characteristics were determined by X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  11. 峰峰矿区地质特征及煤层气赋存%The geological characteristics and the coalbed methane accumulation in Fengfeng mine district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建平; 袁莉

    2001-01-01

    鼓山背斜是峰峰矿区的主控构造。鼓山背斜以西,断层发育,煤层埋藏较浅,地下水补、径、排条件良好,造成煤层气的逸散,煤层含气量低;鼓山背斜以东,地形相对较低,煤层呈单斜构造向深部倾伏,地下水补、径、排条件较差,煤层气得以保存和富集。%Gushan anticline is the main controlling structure in Fengfeng mine district. In the western part of Gushan anticline, faults develops, coal seams bury in small depth, ground water is in good conditions of supply, flow and drainage. As a result, the coalbed methane scattered and the gas content in coal seams is very low. But in the eastern part, the topography is lower, coal seams are in singe inclination and incline toward depths, ground water is in worse conditions of supply, flow and drainage, the coalbed methane is well preserved and the gas content is high.

  12. Comparison of Landsat Thematic Mapper and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer data for the Cuprite mining district, Esmeralda, and Nye counties, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierein-Young, Kathryn S.; Kruse, Fred A.

    Landsat TM images and Geophysical and Environmental Research Imaging Spectrometer (GERIS) data were analyzed for the Cuprite mining district and compared to available geologic and alteration maps of the area. The TM data, with 30 m resolution and 6 broadbands, allowed discrimination of general mineral groups. Clay minerals, playa deposits, and unaltered rocks were mapped as discrete spectral units using the TM data, but specific minerals were not determined, and definition of the individual alteration zones was not possible. The GERIS, with 15 m spatial resolution and 63 spectral bands, permitted construction of complete spectra and identification of specific minerals. Detailed spectra extracted from the images provided the ability to identify the minerals alunite, kaolinite, hematite, and buddingtonite by their spectral characteristics. The GERIS data show a roughly concentrically zoned hydrothermal system. The mineralogy mapped with the aircraft system conforms to previous field and multispectral image mapping. However, identification of individual minerals and spatial display of the dominant mineralogy add information that can be used to help determine the morphology and genetic origin of the hydrothermal system.

  13. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D.; Salvioli-Mariani, E.; Mattioli, M.; Menichetti, M.; Lottici, P. P.

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H 2O-NaCl-KCl-CO 2-CH 4, with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 °C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  14. Mercury species accumulation and trophic transfer in biological systems using the Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain) as a case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Ropero, M J; Rodríguez Fariñas, N; Mateo, R; Berzas Nevado, J J; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, R C

    2016-04-01

    The impact of mercury (Hg) pollution in the terrestrial environments and the terrestrial food chains including the impact on human food consumption is still greatly under-investigated. In particular, studies including Hg speciation and detoxification strategies in terrestrial animals are almost non-existing, but these are key information with important implications for human beings. Therefore, in this work, we report on Hg species (inorganic mercury, iHg, and monomethylmercury, MeHg) distribution among terrestrial animal tissues obtained from a real-world Hg exposure scenario (Almadén mining district, Spain). Thus, we studied Hg species (iHg and MeHg) and total selenium (Se) content in liver and kidney of red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 41) and wild boar (Sus scrofa; n = 16). Similar mercury species distribution was found for both red deer and wild boar. Major differences were found between tissues; thus, in kidney, iHg was clearly the predominant species (more than 81%), while in liver, the species distribution was less homogeneous with a percentage of MeHg up to 46% in some cases. Therefore, Hg accumulation and MeHg transfer were evident in terrestrial ecosystems. The interaction between total Se and Hg species has been evaluated by tissue and by animal species. Similar relationships were found in kidney for both Hg species in red deer and wild boar. However, in liver, there were differences between animals. The possible underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Coalbed methane resource of Jingcheng mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, H. [Shanxi Coal Field Research Institute, Taiyuan (China)

    2001-06-01

    Through researching a large quantity of data on the coalbed methane (CBM) resource in Jingcheng mining area, a scheme of CBM resource statistical division is put forward, which comprises 4 sections and 3 grades. According to this division scheme, the CBM resources in Daning district No.2 mine, Panzhuang district No.1 mine, and Panzhung district No.2 mine are calculated in detail. 4 tabs.

  16. Three-dimensional oxygen isotope imaging of convective fluid flow around the Big Bonanza, Comstock lode mining district, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, R.E.; Singleton, M.J.; Champion, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen isotope analyses of propylitized andesites from the Con Virginia and California mines allow construction of a detailed, three-dimensional image of the isotopic surfaces produced by the convective fluid flows that deposited the famous Big Bonanza orebody. On a set of intersecting maps and sections, the δ18O isopleths clearly show the intricate and conformable relationship of the orebody to a deep, ~500 m gyre of meteoric-hydrothermal fluid that circulated along and above the Comstock fault, near the contact of the Davidson Granodiorite. The core of this gyre (δ18O = 0 to 3.8‰) encompasses the bonanza and is almost totally surrounded by rocks having much lower δ18O values (–1.0 to –4.4‰). This deep gyre may represent a convective longitudinal roll superimposed on a large unicellular meteoric-hydrothermal system, producing a complex flow field with both radial and longitudinal components that is consistent with experimentally observed patterns of fluid convection in permeable media.

  17. Field experiences in the prevention of toxic effects for cyanide and mercury in the Mining District of Vetas-California, Santander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the mercury and their impact in the health acquired their maximum importance starting from the intoxications of Minamata and Niigata (Japan), because the children that were exposed to the methyl-mercury during their fetal development presented a neurological syndrome and they were born with cerebral paralysis. In Colombia according to the ministry of mines a pound of mercury is used by each pound of obtained gold what can give an idea of the quantity of waste that they take place and that directly they will contaminate the soil, the air and the water. Additionally, they use cyanide, of high to be able to toxic, for the separation process of the fraction of gold whose they discharge they also go to the hydraulic sources. In the human being the white organs of the mercury are the kidneys and the nervous system, causing deterioration that can arrive until the patient's death for renal inadequacy or moderate inability to severe for the caused neurological damages, and in the case of the cyanide whose dose lethal stocking is surpassed in several percentiles by the miners, that same lethality has made them to have him respect and that therefore, single cases accidentals (dogs that they drink water of the saturation tank), or of suicide in human, they have been reported with reference to this toxic that however, it is need to include in the activities of sensitization. In the Mining District of Vetas-California, Department of Santander, Colombia, exists around 25 mines that exploit the gold, there only are not plants, there are also miners handmade called barrileros y/o arrastreros whose benefit involves processes of having amalgamated in development of which it is highly possible the sharp and mainly chronic intoxication for mercury in the exposed population, but additionally in the population not directly related with the productive system because the mercury in its elementary state, or of inorganic salts or of mercurial organic, they can penetrate to the

  18. Concentration and spatial variability of mercury and other heavy metals in surface soil samples of periurban waste mine tailing along a transect in the Almadén mining district (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, P. Conde; Bellido, E.; Rubí, J. A. Martín; Ballesta, R. Jiménez

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the elements with increasing environmental significance. A total of 22 samples (soils, rocks and gels) were collected along a 6 km transect around the Valdeazogues River valley in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (Almadén, Spain). Samples were characterized by different soil types of depositional sequences associated with mining tailings, type and system tracts: 15 surface soil samples included in the transect; 3 of a Haploxerept soil profile developed on slates; 2 of quartzite and slates rocks (reference rocks in the area). Moreover, two of a gel substance (in the lower tract of the river). Soil samples were analyzed for Hg, Cu, Ni, Cr, V, Pb, Cd and As, as well as for organic matter, pH abrasion and calcium carbonate content. All samples were collected from the Almadén mining district. The level of occurrence of the elements (especially Hg) and the effect of some properties on its concentration distributions were investigated. The total mercury contents varied in the range 7,315-3.44 mg kg-1. The mean concentration of total mercury in soils and rocks was 477.03 mg kg-1dry mass. This value is very high compared to the regional background value of other areas. Only rarely is it higher than 1%: in one sample (7,315 mg kg-1) it was almost eight times in comparison with the affected zones, with a high value of 1,000 mg kg-1. Significant differences between samples were found in the total content of mercury. A large percentage of the samples registered detectable levels of V, Cr, Ni, Pb, As and Cu. Cd readings were below the detectable range for all samples tested. Cr mean concentration was 216.95 mg kg-1 (minimun concentration 86, maximun 358); V mean concentration was 119.09 mg kg-1 (minimun concentration 69, maximun 1,209); As mean concentration was 51.24 mg kg-1 (minimun 13.3 and maximun 319.4); Ni mean concentration was 45.64 mg kg-1 (minimun concentration 21.2 and maximun 125.6); Cu mean concentration was 33.25 mg kg-1 (minimun

  19. Finding Gold in Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Data-mining systems provide a variety of opportunities for school district personnel to streamline operations and focus on student achievement. This article describes the value of data mining for school personnel, finance departments, teacher evaluations, and in the classroom. It suggests that much could be learned about district practices if one…

  20. Autigenic and Anthropogenic Uranium in the Marine Sediments of the Gulf of California in Front of Santa Rosalia Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumiline, K.; Rodríguez-Figueroa, G.; Shumilin, E.; Sapozhnikov, D.

    2007-05-01

    To verify the possibilities of U enrichments in the marine sedimentary environment of the eastern sector of the central Gulf of Califoria (GC), eleven sediment cores were collected in front of the Santa Rosalia mining region, peninsula of Baja California. Uranium and some other trace element contents in sliced core layers, dried and homogenized, were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Average total U contents in sediments of five cores collected in the open GC in front of Santa Rosalía at sites with water depths from 265 m to 1030 m and in the Guaymas Basin with 2019 m, ranged from 1.36±0.26 mg kg-1 (Guaymas Basin) to 9.31±3.03 mg kg-1 (SR63 core, depth 630 m). To distinguish non-lithogenic U from the lithogenic one, the normalization of total U contents to the concentrations of Sc in the samples was used. That because this element is a reliable indicator of crustal materials, mainly aluminosilicates in the marine sediments. The relative contribution of non-lithogenic (authigenic) U varied from 49.8±3 % (Guaymas Basin) to 84.2±8.2 % (SR62 core) of the total U content in the sediments of the open central GC. Surprisingly, in three sediment cores from the coastal zone adjacent to the town of Santa Rosalía in water depth range 3-6 m very high concentrations of total U were found, ranging from 54.2±7.3 mg kg-1 (SR4 core) to 110±13 mg kg-1 (SR2 core) and exceeding not only U average abundance in the earth´s crust (2.7 mg kg-1), but also its levels found for SR62 core, as well as those reported for natural enrichments of U in suboxic-anoxic environments, e.g. at Mexico and Peru margin sites (3.04 mg kg-1 - 24.54 mg kg-1, McManus et al., 2006). The relative contribution of non-lithogenic U in the sediments of these three anomalous cores varied from 97.2±0.4 % (SR4 core) to 98.80.2 % (SR1 and SR2 cores) of their total U content. The sediments were also depleted in organic C (0.05 % - 0.18 %), which is not typical for marine solid phases

  1. Development of biological soil crusts and their influence on soil hydrology in the recultivation area of lignite open-cast mining district in Lower Lusatia (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spröte, R.; Veste, M.; Fischer, T.; Raab, T.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    Cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses and lichens are often the first colonizers of substrate and initial soil surfaces. They are an important factor of initial soil formation as they stabilize the substrate and decrease erosion processes. Biological soil crusts accumulate the initial soil organic matter and provide nitrogen fixation. Once settled, the crusts influence the soil water regime by delaying or limiting infiltration through enhanced water repellency. Aim of this study was to compare the influence of biological soil crusts on soil hydrology under conditions on various substrates and of different ages in recultivated areas of the open-cast mining district of Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, NE Germany) with various recultivation aims. In Brandenburg (NE Germany), where the climate is transitional between oceanic and continental and the summers are characterized by generally low of precipitation (mean annual rainfall 559 mm, mean annual temperature 9.3° C) open landscapes provide ideal conditions for biological soil crusts, e. g. on mobile sand dunes in former military training areas and in recultivation areas related to open-cast mining with initial soil development. Here biological soil crusts are commonly found (Spröte et al., 2010). At five study sites in recultivation areas with different reclamation approaches (natural development, pine reforestation, birch reforestation) we defined four types of biological soil crusts: i) cyanobacterial and green algae crusts on the soil surface with no vegetation where dominating sand grains were physically stabilized in their contact zones by this crust type (type 1), ii) cyanobacteria and green algae partially filled in the matrix pores and enmeshed sand grains between sparse vegetation cover (type 2), iii) biological soil crusts with mosses which covered most of the surface between the vegetation (type 3) and (iv) with soil lichens (type 4). We investigated the development of the amount of chlorophyll a which is an

  2. Contamination by mercury in air of the mining district of San Martin de Loba in Bolivar's Department, Colombia; Contaminacion por mercurio en aire del distrito minero de San Martin de loba en el Departamento de Bolivar, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero V, J.; Young C, F.; Caballero G, K., E-mail: jolivero@unicartagena.edu.co [Universidad de Cartagena, Facultad de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Grupo de Quimica Ambiental y Computacional, Calle de la Universidad 36-100, Cartagena de Indias (Colombia)

    2014-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal, considered a highly toxic pollutant. In its elemental state is volatile, making it easy to transport over long distances through the atmosphere, so that environmental pollution caused by it is a serious problem worldwide. Activities such as gold mining, where metallic Hg is used, have contributed with its global distribution, affecting ecosystems and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in air in gold mining areas in Southern Bolivar, particularly in the mining district of San Martin de Loba, in the municipalities of San Martin de Loba and Barranco de Loba (Mina Santa Cruz), Colombia. In situ analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, using a portable Ra-915 + Zeeman mercury analyzer. In Mina Santa Cruz, one of the most important gold mines in Colombia, concentrations of Hg in air ranged between 163.7 ± 6.6 and 40 455 ± 2154 mg/m{sup 3}, while in the urban area of San Martin de Loba varied from 223.6 ± 20.8 to 27 140 ± 212.5 ng/m{sup 3}. In those places where an amalgam burning process was taking place at the time of the measurements, Hg concentrations reached values of 40 455 ± 2154 ng/m{sup 3}. These data imply a severe occupational exposure to Hg for operators and citizens living in cities located near mines. Therefore, it is important to regulate and control the use of Hg in gold mining, avoiding a chronic impact of the metal on the health of people and the environment. (author)

  3. Petrochemistry of igneous rocks of the California-Vetas mining district, Santander, Colombia: Implications for northern Andean tectonics and porphyry Cu (-Mo, Au) metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissig, Thomas; Mantilla Figueroa, Luis Carlos; Hart, Craig J. R.

    2014-07-01

    Porphyry Mo and Cu mineralization in the California-Vetas mining district is contemporaneous with 10.9 to 8.4 Ma granodiorite porphyry stocks and overprinted by Au-Ag mineralization of epithermal affinity. Mineralization is hosted by Grenvillian aged paragneisses (Bucaramanga Gneiss of the Santander Massif) and late Triassic to early Jurassic granitic rocks. All intrusive rocks are high-K calc-alkaline. Late Triassic to early Jurassic rocks include peraluminous granites with more than 70 wt.% SiO2 as well as metaluminous diorites, tonalites and granodiorites with SiO2 between 54.9 and 60.4 wt.%. Late Miocene rocks are weakly peraluminous granodiorite porphyries with SiO2 between 61 and 67 wt.% SiO2. Late Miocene rocks share some characteristics with adakite-like rocks which are widely associated with porphyry and epithermal style mineralization elsewhere in the Andes. They have high Ba (930 to 1500 ppm) and high Ba/La (28 to 50), high Sr (850 to 1100 ppm) and Sr/Y (48-78) and depleted middle rare earth elements (MREE) compared to the Mesozoic granites, which have 400 to 700 ppm Ba (Ba/La 14 to 25) and 80 to 150 ppm Sr (Sr/Y 2.5 to 14), and Mesozoic diorites and tonalites, which have ~ 900 to 1200 ppm Ba (Ba/La 20 to 32) and ~ 610 to 750 ppm Sr (Sr/Y 22 to 25). Miocene granodiorite porphyries, in contrast to Mesozoic intrusive rocks have only weak negative Eu anomalies. The Miocene rocks have 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.7052 to 0.7067 and εNd of - 1.9 to - 5.4 and are significantly more isotopically primitive than all other rocks in the study area including the Mesozoic diorites to tonalites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7082 and 0.7092; εNd = - 6.7 and - 7.2), granites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.730 (n = 2); εNd = - 8.2 and - 8.3) and Bucaramanga Gneiss (0.718 to 0.743; εNd = - 10.8 to - 14.1). Lead isotope data are broadly consistent with the Sr and Nd isotope data and the Miocene porphyries have the lowest 207Pb/204Pb ratios but overlap with the Mesozoic diorites to tonalites in their 206Pb

  4. Origin of intraformational folds in the Jurassic Todilto Limestone, Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district, McKinley and Valencia counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Todilto Limestone of Middle Jurassic age in the Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district of McKinley and Valencia Counties, New Mexico, is the host formation for numerous small- to medium-sized uranium deposits in joints, shear zones, and fractures within small- to large-scale intraformational folds. The folds probably were formed as a result of differential sediment loading when eolian sand dunes of the overlying Summerville Formation of Middle Jurassic age migrated over soft, chemically precipitated, lime muds of the Todilto shortly after their deposition in a regressive, mixed fresh and saline lacustrine or marine environment of deposition. Encroachment of Summerville eolian dunes over soft Todilto lime muds was apparently a local phenomenon and was restricted to postulated beltlike zones which trended radially across the Todilto coastline toward the receding body of water. Intraformational folding is believed to be confined to the pathways of individual eolian dunes or clusters of dunes within the dune belts. During the process of sediment loading by migrating sand dunes, layers of Todilto lime mud were differentially compacted, contorted, and dewatered, producing both small- and large-scale plastic deformation structures, including convolute laminations, mounds, rolls, folds, and small anticlines and synclines. With continued compaction and dewatering, the mud, in localized areas, reached a point of desaturation at which sediment plasticity was lost. Prolonged loading by overlying dune sands thus caused faulting, shearing, fracturing, and jointing of contorted limestone beds. These areas or zones of deformation within the limestone became the preferred sites of epigenetic uranium mineralization because of the induced transmissivity created by sediment rupture. Along most of the prograding Todilto coastline, adjacent to the eolian dune belts, both interdune and coastal sabkha environments dominated during Todilto-Summerville time. Sediments in coastal areas

  5. Assessment of mercury levels in different environmental matrices in communities impacted by artisanal gold mining in the Asutifi District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury (Hg) used in gold amalgamation is a major source of contamination in Ghana. Water, sediment and tailings samples from artisanal gold mining (AGM) sites in Kenyasi, Wuramumuso and Nkaseim in the Asutifi district were collected during the wet and the dry period of 2009 and 2010 respectively, and analyzed for total-Hg (T-Hg) using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentration in water samples collected in the wet period were all below detection (< 1.00 μg/L) while that of the dry period ranged from below detection to 11.22 μg/L. T -Hg in water in the wet period were all below the WHO permissible limit of 1.0 μg/L whereas about 85 % of the samples collected in the dry period had values above the WHO permissible limit. In the sediment, T-Hg in the dry period was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the wet period. T -Hg concentrations ranged from below detection limit (0.001 mg/kg) to 0.053 mg/kg (wet) and 0.233 to 8.564 mg/kg (dry) respectively. Likewise, in the tailings, T-Hg concentration ranged from 0.339 to 8.466 mg/kg for only dry period. The pollution status of mercury in sediment and tailings were evaluated by the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor. The average geoaccumulation index value indicated that sediments were practically uncontaminated (- 4.4) in the wet period but moderately contaminated (0.6) in the dry period while enrichment factor (ef) gave moderate to extremely high enrichment. In the case of tailings, average geoaccumulation index for mercury (0.5) denoted uncontaminated to moderately contaminated, while the EF indicated very high to extremely high enrichment. With regard to other trace metals, AGM seemed to have an impact on the ambient levels of As, Mn, Cu and Al as high levels were observed in sediment and tailings. The Pollution Load indices (< 1) however, suggested that the sites were not polluted. (au)

  6. Fractionation, distribution and transport of total mercury and Methylmercury in rivers and tributaries around Wanshan Hg mining district, Guizhou Province, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, X.; Zhang, H.; Larssen, T.; Vogt, R.; Rothenberg, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area in Guizhou, China, was one of the world's largest Hg producing regions. Numerous tailings containing mine quarry or calcines still remain, leaching Hg to local rivers and streams and potentially impacting the local population. This study focuses on the regional distribution and temporal variation of aqueous Hg fractions in the 5 main watercourses draining the Wanshan Hg mining and smelting area, covering more than 700 square kilometers. Highly elevated concentrations of total Hg in water samples were found slightly downstream from the Hg mine and smelter tailings, while concentrations decreased sharply to a level well below 50 ng L-1 (US EPA Hg concentration standard for protection of fresh water), within 6-8 km. Total Hg concentrations ranged from extremely high (up to 12 492 ng L-1) just below the calcine tailings, to near the detection level (1.9 ng L-1) in tributary streams. Total Hg levels were correlated with particulate Hg (R2 = 0.996-0.999, Pmethylmercury (MeHg) were inversely related to distance from Hg mine tailings (mine waste calcines), suggesting that mine waste calcines were an important source of both inorganic and MeHg to the downstream environment.

  7. Legislative Districts - Senate Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State Senate district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of Apportionment,...

  8. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  9. The feasibility of underground pumped storage plants in the active coal mines in the Ruhr district; Zur Machbarkeit untertaegiger Pumpspeicherwerke in den aktiven Steinkohlebergwerken des Ruhrreviers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Andre; Wortberg, Timo [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft; Eilert, Walter [RAG AG, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Standort- und Geodienste

    2013-08-15

    With the expiration of the coal mining in 2018, the mining is leaving an extensive infrastructure. Shaft depths of up to 1200 m, numerous linings at depth and a large area drainage open perspectives for subsequent use as a subsurface pump storage plant. This could be at the current mining locations a contribution to the energy storage problem. [German] Mit dem Auslaufen des Steinkohlenbaus im Jahre 2018 hinterlaesst der Bergbau eine umfangreiche Infrastruktur. Schachttiefen von bis zu 1200 m, zahlreiche Ausbauten in der Tiefe und eine grossraeumige Wasserhaltung eroeffnen gegebenfalls Perspektiven fuer eine Folgenutzung als untertaegiges Pumpspeicherwerk. Damit koennte an den heutigen Bergbauorten ein Beitrag zur Energiespeicherproblematik verfolgt werden.

  10. Winter bird assemblages, species richness and relative abundance at a re-vegetated coal mine in the Middelburg district, Mpumalanga province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, I.T.; Little, R.M.; Jansen, R.; Crowe, T.M. [University of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa). Dept. of Zoology

    2005-04-01

    Winter bird assemblages, species richness and relative abundance were investigated at six re-vegetated sites within the Middelburg Coal Mine (Mpumalanga, South Africa) and compared with those for a site thought to be representative of un-mined biotope within the nearby Witbank Nature Reserve. Age of site since initiation of re-vegetation had little or no apparent effect on richness or abundance. Adjacency to currently active mining and variation in current land management practices appeared to have much more profound effects. Sites surrounded by active mining had lower richness and abundance. Those with 40% or more land left as fallow and strips of un-mowed grass as well as artificial ponds had higher bird richness and abundance.

  11. Improvements mineral dressing and extraction processes of gold-silver ores from San Pedro Frio Mining District, Colombia; Mejora de los procesos de beneficio y extraccion de minerales auroargentiferos del asentamiento minero de San Pedro Frio, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez Traslavina, J. J.; Vargas Avila, M. A.; Garcia Paez, I. H.; Pedraza Rosas, J. E.

    2005-07-01

    The San Pedro Frio district mining, Colombia, is a rich region production gold-silver ores. Nowadays, the extraction processes used are amalgamation, percolation cyanidation and precipitation with zinc wood. Due to the ignorance of the ore characteristics, gold and silver treatment processes are inadequate and not efficient. In addition the inappropriate use of mercury and cyanide cause environmental contamination. In this research the ore characterization was carried out obtained fundamental parameters for the technical selection of more efficient gold and silver extraction processes. Experimental work was addressed to the study of both processes the agitation cyanidation and the adsorption on activated carbon in pulp. As a final result proposed a flowsheet to improve the precious metals recovery and reduce the environment contamination. (Author)

  12. Industrial and natural sources of gaseous elemental mercury in the Almadén district (Spain): An updated report on this issue after the ceasing of mining and metallurgical activities in 2003 and major land reclamation works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two events during the last decade had major environmental repercussions in Almadén town (Spain). First it was the ceasing of activities in the mercury mine and metallurgical facilities in 2003, and then the finalization of the restoration works on the main waste dump in 2008. The combination of both events brought about a dramatic drop in the emissions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) to the atmosphere. Although no one would now call the Almadén area as ‘mercury-free’, the GEM levels have fallen beneath international reference safety levels for the first time in centuries. This has been a major breakthrough because in less than one decade the site went from GEM levels in the order of “tens of thousands” to mere “tens” nanogram per cubic meter. Although these figures are per se a remarkable achievement, they do not mark the end of the environmental concerns in the Almadén district. Two other sites remain as potential environmental hazards. (1) The Las Cuevas mercury storage complex, a partially restored ex-mining site where liquid mercury is being stored. The MERSADE Project (LIFE—European Union) has tested the Las Cuevas complex as a potential site for the installation of a future European prototype safe deposit of surplus mercury from industrial activities. Despite restoration works carried out in 2004, the Las Cuevas complex can still be regarded as hotspot of mercury contamination, with high concentrations above 800 μg g−1 Hgsoil and 300 ng m−3 Hggas. However, as predicted by air contamination modeling using the ISC-AERMOD software, GEM concentrations fade away in a short distance following the formation of a NW–SE oriented narrow plume extending for a few hundred meters from the complex perimeter. (2) Far more dangerous from the human health perspective is the Almadenejos area, hosting the small Almadenejos village, the so-called Cerco de Almadenejos (CDA; an old metallurgical precinct), and the mines of La Nueva Concepción, La Vieja

  13. Airborne contamination of immature soil (Lusatian mining district) by lignite-derived materials: its detection and contribution to the soil organic matter budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large areas in eastern Germany have been subjected to substantial airborne contamination by fly ash, soot and lignite dust. The objective of the study was to detect the input of lignite-derived airborne contamination into forest soils and to examine the chemical and structural characteristics of the soil organic matter, consisting of natural humic material and lignite-derived carbon in reforested immature mine soils. The mine soil developed on sandy overburden material that was excavated in open-cast lignite mines and had been relocated and deposited at a spoil bank. Samples were taken from the forest floor (L, Oh), the humic surface horizon (Ai), and the parent substrate (Cv) of an immature mine soil under a 25-year-old red oak (Quercus rubra), situated close to a briquette factory. The conceptual approach includes analyses of bulk soil as well as particle-size fractions for C and N contents, magnetic susceptibility, radiocarbon age and chemical structure using 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. High magnetic susceptibility of the Oh and Ai horizon is the result of airborne contamination by lignite-derived ash. Fly ash contamination consisting of ferrimagnetic minerals contributes mainly to the < 20 μm fractions. In the Oh and Ai horizon, 44% and 46% of the C was found to be of anthropogenic origin. Structural information indicates that lignite-derived dust and/or soot are present in the coarse particle size fractions (6.3-200 μm). Anthropogenic C increased the C content as well as the contribution of alkyl and aromatic C species in the organic matter. 32 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Mesozoic magmatism and timing of epigenetic Pb-Zn-Ag mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska: Zircon U-Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinkoff, J.N.; Day, W.C.; Mortensen, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The Mesozoic magmatic history of the North American margin records the evolution from a more segmented assemblage of parautochthonous and allochthonous terranes to the more cohesive northern Cordilleran orogenic belt. We characterize the setting of magmatism, tectonism, and epigenetic mineralization in the western Fortymile mining district, east-central Alaska, where parautochthonous and allochthonous Paleozoic tectonic assemblages are juxtaposed, using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry, and feldspar Pb isotopes of Mesozoic intrusions and spatially associated mineral prospects. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages and published U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate four episodes of plutonism in the western Fortymile district: Late Triassic (216-208 Ma), Early Jurassic (199-181 Ma), mid-Cretaceous (112-94 Ma), and Late Cretaceous (70-66 Ma). All age groups have calc-alkalic arc compositions that became more evolved through time. Pb isotope compositions of feldspars from Late Triassic, Early Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous igneous rocks similarly became more radiogenic with time and are consistent with the magmas being mantle derived but extensively contaminated by upper crustal components with evolving Pb isotopic compositions. Feldspar Pb isotopes from mid-Cretaceous rocks have isotopic ratios that indicate magma derivation from upper crustal sources, probably thickened mid-Paleozoic basement. The origin of the mantle component in Late Cretaceous granitoids suggested by Pb isotopic ratios is uncertain, but we propose that it reflects asthenospheric upwelling following slab breakoff and sinking of an inactive inner subduction zone that delivered the previously accreted Wrangellia composite terrane to the North American continental margin, after the outer Farallon subduction zone was established.

  15. A comparison of the efficacy and ecosystem impact of residual-based and topsoil-based amendments for restoring historic mine tailings in the Tri-State mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sally, E-mail: slb@uw.edu [School of Forest and Environmental Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Mahoney, Michele; Sprenger, Mark [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Response Team, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A long-term research and demonstration site was established on Pb and Zn mine wastes in southwestern Missouri in 1999. Municipal biosolids and lime and composts were mixed into the wastes at different loading rates. The site was monitored intensively after establishment and again in 2012. A site restored with topsoil was also included in the 2012 sampling. Initial results including plant, earthworm and small mammal assays indicate that the bioaccessibility of metals had been significantly reduced as a result of amendment addition. The recent sampling showed that at higher loading rates, the residual mixtures have maintained a vegetative cover and are similar to the topsoil treatment based on nutrient availability and cycling and soil physical properties including bulk density and water holding capacity. The ecosystem implications of restoration with residuals versus mined topsoil were evaluated. Harvesting topsoil from nearby farms would require 1875 years to replace based on natural rates of soil formation. In contrast, diverting biosolids from combustion facilities (60% of biosolids generated in Missouri are incinerated) would result in greenhouse gas savings of close to 400 Mg CO{sub 2} per ha. - Highlights: • Plant yield and metal uptake over 12 years show efficacy of residuals. • Field small mammal trapping indicate minimal risk of attractive nuisance. • Physical properties and fertility of residuals are similar to topsoil. • Ecosystem costs of replacement topsoil show benefit of residuals.

  16. A comparison of the efficacy and ecosystem impact of residual-based and topsoil-based amendments for restoring historic mine tailings in the Tri-State mining district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A long-term research and demonstration site was established on Pb and Zn mine wastes in southwestern Missouri in 1999. Municipal biosolids and lime and composts were mixed into the wastes at different loading rates. The site was monitored intensively after establishment and again in 2012. A site restored with topsoil was also included in the 2012 sampling. Initial results including plant, earthworm and small mammal assays indicate that the bioaccessibility of metals had been significantly reduced as a result of amendment addition. The recent sampling showed that at higher loading rates, the residual mixtures have maintained a vegetative cover and are similar to the topsoil treatment based on nutrient availability and cycling and soil physical properties including bulk density and water holding capacity. The ecosystem implications of restoration with residuals versus mined topsoil were evaluated. Harvesting topsoil from nearby farms would require 1875 years to replace based on natural rates of soil formation. In contrast, diverting biosolids from combustion facilities (60% of biosolids generated in Missouri are incinerated) would result in greenhouse gas savings of close to 400 Mg CO2 per ha. - Highlights: • Plant yield and metal uptake over 12 years show efficacy of residuals. • Field small mammal trapping indicate minimal risk of attractive nuisance. • Physical properties and fertility of residuals are similar to topsoil. • Ecosystem costs of replacement topsoil show benefit of residuals

  17. A reinterpretation of the δDH2O of inclusion fluids in contemporaneous quartz and sphalerite, Creede mining district, Colorodo: a generic problem for shallow orebodies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Bethke, Philip M.; Rye, Robert O.

    1989-01-01

    Water extracted from fluid inclusions in quartz from shallow epithermal ore deposits often has a hydrogen isotope composition (δD) different from that of water extracted from inclusions in associated minerals. This difference is usually attributed to the involvement of primary fluids from multiple sources. Isotopic and homogenization and freezing temperature determinations on fluid inclusions from contemporaneous quartz and sphalerite from the epithermal, silver and base metal orebodies of the OH vein, Creede district, Colorado, suggest an alternative explanation. In near-surface deposits, differences between δDH2O of inclusion fluids in ore minerals and quartz may result, instead, from contamination during extraction of the fluids contained in primary inclusions by shallow ground water trapped in pseudosecondary inclusions in quartz.

  18. 基于力能分析的平煤五矿己四采区煤与瓦斯突出危险性预测%Outburst prediction in Ji 4# mining district in Pingdingshan No.5 mine based on force and energy analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明杰; 付帅; 田加加

    2014-01-01

    根据实测平煤五矿己15煤层瓦斯含量和压力结果,从力能角度分析了地应力、瓦斯和煤强度对煤与瓦斯突出的影响,发现己四采区己15煤层受地应力作用,煤体弹性潜能远大于瓦斯膨胀能,即以构造应力为主的地应力为其突出最主要的影响因素;结合己四采区地质因素和己15煤层瓦斯可解吸量,确定该采区煤与瓦斯突出危险区的下限指标为原煤瓦斯含量达到5.4 m3/t,绝对瓦斯压力为0.79 MPa,该下限指标对应的煤层底板标高为-600 m。因此预测-600 m标高以浅为无突出危险区,-600 m以深为突出危险区。%According to the prediction data of gas content and gas pressure of Ji 15# coal seam of Pingdingshan No.5 mine, from the view of force and energy, the influence of ground stress and gas as well as coal strength on coal and gas outburst is analyzed. It is found that under action of ground stress, elastic potential energy is much higher than gas expansion energy in the seam in Ji 4# mining district, i.e., ground stress mainly composed of tectonic stress is the major factor influencing outburst. In combination with the geological factors in the district and gas desorption of the seam, it is determined that the bottom index for coal and gas outburst risk area is gas content 5.4 m3/t in raw coal, or the absolute gas pressure is 0.79 MPa .The bottom index corresponds to the seam floor of elevation -600 m. Therefore the areas above-600 m do not have outburst risk and there exist outburst risk below -600 m. The study results guide effectively the gas control in the coal mine.

  19. Neogene geomorphic and climatic evolution of the central San Juan Mountains, Colorado: K/Ar age and stable isotope data on supergene alunite and jarosite from the Creede mining district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, Robert O.; Bethke, Philip M.; Lanphere, Marvin A.; Steven, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    K/Ar age determinations or supergene alunite and jarosite, formed during Neogene weathering of the epithermal silver and base-metal ores of the Creede mining district, have been combined with geologic evidence to estimate the timing of regional uplift of the southern Rocky Mountains and related canyon cutting. In addition, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic studies suggest climate changes in the central San Juan Mountains during the past 5 m.y. Alunite [ideally (K,Na)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6] and jarosite [ideally KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6] can be dated by K/Ar or 40Ar/39Ar techniques and both contain OH and SO4 sites that enable four stable isotope analyses (δD, δ18OOH, and δ34S) to be made. This supergene alunite and jarosite formed by weathering of sulfide-rich ore bodies may record the evolution of the chemical and hydrologic processes affecting ancient oxidized acid ground water, as well as details of climate history and geomorphic evolution. Fine-grained (1-10 μm) supergene alunite and jarosite occur in minor fractures in the upper, oxidized parts of the 25 Ma sulfide-bearing veins of the Creede mining district, and jarosite also occurs in adjacent oxidized Ag-bearing clastic sediments. K/Ar ages for alunite range from 4.8 to 3.1 Ma, and for jarosite range from 2.6 to 0.9 Ma. The δD values for alunite and jarosite show opposite correlations with elevation, and values for jarosite correlate with age. Calculated δDH2O values of alunite fluids approach but are larger than those of present-day meteoric water. Calculated δDH2O values for jarosite fluids are more variable; the values of the youngest jarosites are lowest and are similar to those of present-day meteoric water in the district. The narrow δD-δ18OSO4 values of alunites reflects oxidation of sulfide below the water table. The greater range in these values for jarosites reflects oxidation of sulfide under vadose conditions. The ages of alunite mark the position of the paleo-water table at the end of a period of moderate

  20. 采动影响下矿区深部地下水循环氢氧稳定同位素示踪%Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotope Tracing of Deep Groundwater Circulation under Mining-Induced Disturbance in Mining District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈陆望; 殷晓曦; 陈园平

    2013-01-01

    为了揭示开采扰动影响下深部地下水循环机制,准确预测井下开采充水类型,以淮北煤田宿-临矿区为研究示范,采用氢氧稳定同位素示踪技术,分析矿区地下水循环过程、补给来源,从而确定地下水混合的线性端元,进而开展地下水线性端元混合比例的计算.研究结果表明:在含水层补给区沿地下水径流方向δ值降低,在径流区或排泄区δ值较为恒定;矿区地下水混合的线性端元为大气降水直接入渗水、滞留入渗水以及古地下水;由于开采充水影响,矿区主要充水含水层线性端元混合比例相差较大.因此,只有通过确定地下水线性端元混合比例的动态变化趋势,才能推测煤矿开采进程中充水来源,为矿井突水预测预报与地下水资源保护提供理论依据.%In order to reveal the circulation mechanism of deep groundwater under mining-induced disturbance, thus accurately predict the type of water inrush,hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope tracing technique is adopted in this study in Su-Lin Mining District in Huaibei coalfield, to analyze the circulation process and recharge sources of groundwater in mining area,and to determine the groundwater mixing linear endmembers and calculate its mixing ratio. The research results show that: the value of d decreases along the groundwater flow direction in the aquifer recharge area, yet it is constant in runoff or discharge areas (the mixing linear endmembers in mining area are direct infiltration water of precipitation, retained infiltration water or palaeo-water; the mixing ratio of linear endmembers is quite different because of mining-induced disturbance and water inrush. Therefore, only when the dynamic change trend has been determined, the water inrush source during mining can be well speculated. Finally, the theoretical basis for the prediction of mine water inrush and the protection of groundwater resource can be provided.

  1. Extractive Industries and Local Development in the Peruvian Highlands: Socio-Economic Impacts of the Mid-1990s Mining Boom

    OpenAIRE

    Ticci, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Since the late Nineties, the mining sector in Peru has been experiencing a protracted period of rapid growth. This paper investigates local impacts of the mining boom on migration, on access to basic services, on labour market and on occupational distribution across sectors. By applying propensity score matching technique, mining and non-mining districts are compared. The results show that recent mining expansion has encouraged migration inflows to mining districts and affected the sectoral c...

  2. Extractive Industries and Local Development in the Peruvian Highlands: Socio-Economic Impacts of the Mid-1990s Mining Boom

    OpenAIRE

    Ticci, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Since the late Nineties, the mining sector in Peru has been experiencing a protracted period of rapid growth. This paper investigates local impacts of the mining boom on migration, on access to basic services, on labour market and on occupational distribution across sectors. By applying propensity score matching technique, mining and non-mining districts are compared. The results show that recent mining expansion has encouraged migration inflows to mining districts and affected th...

  3. 新疆阜康矿区煤的吸附孔分形特征试验研究∗%The experimental study on the fractal characteristics of coal adsorbed pore in Fukang mining district of Xinj iang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海飞; 程博; 曾强; 严敏; 张超

    2016-01-01

    为研究新疆阜康矿区煤的吸附孔分形特征,进行了低温氮吸附试验,采用BET模型和BJ H 模型计算得到煤的孔隙比表面积及体积,应用 FH H 模型计算煤的孔隙分形维数,分析了分形维数与煤质参数及孔隙参数关系.试验结果表明:阜康矿区煤的孔隙A=D-3在研究尺度范围内分形特征明显,分形维数为2.25045~2.56277;煤的孔隙分形维数与水分呈负相关关系,与灰分呈正相关关系,与固定碳含量呈二次函数关系,与挥发分关系不明显;分形维数与孔隙直径为负相关关系,与孔隙比表面积、孔隙体积呈正相关关系;分形维数与中孔比表面积及体积占比呈负相关关系,与微孔和过渡孔体积占比呈正相关性,但与两者比表面积占比无明显关系.%to study the fractal characteristics of coal adsorbed pore in Fukang mining district of Xinjiang,the experiments of adsorbed with nitrogen at low temperature were carried out,the coal pore specific surface area and volume were calculated by employing the BET and BJ H model, the coal pore fractal dimension was calculated by adopting the FH H model,the relationships of fractal dimension and the parameters of coal quality and pore were analyzed. The experimental results show that the fractal characteristics of coal pore of Fukang mining district are very obvi-ous within the scope of study,the fractal dimension is 2.25045 to 2.56277;the fractal dimension of coal pore is negatively correlated with moisture content and positively correlated with ash con-tent,it exhibits an impact of quadratic relationship on the fixed carbon content,the relationship of fractal dimension and volatile matter is not obvious;the fractal dimension of coal pore is nega-tively correlated with pore diameter and positively correlated with pore specific surface area and volume;the fractal dimension of coal pore is negatively correlated with the mescopore ratios in pore specific

  4. Applicability of geostatistical procedures for the evaluation of hydrogeological parameters of a fractured aquifer in the Ronneburg mine district; Anwendbarkeit geostatistischer Verfahren zur Beurteilung hydrogeologischer Parameter eines heterogenen Kluftaquifers im Ronneburger Bergbaurevier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasshoff, C.; Schetelig, K. [RWTH Aachen, Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie (Germany); Tomschi, H. [Harress Pickel Consult GmbH, Huerth (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The following paper demonstrates, how a geostatistical approach can help interpolating hydrogeological parameters over a certain area. The basic elements developed by G. Matheron in the sixties are represented as the preconditions and assumptions, which provide the best results of the estimation. The variogram as the most important tool in geostatistics offers the opportunity to describe the correlating behaviour of a regionalized variable. Some kriging procedures are briefly introduced, which provide under varying circumstances estimating of non-measured values with the theoretical variogram-model. In the Ronneburg mine district 108 screened drill-holes could provide coefficients of hydraulic conductivity. These were interpolated with ordinary kriging over the whole investigation area. An error calculation was performed, which could prove the accuracy of the estimation. Short prospects point out some difficulties handling with geostatistic procedures and make suggestions for further investigations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der folgende Artikel soll aufzeigen, inwiefern ein geostatistischer Ansatz hilfreich ist, um hydrogeologische Parameter flaechenhaft zu interpolieren. Dabei werden die von Matheron in den sechziger Jahren entwickelten Grundlagen vorgestellt und die Voraussetzungen definiert, unter denen die geostatistischen Schaetzmethoden die besten Ergebnisse liefern. Das Variogramm, als wichtigstes Werkzeug, bietet die Moeglichkeit, die raeumliche Korrelation der untersuchten Variable zu belegen. Mehrere Kriging-Verfahren werden skizzenhaft vorgestellt, die es unter unterschiedlichen Voraussetzungen ermoeglichen, an den Stellen des Untersuchungsgebietes, wo keine Messungen vorliegen, Schaetzungen aus dem Variogramm-Modell zu errechnen. Im Ronneburger Bergbaugebiet wurden aus 108 verfilterten Bohrungen k{sub f}-Werte gewonnen, die mittels Ordinary Kriging flaechenhaft ueber das gesamte Untersuchungsgebiet interpoliert wurden. Eine Fehlerabschaetzung gibt ueber die

  5. Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...

  6. Use of short-term (5-Minute) and long-term (18-Hour) leaching tests to characterize, fingerprint, and rank mine-waste material from historical mines in the Deer Creek, Snake River, and Clear Creek Watersheds in and around the Montezuma Mining District, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation-induced runoff from historical mine-waste located adjacent to the headwaters of the Snake River, Deer Creek, Saints John Creek, Grizzly Gulch, Stevens Gulch, and Leavenworth Creek contributes to the degradation of water quality in these streams. Because historical mine-waste piles have had long-term exposure to the atmosphere, it is surmised that runoff from these piles, induced by meteorological events such as cloudbursts and snowmelt, may cause mobility of acid and metals into a watershed due to dissolution of soluble minerals. For this study, 13 mine-waste composite samples from various mine-wastes in these drainage basins were leached using both a short-term and a long-term leach test. Analytical results from this combination of leach tests are tools that allow the investigator to quantify (fingerprint) which geochemical components could be expected in runoff from these piles if they were leached by a cloudburst (5-minute leach test), as well as what the ?worst-case? geochemical profile would look like if the material were subject to extended leaching and breakdown of the mine-waste material (18-hour leach test). Also, this combination of leach tests allows the geoscientist the ability to see geochemical changes in the mine-waste leachate over time. That is, does the leachate become more or less acidic over time; does the specific conductance increase or decrease; and are there changes in the concentrations of major or trace elements? Further, use of a ranking scheme described herein will aid in prediction of which historical mine-waste piles have the greatest potential for impact on a watershed should runoff occur. Because of long-term weathering of these historical mine-waste piles, geochemical profiles, leachate time-trends, and relative ranking of the mine-wastes produced from analysis of the leachates are Hageman_SIR_2508.doc 1 7/21/2004 2:50 PM indicative of how the mine-waste piles can be expected to act in the environment and may help to

  7. Aspects of surface and environment protection in German mining areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FRANK Otto

    2009-01-01

    Hard coal mining in the German Ruhr district has a tradition of more than 200 years. Starting in the south near the river Ruhr with mining of seams near to the surface, mining wandered to the north with coal seams deeper and deeper. In the same way all environmental effects of mining wandered from south to north, as there are abandoned mining sites, contaminated areas, burning mining dumps, subsided areas and gas accesses at day ground. This all happened in a very high populated area with more than four million inhabitants. Therefore Germany has a long tradition in solving environmental problems of mining activities. The very good interaction of mine authority, mining companies and the mine workers' union is the main reason why the problems of decreasing mining activities in Germany were solved without economic, environmental or social hazards.

  8. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  9. Ciriottiite, Cu(Cu,Ag3Pb19(Sb,As22(As2S56, the Cu-Analogue of Sterryite from the Tavagnasco Mining District, Piedmont, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bindi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The new mineral species ciriottiite, ideally Cu(Cu,Ag3Pb19(Sb,As22(As2S56 has been discovered in the Tavagnasco mining district, Piedmont, Italy, as very rare black metallic tubular crystals, up to 150 μm in length, associated with Bi sulfosalts and arsenopyrite. Its Vickers hardness (VHN10 is 203 kg/mm2 (range 190–219. In reflected light, ciriottiite is light grey in color, distinctly anisotropic with brownish to greenish rotation tints. Internal reflections are absent. Reflectance values for the four COM wavelengths (Rmin, Rmax (% (λ in nm are: 33.2, 37.8 (471.1; 31.8, 35.3 (548.3, 31.0, 34.7 (586.6; and 27.9, 32.5 (652.3. Electron microprobe analysis gave (in wt %, average of 5 spot analyses: Cu 2.33 (8, Ag 0.53 (5, Hg 0.98 (6, Tl 0.78 (3, Pb 44.06 (14, As 4.66 (7, Sb 23.90 (10, Bi 1.75 (7, total 99.38 (26. On the basis of 56 S atoms per formula unit, the chemical formula of ciriottiite is Cu3.23(11Ag0.43(4Hg0.43(2Pb18.74(9Tl0.34(1Sb17.30(5As5.48(10Bi0.74(3S56. The main diffraction lines, corresponding to multiple hkl indices, are (d in Å (relative visual intensity: 4.09 (m, 3.91 (m, 3.63 (vs, 3.57 (m, 3.22 (m, 2.80 (mw, 2.07 (s. The crystal structure study revealed ciriottiite to be monoclinic, space group P21/n, with unit-cell parameters a = 8.178 (2, b = 28.223 (6, c = 42.452 (5 Å, β = 93.55 (2°, V = 9779.5 (5 Å3, Z = 4. The crystal structure was refined to a final R1 = 0.118 for 21304 observed reflections. Ciriottiite is the Cu analogue of sterryite and can be described as an expanded derivative of owyheeite. The name ciriottiite honors Marco Ernesto Ciriotti (b. 1945 for his longstanding contribution to mineral systematics.

  10. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater seepage into an acidic mining lake

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Hilmar; Lessmann, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    In the Lusatian Lignite Mining District 259 mining lakes (ML) are originating from abandoned mines. They show significant differences in their morphometry and are mostly strong acidic (HEMM et al. 2002). The oxidation of sedimentary pyrite in aerated dump sediments (tertiary sands) forms acid mine drainage rich in iron and sulphate which is still present after filling the pit and has decisive influence on matter flux, biocoenotic development and possible uses, e.g. recreation or water supply ...

  11. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  12. Paleoproterozoic (~1.88Ga felsic volcanism of the Iricoumé Group in the Pitinga Mining District area, Amazonian Craton, Brazil: insights in ancient volcanic processes from field and petrologic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pierosan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iricoumé Group correspond to the most expressive Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the Guyana Shield, Amazonian craton. The volcanics are coeval with Mapuera granitoids, and belong to the Uatumã magmatism. They have U-Pb ages around 1880 Ma, and geochemical signatures of α-type magmas. Iricoumé volcanics consist of porphyritic trachyte to rhyolite, associated to crystal-rich ignimbrites and co-ignimbritic fall tuffs and surges. The amount and morphology of phenocrysts can be useful to distinguish lava (flow and dome from hypabyssal units. The morphology of ignimbrite crystals allows the distinction between effusive units and ignimbrite, when pyroclasts are obliterated. Co-ignimbritic tuffs are massive, and some show stratifications that suggest deposition by current traction flow. Zircon and apatite saturation temperatures vary from 799°C to 980°C, are in agreement with most temperatures of α-type melts and can be interpreted as minimum liquidus temperature. The viscosities estimation for rhyolitic and trachytic compositions yield values close to experimentally determined melts, and show a typical exponential decay with water addition. The emplacement of Iricoumé volcanics and part of Mapuera granitoids was controlled by ring-faults in an intracratonic environment. A genesis related to the caldera complex setting can be assumed for the Iricoumé-Mapuera volcano-plutonic association in the Pitinga Mining District.O Grupo Iricoumé corresponde ao mais expressivo vulcanismo Paleoproterozóico do Escudo das Guianas, craton Amazônico. As rochas vulcânicas são coexistentes com os granitóides Mapuera, e pertencem ao magmatismo Uatumã. Possuem idades U-Pb em torno 1888 Ma, e assinaturas geoquímicas de magmas tipo-A. As vulcânicas do Iricoumé consistem de traquitos a riolitos porfiríticos, associados a ignimbritos ricos em cristal e tufos co-ignimbríticos de queda e surge. A quantidade e a morfologia dos fenocristais podem ser

  13. Niveles de exposición de yacimientos del distrito minero Agua de Dionisio (YMAD, Catamarca Exposures levels of the deposits of the Agua de Dionisio (YMAD mining district, Catamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Gutiérrez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Los yacimientos del distrito minero Agua de Dionisio quedaron al descubierto por el desplome y erosión del Complejo Volcánico Farallón Negro. El nivel de emplazamiento y procesos morfotectónicos posteriores son, entre otros, los factores que determinaron el nivel de exposición de cada yacimiento. De acuerdo al nivel de exposición, en las rocas de superficie están presentes elementos químicos representativos de la zonación vertical u horizontal del sistema hidrotermal. Se estudia el nivel de exposición de algunos yacimientos a partir del tratamiento geoestadístico de elementos químicos obtenidos de muestras de rocas de superficie. En el nivel de exposición del yacimiento epitermal Alto de la Blenda están presentes elementos característicos de la zona de sulfosales y otros de la zona de sulfuros del sistema epitermal. En el yacimiento epitermal Farallón Negro los elementos asociados se corresponden con la zona intermedia (sulfuros-sulfosales del sistema. En los yacimientos tipo pórfidos de cobre La Alumbrera y Las Pampitas los grupos de elementos determinados son representativos de la zona propilítica y de la zona sericítica-potásica de un sistema tipo pórfido de cobre. En el yacimiento El Durazno los grupos de elementos representan la zona de alteración sericítica-potásica y otros la zona propilítica de un sistema tipo pórfido de cobre. En la zona de Agua Tapada las muestras representan a prospectos epitermales y tipo pórfido de cobre; los grupos de elementos son representativos de la zona de sulfuros-sulfosales del sistema epitermal y no se logra diferenciar entre un sistema epitermal y otro tipo pórfido de cobre.Deposits from the Agua de Dionisio mining district were uncovered by the collapse and erosion of the Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex. Site level and later morphotectonic processes are, among other, factors that determine the exposure level of each deposit. According to the exposure level, chemical elements

  14. Application of transient electromagnetic method in mine hydrology geophysical of Wuhai district%瞬变电磁法在乌海地区煤矿水文物探中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王施智; 刘江宾; 王一凡

    2012-01-01

    介绍了为查清煤矿生产中影响煤矿安全生产的水文地质条件,在乌海地区采用瞬变电磁法进行矿区水文地质勘查;结论表明,瞬变电磁在勘查矿区水文地质方面,解释精度高,成果较可靠,地质效果明显。%In order to investigate mine hydrogeology conditions that affecting the coal mine safety production, the mine hydrogeology investigation was carried out by using transient electromagnetic method. The results show that the transient electromagnetic method has high interpretation accuracy and reliable achievement in mine hydrogeology investigation.

  15. Zircon U-Pb Dating of the Lamprophyre in the Xikuangshan Mining District, Central Hunan and its Geological Implications%湘中锡矿山矿区煌斑岩中捕获锆石U-Pb定年及其地质意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建堂; 胡阿香; 张龙升; 雷文艳; 阳杰华; 林芳梅

    2014-01-01

    The giant Xikuangshan deposit, located in the Xiangzhong Basin, Central Hunan, is the largest antimony deposit in the world. In spite of numerous detailed geological investigations and geochemical researches have been carried out, the sources and tectonic background of the giant ore deposit is unclear. The lamprophyre dyke occurring in the eastern part of the mining district probably can shed light on these issues. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb isotopic dating has been conducted on zircon grains collected from the lamprophyre dyke in the Xikuangshan mining district. The zircon grains are usually subhedral or sub-rounded, and exhibit typical oscillatory or sector zoning under cathodoluminescence. Both its the morphology and geochemical signatures (Th/U ratio and REE chondrite-normalized distribution pattern) of these zircon grains reveals that they are predominately of magmatic origin, and were probably captured from the wall rocks during magma ascending. The zircon U-Pb ages mainly vary in the range of 830 Ma to 800 Ma, which coincide well with the ages of the Neoproterozoic Lengjiaxi Group and Banxi Group occurred in the adjacent Xufeng Range, implying the possible existence of underlying Precambrian clastic basement in the Xiangzhong Basin. The inferred Precambrian basement lays foundation for the further understanding for tracing the ore-forming metal of the giant Xikuangshan deposit and determining the tectonic nature of the Xiangzhong Basin. The Neoproterozoic basement underlying in the Xiangzhong Basin might have provided Sb for the giant ore accumulation in the Xikuangshan mining district. Tectonically, the Xiangzhong Basin should belong to the Yangtze Block rather than the Cathaysian Block as was previously considered. The lamprophyre in the Xikuangshan mining district formed under the geodynamic setting of crustal extension, and emplaced at a depth of at least 5 kilometers.%利用 LA-ICP-MS 技术,对湘中锡矿山煌斑岩中的锆石进行 U-Pb 同位素定年。研

  16. Graph mining

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Graph mining is the study of how to perform data mining and machine learning on data represented with graphs. One can distinguish between, on the one hand, transactional graph mining, where a database of separate, independent graphs is considered (such as databases of molecules and databases of images), and, on the other hand, large network analysis, where a single large network is considered (such as chemical interaction networks and concept networks).

  17. Coal mining in Saarland; Der Steinkohlenbergbau im Saarland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Ensdorf (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    In 2004, 6.194 million t of coal were produced in the Saar district. About 6.01 t were produced by DSK, the rest of 180,000 t by Bergwerksgesellschaft Merchweiler mbH, a small independent mining company working abandoned mines at near-surface level. With the set-up of Bergwerk Saar out of the former mines Warndt/Luisenthal and Ensdorf in early 2004, Deutsche Steinkohle Aktiengesellschaft set the pace for future coal mining in the Saar and now owns Germany's biggest coal mine. The results and projecting so far are optimistic for the future. (orig.)

  18. Coal mining in the Saar; Der Steinkohlenbergbau im Saarland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Ensdorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Early in 2004, the Deutsche Steinkohle Aktiengesellschaft set the pace for future coal mining in the Saar district by combining two mines, Warndt/Luisenthal and Ensdorf, into Bergwerk Saar, which is now Germany's biggest coal mine. The measures taken are described in detail in this contribution. Examples are presented of mining technologies, and improvements of the underground infrastructure by means of an optimized bunker and production concept are described. The Deutsche Steinkohle Aktiengesellschaft is optimistic about the future of Saar coal mining. (orig.)

  19. Application of a microseismic monitoring system in deep mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengxiang Yang; Zhouquan Luo; Guobin Hu; Xiaoming Liu

    2007-01-01

    A microseismic monitoring system was used in the Donggua Shan underground copper mine,and its application was introduced.The spacial distribution of the seismic event was monitored effectively during mining with this system.The distribution of the seismic intensity in different time periods and in the different mining districts was obtained via the clustering analysis of the monitored results,and the different intensity concentration districts of seismicity were compartmentalized.The various characteristics and waveforms of different vibrations in the underground mine were revealed with the help of the micro-seismic monitoring system.It was proved that the construction and application of the micro-seismic monitoring system in the mine not only realized the continuous monitoring of seismicity in the deep mine,but also settled an important foundation for further studies on hazard prediction,based on this system.

  20. Mining`s global tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, B.; Grimstone, L.; MacBeth, A.

    1995-05-01

    Consists of an edited extract of the chapter `Mining Today, Australia`s Tomorrow - Exploration and Mining Globally to 2020` from the CSIRO book. `Challenge to change: Australia in 2020`. Forecasts the state of the Australian mineral industry in 2020 covering aspects such as: exploration concepts and area selection; excavation design and engineering; developments in mining technology and equipment; environmental management; and minerals processing. Presents an optimistic view of the long-term future of the Australian mining industry. Predicts that by 2020 Australia will emerge as the leader of an Austral/Asian trading bloc incorporating India, SE Asia, Pacific islands, Australia and New Zealand.

  1. 77 FR 39675 - Wallowa-Whitman National Forest, Baker County, OR; North Fork Burnt River Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... River Mining AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Correction--Notice of intent to prepare a supplement... changed to the Whitman District Ranger. This 2012 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision will replace and supercede the 2004 North Fork Burnt River Mining Record of Decision only where necessary...

  2. Analysis on Backfill Mining of “Under Three” Coal in Zhouyuanshan Mine and Strata Movement Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of "under three" (under railways, buildings and water bodies coal pillar mining, analysis on backfill mining and strata movement law is carried on in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine. First of all, according to the engineering geology and strata occurrence condition in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, FLAC2D software be used to establish a two-dimensional numerical model and to analyze and calculate the full caving method, strip method and backfill method and then gaining that backfill mining method is beneficial to improve the protection level of surface buildings and facilities. Then, using the theory of strata control and method of related mechanics to analyze the strata movement law and strata control principle of backfill mining, considering that supporting role of backfill body is mainly on lateral reinforcement of coal pillar and vertical supporting role of overlying strata, forming a cooperative control system of "bearing strata + coal pillar + backfill body" and deducing the equilibrium equations when it is in steady state. At last, using the numerical analysis method, respectively analyzing the surface subsidence of the corresponding important buildings of the three profiles of C-8 exploration line ,C-6 exploration line and A-A (cross section of the profile of C-8 exploration line after using backfill coal mining in 24 mining district. The results show that: the surface subsidence and horizontal deformation basically control within 30 mm and the surface deformation curvature of buildings generally in 0.1×10-3 /km in 24 mining district of Zhouyuanshan coal mine, which accord with the relevant standards and requirements.

  3. Occurrence and emplacement of chromite ores in Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Loveson, V.J.

    In the present study, the occurrence and emplacement of chromite ore deposits from two abandoned mines (Kankavali (Janoli) and Wagda) in the Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra, India are presented. These ores, that occurred as lenses...

  4. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.;

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  5. FROM DATA MINING TO BEHAVIOR MINING

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENGXIN CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge economy requires data mining be more goal-oriented so that more tangible results can be produced. This requirement implies that the semantics of the data should be incorporated into the mining process. Data mining is ready to deal with this challenge because recent developments in data mining have shown an increasing interest on mining of complex data (as exemplified by graph mining, text mining, etc.). By incorporating the relationships of the data along with the data itself (rathe...

  6. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  7. North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducummon, S.L. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

  8. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  9. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  10. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic...

  11. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  12. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  13. Texas Disaster Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A polygon shapefile of the 24 Disaster Districts in Texas. Disaster districts are emergency operation areas created by Executive Order from the Governor's Office....

  14. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  15. The application of modern surveying technology in mining survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jin-feng; SONG Wei-dong; ZHANG Ji-chao; ZHANG Dong-mei

    2008-01-01

    With the unceasing appearance and widespread application of new surveying technology, the present age mining survey has meet huge change. However, lots of problems occurred while using the new techniques since the number of mine is large in China and condition of the mine district is complex, it in some sense influenced the mine exploitation and management of China. Summarized the present situation of new technical application in mining survey, including the advanced instrumentation equipment, the "3S"technology, the information and the network technology and the information fusion technology and so on, and analyzed the problems which exists in the current mining survey, it also provided new ways to present age mining survey from the sustainable development angle.

  16. Application of the multi-scale wavelet analytical method: A case study of the Beiya iron-gold mining district in Yunnan%云南北衙铁金矿区小波多尺度分析综合解释方法应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾琴琴; 王永华; 杨剑

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of the depths of field sources and the determination of the planar distribution of field sources based on the model for the decomposition of magnetic anomalies, power spectrum analysis and abnormal amplitudes indicate the effectiveness of multi-scale wavelet analytical method on potential field separation. In this paper, the method is applied to analyze and interpret the magnetic anomalies in the Beiya iron-gold mining district, Heqing, Yunnan. The emphasis is placed on the calculation of the depths of field sources of each order details and 4th-order approximation on the basis of power spectrum analysis, and the determination of spatial distribution of magnetic sources inferred from the abnormal amplitudes at varying depths. The results in this study show that the orebodies are responsible for highly magnetic anomalies in the northern and western parts of the Beiya iron-gold mining district, and display the modification in occurrence at the medium-deep parts of it. The wide ranges of magnetic anomalies in the eastern part of it are caused by the Permian basalts. The results outlined above may inspire some new approaches to the further deep-seated exploration and development in the study area.%通过模型磁异常分解,结合功率谱分析及异常振幅计算场源深度并判断场源分布平面位置,表明小波多尺度分析在位场分离中的有效性.将该方法应用于北衙铁金矿区磁异常分析解释,通过功率谱分析估算了各阶细节及四阶逼近的场源深度,结合不同深度异常振幅推断了磁源空间展布关系特征.分析表明,区内北部和西部强磁异常主要由矿体引起,且矿体在中深部产状发生改变;而东部大范围磁异常区主要为二叠系玄武岩所致.

  17. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the us

  18. Trace element and stable isotope data from a flowstone in a natural cave of the mining district of SW Sardinia (Italy: evidence for Zn2+-induced aragonite precipitation in comparatively wet climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caddeo Guglielmo Angelo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A speleothem from Crovassa Azzurra, a mine cave in SW Sardinia (Italy, has been analysed for mineralogy, minor and traceelements and stable isotopes. It is composed of layers of primary calcite and aragonite, with a region of secondary calcite. The primarycarbonate is strikingly rich in Zn and Pb, presumably as the result of transport in solution from overlying Pb-Zn deposits. Immediatelybelow the transition between calcite and aragonite, concentrations of Zn, Cd and P increase. At the transition between aragonite andPb-rich aragonite, concentrations of Pb and P increase. Stable isotopes do not indicate an evolution toward drier periods for thesetwo transitions, conversely to what is normally observed in calcite-aragonite speleothems. On the contrary the combined observationof increase in P and metals derived from oxidation of sulphides and the variation of isotopic composition of aragonite and calcitesuggests that in this mine cave aragonite was deposited with increasing flowrate and thus more humid conditions. In addition, theeffect of Zn2+ or Pb2+ in inhibiting precipitation of calcite appears to have been more important than that of Mg2+.

  19. Coastal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  20. Coal Mines, Active - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  1. The manganese and polimetalic sulphures exploration impact in the Gândacu - Suh rzelul Mare mining zone (north-west of Suceava District, north of Eastern Carpathians on the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Gheorghe POPESCU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The mining activity in Iacobeni – Cârlibaba area datesback as far as the XIII-th century, the first documentary certification being before 1241. After 1775 (when Bucovina was annexed like province to the Austrian Empire Iacobeni –Cârlibaba area was scientifically examined by Austrian geologists.Geologically and structurally, the Gândacu – Suh rzelul Mare mining area belongs to the Crystalline Mesozoic Zone of the Eastern Carpathians. The Crystalline Mesozoic Zone is made up of a system of Alpine Nappes, called the Eastern Central Carpathian Nappes(S ndulescu, 1984. The exploration and geological surveying work was done in the metamorphic basement of the Sub-Bucovinian Nappe.In the Iacobeni – Cârlibaba mining area, the manganese ore deposits are located in the epimetamorphic Tulghe 2 level (Tg2 of Tulghe lithogroup and the polimetalic sulphures ore deposits in the Tulghe 3 level (Tg3. Geographically, the area Gândacu – Suh rzelul Mare is situated in the Suhard Mountains, on the right slope of the Golden Bistri a river, from an administrative point of view belongingto Cârlibaba, Cioc ne ti and partially to Iacobeni. The prospection works outlined three research perimeters: Puiu - Suh rzel, Humoru and Diaca – Gândacu. The geological study in the area Puiu – Suh rzel showed the presence of polimetalic sulphures ore in acid riolitic metavulcanites, sericite or sericite-chloritic schists. In the sameperimeter, in the superior drainage basin of the Recele brook, its discovered a manganous level in black quartzite with intercalations of sericite-graphitic schists. The manganese ore is predominantly siliceous, made up of lens and nests in parallel disposition. On the left slope of the Suh rzelul Mare brook it uncovered polychrome limestone ores. In the Humoru and Diaca – Gândacu perimeters the prospection works highlighted a primary ore of manganese consisting of rhodonite, rhodochrosite, manganese silicates, quarts

  2. 4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions. (paper)

  3. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  4. Mining Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the estimated value of mineral production increased in the United States for the third consecutive year. Production and prices increased for most industrial mineral commodities mined in the United States. While production for most metals remained relatively unchanged, with the notable exception of gold, the prices for most metals declined. Minerals remained fundamental to the U.S. economy, contributing to the real gross domestic product (GDP) at several levels, including mining, processing and manufacturing finished products. Minerals’ contribution to the GDP increased for the second consecutive year.

  5. Isotopic Variability of Mercury in Ore, Mine-Waste Calcine, and Leachates of Mine-Waste Calcine from Areas Mined for Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Stetson, Sarah J.; Gray, John E.; Wanty, Richard B.; Macalady, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    The isotopic composition of mercury (Hg) was determined in cinnabar ore, mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), and leachates obtained from water leaching experiments of calcine from two large Hg mining districts in the U.S. This study is the first to report significant mass-dependent Hg isotopic fractionation between cinnabar ore and resultant calcine. Data indicate that δ202Hg values relative to NIST 3133 of calcine (up to 1.52‰) in the Terlingua district, Texas, are as much as 3.24‰ heavier th...

  6. Mining Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  7. Alteración hidrotermal en el distrito minero San José, provincia de Santa Cruz Hydrothermal alteration in San José mining district,Santa Cruz province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Rodríguez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Los minerales de arcilla de origen hidrotermal presentes en el distrito minero San José fueron identificados mediante el empleo de un espectrómetro de reflectancia portátil. Las asociaciones de minerales de alteración halladas en las rocas jurásicas indican que el fluido evolucionó en el ámbito del distrito desde condiciones de alta temperatura y bajo pH en la zona proximal a uno de pH neutro y baja temperatura en zonas distales. Las variaciones en la composición de la illita reflejan los cambios de temperatura y pH de los fluidos actuantes; es sódica en la zona de mayor temperatura mientras que en las zonas vinculadas a la mineralización es normal potásica.Hydrothermal clay mineral present at San José were characterized by field portable spectroscopy. Mineral assemblages indicate that hydrothermal fluid evolved throughout the district, from low pH-high temperature proximal to neutral-low temperature distal fluids. Compositional difference of illite depends of the fluid characteristics becoming more Na-rich at high temperature whereas in mineralizated areas are K-normal.

  8. Uranium Mining and Remediation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the present situation of uranium mining and remediation in India. In India, the nuclear energy sector encompassing the complete fuel cycle is under the control of Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India. Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. (UCIL), a public sector undertaking under Department of Atomic Energy, with its headquarter at Jaduguda has been operating four underground mines, one opencast mine and two ore processing plants in East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand state. All these units are located in a geologically significant province - called Singhbhum Shear Zone, known for its uranium-copper resources. In addition, two large uranium mining and processing projects have been planned in the States of Andhra Pradesh and Meghalaya. These mines will be brought into production during the period between 2007 and 2012, and thereby increase the uranium production in the country for India's nuclear power programme. Though the mining operations for uranium in India commenced way back in the year 1968, no uranium mine has been closed so far in India. (author)

  9. Stability of tailings ponds in the mining district of Mazarron (SE Spain): potential risks for the Moreras Rambla; Estudio de estabilidad en depositos de lodos del Distrito Minero de Mazarron (SE Espana): Riesgos potenciales sobre la Rambla de Las Moreras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. A.; Martinez-Martinez, S.; Martinez-Pagan, P.; Zornoza, R.; Carmona, D. M.; Faz, A.

    2011-07-01

    We have used geochemical, geophysical and geotechnical techniques to identify and quantify the environmental risks of the San Cristobal and Las Moreras tailing ponds, which have been left since the closing down of Pb-Zn mining activities in a semi-arid Mediterranean area. The results show that the tailings ponds present a potential risk to nearby ecosystems because of their high acidity, high salinity and high concentrations of metals, especially Pb and Zn contain. If the pond dams were to fail or if erosion carried dry sludge to the surrounding areas, the result would be pollution, acidification, salinization, compaction and nutrient depletion of the soil, thus reducing the biodiversity of the area. Geoelectrical tomography has shown the depth of the deposits, their volume and the geomorphology of the basement. The profiles reveal that in none of the pseudo-sections are there any regions betraying cracks that might affect the stability of the structures. In fact, geotechnical studies indicate that on a large scale both ponds are stable. Nevertheless, if we contemplate circular rupture and seismic action in the San Cristobal pond, the safety factor values become critical. It is recommended, therefore, that periodic inspections should be carried out to assess moisture, upsurges and settlements in the dam. To reduce erosion of the surface sludge in the tailing ponds we suggest the application of alkaline and organic remediation so as to improve their geochemical characteristics and encourage the establishment of natural vegetation. (Author) 48 refs.

  10. Mining machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outram, J.K.

    1978-11-23

    This is concerned with a supporting and transport device for heavy mining auxiliary equipment such as hydraulic units, switchgear, transformers, etc., which must be erected nearby to operate large mines and which have to be moved on as the workings progress. The device consists of long steel structures consisting of girders, whose upper/outer part made as a bridge unit surrounds the conveyor part lying below it over its whole length. The bridge with the auxiliary equipment fixed to it can be lifted at the ends and in the centre by jacks. The bridge anchored to the floor of the seam engages with guide wheels under a flat rail, which are distributed on both sides along its length, where the rails run on the left and right along its length. Both rails form a track like that of a crane trolley, on which the conveyor structure under the bridge unit can be moved forward a certain distance. By lowering the bridge by its jacks, other pairs of wheels engage the same rails from above, so that the bridge with the auxiliary equipment can also be moved along on the support structure resting on the floor of the seam. By repeating this process all auxiliary equipment is brought close to the mining face by moving the required distance.

  11. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boundaries: The Community... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  12. Watered depressions as ecological phenomena in regions affected by mining activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of the importance of mine watered depressions in a landscape affected by mining activities (model localities - Louky nad Olsi, Orlova and Horni Sucha, Karvina district) from an ecological point of view - conservation and formation of wetland and water ecosystems, genetic resources and biodiversity conservation

  13. Environmental impact of the former Pb-Zn mining and smelting in East-Belgium.

    OpenAIRE

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Swennen, Rudy; Vandamme, A.; Niclaes, M

    2005-01-01

    In the mining district of Plombières-La Calamine (East-Belgium), extensive Pb-Zn mining activities resulted in an important contamination of overbank sediments along the Geul river. Moreover, a huge amount of heavy metals is stored in a dredged mine pond tailing, which is located along the river. In the dredged mine pond tailing sediments, Pb-Zn minerals control the solubility of Zn, Pb and Cd. Although Pb, Zn and Cd display a lower solubility in overbank sediments compared to the mine tailin...

  14. Measurements of radon around closed uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki E-mail: furuta@ningyo.jnc.go.jp; Ito, Kimio; Ishimori, Yuu

    2002-07-01

    There are several waste rock yards at closed uranium mines around Ningyo-toge, in the Western Honshu Island of Japan, and measurements of radon were carried out by both the passive method and the sampling method around these yards. As comparatively high radon concentrations were observed in two districts through routine measurements, more detailed measurements were made by the passive method in these districts. The impact of radon emanation from the waste rock yards was small for both residential districts and around these yards when considering the natural background level of radon. In addition, by simultaneous continuous measurements of radon and its progeny at two locations, it was estimated that the effective dose caused by the representative uranium waste rock yards was less than the public effective dose limit of 1 mSv year{sup -1} at the fenced boundary of the waste rock site.

  15. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining...

  16. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  17. Veta Esperanza Sudeste, un caso particular de enriquecimiento Supergénico en el yacimiento Alto de la blenda, distrito minero Agua de Dionisio, provincia de Catamarca Veta Esperanza Sudeste, a particular case of supergenic enrichment in the Alto de la Blenda deposit, Agua de Dionisio mining district, Catamarca Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Salado Paz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Veta Esperanza Sudeste se localiza en el distrito minero Agua de Dionisio, Catamarca, dentro de la provincia geológica de las Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales. La geología del mismo corresponde a rocas metamórficas de bajo grado y cuerpos ígneos intrusivos graníticos a granodioríticos paleozoicos, sedimentos clásticos continentales terciarios y rocas pertenecientes al Complejo Volcánico Farallón Negro del Mioceno. Además, a areniscas, tobas del Plioceno y depósitos fluviales del Cuaternario. En el distrito mineralizado hay yacimientos diseminados y vetiformes, entre los últimos se mencionan los depósitos de oro y plata de Farallón Negro y Alto de La Blenda. Veta Esperanza Sudeste es un importante prospecto nuevo del sistema Alto de La Blenda, tiene una corrida de 200 m, potencia entre 0,30 y 6 m, rumbo NO e inclinación variable con la profundidad entre 75° a 56° al NE. La roca de caja es cuarzo monzonita, donde se observaron diferentes tipos de alteración hidrotermal: argílica, sericítica, silícica y propilítica. Presenta oxidación intensa, que afecta también a la veta. La paragénesis corresponde a: (1 minerales primarios (hipogénicos, pirita, galena, esfalerita, calcopirita, sulfosales de plata y oro, y (2 secundarios (supergénicos, pirolusita, psilomelano, hematina-goethita y sulfuros como calcosina y covelina. Los valores de leyes son de 0,5 a 40 g/tn de Au y 40 a 2.000 gr/tn de Ag con un recurso potencial de aproximadamente 400.000 tn de mineral.Veta Esperanza Sudeste is located in the Agua de Dionisio mining district, Catamarca, belonging to the Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales morphostructural province. The stratigraphic sequence is composed of Paleozoic low grade metamorphic rocks, granites and granodiorites, Tertiary continental clastic sedimentary rocks and the Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex of Miocene age, Pliocene sandstones and tuffites and Quaternary fluvial sediments. In the mining district are disseminated

  18. Mining review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartan, L.; Morse, D.E.; Plunkert, P.A.; Sibley, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    The average annual growth rate of real gross domestic product (GDP) from the third quarter of 2001 through the second quarter of 2003 in the United States was about 2.6 percent. GDP growth rates in the third and fourth quarters of 2003 were about 8 percent and 4 percent, respectively. The upward trends in many sectors of the U.S. economy in 2003, however, were shared by few of the mineral materials industries. Annual output declined in most nonfuel mining and mineral processing industries, although there was an upward turn toward yearend as prices began to increase.

  19. Impact of Mercury Use in Artisanal Gold Mining on Community Health: Kahama Case Study, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kalwani, Jumanne Daudi; Fumbuka, Colorine

    2014-01-01

    This study is part of the main research carried out in 2010 which investigated social economic impact of uncontrolled artisanal mining on local communities and the environment using a case study of sampled gold mining sites in selected villages in Lunguya and Segese wards in Kahama District, Tanzania. The methodology involved a study sample size of 210 households, forming 70% of the targeted mining villages. They were interviewed on various social economic variables related to artisanal minin...

  20. Coal Mines, Abandoned - Digitized Mined Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. The maps to these coal mines are stored at many various public and private locations (if they still...

  1. Wikipedia Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kotaro; Ito, Masahiro; Erdmann, Maike; Shirakawa, Masumi; Michishita, Tomoyuki; Hara, Takahiro; Nishio, Shojiro

    Wikipedia, a collaborative Wiki-based encyclopedia, has become a huge phenomenon among Internet users. It covers a huge number of concepts of various fields such as arts, geography, history, science, sports and games. As a corpus for knowledge extraction, Wikipedia's impressive characteristics are not limited to the scale, but also include the dense link structure, URL based word sense disambiguation, and brief anchor texts. Because of these characteristics, Wikipedia has become a promising corpus and a new frontier for research. In the past few years, a considerable number of researches have been conducted in various areas such as semantic relatedness measurement, bilingual dictionary construction, and ontology construction. Extracting machine understandable knowledge from Wikipedia to enhance the intelligence on computational systems is the main goal of "Wikipedia Mining," a project on CREP (Challenge for Realizing Early Profits) in JSAI. In this paper, we take a comprehensive, panoramic view of Wikipedia Mining research and the current status of our challenge. After that, we will discuss about the future vision of this challenge.

  2. Toxicity of Sediments and Pore-waters and their Potential Impact on Neosho Madtom, Noturus Placidus, in the Spring River System Affected by Historic Zinc-Lead Mining and Related Activities in Jasper and Newtown Counties, Missouri; and Cherokee County, Kan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Tri-State Mining District, comprising portions of Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri; Cherokee County, Kansas; and Ottawa County, Oklahoma, was mined...

  3. Reclaiming abandoned mining sites: Reurbanization concepts and examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ruhr District in Germany, one of the oldest and largest hard coal mining regions in Europe, has been in a process of constant change over the last 40 years. Since the end of the World War II, the coal industry has been declining. There have been a number of successful attempts to establish new industries in the Ruhr District. However, the initiation of new industries depends strongly on the availability of space. Since the Ruhr District is a rather populated region, the only chance to gain space is to reclaim the areas formerly used by now obsolete industries. The remediation of former mining sites in the ruhr District and the reestablishment of alternative industries have now become both a challenge for city planners and a prestigious attribute for ambitious politicians. It has become the declared goal of the German government to convert the Ruhr District into the greenest industrial region in the world. This paper discusses geotechnical techniques, as well as economical risks involved, in the recycling of abandoned mining sites. To demonstrate remediation techniques used in Germany, a recent remediation project is described and analyzed

  4. Seismic hazard related to rate of face advance in Lubin copper ore mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gogolewska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Seismic hazard was depicted by means of seismic activity. The rate of face advance was defined as the output-energy ratio (J/kg and as the distance in meters, which the face overcomes in a given time (for example six months. Seismic activity was analyzed in relation to such the rates of face advance. The analyses were performed for two mining districts (G-7 and G-8 of Lubin copper ore mine. The period of 2008-2009 years was taken into account. In both mining districts the outputenergy ratio did not show any strict connection between the rate of face advance and seismic activity. Whilst seismic hazard increased with increasing rate of face advance defined as the distance between two sequential positions of face in most panels of the two mining districts.

  5. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  6. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  7. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  8. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  9. Mining machine safari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    1998-11-01

    New South African and other mining equipment on display at the Electra 98 exhibition is described. Products include: cutting machines; shovels; crushing machines; drilling equipment; control systems; moon buggy inspection vehicles; remote control underground mining machines; longwall shearers; mining software; scrapedozers; continuous miners; sprays; mine haulage equipment; milling machines; flotation plant; mud removal systems; chains; vehicle exhaust filters and continuous miner monitoring systems.

  10. Mining lore : Bankhead, mining for coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, A.

    2007-09-15

    Bankhead, Alberta was one of the first communities to be established because of mining. It was founded in 1903 by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) on Cascade Mountain in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. In 1904, Mine No. 80 was opened by the Pacific Coal Company to fuel CPR's steam engines. In order to avoid flooding the mine, the decision was made to mine up the steep seams instead of down. The mine entered full production in 1905. This article described the working conditions and pay scale for the mine workers, noting that there was not much in terms of safety equipment. There were many accidents and 15 men lost their lives at the mine. During the mine's 20-year operation, miners went on strike 6 times. The last strike marked the closure of the mine in June 1922 and the end of industry in national parks. CPR was ordered to clear out and move the mining equipment as well as the houses, buildings and essentially the entire town. During its peak production, Mine No. 80 produced about a half million tons of coal. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  11. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larios, Raquel; Fernandez-Martinez, Rodolfo [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Rodrigo [Dpto. de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, ETS de Ingenieros de Minas, C/Independencia, 13, E-33004 Oviedo (Spain); Rucandio, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.rucandio@ciemat.es [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of Leon. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300-67,000 mg{center_dot}kg{sup -1} were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic fractionation in sediments from different mining areas is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sequential extraction scheme especially designed for arsenic partitioning is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As associations with mineral pools is in accordance to the mineralogy of each area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As distribution and mobility in each area depends on the extent of mining activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As occurs mainly associated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides in all samples.

  12. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of León. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300–67,000 mg·kg−1 were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. - Highlights: ► Arsenic fractionation in sediments from different mining areas is evaluated. ► A sequential extraction scheme especially designed for arsenic partitioning is applied. ► As associations with mineral pools is in accordance to the mineralogy of each area. ► As distribution and mobility in each area depends on the extent of mining activity. ► As occurs mainly associated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides in all samples.

  13. 北京市大兴区工矿企业工作场所中苯、甲苯和二甲苯检测结果%Testing results of benzene, toluene and xylene in workplace of industrial and mining enterprises in Daxing District of Beijing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯洪杰; 边洪英; 王华; 贾克俊

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解北京市大兴区工矿企业中苯、甲苯、二甲苯工作场所职业病危害现状,为行政部门的监督管理提供依据,同时引起管理者的重视,改善工人的工作环境.方法 依据国家有关标准、规范的要求对工作场所进行检测.按《工作场所有害物质监测方法》的要求,采用活性炭管采集车间空气的样品进行分析.结果 2005-2010年该区存在苯、甲苯、二甲苯职业病危害因素的有89家企业,行业分布以印刷业、家具制造业为主,在所有行业中占到90.60%,其他行业仅占9.40%;检测样品447个,苯样品浓度检测结果主要集中在6 mg/m3以下,甲苯、二甲苯样品浓度检测结果主要集中在50mg/m3以下.苯、甲苯时间加权平均(TWA)浓度和短时间接触浓度(STEL)的合格率在行业之间差异有统计学意义.家具制造业合格率均低于印刷和其他企业(P<0.05).结论 目前,该区工作场所中苯、甲苯、二甲苯样品检测合格率虽然均在80%以上,但仍有超标现象,应继续加强监管工作.%[Objective] To understand the present situation of occupational hazards of benzene, toluene and xylene in workplace of industrial and mining enterprises in Daxing District of Beijing City, to provide evidence for supervision and management of the administrative departments, to attract their attention and improve the operation environment of workers. [ Methods]The workplace investigation was based on the relevant national standards and norms. According to the " Examining Method of Harmful Substances in Working Place", the air sample was collected by activated charcoal tube. [ Results] There were 89 enterprises had occupational hazards of benzene, toluene and xylene from 2005-2010. According to the industrial classification, printing industry and furniture manufacturing occupied a considerable proportion, reached 90.60%, other industry occupied 9.40%. A total of 447 samples were detected, benzene

  14. The future of artisanal gold mining and miners under an increasing industrial presence in South Kivu and Ituri, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Geenen, Sara; Fahey, Daniel; Iragi Mukotanyi, Francine

    2013-01-01

    While the Congolese government is actively promoting large-scale industrial mining since it provides easy rents, artisanal mining seems to escape most attempts to control and regulate it. Yet artisanal mining provides employment and livelihoods to an estimated million people. This paper presents original research on artisanal gold miners in Province Orientale (Ituri district) and South Kivu. In both locations, the start of industrial gold mining operations threatens to displace artisanal mini...

  15. Tectonic setting and metallogenesis of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits in the Bonnifield Mining District, Northern Alaska Range: Chapter B in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Aleinikoff, John N.; Premo, Wayne R.; Paradis, Suzanne; Lohr-Schmidt, Ilana; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of field and laboratory investigations, including whole-rock geochemistry and radiogenic isotopes, of outcrop and drill core samples from volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and associated metaigneous rocks in the Wood River area of the Bonnifield mining district, northern Alaska Range (see fig. 1 of Editors’ Preface and Overview). U-Pb zircon igneous crystallization ages from felsic rocks indicate a prolonged period of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian (373±3 to 357±4 million years before present, or Ma) magmatism. This magmatism occurred in a basinal setting along the ancient Pacific margin of North America. The siliceous and carbonaceous compositions of metasedimentary rocks, Precambrian model ages based on U-Pb dating of zircon and neodymium ages, and for some units, radiogenic neodymium isotopic compositions and whole-rock trace-element ratios similar to those of continental crust are evidence for this setting. Red Mountain (also known as Dry Creek) and WTF, two of the largest VMS deposits, are hosted in peralkaline metarhyolite of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. The Mystic Creek Member is distinctive in having high concentrations of high-field-strength elements (HFSE) and rare-earth elements (REE), indicative of formation in a within-plate (extensional) setting. Mystic Creek metarhyolite is associated with alkalic, within-plate basalt of the Chute Creek Member; neodymium isotopic data indicate an enriched mantle component for both members of this bimodal (rhyolite-basalt) suite. Anderson Mountain, the other significant VMS deposit, is hosted by the Wood River assemblage. Metaigneous rocks in the Wood River assemblage span a wide compositional range, including andesitic rocks, which are characteristic of arc volcanism. Our data suggest that the Mystic Creek Member likely formed in an extensional, back-arc basin that was associated with an outboard continental-margin volcanic arc that included

  16. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  17. Cu behaviors and effects of mine drainage in Kosaka River, Hokuroku mining district, Northeast Japan%日本东北北麓矿区小坂河中的铜行为及矿废水对其的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿晴晴; Takuto KANETSUKI; Shin-ichi YAMASAKI; Ryoichi YAMADA; Takahiro WATANABE; Noriyoshi TSUCHIYA

    2014-01-01

    以重金属来源为出发点,通过区分自然来源和由人类活动造成的重金属污染以探究新的推算方法来估算河水中的重金属含量。以GIS为依托,北麓矿区的小坂流域被分割为若干子流域多边形,并计算了每个多边形单位时间内流出的水量和水溶态铜。与自然来源相比,人为排放的铜对局部河流水质的影响更为显著。综合考虑小坂流域中支流的自然析出和人为排放的质量平衡闭合,以上游各支流和矿废水排放的汇流累积效应来估算小坂河中的铜含量。估测的铜含量通过与主流各监测点的实测铜浓度比较来检验其估算的准确性,结果显示两者大体一致。研究表明,河流水质可以通过其上游支流的水质及人为水系的水质进行估算。%Focusing on the origin of the heavy metal, this study aims to build an imputed method to estimate the heavy metal content in river water by making a distinction between the heavy metal of natural origins and that caused by human activities. Supported by GIS, Kosaka watershed within the Hokuroku basin was divided into several sub-watershed polygons and the outflows of water and Cu were calculated for each polygon. Compared with the natural origin, the dominant Cu emissions affected the river water more significantly in local. Based on the mass balance closure, the heavy metal content of Cu in the Kosaka River was estimated by the conflux accumulation of tributaries and mine drainages. The estimated Cu concentrations were checked by comparing with the actually measured values at monitoring points along the Kosaka River and the results are coincidence with each other in general. It is revealed that the mainstream water quality could be estimated by seizing the water quality of upstream tributaries and human drainages.

  18. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  19. Election Districts and Precincts, Voter districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'Voter districts'. Data by...

  20. School Districts, School districts-Middle, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'School districts-Middle'. Data by this...

  1. Special Taxing Districts, TIF districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'TIF districts'. Data by...

  2. Selection of Leading Industry in Anshun Experimental District Based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Analytic Hierarchy Process is selected according to the selection method of leading industries by both domestic and foreign scholars. Leading industries which can accelerate the overall economic development of Anshun Experimental District is taken as the target layer; and market demand, efficiency standards and local conditions are taken as the criterion layers, so as to construct the select model of leading industry and to choose the leading industry in Anshun Experimental District. Result shows that the priority order of the leading industry selection in Anshun Experimental District is as follows: tourism > pharmacy > transportation > energy > food processing > characteristic agriculture > package and printing > automobile industry > mining > electric engineering.

  3. Mineralogical Mapping in the Cuprite Mining District, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Srivastava, V.

    1985-01-01

    The airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) has provided for the first time, the possibility to map mineralogical constituents in the Earth's surface and thus has enormously increased the value of remote-sensing data as a tool in the solution of geologic problems. The question addressed with AIS at Cuprite was how well could the mineral components at the surface of a hydrothermal alteration zone be detected, identified and mapped? The question was answered positively and is discussed. A relatively rare mineral, buddingtonie, that could not have been detected by conventional means, was discovered and mapped by the use of AIS.

  4. First Mexican coal mine recovery after mine fire, Esmeralda Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillan, M.A. [Minerales Monclova, SA de CV, Palau Coahuila (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The fire started on 8 May 1998 in the development section from methane released into the mine through a roof-bolt hole. The flames spread quickly as the coal was ignited. After eight hours the Safety Department decided to seal the vertical ventilation shafts and the slopes. The quality of coal in the Esmeralda Mine is very high quality, and Minerales Monclova (MIMOSA) decided to recover the facilities. However, the Esmeralda Mine coals have a very high gas content of 12 m{sup 3}/t. During the next 2.5 months, MIMOSA staff and specialists observed and analysed the gas behaviour supported by a chromatograph. With the results of the observations and analyses, MIMOSA in consultation with the specialists developed a recovery plan based on flooding the area in which fire might have propagated and in which rekindling was highly probable. At the same time MIMOSA trained rescue teams. By 20 August 1998, the mine command centre had re-opened the slopes seal. Using a 'Step-by-Step' system, the rescue team began the recovery process by employing cross-cuts and using an auxiliary fan to establish the ventilation circuit. The MIMOSA team advanced into the mine as far as allowed by the water level and was able to recover the main fan. The official mine recovery date was 30 November 1998. Esmeralda Mine was back in operation in December 1998. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  5. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  6. State Highway District Boundaries - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents the NM Department of Transportation District boundaries as legislatively defined (i.e. these are not maintenance defined districts).

  7. Unified School Districts, Census 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico 2000 Unified School Districts layer was derived from the TIGER Line files from the US Census Bureau. The districts are clipped to the state...

  8. Mining Ostrava '93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part I of the Proceedings contains 55 contributions, out of which 2 deal with environmental impacts of undermining during coal mining, and of shocks and vibrations during underground coal mining. (Z.S.)

  9. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined...

  10. Mine drainage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  11. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  12. Uranium exploration and mining operations in central and western Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium has been known in central Africa since 1915 with ore mines in Zaire being worked from 1945-1960. In the 1960s uranium exploration located two more deposits in Gabon and Niger. The uranium operations in both these countries are described. This includes an account of the company working the deposits, the geological environment of the deposits and the mining methods used in each part of the mines. Other uranium deposits in central and western Africa are listed and the mining operation described briefly. The uranium market has been depressed and production levels have been lower than normal. However, production could be increased in the existing uranium districts. Alternatively, new production centres could be sought in other countries. (U.K.)

  13. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  14. Web Usage Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Benkovská, Petra

    2007-01-01

    General characteristic of web mining including methodology and procedures incorporated into this term. Relation to other areas (data mining, artificial intelligence, statistics, databases, internet technologies, management etc.) Web usage mining - data sources, data pre-processing, characterization of analytical methods and tools, interpretation of outputs (results), and possible areas of usage including examples. Suggestion of solution method, realization and a concrete example's outputs int...

  15. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  16. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  17. Mining text data

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2012-01-01

    Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including

  18. Mining planing introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic concepts concerning mining parameters, plan establishment and typical procedure methods applied throughout the physical execution of mining operations are here determined, analyzed and discussed. Technological and economic aspects of the exploration phase are presented as well as general mathematical and statistical methods for estimating, analyzing and representing mineral deposits which are virtually essential for good mining project execution. The characterization of important mineral substances and the basic parameters of mining works are emphasized in conjunction with long, medium and short term mining planning. Finally, geological modelling, ore reserves calculations and final economic evaluations are considered using a hypothetical example in order to consolidate the main elaborated ideas. (D.J.M.)

  19. Data mining in radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit T Kharat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  20. Data mining in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining. PMID:25024513

  1. Seismicity induced by mining operations in the surrounding of the uranium ore mine Schlema-Alberoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mine Schlema-Alberoda of the Wismut GmbH (Chemnitz, Federal Republic of Germany) is situated in the Westerzgebirge between the villages Aue, Schneeberg and Hartenstein. This 22 km2 large area contains the villages Bad Schlema with the districts Oberschlema, Niederschlema and Wildbach as well as the district Alberode of the village Aue. The most important waters are the Zwickauer Mulde flowing through this territory from the south to the north. This territory can be designated as a densely populated low mountain range landscape being characterized by mining operations for centuries. Subsequently to the year 1945, the former Soviet 'Saxonian mining administration' started the first explorations on uranium ores inter alia in the area around Schneeberg and Schlema. In the year 1946, the intensive exploration and exploitation began in the health resort Oberschlema well-known by the existence of water containing radium. Up to the year 1959, the part deposit Oberschlema was dismantled. The dismantling ranged till to a depth of 750 m. With the expansion of the explorations in north-western direction, in 1948 the first uranium containing corridors of the part deposit Niederschlema-Alberoda was verified. The mining activities began in the year 1949 and culminated in the midst of the 1960ies with an annual production of more than 4,000 tons of uranium. The 1,800 m floor level as the deepest floor level was reached in the year 1986. A total of 49.5 million cubic meters of rocks was dissolved, and a total of 80,500 tons of uranium ores was mined. These were nearly 35% of the total production of the former Soviet-German public limited company Wismut (SDAG Wismut).

  2. Geochemical pollution as a result of ore mining in the Erzgebirge mountains - assessment and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining was, is and will be associated with great influences to the environment. These influences are various in form and extent. In the Ore Mountains, one of the oldest mining districts in Europe, we find a lot of problems due to the mining of various oretypes over several hundred years. The biggest problem is the water pollution by acid mine drainage, another one the enormous land use by tailing dams, pits and dumps. To appraise the degree of water or soil pollution it is necessary to use local higher background values, especially for deposit characteristic elements like arsenic or zinc. Within the mines some types of barriers occur, like the formation of secondary minerals or the precipitation of metal hydroxids. Up to 80% of the primarily mobilised metals can be retarded by these barrier systems. One of the most successful and economical ways to reduce the pollution of the environment caused by mining is to characterise and support such naturally occuring barriers. (orig.)

  3. Districting and Government Overspending

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Baqir

    2001-01-01

    The common-pool problem is a central issue in the relationship between the political structure of jurisdictions and the size of public spending. Models predict that, other things being equal, greater political districting of a jurisdiction raises the scale of government. This paper presents new evidence on this and related predictions from a cross-section of city governments in the United States. The main finding is that one additional legislator is associated, on average, with 3 percent larg...

  4. Geochemical Baseline and Trace Metal Pollution of Soil in Panzhihua Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕彦国; 倪师军; 庹先国; 张成江; 马玉孝

    2002-01-01

    A total of 31 topsoil samples were systematically collected from the Panzhihua mining area including steel smelting, coal mining, urban and rural districts. A normalization procedure was adopted to establish the environmental geochemical baseline models for this area. By using the above baseline models, the regional geochemical baseline values of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined. On the basis of the baselines, the enrichment factors were used to analyze the mechanism of trace metal pollution in topsoil from anthropogenic sources, and the results showed that the serious trace metal pollution is caused by human activities in coal mine, iron mine, smelting factory, tailing dam and other industrial districts in the Panzhihua area.

  5. Text Mining Perspectives in Microarray Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    Current microarray data mining methods such as clustering, classification, and association analysis heavily rely on statistical and machine learning algorithms for analysis of large sets of gene expression data. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in methods that attempt to discover patterns based on multiple but related data sources. Gene expression data and the corresponding literature data are one such example. This paper suggests a new approach to microarray data mining as ...

  6. Enduring legacy of a toxic fan via episodic redistribution of California gold mining debris

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Michael Bliss; Aalto, Rolf; James, L. Allan; Kilham, Nina E.; Higson, John Lee; Ghoshal, Subhajit

    2013-01-01

    The interrelationships between hydrologically driven evolution of legacy landscapes downstream of major mining districts and the contamination of lowland ecosystems are poorly understood over centennial time scales. Here, we demonstrate within piedmont valleys of California’s Sierra Nevada, through new and historical data supported by modeling, that anthropogenic fans produced by 19th century gold mining comprise an episodically persistent source of sediment-adsorbed Hg to lowlands. Within th...

  7. Gold prospect ion in the mining reservation XXIA1 and XXIA 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is about the auriferous prospection carried out in the mining reservation XXA1 y XXA2. These reservations is a detachment of the antique mining reservation IV A1 and is located in the north-south in the middle of the aerial photo Cerro de las Cuentas , Puntas del Yerbal and Isla Patrulla, and a little portion of the aerial photo of Treinta y Tres in Cerro Largo and Treinta y Tres district.

  8. Government Districts, Other - MDC_CommissionDistrict2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class representing the Redistricting Commission Plan 11-15, adopted November 15, 2001. This Commission District Boundary layer becomes effective...

  9. Collaborative Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Steve

    Collaborative Data Mining is a setting where the Data Mining effort is distributed to multiple collaborating agents - human or software. The objective of the collaborative Data Mining effort is to produce solutions to the tackled Data Mining problem which are considered better by some metric, with respect to those solutions that would have been achieved by individual, non-collaborating agents. The solutions require evaluation, comparison, and approaches for combination. Collaboration requires communication, and implies some form of community. The human form of collaboration is a social task. Organizing communities in an effective manner is non-trivial and often requires well defined roles and processes. Data Mining, too, benefits from a standard process. This chapter explores the standard Data Mining process CRISP-DM utilized in a collaborative setting.

  10. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  11. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

    of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...... value maximization forces the manager of high type to extract the gold.The implications are three-fold. First, all managers (except the lowest type) extract the gold too soon compared to the first-best policy of leaving the gold in the mine forever. Second, a manager of high type extracts the gold......  Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...

  12. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  13. Mining in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewis, T.

    1992-09-01

    Poor metals prices, high inflation, rapid political change and (in the case of gold) hot, deep mines all pose challenging problems. Nevertheless, mining plays an essential role in the South African economy and the long-term outlook is positive. The article discusses recent developments in technology and gives production figures for mining of gold, coal, platinum, diamonds, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and industrial minerals. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 photos.

  14. Districts, spillovers, and government overspending

    OpenAIRE

    Baqir, Reza

    1999-01-01

    The author considers the overspending bias in legislatures when the benefits of public policies are concentrated in particular districts but the costs of financing them are spread over the entire political jurisdiction. He formalizes this idea in a simple theoretic framework, in the context of externalities between districts. His main prediction is that greater districting leads to bigger government, but the effects are mitigated if there are positive spillovers of government spending between...

  15. The intelligent deep mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejny, Horst [Mineral Industry Research Organisation (MIRO), Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The intended 'Intelligent Deep Mine'' (IDM) initiative will cope with the challenges the mining industry is currently facing. The main focus will be on technological issues. An increasing share of the total mining production will be by underground mining. The mineral deposits will be found in gradually greater depths, including all problems associated with it. It involves an increase in overburden pressure with subsequent rock stability problems and risks of structural collapse. There is a need for new and safe technologies for deep underground mining. This need targets at nearly all parts of a modern mine, the infrastructure including the communication network, logistics and transport and will reach up to mine preparation work and the winning operation itself including maintenance. Additionally, the concept of near-to-face preparation will be considered in order to step into an ''Invisible Mine'' approach. The IDM project marks the start of a series of development activities aiming to realise the concept of an invisible, zero-impact mine. The extractive sector, still seen as being old-fashioned and highly environment polluting, will join forces to revise this image showing that minerals extraction and processing can be done in a highly innovative manner with low impact underground and zero impact above ground. (orig.)

  16. Uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report uranium mining and milling are reviewed. The fuel cycle, different types of uranium geological deposits, blending of ores, open cast and underground mining, the mining cost and radiation protection in mines are treated in the first part of this report. In the second part, the milling of uranium ores is treated, including process technology, acid and alkaline leaching, process design for physical and chemical treatment of the ores, and the cost. Each chapter is clarified by added figures, diagrams, tables, and flowsheets. (HK)

  17. Responsible Mining: A Human Resources Strategy for Mine Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sampathkumar, Sriram (Ram)

    2012-01-01

    Mining is a global industry. Most mining companies operate internationally, often in remote, challenging environments and consequently frequently have respond to unusual and demanding Human Resource (HR) requirements. It is my opinion that the strategic imperative behind success in mining industry is responsible mining. The purpose of this paper is to examine how an effective HR strategy can be a competitive advantage that contributes to the success of a mining project in the global mining in...

  18. Minneapolis district-heating options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  19. Ask and Ye Shall Receive? Automated Text Mining of Michigan Capital Facility Finance Bond Election Proposals to Identify Which Topics Are Associated with Bond Passage and Voter Turnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.; Chen, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to bring together recent innovations in the research literature around school district capital facility finance, municipal bond elections, statistical models of conditional time-varying outcomes, and data mining algorithms for automated text mining of election ballot proposals to examine the factors that influence the…

  20. Contamination of water resources in Takwa mining area of Ghana : Linking technical, social-economic and gender dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Balfors, Berit; Jacks, Gunnar; Singh, Nandita; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Koku, John

    2007-01-01

    Ghana is Africa’s second largest producer of gold with gold deposits in western part of the country. There are seven large-scale mines and 168 small-scale mining concessions valid in the region. Wassa West District is an important mining area, with Tarkwa as administrative capital. In recent years, the area has been exposed to lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and cyanide. Both small and large-scale mining industries have reportedly contaminated rivers, streams, dug wells and boreholes with hea...

  1. Prediction and assessment of the disturbances of the coal mining in Kailuan to karst groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjie; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Honglei; Jiao, Jian

    Coal resources and water resources play an essential and strategic role in the development of China's social and economic development, being the priority for China's medium and long technological development. As the mining of the coal extraction is increasingly deep, the mine water inrush of high-pressure confined karst water becomes much more a problem. This paper carried out research on the hundred-year old Kailuan coal mine's karst groundwater system. With the help of advanced Visual Modflow software and numerical simulation method, the paper assessed the flow field of karst water area under large-scale exploitation. It also predicted the evolution ofgroundwaterflow field under different mining schemes of Kailuan Corp. The result shows that two cones of depression are formed in the karst flow field of Zhaogezhuang mining area and Tangshan mining area, and the water levels in two cone centers are -270 m and -31 m respectively, and the groundwater generally flows from the northeast to the southwest. Given some potential closed mines in the future, the mine discharge will decrease and the water level of Ordovician limestone will increase slightly. Conversely, given increase of coal yield, the mine drainage will increase, falling depression cone of Ordovician limestone flow field will enlarge. And in Tangshan's urban district, central water level of the depression cone will move slightly towards north due to pumping of a few mines in the north.

  2. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes and consists of Alameda County, Monterey County, Santa Clara County, San Mateo County, Santa...

  3. New areas for the district. RAG Montan immobilien pursues a sustainable reactivation of former mining industry areas. Foresightedly, cooperatively and successfully; Neue Flaechen fuers Revier. Die nachhaltige Reaktivierung ehemaliger Bergbau-Areale betreibt die RAG Montan Immobilien. Vorausschauend, kooperativ und erfolgreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-10-15

    If the mining industry withdraws itself, industrial fallow fields are left. By early planning and prudent new development, RAG Montan Immobilien (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) converts former sites of coal mines into promising locations again and creates there new areas for living, work and spare time. A prominent example of this active structural change is the future location Ewald in Herten: In the year 2007, only 7 years after the shutdown of the mine Ewald 1/2/7, the sanitation works and development work for the area had stopped. In the same year, the Federation of German Landscape Architects (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) appreciated this location with the German landscape architecture price. Today, approximately three quarters of the 52 hectares large area successfully are marketed, and over 1000 new jobs are developed. The success story Ewald became the case of model - and a popular destination for international delegations which inform about the successful transformation of former Montan areas.

  4. A statistical study of equipment operating time in an open pit lignite mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xerokostas, D.; Polyzos, P.; Galitis, N.; Michiotis, A.; Dalakas, G. (National Technical University, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-08-01

    The production planning of an open pit lignite mine, as of any mining operation in general, is influenced by a series of factors. Of great importance among these factors is the operating time of the equipment used in the production process. In this paper the authors use applied statistical methods (specially comparison tests) to study the net operating time of some excavation branches of the Ptolemais lignite mining district in Greece. Thus, it is hoped that the paper will contribute to estimating and predicting equipment performance in a more accurate way. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The Penarroya mining railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French Society Miniere et Metallurgique de Panarroya mining railway, 241 km long, was the second largest private narrow gauge railway in Spain. Located in the inland. linked the coal and galena mines with foundries and also with the national railroads grid, to transport the minerals to national and foreign markets. (Author)

  6. Ghana - Mining and Development

    OpenAIRE

    P. C. Mohan

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the project ($9.37 million, 1996-2001) were to (a) enhance the capacity of the mining sector institutions to carry out their functions of encouraging and regulating investments in the mining sector in an environmentally sound manner and (b) support the use of techniques and mechanisms that will improve productivity, financial viability and reduce the environmental impact of ...

  7. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  8. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  9. Data mining for service

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all nontrivial and modern service related problems and systems involve data volumes and types that clearly fall into what is presently meant as "big data", that is, are huge, heterogeneous, complex, distributed, etc. Data mining is a series of processes which include collecting and accumulating data, modeling phenomena, and discovering new information, and it is one of the most important steps to scientific analysis of the processes of services.  Data mining application in services requires a thorough understanding of the characteristics of each service and knowledge of the compatibility of data mining technology within each particular service, rather than knowledge only in calculation speed and prediction accuracy. Varied examples of services provided in this book will help readers understand the relation between services and data mining technology. This book is intended to stimulate interest among researchers and practitioners in the relation between data mining technology and its application to ...

  10. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district...

  11. Evolución de los fluídos hidrotermales durante el proceso de mineralización y alteración en el distrito minero Hualilán, Provincia de San Juan Hydrothermal fluids during mineralization and alteration in the Hualilan Mining District, province of San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bengochea

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Se ha realizado el estudio detallado de las inclusiones fluidas en los intrusivos dacíticos del distrito minero Hualilán con el fin de evaluar la evolución de los procesos hidrotermales intervinientes durante las etapas de mineralización y alteración que afectaron a estas rocas. Hualilán está ubicado a 120 km al nornoroeste de la ciudad de San Juan. El estudio de muestras de áreas representativas de los sectores norte (Falla Sánchez y sur (Magnata permite establecer que han existido dos períodos de circulación de fluidos hidrotermales con características bien definidas. En el primero, que puede ser considerado como el responsable de la mineralización primaria de sulfuros, la temperatura superó holgadamente los 300ºC, con un episodio de ebullición responsable de la depositación de los minerales de mena. La salinidad promedio fue de 12 % en peso eq. NaCl, con una participación importante de CaCl2. El segundo período tuvo una temperatura inferior a 300ºC, también con un episodio de ebullición, y una salinidad promedio de 4,5 % en peso eq. NaCl, sin participación de calcio. Este segundo episodio puede ser considerado el responsable de la intensa oxidación hipogénica que sufrió la mineralización primaria llegando a desaparecer como tal en amplios sectores y produciendo además el total enmascaramiento de los minerales calco-silicáticos, la alteración de los diques dacíticos, la formación en superficie de cuerpos de jasperoide relacionados a las fallas normales, y la formación de minerales típicos de una alteración ácido-sulfática, sobreimpuestos a la primer alteración de illita, caolinita, adularia. Este segundo episodio ha sido más intenso en el sector norte (Falla Sánchez que en el sector sur.The detailed study of the fluid inclusions in the dacitic intrusions of Hualilan mining district has been carried out to evaluate the evolution of the hydrothermal processes during the stages of mineralization and

  12. Radioecological challenges for mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterbacka, P.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.; Solatie, D. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, mining became popular in the mid-1990's when the mining amendments to the law made the mining activities easier for foreign companies. Also the price of the minerals rose and mining in Finland became economically profitable. Expanding mining industry brought new challenges to radiation safety aspect since radioactive substances occur in nearly all minerals. In Finnish soil and bedrock the average crystal abundance of uranium and thorium are 2.8 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. It cannot be predicted beforehand how radionuclides behave in the mining processes which why they need to be taken into account in mining activities. Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) has given a national guide ST 12.1 based on the Finnish Radiation Act. The guide sets the limits for radiation doses to the public also from mining activities. In general, no measures to limit the radiation exposure are needed, if the dose from the operation liable to cause exposure to natural radiation is no greater than 0.1 mSv per year above the natural background radiation dose. If the exposure of the public may be higher than 0.1 mSv per year, the responsible party must provide STUK a plan describing the measures by which the radiation exposure is to be kept as low as is reasonably achievable. In that case the mining company responsible company has to make a radiological baseline study. The baseline study must focus on the environment that the mining activities may impact. The study describes the occurrence of natural radioactivity in the environment before any mining activities are started. The baseline study lasts usually for two to three years in natural circumstances. Based on the baseline study measurements, detailed information of the existing levels of radioactivity in the environment can be attained. Once the mining activities begin, it is important that the limits are set for the wastewater discharges to the environment and environmental surveillance in the vicinity of

  13. Sinosteel Corp and Jinxing Mining to Establish China’s Largest Monomer Molybdenum Dressing Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>It is learned from the introduction of the government of Songshan District,Chifeng,and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region that Songshan Jinxing Mining Co.and Sinosteel Corp.have recently signed joint restructuring agreement.Sinosteel Corp will inject capital of 420 million yuan for the holding of 60% of Jinxing’s share rights for the establishment of

  14. Data Mining Rules for Ultrasonic B-Type Detection and Diagnosis for Cholecystolithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOUWei; YANLi-min; HEGuo-sen

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents realistic data mining based on the data of B-type ultrasonic detection and diagnosis for cholrcystolithiasis (gallbladder stone in biliary tract) recorded by a district central hospital in Shanghai during the past several years. Computer simulation and modeling is described.

  15. Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

  16. Investigating hydraulic connections and the origin of water in a mine tunnel using stable isotopes and hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katherine; Poeter, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Turquoise Lake is a water-supply reservoir located north of the historic Sugarloaf Mining district near Leadville, Colorado, USA. Elevated water levels in the reservoir may increase flow of low-quality water from abandoned mine tunnels in the Sugarloaf District and degrade water quality downstream. The objective of this study was to understand the sources of water to Dinero mine drainage tunnel and evaluate whether or not there was a direct hydrologic connection between Dinero mine tunnel and Turquoise Lake from late 2002 to early 2008. This study utilized hydrograph data from nearby draining mine tunnels and the lake, and stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data from the lake, nearby draining mine tunnels, imported water, and springs to characterize water sources in the study area. Hydrograph results indicate that flow from the Dinero mine tunnel decreased 26% (2006) and 10% (2007) when lake elevation (above mean sea level) decreased below approximately 3004 m (approximately 9855 feet). Results of isotope analysis delineated two meteoric water lines in the study area. One line characterizes surface water and water imported to the study area from the western side of the Continental Divide. The other line characterizes groundwater including draining mine tunnels, springs, and seeps. Isotope mixing calculations indicate that water from Turquoise Lake or seasonal groundwater recharge from snowmelt represents approximately 10% or less of the water in Dinero mine tunnel. However, most of the water in Dinero mine tunnel is from deep groundwater having minimal isotopic variation. The asymmetric shape of the Dinero mine tunnel hydrograph may indicate that a limited mine pool exists behind a collapse in the tunnel and attenutates seasonal recharge. Alternatively, a conceptual model is presented (and supported with MODFLOW simulations) that is consistent with current and previous data collected in the study area, and illustrates how fluctuating lake levels change the local water

  17. Investigating hydraulic connections and the origin of water in a mine tunnel using stable isotopes and hydrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turquoise Lake is a water-supply reservoir located north of the historic Sugarloaf Mining district near Leadville, Colorado, USA. Elevated water levels in the reservoir may increase flow of low-quality water from abandoned mine tunnels in the Sugarloaf District and degrade water quality downstream. The objective of this study was to understand the sources of water to Dinero mine drainage tunnel and evaluate whether or not there was a direct hydrologic connection between Dinero mine tunnel and Turquoise Lake from late 2002 to early 2008. This study utilized hydrograph data from nearby draining mine tunnels and the lake, and stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data from the lake, nearby draining mine tunnels, imported water, and springs to characterize water sources in the study area. Hydrograph results indicate that flow from the Dinero mine tunnel decreased 26% (2006) and 10% (2007) when lake elevation (above mean sea level) decreased below approximately 3004 m (approximately 9855 feet). Results of isotope analysis delineated two meteoric water lines in the study area. One line characterizes surface water and water imported to the study area from the western side of the Continental Divide. The other line characterizes groundwater including draining mine tunnels, springs, and seeps. Isotope mixing calculations indicate that water from Turquoise Lake or seasonal groundwater recharge from snowmelt represents approximately 10% or less of the water in Dinero mine tunnel. However, most of the water in Dinero mine tunnel is from deep groundwater having minimal isotopic variation. The asymmetric shape of the Dinero mine tunnel hydrograph may indicate that a limited mine pool exists behind a collapse in the tunnel and attenutates seasonal recharge. Alternatively, a conceptual model is presented (and supported with MODFLOW simulations) that is consistent with current and previous data collected in the study area, and illustrates how fluctuating lake levels change the local water

  18. Mine seismicity and the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappetta, F. [Blasting Analysis International, Allentown, PA (United States); Heuze, F.; Walter, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopler, R. [Powderman Consulting Inc., Oxford, MD (United States); Hsu, V. [Air Force Technical Applications Center, Patrick AFB, FL (United States); Martin, B. [Thunder Basin Coal Co., Wright, WY (United States); Pearson, C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stump, B. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Zipf, K. [Univ. of New South Wales (Australia)

    1998-12-09

    ,000 squared kilometers. In active mining districts this area could include several different mining operations. So, an OSI could be disruptive both to the mining community and to the US Government which must host the foreign inspection team. Accordingly, it is in the best interest of all US parties to try and eliminate the possible occurrence of false alarms. This can be achieved primarily by reducing the ambiguity of mine-induced seismic signals, so that even if these remain visible to the IMS they are clearly consistent with recognizable mining patterns.

  19. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  20. Detecting and characterizing coal mine related seismicity in the Western U.S. using subspace methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Derrick J. A.; Koper, Keith D.; Pankow, Kristine L.; McCarter, Michael K.

    2015-11-01

    We present an approach for subspace detection of small seismic events that includes methods for estimating magnitudes and associating detections from multiple stations into unique events. The process is used to identify mining related seismicity from a surface coal mine and an underground coal mining district, both located in the Western U.S. Using a blasting log and a locally derived seismic catalogue as ground truth, we assess detector performance in terms of verified detections, false positives and failed detections. We are able to correctly identify over 95 per cent of the surface coal mine blasts and about 33 per cent of the events from the underground mining district, while keeping the number of potential false positives relatively low by requiring all detections to occur on two stations. We find that most of the potential false detections for the underground coal district are genuine events missed by the local seismic network, demonstrating the usefulness of regional subspace detectors in augmenting local catalogues. We note a trade-off in detection performance between stations at smaller source-receiver distances, which have increased signal-to-noise ratio, and stations at larger distances, which have greater waveform similarity. We also explore the increased detection capabilities of a single higher dimension subspace detector, compared to multiple lower dimension detectors, in identifying events that can be described as linear combinations of training events. We find, in our data set, that such an advantage can be significant, justifying the use of a subspace detection scheme over conventional correlation methods.

  1. Indoor metallic pollution and children exposure in a mining city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Enio, E-mail: enniobg@gmail.com [IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Fontúrbel, Francisco E. [Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Herbas, Cristian [Instituto IGEMA, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Barbieri, Flavia L. [IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, SELADIS (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnóstico e Investigación en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Berlin School of Public Health, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin (Germany); Gardon, Jacques [IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, SELADIS (Instituto de Servicios de Laboratorio para el Diagnóstico e Investigación en Salud), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); IRD, HSM, Montpellier (France)

    2014-07-01

    Mining industries are known for causing strong environmental contamination. In most developing countries, the management of mining wastes is not adequate, usually contaminating soil, water and air. This situation is a source of concern for human settlements located near mining centers, especially for vulnerable populations such as children. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations of the metallic concentrations between household dust and children hair, comparing these associations in two different contamination contexts: a mining district and a suburban non-mining area. We collected 113 hair samples from children between 7 and 12 years of age in elementary schools in the mining city of Oruro, Bolivia. We collected 97 indoor dust samples from their households, as well as information about the children's behavior. Analyses of hair and dust samples were conducted to measure As, Cd, Pb, Sb, Sn, Cu and Zn contents. In the mining district, there were significant correlations between non-essential metallic elements (As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Sn) in dust and hair, but not for essential elements (Cu and Zn), which remained after adjusting for children habits. Children who played with dirt had higher dust-hair correlations for Pb, Sb, and Cu (P = 0.006; 0.022 and 0.001 respectively) and children who put hands or toys in their mouths had higher dust-hair correlations of Cd (P = 0.011). On the contrary, in the suburban area, no significant correlations were found between metallic elements in dust and children hair and neither children behavior nor gender modified this lack of associations. Our results suggest that, in a context of high metallic contamination, indoor dust becomes an important exposure pathway for children, modulated by their playing behavior. - Highlights: • Mining activities are an important source of environmental pollution. • Mining pollution contaminated also indoor homes, creating a risk to population. • Indoor dust and hair concentrations

  2. Government Districts, Other - MO 2014 Springfield Conditional Overlay Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Conditional Overlay District polygons for the City of Springfield, inside city limits only. Created and maintained by the GIS Division of the Information Systems...

  3. Zoning Districts - MO 2011 Springfield Conditional Overlay Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Conditional Overlay District polygons for the City of Springfield, inside city limits only. Created and maintained by the GIS Division of the Information Systems...

  4. Government Districts, Other, National Register districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'National Register...

  5. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  6. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Hannele Ahvenniemi; Krzysztof Klobut

    2014-01-01

    The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we...

  7. Geochemical Baseline and Trace Metal Pollution of Soil in Panzhihua Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕彦国; 倪师军; 等

    2002-01-01

    A total of 31 topsoil samples were systematically collected from the Panzhihuaminingarea including steel smelting,coal mining ,urban and rural districts.A normalization procedure was adopted to establish the environmental geochemical baseline models for this area.By using the above baseline models,the regional geochemical baseline values of As,Cr,Cu,Ni,Pb and Zn were determined.On the basis of the baselines,the enrichment factors were used to analyze the mechanism of trace metal pollution in topsoil from anthropogenic sources,and the results showed that the serious trace metal pollution is caused by human activities in coal mine,iron mine,smelting factory,tailing dam and other industrial districts in the Panzhihua area.

  8. Reopening of an uranium mine in India after successful pacification of public discontent through cautious blasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasting operations at Banduhurang opencast mine of Uranium Corporation of India Limited (UCIL) were stopped for about seven months since February 2011 due to the complaints lodged by the inhabitants of nearby Dhodanga village to the district administration. The complaints were related to the disturbance caused to them as a result of blast- induced ground vibration, noise/air overpressure and flying fragments. On recommendation of the district administration, the Blasting Department of the CSIR-Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research (CSIR-CIMFR), Dhanbad carried out a thorough scientific study and assessed the impacts of blasting on various residential structures as well as on their inhabitants. The study proved that the impacts of blasting were well within safe limit. It helped pacifying public discontent and ultimately reopening the mine. (author)

  9. Data mining in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra-Ştefania PETRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how data mining is used in cloud computing. Data Mining is used for extracting potentially useful information from raw data. The integration of data mining techniques into normal day-to-day activities has become common place. Every day people are confronted with targeted advertising, and data mining techniques help businesses to become more efficient by reducing costs. Data mining techniques and applications are very much needed in the cloud computing paradigm. The implem...

  10. Concept of Web Usage Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Istrate Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Web mining is the use of data mining techniques to automatically discover and extract information from World Wide Web documents and services. This article considers the question: is effective Web mining possible? Skeptics believe that the Web is too unstructured for Web mining to succeed. Indeed, data mining has been applied to databases traditionally, yet much of the information on the Web lies buried in documents designed for human consumption such as home pages or product catalogs. Further...

  11. Languages for Mining and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    De Raedt, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Applying machine learning and data mining to novel applications is cumbersome. This observation is the prime motivation for the interest in languages for learning and mining. In this talk, I shall provide a gentle introduction to three types of languages that support machine learning and data mining: inductive query languages, which extend database query languages with primitives for mining and learning, modelling languages, which allow to declaratively specify and solve mining and learning p...

  12. Mine Maps as Grey Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Musser, Linda R. (Pennsylvania State University); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2000-01-01

    Mine maps are extremely useful resources for determining regional and local hydrogeologic conditions as well as mineral resources and reserves. Users include mining companies, property owners concerned about risk factors related to mining activities, government inspectors, engineers and planners. Hundreds of thousands of mine maps exist yet how many are collected or cataloged by libraries or archives? This paper examines the characteristics of mine maps, how they are published, their value, a...

  13. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  14. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  15. International mining forum 2004, new technologies in underground mining, safety in mines proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerzy Kicki; Eugeniusz Sobczyk (eds.)

    2004-01-15

    The book comprises technical papers that were presented at the International Mining Forum 2004. This event aims to bring together scientists and engineers in mining, rock mechanics, and computer engineering, with a view to explore and discuss international developments in the field. Topics discussed in this book are: trends in the mining industry; new solutions and tendencies in underground mines; rock engineering problems in underground mines; utilization and exploitation of methane; prevention measures for the control of rock bursts in Polish mines; and current problems in Ukrainian coal mines.

  16. Python data mining environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mrak, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    In the thesis we compare the systems for data mining that have an interface in the programming language Python. Many open-source systems for data mining and library had implemented their software interfaces to the Python programming language. They choose Python because it is fast and provides object-oriented programming, allows for the integration of other software libraries in Python and is implemented in all major operating systems (Windows, Linux / Unix, OS / 2, Mac, etc..). Our analysis s...

  17. Coal Mines Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Guhe; Shruti Deshmukh; Bhagyashree Borekar; Apoorva Kailaswar; Milind E. Rane

    2012-01-01

    Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, auto...

  18. MINING INDUSTRY IN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Vujec

    1996-01-01

    The trends of World and European mine industry is presented with introductory short review. The mining industry is very important in economy of Croatia, because of cover most of needed petroleum and natural gas quantity, total construction raw materials and industrial non-metallic raw minerals. Detail quantitative presentation of mineral raw material production is compared with pre-war situation. The value of annual production is represented for each raw mineral (the paper is published in Cro...

  19. MINING INDUSTRY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Vujec

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The trends of World and European mine industry is presented with introductory short review. The mining industry is very important in economy of Croatia, because of cover most of needed petroleum and natural gas quantity, total construction raw materials and industrial non-metallic raw minerals. Detail quantitative presentation of mineral raw material production is compared with pre-war situation. The value of annual production is represented for each raw mineral (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Applied data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guandong

    2013-01-01

    Data mining has witnessed substantial advances in recent decades. New research questions and practical challenges have arisen from emerging areas and applications within the various fields closely related to human daily life, e.g. social media and social networking. This book aims to bridge the gap between traditional data mining and the latest advances in newly emerging information services. It explores the extension of well-studied algorithms and approaches into these new research arenas.

  1. Web Mining: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. G. S. Mudiraj B. Jabber K. David raju

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Web usage mining is a main research area in Web mining focused on learning about Web users and their interactions with Web sites. The motive of mining is to find users’ access models automatically and quickly from the vast Web log data, such as frequent access paths, frequent access page groups and user clustering. Through web usage mining, the server log, registration information and other relative information left by user provide foundation for decision making of organizations. This article provides a survey and analysis of current Web usage mining systems and technologies. There are generally three tasks in Web Usage Mining: Preprocessing, Pattern analysis and Knowledge discovery. Preprocessing cleans log file of server by removing log entries such as error or failure and repeated request for the same URL from the same host etc... The main task of Pattern analysis is to filter uninteresting information and to visualize and interpret the interesting pattern to users. The statistics collected from the log file can help to discover the knowledge. This knowledge collected can be used to take decision on various factors like Excellent, Medium, Weak users and Excellent, Medium and Weak web pages based on hit counts of the web page in the web site. The design of the website is restructured based on user’s behavior or hit counts which provides quick response to the web users, saves memory space of servers and thus reducing HTTP requests and bandwidth utilization. This paper addresses challenges in three phases of Web Usage mining along with Web Structure Mining.This paper also discusses an application of WUM, an online Recommender System that dynamically generates links to pages that have not yet been visited by a user and might be of his potential interest. Differently from the recommender systems proposed so far, ONLINE MINER does not make use of any off-line component, and is able to manage Web sites made up of pages dynamically generated.

  2. Data mining in radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Amit T Kharat; Amarjit Singh; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Digish Shah

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed dec...

  3. Bauxite and Kaolin Deposits of the Irwinton district, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Walter B.; Warren, Walter C.; Thompson, Raymond M.; Overstreet, Elizabeth F.

    1965-01-01

    The Irwinton district is in the central part of Georgia at the inner margin of the Coastal Plain province. The oldest rocks exposed in the district are crystalline rocks of the Piedmont province. They are unconformably overlain by nonmarine sedimentary strata of Late Cretaceous age, including gravel, micaceous sand, and lenses of kaolin. Bauxite has been found in a few of the kaolin lenses near the top of the sequence of these strata. During a long period prior to deposition of the over- lying marine beds of the Claiborne and Jackson Groups (middle and upper Eocene), the Upper Cretaceous strata were subjected to subaerial erosion. The bauxite deposits are considered to have formed during this period. They range in thickness from a few inches to more than 10 feet and occupy areas ranging from a few square feet to more than 5 acres. Most of the known bauxite deposits lie along the valleys of Commissioners Creek and Big Sandy Creek in Wilkinson County. The kaolin lenses are much larger than the bauxite deposits; some of the lenses underlie more than 200 acres and are more than 20 feet thick. Bauxite was discovered in the district in 1907 and was mined from 1910 to 1928. A few additional carloads of ore were shipped in 1941 and 1942, but no ore has been mined since that time. Reserves of high-grade bauxite are very small. Reserves of all grades of bauxite plus bauxitic clay may be about 400,000 long tons. The Irwinton district is the principal source of high-grade kaolin in the United States. The presence of kaolin here has been known since early colo- nial time, and it has been mined continuously since 1897. Production in 1959 was 1,940,279 short tons. The reserves of kaolin are very large but have never been adequately measured. Reserves of first and second grade kaolin may be 67 to 84 million short tons. Kaolin of lower grade is present in larger quantity.

  4. Investigation and characterization of mining subsidence in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jian; BIAN Li

    2007-01-01

    In Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine, serious environmental and safety problems are caused by large scale mining activities in the past 40 years. These problems include mining subsidence, low recovery ratio, too much dead ore in pillars, and pollution of phosphorus gypsum. Mining subsidence falls into four categories: curved ground and mesa, ground cracks and collapse hole, spalling and eboulement, slope slide and creeping. Measures to treat the mining subsidence were put forward: finding out and managing abandoned stopes, optimizing mining method (cut and fill mining method), selecting proper backfilling materials (phosphogypsum mixtures), avoiding disorder mining operation, and treating highway slopes. These investigations and engineering treatment methods are believed to be able to contribute to the safety extraction of ore and sustainable development in Kaiyang Phosphorus Mine.

  5. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  6. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  7. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  8. Coal mining in Ramagundam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraberty, S.

    1979-07-01

    The Ramagundam area in the South Godavari Coalfield is one of the most promising coal-bearing belts in India. It contains total coal reserves of about 1,132,000,000 tons in an area of approximately 150 square kilometers, and holds high potential for development into a vast industrial center. During the past four years production has doubled to 3,500,000 tons in 1978 to 1979. By 1983 to 1984, the total output per year is planned to be doubled again. Increased mechanization and the introduction of more advanced mining techniques will help to achieve this goal. In addition to the present face machinery, i.e., gathering arm loaders/shuttle cars and side dump loaders/chain conveyor combinations, the latest Voest-Alpine AM50 tunneling and roadheading machines have been commissioned for development work. Load-haul-dump machines will be introduced in the near future to ensure higher loading/transport capacities. A double-drum shearer loader with self-advancing supports is due to be commissioned shortly for faster, more efficient longwall mining to supplement conventional bord and pillar mining. In addition, a mechanized open cast mine has come on stream, and a walking dragline will soon be delivered to the mine for removing overburden. The projected annual output from this mine will be about 2,000,000 tons. (LTN)

  9. Isotope studies to assess water development in mining dump sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the ending of the lignite exploitation open mining pits with dump sites of heterogeneous mixture of Tertiary and Quaternary sediments were flooded by groundwater and river water inflow forming partially acidic (pH about 2 to 3) mining lakes with high sulphate (>3000 mg/L) and iron content (>500 mg/L) (Friese et al., 1998). The renewing of the groundwater system in mining areas is a very complicated process. The knowledge of the whole as well as of parts of that process is important for the future water management and for land use. Acidification of surface and groundwater based on pyrite oxidation dominates water quality development of the groundwater and of the flooded pits. The different sulphur compounds and the distribution of sulphur sources (pyrite, sulphate, sulphide) can easily controlled by the sulphur and oxygen isotope analyses. Our studies are focused on an acidic mine lake ML 111 in the Lusatian Lignite District and on the Cospuden lignite mine south of Leipzig

  10. Mercury Pollution Studies of Some Rivers Draining the Bibiani-Anwiaso-Bekwai Mining Community of South Western Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    V.K. Nartey; L.K. Doamekpor; S. Sarpong-Kumankuma; T. Akabzaa; F.K. Nyame; J.K. Kutor; D. Adotey

    2011-01-01

    The project assessed the extent of mercury pollution of some rivers that drain the Bibiani-Anwiaso- Bekwai district which is a typical mining community in the south western part of Ghana. In the study, surfacewater and sediment samples were collected from seven streams that drain this mining community and analyzed for total mercury, organic mercury and elemental mercury. Mercury concentrations of non-filtered water was determined using the ICP-OES after reduction with stannous chloride (SnCl2...

  11. A critical evaluation of the challenges facing dust management within gold mining regions of South Africa / Jacobus Johannes Martins

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Jacobus Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Windblown dust remains a persistent problem within South African urban and peri-urban areas due to the prevailing dry climatic conditions, extensive surface mining and mineral processing. Despite deposition monitoring guidelines and national dust regulations, South Africa still has persistent dust problems in especially gold mining districts. The main aim of the research is to critically evaluate all the potential challenges within dust management which could be responsible for persistent dus...

  12. Geochemistry of Standard Mine Waters, Gunnison County, Colorado, July 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Manning, Andrew H.; Graves, Jeffrey T.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Todorov, Todor; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    In many hard-rock-mining districts water flowing from abandoned mine adits is a primary source of metals to receiving streams. Understanding the generation of adit discharge is an important step in developing remediation plans. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency listed the Standard Mine in the Elk Creek drainage basin near Crested Butte, Colorado as a superfund site because drainage from the Standard Mine enters Elk Creek, contributing dissolved and suspended loads of zinc, cadmium, copper, and other metals to the stream. Elk Creek flows into Coal Creek, which is a source of drinking water for the town of Crested Butte. In 2006 and 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a hydrogeologic investigation of the Standard Mine and vicinity and identified areas of the underground workings for additional work. Mine drainage, underground-water samples, and selected spring water samples were collected in July 2009 for analysis of inorganic solutes as part of a follow-up study. Water analyses are reported for mine-effluent samples from Levels 1 and 5 of the Standard Mine, underground samples from Levels 2 and 3 of the Standard Mine, two spring samples, and an Elk Creek sample. Reported analyses include field measurements (pH, specific conductance, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and redox potential), major constituents and trace elements, and oxygen and hydrogen isotopic determinations. Overall, water samples collected in 2009 at the same sites as were collected in 2006 have similar chemical compositions. Similar to 2006, water in Level 3 did not flow out the portal but was observed to flow into open workings to lower parts of the mine. Many dissolved constituent concentrations, including calcium, magnesium, sulfate, manganese, zinc, and cadmium, in Level 3 waters substantially are lower than in Level 1 effluent. Concentrations of these dissolved constituents in water samples collected from Level 2 approach or exceed concentrations of Level 1 effluent

  13. District formation: a co-opetition approach

    OpenAIRE

    Soubeyran, Antoine; Weber, Shlomo

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers a model of district formation that incorporates a notion of regional industrial systems. Each firm chooses its location from the set of existing industrial districts. The heterogeneous firms are distinguished by its "stand alone" district-dependent production and transportation cost. However, if other firms locate in the same district, the firm's stand alone cost is reduced by a factor that depends on the number of firms in the district. Thus, firms must take into account...

  14. Isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural biodegradation processes in open cast pit mining landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Christina; Knöller, Kay; Koschorreck, Matthias; Ussath, Maria; Hoth, Nils

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, a major share of the energy production is based on the burning of lignite from open cast pit mines. The remediation and re-cultivation of the former mining areas in the Lusatian and Central German lignite mining district is an enormous technical and economical challenge. After mine closures, the surrounding landscapes are threatened by acid mine drainage (AMD), i.e. the acidification and mineralization of rising groundwater with metals and inorganic contaminants. The high content of sulfur (sulfuric acid, sulfate), nitrogen (ammonium) and iron compounds (iron-hydroxides) deteriorates the groundwater quality and decelerates sustainable development of tourism in (former) mining landscapes. Natural biodegradation or attenuation (NA) processes of inorganic contaminants are considered to be a technically low impact and an economically beneficial solution. The investigations of the stable isotope compositions of compounds involved in NA processes helps clarify the dynamics of natural degradation and provides specific informations on retention processes of sulfate and nitrogen-compounds in mine dump water, mine dump sediment, and residual pit lakes. In an active mine dump we investigated zones where the process of bacterial sulfate reduction, as one very important NA process, takes place and how NA can be enhanced by injecting reactive substrates. Stable isotopes signatures of sulfur and nitrogen components were examined and evaluated in concert with hydrogeochemical data. In addition, we delineated the sources of ammonium pollution in mine dump sediments and investigated nitrification by 15N-labeling techniques to calculate the limit of the conversion of harmful ammonium to nitrate in residual mining lakes. Ultimately, we provided an isotope biogeochemical assessment of natural attenuation of sulfate and ammonium at mine dump sites and mining lakes. Also, we estimated the risk potential for water in different compartments of the hydrological system. In

  15. Elkon - A new world class Russian uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The uranium deposits of Elkon district are located in the south of Republic of Sakha Yakutia. Deposits contain about 6% of the world known uranium resources: 342 409 tonnes of in situ or 288 768 tonnes of recoverable RAR + Inferred resources. Most significant uranium resources of Elkon district (261 768 tonnes) were identified within five deposits of Yuzhnaya zone. The uranium grade averages 0.15%. Gold, silver and molybdenum are by-products. Principal resources are proposed to be mined by conventional underground method. Location, shape and dimensions of uranium ore bodies are primarily controlled by NW-SE oriented and steeply SW dipping faults of Mesozoic age and surrounding pyrite-carbonate-potassium feldspar alteration zones. Country rocks are Archean gneisses. Deposits are of metasomatic geological type. Principal mineralization is represented by brannerite. The Yuzhnaya zone is about 20 km long. It was explored by underground workings and drill holes. Upper limit of ore bodies is at a depth of between 200 m and 500 m. Depth persistence exceeds 2 000 m. Uranium mining enterprise Elkon was established in November 2007. It is a 100% Atomredmetzoloto subsidiary. The planned producing capacity is 5 000 m tU/year. It will perform the entire works related to uranium mining, milling, ore sorting, processing and uranium dioxide production. Technology of ore processing assumes primary radiometric sorting, thickening, sulphide flotation for gold concentrate extraction, subsequent autoclave sulphuric-acid uranium leaching from flotation tails and uranium adsorption onto resin, roasting and heap leaching for uranium from low grade ores, cyanide leaching of gold. Due to a considerable abundance of brannerite ore is classified as refractory. Elkon development include 4 main stages: feasibility study and infrastructure development (2008- 2010), mine and mill construction (2010-2015), pilot production (2013-2015), mine development and achieving full capacity

  16. Analysis of post-blasting source mechanisms of mining-induced seismic events in Rudna copper mine, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputa, Alicja; Rudzinski, Lukasz; Talaga, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Copper ore exploitation in the Lower Silesian Copper District, Poland (LSCD), is connected with many specific hazards. The most hazardous one is induced seismicity and rockbursts which follow strong mining seismic events. One of the most effective method to reduce seismic activity is blasting in potentially hazardous mining panels. This way, small to moderate tremors are provoked and stress accumulation is substantially reduced. This work presents an analysis of post-blasting events using Full Moment Tensor (MT) inversion at the Rudna mine, Poland using signals dataset recorded on underground seismic network. We show that focal mechanisms for events that occurred after blasts exhibit common features in the MT solution. The strong isotropic and small Double Couple (DC) component of the MT, indicate that these events were provoked by detonations. On the other hand, post-blasting MT is considerably different than the MT obtained for common strong mining events. We believe that seismological analysis of provoked and unprovoked events can be a very useful tool in confirming the effectiveness of blasting in seismic hazard reduction in mining areas.

  17. Application of regional geochemical surveys to environmental studies; a case study from the Namaqualand copper district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfse, A. D.; Holdsworth, R.

    1994-04-01

    Data from the Geological Survey of South Africa's regional geochemical programme is discussed with particular reference to environmental and agricultural aspects. Stream sediments from the Okiep copper district, Namaqualand in South Africa show highly elevated copper values as the result of a history of mining activity in the area. The potential for contamination of forage and drinking water was investigated and no obvious clinical evidence of copper excesses was observed in the ecosystem.

  18. Diamonds, a resource curse? The case of Kono District in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sigismond Ayodele

    Using an actor-oriented approach to political ecology integrated with theory on the social production of scale, this dissertation examines the extent to which diamond exploitation constitutes a resource curse in Sierra Leone, with Kono District as a case-study. It uses social survey methods and remote sensing analysis of Landsat images to (1) evaluate the role of Sierra Leone's diamonds in economic development from a historical lens, (2) examine the extent to which a weak regulatory state apparatus makes a rich diamond endowment more of a curse than a blessing, (3) determine whether geographically diffuse and remotely-located diamonds are more a liability than an asset, and (4) assess whether environmental conditions are worse in diamond than in non-diamond chiefdoms. Results of the study showed that the contribution of diamonds to national economic growth declined precipitously following the politicization of diamonds and growing informalization of mining under the leadership of Siaka Stevens. Growing disenchantment combined with grievances over access to diamond resources and rights, culminating in a civil war fuelled by conflict diamonds. Findings indicated that actors capitalized on a weak regulatory state to fulfill their agendas. Illicit diamond exploitation was mainly driven by corruption, economic constraints and perverse economic incentives. Preferential land allocation to industrial mining following World Bank Group-directed national mining policy reforms and the weakness of the state in ensuring companies' adherence to mining clauses precipitated corporation-community conflicts. Study findings showed that the resource curse was acute on diggers who received less than 1 a day unlike their South American counterparts who made at least 7 daily. Results from the study demonstrate that the spatiality of diamonds also contributed to the resource curse. Illicit diamond mining was more acute in remotely located mining sites than in extractive sites closer to

  19. Field site investigation: Effect of mine seismicity on groundwater hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a field investigation on the groundwater-hydrologic effect of mining-induced earthquakes are presented in this report. The investigation was conducted at the Lucky Friday Mine, a silver-lead-zinc mine in the Coeur d'Alene Mining District of Idaho. The groundwater pressure in sections of three fracture zones beneath the water table was monitored over a 24-mo period. The fracture zones were accessed through a 360-m-long inclined borehole, drilled from the 5,700 level station of the mine. The magnitude, source location, and associated ground motions of mining-induced seismic events were also monitored during the same period, using an existing seismic instrumentation network for the mine, augmented with additional instruments installed specifically for the project by the center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA). More than 50 seismic events of Richter magnitude 1.0 or larger occurred during the monitoring period. Several of these events caused the groundwater pressure to increase, whereas a few caused it to decrease. Generally, the groundwater pressure increased as the magnitude of seismic event increased; for an event of a given magnitude, the groundwater pressure increased by a smaller amount as the distance of the observation point from the source of the event increased. The data was examined using regression analysis. Based on these results, it is suggested that the effect of earthquakes on groundwater flow may be better understood through mechanistic modeling. The mechanical processes and material behavior that would need to be incorporated in such a model are examined. They include a description of the effect of stress change on the permeability and water storage capacity of a fracture rock mass; transient fluid flow; and the generation and transmission of seismic waves through the rock mass

  20. Metallogeny, exploitation and environmental impact of the Mt. Amiata mercury ore district (Southern Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Chiarantini, L.; Lattanzi, P.; Benvenuti, M.; Beutel, M.; Colica, A.; Costagliola, P.; Di Benedetto, F.; Gabbani, G.; Gray, John E.; Pandeli, E.; Pattelli, G.; Paolieri, M.; Ruggieri, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Mt. Amiata mining district (Southern Tuscany, Italy) is a world class Hg district, with a cumulate production of more than 100,000 tonnes of Hg, mostly occurring between 1870 and 1980. The Hg mineralization at Mt. Amiata is younger than 0.3 Ma, and is directly related to shallow hydrothermal systems similar to present-day geothermal fields of the region. There is likely a continuum of Hg deposition to present day, because Hg emission from geothermal power plants is on-going. In this sense, the Mt. Amiata deposits present some analogies with “hot-spring type” deposits of western USA, although an ore deposit model for the district has not been established. Specifically, the source of Hg remains highly speculative. The mineralizing hydrothermal fluids are of low temperature, and of essentially meteoric origin.

  1. Modern geodesy approach in underground mining

    OpenAIRE

    Mijalkovski, Stojance; Despodov, Zoran; Gorgievski, Cvetan; Bogdanovski, Goran; Mirakovski, Dejan; Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija; Doneva, Nikolinka

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents overview of the development of modern geodesy approach in underground mining. Correct surveying measurements have great importance in mining, especially underground mining as well as a major impact on safety in the development of underground mining facilities.

  2. Colombia, mining country. Vision a year 2019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scope of the state action for the mining sector, the performance of the mining sector, regional perceptions of mining development, construction of a long-term vision for the mining sector, the action plan and goals follow-up

  3. Journey from Data Mining to Web Mining to Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Richa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the journey of big data starting from data mining to web mining to big data. It discusses each of this method in brief and also provides their applications. It states the importance of mining big data today using fast and novel approaches.

  4. Mining and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 30 contributions, out of which 9 have been inputted in INIS. They are concerned with uranium mines and mills in the Czech Republic. The impacts of the mining activities and of the mill tailings on the environment and the population are assessed, and it is concluded that the radiation hazard does not exceed that from natural background. Considerable attention is paid to the monitoring of the surroundings of mines and mills and to landscaping activities. Proposed technologies for the purification of waste waters from the chemical leaching process are described. Ways to eliminate environmental damage from abandoned tailings settling ponds are suggested. (M.D.). 18 tabs., 21 figs., 43 refs

  5. Overview of solution mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with in situ solution mining. A significant fraction of known U.S. uranium reserves occur as low grade mineralization in sedimentary sandstone deposits located between 40 and 200 meters subsurface. For a variety of reasons, such deposits may not be economically developable by any method other than in situ solution mining. This coupled with the current market price of uranium has led to significant development and application of in situ solution mining for uranium production during the past several years. The process consists of the ore body; well field; lixiviant; uranium recovery process; waste treatment processes; and aquifer restoration. A tabulation of firms involved with a summary of the leach chemistry used is given. 3 refs

  6. Data mining methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chattamvelli, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    DATA MINING METHODS, Second Edition discusses both theoretical foundation and practical applications of datamining in a web field including banking, e-commerce, medicine, engineering and management. This book starts byintroducing data and information, basic data type, data category and applications of data mining. The second chapterbriefly reviews data visualization technology and importance in data mining. Fundamentals of probability and statisticsare discussed in chapter 3, and novel algorithm for sample covariants are derived. The next two chapters give an indepthand useful discussion of data warehousing and OLAP. Decision trees are clearly explained and a new tabularmethod for decision tree building is discussed. The chapter on association rules discusses popular algorithms andcompares various algorithms in summary table form. An interesting application of genetic algorithm is introduced inthe next chapter. Foundations of neural networks are built from scratch and the back propagation algorithm is derived...

  7. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  8. Mercury dispersal to arroyo and coastal sediments from abandoned copper mine operations, el Boléo, Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Fyodor; Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Griselda Margarita; Mirlean, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for mercury dispersal in an arid coastal region of central Baja California (Mexico) suggests that abandoned copper mining operations are a noticeable source of mercury in the environment. There is a generally elevated level of mercury in alluvium of arroyos throughout the mining district (0.14-0.18 mg kg(-1)). In the first several dozen meters surrounding two of the biggest mines, mercury levels range from 0.26 to 3.16 mg kg(-1), forming a halo of anomalously high concentrations. The coastal marine sediments, particularly those close to the copper smelter in the town of Santa Rosalía, also display some mercury enrichment. PMID:18800200

  9. Mercury dispersal to arroyo and coastal sediments from abandoned copper mine operations, El Boléo, Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Kot, Fydor; Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez Figueroa, Griselda Margarita; Mirlean, Nicolai

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for mercury dispersal in an arid coastal region of central Baja California (Mexico) suggests that abandoned copper mining operations are a noticeable source of mercury in the environment. There is a generally elevated level of mercury in alluvium of arroyos throughout the mining district (0.14–0.18 mg kg-1). In the first several dozen meters surrounding two of the biggest mines, mercury levels range from 0.26 to 3.16 mg kg-1, forming a halo of anomalously high concentrations. The coa...

  10. Databases for Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    LANGOF, LADO

    2015-01-01

    This work is about looking for synergies between data mining tools and databa\\-se management systems (DBMS). Imagine a situation where we need to solve an analytical problem using data that are too large to be processed solely inside the main physical memory and at the same time too small to put data warehouse or distributed analytical system in place. The target area is therefore a single personal computer that is used to solve data mining problems. We are looking for tools that allows us to...

  11. Mining protein structure data

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, José Carlos Almeida

    2006-01-01

    The principal topic of this work is the application of data mining techniques, in particular of machine learning, to the discovery of knowledge in a protein database. In the first chapter a general background is presented. Namely, in section 1.1 we overview the methodology of a Data Mining project and its main algorithms. In section 1.2 an introduction to the proteins and its supporting file formats is outlined. This chapter is concluded with section 1.3 which defines that main problem we...

  12. Mining multidimensional distinct patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Kubendranathan, Thusjanthan

    2010-01-01

    How do we find the dominant groups of customers in age, sex and location that were responsible for at least 85% of the sales of iPad, Macbook and iPhone? To answer such types of questions we introduce a novel data mining task – mining multidimensional distinct patterns (DPs). Given a multidimensional data set where each tuple carries some attribute values and a transaction, multidimensional DPs are itemsets whose absolute support ratio in a group-by on the attributes against the rest of the d...

  13. Data mining mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    With today's consumers spending more time on their mobiles than on their PCs, new methods of empirical stochastic modeling have emerged that can provide marketers with detailed information about the products, content, and services their customers desire.Data Mining Mobile Devices defines the collection of machine-sensed environmental data pertaining to human social behavior. It explains how the integration of data mining and machine learning can enable the modeling of conversation context, proximity sensing, and geospatial location throughout large communities of mobile users

  14. First aid at mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This Code of Practice has been approved by the Health and Safety Commission with the consent of the Secretary of State under section 16 of the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974. It gives practical guidance on the requirements placed on employers and self-employed persons by the Health and Safety (First-Aid) Regulations 1981 as they now apply to mines and comes into effect on 1 October 1993 which is the date on which the Management and Administration of Safety and Health at Mines Regulations 1993 come into force.

  15. Blockchain Mining Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kiayias, Aggelos; Koutsoupias, Elias; Kyropoulou, Maria; Tselekounis, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    We study the strategic considerations of miners participating in the bitcoin's protocol. We formulate and study the stochastic game that underlies these strategic considerations. The miners collectively build a tree of blocks, and they are paid when they create a node (mine a block) which will end up in the path of the tree that is adopted by all. Since the miners can hide newly mined nodes, they play a game with incomplete information. Here we consider two simplified forms of this game in wh...

  16. Data mining for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Meta S

    2014-01-01

    Delve into your data for the key to success Data mining is quickly becoming integral to creating value and business momentum. The ability to detect unseen patterns hidden in the numbers exhaustively generated by day-to-day operations allows savvy decision-makers to exploit every tool at their disposal in the pursuit of better business. By creating models and testing whether patterns hold up, it is possible to discover new intelligence that could change your business''s entire paradigm for a more successful outcome. Data Mining for Dummies shows you why it doesn''t take a data scientist to gain

  17. Pervasive data mining engine

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Rui Daniel Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Engenharia e Gestão de Sistemas de Informação As ferramentas de Data Mining atuais necessitam de um conhecimento aprofundado na área para obter resultados otimizados. Esta dissertação apresenta como questão de investigação analisar “A viabilidade da construção de um sistema de Data Mining semiautónomo com características pervasive, sem perder a sua identidade e funcionalidades” e como objetivo desenvolver um protótipo de um sistema designado Pervasive D...

  18. WIRELESS MINE WIDE TELECOMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two industrial prototype units for through-the-earth wireless communication were constructed and tested. Preparation for a temporary installation in NIOSH's Lake Lynn mine for the through-the-earth and the in-mine system were completed. Progress was made in the programming of the in-mine system to provide data communication. Work has begun to implement a wireless interface between equipment controllers and our in-mine system

  19. Neural Networks in Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Gaur

    2012-01-01

    The application of neural networks in the data mining is very wide. Although neural networks may have complex structure, long training time, and uneasily understandable representation of results, neural networks have high acceptance ability for noisy data and high accuracy and are preferable in data mining. In this paper the data mining based on neural networks is researched in detail, and the key technology and ways to achieve the data mining based on neural networks are also researched.

  20. Economy, environmental issues and market requirements. The example of coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domestic coal mining is in a recession stage now. The cost of mining increases and the European market is saturated. The projection of the needs for solid fuels till 2000 was analyzed based on an investigation made among 80 large-scale customers and in the municipal and household sphere. Demands for bituminous coal for power plants exhibit an increasing trend. From the environmental point of view it is unfavourable that, as the district authorities suppose, brown coal and bituminous coal sludges will continue to be used by the households and communities after 2000. The problem of the mining and processing costs and of the related coal prices is a crucial issue in the future development of fuel mining in the Czech Republic. (M.D.). 3 refs

  1. Dating of mine waste in lacustrine sediments using cesium-137

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rember, W. C.; Erdman, T. W.; Hoffmann, M. L.; Chamberlain, V. E.; Sprenke, K. F.

    1993-11-01

    For over a century Medicine Lake in northern Idaho has received heavy-metal-laden tailings from the Coeur d'Alene mining district. Establishing the depositional chronology of the lake bottom sediments provides information on the source and rate of deposition of the tailings. Cesium-137, an isotope produced in the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests, was virtually absent in the environment prior to 1951, but reached its apex in 1964. Our analysis of cesium-137 in the sediments of Medicine Lake revealed that 14 cm of fine-grained tailings were deposited in the lake from 1951 to 1964 and tailing deposition downstream was greatly reduced by the installation of tailings dams in the district in 1968. Cesium-137 analysis is accomplished by a fairly simple gamma-ray counting technique and should be a valuable tool for analyzing sedimentation in any lacustrine environment that was active during the 1950s and 1960s.

  2. DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    . Ramageri; Bharati M.

    2010-01-01

    Data mining is a process which finds useful patterns from large amount of data. The paper discusses few of the data mining techniques, algorithms and some of the organizations which have adapted data mining technology to improve their businesses and found excellent results.

  3. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  4. 76 FR 63238 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines, published on August 31... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. Due to requests from the public and to provide...

  5. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  6. Geomechanical design of a room and rib pillar granite mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniele Peila; Claudia Guardini; Sebastiano Pelizza

    2008-01-01

    The geomochanical and stability design of an underground granite mine located in Canal San Bovo (Trento district, North- eastern Italy) was described. The exploitation of the granite, which is used in the ceramic industry, was carried out by the rooms and rib pillars method. The rooms are 12 m wide while the pillars are 11 m wide and they cross the main discontinuity set of the rock mass in the perpendicular direction. To verify the stability condition of an underground mine, it is necessary to carry out the calcula- tions that are able to check both the local and global stability of the rock mass. In the studied example, this approach has been applied with the development of analytical and numerical parametric analyses and it has permitted to get the best orientation and to design the size of rooms and pillars.

  7. The isotopic composition of ore lead of the Creede mining district and vicinity, San Juan Mountains, Colorado: Text of a talk presented at the San Juan Mountains symposium to honor Thomas A. Steven; Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, May 2, 1987, Boulder, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, N.K.; Barton, P.B.; Bethke, P.M.; Doe, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    Galenas from the major Creede veins and their northern extensions are remarkably homogeneous in Pb-isotopic composition and are too radiogenic to have been derived from any magma comparable in composition to the principal volcanic rocks. This pattern was identified by Doe et al. in 1979 who proposed that the lead was derived from the Precambrian basement. The homogeneity of the ore leads, however, requires a uniform reservoir; an unlikely prospect for lead from the Precambrian basement. We report on 16 new analyses of geographically and paragenetically dispersed galenas from the Creede district and other areas as far as 11 km to the north. The lead values range from 18.972 to 19.060 for 206Pb/204Pb, from 15.591 to 15.671 for 207Pb/204Pb, and from 37.781 to 37.921 for 208Pb/204Pb. These ranges overlap those previously reported for the main ore zone.

  8. Government Districts, Other, Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues, Published in 2014, Not Applicable scale, GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2014. It is...

  9. Your District Deserves an Audit Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaupp, Frederick W.; Maust, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    A school district audit committee has the capacity to unearth pertinent information about the operating efficiency and effectiveness of a school district, as well as providing a more professional audit. (Author/WM)

  10. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  11. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  12. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  13. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  14. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  15. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  16. Iowa Congressional Districts for 2013-2022

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Congressional district boundaries, enacted April 19, 2011, effective beginning with the elections in 2012 for the 113th U.S. Congress. The districts will remain in...

  17. Frequent pattern mining

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2014-01-01

    Proposes numerous methods to solve some of the most fundamental problems in data mining and machine learning Presents various simplified perspectives, providing a range of information to benefit both students and practitioners Includes surveys on key research content, case studies and future research directions

  18. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  19. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  20. Coal Mines Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Guhe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geological circumstances of mine seem to be extremely complicated and there are many hidden troubles. Coal is wrongly lifted by the musclemen from coal stocks, coal washeries, coal transfer and loading points and also in the transport routes by malfunctioning the weighing of trucks. CIL —Coal India Ltd is under the control of mafia and a large number of irregularities can be contributed to coal mafia. An Intelligent Coal Mine Security System using data acquisition method utilizes sensor, automatic detection, communication and microcontroller technologies, to realize the operational parameters of the mining area. The data acquisition terminal take the PIC 16F877A chip integrated circuit as a core for sensing the data, which carries on the communication through the RS232 interface with the main control machine, which has realized the intelligent monitoring. Data management system uses EEPROM chip as a Black box to store data permanently and also use CCTV camera for recording internal situation. The system implements the real-time monitoring and displaying for data undermine, query, deletion and maintenance of history data, graphic statistic, report printing, expert diagnosis and decision-making support. The Research, development and Promote Application will provide the safeguard regarding the mine pit control in accuracy, real-time capacity and has high reliability.

  1. Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-08-01

    This final report describes the activities of the Iowa State Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (ISMMRRI) at Iowa State University for the period July 1, 1989, to June 30, 1990. Activities include research in mining- and mineral-related areas, education and training of scientists and engineers in these fields, administration of the Institute, and cooperative interactions with industry, government agencies, and other research centers. During this period, ISMMRRI has supported research efforts to: (1) Investigate methods of leaching zinc from sphalerite-containing ores. (2) Study the geochemistry and geology of an Archean gold deposit and of a gold-telluride deposit. (3) Enchance how-quality aggregates for use in construction. (4) Pre-clean coal by triboelectric charging in a fluidized-bed. (5) Characterize the crystal/grain alignment during processing of yttrium-barium-copper-perovskite (1-2-3) superconductors. (5) Study the fluid inclusion properties of a fluorite district. (6) Study the impacts of surface mining on community planning. (7) Assess the hydrophobicity of coal and pyrite for beneficiation. (8) Investigate the use of photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy for monitoring unburnt carbon in the exhaust gas from coal-fired boilers. The education and training program continued within the interdepartmental graduate minor in mineral resources includes courses in such areas as mining methods, mineral processing, industrial minerals, extractive metallurgy, coal science and technology, and reclamation of mined land. In addition, ISMMRRI hosted the 3rd International Conference on Processing and Utilization of High-Sulfur Coals in Ames, Iowa. The Institute continues to interact with industry in order to foster increased cooperation between academia and the mining and mineral community.

  2. Étude des minéralisations aurifères du District d'El Callao, Venezuela. Rôle de la remobilisation de l'or "invisible" dans la formation du gisement.

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, German

    2012-01-01

    The Colombia Mine is localized in the El Callao Mining District Venezuela. It has Au reserves of 23 million ounces (= 740 t Au), which make it the largest gold mine in Guayana Craton, and grant it the label of giant gold deposit (i.e. > 500 t Au). The mineralization is hosted by the Paleoproterozoic El Callao formation, which is constituted by Fe-rich tholeiitic basalts that were formed in a plateau oceanic setting. Exploitation in the mine is focused on three "vein systems", known as América...

  3. Design and implementation of data mining tools

    CERN Document Server

    Thuraisingham, Bhavani; Awad, Mamoun

    2009-01-01

    DATA MINING TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS IntroductionTrendsData Mining Techniques and ApplicationsData Mining for Cyber Security: Intrusion DetectionData Mining for Web: Web Page Surfing PredictionData Mining for Multimedia: Image ClassificationOrganization of This BookNext StepsData Mining TechniquesIntroductionOverview of Data Mining Tasks and TechniquesArtificial Neural NetworksSupport Vector MachinesMarkov ModelAssociation Rule Mining (ARM)Multiclass ProblemImage MiningSummaryData Mining ApplicationsIntroductionIntrusion DetectionWeb Page Surfing PredictionImage ClassificationSummaryDATA MI

  4. Improving the effectiveness of wells for lignite mine dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rude, T.R.; Banning, A. [Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hydrogeology; Klauder, W.; Roger, S. [Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management; Vinzelberg, G. [RWE Power AG, Bergheim (Germany). Dept. of Water Resources Management

    2010-07-01

    Mine dewatering is an important factor in determining the economic feasibility of lignite open cast mining projects. Ochre formation is accelerated in open pit dewatering, as the wells have long filter lengths that allow for high oxygen flux into well screens, gravel packs, and the surrounding aquifer. Ochre formation can reduce the productivity of wells by an estimated 20 percent. This experimental study investigated the formation of ochre in different environments using well screens from the Rhenish lignite mining district in Germany. The influence of oxygen, iron (Fe{sup 2+}), pH, flow velocity, water composition, and microorganisms were considered. Samples from the mine were passed through an apparatus that supplied Fe{sup 2+} and filtered the formed Fe{sup 3+} oxide colloids. The oxygen- and iron-free water was then conditioned and treated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Results of the study showed that Fe{sup 3+} hydroxides quickly formed in the screen due to high Fe{sup 2+} concentrations. Results indicated that pH must be kept high in the deoxygenation unit in order to facilitate rapid oxygen consumption. The experimental study will be used to investigate abiotic conditions created by variations in flow velocity, Fe{sup 2+} concentrations, sulfate content and alkalinity. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Mining and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain the best social and environmental results from mining activities, different solutions, which involve a variety of perspectives, have been proposed. These include the worldwide perspective based in the economy globalization paradigms; the regional perspective, focused in the integration of countries; the national perspective, which emphasizes the natural assets and development options, and finally a local perspective is incorporated to account for the participation of directly affected communities. Within this framework, the mining industry is requested to develop both technological and managerial tools appropriate to evaluate, optimize and communicate the social and environmental performance and output of its related activities, mainly in the developing countries. On the other hand, the governments have been committed to implement regulatory actions, of command and control type, based on an environmental legislation in line with the above mentioned perspectives and also to use economical instruments as a mean to accomplish environmental objectives. In Colombia the direct regulation methods have been traditionally used to prevent the environmental deterioration produced by mining activities, however, since the 1991 political constitution and the law 99 of 1993, the communities' participation and economical instruments were incorporated. A historic summary of the environmental legislation in our country from the early 70's up to now, showing its implications in mining is presented. Then a favorable tendency is indicated in the environmental improvement of the national extractive industry, accomplished as a result of the implementation of new strategies to minimize the impact of mining on the environment and to improve the well being of local communities

  6. Economic impact of world mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

  7. Effect of Mining Activities in Biotic Communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Espinosa-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrations of As and Pb in soil were higher than the national regulations for urban or agricultural areas. The bioavailability of these metals was certified by the presence of them in the roots of species of plants and in kidneys and livers of wild rodents. In regard to the community analysis, the sites that were located close to the mining district of Villa de la Paz registered a lower biological diversity, in both plants and wild rodents, aside from showing a change in the species composition of plant communities. The results of this study are evidence of the impact of mining on biotic communities, and the need to take into account the wildlife in the assessment of contaminated sites.

  8. Effect of Mining Activities in Biotic Communities of Villa de la Paz, San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; González-Mille, Donaji J.; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, César A.; Mejía-Saavedra, Jesús; Cilia-López, V. Gabriela; Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important industrial activities worldwide. During its different stages numerous impacts are generated to the environment. The activities in the region have generated a great amount of mining residues, which have caused severe pollution and health effects in both human population and biotic components. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact of mining activities on biotic communities within the district of Villa de la Paz. The results showed that the concentrations of As and Pb in soil were higher than the national regulations for urban or agricultural areas. The bioavailability of these metals was certified by the presence of them in the roots of species of plants and in kidneys and livers of wild rodents. In regard to the community analysis, the sites that were located close to the mining district of Villa de la Paz registered a lower biological diversity, in both plants and wild rodents, aside from showing a change in the species composition of plant communities. The results of this study are evidence of the impact of mining on biotic communities, and the need to take into account the wildlife in the assessment of contaminated sites. PMID:24592381

  9. Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

  10. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Metal Loads from Chat Leachate and Mine Outflow into Tar Creek, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Caleb C.; Becker, Mark F.; Andrews, William J.; DeHay, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    Picher mining district is an abandoned lead and zinc mining area located in Ottawa County, northeastern Oklahoma. During the first half of the 20th century, the area was a primary producer of lead and zinc in the United States. Large accumulations of mine tailings, locally referred to as chat, produce leachate containing cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that enter drainages within the mining area. Metals also seep to local ground water and streams from unplugged shafts, vent holes, seeps, and abandoned mine dewatering wells. Streamflow measurements were made and water-quality samples were collected and analyzed from two locations in Picher mining district from August 16 to August 29 following a rain event beginning on August 14, 2005, to determine likely concentrations and loads of metals from tailings and mine outflows in the part of Picher mining district near Tar Creek. Locations selected for sampling included a tailings pile with an adjacent mill pond, referred to as the Western location, and a segment of Tar Creek from above the confluence with Lytle Creek to below Douthat bridge, referred to as Tar Creek Study Segment. Measured streamflow was less than 0.01 cubic foot per second at the Western location, with streamflow only being measurable at that site on August 16, 2005. Measured streamflows ranged from leachate ranged from 0.062 to 0.212 pound per day of cadmium, leachate and mine outflow was determined by subtracting values at appropriate upstream and downstream stations. Four sources of calculated metal loads are from Tar Creek and Lytle Creek entering the study segment, from chat pile leachate, and from old Lytle Creek mine outflow. Less than 1 percent of total and dissolved iron loading came from chat leachate, while about 99 percent of total iron loading came from mine outflow. Total and dissolved lead loading percentages from chat leachate were greater than total and dissolved lead loading percentages from mine outflow. About 19 percent of total zinc

  11. Mercury Content and Pollution Assessment of Soil and Cabbage Surrounding Yangshuo Pb-Zn Mining District in Guangxi%广西阳朔铅锌矿周边土壤和白菜汞含量及污染评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫福金; 钱建平; 王远炜; 张藜

    2016-01-01

    Yangshuo Pb-Zn mine is a relatively large mine in Guangxi. The article tries to understand the mercury pollution in soil and cabbage, as well as the transition and transform rule of mercury in soil-vegetables system. Investigation and research about the mercury content distribution and mercury pollution of soil and cabbage in the sourrouding farming area and residential area of Yangshuo Pb-Zn mine was done, in order to provide a scientific basis for mercury pollution prevention and remediation. In the research, 66 soil samples and 35 cabbage samples were collected in farming area of the downstream of Pb-Zn mine, 38 soil samples and 20 cabbage samples were collected in control farming area; 17 soil samples were collected in residential area. All soil and plant samples were digested by MDS-2003F-type pressure-controlled microwave digestion system and were analyzed with atomic fluorescence mercury analyzer. The result showed that the mercury concentration in the downstream arming area of Pb-Zn mine was (0.5674±0.2683) mg·kg-1, the mercury concentration in control farming area was (0.1471±0.0395) mg·kg-1, the mercury concentration in residential area was (0.1880±0.0972) mg·kg-1, which is 7.99, 2.07, 2.65 times higher compared with the natural content (0.071 mg·kg-1) of soil Mercury in some areas. In the downstream farming area of Pb-Zn mine, the soil mercury levels is decreasing when the distance from the mine is increasing. In the downstream farming area of Pb-Zn mine, the average mercury concentration at cabbage root was 27600 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage stem was 7100 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage leaf was 19300 ng·kg-1; in the control farming area, the average mercury concentration at cabbage root was 12500 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage stem was 4800 ng·kg-1, the average mercury concentration at Cabbage leaf was 10000 ng·kg-1. Cabbage mercury distribution characteristics is

  12. Application of subspace methods to detect and characterize coal mine related seismicity in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Derrick James Allen

    An approach for subspace detection and magnitude estimation of small seismic events is proposed. The process is used to identify mining related seismicity from a surface coal mine and an underground coal mining district, both located in the Western U.S. Using a blasting log and a locally derived seismic catalog as ground truth, the detector performance is assessed in terms of verified detections, false positives, and failed detections. Over 95% of the surface coal mine blasts and about 33% of the events from the underground mining district are correctly identified. The number of potential false positives are kept relatively low by requiring detections to simultaneously occur on two stations. Many of the potential false detections for the underground coal district are genuine events missed by the local seismic network, demonstrating the usefulness of regional subspace detectors in augmenting local catalogs. A trade-off in detection performance between stations at smaller source-receiver distances, which have increased signal to noise ratios, and stations at larger distances, which have greater waveform similarity, is observed. The increased detection capabilities of a single higher dimension subspace detector, compared to multiple lower dimension detectors, are explored in identifying events that can be described as linear combinations of training events. In this data set, such an advantage can be significant, justifying the use of a subspace detection scheme over conventional correlation methods.

  13. Operation experience with consolidated road supports at the West mine; Betriebserfahrungen mit hoch verguetetem Streckenausbau auf dem Bergwerk West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmans, Karl-Heinz [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Bergwerk West Kamp-Lintfort; Hellwig, Rainer [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistikdienste

    2012-07-01

    The extraction depth at the West mine has increased continuously over the last 10 years. Rock control on the faces and roads is of crucial importance because of the greater depths and the associated higher rock pressure and due to the more extensive workings. Highly developed support sections are combined with innovative bolt technology on the roads to ensure the efficiency of the workings. These high rock mechanical loads can be anticipated in particular in working district 1 WN in the Girondelle 5 seam at the West mine. Panels 630 and 632 in the 1 WN district are at a depth of about 1300 m. Both panels worked at the same time are separated by a pillar approx. 220 m wide. Hence the gate roads in this working district are predestined for the use of highly consolidated road supports.

  14. Acid mine drainage and stream recovery: Effects of restoration on water quality, macroinvertebrates, and fish

    OpenAIRE

    Williams K.M.; Turner A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a prominent threat to water quality in many of the world’s mining districts as it can severely degrade both the biological community and physical habitat of receiving streams. There are relatively few long-term studies investigating the ability of stream ecosystems to recover from AMD. Here we assess watershed scale recovery of a cold-water stream from pollution by AMD using a 1967 survey of the biological and chemical properties of the stream as a pre-restoration ...

  15. Study on dangers of methane in the gob of fully mechanized caving mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guang-li; WU Li-rong; ZOU De-yun

    2007-01-01

    Divided the gob gas in different types according to falling structure and spatial patterns of gob of the fully mechanized caving mining and analyzed its main form of harm.This passage preliminarily studied the law of unusual gush of gob gas of the fully mechanized caving mining. According to the basic condition for the gas explosion, made comprehensive analysis and appraisal about the oxygen condition, gas concentration distribute and fire source conditions. And find that there is the dangerous district of gas explosion in a certain area of the producing gob and give the three zone theory of gob gas explosion.

  16. Water quality data at selected sites in the Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb ore district of upper Silesia, Poland, 1995-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Laurie; Motyka, Jacek; Leach, David; Sass-Gustkiewicz, Maria; Szuwarzynski, Marek; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Briggs, Paul; Meiers, Al

    2003-01-01

    The water chemistry of aquifers and streams in the Upper Silesia Ore District, Poland are affected by their proximity to zinc, lead, and silver ores and by ongoing mining activities that date back to the 11th century. This report presents hydrologic and water-quality data collected as part of a collaborative research effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Mining and Metallurgy in Cracow, Poland to study Mississippi-Valley-Type lead-zinc deposits. MVT deposits in the Upper Silesia Ore District (Fig. 1) were selected for detailed study because the Polish mining industry allowed access to collect samples from underground mines and mine-land property. Water-quality samples were collected from streams, springs, wells, underground mine seeps and drains; and mine-tailings ponds. Data include field measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen and laboratory analyses of major and minor inorganic constituents and selected trace-element constituents.

  17. The application of data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining. This thesis first introduces the basic concepts of data mining, such as the definition of data mining, its basic function, common methods...

  18. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  19. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  20. Mine Waste Disposal and Managements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Young-Wook; Min, Jeong-Sik; Kwon, Kwang-Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This research project deals with: Analysis and characterization of mine waste piles or tailings impoundment abandoned in mining areas; Survey of mining environmental pollution from mine waste impounds; Modelling of pollutants in groundwater around tailings impoundment; Demonstration of acid rock drainage from coal mine waste rock piles and experiment of seeding on waste rock surface; Development of a liner using tailings. Most of mine wastes are deposited on natural ground without artificial liners and capping for preventing contamination of groundwater around mine waste piles or containments. In case of some mine waste piles or containments, pollutants have been released to the environment, and several constituents in drainage exceed the limit of discharge from landfill site. Metals found in drainage exist in exchangeable fraction in waste rock and tailings. This means that if when it rains to mine waste containments, mine wastes can be pollutant to the environment by release of acidity and metals. As a result of simulation for hydraulic potentials and groundwater flow paths within the tailings, the simulated travel paths correlated well with the observed contaminant distribution. The plum disperse, both longitudinal and transverse dimensions, with time. Therefore liner system is a very important component in tailings containment system. As experimental results of liner development using tailings, tailings mixed with some portion of resin or cement may be used for liner because tailings with some additives have a very low hydraulic conductivity. (author). 39 refs.

  1. Alma Data Mining Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, Marc W.; Rauch, Kevin P.; Mundy, Lee; Harris, Robert J.; Xu, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    ADMIT (ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) is a Python based pipeline toolkit for the creation and analysis of new science products from ALMA data. ADMIT quickly provides users with a detailed overview of their science products, for example: line identifications, line 'cutout' cubes, moment maps, and emission type analysis (e.g., feature detection). Users can download the small ADMIT pipeline product (web browser and command line interface available for this purpose. By analyzing multiple data cubes simultaneously, data mining between many astronomical sources and line transitions are possible. Users are also able to enhance the capabilities of ADMIT by creating customized ADMIT tasks satisfying any special processing needs. We will present some of the salient features of ADMIT and example use cases.

  2. Ontario's uranium mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report traces the Ontario uranium mining industry from the first discovery of uranium north of Sault Ste. Marie through the uranium boom of the 1950's when Elliot Lake and Bancroft were developed, the cutbacks of the 1960s, the renewed enthusiasm in exploration and development of the 1970s to the current position when continued production for the domestic market is assured. Ontario, with developed mines and operational expertise, will be in a position to compete for export markets as they reopen. The low level of expenditures for uranium exploration and the lack of new discoveries are noted. The report also reviews and places in perspective the development of policies and regulations governing the industry and the jurisdictional relationships of the Federal and Provincial governments

  3. Mining science data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data from Scientific simulations, observations, and experiments are now being measured in terabytes and will soon reach the petabyte regime. The size of the data, as well as its complexity, make it difficult to find useful information in the data. This is of course disconcerting to scientists who wonder about the science still undiscovered in the data. The Sapphire Scientific data mining project is addressing this concern by applying data mining techniques to problems ranging in size from a few megabytes to a hundred terabytes in a variety of domains. In this paper, we briefly describe our work in several applications, including the identification of key features for edge harmonic oscillations in the DIII-D tokamak, classification of orbits in a Poincare plot, and tracking of features of interest in experimental images

  4. Email Mining: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal S. Bogawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available E-mail is one of the most widely used ways of written communication over the internet, and its traffic has increased exponentially with the advent of World Wide Web. The increase in email traffic comes also with an increase in the use of emails for illegitimate purpose. Phishing, Spamming, email bombing, threatening, cyber bullying, racial vilification, terrorist activities, child pornography and sexual harassment are common examples of e-mail abuses. So, there is a need for e-mail mining. Various methods and approaches were used by the scientists for classification of email messages in above categories. In this paper we are presenting various techniques and approaches used by researchers for email mining and subsequent classification.

  5. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  6. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Email Mining: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pranjal S. Bogawar; Kishor K. Bhoyar

    2012-01-01

    E-mail is one of the most widely used ways of written communication over the internet, and its traffic has increased exponentially with the advent of World Wide Web. The increase in email traffic comes also with an increase in the use of emails for illegitimate purpose. Phishing, Spamming, email bombing, threatening, cyber bullying, racial vilification, terrorist activities, child pornography and sexual harassment are common examples of e-mail abuses. So, there is a need for e-mail mining. Va...

  8. Mining unstructured software data

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchelli, Alberto; Lanza, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Our thesis is that the analysis of unstructured data supports software understanding and evolution analysis, and complements the data mined from structured sources. To this aim, we implemented the necessary toolset and investigated methods for exploring, exposing, and exploiting unstructured data.To validate our thesis, we focused on development email data. We found two main challenges in using it to support program comprehension and software development: The disconnection between emai...

  9. Text Mining: (Asynchronous Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheema Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to correlate text sequences those provides common topics for semantic clues. We propose a two step method for asynchronous text mining. Step one check for the common topics in the sequences and isolates these with their timestamps. Step two takes the topic and tries to give the timestamp of the text document. After multiple repetitions of step two, we could give optimum result.

  10. Study of Spanish mining accidents using data mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Sanmiquel Pera, Lluís; Rossell Garriga, Josep Maria; Vintró Sánchez, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Mining is an economic sector with a high number of accidents. Mines are hazardous places and workers can suffer a wide variety of injuries. Utilizing a database composed of almost 70,000 occupational accidents and fatality reports corresponding to the decade 2003–2012 in the Spanish mining sector, the paper analyzes the main causes of those accidents. To carry out the study, powerful statistical tools have been applied, such as Bayesian classi¿ers, decision trees or contingency t...

  11. Evolution of Acid Mine Drainage Formation in Sulphidic Mine Tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Bernhard Dold

    2014-01-01

    Sulphidic mine tailings are among the largest mining wastes on Earth and are prone to produce acid mine drainage (AMD). The formation of AMD is a sequence of complex biogeochemical and mineral dissolution processes. It can be classified in three main steps occurring from the operational phase of a tailings impoundment until the final appearance of AMD after operations ceased: (1) During the operational phase of a tailings impoundment the pH-Eh regime is normally alkaline to neutral and reduci...

  12. Data Mining and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms, Kevin O.

    2015-01-01

    The Data Mining project seeks to bring the capability of data visualization to NASA anomaly and problem reporting systems for the purpose of improving data trending, evaluations, and analyses. Currently NASA systems are tailored to meet the specific needs of its organizations. This tailoring has led to a variety of nomenclatures and levels of annotation for procedures, parts, and anomalies making difficult the realization of the common causes for anomalies. Making significant observations and realizing the connection between these causes without a common way to view large data sets is difficult to impossible. In the first phase of the Data Mining project a portal was created to present a common visualization of normalized sensitive data to customers with the appropriate security access. The tool of the visualization itself was also developed and fine-tuned. In the second phase of the project we took on the difficult task of searching and analyzing the target data set for common causes between anomalies. In the final part of the second phase we have learned more about how much of the analysis work will be the job of the Data Mining team, how to perform that work, and how that work may be used by different customers in different ways. In this paper I detail how our perspective has changed after gaining more insight into how the customers wish to interact with the output and how that has changed the product.

  13. GIS and Urban Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems (GIS are a kind of location intelligence technology that supports systematic collection, integration, analysis and sharing of spatial data. They provide an effective tool for characterising and visualising geographical distributions of recyclable resources or materials dispersed across urban environments in what may be described as “urban mines”. As logistics can be a key barrier to recycling, GIS are critical for capturing and analysing location intelligence about the distribution and values of recyclable resources and associated collection systems to effectively empower and inform the policy makers and the broader community with comprehensive, accurate and accessible information. This paper reviews the functionality of modern GIS, discusses the potential role of GIS in urban mining studies, and describes how GIS can be used to measure, report, analyse and visualise the spatial or geographical characteristics of dispersed stocks of recyclable waste and their collection and recovery systems. Such information can then be used to model material flows and assess the social and environmental impacts of urban mining. Issues and challenges in the use of GIS for urban mining are also to be addressed.

  14. Organizational Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Hamid R.; Barko, Christopher D.

    Many organizations today possess substantial quantities of business information but have very little real business knowledge. A recent survey of 450 business executives reported that managerial intuition and instinct are more prevalent than hard facts in driving organizational decisions. To reverse this trend, businesses of all sizes would be well advised to adopt Organizational Data Mining (ODM). ODM is defined as leveraging Data Mining tools and technologies to enhance the decision-making process by transforming data into valuable and actionable knowledge to gain a competitive advantage. ODM has helped many organizations optimize internal resource allocations while better understanding and responding to the needs of their customers. The fundamental aspects of ODM can be categorized into Artificial Intelligence (AI), Information Technology (IT), and Organizational Theory (OT), with OT being the key distinction between ODM and Data Mining. In this chapter, we introduce ODM, explain its unique characteristics, and report on the current status of ODM research. Next we illustrate how several leading organizations have adopted ODM and are benefiting from it. Then we examine the evolution of ODM to the present day and conclude our chapter by contemplating ODM's challenging yet opportunistic future.

  15. Diversity and role of plasmids in adaptation of bacteria inhabiting the Lubin copper mine in Poland, an environment rich in heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Pyzik, Adam; Szuplewska, Magdalena; Matlakowska, Renata; Mielnicki, Sebastian; Wibberg, Daniel; Schlüter, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The Lubin underground mine, is one of three mining divisions in the Lubin-Glogow Copper District in Lower Silesia province (Poland). It is the source of polymetallic ore that is rich in copper, silver and several heavy metals. Black shale is also significantly enriched in fossil organic matter in the form of long-chain hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, thiophenes and metalloporphyrins. Biological analyses have revealed that this environment is inhabited by...

  16. Disaster prediction of coal mine gas based on data mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Liang-shan; FU Gui-xiang

    2008-01-01

    The technique of data mining was provided to predict gas disaster in view of thecharacteristics of coal mine gas disaster and feature knowledge based on gas disaster.The rough set theory was used to establish data mining model of gas disaster prediction,and rough set attributes relations was discussed in prediction model of gas disaster tosupplement the shortages of rough intensive reduction method by using information en-tropy criteria. The effectiveness and practicality of data mining technology in the predictionof gas disaster is confirmed through practical application.

  17. Text mining library for Orange data mining suite

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, David

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a text mining system that can be used as an add-on for Orange, a data mining platform. Orange envelops a set of supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods that benefit a typical text mining platform and therefore offers an excellent foundation for development. We have studied the field of text mining and reviewed several open-source toolkits to define its base components. We have included widgets that enable retrieval of data from remote repositories, such as PubMe...

  18. Sweeping changes for mine warfare : controlling the mine threat

    OpenAIRE

    Cashman, T. Michael

    1994-01-01

    This thesis proposes that the U.S. Navy deter and, if necessary, combat potential minelayers by pursuing a pro-active' offensive mine warfare strategy. Central to this proposed strategy is the development, acquisition, and use of Remote Controlled (RECO) mines. It is argued that, given the historical problems the United States has had in the area of naval mine warfare, a strategy aimed at the aggressive deterrence of enemy mine laying be embraced so as to project forces ashore in future amphi...

  19. Analysis on Underground Coal Mining Subsidence Using Small Baseline InSAR in Yunjialing Mining Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dapeng; Yang, Jin; Zeng, Qiming

    2013-01-01

    66.6 percent of China's energy production come from underground coal mining (fig. 1.) Hundreds of mining cities were affected by mining subsidence. Long-term underground mining activities ,which results in large areas of mined areas, are threatening the local ecological environment and people property.Coal mining development has become a major factor of restricting local economic and threatening the safety of future mine production. The research on mining subsidence takes a important practical significance.

  20. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  1. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Economics of mining law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  3. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  4. Assessment of heavy metals pollution in sulphide mine affected-soils of madrid, central spain

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, M.; Recio Vázquez, Lorena; Carral, Pilar; Álvarez, Ana María

    2011-01-01

    The uncontrolled extraction of mineral resources is considered one of the major anthropogenic sources of soil pollution. In Spain, exploitation of metallic mineral deposits and its subsequent abandonment in last decades has lead to significant environmental hazard for natural systems. In this research, potentially contaminated soils surrounding an old chalcopyrite mine district in Madrid (Central Spain) have been studied. The focus is to assess the degree of pollution by heavy metals and othe...

  5. Hydrogeochemistry of Waters of Mangampeta Barite Mining Area, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    NAGARAJU, Arveti

    2006-01-01

    The study is undertaken in the barite mining area of Mangampeta (Lat. 14° 01' N; Long. 79° 19' E), which is located in the Kodur Mandal of Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The important geological formations in this area are quartzites (quartz veins), carbonaceous tuff and dolomites. The paper presents the assessment of water quality for its suitability for agricultural and domestic purposes. The results of chemical analyses for the major ions of 50 water sample...

  6. Hydrogeochemistry of waters of Mangampeta barite mining area, Cuddapah Basin, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    A. Nagaraju; S. Suresh; Killham, K; Hudson-Edwards, K.

    2006-01-01

    The study is undertaken in the barite mining area of Mangampeta. (Lat. 14° 01′ N; Long. 79° 19′ E), which is located in the Kodur Mandal of Cuddapah District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The important geological formations in this area are quartzites (quartz veins), carbonaceous tuff and dolomites. The paper presents the assessment of water quality for its suitability for agricultural and domestic purposes. The results of chemical analyses for the major ions of 50 water samples collected from the ...

  7. DESIGN JUSTIFICATION DRAINAGE PROTECTION AT ELEVATED GROUNDWATER LEVELS GROUNDWATER DUE TO INFILTRATION MINE WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ishtchenko A. V.; Kosichenko Y. M.; Baev O. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the design study for construction of a drainage system on the territory of gardening association «Zarya» in the region of Gukovo in Krasnosulinsky district of Rostov region. Construction of a drainage system is a prerequisite for reducing the groundwater level caused by the infiltration of the drainage complex mine called Burgustinskaya. The results of the calculations determined the value of the total infiltration groundwater feeding; inflow rate to each of the 6 drains ...

  8. Voting Districts and Minority Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1999-01-01

    In 1872, in the first congressional reapportionment after African-Americans won the right to vote everywhere in the country, white North Carolina Democrats packed blacks into a strangely-shaped, over-populated, predominantly black congressional district in a racially discriminatory and partisan effort to minimize the influence of black Republican voters. Neither this nor any of the myriad of other nineteenth century anti-black racial gerrymanders was challenged in court. 120 ye...

  9. Ecosystem Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, California), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/California), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    The myriad definitions of soil/ecosystem quality or health are often driven by ecosystem and management concerns, and they typically focus on the ability of the soil to provide functions relating to biological productivity and/or environmental quality. A variety of attempts have been made to create indices that quantify the complexities of soil quality and provide a means of evaluating the impact of various natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Though not without their limitations, indices can improve our understanding of the controls behind ecosystem processes and allow for the distillation of information to help link scientific and management communities. In terrestrial systems, indices were initially developed and modified for agroecosystems; however, the number of studies implementing such indices in nonagricultural systems is growing. Soil quality indices (SQIs) are typically composed of biological (and sometimes physical and chemical) parameters that attempt to reduce the complexity of a system into a metric of a soil's ability to carry out one or more functions. The indicators utilized in SQIs can be as varied as the studies themselves, reflecting the complexity of the soil and ecosystems in which they function. Regardless, effective soil quality indicators should correlate well with soil or ecosystem processes, integrate those properties and processes, and be relevant to management practices. Commonly applied biological indicators include measures associated with soil microbial activity or function (for example, carbon and nitrogen mineralization, respiration, microbial biomass, enzyme activity. Cost, accessibility, ease of interpretation, and presence of existing data often dictate indicator selection given the number of available measures. We employed a large number of soil biological, chemical, and physical measures, along with measures of vegetation cover, density, and productivity, in order to test the utility and sensitivity of these measures within various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and ecosystem quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.

  10. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine...

  12. Strategy for polymetallic nodule mining

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, R.

    Strategy for Polymetallic Nodule Mining Rahul Sharma Introduction Mining of nearshore and shallow water minerals on a commercial scale l as well as the exploration of deep seabed minerals is being extensively carried out by various countries ..lid wns... revenues, and providing preferential technical assistance to developing countries adversely affected by seabed production to help them broaden their economic base. Strategy for nodule mining A long term strategy needs to be worked out for large-scale nodule...

  13. Modern developments in image mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfred; STEIN

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some new developments in image mining. Image mining con-siders the chain from object identification from remote sensing images through modeling,tracking on a series of images and prediction,towards communication to stakeholders. Attention is given to image mining for vague and uncertain objects. Aspects of up-and down-scaling are addressed. We further consider in this paper both spatial interpolation and decision making. The paper is illustrated with several case studies.

  14. Text Mining Applications and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Text Mining: Applications and Theory presents the state-of-the-art algorithms for text mining from both the academic and industrial perspectives.  The contributors span several countries and scientific domains: universities, industrial corporations, and government laboratories, and demonstrate the use of techniques from machine learning, knowledge discovery, natural language processing and information retrieval to design computational models for automated text analysis and mining. This volume demonstrates how advancements in the fields of applied mathematics, computer science, machine learning

  15. Sustainable Development in Estonian Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Šommet, J

    2013-01-01

    Importance and demand of high qualified mining material (carbonate rocks, oil shale) are growing nowadays. Deposits are widespread around the world. Is it possible to create the sustainability paradigm, that helps to manage quarries adequately to improve overall effectiveness of the company in total? This study focuses especially on the mining industry. This paper will introduce modern systems and a new one, that allows to make an indexation of the company by mining susta...

  16. Text Mining Infrastructure in R

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Hornik; Ingo Feinerer; David Meyer

    2008-01-01

    During the last decade text mining has become a widely used discipline utilizing statistical and machine learning methods. We present the tm package which provides a framework for text mining applications within R. We give a survey on text mining facilities in R and explain how typical application tasks can be carried out using our framework. We present techniques for count-based analysis methods, text clustering, text classiffication and string kernels. (authors' abstract)

  17. Geology and industrial mineral resources of the Macon-Gordon Kaolin District, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Bennett Frank; Hetrick, J.H.; Patterson, S.H.; Neeley, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Macon-Gordon kaolin district is about 80 miles (130 km) southeast of Atlanta, Georgia. It extends across the boundary between, and includes parts of, the Piedmont and Atlantic Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. The rocks in the Piedmont are mainly intensely folded sericite schist and granite gneiss containing irregular masses of amphibolite and feldspathic biotite gneiss and scattered igneous intrusive rocks. Most of the crystalline rocks are thought to be of Paleozoic age, but some of the intrusive rocks may be younger. The crystalline rocks are cut by a major unconformity and are overlain by sedimentary formations ranging in age from Cretaceous to Miocene. The valuable kaolin deposits occur in the Cretaceous beds, undivided, and in the Huber Formation which is of Paleocene to middle Eocene age. The resources of kaolin in the district are estimated in millions of metric tons as follows: reserves, 100; subeconomic resources, 700 to 900; undiscovered resources, probably 700 to 1,000. In addition to kaolin, the leading mineral commodity mined in the district, crushed stone and sand are now being produced, and fuller's earth and a minor amount of limestone were formerly produced. The crushed stone is quarried from igneous rocks in the Piedmont province. The sand is washed from the Cretaceous beds, undivided. The fuller's earth was mined from the Twiggs Clay Member of the Barnwell Formation, and limestone was dug from the Tivola Limestone.

  18. Uranium deposits in the Eureka Gulch area, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Osterwald, F.W.; Tooker, E.W.

    1954-01-01

    The Eureka Gulch area of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo., was mined for ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc; but there has been little mining activity in the area since World War I. Between 1951 and 1953 nine radioactive mine dumps were discovered in the area by the U.S. Geological Survey and by prospectors. the importance of the discoveries has not been determined as all but one of the mines are inaccessible, but the distribution, quantity, and grade of the radioactive materials found on the mine dumps indicate that the area is worth of additional exploration as a possible source of uranium ore. The uranium ans other metals are in and near steeply dipping mesothermal veins of Laramide age intrusive rocks. Pitchblende is present in at least four veins, and metatorbernite, associated at places with kosolite, is found along two veins for a linear distance of about 700 feet. The pitchblends and metatorbernite appear to be mutually exclusive and seem to occur in different veins. Colloform grains of pitchblende were deposited in the vein essentially contemporaneously with pyrite. The pitchblende is earlier in the sequence of deposition than galena and sphalerite. The metatorbernite replaces altered biotite-quartz-plagioclase gneiss and altered amphibolite, and to a lesser extent forms coatings on fractures in these rocks adjacent to the veins; the kasolite fills vugs in highly altered material and in altered wall rocks. Much of the pitchblende found on the dumps has been partly leached subsequent to mining and is out of equilibrium. Selected samples of metatorbernite-bearing rock from one mine dump contain as much as 6.11 percent uranium. The pitchblende is a primary vein mineral deposited from uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions. The metatorbernite probably formed by oxidation, solution, and transportation of uranium from primary pitchblende, but it may be a primary mineral deposited directly from fluids of different composition from these

  19. Data mining applications in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hian Chye; Tan, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    Data mining has been used intensively and extensively by many organizations. In healthcare, data mining is becoming increasingly popular, if not increasingly essential. Data mining applications can greatly benefit all parties involved in the healthcare industry. For example, data mining can help healthcare insurers detect fraud and abuse, healthcare organizations make customer relationship management decisions, physicians identify effective treatments and best practices, and patients receive better and more affordable healthcare services. The huge amounts of data generated by healthcare transactions are too complex and voluminous to be processed and analyzed by traditional methods. Data mining provides the methodology and technology to transform these mounds of data into useful information for decision making. This article explores data mining applications in healthcare. In particular, it discusses data mining and its applications within healthcare in major areas such as the evaluation of treatment effectiveness, management of healthcare, customer relationship management, and the detection of fraud and abuse. It also gives an illustrative example of a healthcare data mining application involving the identification of risk factors associated with the onset of diabetes. Finally, the article highlights the limitations of data mining and discusses some future directions. PMID:15869215

  20. Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Sentiment analysis and opinion mining is the field of study that analyzes people's opinions, sentiments, evaluations, attitudes, and emotions from written language. It is one of the most active research areas in natural language processing and is also widely studied in data mining, Web mining, and text mining. In fact, this research has spread outside of computer science to the management sciences and social sciences due to its importance to business and society as a whole. The growing importance of sentiment analysis coincides with the growth of social media such as reviews, forum discussions

  1. Managing and Mining Graph Data

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2010-01-01

    Managing and Mining Graph Data is a comprehensive survey book in graph management and mining. It contains extensive surveys on a variety of important graph topics such as graph languages, indexing, clustering, data generation, pattern mining, classification, keyword search, pattern matching, and privacy. It also studies a number of domain-specific scenarios such as stream mining, web graphs, social networks, chemical and biological data. The chapters are written by well known researchers in the field, and provide a broad perspective of the area. This is the first comprehensive survey book in t

  2. An affordable humanitarian mine detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, David J.; Curtis, Paul; Amin, Rajan; Dittmer, Jon

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the further development of the MINETECT affordable humanitarian mine detector produced by ERA Technology with sponsorship from the UK Department for International Development. Using a radically different patented approach from conventional ground penetrating radar (GPR) designs in terms of the man machine interface, MINETECT offers simplicity of use and affordability, both key factors in humanitarian demining operations. Following trials in 2002 and reported at SPIE 2002, further development work including research on classifying mines, based on data from planned trials in the United Kingdom, is presented. MINETECT has the capability of detecting completely non-metallic mines and offers a considerable improvement in hand-held mine detection.

  3. Do mining lakes in the Lusatian lignite mining region (Eastern Germany) affect regional precipitation patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Yasemine; Pohle, Ina; Keuler, Klaus; Schaller, Eberhard; Hinz, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Due to the flooding of former open-pit mines, Europe's largest artificial lake district is created in Eastern Germany. Between 1990 and 2006 more than 80 km² of new lakes have already been formed. These large-scale land cover changes may impact regional meteorological characteristics, therefore it is of interest, whether effects of the mining lakes can already be observed. We especially focus on whether the evaporation from the mining pit lakes leads to a higher precipitation on their lee side. To detect changes in the precipitation patterns, we analysed daily precipitation data (1980-2014) of 25 stations in an area of 10 000 km² widely around the lake district. Under the assumption that the influences of the lakes should be detectable either directly as trends in the observed data or as a deviation from a general measure for precipitation we combined statistical tests and principal component analysis (PCA). We applied pre-whitening Mann-Kendall tests to detect precipitation trends and Mann-Whitney tests to detect differences between split samples (before and after the flooding of most of the lakes). The PCA was applied based on the correlation matrix of daily precipitation at the different stations. As the daily precipitation can sufficiently be explained by the first five principal components, the recombination of these five principal components was used as a general measure of precipitation in the region. By regression trees (random forests) a relationship between the eigenvectors of the first five principal components and physiogeographic characteristics of the stations (e.g. altitude) was shown. Both the observed data and the deviations between the measurements and the recombination of the first five principal components showed divergent trends with high spatial variability and also interannual variability, but a pattern consistent with the lee side of the lake could not be detected. Therefore, it has been demonstrated that the emerging lakes had no

  4. Feasibility Study on Continuous Mining Method in Deep Position of Jinchuan Nickel Mine, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Jinchuan nickel mine is the largest nickel mine in China. Cut-and-fill mining method with high density cementing materials is used in the mine. The original mining design divided the mining operation into two steps. The first step stopped the mining rooms and the second step stopped the pillars. Because the two-step method made big trouble for finally mining pillars and strongly limited the mining speed and production, it was successfully changed to a continuous cut-and-fill method without pillars. However, the mining operation in the mine has been down to 800m and the mining condition is getting worse and more complicated. Through systematical field investigations and 3-D FEM analysis, it is proved that the mining method without pillars is feasible for mining deeper orebodies in Jinchuan nickel mine.

  5. Impacts of manganese mining activity on the environment: interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Becerril, Facundo; Juárez-Vázquez, Lucía V; Hernández-Cervantes, Saúl C; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Vela-Correa, Gilberto; Cruz-Chávez, Enrique; Moreno-Espíndola, Iván P; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; de León-González, Fernando

    2013-02-01

    The mining district of Molango in the Hidalgo State, Mexico, possesses one of the largest deposits of manganese (Mn) ore in the world. This research assessed the impacts of Mn mining activity on the environment, particularly the interactions among soil, plants, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) at a location under the influence of an open Mn mine. Soils and plants from three sites (soil under maize, soil under native vegetation, and mine wastes with some vegetation) were analyzed. Available Mn in both soil types and mine wastes did not reach toxic levels. Samples of the two soil types were similar regarding physical, chemical, and biological properties; mine wastes were characterized by poor physical structure, nutrient deficiencies, and a decreased number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spores. Tissues of six plant species accumulated Mn at normal levels. AM was absent in the five plant species (Ambrosia psilostachya, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Cynodon dactylon, Polygonum hydropiperoides, and Wigandia urens) established in mine wastes, which was consistent with the significantly lower number of AMF spores compared with both soil types. A. psilostachya (native vegetation) and Zea mays showed mycorrhizal colonization in their root systems; in the former, AM significantly decreased Mn uptake. The following was concluded: (1) soils, mine wastes, and plant tissues did not accumulate Mn at toxic levels; (2) despite its poor physical structure and nutrient deficiencies, the mine waste site was colonized by at least five plant species; (3) plants growing in both soil types interacted with AMF; and (4) mycorrhizal colonization of A. psilostachya influenced low uptake of Mn by plant tissues. PMID:23124167

  6. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    1999-10-01

    This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned

  7. Effect of Illegal Small-Scale Mining Operations on Vegetation Cover of Arid Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tom-Dery

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Illegal small-scale gold mining brings several benefits to developing countries like Ghana, manifested mainly as employment and revenue but simultaneously impacts negatively on the immediate environment. The study tested the hypothesis that density and diversity of key native tree and shrub species differ in the mined and unmined areas of Nangodi in the Talensi-Nabdam District of the Upper East Region, Ghana. A total of 20 plots (10×10 m were studied in the mined and unmined areas. A total of 8 tree species and 9 shrub species were recorded. The extent of vegetation affected by the activities of illegal small scale miners was assessed. The Simpsons reciprocal diversity index of tree species at mined area was 8.33 as compared to 10.8 for the unmined area. For shrub species, the Simpsons reciprocal diversity index was 8.33 for the mined areas while that of the unmined was 10.2. Common trees and shrubs species were identified in both areas as designated by the calculated Jaccards similarity index of 0.6 for trees and 0.7 for shrubs. However low mean density of 2.4 individual trees per 100 m2 and 5.6 individuals per 100 m2 was recorded in the mined and unmined areas respectively. Shrubs species also recorded very low density figures of 1.4 and 2.6 per 100 m2 in the mined and unmined areas, respectively. The null hypothesis that there is no significant difference of illegal small-scale mining on tree and shrub species density is rejected at the 0.05 significant level, indicating that mining significantly affected vegetation cover. It is suggested that efforts should be made to reclaim the degraded lands through reforestation.

  8. 07491 Executive Summary -- Mining Programs and Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Abraham; Gall, Harald; Zeller, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of the seminar "Mining Programs and Processes" was to create a synergy between researchers of three communities, namely mining software repositories, data mining and machine learning, and empirical software engineering.

  9. SIAM 2007 Text Mining Competition dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Subject Area: Text Mining Description: This is the dataset used for the SIAM 2007 Text Mining competition. This competition focused on developing text mining...

  10. Distributed Data Mining and Mining Multi-Agent Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S Vidyavathi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of distributed data mining is very important in network problems. Ina distributed environment (such as a sensor or IP network, one has distributed probes placed at strategic locations within the network. The problem here is to be able to correlatethe data seen at the various probes, and discover patterns in the global data seen at all the different probes. There could be different models of distributed data mining here, but one could involve a NOC that collects data from the distributed sites, and another in which all sites are treated equally. The goal here obviously would be to minimize the amount of data shipped between the various sites — essentially, to reduce the communication overhead. In distributed mining, one problem is how to mine across multipleheterogeneous data sources: multi-database and multirelational mining. Another important new area is adversary data mining. In a growing number of domains — email spam, counter-terrorism, intrusiondetection/computer security, click spam, search engine spam, surveillance, fraud detection, shop bots, file sharing, etc. — data mining systems face adversaries that deliberately manipulate the data to sabotage them (e.g. make them produce false negatives. In this paper need to develop systems that explicitly take this into account, by combining data mining with game theory.

  11. Mining Frequent Max and Closed Sequential Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Afshar, Ramin

    2002-01-01

    Although frequent sequential pattern mining has an important role in many data mining tasks, however, it often generates a large number of sequential patterns, which reduces its efficiency and effectiveness. For many applications mining all the frequent sequential patterns is not necessary, and mining frequent Max, or Closed sequential patterns will provide the same amount of information. Comparing to frequent sequential pattern mining, frequent Max, or Closed sequential pattern mining g...

  12. The French experience of post mining management

    OpenAIRE

    Didier, Christophe; Leloup, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    International audience; During the period, which follows mining exploitation, traditionally called "post-mining", many disorders may develop, sometimes just after mine closure but sometimes quite long time later. In addition to potential instability development (subsidence, collapses), some abandoned mining sites can be affected by severe hydrogeological disturbances (floods), dangerous mine gas emissions on surface or environmental degradation. The paper presents the French mining historical...

  13. Metodologias de Data Mining.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Armando B.

    2011-01-01

    "Para se compreender o que é mais este termo criado pela indústria das novas tecnologias, pode começar-se por esclarecer o que não é. Certamente "data mining" não são simples consultas de bases de dados ou as tecnologias de integração de dados em bases de dados multidimensionais ou cubos de dados, ou mesmo um conjunto de algoritmos como redes neuronais, algoritmos genéticos, métodos estatísticos, etc.. A prospecção de dados é um processo ou uma metodologia para a descoberta de conhecimento qu...

  14. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  15. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin;

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part of the imple......This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  16. Artificial Post mining lakes - a challenge for the integration in natural hydrography and river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhammel, Petra; Schoenheinz, Dagmar; Grünewald, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    In terms of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), post mining lakes are artificial water bodies (AWB). The sustainable integration of post mining lakes in the groundwater and surface water landscape and their consideration in river basin management plans have to be linked with various (geo)hydrological, hydro(geo)chemical, technological and socioeconomic issues. The Lower Lusatian lignite mining district in eastern Germany is part of the major river basins of river Elbe and river Oder. Regionally, the mining area is situated in the sub-basins of river Spree and Schwarze Elster. After the cessation of mining activities and thereby of the artificially created groundwater drawdown in numerous mining pits, a large number of post mining lakes are evolving as consequence of natural groundwater table recovery. The lakes' designated uses vary from water reservoirs to landscape, recreation or fish farming lakes. Groundwater raise is not only substantial for the lake filling, but also for the area rehabilitation and a largely self regulated water balance in post mining landscapes. Since the groundwater flow through soil and dump sites being affected by the former mining activities, groundwater experiences various changes in its hydrochemical properties as e.g. mineralization and acidification. Consequently, downstream located groundwater fed running and standing water bodies will be affected too. Respective the European Water Framework Directive, artificial post mining lakes are not allowed to cause significant adverse impacts on the good ecological status/potential of downstream groundwater and surface water bodies. The high sulphate concentrations of groundwater fed mining lakes which reach partly more than 1,000 mg/l are e.g. damaging concrete constructures in downstream water bodies thereby representing threats for hydraulic facilities and drinking water supply. Due to small amounts of nutrients, the lakes are characterised by oligo¬trophic to slightly

  17. Effects of mining-derived metals on riffle-dwelling benthic fishes in Southeast Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allert, A.L.; Fairchild, J.F.; Schmitt, C.J.; Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Olson, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the ecological effects of mining-derived metals on riffle-dwelling benthic fishes at 16 sites in the Viburnum Trend lead-zinc mining district of southeast Missouri. Fish community attributes were compared to watershed features and to physical and chemical variables including metal concentrations in sediment pore water and fish. Ozark sculpin (Cottus hypselurus), rainbow darter (Etheostoma caeruleum), Ozark madtom (Noturus albater), and banded sculpin (Cottus carolinae) were the most abundant fishes collected. Species richness and density of riffle-dwelling benthic fishes were negatively correlated with metal concentrations in pore water and in fish. Sculpin densities were also negatively correlated with metal concentrations in pore water and in fish, but positively correlated with distance from mines and upstream watershed area. These findings indicate that metals associated with active lead-zinc mining adversely affect riffle-dwelling benthic fishes downstream of mining areas in the Viburnum Trend. Sculpins may be useful as a sentinel species for assessing mining-related impacts on fish communities.

  18. School Districts, City of Hutchinson School Districts polygon layer, Published in 2004, City of Hutchinson.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2004. It is described as 'City of Hutchinson School Districts polygon...

  19. Election Districts and Precincts, City Council districts, Published in 2005, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'City Council districts'....

  20. Election Districts and Precincts, School Board districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'School Board districts'....

  1. Election Districts and Precincts, County Council districts, Published in 2005, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'County Council districts'....

  2. School Districts, washoe county school district, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'washoe county school district'....

  3. School Districts, Walworth County School Districts, Published in 2010, Not Applicable scale, Walworth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, published at Not Applicable scale as of 2010. It is described as 'Walworth County School Districts'. Data by this publisher are often...

  4. Election Districts and Precincts, VotingDistricts, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'VotingDistricts'. Data by this...

  5. Government Districts, Other, ConservancyDistricts, Published in 2000, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2000. It is described as 'ConservancyDistricts'. Data by this...

  6. 山西省大同市新荣区白山村石墨矿床特征浅析%Analysis of Datong City, Shanxi Xinrong District the White Village graphite deposit characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于磊

    2012-01-01

      Expounded Datong Xinrong District the White Village graphite mine geology and deposit characteristics, and analysis of the causes of the mine deposits.%  阐述了大同市新荣区白山村石墨矿的地质概况及矿床特征,并对该矿矿床成因进行了分析。

  7. Numerical simulation of dewatering thick unconsolidated aquifers for safety of underground coal mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANG Yuan; ZHANG Gai-ling; YANG Guo-yong

    2009-01-01

    With an increase of mining the upper limits under unconsolidated aquifers, dewatering of the bottom aquifer of the Quaternary system has become a major method to avoid water and sand inrushes. In the 8th District of the Taiping Coal Mine in south-western Shandong province, the bottom aquifer of the Quaternary system is moderate to excellent in water-yielding capacity. The base rock above the coal seam is very thin in the concealed coal field of the Carboniferous and Permian systems. Therefore, a comprehensive dewatering plan from both the ground surface and the panel was proposed to lower the groundwater level in order to ensure mining safety. According to the hydrogeologic conditions of the 8th District, we established a numerical model so that we could simulate the groundwater flow in the dewatering process. We obtained the simulation parameters from previous data using backward modeling, such as the average coefficient of permeability of 12 m/d and the elastic storage coefficient of 0.002. From the same model, we predicted the movement of groundwater and water level variables and obtained the visible effect of the dewatering project. Despite the overburden failure during mining, no water and/or sand inrush occurred because the groundwater level in the bottom aquifer was lowered to a safe water level.

  8. Education Roadmap for Mining Professionals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-12-01

    This document represents the roadmap for education in the U.S. mining industry. It was developed based on the results of an Education Roadmap Workshop sponsored by the National Mining Association in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies. The Workshop was held February 23, 2002 in Phoenix, Arizona.

  9. Coal Mine Methane in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper discusses coal mine methane emissions (CMM) in the Russian Federation and the potential for their productive utilisation. It highlights specific opportunities for cost-effective reductions of CMM from oil and natural gas facilities, coal mines and landfills, with the aim of improving knowledge about effective policy approaches.

  10. Process Mining Online Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Trcka, Nikola; Vasilyeva, Ekaterina; van der Aalst, Wil; De Bra, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Traditional data mining techniques have been extensively applied to find interesting patterns, build descriptive and predictive models from large volumes of data accumulated through the use of different information systems. The results of data mining can be used for getting a better understanding of the underlying educational processes, for…

  11. Implications of Emerging Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathuramaiyer, Narayanan; Maurer, Hermann

    Data Mining describes a technology that discovers non-trivial hidden patterns in a large collection of data. Although this technology has a tremendous impact on our lives, the invaluable contributions of this invisible technology often go unnoticed. This paper discusses advances in data mining while focusing on the emerging data mining capability. Such data mining applications perform multidimensional mining on a wide variety of heterogeneous data sources, providing solutions to many unresolved problems. This paper also highlights the advantages and disadvantages arising from the ever-expanding scope of data mining. Data Mining augments human intelligence by equipping us with a wealth of knowledge and by empowering us to perform our daily tasks better. As the mining scope and capacity increases, users and organizations become more willing to compromise privacy. The huge data stores of the ‚master miners` allow them to gain deep insights into individual lifestyles and their social and behavioural patterns. Data integration and analysis capability of combining business and financial trends together with the ability to deterministically track market changes will drastically affect our lives.

  12. Effective Mining of Protein Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, F; Schneider, G; Kaljurand, K.; Clematide, S

    2009-01-01

    The detection of mentions of protein-protein interactions in the scientific literature has recently emerged as a core task in biomedical text mining. We present effective techniques for this task, which have been developed using the IntAct database as a gold standard, and have been evaluated in two text mining competitions.

  13. Deep underground mine without ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czubak, A. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland))

    1991-09-01

    Considers the possibility of creating local air-conditioned spaces for reduced numbers of miners in deep mines instead of ventilating the whole mine space. Application of air-conditioned chambers (for rest) at depths of 600-1,400 m and work performed in individually cooled suits or executed with the aid of manipulators controlled from air-conditioned chambers at depths below 1,400 m is suggested. Advantages of operating a coal mine without ventilation are reviewed (simple mine structure, power savings, fire and explosion prevention by filling the whole mine space with nitrogen without the necessity of explosion-proof mining equipment). However, operating a mine without ventilation will require a high degree of mechanization, automatic machine control and application of robots. Miners could wear special cooled exposure suits. The method suggested is considered to be a solution to the problem of the thermal barrier in deep mining and to be cheaper than classical cooling of workings at depth. 5 refs.

  14. Groundwater impacts of solution mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In some cases the mining of certain minerals can be achieved without the large-scale excavations involved in open pit or shaft mining. Instead, water is used to liquify the desired mineral so that it can be readily removed without disturbing the host medium or intervening deposits. In Texas this solution mining technique is used in the mining of brines, sodium sulfate, sulfur, and uranium. The advantages stem from the nondisturbing nature of the method that leaves the surface and subsurface physically intact. This is advantageous not only during mining, but also upon its termination when there is a minimum restoration requirement of the terrain. However, in some cases these advantages may be somewhat offset when a considerable chemical restoration of a host aquifer is required. The situation is considerably different with the solution (in situ) mining of uranium since these deposits often occur in usable quality groundwater aquifers. There are twenty-eight permitted sites in Texas. Eight have not yet been mined. This paper discusses the solution mining of uranium in Texas

  15. Competitiveness of the mining sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is based on the upgraded study of the evaluation of competitiveness of the Colombian mining sector, carried out for the UPME, in the year 2005, with base in this study, the conditions were examined offered for Colombia for the mining industry

  16. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Mohapatra

    2015-04-01

    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  17. District Fiscal Policy and Student Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G. Huang

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.

  18. Investigating hydraulic connections and the origin of water in a mine tunnel using stable isotopes and hydrographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton-Day, Katherine, E-mail: kwaltond@usgs.gov [US Geological Survey, Box 25046, MS 415, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Poeter, Eileen [Department of Geology and Geological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Turquoise Lake is a water-supply reservoir located north of the historic Sugarloaf Mining district near Leadville, Colorado, USA. Elevated water levels in the reservoir may increase flow of low-quality water from abandoned mine tunnels in the Sugarloaf District and degrade water quality downstream. The objective of this study was to understand the sources of water to Dinero mine drainage tunnel and evaluate whether or not there was a direct hydrologic connection between Dinero mine tunnel and Turquoise Lake from late 2002 to early 2008. This study utilized hydrograph data from nearby draining mine tunnels and the lake, and stable isotope ({delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H) data from the lake, nearby draining mine tunnels, imported water, and springs to characterize water sources in the study area. Hydrograph results indicate that flow from the Dinero mine tunnel decreased 26% (2006) and 10% (2007) when lake elevation (above mean sea level) decreased below approximately 3004 m (approximately 9855 feet). Results of isotope analysis delineated two meteoric water lines in the study area. One line characterizes surface water and water imported to the study area from the western side of the Continental Divide. The other line characterizes groundwater including draining mine tunnels, springs, and seeps. Isotope mixing calculations indicate that water from Turquoise Lake or seasonal groundwater recharge from snowmelt represents approximately 10% or less of the water in Dinero mine tunnel. However, most of the water in Dinero mine tunnel is from deep groundwater having minimal isotopic variation. The asymmetric shape of the Dinero mine tunnel hydrograph may indicate that a limited mine pool exists behind a collapse in the tunnel and attenutates seasonal recharge. Alternatively, a conceptual model is presented (and supported with MODFLOW simulations) that is consistent with current and previous data collected in the study area, and illustrates how fluctuating lake levels

  19. Escondida Mine, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  20. Data mining and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; D'Mello, Sidney; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A; Pardos, Zachary A; Rosé, Carolyn P

    2015-01-01

    An emerging field of educational data mining (EDM) is building on and contributing to a wide variety of disciplines through analysis of data coming from various educational technologies. EDM researchers are addressing questions of cognition, metacognition, motivation, affect, language, social discourse, etc. using data from intelligent tutoring systems, massive open online courses, educational games and simulations, and discussion forums. The data include detailed action and timing logs of student interactions in user interfaces such as graded responses to questions or essays, steps in rich problem solving environments, games or simulations, discussion forum posts, or chat dialogs. They might also include external sensors such as eye tracking, facial expression, body movement, etc. We review how EDM has addressed the research questions that surround the psychology of learning with an emphasis on assessment, transfer of learning and model discovery, the role of affect, motivation and metacognition on learning, and analysis of language data and collaborative learning. For example, we discuss (1) how different statistical assessment methods were used in a data mining competition to improve prediction of student responses to intelligent tutor tasks, (2) how better cognitive models can be discovered from data and used to improve instruction, (3) how data-driven models of student affect can be used to focus discussion in a dialog-based tutoring system, and (4) how machine learning techniques applied to discussion data can be used to produce automated agents that support student learning as they collaborate in a chat room or a discussion board.

  1. Technologies for the treatment of effluents from uranium mines, mills and tailings. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effluent treatment is an important aspect of uranium mining and milling operations that continues through decommissioning and site rehabilitation. During the life of a mine, effluent treatment is an integral part of the operation with all effluent either being recycled to the mill or processed through a water treatment plant before being released into the environment. During decommissioning and rehabilitation, effluent treatment must continue either through a water treatment plant of by using passive treatment techniques. Because of the recent closing of several uranium mines or mining districts, particularly in eastern Europe, effluent treatment is becoming an ever increasing concern. Therefore the IAEA convened a technical committee meeting (TCM) so that experts from different countries could discuss information and knowledge on effluent treatment processes and methods. The papers presented at the meeting describe techniques for treatment of effluents from uranium production operations - both past and present. This publication contains ten papers presented at the meeting; each of the papers was indexed separately

  2. Introduction to Space Resource Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    There are vast amounts of resources in the solar system that will be useful to humans in space and possibly on Earth. None of these resources can be exploited without the first necessary step of extra-terrestrial mining. The necessary technologies for tele-robotic and autonomous mining have not matured sufficiently yet. The current state of technology was assessed for terrestrial and extraterrestrial mining and a taxonomy of robotic space mining mechanisms was presented which was based on current existing prototypes. Terrestrial and extra-terrestrial mining methods and technologies are on the cusp of massive changes towards automation and autonomy for economic and safety reasons. It is highly likely that these industries will benefit from mutual cooperation and technology transfer.

  3. The hydrogen mine introduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betournay, M.C.; Howell, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Mining and Mineral Sciences Laboratories

    2009-07-01

    In an effort to address air quality concerns in underground mines, the mining industry is considering the use fuel cells instead of diesel to power mine production vehicles. The immediate issues and opportunities associated with fuel cells use include a reduction in harmful greenhouse gas emissions; reduction in ventilation operating costs; reduction in energy consumption; improved health benefits; automation; and high productivity. The objective of the hydrogen mine introduction initiative (HMII) is to develop and test the range of fundamental and needed operational technology, specifications and best practices for underground hydrogen power applications. Although proof of concept studies have shown high potential for fuel cell use, safety considerations must be addressed, including hydrogen behaviour in confined conditions. This presentation highlighted the issues to meet operational requirements, notably hydrogen production; delivery and storage; mine regulations; and hydrogen behaviour underground. tabs., figs.

  4. Web Mining and Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Guandong; Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Lin

    sense of individuals or communities. The volume will benefit both academic and industry communities interested in the techniques and applications of web search, web data management, web mining and web knowledge discovery, as well as web community and social network analysis.......This book examines the techniques and applications involved in the Web Mining, Web Personalization and Recommendation and Web Community Analysis domains, including a detailed presentation of the principles, developed algorithms, and systems of the research in these areas. The applications of web...... mining, and the issue of how to incorporate web mining into web personalization and recommendation systems are also reviewed. Additionally, the volume explores web community mining and analysis to find the structural, organizational and temporal developments of web communities and reveal the societal...

  5. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  6. Budget Stability, Revenue Volatility, and District Relations: Determinants of Georgia ELOST Distribution to Municipal School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinagel, Tyler P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts across the United States are often forced into situations where limited public funds must be distributed among multiple districts. These are often reliant on distribution rates negotiated by district leadership and elected officials. An example of this is Georgia's 1% Education Local Option Sales Tax (ELOST). The tax is collected…

  7. One Approach to Increasing Revenues for Your School District. (A Small School District's Successful Struggle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Richard J.

    In 1983, Channahon School District 17 in Illinois was $1.3 million in debt. Real estate taxes constituted the school district's chief source of revenue, but because the state's oil industry kept its assessed valuations below the actual value of its property through the use of experts and lawyers, the school district was denied much of its income.…

  8. Report of boring made in the South of Cerro Largo district (Cerro Largo) 1977-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work are within the framework and compiles the data obtained by means of the study of the perforations executed in the District Cerro Largo Sur of the detailed prospection of uranium minerals. This study was carried out by technicians of Geologic ex--Institute of Uruguay (IGU) - at the moment National Direction of Mining and Geology. (DINAMIGE). The works began at the beginning of 1977 and continued until 1978 July; The headquarters of the program of prospection of uranium was carried out by Ing. Hector Goso. In this report the conclusions drawn at the time of the detection of the works in the District already published, as well as the litologicos cuts of all the executed perforations are included

  9. Feasibility study of Room-and-pillar mining method with artificial pillars%人工矿柱房柱采矿法可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军民

    2013-01-01

    地质资源是矿业企业赖以生存的基础。以金凤矿业公司并购瑞锦矿业公司矿权的新矿区为工程背景,提出了新矿区开发设想,详述了钢筋混凝土矿柱的由来及应用,分析了人工矿柱房柱采矿法应用的可行性及存在问题,可为新矿区的开发提供参考。%Geological resources are indispensible to the living of mining enterprises .The paper takes the new min-ing district of which the mining rights Jinfeng mining company purchased from Ruijin mining company for the engi -neering background and puts forward conception of exploitation .It also elaborates the history and application of pillars made of reinforced concrete ,and analyzes feasibility as well as problems existing in the room-and-pillar mining.The study could be of help to the development of the new mining district .

  10. Ground water quality protection, mining and mining facilities in Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utah' s around water resources are extremely important to the health and economic well-being of the state's citizens. As a state second only to Nevada in aridity it depends heavily on ground water sources for water for the public, industry, and agriculture. Ground water furnishes about 20% of the state's total water needs and 66% of the public supplies. To protect this water source for current and future users, Utah has developed a Ground Water Policy and initiated the development of a ground water quality protection strategy. Included in the strategy development process was an assessment of the effects that mining and associated activities can have on ground water Quality. The effect mining has on ground water quality depends on the ore and gangue minerals, the mining method, the ore processing, and the method of disposal for waste rock, tailings, and excess mine and mill waters. Sulfide minerals will oxidize to form soluble sulfates and sulfuric acid when exposed to air. Underground, open pit, and solution mines differ in their impact on ground water quality as do the different ore processing methods conventional, heap leach, solar evaporation, etc. Finally, the methods selected for waste disposal are a major determinant of the impact on ground water quality by mining operations. In the future mining companies will need to give increased consideration to protecting ground water and other resources by designing in features to protect these resources from degradation

  11. Groundwater quality at the Saline Valley Conservancy District well field, Gallatin County, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczynska, Magdalena; Kay, Robert T.

    2016-08-29

    The Saline Valley Conservancy District (SVCD) operates wells that supply water to most of the water users in Saline and Gallatin Counties, Illinois. The SVCD wells draw water from a shallow sand and gravel aquifer located in close proximity to an abandoned underground coal mine, several abandoned oil wells, and at least one operational oil well. The aquifer that yields water to the SVCD wells overlies the New Albany Shale, which may be subjected to shale-gas exploration by use of hydraulic fracturing. The SVCD has sought technical assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize baseline water quality at the SVCD well field so that future changes in water quality (if any) and the cause of those changes (including mine leachate and hydraulic fracturing) can be identified.

  12. [Evaluation of resource exploitation value and ecosystem service loss in Mentougou District of Beijing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu-Sheng; Li, Feng; Zhao, Dan; Wang, Bei-Bei

    2009-06-01

    By using the evaluation approach of ecosystem services (including market value, opportunity cost, restoration cost, and shadow project approaches), and combining with situation investigation, the ecosystem service loss in Mentougou District of Beijing City caused by coal resource exploitation in 1949-2006 was systematically evaluated. In the study area, coal mining mainly induced the cost increase of solid waste disposal and sink reclamation, and the losses in food production, water self-preserving, residents moving, and water and soil resources. The ecosystem service loss caused by the coal mining in 1949-2006 was about 54.3 billion Yuan RMB, approximately 9 times high of its market economic benefit (5.9 billion Yuan RMB). It was very difficult or needed a long time to restore the damaged ecosystem. PMID:19795655

  13. Apache Trail uranium prospect, White Signal district, Grant County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Apache Trail uranium prospect in the White Signal district, Grant County. N. Mex., was mapped by the Geological Survey in May 1950. Pre-Cambrian granite is cut by a diabase dike and a parallel quartz-hematite vein, both of which strike easterly and dip 60 to 65 degrees north. Small quantities of copper carbonates and bismuth-gold ore have been mined. The quartz-hematite vein is moderately radioactive and, although no uranium minerals were seen, two samples contained about 0.01 percent uranium. The diabase dike locally contains torbernite. Two samples of diabase contained about 0.04 percent uranium.

  14. PHYSICO CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF NASPUR LAKE ADILABAD DISTRICT (A.P).

    OpenAIRE

    P.Sivalingam; M.Swamy; T.Ravinder Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Present paper deals with the physic-chemical parameters of Naspur lake, Manchiryal mandal, Aailabad district. The work was carried out during the period of Sep-2011 to Aug 2012.This lake was established for Irrigation, Drinking water and Fish culture purpose last two decades back. It was in the out of 7 km distance from Manchiryal town. Singareni coal mine employs are living in the Manchiryal town, day by day expanding of city population last two decades .In rainy season it’s receiving city s...

  15. Evolución petrotectónica del distrito minero Cerro Áspero y modelo de emplazamiento de los depósitos wolframíferos, Córdoba Petrotectonic evolution of the Cerro Aspero mining district and emplacement model of the wolframiferous deposits, Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mutti

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La geología relacionada con la intrusión granítica Cerro Áspero expone en el faldeo oriental de la sierra de Comechingones, mineralización metalífera diseminada y en brechas hidráulicas, conectada genéticamente a un grupo minero integrado por un sistema de enjambres de venas, vetas y mantos cuarzosos con direcciones NNO, ONO y N. La comarca presenta polimetamorfismo y al menos, dos eventos de cizallamiento simple (D3 y D4 y estructuras penetrativas (S2, S3 y S4 que se desarrollaron desde el Pampeano hasta el Famatiniano inclusive, favoreciendo la intrusión anorogénica del batolito Cerro Áspero a partir del Devónico tardío. Como consecuencia del evento magmático fueron reactivadas las estructuras, movilizando fluidos hidrotermales por las anisotropías del terreno y debajo de un nivel de anfibolitas macizo que actuó como una barrera impermeable. La acción de un esfuerzo máximo s1 (330º contribuyó al desarrollo del sistema mineralizado siguiendo el patrón de fracturamiento del modelo de Riedel y propició la construcción del lineamiento mineral principal en una faja de cizalla simple dextral de posición 285º (S5. El fluido magmático - hidrotermal evolucionó mediante numerosos pulsos de ruptura y apertura de las inhomogeneidades rocosas, con sellado de cavidades por mecanismos de cierre con fracturamiento y relleno y disolución por presión. Estos mecanismos precipitaron sílice con hábito fibroso y reconcentraron elementos metálicos bajo un régimen de tracción y presión de fluido de poro estimada en 195 MPa. La edad de la mineralización de uno de sus estadios fue determinada en 343,8 ± 10,8 Ma, mediante una datación K/Ar en muscovita.Metalliferous mineralization, disseminated and in hydraulic breccias, in connection with a mining group composed of three swarm systems of quartz veinlets, veins and sills striking NNW, WNW and N, is exposed in the geological setting related to the Cerro Aspero granitic intrusion

  16. Maternal mortality in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Thobbi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study is to evaluate the incidence of maternal deaths, causes responsible for maternal mortality, direct and indirect factors, and various preventable methods to reduce maternal mortality rate. Background: 95% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and Africa. The need for undertaking this study is to know the maternal mortality rate, analyze the causes and preventable factors of death occurring in the district of Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Methodology: It is a study of 2years from the Records of District Health Office and Institutions on maternal mortality from June 2011 to May 2013 in Bijapur. Results: In two years there were fifty eight maternal deaths and seventy nine thousand five hundred and sixty six live births, hence maternal mortality ratio was seventy three per lakh live births. Eighty two percent of maternal deaths occurred in families who belonged to Below Poverty Line. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was 79.3%. Severe anemia (Hemoglobin <7g% seen in 5.1% was the most common indirect cause of death. Forty three percent of the deaths occurred at private setups. Hemorrhage, Septicemia and Preeclampsia & Eclampsia were responsible for 44.82%, 15.51% and 6.89% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the maternal deaths are preventable if these four delays are avoided: a Delay in identifying the problem. b Delay in seeking care. c Delay in reaching the referral institute. d Delay in getting treatment on reaching the referral institute.

  17. Hastings Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hastings Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by giving District...

  18. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  19. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  20. Surface mining of mineral resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeunig, H.D.

    1982-05-01

    This article outlines general advantages of surface mining technology and aspects of selecting the most suitable mining technology in surface mine projection. Heavy surface mining equipment of the TAKRAF engineering plants is recommended for efficient excavation and overburden removal up to 230,000 m/sup 3/d capacity with the largest excavator type and 440,000 m/sup 3/d capacity with the largest overburden conveyor bridge. Two major variants of surface mine technology are outlined: design of surface mines with continuous working equipment (bucket wheel or bucket chain excavators requiring up to 200 N/cm digging force for minerals and overburden and haulage by belt conveyors) or discontinuously working equipment (dragline excavators, truck transportation, etc.). The second major variant concerns overburden removal to the spoil bank, either by haulage in a semicircle around the pit or by a shortcut across the pit from the excavation to the spoil bank side (direct spoil removal method). TAKRAF equipment for surface mining operations is described with various specifications and details on its performance. (In German)