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  1. 78 FR 12365 - License Amendment Request for United Nuclear Corporation, Church Rock Mill-License No. SUA-1475

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for United Nuclear Corporation, Church Rock Mill--License No. SUA-1475... Materials License Number SUA-1475 for the UNC Church Rock Mill site located in New Mexico (the UNC license... flow model for the UNC Church Rock Mill site and adjacent downgradient areas . In a letter...

  2. Rapid dissolution of soluble uranyl phases in arid, mine-impacted catchments near Church Rock, NM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLemos, Jamie L; Bostick, Benjamin C; Quicksall, Andrew N; Landis, Joshua D; George, Christine C; Slagowski, Naomi L; Rock, Tommy; Brugge, Doug; Lewis, Johnnye; Durant, John L

    2008-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that runoff of uranium-bearing particles from mining waste disposal areas was a significant mechanism for redistribution of uranium in the northeastern part of the Upper Puerco River watershed (New Mexico). However, our results were not consistent with this hypothesis. Analysis of > 100 sediment and suspended sediment samples collected adjacent to and downstream from uranium source areas indicated that uranium levels in the majority of the samples were not elevated above background. Samples collected within 50 m of a known waste disposal site were subjected to detailed geochemical characterization. Uranium in these samples was found to be highly soluble; treatment with synthetic pore water for 24 h caused dissolution of 10--50% of total uranium in the samples. Equilibrium uranium concentrations in pore water were > 4.0 mg/L and were sustained in repeated wetting events, effectively depleting soluble uranium from the solid phase. The dissolution rate of uranium appeared to be controlled by solid-phase diffusion of uranium from within uranium-bearing mineral particles. X-ray adsorption spectroscopy indicated the presence of a soluble uranyl silicate, and possibly a uranyl phosphate. These phases were exhausted in transported sediment suggesting that uranium was readily mobilized from sediments in the Upper Puerco watershed and transported in the dissolved load. These results could have significance for uranium risk assessment as well as mining waste management and cleanup efforts.

  3. Deteriorating effects of lichen and microbial colonization of carbonate building rocks in the Romanesque churches of Segovia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Asuncion de los [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: arios@ccma.csic.es; Camara, Beatriz [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia del Cura, Ma Angeles [Instituto de Geologia Economica CSIC-UCM, Laboratorio de Petrologia Aplicada, Unidad Asociada CSIC-UA, Alicante (Spain); Rico, Victor J. [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Galvan, Virginia [Facultad Patrimonio Cultural, Universidad SEK, Convento de Santa Cruz la Real, 40003 Segovia (Spain); Ascaso, Carmen [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    In this study, the deterioration effects of lichens and other lithobionts in a temperate mesothermal climate were explored. We examined samples of dolostone and limestone rocks with visible signs of biodeterioration taken from the exterior wall surfaces of four Romanesque churches in Segovia (Spain): San Lorenzo, San Martin, San Millan and La Vera Cruz. Biofilms developing on the lithic substrate were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The most common lichen species found in the samples were recorded. Fungal cultures were then obtained from these carbonate rocks and characterized by sequencing Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS). Through scanning electron microscopy in back-scattered electron mode, fungi (lichenized and non-lichenized) were observed as the most frequent microorganisms occurring at sites showing signs of biodeterioration. The colonization process was especially conditioned by the porosity characteristics of the stone used in these buildings. While in dolostones, microorganisms mainly occupied spaces comprising the rock's intercrystalline porosity, in bioclastic dolomitized limestones, fungal colonization seemed to be more associated with moldic porosity. Microbial biofilms make close contact with the substrate, and thus probably cause significant deterioration of the underlying materials. We describe the different processes of stone alteration induced by fungal colonization and discuss the implications of these processes for the design of treatments to prevent biodeterioration.

  4. Provenance and alteration of pyroclastic rocks from the Romanesque Churches of Logudoro (north Sardinia, Italy) using a petrographic and geochemical statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbu, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    The pyroclastic rocks, belonging to the calcalkaline volcanic activity occurred in Sardinia between 32 and 11 Ma ago, were widely used as construction material in several Romanesque Churches of the easternmost Logudoro, as well as in the Sardinia territory. In this work was taken as a case study the Church of Nostra Signora di Otti (12th cent.). There are no historical or archaeological evidences of the ancient quarries. Based on the geochemical, petrographic and volcanological characters of several samples from an extensive field area (approximately 150 kmq), a geographical zoning of the Oligo-Miocenic volcanics has been recognised. Internally to the Oschiri sector, according to TiO2 vs Differentiation Index diagram, there are three different sub-zones with pyroclastics: less fractionated (D.I. 70 ÷ 78); intermediate fractionated (D.I. 76 ÷ 79); more fractionated (D.I. 77 ÷ 82). To identify the origin of the ignimbrites of the Church, two statistical methods have been used: stepwise linear discriminant and canonical analysis. Moreover, to define the geochemical transformation processes induced by the alteration, by XRD analysis and XRF, SEM-EDS data, a comparative study of concentrations of major and trace elements measured between the surface portion and the innermost of the stone has been made.

  5. Church Asylum

    OpenAIRE

    Birgit Neufert

    2014-01-01

    Church asylum, or sanctuary, is a practice to support, counsel and give shelter to refugees who are threatened with deportation to inhumane living conditions, torture or even death. This practice can be located at the interface of benevolence and politics.

  6. Church Asylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Neufert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Church asylum, or sanctuary, is a practice to support, counsel and give shelter to refugees who are threatened with deportation to inhumane living conditions, torture or even death. This practice can be located at the interface of benevolence and politics.

  7. Hyperspectral Signatures (400 to 2500 nm) of Vegetation, Minerals, Soils, Rocks, and Cultural Features: Laboratory and Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    disappearance or appearance of certain minerals. The rocks formed, in increasing temperature, are greenschist, amphibolite, and granulite . Greenschist and...amphibolite facies rocks are often schistose; granulite facies rocks are usually gneissic in texture. E. Cultural and Man-made Features (C). Spectra

  8. Church and State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Church and state is discussed in four articles: "Recent Threats to Religious Liberty" (Dean M. Kelley, pp.16-22); "Municipal Church-State Litigation and the Issue of Standing" (Kenneth S. Saladin, pp. 23-25); "Prayer in Public Schools: The Court's Decisions" (Leo Pfeffer, pp. 26-29); and "Religion and Public…

  9. Church and State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Forum: Phi Kappa Phi Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Church and state is discussed in four articles: "Recent Threats to Religious Liberty" (Dean M. Kelley, pp.16-22); "Municipal Church-State Litigation and the Issue of Standing" (Kenneth S. Saladin, pp. 23-25); "Prayer in Public Schools: The Court's Decisions" (Leo Pfeffer, pp. 26-29); and "Religion and Public Education: The American Context" (Peggy…

  10. Digital non-metric image-based documentation for the preservation and restoration of mural paintings: the case of the Üzümlü Rock-hewn Church, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Higuchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital photography is a valuable documentation technique for the preservation of a cultural heritage site because highresolution photography presents both general and detailed views of mural paintings and mural condition in a single image. Advanced digital technology is particularly helpful for preserving and restoring mural paintings given that the painting condition is recorded on high-resolution base maps shows how mural paintings are damaged by environmental stresses, mechanical damages and inappropriate treatments, among others. In addition, photogrammetric software technology is rapidly advancing and being applied to the digital documentation of mural paintings or rock art. Nevertheless, human experience and investigation of mural paintings is indispensable for recording the condition of mural paintings, and this highlights that every step of documentation conducted in situ is desirable. However, images by photogrammetric software do not show sufficient resolution because most normal portable computers used on-site are not usually sufficient. Based on our experience at the Üzümlü Church in Cappadocia, Turkey, we propose a new approach to document mural conditions in situ for preservation and restoration. Our method is based on a comparison of a non-metric but approximate high-resolution image with the actual mural paintings. The method does not require special instruments and enables digital documentation of the mural condition in situ at a low cost, in a short time frame and using minimal human resources.

  11. Churches in Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-jing

    2008-01-01

    In Hardy's novel,Jude the Obscure,many images and scenes relating to churches function to reveal the hero's,or the author's views towards Christian religion.This essay makes an analysis of the church architecture,church scenes and clerical characters in the novel.

  12. Why I Left the Church

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Nissen, Karen Marie Sø

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study covers 4 former members of the Danish National Church. The study offers initial research on why members of the Danish National Church are abandoning the church. The research focuses on outlining the process leading up to the actual resignation of a membership, and aim to be...

  13. A CHURCH INTERRUPTED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The history of a German-built Protestant church in Qingdao offers a sketch of Christianity's development in modern China Li Hong's father used to wedge his Bible into a thick mat so it wouldn't be confiscated. That was during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, when all religions were suppressed, she said.

  14. Church as heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya van Wyk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on an ecclesiastical institution as a spatial panoptic structure which domesticates representational space as a hierarchy of power devoid of a sensitivity for the ‘human Other’ (Autrui. The notion of heterotopia is promoted to deconstruct spatiality and linearity (time as theological binary concepts. Being church as heterotopia does not deny the desire for the utopian dimension in religious thinking but holds on to utopian thinking amidst adversity and diversity. Therefore the concept of heterotopia is used to describe reconciliatory diversity, which is characteristic of an inclusive postmodern church which is a space where unity is not threatened by diversity, where the one is not afraid of the Other.

  15. Church as heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya van Wyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on an ecclesiastical institution as a spatial panoptic structure which domesticates representational space as a hierarchy of power devoid of a sensitivity for the ‘human Other’ (Autrui. The notion of heterotopia is promoted to deconstruct spatiality and linearity (time as theological binary concepts. Being church as heterotopia does not deny the desire for the utopian dimension in religious thinking but holds on to utopian thinking amidst adversity and diversity. Therefore the concept of heterotopia is used to describe reconciliatory diversity, which is characteristic of an inclusive postmodern church which is a space where unity is not threatened by diversity, where the one is not afraid of the Other.

  16. Darwinism and the Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Verma

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Darwinism and the church have been in conflict right from the inception of the former. A recent expression of this conflict has appeared in the form of the Concept of Intelligent Design (ID, which amounts to the special creation concept, which is in religious scriptures. ID is not science, and the Natural Selection Theory of Evolution, propounded by Darwin, is a well established scientific theory. Intermixing science and religion, as ID is, is not advisable. However, science and religion are both human needs.

  17. Unshackling the Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyani Vellem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In whose ‘order’, ‘newness’ and ‘foundation’ is ecclesiology based in South Africa? The colonial legacy of pigmentocracy, the cultural domination and annihilation of the indigenous dispensation of black Africans, is not devoid of institutional structures of faith and their historical performance in South Africa. The church is one institution in South Africa that played a crucial role in perpetrating perversities of racial, economic and cultural exclusion with a fetish of its institutional character that is still pervasive and dangerously residual in post-1994 South Africa. By presenting a brief outline of the basics on ecclesiology, the article argues that things remain the same the more things seem to change if the methodological approach to ecclesiology circumvents the edifice and foundations on which the history of ecclesiology in South Africa is built. To unshackle the church, a Black Theology of liberation must begin from and debunk the foundations of models of ecclesiology that are conceived on perverse theological and ideologised forms of faith that have become residually hazardous in South Africa post-1994.

  18. Biofilms in churches built in grottoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cennamo, Paola, E-mail: paola.cennamo@unisob.na.it [Facoltà di Lettere, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli, Via Santa Caterina da Siena 37, 80135 Naples (Italy); Montuori, Naomi [Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria 223, 80139 Naples (Italy); Trojsi, Giorgio; Fatigati, Giancarlo [Facoltà di Lettere, Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa di Napoli, Via Santa Caterina da Siena 37, 80135 Naples (Italy); Moretti, Aldo [Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Foria 223, 80139 Naples (Italy)

    2016-02-01

    We investigated microorganisms dwelling on rocks, walls and paintings in two votive chapels built in grottoes in the Region of Campania, Italy. One grotto was near the coast in an area with a Mediterranean climate, and the other grotto was inland on a mountain in an area with a cold continental climate. Color and distribution of biofilms in various areas of the grottoes were examined. Microbial components of biofilms were identified by light and electron microscopy and by molecular techniques (DNA analyses and Automatic rRNA Intergenic Spacer Analysis). Biofilms were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction to detect inorganic constituents deriving from rocks in the grottoes and walls of the churches and by X-ray fluorescence to detect the elements that made up the pigments of the mural paintings; optical cross sections were used to observe their relationships with substrata. Species of eubacteria, cyanobacteria and green algae were identified. Some of these species occurred in both grottoes, while others were exclusive to only one of the grottoes. The diversity of species, their common or exclusive occurrence in the grottoes, the relationships among microbial communities and the differences in color and distribution of biofilms were discussed on the basis of the different climatic factors affecting the two grottoes and the different inorganic components of substrata. - Highlights: • Biofilms concur to the degradation of cultural heritage. • Microorganisms cause esthetic and structural damage in votive churches. • Biofilm features vary on different substrata, as limestone, plaster and paintings. • Features of biofilms mainly depend on environmental conditions. • Molecular biology techniques are indispensable in the study of biodegradation.

  19. Spiritual gifts for biblical church growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. DeVries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the use of spiritual gifts for church growth, particularly in relation to the sovereign work of the Holy Spirit. The article begins with a definition of spiritual gifts and by highlighting their purpose for growing the church. This is followed by two practical considerations: How should Christian believers use spiritual gifts for church growth, and how should church leaders motivate gift use for this purpose? Since the Holy Spirit works though believers to build up the body of Christ, advocates of biblical church growth should seek to employ his means to motivate spiritual giftedness in the church.

  20. Geotheral heating facilities of United Church of Christ (Congregational Church)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    Based on the assumptions made in this study, a geothermal system for the Congregational Church is not economically feasible at this time. A retrofit of the church for geothermal would result in a capital cost of $37,600 including the geothermal well. When this figure is considered in conjunction with the $1892 first-year savings (present fuel cost minus geothermal system O and M cost) and inflation over a 20-year period, a simple payback of 12 years results. In addition, an internal rate of return figure of 8.7 percent was generated. This indicates that the project would have to be financed at less than 9 percent to be economically feasible over a 20-year period.

  1. Calvin on church and government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Dreyer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Calvin’s understanding of civil govern- ment as well as the relationship between church and govern- ment against the background of radical political change during the sixteenth century. It becomes clear that Calvin had an organic understanding of church, government and people. These three entities are interwoven and interact on the basis of the covenant and civil contract. Calvin’s approach, however, is not limited to the covenant, but has a surprising richness and diversity. He integrated theological, juristic and philosophical concepts in his understanding of the state. It is further shown that Calvin’s high regard for civil government, entrenched the corpus christianum, even though he clearly distinguished between ecclesiastical and civil governance. It is also shown that Calvin had a fundamental influence on many of the political concepts which are generally accepted within modern democra- cies.

  2. Combining fs LA-ICP-MS, FIB and STXM-NEXAFS Methods for in-situ High-Spatial-Resolution Rock Varnish Analyses at the nm to µm Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macholdt, D.; Andreae, M. O.; Jochum, K. P.; Kappl, M.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Müller, M.; Pöhlker, C.; Stoll, B.; Weber, B.; Weigand, M.; Weis, U.

    2014-12-01

    Since over 200 years a number of studies debate the origin of the black or red, up to 250 µm thick coatings on desert rocks, referred to as rock varnish. The main components of varnish are poorly crystallized Mn and Fe oxides and clay minerals. Both biological and geological processes have been suggested for the genesis. We used a combination of 200 nm-femtosecond LA-ICP-MS, focused ion beam (FIB) slicing and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy - near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM-NEXAFS) for the high-spatial-resolution analysis of rock varnish from different locations (Negev, Israel; Knersvlakte, South Africa; Death Valley and Mojave Desert, California). Femtosecond LA-ICP-MS was used for the quantitative determination of major and trace element concentrations. In-situ measurements were conducted on thick sections with the advantages of non-matrix matched calibration, low ablation depth of ~10 µm for laser spot sizes of 10-40 µm and low detection limits of trace elements ( 1 µm), while others only show very fine grained material (< 0.1 µm). The results of the combined microanalytical techniques give us detailed insights that can be a further step to unravel the genesis of rock varnish.

  3. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYZEL ANN. T. DE CASTRO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  4. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Studebaker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  5. Homosexuality: A challenge to African churches

    OpenAIRE

    Maake Masango

    2002-01-01

    Globalization has brought numerous challenges to churches. Homosexuality is one of those challenges facing African churches. There has been a growing evidence of rejection, isolation, discrimination and  condemnation as sub-human of homosexuals. Some conservative churches have misused Scripture in order  to strengthen their case of condemnation. This article  seeks to correct the misinterpretation or misuse of Scriptural passages. For example, Sodom and Gomorrah is often referred to as a pass...

  6. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerts, Raf; Ortveld, Koev van; November, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about...

  7. Curriculum Design and Children's Learning at Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Larry D.; Paroschi, Eliane E.; Habenicht, Donna J.; Hollingsead, Candice C.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between curriculum design and children's learning in church. Participants in this study included 12 six-year-old children attending two different Sabbath school classes in the same Midwestern Seventh-day Adventist church. A traditional curriculum guided instruction in Class 1. "GraceLink," a new curriculum,…

  8. A "One Kid at a Time" Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joyce MacKichan

    2009-01-01

    One might think a large church would organize Sabbath morning "classes" for children with special needs, staff them with volunteer professionals trained in working with the children, and sit back and enjoy being large enough to have the resources to do so. Not Nassau Presbyterian Church in Princeton, New Jersey. Neither the theology nor the…

  9. Conversion growth of Protestant churches in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M

    2008-01-01

    This study set out to answer the question what factors are conducive for church growth through conversion in Protestant Thai churches. After 180 years of unhindered Protestant missionary activity only 0.3% of ethnic Thai, about 185,000 people, have become Protestants. Though small, ethnic Thai Prote

  10. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Raf; Overtveld, Van Koen; November, Eva; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about their

  11. On the orthodox church melos: A contribution to the typology of church chant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Many unresolved questions related to post-Byzantine church chanting present obstacles to understanding some aspects of church music since the 19th century. One of those problems concerns the need for strict definitions of criteria according to which a church melody is classified as "melos" (Serb. napev. In this article the actual classifications of new Greek and Serbian chants are given. The most important Greek theoretical sources (theoretikon are taken into consideration, as well as writings in which Serbian theoreticians and chanters explain the classification of hymns in Serbian church singing. The terminology related to "melos" in Greek and Serbian church chanting practice is critically examined. Attention is also drawn to elements common to new Greek (neumatic and Serbian (staff notation "melos". This article is an introduction to more detailed research whose aim will be to establish similarities and distinctions between the two church singing traditions that have the same origins in Byzantine church music.

  12. Calvin’s views on church governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Smit

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether the church was seen by Calvin as a mere human community based on laws, an association functioning on the basis of a constitution, or as a dynamic domain of the governance of Jesus Christ which functions on the basis of the Word through his Spirit.   According to Calvin the church is a new order ordained by Christ in which He never delegated his authority to his officers. He Himself, as the Head, remains the sole bearer of authority. Nevertheless, they receive full power, as representatives of Christ, to minister his Word and to administer the sacraments in his church. As such the church received the power to teach (“potestas docenda”, to govern (“potestas gubernatio” and to make laws (“potestas regiminis”. This competence (“potestas” is, however, exercised particularly as a ministry (“ministe- rium” because it rests on God’s Word and is only ministered in conjunction with it. In the procedure of church governance Calvin considered faith and love as two key concepts.   In order to give a practical foundation to a spiritual mode of governance in the church as God’s new order in the world, a church order is needed which is founded in the Word. This church order must aim at the protection of the governance of the Spirit in the church.   For Calvin church government is, therefore, primarily a process of governing the heart – the hearts of those among whom God’s new order in the world exists.

  13. The amazing growth of the early church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim A. Dreyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The church grew rapidly during the first centuries. The question is: Why? Generations of scholars approached this question from different perspectives and with different methods. Historical research, analysis of early Christian texts and theological reflection were the most common methods used to shed light on the growth of the church. In this contribution five different models of growth were discussed, using the approach of A.M. Schor as a point of departure. These models of church growth were put under the headings of an apostolic mission model, values reproduction model, social reaction model, network model with an institutional model added.

  14. Church History and Church Polity in the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria

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    Graham A. Duncan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Theology has been an integral part of the University of Pretoria since its inception and Church History has been taught since the establishment of the Faculty of Theology in 1917. At that time, the Presbyterian Church of South Africa and the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHK were partners. The Presbyterian link with the Faculty ceased in 1933. From 1938 the Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk (NGK joined the NHK and this remained the situation until 2002 when the Uniting Presbyterian Church of Southern Africa re-established its links with the Faculty. At the present time, the Department of Church History and Church Polity is staffed by representatives of all three partner churches.

  15. Homosexuality: A challenge to African churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maake Masango

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has brought numerous challenges to churches. Homosexuality is one of those challenges facing African churches. There has been a growing evidence of rejection, isolation, discrimination and  condemnation as sub-human of homosexuals. Some conservative churches have misused Scripture in order  to strengthen their case of condemnation. This article  seeks to correct the misinterpretation or misuse of Scriptural passages. For example, Sodom and Gomorrah is often referred to as a passage of Scripture to justify condemnation, while this  passage actually deals with judgment. Finally, the article  challenges churches to use a pastoral approach which should lead to a healing ministering, especially to all of those who are isolated and rejected.

  16. Church, freedom and bolshevisation of Moscow University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaina, Alex

    2008-05-01

    A short description of events, occured in Russia after 1917 with emphasysis on main phyilosophycal curents such as marxism and believing, first of atheistic content and second of christian moralty content is given. It is argued, that bolshevicks contributed to progress of Russia, but this was reached by mean of purges and terror, during which many peoples were killed, especially representatives of the Russian Ortodox church. A list of scientists, which contributed more than other to the bolshevisation of the Russia and Moscow University, particularly, is given. The controverse between Hegel and Einstein from one part and Marx and bolshevicks from other part is examined also. The bolshevicks destroyed the Russian ortodox church, instead of its modernisation, is argued. The Calendar in the Russian Ortodox church is discussed, which is Julian, and it is argued, that a peaceful dialogue between the representatives of the Church and scientists is needed in order to make a transition to the Gregorian one.

  17. The Spirit and the church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Hegstad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In what way is the Holy Spirit present in the life of the church? Questions of ecclesiology and pneumatology have traditionally divided denominations. Today these questions are at the centre of renewed ecumenical rapprochement. This article presents the contribution of the classic study on Martin Luther’s pneumatology, Spiritus Creator (1946, by the Danish theologian Regin Prenter (1907–1990. One basic insight in Prenter’s interpretation of Luther is the Spirit’s role of conveying the real presence of Christ in the life of the believer. This also means that the Spirit conveys the experience of Christ. As a Lutheran, Prenter underlines the role of word and sacrament as the tool of transmitting the Spirit. This does not mean that the Spirit is limited to word and sacrament, as an institutionally oriented reading of the Augsburg Confession may advocate. A pneumatologically oriented ecclesiology inspired by Prenter’s reading of Luther may open new possibilities for a “re-ceptive ecumenism”, including insights from Pentecostal and Charismatic theology in a Lutheran context.

  18. 20 CFR 404.1026 - Work for a church or qualified church-controlled organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... school which is controlled, operated, or principally supported by a church or by a convention or... in this section, your employer may elect to have your services excluded from employment. You would... Revenue Service in accordance with Internal Revenue Service procedures and must state that the church...

  19. Death and meaning in a storefront church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrums, M

    2000-01-01

    Nurses are often uncomfortable in addressing the needs of a spiritual family in times of death and grieving. They frequently find that scientific explanations and even emotional support fail to comfort individuals and families. This study, based in a small Black storefront church, explores the meaning of death and the experience of grieving among the deeply religious church members. Ethnographic description and analysis of life history interviews were employed to analyze these concepts. Church members had a particular way of managing the death of one of their members or the death of a child. They made an attempt to "go on," and they had a strong belief in an afterlife. Church members sometimes experienced visions and visits from "the other side" that supported these beliefs. They had a spiritual manner of comforting those left behind, speaking often of the "homegoing" with acceptance, examining the purpose of the "journey" of one's life, trying to inspire hope, and yet simultaneously preparing for death. Members praised each other for doing all that they could for their loved one. The nurse who cares for a spiritual family needs to carefully assess each family individually, however, s/he may find that the approaches used by the church members in caring for one another are helpful to incorporate into her/his care.

  20. Relational leadership and the missional church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Breedt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The global realities regarding cultural shifts and the transition between traditional, modern and postmodern world perspectives have particular implications for leadership in general. In several institutions, including those in commercial, educational, medical and religious circles, leaders face the challenges of constant change in lifestyle, relational intelligence and responsibility. The combined impact of these changes in thought and culture, information technology, globalisation and racial, ethnic and religious pluralism has displaced the historic role the church has traditionally played. In this article it was argued that the church would have to take a hard look at relationships, in order to be the successful missional church which was demonstrated by Jesus Christ. The church needs to change, evolve and advance in relational intelligence and leadership � and leaders should set the pace. This implies that a paradigm shift is necessary; it is believed that this can be achieved through the proposed relational leadership style, as clearly demonstrated in the Trinitarian discussion. The Trinity, especially a relational Trinity, revealed the core understanding of missional ecclesiology and leadership and showed that as a result of the total �oneness� of God, there is no hierarchical order in the Godhead and as such the church should function and operate with the Trinity as its model and example.

  1. Polemic On Church Construction in Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Ali-Fauzi at all.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Embracing religion and performing worship in accordance with one’s own preference is the right of each citizen, and is guaranteed by law. However, the ugly truth is that the Indonesian society’s tolerance is relatively low, especially in addressing the beliefs or religious differences that become an issue in the fulfillment of those rights. As a result, religious reasons often become the cause of conflicts at the grassroots level. For example, in the construction of churches, as described in the book entitled Kontroversi Gereja di Jakarta (Church Controversy in Jakarta, which was written by the research team of Paramadina Foundation, Master’s program of Peace and Conflict Resolution of Gadjah Mada University (MPRK UGM and the Indonesian Conference on Religion and Peace (ICRP, where in the case of Jakarta, the construction of churches also often causes polemic.

  2. Homophobia, hypermasculinity and the US black church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elijah G

    2005-01-01

    Black churches in the USA constitute a significant source of the homophobia that pervades black communities. This theologically-driven homophobia is reinforced by the anti-homosexual rhetoric of black nationalism. Drawing on a variety of sources, this paper discusses the sources of homophobia within black communities, and its impact upon self-esteem, social relationships and physical health. Religion-based homophobia and black nationalism point to wider structures which have influenced their emergence, including racism, patriarchy and capitalism. It is vital for US black churches and communities to understand and transcend their longstanding resistance to openly addressing complex, painful issues of sexuality and embrace healthier definitions of black manhood.

  3. Experiencing Religious Information Literacy: Informed Learning in Church Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunton, Lyndelle; Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an exploration of religious information literacy in terms of how people use information to learn in the context of church communities. The research approach of phenomenography was used to explore Uniting Church in Australia members' experience of using information to learn as participants in their church communities. Five ways…

  4. Ethiopian church forests : opportunities and challenges for restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Northern Ethiopia almost all dry Afromontane forests have been converted to open agricultural lands. Only small isolated fragments remain around churches ("church forests"), but these are many. This study analyses forest community structure and composition of the church forests, investigates majo

  5. Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. van der Merwe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.

  6. Restoration and Rehabilitation of world heritage Site of Chupan Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish Rohani, S.

    2015-08-01

    Church of Chupan is located in Jolfa cityin north of Iran and is laid at south side of Arax River. Built of the church traced back to 14th to 15th century and the time when Armenians were inhabited in the region. Chupan church had been inscribed at World Heritage List of UNESCO under no 1262 in 2008, as one of the five churches of "Armenian Monasteries of Azerbaijan province of Iran" dossier. As it is located at a religious and tourism road of Darresham and each year most of Armenian from all over the world visited the church as a part of a religious ceremony, also as the same church on opposite side of the Arax in Republic of Nakhchivan is completely destroyed between 1998-2002 and the church is the only existing evidence of these two couple church, the restoration and rehabilitation of chupan church is very important. Because of very bad statues of structure stability and long-term neglect of the conservation and preservation of the building, restoration and rehabilitation of the church in the earliest was necessary. Restoration of this church was my MA degree thesis and now as a Ph.D student in field of urban design and planning student, I am working on the next step which is to revitalization and rehabilitation of the church.

  7. The Perspective of the Early Church Historians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glanville Downey

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the jurist-continuators of Eusebius, Socrates emphasized the role of the orthodox emperors in the progess of the church, Sozomen covered a wider range of historical phenomena, and Evagrius devoted the most space to secular affairs.

  8. The FCC and the Electric Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Michael F.

    This newsletter focuses on the relationship between the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and religious broadcasters. It traces the history of that relationship and discusses some of the pressures put on both. It includes a discussion of a recent avalanche of mail at the FCC supporting the church on the airways. It also summarizes some of…

  9. The Pauluskerk: an unorthodox church in Rotterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van der Hoeven

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The tale of the rebuilding of the Pauluskerk (St. Paul’s Church in the Dutch city of Rotterdam is a multilayered story that blurs the lines between architecture, societal issues, policymaking and urban redevelopment.The original Pauluskerk was built in the late 1950s in a city centre that was still recovering from the damage it suffered during the Second World War. The church may never have received the attention it has were it not for Reverend Visser, who developed the church into a refuge for the outcasts of Dutch society: asylum seekers, homeless people and drug addicts. Visser’s activism eventually evolved into the Perron Nul (Platform Zero initiative, through which he organized support for the addicted and indigent on a scale not seen before in the city.The close proximity of the Pauluskerk to Rotterdam Central Station and the controversy surrounding its mission brought it slowly but steadily onto a collision course with the renewal and redevelopment of the station area, which would eventually lead to the demolition of the original Pauluskerk in 2007 and the construction of a new church building as part of the CalypSO project, designed by British architect William Alsop.This article brings these story lines together to showcase the complex process involved in an inner-city urban development founded in the well-established practice of local democracy, where consensus-seeking is the norm, even when this crosses societal borders.

  10. A church-based cholesterol education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiist, W H; Flack, J M

    1990-01-01

    The leading cause of death among black people in the United States is coronary heart disease, accounting for about 25 percent of the deaths. The Task Force on Black and Minority Health formed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in 1985 subsequently recommended increased efforts to reduce risk factors for coronary heart disease in the black population. A stated focus of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's National Cholesterol Education Program has been that of reaching minority groups. This report describes a pilot cholesterol education program conducted in black churches by trained members of those churches. Cholesterol screening, using a Reflotron, and other coronary heart disease risk factor screening was conducted in six churches with predominantly black members and at a neighborhood library. A total of 348 persons with cholesterol levels of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg per dl) or higher were identified. At the time of screening, all were provided brief counseling on lowering their cholesterol and were given a copy of the screening results. Half of those identified, all members of one church, were invited to attend a 6-week nutrition education class of 1 hour each week about techniques to lower blood cholesterol. Information about cholesterol was also mailed to them. They were designated as the education group. Persons in the church were trained to teach the classes. A report of the screening results was sent to the personal physicians of the remaining 174 people in other churches who had cholesterol levels of 200 mg per dl or higher. This group served as a usual care comparison group.Six months after the initial screening, members of both groups were invited for followup screening.Among the 75 percent of the education group who returned for followup screening there was a 23.4 mg per dl (10 percent) decrease in the mean cholesterol level. Thirty-six percent of the usual care group returned for followup screening; their mean cholesterol

  11. Sacred Space: A Beginning Framework for Off-Planet Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. K.

    As governments and corporations continue to engage space security, commerce, exploration and colonization, the Christian Church will not be far behind. Historically the Church has always been part of the first waves of explorers and colonizers, with its ideological interests being easily supported by generous resources and strong infrastructures. The exploring Church has not always been a friendly guest, however, and at times has initiated or condoned great harm. This paper offers a beginning framework as one way of insuring an appropriate presence in space for the Church. This framework is built with three common religious planks, namely, theology, ecclesiology and church worker vocation. Each of these is recast in terms of the off-planet scenario. This paper concludes that an appropriate off-planet Church will be founded on an "exomissiological" theology, will embrace an ecclesiology that emphasizes religious health, and will adequately select, train and monitor its off-planet church workers.

  12. Archaeoastronomy and the orientation of old churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangui, A.

    2016-08-01

    Cultural astronomy is an interdisciplinary area of research that studies how perceptions and concepts related to the sky are part of the worldview of a culture. One of its branches, archaeoastronomy, focuses on the material remains of past peoples and tries to investigate their practices and astronomical knowledge. In this context, the orientation of Christian churches is now considered a distinctive feature of their architecture that repeats patterns from early Christian times. There is a general tendency to align their altars in the solar range, with preference for orientations towards the east. Here we present recent data from our measurements of astronomical orientations of old churches located in two --geographically and culturally-- very distant regions, and we discuss the results in the light of the historical and cultural knowledge surrounding these temples.

  13. Computing Beyond the Church-Turing Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert

    2009-05-01

    Dershowitz and Gurevich claim to have proven the Church-Turing theorem starting from a set of 4 reasonable postulates. (Bulletin of Symbolic Logic, vol. 14, num. 3, Sept. 2008, pg. 299) But their postulate II assumes fixed vocabulary. Humans, however, change their vocabulary words (and concepts) over time. My Asa H artificial intelligence also changes its vocabulary. (Trans. of the Kansas Acad. of Sci., vol. 109, no. 3/4, pg 159, 2006, www.bioone.org/archive/0022- 8443/109/3/pdf/i0022-8443-109-3-159.pdf) Their postulate I excludes nondeterministic transitions between states. I don't know how often humans flip a coin but my Asa H does employ random transitions under certain circumstances. Perhaps humans and Asa H go beyond the Church-Turing limit. (Trans. Kansas Acad. of Sci., 108, 3/4, pg. 169, 2005)

  14. Archaeoastronomy and the orientation of old churches

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Cultural astronomy is an interdisciplinary area of research that studies how perceptions and concepts related to the sky are part of the worldview of a culture. One of its branches, archaeoastronomy, focuses on the material remains of past peoples and tries to investigate their practices and astronomical knowledge. In this context, the orientation of Christian churches is now considered a distinctive feature of their architecture that repeats patterns from early Christian times. There is a general tendency to align their altars in the solar range, with preference for orientations towards the east. Here we present recent data from our measurements of astronomical orientations of old churches located in two --geographically and culturally-- very distant regions, and we discuss the results in the light of the historical and cultural knowledge surrounding these temples.

  15. Acoustic simulations of Mudejar-Gothic churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, an iterative process is used in order to estimate the values of absorption coefficients of those materials of which little is known in the literature, so that an acoustic simulation can be carried out in Mudejar-Gothic churches. The estimation of the scattering coefficients, which is even less developed, is based on the size of the irregularities. This methodology implemented is applied to six Mudejar-Gothic churches of Seville (southern Spain). The simulated monophonic acoustic parameters, both in the frequency domain and as a function of source-receiver distance (spatial distribution), are analyzed and compared with the in situ measures. Good agreement has been found between these sets of values, whereby each parameter is discussed in terms of the just noticeable difference. This procedure for existing buildings, especially for those which are rich in heritage, enables a reliable evaluation of the effect on the maintenance, restoration, and conditioning for new uses, as well as the recreation of the acoustic environment of ancient times. Along these lines, the acoustic influence of the timber roof and the presence of the public in these churches have also been studied.

  16. Overcoming violence - a basic task of Christian churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Huber

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article � based on the second of two keynote lectures at a conference on violence � the view is developed that the task of the church with respect to violence consists mainly in overcoming violence. In the first part of the article dealing with the basic tasks of the church it is argued that the task to overcome violence is close to the essence of the church. The point of departure is taken in Article 7 of the Augsburg Confession, which understands the church as the �communion of saints� and names the pure proclamation of the gospel and the right administration of the sacraments as the two characteristics of the church. The Christian message that the church has to proclaim the gospel entails a preferential option for nonviolence that includes the responsibility to put an end to existing violence. In the second part of the article attention is given to the implications the basic task of the church in overcoming violence holds for the practice of the church. It is argued that the starting point is that the church has to proclaim the gospel of peace and as a community of faith become a community of peace herself. Some of the most important practical consequences the proclamation of the gospel of peace has for the church as a community of action, for her work in education, for her promotion of justice and for her solidarity with those in need, are discussed.

  17. Ethiopian church forests : opportunities and challenges for restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Wassie Eshete, A.

    2007-01-01

    In Northern Ethiopia almost all dry Afromontane forests have been converted to open agricultural lands. Only small isolated fragments remain around churches ("church forests"), but these are many. This study analyses forest community structure and composition of the church forests, investigates major bottlenecks for regeneration of woody species, and explores opportunities and challenges for restoration. In this thesis, the following major questions are addressed: 1. How do forest structure, ...

  18. Health promotion in local churches in Victoria: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayton, Darshini; Manderson, Lenore; Smith, Ben J; Carey, Gemma

    2016-11-01

    Church-based health promotion has increasingly gained attention in strategies to address health disparities. In Australia, we have limited understanding of the role of local churches in health promotion and without this, how they might be involved in meaningful partnerships to tackle public health challenges. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how churches are involved in health promotion in the state of Victoria. The research involved in-depth interviews with ministers from 30 churches in urban and rural Victoria, and case studies with 10 of these churches to enable further exploration. These case studies, conducted in 2010, included interviews with church staff, focus groups with volunteers, participant observation and document analysis. Analysis was iterative, utilising open, axial and thematic coding. Three different expressions of church - traditional, new modern and emerging - were identified and found to differentiate the levels and types of health promotion activity. Case studies illustrate the different expressions of how church mission influences health promotion activity. The traditional churches were involved particularly in disease screening and health education activities with their own, predominantly older congregation members. The new modern churches tended to have the material and human resources to be harnessed in health promotion activities involving congregation members and others. Emerging churches, in contrast, engaged in broad health-promoting activities, including disease prevention, lifestyle activities and socio-ecological approaches at a community level. These research findings highlight the opportunities and challenges of engaging with local churches in health promotion efforts and public health programmes to address health inequities.

  19. Restoration and Rehabilitation of world heritage Site of Chupan Church

    OpenAIRE

    Darvish Rohani, S.

    2015-01-01

    Church of Chupan is located in Jolfa cityin north of Iran and is laid at south side of Arax River. Built of the church traced back to 14th to 15th century and the time when Armenians were inhabited in the region. Chupan church had been inscribed at World Heritage List of UNESCO under no 1262 in 2008, as one of the five churches of “Armenian Monasteries of Azerbaijan province of Iran” dossier. As it is located at a religious and tourism road of Darresham and each year most of A...

  20. Women, sexuality, ecology, and the church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, R R

    1993-01-01

    This abridged article originally was given as a lecture at Seattle University. The view presented is that women's status within the Catholic Church is subordinate to men's status, and that the Church is misguided in its notion of protection of and support for life. Affirmation of life is not promoted by isolated acts of giving birth, but exists in a social and ecological system in a community over time. The fit between children being born and the network to sustain their lives is misaligned. The minority of the world's population has control over the majority of the world's resources, while the majority live in misery, poverty, and starvation. The affirmation of the value of human life must be both qualitative and quantitative. The woman must be empowered, and not continually defined and controlled by male decision makers. Being prolife means to change the conditions of women and the conditions that deny most humans adequate food, clear air and water, housing, and land to sustain life. The American Catholic Bishops confuse teachings on abortion and teachings on nuclear arms buildup. American Catholic Bishops have had great difficulty formulating a pastoral letter on women, which is unfair to the growing number of women who are alienated by the treatment of the church. The denigration of women is deeply imbedded within Catholicism and Christianity, in general, in spirituality and practice. The issue of abortion has more to do with paternalism and women's sexuality and reproduction than valuing or nonvaluing fetal life. Women are denied leadership within the church because of women's sinful nature and the need for paternalism as a punishment for self-determination. St. Augustine stated that two men were not created in God's image and lack personhood. Thomas Aquinas agreed with Aristotle that women are defective due to a gestational process which deprives women of full mental, moral, or physical humanity. Only a man can fulfill the role of priest. The taboo of woman

  1. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.

  2. The political economy of churches in Denmark over 700 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Ella; Paldam, Martin

    This paper reports new macro time-series for the number and size of churches in Denmark from year 1300 to 2000. Church densities are defined as the series per capita. The densities are interpreted as a proxy for religiosity. It is falling throughout all 700 years, but two events gave an extra fal...

  3. MEANS OF ESTABLISHING CHURCH PROPERTY AND FUNDING SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cricovean Mircea

    2013-07-01

    Regarding the administration of goods, the Church finds guidance in the laws of the State to which it belongs (Stan, 1952 but taking into consideration the fact that the Church cannot “have its special principles and rules contradicted”(Floca, 1990: 448. However, the church, in fulfilling its purpose - the salvation of believers, needs wealth or heritage. This is not to understand that the Church can “lose its essential character, supernatural character, because, for the Church the earthly possessions and temporal happiness are not an immediate end” (Floca, 1990: 451-452. To understand the Church’s sources of financing it is necessary to take account of its properties. Along the time the church was holder of ownership rights. Its property had to be maintained, at least, so it needed funding. The Church’s canonical and statutory provisions are those governing the Church’s source of funding. They cannot conclusively be understood without observing the principles and rules specific for the ecclesiastical wealth management. Noted should be that previously there were no generally accepted rules on the management of financial resources of the church. The canonical, legal and statutory establishments have become customary in time, making it possible this way, by the dioceses supervisors, that sources of funding should be directed towards the maintenance of the Church, of the worship and of social activities.

  4. 21 CFR 1307.31 - Native American Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Native American Church. 1307.31 Section 1307.31... Persons § 1307.31 Native American Church. The listing of peyote as a controlled substance in Schedule I does not apply to the nondrug use of peyote in bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native...

  5. The Potential Role of Business Intelligence in Church Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Charmaine

    2012-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) involves transforming data into actionable information to make better business decisions that may help improve operations. Although businesses have experienced success with BI, how leaders of church organizations might be able to exploit the advantages of BI in church organizations remains largely unexplored. The purpose…

  6. Self-secularisation as challenge to the church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of self-secularisation has been identified by Wolfgang Huber, bishop of the German Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (EKD, when he reflected on the context of the church in Germany. Self-secularisation however, is a worldwide phenomenon with effects in South Africa as well. After discussing the origin of the concept and its interpretations, the author tries to identify instances of self-secularisation within especially the Afrikaansspeaking churches, although not limited to them, in South Africa. The theological jargon comes under scrutiny, civil religion, the pluralistic society within which the church exists, the effect of emotionalism, the commercialisation of the church, the role of mass media and the phenomenon of infotainment, rationalisation and a lack of ethics are some of the elements identified and discussed. Finally the author attempts a correction by indicating what the church ought to do in order to counter the effects of self-secularisation.

  7. Collecting Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铮

    2007-01-01

    My hobby is collecting rocks.It is very special,isn’t it?I began to collect rocks about four years ago.I usually go hiking in the mountains,or near the river to look for rocks.When I find a rock,I pick it up and clean it with the brush and water.Then I put it into my bag.Most of the rocks I have collected are quartzite~*.They are really

  8. Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. DeVries

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and churchleaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit’s empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community.Goddelike bemagtiging: Die Heilige Gees en kerkherstel. Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om ’n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui.

  9. Serbian church chant in the service of national ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the process of the creation and embodiment of the concept of Serbian folk church chant throughout the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century among Serbian intellectuals and scholars. In order to indicate its main dimensions we focused on church music narratives of that time. Due to a detailed analysis of discussions and writings in periodicals as well as the published chant collections themselves, we were able to assess the dominant interpretations of the historical development of church singing in the Serbian Orthodox church. Looking closely at suppositions made about the origins and formation of church chants through the history of the Serbian church we could unveil their character e.g. whether they were the result of previously done research or were just a product of speculative thinking. In addition, we formed assumptions on the embeddedness of the concept of Serbian folk church chant in influential narratives on national identity and culture developed among the Serbian political and intellectual elite. The aim of our investigation was to show that the concept of Serbian folk church chant was not only determined by socio-political strivings in the Serbian state but that it was also a product of the wider political and cultural goals of the Serbian elite. Finally, we sought to suggest the important role played by 19th and early 20th century Serbian church music scholars in the process of imagining the Serbian nation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  10. Spolia from the Church of St. Nicholas in Nikoljac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two, so far unknown, spolia with carved interlace ornaments, built into the wall of the Church of St. Nicholas in Nikoljac are analyzed. These spolia are a part of the collection of fragments discovered earlier in the Church of St. Peter in Bijelo Polje. A comparative analysis was performed on a multitude of pre-Romanic material, in order to determine the time when they were made and whether they originated from any specific circle of stonemasons, and also to identify the initial position of the fragments in the liturgical church furniture for which they had been carved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177036

  11. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  12. KREEP Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2004-01-01

    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  13. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  14. Church over Nation: Christian Missionaries and Korean Christians in Colonial Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Matsutani, Motokazu

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the interrelationships between the foreign Missions and the Korean Church in colonial Korea. In contrast to previous scholarship that assumes a necessary link between the Korean Church and Korean nationalism, this study focuses on the foreign Mission's predominance over the Korean Church as a major obstacle in the Korean Church's adoption of nationalism as part of its Christian vision.

  15. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  16. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  17. Catechesis and baptism in the early Christian church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Nelson

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This article which originated as a background study for what Augustine says about his own baptism, presents the facts, as far as they could be ascertained, on practices concerning catechesis and baptism in the early Christian church down to about 400 AD, without going into any doctrinal issues. Public confession of faith and baptism was preceded in the early church by lengthy preparations: catechetical, liturgical and ascetical. Baptism was also followed by mystagogical instruction. All of these are set out concisely, based on a number of primary sources, namely some writings by Augustine, Ambrose and Tertullian, the Traditio Apostolica by Hippolytus and the Didache. A number of secondary sources are also cited. Attention is drawn to the significance of the custom to baptise at Easter this explains why Easter was seen as the climax of the church year in the time of the early Christian church.

  18. The Role of the Layman in the Ancient Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Huntston Williams

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The functions and powers of the laity in the pre-Constantinian church were substantial and diverse, and contrast with the clericalization of authority in the course of the fourth century.

  19. Chladni's law and the modern English church bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, R.; Charnley, T.; Banu, H.; Rossing, T. D.

    1985-09-01

    Extensive previously reported experimental data on the normal modes of an English church bell is analyzed with use of a modified version of Chladni's law. Excellent fits are obtained in almost every case provided certain conditions, for which a theoretical basis is presented, are satisfied. Some conclusions are drawn about the validity of a previously proposed theory of mode production mechanisms for the church bell.

  20. Dealing with difference and dissensus within the church as organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Painter-Morland

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to propose a way of dealing with the reality of difference within churches that allows for unity amidst diversity. It argues for the adoption of institutional frameworks that function as guiding and unifying forces without becoming repressing, totalising structures. The presence of dissensus and difference does not necessarily have to result in the fragmentation of churches. In fact, when harnessed effectively, difference and dissensus can become a valuable resource for renewal and realignment within churches. The paper develops a framework for dealing with diversity that binds people to the church as organisation in a way that respects their individual value-configurations and input. In the first place, it argues for a holistic view of the relationship between bodiliness, nature, technology, language, and truth statements. In the second place, it insists that confessional, spiritual and moral guidelines should neither be totalising structures that repress difference, nor oppositional differences that exclude commonality. In the third place, it argues that ongoing connectedness between individual members of the church is necessary. Individuals must see themselves as part of an everchanging, ever-evolving web of relations. Guidelines for dialogue within the church therefore become essential.

  1. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.

  2. `One Church, One People, One Emperor’ - Strategic Challenges for the Serbian Orthodox Church in Post-Milosevic Serbian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Easte 11 Variou cultura nationa the inte of universal rights, fits well with civic nationalism, rather than ethnic nationalism. thodox Church have...Church but to the majority of Serbs as well. The dream of returning Kosovo to Serbia fits into the doctrine of collective rights by asserting a...not to imply th continue to be many more fits and starts in the process. 263 The Croatian Catholic bishops did not attend this conference, though

  3. Does the church deliver? Perceptions amongst South Africans about the role of the church in the HIV/AIDS field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PJ van Dyk

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of South Africans regarding the church and their attitudes towards HIV-positive people and condom usage. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to investigate participants�� perceptions and attitudes towards the church, HIV-positive people and condom usage. The questionnaire was completed by 1352 participants from diverse religious and other backgrounds. Results showed that 67.2% of participants (mostly active church goers were prepared to go to their minister for support (if they� were HIV-positive.� Views that HIV/AIDS is God� s punishment, that HIV-infection is the result of a �sinful lifestyle�� and the condemnation of condom usage were more prevalent among certain categories of people (eg. those who had not been tested for HIV before, men, persons from rural areas, people of lower education level, the unemployed and in some cases the more active members of the church. A third (33.5% of the participants believed that religious people would be less prone to HIV-infection than non-religious people. 59.1% participants (mostly women and active church goers believed that the church is doing its best to support HIV-positive people.

  4. Heating Monumental Churches. Indoor Climate and Preservation of Cultural Heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellen, H.L.

    2002-12-19

    The main problem in this research encountered was the identification of common patterns and relations between typical church heating systems and their effects on the deterioration of monumental churches. Chapter 2 starts with an introduction to computational simulation tools. Thermal and hygric simulation models are introduced first. A distinction has been made between simplified and more detailed thermal and hygric simulation tools. Fairly accurate tools like WaVo (Wit 2000) were used to identify the building physical behavior of the entire church as a response to interior occupation, heating and exterior climate. Other tools like WUFI, Matlab and FlexPDE were used to determine in more detail the 1D, 2D and 3D thermal, hygric and mechanical behavior of the building materials and the monumental interior. 3D radiant calculations have been performed by Radiance. The model Radiance, originally developed for studies on lighting and lighting systems, was used to perform the direct thermal radiant studies. Fluent, finally, was used for studies on indoor airflows in relation to different heating systems. In chapter 3 tools to identify and investigate the building physical behavior of monumental churches are introduced. This chapter deals with the experimental work, both in situ as in the laboratory. This chapter describes the measurement techniques, used in situ, to determine the building physical behavior of churches. Measurements on air and surface temperature, air and near surface humidity, airflows, ventilation and infiltration are dealt with. Furthermore, experimental laboratory research on parts is described. NMR measurements on moisture content changes of wood, due to changes in air temperature and relative humidity, have been performed. In addition tests on the moisture content related deformation were carried out. Soot production of candles and incense was studied by laboratory experiments. The most important part of this study is the evaluation of different

  5. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  6. 'Earhart' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  7. Rock Art

    OpenAIRE

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Rock art, basically being non-utilitarian, non-textual anthropic markings on natural rock surfaces, was an extremely widespread graphical practice in ancient Egypt. While the apogee of the tradition was definitely the Predynastic Period (mainly fourth millennium BCE), examples date from the late Palaeolithic (c. 15,000 BCE) until the Islamic era. Geographically speaking, “Egyptian” rock art is known from many hundreds of sites along the margins of the Upper Egyptian and Nubian Nile Valley and...

  8. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  9. Medieval Round Churches and the Shape of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Erling; Lind, Niels C

    2015-12-01

    There is a unique cluster of four medieval round churches, linked by a simple geometry, on Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea. Why so many and why so close together? Immediate simple answers are "Just by chance" and "For no reason." Why are the churches round? "Defense." This essay proposes another hypothesis for this unique situation: the churches are astronomical observatories, meant to solve a scientific problem (Is the Earth really spherical?) and a practical problem (How far is it to sail west to the Orient?). The capacity and desire to find answers, together with other practical needs related to astronomy, can better explain these round churches' special architecture. The geometry that connects them fits the ideal pattern with an angular accuracy of 1 minute of a degree. The round churches may be the earliest astronomical observatories in Christian Europe; other hypotheses have been shown to be untenable. Their location provides for a good method to estimate the Earth's extent in the east-west direction, seemingly the earliest such measurements.

  10. Acoustic energy relations in Mudejar-Gothic churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara; Galindo, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Extensive objective energy-based parameters have been measured in 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the south of Spain. Measurements took place in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. Monoaural objective measures in the 125-4000 Hz frequency range and in their spatial distributions were obtained. Acoustic parameters: clarity C80, definition D50, sound strength G and center time Ts have been deduced using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. These parameters spectrally averaged according to the most extended criteria in auditoria in order to consider acoustic quality were studied as a function of source-receiver distance. The experimental results were compared with predictions given by classical and other existing theoretical models proposed for concert halls and churches. An analytical semi-empirical model based on the measured values of the C80 parameter is proposed in this work for these spaces. The good agreement between predicted values and experimental data for definition, sound strength, and center time in the churches analyzed shows that the model can be used for design predictions and other purposes with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Elaborating on ubuntu in a Johannesburg inner-city church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Hankela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article was originally delivered as the speech of the winner of the 2014 Donner Institute Prize for Outstanding Research into Religion, and deals with some core findings of the research that won the prize, namely, the doctoral thesis Challenging Ubuntu: Open Doors and Exclusionary Boundaries at the Central Methodist Mission in Johannesburg. The author approaches the meanings of ubuntu (Nguni: humanity/humanness in the context of a Methodist church that sheltered thousands of African migrants in its premises in the inner city of Johannesburg. Using ethnographic research methods, she analyses both the inclusionary message of humanity preached at the church and the exclusionary boundaries between the people who lived in the church and the local congregation that worshipped there. Based on the social dynamics of the church community, the author suggests the rules of reciprocity and survival as some of the socio-moral patterns that set the boundaries to the actualisation of the moral ideal of ubuntu in this context. Overall, the case of this particular church speaks to a broader discussion of the meaning of and limits to being human in one world.

  12. Volunteer work in the church among older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Hayward, R David

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that influence the amount of volunteer work that older Mexican Americans perform in the place where they worship. The relationship between religion and volunteering is viewed from a social identity perspective. Data from a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans suggest that Evangelical/Pentecostal church members spend more time performing volunteer work at church than older Mexican Americans who affiliate with other denominations. Moreover, the findings indicate that the difference in the amount of volunteering between the two groups can largely be explained by differences in the nature of the spiritual support that Evangelical/Pentecostal receive from their fellow church members as well as depth of their commitment to their faith.

  13. Disability, inclusion and the Christian Church: practice, paradox or promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapton, J

    1997-10-01

    In Western society, Christian Churches historically have been, and contemporarily are, involved with people perceived with disability. While they may practise biblical ethical imperatives such as care, compassion, mercy, support, welfare and charity, Churches have, paradoxically, only minimally offered cohesive or explicit moral notions for the 'inclusion' of people with disability in communities. Importantly, Churches have paid little attention to the historical construction of 'exclusion'. This paper proposes that matrices of patriarchal theology and patriarchal ethics continue to sustain structural positions of societal exclusion for people with disability because of implicit assumptions and values in the matrices about difference and different bodies. By examining a conjunction between feminism and disability around the issue of embodiment, the paper contends that 'inclusion' needs to be explored through the formation and embracing of matrices of feminist theology and feminist ethics.

  14. Christianization of folk customs: An example of Ox'Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Barišić Milina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the process of transformation of a pre-Christian custom in Zuce, a village near by Belgrade. The custom is called 'provlaka', held all until the WW II on August 29. This custom was established after the cattle pest in the village. Since WW II, however, this day is celebrated as the village St. patrons/slava day. After the village church has been built and blessed in 2002, the day became also celebrated as one of the church's slava days. Transformation of holidays assumes vanishing of some and appearance of some other segments of the given custom: 1. Until WW II the most important segment of the custom 'provlaka' was extracting wild fire and passage of people and cattle. This custom was maintained with an aim of preventive protection against epidemics. 2. A significant feature of annual celebration of calendar holidays included collective gatherings. On this day people visit relatives from other villages, attend lunch together, and gather at a particular village spot in the afternoon. 3. The beginning of the church building has allowed introduction of religious elements in celebration. In the morning, it is a time usually to attend a liturgy, while what follows represent some inherited customs like reception and eating together with relatives and friends. 4. After the village church has been built and blessed in 2002, the day became also celebrated as one of the church's slava days. This assumes presentation of the village cake maker and cake cutting in the church, accompanied by a local priest.

  15. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  16. Church Asylum - new strategies, alliances and modes of resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities for democratic transformation in a landscape of political closure. Taking the case of Church Asylum [Kirkeasyl] as an example of new ways of resistance and participation in contemporary Denmark the articles argues that although the established political...... channels are characterised by closure alternatives may be formulated outside the parliamentarian system. Using contemporary perspectives on social critique and mobilization the article looks back at Church Asylum in 2009 and discuss the alliances, strategies and modes of resistance used during the event...

  17. The early Latin Church Fathers on Herod and the Infanticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Mans

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the views of the early Latin Church Fathers on Herod and the carnage at Bethlehem have been neglected by modem scholars, this study is an attempt to discover and interpret  their opinions on the notorious king and this tragic event. Apparently, the main aim of the Latin Church Fathers was to present Herod's heinous deed in the worst possible light, and to exalt the Innocents to the ranks of the martyrs.

  18. The State-Church Relationship in Post-Communist Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA GORGAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the Romanian edition of Lavinia Stan and Lucian Turcescu’swork Religion and Politics in Post-Communist Romania, we argue in favour of thenecessity to study the relationship between the State and the Romanian OrthodoxChurch using an approach which takes into account the details and the possibleexistent perspectives, bringing a plus of objectivity, which is so needed in a fieldperceived as a sensible one. The arguments put forward will be justified by thehistorical tradition of the State-Church relationship in the Byzantine Empire, but alsoin Romania, as well as by the predominantly Orthodox structure of our country.

  19. Gereformeerde kerk te Wageningen 1970 [The Reformed church in Wageningen 1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wemmenhove, B.

    1970-01-01

    Frequency of church attendance / membership of club, elders and deacons, church committee / opinion on cooperation with other religious denominations in religious services / discussions during service / holy communion / dropping afternoon service / political point of view in sermon / pastoral visits

  20. Whither Shall We Go? The Past and Present of Black Churches and the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra H. Barber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the contemporary role of the Black Church in the public sphere. Some argue that despite the historical role of the Black Church in addressing racial inequality, it should not be involved in the public sphere, as there should be a clear separation between church and state. I argue that black churches are filling a gap created by the self-help ideology of a neo-liberal era where addressing the outcomes of contemporary racial inequality is left to private sector organizations, such as churches, rather than the federal government. I assert that the Black Church should remain engaged in the public sphere for two reasons: first, black churches are operating in the absence of state welfare rather than as an alternative to it and second, black churches are among the few institutions providing race-specific remedies that have been abandoned in a colorblind era.

  1. THEOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS FOR CHURCH MINISTRY AND ESTABLISHED POSTS FOR LAY PERSONS IN THE GERMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AFTER THE SECOND VATICAN COUNCIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Chernyi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available During an ongoing reform of parish staff led by the Church authorities of the Russian Orthodox Church, new positions in parishes are establishing, that of religious educator (catechist, social worker and youth worker. The principal object of this activation of parish life through structural changes is transforming parishes into missionary centers. Nevertheless, not always and not everywhere this initiative is welcomed enthusiastically or results in intensification of social, missionary and youth activities. In fact, many parishes followed the requisitions only nominally. In that context, it is only logical to consider the experience of the Catholic Church, where laypersons over half a century are holding established positions in parishes, including posts with the same responsibilities. However, if in the Russian Church the attempts to involve laypersons in parish work and emerge their role are not only conditioned but also motivated mostly by purely practical reasons, the idea of Church ministry of laypersons in the Catholic Church is based on profound theological foundations. The author sets forth premises of establishment of the parish positions for laypeople in the Catholic Church, introduced mainly at Vatican II. For this, he considers the change in expressing the idea of hierarchical structure of the Church, the council’s teaching on Church ministry and relationship between priests and laity. As an example of the practical realization of these theological premises, the author cites the German Catholic Church, where due to limited number of priests lay activity in parishes is widely spread and is quite versatile

  2. Atonement in the teachings and practice of the Church in the two first centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Janicki

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of church documents of early centuries AC indicates special significance of atonement in the teachings and life of the Church. Surviving texts present Church teachings which regard atonement as necessary, contain 'catalogues' of sins, speak of absolution and consider an important issue of practising atonement in relation to salvation. Also, the analysed documents reveal the practice of atonement according to the Church, which comprises: confession of sins, mutual forgiveness and reconciliation, fraternal admonition, alms, fasting and prayer.

  3. John Calvin and the Reformed tradition on the jurisdiction of the church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Coertzen

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available John Calvin’s view on the power of jurisdiction in the church, as he writes about it in the Institutes, is expounded in this article. Firstly, attention is given to the spiritual authority of the church, followed by an exposition of the power of the church to exercise jurisdiction. Lastly the current situation in Reformed circles on the jurisdiction of the church is discussed.

  4. Keluarga gerejani, an ecclesial family : A catechetical exploration of church-images among Catholics in Java

    OpenAIRE

    Tedjoworo, H.

    2013-01-01

    Title: Keluarga gerejani, an ecclesial family Subtitle: A catechetical exploration of church-images among Catholics in Java Author: Hadrianus Tedjoworo (Yogyakarta, 1971) Abstract: The realness images can evoke in the minds of the believers gives rise to an ‘imagerial’ way of apprehending the reality of the church. Images of the church can be found in the Scriptures and have been taught through catechesis, but there are also images in local cultures that may help to apprehend the church. The ...

  5. Calvin 1 5 preaching on the church in the letter to the Ephesians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Botha

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with Calvin as preacher inevitably involves attention to his preaching on the church. With this purpose in mind, three sermons from the letter to the Ephesians are analyzed. In this paper the results are discussed under three main headings, namely the origin and the essence of the church, the unity of the church and the offices of the church.

  6. Hiding behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…

  7. Pulpits and Platforms: The Role of the Church in Determining Protest among Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott T.

    2005-01-01

    This article further specifies the relationship between church-based resources, group identification and political activism among black Americans. Previous research indicates that political communication within churches and activism within the church serve to motivate political participation. Our research suggests that, net of relevant controls,…

  8. 11 CFR 100.76 - Use of church or community room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of church or community room. 100.76 Section...) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.76 Use of church or community room. No contribution results where an... political party, obtains the use of a church or community room and provides such room to any candidate...

  9. The Training of Semiliterate Rural Pastors in the Northwest Region Ethiopian Kale Heywet Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Timothy Steven

    2014-01-01

    A common plea in missions is the need to train pastors and church leaders for the rapidly multiplying churches in the Majority World, resulting in numerous formal and nonformal theological education training programs. In spite of these efforts, many rural churches remain without pastors. Using appreciative inquiry and participatory…

  10. Silence or condemnation: The Orthodox Church on homosexuality in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Jovanović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the representation of the gay population in the discourse of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The declarations of Church bodies and officials, as well as unofficial public statements of prominent believers regarding gay persons are analysed. There is an ambivalent attitude towards gay people that is usually expressed in the ‘hate the sin, love the sinner’ formula. There is also a different kind of ambivalence: the Serbian Orthodox Church as well as its faithful either stick to the ‘policy of silence’ regarding LGBT(Q issues, or they resort to a very strong moralistic judgment and condemnation. This was particularly noticeable around the time of the gay parade taking place in Belgrade in 2010, as well as during the public discussion before the passing of the anti-discrimination law in the national assembly in 2009. The inclusion of philosophical and medical concepts in theological discourse can also be ascertained. As a result, besides the expected ‘sin’, the categories of ‘unnatural/contrary to nature’ and ‘(mental illness’ are often mentioned in the Church discourse, which is usually saturated with accentuated anti-Westernism.

  11. Educating American Baptist Pastors: A National Survey of Church Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohall, Kirkpatrick G.; Cooper, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the typical Baptist pastor has evolved well beyond providing spiritual direction. Congregations expect them to fulfill complex leadership roles, similar to those in secular institutions, such as church administrators, political strategists, and social activists. Leadership preparation in seminaries for clergy has not kept up with the…

  12. "Sex and the Church": Sexuality, Misconduct, and Education in Methodism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Darryl W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes Methodism's efforts to address misconduct within ministerial relationships as an important dimension of sexuality education within a religious context. The United Methodist Church (UMC) makes a concerted effort to promote awareness, justice, and healing in cases of sexual abuse within ministerial relationships. The most…

  13. Undoing Racism in America: Help from the Black Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Jay A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether a planned engagement of white college students, which had very little contact with African Americans, with members of a black community in a safe, welcoming environment (a black church) would significantly reduce racism. Participant surveys indicated that positive interactions between Blacks and Whites resulted in positive…

  14. Violence as development? A challenge to the church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Landman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dullstroom-Emnotweni was the site of protests against the lack of service delivery by local government in 2009. The local leadership of the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa was confronted with challenges when its members got involved in acts of violence both from the side of the community and from the side of the police. Viewing itself as an asset to the community and an agent in its development towards health and wellbeing, the church was challenged by the situation in its prophetic capacity as well as in its relationship with the �state�. In an attempt to negotiate answers to the church�s relationship with the �state� in situations of violence, the uprising in Dullstroom-Emnotweni is used as a case study, and Calvin�s notion of the church as a world-transforming agent, the views of African women theologians on nonviolence, the practical piety of local religiousness, and the memory of systems of governance as �evil� are used as intertexts to define the church�s position vis-�-vis violence as an option for development. A position of caution is taken, a position in which the church retains both its political distance and its prophetic voice, remains true to its calling as an asset to community development, and condones violence cautiously when development is at stake.

  15. Democracy in Conservation – Wall Painting Conservation and Church Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve

    2007-01-01

    Wall painting conservation in Denmark has been functioning within a democratically organised church infrastructure for more than 100 years, which permits an overview of community involvement in conservation over a longer period. The case stories presented here show widely varying attitudes held...

  16. The Separation of Church and State. Exploring the Constitution Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Darien A.

    This textbook on the separation of church and state continues the "Exploring the Constitution Series," which introduces important areas of constitutional law. Intended to serve either as a reference work, a supplement to a standard textbook, or as the textbook for a course, this volume covers the constitutional issues of prayer in public…

  17. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria.

  18. Chromatic changes on the wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Christensen, Mads Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes observations and results of analyses undertaken to find explanations for several phenomena affecting the colours on the Gothic wall paintings in Sanderum Church (Denmark). Paintings have been exposed on four webs of the chancel vault and one web in the nave since 1882. Three...

  19. Acoustic analysis in Mudejar-Gothic churches: Experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Miguel; Zamarreño, Teófilo; Girón, Sara

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of research work in acoustics, conducted in a set of 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. Despite common architectural style, the churches feature individual characteristics and have volumes ranging from 3947 to 10 708 m3. Acoustic parameters were measured in unoccupied churches according to the ISO-3382 standard. An extensive experimental study was carried out using impulse response analysis through a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. It covered aspects such as reverberation (reverberation times, early decay times), distribution of sound levels (sound strength); early to late sound energy parameters derived from the impulse responses (center time, clarity for speech, clarity, definition, lateral energy fraction), and speech intelligibility (rapid speech transmission index), which all take both spectral and spatial distribution into account. Background noise was also measured to obtain the NR indices. The study describes the acoustic field inside each temple and establishes a discussion for each one of the acoustic descriptors mentioned by using the theoretical models available and the principles of architectural acoustics. Analysis of the quality of the spaces for music and speech is carried out according to the most widespread criteria for auditoria. .

  20. 360° FILM BRINGS BOMBED CHURCH TO LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kwiatek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and has never been rebuilt. The generation of a 3D model of the bombed church started from the creation of five spherical panoramas and through the use of Autodesk ImageModeler software. The processed files were imported and merged together in Autodesk 3ds Max where a visualisation of the ruin was produced. A number of historical images were found and this collection enabled the process of a virtual reconstruction of the site. The aspect of merging two still or two video panoramas (one from 3D modelling software, the other one recorded on the site from the same locations or with the same trajectories is also discussed. The prototype of 360º non-linear film tells a narrative of a wartime wedding that occurred in this church. The film was presented on two 360º screens where members of the audience could make decisions on whether to continue the ceremony or whether to run away when the bombing of the church starts. 3D modelling software made this possible to render a number of different alternati ves (360º images and 360º video. Immersive environments empower the visitor to imagine the building before it was destroyed.

  1. "DEAR ROCK, WHAT'S YOUR DESTINY? Ancient and modern uses of rocks in industry, building and art."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennesi, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    The project is for students of first grade of secondary school. The activity is a game, virtual or real of associations between rock and soil samples with their uses in industry, building and art. The students, alone or in a team, have to form pairs having available various samples of rocks, soils and building materials as bags of cement, tiles.. They have images of colonnades, staircases of famous churches, cave paintings and colors. The project is multidisciplinary. During the activity, the teachers of art and technical education are involved with and the teacher of sciences. The game can be used as an introduction for the rocks' classification. The inquiry in team, is a good way to learn the several uses of mineral resources.

  2. Pentecostalism and schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia (1996–2001: Listening to the people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Soko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and 2001. It analyses empirical evidence to find an answer to the question why it happened. Pentecostal or charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited tradition of mainline churches. Subsequently, Pentecostal or charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.

  3. Karl Barth’s role in church and politics from 1930 to 1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André J. Groenewald

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Karl Barth saw in natural theology a threat to the church of Christ. He was convinced that the so-called “German Christians” under the influence of the National Socialist Party practised natural theology. He advocated the need for the church of Christ to be church according to the Word of God. The church can be true church of Christ when it listens to and obeys the true calling of God. Barth’s critique of an exclusive “Volkskirche” can serve as a corrective for the definition of the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk as a “volkskerk”.

  4. 'Wopmay' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  5. From periphery to the centre: Towards repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to public health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of communities in health care has gained prominence in the last few years. Churches as community structures have been identified as instrumental in health-care delivery. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that churches provide important health services, particularly in countries where there are poorly-developed health sectors, the role of churches in health care is poorly understood and often overlooked. This article discusses some causes of this lacuna and makes suggestions for repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to health care. Firstly, the article provides a context by reviewing literature on the church and health care. Secondly, it clarifies the nature of interventions and the competencies of churches. Thirdly, it discusses the operational meaning of church and churches for assessing health-care contributions. Fourthly, it explores the health-care models that are discerned in church and health-care literature. Fifthly, it discusses the contribution of churches within a multidisciplinary health team. Sixthly, it proposes an appropriate motivation that should drive churches to be involved in health care and the ecclesiological design that underpins such health care interventions.

  6. Source rock

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr F. Makky; Mohamed I. El Sayed; Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata; Ibrahim M. Abd El-Gaied; Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah; Zakaria M. Abd-Allah

    2014-01-01

    West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro), and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members), Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history ...

  7. The early medieval tesserae from the St Servatius Church excavations in Maastricht - The Netherlands (1981-1989)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panhuysen, T.

    2016-01-01

    In the eighties of the last century a massive excavation was carried out in the Church of St Servatius in Maastricht in the context of an overall restoration of the church building which dates from the 11th to 15th century. The Servatius Church was originally a grave church that was founded in the s

  8. Ayers Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧茹

    2002-01-01

    Ayers Rock is right in the centre of Australia.It's nearly two thousand kilometres______Sydney.So we flew most of the way.h was rather cloudy______But after we left the mountains behind us, there was hardly a cloud in thesky.

  9. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  10. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  11. Lithologic combinations in Romanesque churches of Álava, northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Torres, L. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain windows and doorways on twenty five Romanesque churches of Álava (XII–XIII centuries were built using six types of rock in nine different combinations. These compositions were intended to highlight the contrast in colour between different rocks, from which it can be deduced that the openings were not hewn to be painted. After almost seven centuries during which the use of stone was anecdotal, Romanesque artists burst in with colourful blends, demonstrating a broad knowledge of the characteristics of each rock and its availability. The uniqueness of these openings is represented on lithologic maps which, in addition to facilitating its analysis and dissemination, serve as a reference in its restoration.Algunas ventanas y portadas de veinticinco iglesias románicas de Álava (siglos XII-XIII fueron construidas con hasta seis tipos de rocas en nueve combinaciones diferentes. Estas composiciones pretendían resaltar el contraste cromático entre rocas distintas, de lo que se deduce que los vanos no fueron tallados para ser policromados. Después de casi siete siglos en los que el uso de la piedra fuera anecdótico, los artistas románicos irrumpen con mezclas coloristas, mostrando un amplio conocimiento de las características de cada roca y su disponibilidad. La singularidad de estos vanos está representada en mapas litológicos que, además de facilitar su análisis y divulgación, servirán de referencia en su restauración

  12. Analysis of the black crust on Saint Michael's Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popister, I.; Zeman, A.

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the present study is to characterize the black crust on the main stone used at Saint Michael's Church in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The gases in the atmosphere, along with natural and artificial pollutants can cause damage the integrity of the stone when it comes in contact with the stone's chemistry. In order to explain the mechanism of stone decay due to black crust it is necessary to know what "weathering" means, so it must be seen as a complex process that consists of: type of material, the environment in which the material is located, and the amount of time required for the process to take place. Each material has particular properties, due to its composition and genesis. When it comes in contact with the acidity of the "acid rain" (caused by sulphur, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide), the rain penetrates into the pore structure, corroding it and "allowing" the atmospheric particles to penetrate the stone. St. Michael's Church is one of the oldest Gothic architectural monuments in Cluj, Romania, being built predominantly from Cenozoic (Upper Eocene) limestone, locally known as the Cluj Limestone. The main quarry was in Baciu, near Cluj. The samples that were collected from the Saint Michael's Church were characterized by means of: optical microscope, Scattering Electronic Microscope, thin sections, EDS The samples that were collected from the Saint Michael's Church went through a series of tests: optical microscope, Scattering Electronic Microscope, thin sections, EDX, and cross-section. The optical microscope analysis of the thin sections revealed that the black crust layer is approximately 0.01mm, and in the sample there are perfectly shaped ooides, which is characteristic to this type of limestone. The SEM analysis shows a resedimentation layer on the surface of the black crust, which occurred probably due to the effect of acid rain. Further information regarding the results of the test will be presented on the poster.

  13. A call to the Church: Embrace children with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Ann Flickner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with Disabilities are one of the groups of children most in need globally. The author uses her personal story of growing up as a child with mild cerebral palsy to express her solidarity and highlight the multiple needs of children with disabilities around the world. These children should no longer be stigmatized by the world wide church but instead be embraced and ministered to in the name of Jesus.

  14. Evaluation Of Temperature And Humidity Regime In An Orthodox Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarova Jekaterīna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the cult buildings, properties and specifics of the cult building microclimate-related problems, based on the statutory requirements, also considering optimal parameters of the air. This study presents the results of indoor air monitoring in the cult building. The proposed methodology was evaluated in Riga All Saints Orthodox Church. During the evaluation, practical measurements of indoor air quality were taken. The recommendations for improvement of temperature/ moisture conditions were presented.

  15. The Kotor (Cattaro Minor council and the Saint Trinity church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindik Dušan I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The location called Trinity is situated nearby Kotor (Cattaro, and was most probably named after the Saint Trinity Church, built at the same place. The church does not exist any more. Several documents regarding that church have been kept. One of them, written in September 1476, is subject of analysis of this contribution. As it happened, instead of a priest died in May of the same year, the church was taken care by the Minor Council upon the suggestion of the city of Kotor. The election of the same priest was performed in the Minor Council, upon suggestion of the two electors, by secret voting of all members of the Council. It seems the document to be the only one from the Archive of Kotor (today kept in the State Archive of Zadar, in which has been described the voting in the Minor Council, with presences of the two members of Council, who had voted with the golden balls (balotta aurea electionis. As it is possible to see from this case, as well as from the other documents kept in the city archives along the eastern Adriatic Coast, their role was to suggest personalities for important city duties. It is also possible to see from the document that the Minor Council of the Kotor Municipality had separated a book in which the records for the sessions or at least decisions of the Council was registered. The second interesting thing in this document is the name of the deceased priest. His name was don Matej Ćurilica, which should be understood as a nickname, given because of that he had probably served upon the Roman ritual, but in Slavic language, from the books written in Cyrillic or Glagolitic alphabet. The first name for the Glagolitic alphabet was kjurilica. There are strong reasons for presumptions that still in the first half of the 12th century the Glagolitic alphabet was in use in the regions southeast from Dubrovnik.

  16. Leadership mentoring and succession in the Charismatic churches in Bushbuckridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Ngomane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leadership mentoring and succession programmes are critical in the development and preparation of emerging leaders for leadership transitions. By virtue of their one-founder-leaders whose special leadership talents are usually celebrated by their followers, Charismatic church leaders may fail to identify and develop young emerging leaders who may be equally gifted to prepare them for leadership succession. This quantitative study investigated the state of leadership mentoring and succession programmes in the Charismatic churches in Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga, South Africa (Bushbuckridge is one of five local municipalities in the Ehlazeni District Municipality situated in the north-east of the Mpumalanga province in South Africa. It borders private game ranches and the Kruger National Park. A population of 287 respondents drawn from 48 churches from rural and urban locations was assessed. Many of them (85% were reported to have leadership mentoring programmes in their congregations and 72% of them reported that they had leadership succession programmes in place. Location was found to have no statistically significant effect on leadership mentoring. Gender and education levels were reported to have a statistically significant effect in describing leadership mentoring. Charismatic groupings in Bushbuckridge believe and take the Bible seriously as authoritative for faith, life and ministry. We therefore think it is appropriate to include in this article a relevant illustrative text – 2 Timothy 2:1–3.

  17. Leadership mentoring and succession in the Charismatic churches in Bushbuckridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Ngomane

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leadership mentoring and succession programmes are critical in the development and preparation of emerging leaders for leadership transitions. By virtue of their one-founder-leaders whose special leadership talents are usually celebrated by their followers, Charismatic church leaders may fail to identify and develop young emerging leaders who may be equally gifted to prepare them for leadership succession. This quantitative study investigated the state of leadership mentoring and succession programmes in the Charismatic churches in Bushbuckridge, Mpumalanga, South Africa (Bushbuckridge is one of five local municipalities in the Ehlazeni District Municipality situated in the north-east of the Mpumalanga province in South Africa. It borders private game ranches and the Kruger National Park. A population of 287 respondents drawn from 48 churches from rural and urban locations was assessed. Many of them (85% were reported to have leadership mentoring programmes in their congregations and 72% of them reported that they had leadership succession programmes in place. Location was found to have no statistically significant effect on leadership mentoring. Gender and education levels were reported to have a statistically significant effect in describing leadership mentoring. Charismatic groupings in Bushbuckridge believe and take the Bible seriously as authoritative for faith, life and ministry. We therefore think it is appropriate to include in this article a relevant illustrative text – 2 Timothy 2:1–3.

  18. Orientation of the monastery churches of Ovčar-Kablar gorge (the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milutin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovčar-Kablar gorge is after Fruška Gora Mountain the area with the largest number of old Serbian monasteries. This paper analyzes church orientation of all nine monasteries of the gorge from mathematical-geographical point of view, focusing on the churches of six monasteries that originate from the so called extended Middle Ages. Of these six churches only the axis of the Church of the Holy Trinity is directed exactly to the equinoctial east. Considering the means and methods that the chief architect could use, the orientation of monastery church of Vavedenje (“Presentation of Mary” with the aberration of only 4° can be also regarded as accurate. Moreover, this aberration could be the consequence of a mistake made by the chief architect about the date of equinox, which is also the case with the aberration of the monastery church of Sretenje (“Presentation of Our Lord”. The axis of the monastery church of Blagoveštenje (“Annunciation” is approximately directed to the point of the sunrise of summer solstice. Only the axis of the monastery church of Nikolje (“St Nicholas”, the oldest in the group of six of conditionally medieval churches, is out of the eastern sector of the horizon i.e. only this axis is not oriented in accordance with the ideal-type church rule.

  19. The use of the term ‘DNA’ as a missiological metaphor in contemporary Church narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Andrews

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Missiologists propose that the Church and mission are inseparable as the Church has its very being because there is mission, and it is the Missio Dei which constitutes the Church. In recent history the Anglican Church has interpreted this as the essential ‘DNA’ of the local church which is to be a missional community. The church’s mission therefore is presented as the gift of participating through the Holy Spirit in the Son’s mission from the Father to the world. In other words, it is proposed that the Church is both the fruit of God’s mission and the agent of His mission. But, in order to communicate this relationship between Church and mission in a postmodern context, the use of new metaphors and new terminologies, which are derived from our contemporary context, is shaping new ways of thinking. An exploration of the development of missional churches considers the significance of developing and embedding what has become referred to as missional DNA or mDNA at every level of the organisation of the Church. This mDNA is the outward model of missional behaviour that compels the whole church to reach a lost world. It can be seen from evidence-based, case study research amongst large churches in the UK that there is consistency in the adoption and use of the term DNA by its leadership in reference to the local church’s values and its attitude towards mission. This article explores the hypothesis that the term DNA is commonly accepted amongst local churches as a contributor to a contemporary language that forms the narrative of the Church and explores its feasibility and shortcomings as an adopted missiological metaphor.

  20. Matrix rigidity differentially regulates invadopodia activity through ROCK1 and ROCK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrell, Rachel J; Parekh, Aron

    2016-04-01

    ROCK activity increases due to ECM rigidity in the tumor microenvironment and promotes a malignant phenotype via actomyosin contractility. Invasive migration is facilitated by actin-rich adhesive protrusions known as invadopodia that degrade the ECM. Invadopodia activity is dependent on matrix rigidity and contractile forces suggesting that mechanical factors may regulate these subcellular structures through ROCK-dependent actomyosin contractility. However, emerging evidence indicates that the ROCK1 and ROCK2 isoforms perform different functions in cells suggesting that alternative mechanisms may potentially regulate rigidity-dependent invadopodia activity. In this study, we found that matrix rigidity drives ROCK signaling in cancer cells but that ROCK1 and ROCK2 differentially regulate invadopodia activity through separate signaling pathways via contractile (NM II) and non-contractile (LIMK) mechanisms. These data suggest that the mechanical rigidity of the tumor microenvironment may drive ROCK signaling through distinct pathways to enhance the invasive migration required for cancer progression and metastasis.

  1. Albuquerque, NM, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Albuquerque, NM (35.0N, 106.5W) is situated on the edge of the Rio Grande River and flood plain which cuts across the image. The reddish brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin is a fault depression filled with ancient alluvial fan and lake bed sediments. On the slopes of the Manzano Mountains to the east of Albuquerque, juniper and other timber of the Cibola National Forest can be seen as contrasting dark tones of vegetation.

  2. Solar and Calendrical Symbolism in the Early Medieval Finnish Church Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstad, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    The earliest church murals of the first stone churches in Finland were painted at the time when Christianity had only just become the official faith in the region and the old ethnic religion was still widely practiced. The 'pagan' motifs of these Early Medieval Finnish church murals reflect the complexity of the religious beliefs in this transition phase. The church actively transformed the festivals of the vernacular religion by giving Christian meanings to the symbols and rituals, as well as by replacing the ethnic deities with Christian figures. The solar symbolism and the calendrical motifs of the church murals are interpreted as imagery largely based on the Christianized remnants of the pre-Christian annual festivals. The earliest church murals thus provide important insight into the pre-Christian religious beliefs of late Iron Age Finland. Many of the motifs and symbols represented in the murals are related to the annual fertility cult and the solar goddess as one of its central figures.

  3. Calvin’s view on church discipline and unity: a South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Strauss

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The reformer John Calvin, born in 1509, considers discipline and unity as two essential aspects of the Christian church. According to him, the bond of church discipline is a way to unite church members in the truth of the Word and the Christian faith based thereupon. If discipline is exercised with exaggerated strictness and without compassion, tolerance and love, it can break the unity. Because church unity is essentially a unity of faith, or a unity in the truth of the Word, discipline can sever adulterated elements that threaten the unity from the church. Discipline, if correctly ap- plied, builds the unity of the church as a unity in religious truths.

  4. Science Applied for the Investigation of Imperial Gate from Eighteenth Century Wooden Church of Nicula Monastery

    OpenAIRE

    I. Bratu; Monk Siluan; C. Măruţoiu; Kacso, I.; S. Garabagiu; V. C. Măruţoiu; C. Tănăselia; Popescu, D.; D. L. Postolache; Pop, D

    2017-01-01

    Part of an indestructible component of any orthodox church, the Imperial Gates represent an important symbol in our cultural heritage. But in many cases the Imperial Gates from the wooden churches were damaged. In order to preserve and restore them, the scientific investigations of the Imperial Gate belonging to Nicula Monastery wooden church were performed by employing nondestructive and destructive methods. The wood essence was established, with its “health” status being investigated by FTI...

  5. Symbolising salvation: A semiotic analysis of the church as a transformative communication system in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Andre van Rheede van Oudtshoorn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the church from a semiotic and systems-theory perspective as a revelatory symbol of the salvation-historical acts of God for and in the world. The church,as a communicative field of encounter between God and humans as well as between humans amongst each other, creates space for symbols that may be utilised to realise further encounters. At the same time, the church also operates as a communicative symbol in her own right which may be �read� and �interpreted� by others. The church as an operational system is shown to generate revelatory symbols to the world through her separation from,engagement with and being directed towards the world. The church is shown to exist and operate in dynamic conflict with the world as well as with the Kingdom of God through the overcoming presence of the Holy Spirit within her. An operational communicative system model of the church indicates that the church is an alternating rather than alternative community, which ensures ideological relevance as well as theological difference between the church and the world.Interdisciplinary and/or intradisciplinary implications: This article utilises insights from the fields of semiotics and systems theory within a practical-theological ecclesiology, there by providing new perspectives on the church. The article also interacts with aspects of systematic theological ecclesiology.

  6. The interdependence of public witness and institutional unity in the Dutch Reformed family of churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D E de Villiers

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Belhar Confession of the then Dutch Reformed Mission Church officially approved in 1986 confesses that the unity of the church should be made visible. Very little has since then come of this visible unity in the family of Dutch Reformed churches. Since 1996, however, new impetus has been given to the effort to bring about institutional unity. It has especially been in their ministries of public witness and service that these churches succeeded to a large extent to give visible and institutional expression to their unity. This would hopefully enable the churches of the Dutch Reformed family to play a more effective public role in the present South African society. They, however, face two serious restrictions in this regard: the limited scope for churches to play a public role within the new liberal democratic dispensation in South Africa and the limited motivation to play a transforming public role in the churches of the Dutch Reformed family. In the article a few pre-conditions for playing an effective public role the churches of the Dutch Reformed family have to meet are discussed. The most important one is that these churches should achieve full institutional unity as soon as possible. The conclusion of the article is therefore that the interdependence of institutional unity and public witness is a reality they will have to deal with effectively if they want to move forward.

  7. The Influence of Pastors' Ideologies of Homosexuality on HIV Prevention in the Black Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Young, Staci

    2016-10-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and Black Churches may be a source of stigma which can exacerbate HIV risk and contribute to negative health and psychosocial outcomes. Findings from this study are based on 21 semi-structured interviews with pastors and ethnographic observation in six Black Churches. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis. Although pastors espoused messages of love and acceptance, they overwhelmingly believed homosexuality was a sin and had difficulty accepting YBMSM into their churches. The tension around homosexuality limited pastors' involvement in HIV prevention efforts, although there still may be opportunities for some churches.

  8. The Church as a Bridge to Deliver Health Resources Via Telehealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Obesity; Diet, Food, and Nutrition; Church; Healthcare Disparities; Minority Health; Mobile Health; Telehealth; Community-based Participatory Research; Primary Health Care; Weight Loss Programs; Health Behavior

  9. Distribution of lateral acoustic energy in Mudejar Gothic churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, S.; Galindo, M.; Zamarreño, T.

    2008-09-01

    In this work, the physical measures of spatial impression are considered in 12 Mudejar-Gothic churches in the city of Seville in the south of Spain. This study describes the spatial distribution of the early and late lateral acoustic energy, through monaural parameters derived from impulse response analysis using a maximum length sequence measurement system in each church. In the first time analysis, the two early lateral energy measures, early lateral fraction (LF) and early lateral fraction cosine (LFC) are taken in order to assess apparent source width (ASW), and the late lateral level (GLL) in the second to assess listener envelopment (LEV) are conducted. Parameters have been studied spectrally in each temple and were averaged at low- and mid-frequency values in their different naves in order to study how these two attributes of sound perception vary with source-receiver distance. Experimental results have been compared with the theoretical early lateral energy fractions and late lateral level, both of which are derived by assuming that reflected energy in these places of worship is solely dependent on source-receiver distance. This comparison is carried out in accordance with the μ-model proposed by the authors in an earlier paper in order to describe the dependence of acoustic monaural omnidirectional energy parameters on source-receiver distance. Thus, it is supposed that the directional distribution of reflections is similar to a diffuse distribution. To conclude, these spatially averaged monoaural parameters have been correlated with geometric variables by using linear regression and only weak correlations with the mean width of the churches and with the height/width ratio have been found.

  10. A Viennese Project in Valpovo (Croatia. Parish Church of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Valpovo and Baroque Churches with Two-Bay Naves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat-Levaj, Katarina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Parish Church of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary in Valpovo (1733–1736, exceptional both in its spatial organization and the design of its exterior, was constructed in specific circumstances in the aftermath of the liberation of Slavonia from the Ottoman occupation. The old lands of Valpovo, with the medieval fort of Morović, were, in accordance with the Habsburg politics, given as a feud to Baron Hilleprand by Charles VI. The baron initiated the construction of a monumental parish church on his estate by commissioning its design in Vienna, as evidenced by the rich archival material on Hilleprand's property housed at the State Archive in Osijek. In keeping with the provenance of its design, the church was built as a monumental structure consisting of a two-bay nave covered with domical vaults and flanked by a narrower semicircular groin-vaulted sanctuary and a facade belfry. The type represented by the church in Valpovo – single-aisled structure with two bays – was a sort of innovation by Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt, inspired by the famous church of San Fedele in Milan (1569 and often used by Hildebrandt in his own church projects built under the patronage of high Austrian nobility, such as the parish church in Seelowitz in Moravia (1722–27 with an integrated facade belfry, or the parish churches in Aspersdorf (1730, Stranzendorf (1733 and Großstelzendorf (1735–37. This architectural type was adopted and further developed by Hildebrandt's contemporaries, especially his immediate follower Franz Anton Pilgram, a Viennese architect whose design for the parish church in Münchendorf (1740 shows great similarity with the Valpovo church, both in its proportions and in the treatment of details. All this is hardly surprising if one keeps in mind the Viennese origin and the courtly status of the commissioner and donor of the parish church in Valpovo. It took more than two decades for the spatial features of this church to

  11. Church and art: from the second Vatican Council to today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mantovani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This text deals with the relationship between the Catholic Church and art from the Second Vatican Council to today. For this reason it considers some of the most important interventions about art by recent popes (Montini - Paul VI; Wojtyła - John Paul II; Ratzinger - Benedict XVI, Bergoglio - Francis also mentioning some activities that the Holy See is currently promoting. These pages are intended to offer a contribution, mainly theoretical, for those who are working in the field of the planning and promotion of artistic and cultural events, especially if these events are related to religious heritage.

  12. Communities: Development of church-based counselling teams

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    Stella D. Potgieter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral care is a biblical mandate to the Church to be involved in the lives of God’s people. A key metaphor used by Jesus to describe his pastoral role was that of a shepherd. Thus, to be God’s shepherds and instruments of healing and transformation in God’s world is an imperative to all people, clergy and laity alike. The brokenness in South African society is strikingly apparent, exacerbated by the effects of exceptionally high criminal behaviour as statistics show. The demand for pastoral care and assistance with various personal problems is on the increase, with many non-church goers turning to churches for help. Also apparent in South Africa is the acute shortage of trained individuals to offer care and counselling. The task of offering care is not the sole responsibility of clergy, as all are called to be shepherds and caregivers. The importance and urgency in training church-based counselling teams cannot be overstated. More so in that we are becoming increasingly aware that not only are individuals in need of care, but whole communities are struggling with trauma and life’s challenges, and often do not know whom to turn to. In pursuance of the realisation that pastoral care is the function and duty of all Christians, this article will delineate in particular an explanation of lay counselling, reasons for its importance including biblical foundations, where and how ordinary South Africans can get involved, and will propose certain models and approaches for getting started. These models will not be discussed in depth, but present an opportunity for the next. Teams for these models consist of professional counsellors, but ought not to be restricted to a select few, as all are called to this special ministry and can be trained for the task, which will include on-going supervision and mentoring. The overall purpose of this article is to highlight the urgency of training lay counsellors and some recommendations will be made how to

  13. Church discipline – semper reformanda in Reformation perspective

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    Graham A. Duncan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Church discipline – is semper reformanda in a time and space warp? Church discipline has become an anachronism in the life of the Christian faith community. In part, this results from a misunderstanding of the fundamental meaning of the term. Its early emphasis was on spiritual nurture, discipling people into the faith and into a relationship with one another and God. By the time of the Reformation, it took on a legalistic and rigid form that militated against its earlier approach. This resulted from a misunderstanding of key reformers from the Reforming tradition such as John Calvin and John Knox, who were concerned to build up individuals within the Christian community to become responsible members of society. In this way, discipline is transformative of individuals and society. The work of discipline was closely related both to pastoral care and Christian education and offered a corrective to Medieval discipline, where the concept of discipline was distorted when the use of punitive discipline as a last resort was elevated to become the norm. This situation was replicated in the post-Reformation period. Consequently, it now needs to be rehabilitated in the form of discipling or mentorship in order to restore its usefulness as an educative tool in the process of the pilgrimage towards the kingdom of God.

  14. Re-Building Coal Country: A Church/University Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Milofsky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a developing partnership between a church-based service learning center and a university initiative to build a field station in a low-income community in the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania. It is a case study of how secular and religious institutions have been collaborating to achieve the shared goal of improving social conditions in specific communities. The theoretical focus of the paper is on how a change from a “glass is half empty” to a “glass is half full” perception of the community opens new possibilities for change. This paper concentrates on the story of one partnership as a case study demonstrating current trends in service learning both within universities and within the Catholic Church in America. Analysis centers on the basic question of why the project had symbolic power for both partners and on the institutional processes within both organizations that helped the partnership grow. We use the framework of Assets-Based Community Development (ABCD, also known as the “strengths perspective”, to conceptualize the contrast.

  15. The role of evangelical leadership in Uganda for effective church ministry: a strategic practical theological study / by Asea, B.K. Wilson

    OpenAIRE

    Asea, Wilson, 1973-

    2012-01-01

    God is the ultimate leader, and the church leadership mandate and responsibility is from Him. The Lord prepares those He calls to take leadership responsibilities. He does not intend to use persons who are not properly equipped and developed to occupy high leadership positions in the church. Hence church leaders in evangelical churches in Uganda who wish to be proficiently used by God should be holistically trained in theology and leadership for effective church ministry and church growth. ...

  16. The influence of John Calvin’s theology on the World Council of Churches

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    G.M.J. van Wyk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the question whether any traces of Calvin’s theological views on church unity can be found in the purpose statements and goals of the World Council of Churches (WCC. Although no direct influence of Calvin’s theology on the work of the WCC can be proved, the structure and content of Calvin’s thought on church unity can be recognised in the statements and work of the WCC. Calvin believed that true church unity is not in the first place a unity of church structures, but one of truth, love, hope and confession. The ecumenical movement is in agreement with Calvin in this regard.  The ecumenical movement and the World Council of Churches are products of modern culture. The ecumenical movement could not have developed in a world that is not tolerant and where the free use of reason is not one of the core values of society. The ecumenical movement is also the natural answer to the problem of religious division that pre-modern Europe left us with. After a brief description of the World Council of Church- es as a modern institution the influence of Calvin’s theology on the theology of the World Council of Churches is explored.

  17. Attracting and Integrating Newcomers into Church Life: Research in Four Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterland, Sam; Bellamy, John; Escott, Phillip; Castle, Keith

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the importance of considering the flow of newcomers into church life and the inadequacy of relying solely upon changes in numbers of attenders in assessing the effectiveness of churches. Drawing upon data collected in four countries, Australia, England, New Zealand and the United States of America, this article looks at the…

  18. Species and structural diversity of church forests in a fragmented Ethiopian Highland landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, Alemayehu; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Thousands of small isolated forest fragments remain around churches (“church forests”) in the almost completely deforested Ethiopian Highlands. We questioned how the forest structure and composition varied with altitude, forest area and human influence. Location: South Gondar, Amhara Natio

  19. Preparing Women for Baptist Church Leadership: Mentoring Impact on Beliefs and Practices of Female Ministers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Desiree; Cooper, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    Effective leadership is important in all organizations, and the Baptist church is no exception. Strong spiritual leaders can make a difference in the life of the institution and its members. Today, a growing number of African American women are answering the call to the Baptist church ministry; but the preparation, training, and mentoring are…

  20. Burial society versus the Church in the Black society of South Africa: A pastoral response

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    David K. Semenya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to provide insight to the church councils of mainly Black churches, regarding members� absenteeism during Sunday church services and also the lack of financial contributions to the church. A number of church-going members are often absent on the last Sunday of the month or the first Sunday of the month because of their commitments to burial societies − burial societies prefer to meet on Sundays. Because the meetings take place at the end of the month and funding is one of the main issues at these meetings, the members� tithing to the church is negatively impacted. Our research found that members considered their contribution to the societies to be more important than their tithing to the church. In some cases members belonged to more than one burial society, and these members spent more money so as to receive greater support in the event of a death. Unfortunately this left them with nothing to give to the church. Another reason given for belonging to burial societies was that their membership helped them to prepare for death, would enable them to have a decent funeral service and would ensure that those who attended the funeral service did not go home hungry.

  1. Burial society versus the Church in the Black society of South Africa: A pastoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to provide insight to the church councils of mainly Black churches, regarding members’ absenteeism during Sunday church services and also the lack of financial contributions to the church. A number of church-going members are often absent on the last Sunday of the month or the first Sunday of the month because of their commitments to burial societies − burial societies prefer to meet on Sundays. Because the meetings take place at the end of the month and funding is one of the main issues at these meetings, the members’ tithing to the church is negatively impacted. Our research found that members considered their contribution to the societies to be more important than their tithing to the church. In some cases members belonged to more than one burial society, and these members spent more money so as to receive greater support in the event of a death. Unfortunately this left them with nothing to give to the church. Another reason given for belonging to burial societies was that their membership helped them to prepare for death, would enable them to have a decent funeral service and would ensure that those who attended the funeral service did not go home hungry.

  2. Rich among the poor : church, firm, and household among small-scale entrepreneurs in Guatemala City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooren, H.P.P.

    2001-01-01

    The vast majority of people living in developing countries are deeply religious, which suggests that they devote a good deal of time and money to their church. In Latin America, traditionally a Roman Catholic stronghold, other Christian churches have grown explosively over the last two decades. In G

  3. 3D VIRTUALIZATION BY CLOSE RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY INDOOR GOTHIC CHURCH APSES. THE CASE STUDY OF CHURCH OF SAN FRANCISCO IN BETANZOS (LA CORUÑA, SPAIN)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ramos, A.; G. Robleda Prieto

    2015-01-01

    Virtualization using low cost photogrammetric techniques, is often replaced by Terrestial Laser Scanning inside churches. Especially in the case of Gothic churches where light penetrates the interior of the building difficulting shooting in proper condition to perform their restitution. The need to use Terrestial Laser Scaning for indoor virtualization is a significant increase in the final surveying cost. In these cases, the Terrestial Laser Scanning is used to generate dense point ...

  4. To welcome or affirm: Black clergy views about homosexuality, inclusivity, and church leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    When the subject of the Black Church and homosexuality is broached, research often focuses on homophobia and correlates with HIV/AIDS. Fewer studies examine other problematic issues germane to gay and lesbian involvement in Black congregations. In this analysis, Black clergy dialogue during focus groups about inclusivity and church leadership by gays and lesbians. Informed by Cultural Theory, of equal interest is whether discourses are influenced by Black Church cultural tools, as well as cultural dynamics, from the broader Black community. As anticipated, findings suggest the tendency for clergy to promote welcoming church spaces, but to be reticent about affirming homosexuality as an acceptable lifestyle. Furthermore, although clergy are generally supportive of involvement by closeted gays and lesbians as lay leaders, most do not support their involvement in the clergy, particularly as pastors. However, views vary based on denomination and gender, and are informed by Black Church cultural components such as scripture and the call-and-response tradition.

  5. Pentecostalism & schisms in the Reformed Church in Zambia 1996-2001; evidence from documentary sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jurgens Hendriks

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is descriptive in nature and a practical theological assessment of the
    schisms that took place in the Reformed Church in Zambia (RCZ between 1996 and
    2001. It analyzes the available documents to find an answer to the question why it
    happened. Pentecostal/charismatic tendencies have challenged the long inherited
    tradition of mainline churches in general and the RCZ in particular. Subsequently,
    Pentecostal/charismatic movements have caused intense conflict in the church
    between the pro-conservatives and pro-Pentecostals. In the RCZ this led to the
    formation of the Christian Reformed Church (CRC in 1999 and the Bible Gospel
    Church in Africa (BIGOCA in 2001.

  6. Concept And Its Implementation During The Reconstruction Of The Church Of Blessed Virgin Mary In Chojna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotkowiak, Maciej

    2015-12-01

    St. Mary's parish church in Chojna was erected at the turn of XIV and XVc. in a shape of three aisles, hall church without transept, completed from the west with a single tower and from the east with polygonal presbytery with an ambulatory attached. The convergence of characteristic structural and decorative features with employed ones in medieval churches being attributed to Hinrich Brunsberg's fabric resulted in such a way, that also authorship of St. Mary in Chojna was assigned to this legendary architect and master builder of late Middle Ages period. The church was destroyed by fire during WWII in February 1945 and since then had remained as an open ruin. In 1997 reconstruction procedure of the church was begun under the leadership of the author and it still continues. This text consists of the sum of experiences connected with confronting design ideas and solutions with their executions on the site during construction works.

  7. Can Calvin provide a golden thread in the labyrinth of catechisms available in the church today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Janse van Rensburg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A congregation can easily get lost in the labyrinth of catechism syllabi available for an educational ministry today. Calvin’s wish was that the church would have one catechism common to all churches. However, he consented to different churches developing different catechisms. He also warned about the power of catechesis, as it has the potential to influence the church for decades to come, and as the body of Christ can be strengthened or wounded through catechesis. Can Calvin provide a golden thread to navigate the labyrinth of catechisms available in the church today? Different models of catechesis are discussed briefly. The similarities and differences with Calvin’s approach to catechism are highlighted, and the article concludes with guidelines for contemporary catechesis.

  8. Challenges for writing Church History in Africa in a global age: A Zambian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Hofmeyr

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the six big challenges which should be taken into consideration in addressing the issue of doing and writing church history in Africa. The thesis of the article is that these challenges are not taken into sufficient consideration by the outside world as from a Third World perspective. Experts in the field of writing church history, in general, have stated and clearly articulated that no history is ever easy to write. What makes it particularly difficult to write church history in Africa, are the different perspectives on the establishment of the church on our continent. What we have, are pieces of information that have been distorted by prejudice and bias as each generation came to be. Addressing these challenges will, however, help us to overcome certain barriers in our study of African church history.

  9. Healing and prophecy in the black Spiritual churches: a need for re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C F

    1990-11-01

    The beliefs and healing and prophecy rituals of the New Orleans black Spiritual churches are similar to those of Spiritualism, a largely white movement, and Espiritismo and Santería among Hispanics. Whereas researchers have criticized or ignored the Spiritual churches' therapeutic efforts, they have often described the others as beneficial. This article compares the religions and suggests that the therapy provided by Spiritual churches be re-examined. Instead of using a socio-medical paradigm, I analyze data collected through participant observation and ethnohistory in terms of healing in a religious context. People bring their "problems" to the Spiritual churches, and participate in rituals that draw on the religion's complex belief system. Worshipers experience wholeness and healing as their temporal lives and problems are linked to the eternal through the churches' use of a style of black cultural expression, asymmetry.

  10. Concept And Its Implementation During The Reconstruction Of The Church Of Blessed Virgin Mary In Chojna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płotkowiak Maciej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available St. Mary's parish church in Chojna was erected at the turn of XIV and XVc. in a shape of three aisles, hall church without transept, completed from the west with a single tower and from the east with polygonal presbytery with an ambulatory attached. The convergence of characteristic structural and decorative features with employed ones in medieval churches being attributed to Hinrich Brunsberg's fabric resulted in such a way, that also authorship of St. Mary in Chojna was assigned to this legendary architect and master builder of late Middle Ages period. The church was destroyed by fire during WWII in February 1945 and since then had remained as an open ruin. In 1997 reconstruction procedure of the church was begun under the leadership of the author and it still continues. This text consists of the sum of experiences connected with confronting design ideas and solutions with their executions on the site during construction works.

  11. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  12. The Russian Orthodox Church as moral norm entrepreneur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2016-04-02

    Conflicts over religious symbols in the public sphere, gay marriage, abortion or gender equality have shown their disruptive potential across many societies in the world. They have also become the subject of political and legal debates in international institutions. These conflicts emerge out of different worldviews and normative conceptions of the good, and they are frequently framed in terms of competing interpretations of human rights. One newcomer voice in conflicts over rights and values in the international sphere is the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC), which in recent years has become an active promoter of 'traditional values' both inside Russia and internationally. This article studies the ideational prerequisites and dynamics of Russian Orthodox 'norm protagonism' in the international arena.

  13. African independent churches in Mozambique: healing the afflictions of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, James

    2002-06-01

    The recent explosive proliferation of African Independent Churches (AICs) in central Mozambique coincided with rapid growth of economic disparity in the 1990s produced by privatization, cuts in government services, and arrival of foreign aid promoted by Mozambique's World Bank/International Monetary Fund Structural Adjustment Program. Drawing on ethnographic research in the city of Chimoio, this article argues that growing inequality has led to declining social cohesion, heightened individual competition, fear of interpersonal violence, and intensified conflict between spouses in poor families. This perilous social environment finds expression in heightened fears of witchcraft, sorcery, and avenging spirits, which are often blamed in Shona ideology for reproductive health problems. Many women with sick children or suffering from infertility turn to AICs for treatment because traditional healers are increasingly viewed as dangerous and too expensive. The AICs invoke the "Holy Spirit" to exercise malevolent agents and then provide a community of mutual aid and ongoing protection against spirit threats.

  14. A case for weakening the Church-Turing Thesis

    CERN Document Server

    Anand, Bhupinder Singh

    2011-01-01

    We conclude from Goedel's Theorem VII of his seminal 1931 paper that every recursive function f(x_{1}, x_{2}) is representable in the first-order Peano Arithmetic PA by a formula [F(x_{1}, x_{2}, x_{3})] which is algorithmically verifiable, but not algorithmically computable, if we assume that the negation of a universally quantified formula of the first-order predicate calculus is always indicative of the existence of a counter-example under the standard interpretation of PA. We conclude that the standard postulation of the Church-Turing Thesis does not hold if we define a number-theoretic formula as effectively computable if, and only if, it is algorithmically verifiable; and needs to be replaced by a weaker postulation of the Thesis as an equivalence.

  15. Women Priests in the Church of England: Psychological Type Profile

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    Mandy Robbins

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study employed psychological type theory and measurement to explore the psychological profile of women priests ordained in the Church of England. A sample of 83 Anglican clergywomen in England completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. The data demonstrated clear preferences for introversion (63% over extraversion (37%, for intuition (60% over sensing (40%, for feeling (76% over thinking (24%, and for judging (55% over perceiving (45%. In terms of dominant types, 37% were dominant feelers, 31% dominant intuitives, 23% dominant sensers, and 8% dominant thinkers. These findings are discussed to illuminate the preferred ministry styles of Anglican clergywomen in England and to highlight the significant differences between the psychological type profile of clergywomen and the UK female population norms.

  16. Stola – orarium – stole (First Millenary of the Church

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    Jarosław A. Superson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the ancient culture of Greece, and then of Rome, when describing garments the colloquial term stola was used. But amongst many clothes of that time (stolae a beautiful robe stood apart – stola, which was usually worn by wealthy matrons and as a result of transformations by men who were on the high-rank of the social hierarchy. Also Vulgate, introducing refined clothes, while at the same time the insignia of the dignity of a given person, used the term stola. In the first millennium of the Church stole, which was a garment that belonged to people with major orders, was defined as orarium or stola. What does the imperial insignia or robes orarium (stola originate from? In the article, as an answer to the question, there are presented three hypotheses of Fr. Anthony Nowowiejski, four by Joseph Braun and other opinions of the researchers of the issue. Church in the East and West used these insignia. Only Rome, in the described epoch, did not use orarium (stola, although it was known. From the teaching of synods we learn about an obligation of wearing the orarium (stola, the way of wearing it by deacons and priests, the number of used orarium, and ornamentation and colouring. From the very beginning, insignia have its own symbolism given by Isidore of Pelusium, Pseudo-Germana from Paris, Amalary of Metz, and Raban Maur. In The Sacramentary of Amiens we could find the first prayer at putting the stole on. It appears from the prayer that the stole is the cloak of immortality restored after the sin of the first parent, and the robe of joy, and at the same time a defense against deterioration of the mind and body.

  17. GPR Prospecting and Endoscopic Investigation in a Renaissance Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Bianco, Nadia; Masini, Nicola; Leopizzi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    GPR prospecting in areas of cultural interest can reveal interesting secrets of the past history of the probed monument. In particular, tombs and crypts under the floor of the churches can be revealed [1-2], but also tracks of past restorations and architectural changes occurred in the centuries, or features internal to the walls and the columns as cracks, metallic hinges, walled ciboria and hidden gaps [1, 3-5]. In this contribution, the case history of the church of the Humility in Parabita (Lecce, Italy) is proposed. The church of the Humility is a small and indeed not much well preserved church, deconsecrated many years ago and reused in other ways that have changed its original structure. Nowadays, it is undergoing a further transformation. However, before starting the works, a GPR prospecting has been committed to the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage IBAM-CNR. The prospecting has been performed with a pulsed Ris Hi-mode system equipped with a double antenna with central frequencies at 200 and 600 MHz, respectively. A first set of measures has been taken along two sets of B-scan, directed after the axis of the (unique) nave and along the orthogonal direction to this. The distance between the lines has been of the order of 40 cm, but some unmovable obstacles have not allowed a constant transect between any two adjacent lines. A second set of measures has been gathered in the area of the altar (not any longer present), here, due to the shape of the area to be prospected, the data have been gathered along a unique direction, but the interline spacing has been chosen equal to 30 cm. Please note that there is a step between the area of the altar and that of the nave, as usual in ancient churches, and this prevented from executing a unique C-scan including the entire floor of the church. The data have been processed according to a standard procedure based on zero timing, background removal, gain variable vs. the depth, one dimensional filtering

  18. Sexism and sexual harassment. Concerns of African American women of the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, M H

    1997-08-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project that examined social issues identified by a select group of religiously active African American women. The research examines sexism and sexual harassment and its prevalence within the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church (CMEC). A total of 100 African American women from the CMEC participated in the focus group interviews. Findings suggest that the participants want the Church to acknowledge the existence of sexism and sexual harassment within is confines. Women participants perceived that their concern regarding the prevalence of sexism and sexual harassment within the Church had been subjugated in favor of those concerns more identifiable with males. Participants voiced the opinion that if the Church was indeed an agent concerned about societal issues that affect all its members, such issues should not be directed solely to the Women's Missionary Society but should be addressed at all levels of the Church. Furthermore, results from the focus group interviews suggest that women desire policy change in the Church before directing attention to policy change in the general community. Women professed the belief that because the CMEC has a hierarchical structure similar to the community and the criminal justice system, changes implemented within the Church are likely to be reflected in the behavior, attitudes, and policies of the community and the criminal justice system.

  19. Popular Religion in the Periphery. Church Attendance in 17th Century Eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuha Miia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the fringes of post-Reformation Europe, church and state authorities faced problems in enforcing church attendance. In the Swedish kingdom, religious uniformity was seen as vital for the success of the state after the Lutheran confession had been established, and absences from church were punishable by law. The seventeenth century saw significant tightening of legislation relating to church absences and other breaches of the Sabbath, and severe punishments were introduced. Despite considerable deterrents, it was sometimes difficult to control local inhabitants: absence cases were regularly brought before the local courts in Eastern Finland, where authorities were hampered by a combination of geographical distance and a highly mobile population. In this article, popular church-going practices are studied with an approach inspired by historical anthropology. In popular practice church attendance was required only on the most important holy days of the year, whereas on Sundays and prayer days, work or leisure were considered socially acceptable pursuits. Explanations of nonattendance should not only make reference to trying conditions: in certain situations people would travel long distances to church, despite the obvious difficulties they faced. Popular religious traditions and old conceptions of sacred time also affected behaviour among peasants. The great holy days of the year formed a ritual cycle, the aim of which was the maintenance of good relations with the supernatural. For the success of oneself and one’s household, it was more important to follow the norms of popular culture than the orders of the authorities.

  20. The spiritual weakness of churches founded by Western missionaries: The cause of the rise of Africa Independent Churches in Zimbabwe with special reference to the Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mushayavanhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Presbytery of Zimbabwe (POZ of the Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa(UPCSA has been affected by a drastic exodus of members to African Independent Churches,which is taking advantage of its spiritual weaknesses in its missional endeavour. The spiritual weaknesses which the people of the POZ experiences are a product of the evangelical mode of mission in Zimbabwean society and the failure by both foreign and local personnel tocontextualise the Good News. This article considers the possibility of correcting this stateof affairs. The central issue addressed is how to understand the context and achieve the necessary change.

  1. Hymns and Hymn-Singing as an Indicator of the Situation of the Church

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev-Clausen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the hymnals of four Lutheran churches in Germany, North America, Sweden and Denmark in order to identify the connection between ecclesiastic and theological development during the 20th century, as well as the editorial process used in crreating the hymnals of the period........ The hymnals reflect a signeficant development from a tgraditional non-ritualistic to an Anglican-inspired ritualistic conception of the Sunday service as a side-effect of the transition of the typical Lutheran churches from majority to minority churches....

  2. City’s lost jewel. History of Cracow’a All Saints church till the end of XVI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Walczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest churches in Krakow, dedicated to All Saints, was situated between Grodzka and Franciszkańska Street. It was build in the XIII century, could had been replacement church for first Cracow’s parish, which was transferred from Saint Trinity church. The name of All Saints church was mentioned for the first time in Vita S. Stanislai. The second time in 1278 his rector Arnold was noted. Most interesting fact is that in the Tables of Pence from 1325–1327 you can find two rectors, who had separate salary and were called rectors of wooden and brick churches. In 1490 church got a collegiate title. Than double rectory was liquidated and positions of provost and dean were established. Church was a place where Brotherhood of the Poor created by Bishop Zbigniew Oleśnicki used to work. Our knowledge of churches looks comes from iconography which was made when the building was already a ruin. According to those sources church had two naves, was oriented and had simply completed presbytery. The building had adhered tower, sacristy, treasure and chapel, called capella antiqua. Description of the interior of the church comes from 1599, when Jerzy Radziwiłł, Bishop of Cracow had visited it. According to the decision of the City Beautification Committee, the church was demolished in 1835, and church’s equipment was sold on auction. The tower survived till 1840, when it shared the fate of the rest of the building.

  3. An Evaluation of Spatial Organization of the Church Architecture of Kerala during the Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjikaran, S.; Vedamuthu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala. Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style? The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning.

  4. Banks and Financial Services, Banks and Churches, Published in 2008, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Banks and Financial Services dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Banks and Churches'. The extent of...

  5. The founder of the church of Saint George at Pološko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to establish who was the founder of the church of Saint George at Pološko and revise the conclusions of previous researchers regarding this issue. According to the opinion commonly adopted in the scholarly literature, Jovan Dragušin, a cousin of King Dušan, had merely undertaken the construction of church at Pološko, whereas his mother was responsible for the completion of construction and painting of frescoes in the church. Through an analysis of written and visual sources the conclusion is reached that the sole person responsible for the construction and painting of the church at Pološko was the nun Maria, the mother of Jovan Dragušin. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177036: Srpska srednjovekovna umetnost i njen evropski kontekst

  6. An Architecture for the Electronic Church: Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubiak, Margaret M

    2016-04-01

    More than a university, Oral Roberts University in Tulsa, Oklahoma, was also the headquarters for evangelist Oral Roberts's electronic church. The electronic church in America, dominated by Christian evangelicals, used technology to spread the Gospel over radio airways and television signals to a dispersed audience. Yet evangelicals like Roberts also constructed ambitious campuses in real space and time. The architecture of Oral Roberts University visualized a modern and "populuxe" image for the electronic church in the 1960s and 1970s. The university's Prayer Tower purposely alluded to the Seattle Space Needle, aligning religion and the Space Age, and the campus's white, gold, and black color palette on late modern buildings created an image of aspirational luxury, conveying Roberts's health and wealth gospel. Oral Roberts University served as a sound stage for Roberts's radio and television shows, a pilgrimage point for his audience, and a university dedicated to training evangelicals in the electronic church.

  7. The law and financial transparency in churches: reconsidering the form 990 exemption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Montague

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo - già apparso su Cardozo Law Review, vol. 35, october 2013, n. 1, pp. 213-265 - è ora pubblicato per la cortesia dell’EditoreTABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction - I. Legislative History A. Early Legislative History of the Information Return Requirement - The Revenue Act of 1943 - 2. The Imposition of the Unrelated Business Income Tax in 1950 - 3. Expanding the Information Return and Unrelated Business Income Tax in 1969 - B. Televangelist Scandals During the 1980s - C. Recent Legislative History of the Information Return - 1. The William Aramony Scandal and Aftermath - 2. Recent Revisions to Form -II. Increased public access to and use of FORM 990 Information Returns - III. Churches should not be exempt from filing form - A. Churches Are Especially Susceptible to Financial Abuses /- 1. Many Churches Lack Basic Forms of Oversight and Accountability, Revealing Too Much Trust in the Honesty of Religious People - 2. Churches Where Power is Concentrated in the Hands of One Leader Provide the Ideal Structure for Financial Abuse - 3. Even at Churches with More Independent Boards, Leaders Still Maintain Undue Influence - 4. The Nature of Spiritual Leadership Gives Church Pastors Extraordinary Power - 5. Hierarchical Churches also Lack Proper Financial Oversight, and Lay Members Have Little Say in Accountability - B. Churches Themselves Would Benefit from Increased Transparency and Accountability - 1. Greater Transparency May Increase Donations - 2. Requiring Transparency Would Mitigate the Inevitable Fall in Donations from Scandals at Similar Institutions -3. Financial and Other Scandals, Caused or Exacerbated by Lack of Transparency, Have the Potential to Damage the Spiritual Lives of Churchgoers - C. Many Churchgoers Would Likely Welcome More Financial Transparency - D. Financial Transparency is Consistent with the Teachings of Many Churches - E. Self-Regulation Is Insufficient to Prevent Financial Abuse

  8. San Pedro de la Mata (Sonseca, Toledo. Building and decorating an early medieval stone church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª de los Ángeles Utrero Agudo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to offer those results obtained by means of the archaeological, stylistic and geological analysis of the church of San Pedro de La Mata, of its building and decorative materials and of its quarries. Combining these studies (and methodologies has made possible to identify the original form of the church, to pinpoint the origin of the materials and to characterize thus the skills of the workshops responsible for its construction and decoration.

  9. Religion and Displacement in Africa: Compassion and Sacrifice in Congolese Churches in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the role of religion in contexts of displacement. The article looks at the role churches and church leaders play in the lives of refugees and more particularly the assistance that these actors provide. The analytical approach is to take into consideration both religious idea...... to refugees, how this is conceptualised as well as the practices in a perspective that includes the intersection between religious ideas (compassion and sacrifice) and ideas around social relationships, gift-giving and reciprocity....

  10. Discovering and exploring ubuntu-language in the dialogue between the Dutch Reformed Church and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieze Meiring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Discussions with members of the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC and the Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa (URCSA in Ohrigstad illustrate the possibilities of ubuntu-language in overcoming racism and prejudice. After proposing a number of meanings and values related to ubuntu, this research explores the role of ubuntu-language � and at times the lack thereof � in the concrete relationship between these two faith communities as an expression of recent South African history. Ubuntu-language seems to offer unique outcomes in this relationship in strengthening identity, unleashing vitality, celebrating diversity, awakening solidarity, revealing humanity, bolstering individualism and enhancing Christianity.

  11. The Alta schist, North Norway: unique rock with unique history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldal, Tom; Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli

    2015-04-01

    Near the small town of Alta, northernmost Norway, are more than thousand small and large schist quarries, some of them dating back to the 1850's. It was the need for roofing material on a local church and a hospital that triggered the production. Since then, the Alta schist has been widely applied in Norway and abroad, known for its quality for roofing material and hard floor covering. The quality lies in the processes behind the formation of the schist. Emplacement of thrust nappes during the Caledonian mountain chain formation in the Silurian caused deformation and metamorphism of the rocks. The Alta schist is situated in one such nappe sheet, where arkosic sandstone where flattened and transformed into mylonite. This made fine mica layers along which the rock can be split, rythmically spaced and separated by quartz-dominated bands. The production of the Alta schist is still characterized by old craft traditions, reflecting a rich history and culture around the schist production.

  12. Assessing peer and parental influence on the religious attitudes and attendance of young churchgoers : exploring the Australian National Church Life Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Penny, Gemma; Powell, Ruth, Ph.D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on data from the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey, this study was designed to assess peer and parental influence on frequency of church attendance, attitude toward church, and attitude toward Christianity among a sample of 6,256 young churchgoers between the ages of 8 and 14 years, attending a range of denominations, including Catholic, Anglican, Uniting, Pentecostal, and other Protestant Churches. The data indicated the power of parental example on frequency of church atte...

  13. Tradition and/or saint tradition in the current liturgical chanting of the Serbian church

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    Peno Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 90s in the liturgical life of the Serbian Church the so-called Byzantine chant was introduced, which has caused no small earthquakes among Serbian clerics and believers. This phenomenon was a part of the general Orthodox renewal movement, both in terms of worship and in theological thoughts, and in ecclesiastical artistic expression. New - Byzantine or Greek melos instituted unjustified ethnofiletistic emotions that are often the main criterion in assessing which melodies can follow worship in the Serbian church. On one side were the defenders of traditional national Serbian chant. On the other side were the chantors who, in accordance with the Church Slavonic text template, have adapted the melodies according to Bulgarian, but also the Greek neum records. The paper gives an overview of the main trends in polemics pro et contra mentioned chanting variants. The starting point is liturgical axioms in order to critically review the non-church, specifically emotional and ethnofiletistic criteria that in assessing which chanting variants are suitable for "Serbian" worship guided by advocates of folk/national religion, national church, and therefore national church singing.

  14. The Czech Catholic Church and Problem Legitimation: From Inspiration to Personal Effort

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    František Kalvas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the following text, we describe how the Catholic Church attempts to legitimate problems in the agenda-setting process in the Czech Republic. We introduce a number of theoretical concepts and terms related to agenda setting that we apply to the case of the Catholic Church in the Czech Republic. We based our empirical analysis on semi-structured interviews; we spoke with eight respondents from different strata of the Church structure and with Catholic politicians. We describe two kinds of strategies the Church would like to use, which we call: (1 the media strategy, whereby the Czech Catholic Church aims to legitimate issues in the media arena, and (2 the vertical strategy, whereby the Czech Catholic Church aims to legitimate issues through the laity active at the top of the political hierarchy. We discuss these strategies in connection with the individuals engaged in their implementation. We conclude by questioning these proposed strategies that are based on the principle of inspiration. We also suggest there is a need to revise the strategies and base them on the principle of personal effort instead.

  15. The Formularies of Unity and the Dutch Reformed Church: A preliminary survey

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    R. M. Britz

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available This article undertakes a survey of the application of the Formularies of Unity by the Dutch Reformed Church, covering its history from the 18th century to approximately 1935. Although these Formularies were the accepted confessional basis of the church, it did not prevent additional theological accommodation during the 18th century. During the first part of the 19th century an institutional concept of the church put forward a subscribing formula. The confession became important. In principle the way was opened for an institutional and contractual enforcement of the Formu­laries. This happened when the church was involved in the wide-ranging li­beral struggle during the sixth decade. Even before the 20th century a new approach in which the role of the Formularies was seen more dogmatically and confessionalistically came to the fore. And, when the church was once again entangled in a struggle (viz. the well-known 'Du Plessis case' of the 1930's the dogmatic point of departure played into the hands of a con­fessional fundamentalism. In the history of the Dutch Reformed Church, the Formularies thus gained in ecclesiological emphasis and value and its application was conditioned by the context and theological influence. Most importantly, the underlying problem of its historicity on the one hand, and its scriptural context and intent on the other hand, remained an unpaid account.

  16. Probabilistic Feasibility of the Reconstruction Process of Russian-Orthodox Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhova, M.; Brunn, A.; Stilla, U.

    2016-06-01

    The cultural human heritage is important for the identity of following generations and has to be preserved in a suitable manner. In the course of time a lot of information about former cultural constructions has been lost because some objects were strongly damaged by natural erosion or on account of human work or were even destroyed. It is important to capture still available building parts of former buildings, mostly ruins. This data could be the basis for a virtual reconstruction. Laserscanning offers in principle the possibility to take up extensively surfaces of buildings in its actual status. In this paper we assume a priori given 3d-laserscanner data, 3d point cloud for the partly destroyed church. There are many well known algorithms, that describe different methods of extraction and detection of geometric primitives, which are recognized separately in 3d points clouds. In our work we put them in a common probabilistic framework, which guides the complete reconstruction process of complex buildings, in our case russian-orthodox churches. Churches are modeled with their functional volumetric components, enriched with a priori known probabilities, which are deduced from a database of russian-orthodox churches. Each set of components represents a complete church. The power of the new method is shown for a simulated dataset of 100 russian-orthodox churches.

  17. Robert G Edwards and the Roman Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina

    2011-06-01

    The Roman Catholic Church reacted negatively to the announcement that the Nobel Prize for Medicine had been awarded to Robert G Edwards. Thirty-three years ago, Cardinal Albino Luciani, on the eve of his election to become Pope, stated that, whereas progress is certainly a beautiful thing, mankind has not always benefited from progress. Catholic criticism has raised seven points: (i) God wants human life to begin through the 'conjugal act' and not artificially; (ii) artificial interventions at the beginning of human life are dangerous and ethically unacceptable; (iii) limits can be imposed even upon an individual's freedom to achieve a legitimate goal, such as having a child within marriage; (iv) the massive loss of preimplantation embryos characterizing IVF must be considered as a tragic loss of 'nascent' human persons; (v) Edwards bears a moral responsibility for all subsequent developments in assisted reproduction technology and for all 'abuses' made possible by IVF; (vi) there can be deleterious consequences for offspring of assisted reproduction technology; and (vii) Edwards' discovery did not eliminate the causes of infertility. This article elaborates from the Roman Catholic perspective on each of these points, some of which are found to be more substantial than others.

  18. Nathaniel Hitch and the Making of Church Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Jones

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Housed at the Henry Moore Institute in Leeds is the archive of the little-known sculptor Nathaniel Hitch (1845–1938. This comprises hundreds of studio photographs, which collectively and individually provide significant insight into a hitherto neglected branch of Victorian sculpture: church sculpture. Changing attitudes to religion from the 1840s onwards created conditions that enabled sculptors such as Hitch to establish successful local and international practices specializing in ecclesiastical work, from ornamental pew ends to free-standing polychrome figurative sculpture. Examining the ecclesiastical dimension of nineteenth-century British sculpture complicates and extends our current understanding of sculpture in the period, by presenting alternative models of education, style, subject matter, sculptural precedents, studio practice, and practices of making to the current centrality of ideal classical sculpture and of the New Sculpture in the scholarship. It allows for the integration of different types of sculptors and sculpture within the study of Victorian sculpture, and prompts investigation into the influence of specifically Christian and British values and concerns on what was still essentially a classical medium.

  19. Geotechnical Descriptions of Rock and Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    weathering is presented by Dornbusch (1982). 39. Mechanical, or physical, weathering of rock occurs primarily by (a) freeze expansion (or frost wedging...34Engineering Classifica- tion of In-Situ Rock," Technical Report No. AFWL-TR-67-144, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex. Dornbusch , W

  20. Feminists and their perspectives on the church fathers' beliefs regarding women: An inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelie Wood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The church fathers and their views on women were influenced substantially and significantly by philosophical voices, such as that of Aristotle and Plato, amongst others. A brief account on Aristotle�s and Plato�s ideas about women, from feminist perspectives, will be touched upon. The article furthermore explores feminist voices, regarding the church fathers� thinking about women, and how these views contributed to women�s subordination and domination. The research will focus on the many varied views on women held by Latin church fathers, such as Tertullian (c. 155�255, Cyprian (c. 200�258 AD, Jerome (c. 347�419, Ambrose (c. 339�397 and Augustine (354�430, and the Greek church fathers, such as Clement of Alexander (c. 150�215, Origen (c. 185�254 and Chrysostom (c. 347�407, from the perspective of feminists. It will be contended that an insensitive and too early denunciation of the early church fathers as misogynists often occurs in women�s history without taking into consideration the church fathers� philosophical and social contexts and, hence, the opinions that formed their views. One such theory that helped to shape the church fathers� views about women is the classic medical theory, and this therefore merits a brief discussion. Another important point one has to take into account is the church fathers� perceptions of the carnal (sexual and the spiritual world that shaped their views about women.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: History teaches us what people before us did, what their intentions were and where they failed or went wrong. If historical viewpoints about women reflect women�s subordination and oppression, they force women to discover their roots and their past. The church fathers, however, inherited a long tradition of debates, beliefs, and arguments regarding women�s moral, intellectual, and natural capacities. Therefore, generalised, simplified, and unsympathetic views

  1. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  2. Restoring San Xavier del Bac, "Our Church": Tohono O'odham Work to Restore the 200-Year-Old Church Built by Their Ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Bernard L.

    1995-01-01

    The Tohono O'odham built Mission San Xavier del Bac for Franciscan missionaries in the late 1700s and have protected and cared for it through changing circumstances ever since. As part of a massive restoration project, outstanding experts have been restoring the church's painted and sculpted interior and training local Tohono O'odham to be…

  3. D Virtualization by Close Range Photogrammetry Indoor Gothic Church Apses. The Case Study of Church of San Francisco in Betanzos (la CORUÑA, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ramos, A.; Robleda Prieto, G.

    2015-02-01

    Virtualization using low cost photogrammetric techniques, is often replaced by Terrestial Laser Scanning inside churches. Especially in the case of Gothic churches where light penetrates the interior of the building difficulting shooting in proper condition to perform their restitution. The need to use Terrestial Laser Scaning for indoor virtualization is a significant increase in the final surveying cost. In these cases, the Terrestial Laser Scanning is used to generate dense point clouds that can produce high resolution models. However, many Terrestial Laser Scanners are not able to provide color images or can not reach the quality of images which can be obtained through a semiprofessional camera. So, digital photogrammetry is often used to make these models high resolution textures that Terrestial Laser Scanner based methodology is not capable of providing. This article aims to solved the problem posed by virtualizating Gothic churches indoors. Making that task more affordable exclusively by low cost photogrammetric techniques. The proposed methodology allows obtaining photographs in such a good conditions for virtualizing the target by point cloud. In order to verify the usefulness of the method, It has been decided to apply it to Gothic apse of the church of San Francisco in Betanzos (La Coruña). The equipment used is inexpensive and easy to carry: DSLR camera with 18-135 mm lens, tripod, lights and total station.

  4. HEALS: A Faith-Based Hypertension Control and Prevention Program for African American Churches: Training of Church Leaders as Program Interventionists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Dodani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A 12-session church-based HEALS program (healthy eating and living spiritually was developed for hypertension control and prevention program in African Americans (AAs. This study presents specifics of training lay health educators to effectively deliver HEALS to high-risk AAs. Methods. A one-day workshop was conducted by the research experts in an AA church. Five church members were recruited to be program interventionists called church health counselors (CHCs. Results. Using principles of adult education, a training protocol was developed with the intention of recognizing and supporting CHCs skills. CHCs received training on delivering HEALS program. The process of training emphasized action methods including role playing and hands-on experience with diet portion measurements. Conclusion. With adequate training, the community lay health educator can be an essential partner in a community-based hypertension control programs. This may motivate program participants more and encourages the individual to make the behavior modifications on a permanent basis.

  5. Ecumenical Attack against Racism : The Anti-Racist Programme of the World Council of Churches, 1968-1974

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Antti

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the early stages of the Programme to Combat Racism (PCR) of the World Council of Churches (WCC), the foremost inter-church organization of Orthodox and Protestant churches, and reactions to it. Aside from the extensive archival and printed material of the WCC, the study is also based on both published and unpublished sources in Finland and Britain concerning the response to the PCR in these countries. To date, the PCR remains the most controversial and debated WCC ini...

  6. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  7. OCTOPUS--a church-based sex education program for teens and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacknik, M; Isberner, F; Gumerman, S; Hayworth, R; Braunling-McMorrow, D

    1984-01-01

    OCTOPUS is the acronym for a rural, church-based sex education program for teens and parents. The tentacles symbolize the agencies and individuals involved in this multi-faceted community outreach program designed to promote "Open Communication Regarding Teenagers Or Parents Understanding of Sexuality." Its purpose was to establish a forum for family discussion within a church setting to enhance communication skills, convey factual information, and cultivate the development of a decision-making process to help parents help their teenagers acquire appropriate morals and values. The OCTOPUS program was a team effort comprised of nurses, health educators, and counselors with experience serving adolescents, ministers who sought to integrate religious views with sex education, and church and community members interested in improving dialogue between parents and teenagers about sexuality. The team developed a comprehensive yet flexible program that could be modified to meet each church's preferences. Generally, the topics were arranged into four two-hour sessions. Presentation methods included a combination of lectures, films, and pamphlets. Large and small group discussions were used for clarification and communication skills development. While the results of this program were not quantifiable, feedback from four churches and one-hundred participants has been highly favorable.

  8. Scientific evaluation of wall paintings from Bunesti Evangelical Church, Brasov county

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Annamaria; MǎruÅ£oiu, Constantin; Bibire, Cristina; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Dreve, Simina

    2013-11-01

    Evangelical Church in the village Bunesti, Brasov county, is part of the fortified churches built since the XIV century at the south-eastern territory of Transylvania. Developed by addition in several stages during centuries, the church begun as Catholic chapel, then that was amplified in the sixteenth century, when Reform was adopted by the Saxon communities. In that period the building was extended in length and height and the catholic specific iconographic decorations were cancelled by covering with different layers of plaster and paint. The campaign of introducing in touristic circuit of old Saxon fortified churches generated, in terms of maintenance and renovations undertaken, the discovery of significant wall paintings, as treasures to be rescued and put into value. Our present efforts are focused on scientific evaluation of mural paintings found in Evangelical Church from Bunesti, by XRF and specific analysis performed on 10 different samples of mural paintings, completing visual and artistic analysis in order to establish the strategies for their recovering and preservation.

  9. THE FORTIFIED CHURCHES FROM TRANSYLVANIA - HOW WELL ARE THEY KNOWN BY THE ROMANIAN CITIZENS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serb Silvana Valentina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fortified Churches from Transylvania represent an important category of historical and religious sights of the anthropic touristic potential - historic cultural potential of this region. However, they are not exploited from a touristic point of view at their fair value, one reason being the weak promoting activity, especially the lack of information among citizens about the existence of these churches. In this paper, I intend to highlight on the information level awareness among the Romanian citizens regarding the existence of these churches, to identify which are the most well known and visited churches and to establish the profile of those who visit the churches. In the end, the results of this research impose a set of measures to improve the level of information among the Romanian citizens concerning the existence of this historic and religious heritage. The paper is relevant for the doctoral research project called Marketing Places - religious and historical sights of touristic interest from Transylvania under the guidance of Professor Doctor Marius Pop, Babes-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, during 1st of October 2009 - 1st of October 2012.

  10. THE ACTIVITY OF RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN THE ELECTRONIC SPACE (FOR EXAMPLE, THE INTERNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenova Darya Mikhailovna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the increasingly important role of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russian society. As in real space as in the virtual Russian Orthodox Church is actively communicate with other actors, spreading their own beliefs and values. The subject of the study – is activity of the Russian Orthodox Church in the various segments of the Internet space. The purpose of the research – is the analysis of methods of the Russian Orthodox Church using in the Internet space and determining their effectiveness. The work used the method of content analysis. The study identified the forms of participation of representatives of the Russian Orthodox Church in the electronic space: groups and pages on social networks, blogs, online services - for example, the project "Priest online", Orthodox forums. The discussions in the Internet space dedicated not only to the realizing of cults or religious issues, but also social and political issues, including what should be the ideal state, the future of Russia, the political enemies of Russia.

  11. The church and the secular: The effect of the post-secular on Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Beyers

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Paradigms determine relationships. During the Enlightenment period Emile Durkheim proposed a relationship between the sacred and the profane. Religion, which is concerned with the sacred, was defined in terms of being different from the profane. The profane came to denote the secular. The organic character of religion caused some scholars to predict the end of the church at the hand of modernisation and rationalisation. Some scholars instead envisaged a new form and function of the church. Some scholars anticipated the growth of Christianity. Reality shows that Christianity has not died out but seems to be growing. The new era we are currently in (identified as the postmodern has been described as the post-secular age where a process of re-sacralisation takes place. How will the post-secular influence the church? What will the relationship between the church and the secular be like under a new paradigm? This article suggests that within a postmodern paradigm, the post-secular will emphasise the place of the individual in the church. Fragmentation of society will also be the result of the post-secular. Religiosity in future will have to contend with fundamentalism and civil religion.

  12. NEW WAYS TO DEVELOP AND PPROMOT TOURISM THROUGH RESTORATION OF WOODEN CHURCHES FROM BUZAU REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Teodora, NECULA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With highlighting of the wooden churches from the sub-Carpathian region is possible to make projects of development and promovation of tourism in Buzau. Publishing a book of the wooden churches witch presents the overview on architecture helps with the prom ovation of tourism by bringing new light on the full set, geographical specking it brings new territory to view. Advantage by placing wooden churches in the vicinity of hermitage caves from Buzau will attract even more interest of the large public for seed region. Realizing a few projects of conservation-restoration of wooden churches which are declared historical monuments, will bring a local developing from a cultural-tourist view. A particular case is the wooden church "Saints Emperors" from the vicinity city Nehoiu which has ruttier access, helps with the cost for restoration and number of viewers. Through realizing interventions of conservation-restoration and placing it in a favorable aesthetic view, the monument can be used in a cultural-tourist circuit of international important and this way it can help with the growth of value of monuments and developing cultural-tourist with the final scope heightening the economy.

  13. Communicating HIV/AIDS through African American churches in North Carolina: implications and recommendations for HIV/AIDS faith-based programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, DaKysha; Onsomu, Elijah O; Timmons, Shirley M; Abuya, Benta A; Moore, Christina

    2012-09-01

    This study explores HIV/AIDS communication strategies among church leaders at predominately African American churches in a metropolitan city and surrounding areas in North Carolina. The church leaders contacted for the study are members of an interfaith-based HIV/AIDS program. The researchers used semi-standardized interviews to explore how church leaders address HIV/AIDS in the church. The findings indicate that the seven church leaders who participated in the study use a variety of communication channels to disseminate HIV/AIDS information for congregants and their surrounding communities, which include both interpersonal and mass media.

  14. Principles of rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchaninov, I.A.; Iofis, M.A.; Kasparyan, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    This book presents the principles of rock mechanics in a systematic way, reflecting both the historic development and the contemporary status of theoretical and experimental techniques used for the determination of the properties and stress state of rock masses, calculation of elements of systems for exploitation of useful mineral deposits and the design of mine openings. The subject of rock mechanics is discussed and methods and basic approaches are analyzed. The most widely used methods for determining the properties of rock in specimens and in situ are described. Problems of determining the stress strain state of the rock around mine openings by both experimental and analytic methods are discussed. The primary results of the study of the stress state of rock around main, development and production openings are presented. Problems of the movement of rock due to extraction of minerals are analyzed in detail, as are the conditions and causes of the development of rock bursts and sudden release of rock and gas in both surface and underground mines. Procedures for preventing or localizing rock bursts or sudden outbursts are described. (313 refs.)

  15. Kirchengeschichte als Ketzergeschichte Church History as the History of Heretics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Lanwerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Die katholische Theologin Daniela Müller spricht am Ende ihres Buches von der „Notwendigkeit der Ketzerei“ und begründet diesen Gedanken wie folgt: „‚Ketzer‘ und ‚Ketzerinnen‘ sind die dunklen Geschwister, ohne die man nicht so wäre wie man ist, die man deshalb so bekämpft, weil sie solch starke Gefühle mit uns teilen, weil sie die gleichen Eltern, den gleichen Ursprung haben wie wir und das gleiche Ziel: zur Familie Gottes zu gehören"; die Kirche als „Hüterin der Glaubenswahrheit“ solle daher die „Ketzergeschichte […] in den immerwährenden Prozess der Wahrheitsfindung“ einbeziehen (S. 233 f.. In diesen Prozess will auch die Autorin mit ihrer Studie eingreifen, und zwar am Beispiel der Katharerinnen, deren Geschichte sie für den Zeitraum von 1143 bis 1275 rekonstruiert; sie verfolgt das fragwürdige Ziel, die Geschichte der Katharerinnen im Modus einer emotionalen und identifikatorischen „Aneignung“ dem „eigenen Leben, der eigenen Sinngebung, der eigenen Verarbeitung“ integrieren zu wollen (S. 15.The Catholic theologian Daniela Müller comments at the end of her book on the “importance of heresy” and substantiates this thought as follows: “‘Heretics’ are our sinister siblings without whom we would not be what we are today but with whom we fight nonetheless. They share such strong feelings with us because they have the same parents, the same origin, and the same goal: to belong to the family of God.” Because the church is the “guardian of the truth of belief,” it should include the “history of heresy […] in the perpetual process of searching for the truth” (233. The author wishes to intervene in this process with her study using the example of the Cathars. She reconstructs their history for the time period between 1143 and 1275. She follows the questionable goal of wanting to integrate the history of the Cathars into the mode of emotional and identificatory “appropriation” of

  16. Territorial Dioceses and Ethnic Episcopies in the Structure of the Church Organization of the First Bulgarian Kingdom (Canonical Aspects

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    Archpriest Alexander Zadornov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles in the structure of ecclesiastical organizations is a well known fact in church history. Both principles are equally legitimate from the point of view of canonical law. The “ethnic principle” was based on legal norms of the so-called 34th Apostolic Rule, and contrary to the opinion of scholars of the 19th century, it was still in use after the era of the Ecumenical Councils. This fact must be considered by students of the history of Church organizations in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, too. The observations regarding the structure of church organizations in Simeonic Bulgaria make it possible to assume the coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles of church organizations in his kingdom. As is known, Slavonic church schools were established in the southwestern part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom after 886. They were aimed at training the Slavonic clergy for the Slavonic church organization. In 893, the Bulgarian King Simeon was elevated to the throne, and a Slavonic eparchy headed by St. Clement of Ohrid was established in the southwestern territories of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. As a result, heterogeneous church organizations were established in the region, and church structures of ethnic and territorial types appeared. They differ from each other by the language of their church services. Old Church Slavonic must have been used as a liturgical language in the ethnic Slavonic eparchy. Since direct historical evidence for such heterogeneous church structure in the First Bulgarian Kingdom is absent, new interpretations of sources made on the basis of canonical law can be of importance for Slavonic studies.

  17. A statistical investigation of the relationship between personal attachment style and satisfaction with evangelical church membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott; Martin, Magy; Martin, Don

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if parishioners' relational attachment style influences their satisfaction with evangelical church membership. A sample of parishioners aged 18 and over completed the Relationship Questionnaire and the Congregation Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), along with an accompanying demographic profile. The research design employed a one-way analysis of variance to determine if securely attached persons reported greater satisfaction with their evangelical church participation than those who reported preoccupied, dismissing, or fearful attachment. This study furthered existing research, suggesting that attachment style influences how people measure congregational satisfaction. In this study, securely attached individuals reported greater satisfaction, as measured by the CSQ, with their evangelical church membership than those who were not securely attached.

  18. Ethics of energy production and use: debate within the National Council of Churches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, P.

    1979-02-01

    An Energy Policy Statement emanating from a panel for the National Council of Churches (NCC) in the United States was presented in May 1978 to the governing board of the NCC. The proposed Energy Policy Statement is composed of four sections: Opinions and Perspectives, Theological Dimensions of the Energy Situation, Ecological Justice and Human choice, and A Challenge to the Churches. Controversy concerning the proposed plan was great. The controversy on nuclear energy is specifically described. While the NCC was anti-nuclear, the World Council of Churches was tilting toward nuclear power. The NCC focused on ethics of energy and the WCC is not focusing on ethics; its nuclear statement does not constitute policy; and another WCC committee is aggressively promoting conservation and appropriate technology. The lessons drawn from the NCC debate are summarized. (MCW)

  19. PUPILS’ AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS AND REPRESENTATIONS OF THE WOODEN CHURCHES IN MARAMUREŞ, ROMANIA

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    SORIN-ALIN KOSINSZKI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to study the perceptions and representations of some pupils and students, living in Maramureş, of the wooden churches from Maramureş and their employment as tourist attractions. The specific objectives of this research were the following: conceiving, analysing and applying a research instrument for the perceptions and representations on the wooden churches from Maramureş and their employment as tourist attractions, the analysis and interpretation of the obtained results. The following research hypothesis was tested: pupils and students do not have very precise representations of the wooden churches in Maramureş and their employment as tourist attractions. After the questionnaire was applied and the results were analyzed, the working hypothesis was confirmed.

  20. The evangelical church of Zaire and the female ordained ministry 1

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    M. M. Mulemfo

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available African culture(s had assigned inferior roles to women in society. The first Christian missionaries did very little to liberate women from this cultural enslavement. The missionaries's understanding of the leadership roles of women was not very different from that of African culture and its societal organisation. Many churches in Africa had kept to this cultural conservatism and also adopted the missionary theology. However, there are some Christians who accept women into the pastoral ministry, while others consider this move as blasphemous and unbiblical. The role of the church in this conflictual issue is to elaborate a new biblical hermeneutic which would help the church to create a conducive environment where men and women would understand their humanity on an equal basis and participate in God's salvific mission for the world.

  1. The Changing Social Role of Church-run Schools during the Communist Rule in Hungary

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    Gabriella Pusztai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Denominational schools have played a fundamental role in Hungarian education for centuries. The relations between church and state were characterised by co-operation and a division of tasks. As a result of the Communist takeover, however, church schools were nationalised in 1948. Only 10 of them were allowed to exist within strict constraints. During the decades of communism they became from the asylum of the social groups deprived of their learning opportunities and forced into a marginal situation in the 1950s into partly elite schools by the 1980s. The transformation of the role of church-run schools determined how they sought their mission after the political transformation of 1989-90. Meanwhile, church policy started softening in parallel with the erosion of state socialism. The ideological and political loss of marginalised social strata was unimportant for the communist regime, but certain churches started to gain experience in working with those groups at that time, e.g. in Gypsy mission. During our research we collected archive documents, photographs and interviews.The most important hypothesis was the existence of a so-called underground school that had operated at a Roma village in spite of the fact that no Greek Catholic schools were allowed to exist during the communist regime. The school was very successful in educating the highly marginalised Roma community, which lived under substandard conditions. The methodology of the school, fitted out in a chapel, foreshadowed what we call culturally responsive teaching today. In the first part of the study the political climate of religious education is presented during the communist regime in Hungary. In the second part, the first results of our empirical research about the underground church-run school during the time of the founder of the school (Sója Miklós are presented.

  2. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests: Threats, opportunities and implications for their management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koen; November, Eva; Wassie, Alemayehu; Abiyu, Abrham; Demissew, Sebsebe; Daye, Desalegn D; Giday, Kidane; Haile, Mitiku; TewoldeBerhan, Sarah; Teketay, Demel; Teklehaimanot, Zewge; Binggeli, Pierre; Deckers, Jozef; Friis, Ib; Gratzer, Georg; Hermy, Martin; Heyn, Moïra; Honnay, Olivier; Paris, Maxim; Sterck, Frank J; Muys, Bart; Bongers, Frans; Healey, John R

    2016-05-01

    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about their region-wide distribution and conservation value. We (1) performed the first large-scale spatially-explicit assessment of church forests, combining remote-sensing and field data, to assess the number of forests, their size, shape, isolation and woody plant species composition, (2) determined their plant communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified in satellite images were on average ~2ha in size and generally separated by ~2km from the nearest neighboring forest. Shape complexity, not size, decreased from the northern to the central highlands. Overall, 148 indigenous tree, shrub and liana species were recorded across the 78 surveyed forests. Patch α-diversity increased with mean annual precipitation, but typically only 25 woody species occurred per patch. The combined results showed that >50% of tree species present in tropical northeast Africa were still present in the 78 studied church forests, even though individual forests were small and relatively species-poor. Tree species composition of church forests varied with elevation and precipitation, and resembled the potential natural vegetation. With a wide distribution over the landscape, these church forests have high conservation value. However, long-term conservation of biodiversity of individual patches and evolutionary potential of species may be threatened by isolation, small sizes of tree species populations and disturbance, especially when considering climate

  3. Ethical issues in human reproduction: Protestant perspectives in the light of European Protestant and Reformed Churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhäuser, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Protestantism is not a centralized religion. It is composed by many independent Churches having different moral and ethical standards. This review concentrates on the ethical principles prevalent in most modern European Reformed Churches. It does not intend to discuss the ethical principles of many other Protestant Churches present mainly in the USA. The common foundations of Protestant theology are the "five sola ("Sola scriptura", Sola fide", "Sola gratia", Solus Christus or Solo Christo", "Soli deo gloria"). In opposition to the Catholic Church, no intermediary is needed between the Bible and the believer. As a consequence, Protestant Churches have no Magisterium, such as the Catholic Church. Therefore Protestant Churches cannot declare a certain position to be the "official position". Each Christian is personally responsible for all his acts, including his ethical behaviour. There is no complete unanimity among all Protestants on ethics or on any other issue. Human dignity, personal rights and self-determination have to be respected in each ethical consideration. The supersession of the Old Mosaic Covenant (including traditional Jewish law or Halakhah, maintained in Catholicism) by the New Covenant and by Christian Theology has an important impact on Protestant ethics in reproductive medicine. In the New Covenant, the Protestants Churches did not maintain the mandatory obligation from the old Mosaic Covenant to be fruitful and to multiply: there is no divine obligation by God to procreate. As a consequence, contraception is not a sin and not unethical. The status of the embryo is the key for the ethical consideration of all methods used in reproductive medicine. Most representatives of modern Protestant theology and bioethics defend the opinion that the embryo is not an independent human being as is the newborn child. For most Protestant bio-ethicists, as long as an embryo has no nervous system, no organs and no pain receptors, it cannot be seen as a human

  4. Abuse in the church? A social constructionist challenge to pastoral ministry

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    Rosemaré A. Visser

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on abusive practices in the faith community. It indicates that abusive behaviour is more often than not unintentional and is ostensibly driven by a zeal for God and the church. The article explores this anomaly by examining the phenomenon of abuse in the faith community from a social constructionist, psychological, sociological and theological perspective. Pastoral ministry is challenged to foster self-reflexivity and awareness, as well as to revisit current (outdated beliefs and practices, to test their suitability for the postmodern context in which the church is to tell and live her story.

  5. FTIR ANALYSIS OF PAINTING MATERIALS FROM THE CHURCH SAINT PARASCHIVA, OF POIENILE IZEI, MARAMUREŞ, ROMANIA

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    Constantin MARUŢOIU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the research and the t results of FTIR analyses on samples of immobile paintings on the wooden walls, taken from the Church Saint Paraschiva from the Village of Poienile Izei, county of Maramureş,Romania, a UNESCO World Heritage List monument. These analyses were meant to certify the type and origin of the materials used in the grounding and paint layers of the late 18th c. pictures inside this wooden church. The results obtained, revealed us that other materials had been used than expected. Results also can help in the future conservation-restoration intervention, especially in cleaning and retouching.

  6. The physical Church-Turing thesis and the principles of quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Notoriously, quantum computation shatters complexity theory, but is innocuous to computability theory. Yet several works have shown how quantum theory as it stands could breach the physical Church-Turing thesis. We draw a clear line as to when this is the case, in a way that is inspired by Gandy. Gandy formulates postulates about physics, such as homogeneity of space and time, bounded density and velocity of information --- and proves that the physical Church-Turing thesis is a consequence of these postulates. We provide a quantum version of the theorem. Thus this approach exhibits a formal non-trivial interplay between theoretical physics symmetries and computability assumptions.

  7. The ‘Lost’ Church of Bix Gibwyn: The Human Bone

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Recent research for the Victoria County History (VCH) highlighted the presence of a ‘lost’ medieval\\ud church in Bix, a Chilterns parish north-west of Henley-on-Thames. The building, formerly the\\ud parish church of Bix Gibwyn, was abandoned in the late sixteenth or seventeenth century and has\\ud left no standing remains. Archaeological investigation by the South Oxfordshire Archaeological Group\\ud (SOAG) and Reading University has confirmed its location in a close called ‘Old Chapel’ in Bix\\...

  8. 360° FILM BRINGS BOMBED CHURCH TO LIFE

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kwiatek

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and h...

  9. Medieval Churches in Shushica Valley (South Albania and the Slavonic Bishopric of St. Clement of Ohrid

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    Skënder Muçaj

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There were numerous Slavic settlements in South Albania (including the valley of Shushica River at the end of the 1st millennium. In the second half of the 9th c. a significant part of this region was conquered by the 1st Bulgarian Kingdom, and after 870 there were established ecclesiastical dioceses which became part of the church organization of the Kingdom. Slavonic ecclesiastical schools were established in that region as well, after 886 in the context of the so-called “Slavonic project” of the Bulgarian prince, Boris. St. Clement took an active part in this project. It was South Albania where the first Slavonic bishopric in Southeast Europe was founded, in 893, when St. Clement was appointed bishop. His bishopric was organized according ethnic principle, so that St. Clement was called “the bishop of Slavonic people.”The center of Clement’s bishopric was in Velica, which is related to the modern settlement Velçë in the Shushica valley. There are ruins of a cross-in-square church with a narthex in the Asomat region, which is located near Velica. The church was built at the end of the 9th‒beginning of the 10th cc. and dedicated to the Archangel Michael. The plan of this church is identical with that of the so-called “pronaos” of the church built by St. Clement in his Ohrid monastery.In St. Clement’s bishopric Church Slavonic was used as a liturgical language. For that purpose, a set of Byzantine liturgical books was translated from Greek into Church Slavonic, and Clement took an active part in this process. Liturgical pecularities of these books partially observed in Greek manuscripts of South Italian provenance testify to the hypothesis that Greek sources of the earliest Church Slavonic translations belonged to liturgical tradition of Epirus, similar to those of South Italy. This also proves the location of St. Clement’s bishopric in the valley of the Shushica River.

  10. John's gospel and the Johannine church: A mirror of events wifhin a text or/and a window on events within a church

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    H. A. Lombard

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of an alleged Johannine church/ school. The hermeneutical paradigms and results of two mainline exegetical methods are assessed, namely the historico-critical method and literary criticism (a textimmanent procedure. Their respective approaches of using the text of John's Gospel (JG as a window and as a mirror are correlated. An analysis of the narrator's commentary (footnotes, asides furnished important conclusions. They are that a referential correlation exists between the worlds within and outside the text. The direction of reference runs from the textexternal to the textexternal worlds, furthermore, the pragmatics of JG as a religio-historical text justifies the assumption that the readers/church within and outside the text are to be identified as ambivalent entities consisting of both Jewish and Hellenistic elements.

  11. 65-nm Cyclone Ⅲ FPGA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Altera公司低功耗、低成本Cyclone Ⅲ系列65nm FPGA所有8个型号的产品级芯片实现量产,Cyclone Ⅲ系列产品已迅速应用于无线、军事、显示、汽车和工业市场的大量客户系统中。

  12. Postdispersal seed predation and seed viability in forest soils: implications for the regeneration of tree species in Ethiopian church forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, A.; Bekele, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Teketay, D.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    Almost all dry Afromontane forests of Northern Ethiopia have been converted to agricultural, grazing or scrub lands except for small fragments left around churches ('Church forests'). Species regeneration in these forests is limited. We investigated (i) how intense postdispersal seed predation was i

  13. Secularization and changing moral views : European trends in church attendance and views on homosexuality, divorce, abortion, and euthanasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, Loek; van Ingen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Analysing survey data from the European Values Study, we investigate whether and how changes in church attendance bring about changes in people’s acceptance of abortion, homosexuality, divorce, and euthanasia. We argue that decreasing church attendance not only should enhance overall acceptance of t

  14. Taking It to the Pews: A CBPR-Guided HIV Awareness and Screening Project with Black Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bowe-Thompson, Carole; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Hawes, Starlyn; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Martinez, David; Goggin, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach is a potentially effective strategy for exploring the development, implementation, and evaluation of HIV interventions in African American churches. This CBPR-guided study describes a church-based HIV awareness and screening intervention (Taking It to the Pews [TIPS]) that fully…

  15. Bringing Evidence-Based Sexual Health Programs to Adolescents in Black Churches: Applying Knowledge from Systematic Adaptation Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Fiona H.; Powell, Terrinieka W.; Illangasekare, Samantha; Rice, Eric; Wilson, James; Hickman, Debra; Blum, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have documented Black churches' receptivity to implementing adolescent sexual health programs within their congregations. Some authors have argued for new sexual health programs to be designed specifically for churches, similar to the development of school- and community-based interventions. However, strategies and curricula used…

  16. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  17. Visual rhetoric: images of Saracens in Florentine churches

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    Ben-Aryeh Debby, Nirit

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the encounter between the Christian and the Islamic worlds as it appears in Florentine churches. It explores images of Muslims connected to the ideas of mission, conversion and crusade as they appear in the oral and visual traditions. Crusading sympathy in Tuscany, particularly in Florence, had a long history, going back to the twelfth century. The role of the mendicant orders, established in the great convents of Santa Croce and Santa Maria Novella, was crucial in winning sympathy for the crusades. This tradition continued in the fi fteenth century, after the fall of Constantinople, when Florence openly voiced support for papal crusading efforts and participated in fund-raising for the crusade. The main supporters of crusade propaganda in Florence were the Franciscan and Dominican preachers, who acted as virtual papal envoys, continuing a tradition of mendicant crusade sermons. These movements also developed special types of artworks, either painting or sculptures in order to disseminate their religious ideals. The usage of rhetoric and preaching, the interrelations between word and image, the artistic and literary traditions, artworks and sermons will be a central focus of essay.

    Este artículo se centra en el encuentro entre el mundo cristiano y el musulmán tal y como se representa en las iglesias florentinas. Analiza las imágenes de musulmanes relacionadas con los conceptos de misión, conversión y cruzada según su tratamiento en las tradiciones visuales y orales. Existía una larga tradición de simpatía hacia las Cruzadas en la Toscana, sobre todo en Florencia, que se remonta hasta el siglo XII. El papel ejercido por las órdenes mendicantes establecidas en los grandes conventos de santa Croce y de Santa María Novella, fue crucial para fomentar la simpatía hacia las cruzadas. Esta tradición continuó durante el siglo XV, después de la caída de Constantinopla, cuando Florencia articuló expl

  18. Leadership succession patterns in the apostolic church as a template for critique of contemporary charismatic leadership succession patterns

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    Cephas Tushima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of leadership succession observed globally in most contemporary Pentecostal movements and churches can be characterised as dynastic succession. Yet historic modern Pentecostalism (in the Azusa tradition prided itself on being biblical. This article explores the biblical sources, examining first the leadership structure and then the leadership succession patterns in the apostolic church as well as the extra-biblical sources of the apostolic patristic era. Our findings from this New Testament (and patristic sources survey of leadership succession in the apostolic church and post-apostolic churches furnish a template for critical evaluation of the prevalent succession approaches of contemporary Pentecostal groups. Critical elements of apostolic and leadership structure and succession patterns are highlighted, and needed inferences are drawn for the re-shaping of leadership and its succession in contemporary Christian ministries and churches.Keywords: Azusa; Apostolic Leadership; Leadership Succession; Pentecostalism; Evangelicals; Leadership Patterns

  19. The architecture of the church of Saint George at Rečani: The original design and subsequent alterations

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    Stevanović Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The church of Saint George at Rečani, destroyed in the summer of 1999, belonged to the group of small-sized churches in the form of a compact cross-in-square, with three bays and a dome. In terms of architectural features, the church at Rečani did not stand out among modest churches founded by Serbian aristocrats in the fourteenth century. The examined documentation, drawings made by conservation professionals and records of conservation works have provided valuable information related to the architectural features of the church, which was listed as a cultural monument on June 1961, becoming a state-protected asset. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177036: Srpska srednjovekovna umetnost i njen evropski kontekst

  20. Christian theology of life, death and healing in an era of antiretroviraltherapy: reflections on the responses of some Botswana churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togarasei, Lovemore

    2010-12-01

    This article discusses Christian understandings of life, death and healing in the context of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. The discussion is a response to the reactions of some Botswana Pentecostal and African Independent Churches to the availability of ARV therapy, as reflected in several media reports of churches discouraging church members' use of ARV drugs. The article argues that this negative attitude to ARVs is a result of the Christian churches' understandings of life, death and healing through traditional Bible-based interpretations. Based on this, some churches view the ability of ARVs to prolong life as challenging God who is the source of life and healing. The article argues that this attitude grows from an initial Christian understanding of HIV and AIDS as a form of God's punishment on humanity for its sins. The article thus argues for the development of 'a Christian theology of ARVs' that sees ARVs as a manifestation and not a contradiction of God's healing powers.

  1. Mitigating the Impact of Bats in Historic Churches: The Response of Natterer's Bats Myotis nattereri to Artificial Roosts and Deterrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeale, Matt R K; Bennitt, Emily; Newson, Stuart E; Packman, Charlotte; Browne, William J; Harris, Stephen; Jones, Gareth; Stone, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Bats frequently roost in historic churches, and these colonies are of considerable conservation value. Inside churches, bat droppings and urine can cause damage to the historic fabric of the building and to items of cultural significance. In extreme cases, large quantities of droppings can restrict the use of a church for worship and/or other community functions. In the United Kingdom, bats and their roosts are protected by law, and striking a balance between conserving the natural and cultural heritage can be a significant challenge. We investigated mitigation strategies that could be employed in churches and other historic buildings to alleviate problems caused by bats without adversely affecting their welfare or conservation status. We used a combination of artificial roost provision and deterrence at churches in Norfolk, England, where significant maternity colonies of Natterer's bats Myotis nattereri damage church features. Radio-tracking data and population modelling showed that excluding M. nattereri from churches is likely to have a negative impact on their welfare and conservation status, but that judicious use of deterrents, especially high intensity ultrasound, can mitigate problems caused by bats. We show that deterrence can be used to move bats humanely from specific roosting sites within a church and limit the spread of droppings and urine so that problems to congregations and damage to cultural heritage can be much reduced. In addition, construction of bespoke roost spaces within churches can allow bats to continue to roost within the fabric of the building without flying in the church interior. We highlight that deterrence has the potential to cause serious harm to M. nattereri populations if not used judiciously, and so the effects of deterrents will need careful monitoring, and their use needs strict regulation.

  2. From Social Motives to Spiritual Development: A Cultural Historical Activity Theory Analysis of Communal Spiritual Development in a Korean American House Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, SinWoong Simon

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on a unique culturally shaped church formation, a Korean house church in the U.S., and how the members of the Korean house church learn and develop their spirituality in their communal relations and activities. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest…

  3. The ABC's of Financing Church and Synagogue Libraries. Acquiring Funds, Budgeting, Cash Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Claudia

    The ABCs of financing church and synagogue libraries are presented in this guide as Acquiring Funds, Budgeting, and Cash Accounting. Acquiring funds and the basic means needed to start a library are described, including resources such as books, shelves, office supplies, and financial resources; ideas and methods are presented for soliciting both…

  4. Four-dimensional conversion for spiritual leadership development: A missiological approach for African churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalemba Mwambazambi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of a four-dimensional conversion and/or transformation strives in helping the leadership of an organisation, especially such as the church, with practical ways that may lead to the development of an effective leadership by observing the four important aspects of human spirituality as elaborated on in the article. The spiritual, intellectual, moral and socio-political dimensions of the transformation can be catered for so that the complete inner being of humans, as well as their social and political attitudes and behaviours, can equally be transformed to maximum spiritual, personal and socio-political profitability. Mutombo-Mukendi demonstrates that the need for a spiritual leadership that can contribute to an effective transformation of Africa is dire, both for the church and the larger community. The real challenge is how to develop such leadership. This article provides intentional and practical ways that may lead to the development of the needed leadership. Four-dimensional transformation of people can be planned and carried out both in the church arena and in the surrounding communities. Skills development and transfer can also take place when skilled people from the church work with unskilled people from the community.

  5. Science Applied for the Investigation of Imperial Gate from Eighteenth Century Wooden Church of Nicula Monastery

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    I. Bratu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Part of an indestructible component of any orthodox church, the Imperial Gates represent an important symbol in our cultural heritage. But in many cases the Imperial Gates from the wooden churches were damaged. In order to preserve and restore them, the scientific investigations of the Imperial Gate belonging to Nicula Monastery wooden church were performed by employing nondestructive and destructive methods. The wood essence was established, with its “health” status being investigated by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry thermal analysis. The painting materials employed by popular artists were determined by FTIR and XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as gypsum, calcite (rear background, lead white (Archangel Clothes, lead-minium (Archangel Clothes, leaf, iron oxide (Imperial Gate frame, malachite (green, Prussian blue (blue, orpiment (yellow, aliphatic, ester, and protein (probably egg yolk degradation products. Using similar colors as in the original artwork (resulting from the scientific investigation of the pigments a 3D reconstruction has been performed. The restored Imperial Gates are placed in the old Nicula wooden church, being included into a tourist and religious circuit.

  6. Violence in post-apartheid South Africa and the role of church and theology

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    C.F.C. Coetzee

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is known as one of the most violent countries in the world. Since the seventeenth century, violence has been part of our history. Violence also played a significant role during the years of apartheid and the revolutionary struggle against apartheid. It was widely expected that violence would decrease in a post-apartheid democratic South Africa, but on the contrary, violence has increased in most cases. Even the TRC did not succeed in its goal to achieve reconciliation. In this paper it is argued that theology and the church have a great and significant role to play. Churches and church leaders who supported revolutionary violence against the apartheid system on Biblical “grounds”, should confess their unbiblical hermeneutical approach and reject the option of violence. The church also has a calling in the education of young people, the pastoral care of criminals and victims, in proclaiming the true Gospel to the government and in creating an ethos of human rights.

  7. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Attitudes toward God and the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    This study explored effects of child sexual abuse by priests and other perpetrators on victims' trust in the Catholic Church, priesthood, and their relationship with God. Subjects were adult Catholics who had been sexually abused but not by a priest (n=307) or sexually abused by a priest (n=40) and 1,376 nonabused controls. Results highlight the…

  8. The French state and the church: Socio-historical context, structural conditionality and character of laicism

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    Mladenović Ivica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the author deals with the political and social influences of the relationship between the state and religious communities in France. The first part of the paper is an analysis of historical context and the construction (evolution of laicism in France through its local characteristics, values and social strengths, contributing to its formation. The fact that Catholic Church was one of the main legitimizing pillars of „the old regime“, permanently determined the relationship between church and state, most importantly - it’s subsequent social exclusion under the Republic. The 1789 French revolution in conjunction with the 1905 law on the Separation of church and state, up until present time, have been seen as the most important events in defining the relationship between political and religious entities in France. The second part of the paper continues in outlining the founding logic and principles of the contemporary relationship between religious communities and the French state. The article concludes in suggesting that through its persistence of a purely Laicistic model of state-church affiliation, view of the nation as a community of citizens, Weberian definition of the State, and the acceptance of the public sphere as common space in which communal interests are negated, France today represents an isolated island on the European continent.

  9. Questions of Authenticity after Six Re-restorations of the Wall Paintings in Fjenneslev Church

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Haslund, Ida

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a case involving particularly difficult decisions pertaining to the aesthetic presentation of the Romanesque wall paintings in Fjenneslev Church (Denmark), which have undergone six major re-restorations in the past hundred years. The application of widely acknowledged modern...

  10. Negation and Polarity in the Greek, Gothic, Classical Armenian, and Old Church Slavic Gospels

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    Jared S. Klein

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the comparative syntax of negation in the Greek gospels as well as the Gothic, Classical Armenian, and Old Church Slavic versions translated from the Greek. In addition to the issue of negation per se, I will examine the employment of negative polarity items that occur in the various clause types we will investigate.

  11. Follower-Centric Influences on Sexual Decision Making in a Pentecostal Church Faith Community

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    Elias Mpofu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized participatory action research approaches to construct a follower-centric framework for measuring influences on sexual decision making by youth members of a church organization. Participants were Batswana Pentecostal church members self-reporting on their engagement in pre-marital sex (n = 68, females = 62%; age range 15–23 years; median age = 20.3 years from eight of 26 randomly selected congregations. They completed a multi-stage concept mapping process that included free listing of statements of potential influences on their sexual decisions. They then sorted the statements into groupings similar in meaning to them, and rated the same statements for relative importance to their sexual decisions. Multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis of the data yielded a five cluster solution in which church teachings emerged as most salient to the teenagers’ sexual decision making followed by future orientation, community norms, knowledge about HIV/AIDS and prevention education. While the youth believed to be influenced by religion teachings on primary sexual abstinence, they self-reported with pre-marital sex. This suggests a need for secondary abstinence education with them to reduce their risk for STIs/HIV and unwanted pregnancies. Concept mapping is serviceable to construct frameworks and to identify content of follower-centric influences on sexual decision making by church youth members.

  12. 20 CFR 404.1023 - Ministers of churches and members of religious orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1023 Ministers of churches and members of religious... poverty, the same rule applies to the work you do in the exercise of your duties required by that...

  13. The wall paintings in Tirsted Church: problems of aesthetic presentation after the fourth re-restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brajer, Isabelle Eve; Thillemann, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, numerous interventions were carried out on the wall paintings in Tirsted Church, including four complete re-restorations and many local attempts to preserve deteriorated scenes. During several of these re-restorations the pictorial content was repeatedly altered accor...

  14. Unity and catholicity in the Korean Presbyterian Church: An ecumenical Reformed assessment

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    Jaegeon Ha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available I attempt to find the main causes of the serious disunity in the Presbyterian Church in Korea (PCK, which started as one church but is now divided into more than 100 denominations, as well as a solution to promote the unity of the PCK. This attempt starts with an exegesis of Ephesians, with special reference to Ephesians 4:1�16, to understand the biblical principle on this matter. This article draws on a mature ecclesiology and a mature sense of unity as key concepts. After that, the history of the PCK disunity is briefly described, dealing with four major schisms. Based on this historical investigation, the disunity in the PCK is assessed. In addition, the weak sense of unity and weak ecclesiology of the PCK, which played a role in its disunity, are discussed in view of the confessions of faith, the ministry of the word and the Lord�s Supper, and ecumenical efforts in relation to national and international ecumenical organisations. Lastly, contributory suggestions based on the mature sense of unity are offered to the PCK in particular and the Reformed family and all Christian churches in general.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In my ecumenical Reformed intradisciplinary assessment of unity and catholicity in the PCK, which started as one church but is now divided into more than 100 denominations, I identify the main causes of serious disunity in the PCK, namely a weak sense of unity, immaturity and secularisation.

  15. Managing Dissent in the Catholic Church: A Reinterpretation of the Pastoral Letter on War and Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Reexamines the American National Conference of Catholic Bishops' 1983 Pastoral Letter on War and Peace. Finds that the pastoral letter functioned rhetorically not to foster but to manage dissent, diffusing a radical Catholic challenge to American defense policy and reclaiming the bishops' authority to define Church teachings on war and peace. (SR)

  16. Learning to Be a Woman: Feminist Theological Reflections on Sex Education in Church Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isherwood, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests that sex education in Church schools should address the personal as political through proclaiming the liberating potential of incarnational theology. The author suggests that Christian sex educators should be alert to the construction and commodification of desire and its attendant capitalist implications. While resisting…

  17. Jamaica Higher Education: Utilizing the Benchmarks of Joint Board Teaching Practice at Church Teachers' College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Hyacinth P.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a descriptive case study portraying a teaching-practice program designed to highlight the preparation of student-teachers for teaching practice, using the Joint Board of Teacher Education (JBTE) benchmarks, in a teachers' college in Jamaica. At Church Teachers' College (CTC) 22 informants of mixed gender were selected for the…

  18. A Formalization and Proof of the Extended Church-Turing Thesis -Extended Abstract-

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    Nachum Dershowitz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We prove the Extended Church-Turing Thesis: Every effective algorithm can be efficiently simulated by a Turing machine. This is accomplished by emulating an effective algorithm via an abstract state machine, and simulating such an abstract state machine by a random access machine, representing data as a minimal term graph.

  19. Anonymity in giving in a natural context : an economic field experiment in thirty churches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.

    2003-01-01

    The role of anonymity in giving is examined in a field experiment performed in thirty Dutch churches. For a period of 29 weeks, the means by which offerings are gathered is determined by chance, prescribing for each offering the use of either `closed' collection bags or open collection baskets. When

  20. The church and paediatric HIV care in rural South Africa : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A.J. Norder (Wilma); R.P.H. Peters (Remco); M. Kok (Maarten); S.L. van Elsland (Sabine); H.E. Struthers (Helen); M.A. Tutu (Mpho); A.M. van Furth (Marceline)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractReligion has substantial – positive and negative – influence on South Africa’s HIV context. This qualitative study explored possibilities for positive church engagement in paediatric HIV care in a rural district in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Opinions, attitudes and experiences

  1. The Church of Deaf Sociality: Deaf Churchgoing Practices and "Sign Bread and Butter" in Bangalore, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedner, Michele

    2014-01-01

    This article ethnographically analyzes the practices of deaf young adults in Bangalore, India. As sign language is not used by families, schools, or other institutions, the church is a crucial educational space. Churchgoing provides deaf young adults with opportunities to orient themselves toward other deaf young adults, to develop new ideas of…

  2. Convergent and discriminant validity of religiosity measures among church members and non-members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Peer; Janssen, Jacques; Reitsma, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of religiosity measures among people who are not affiliated to a church is an important prerequisite for its use in religiously heterogeneous populations. This paper provides a confirmatory factor analysis of Intrinsic, Extrinsic and Quest (IEQ) religiosity measures and Glock’s rel

  3. Dreams of an iconic mosque : Spatial and temporal entanglements of a converted church

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekers, D.T.; Tamimi Arab, Pooyan

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the making of iconicity through religious architecture in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Examining the Fatih Mosque housed in a former Catholic church in the city center, we show in what ways the efforts at making this mosque iconic are shaped by the building’s iconic field, by

  4. Thinking beyond Secularism: The Catholic Church and Political Practice in Rural South India

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    Aparna Sundar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article re-opens the debate on secularism in India by looking at a religion and a region that has historically been marginal to this discourse, focusing on the way in which the Catholic Church has historically mediated the relationship between individuals and the state, among the fishing communities of South India. The Catholic Church’s dominant position among the fishing communities, its minority status within India, as well as theological and other shifts that have taken place within the global Church, lead it to articulate a secular, even radical politics as its primary mode of religious engagement. Radical clergy, many from fishing backgrounds, act as both organic and traditional intellectuals in the Gramscian sense, linking the traditional religious concerns of the Church to the secular interests of their parishioners. Likewise, villagers participate in Church-generated associations spaces to secure wider political goals. The paper concludes that certain forms of religious organisation in the public sphere might indeed be compatible with democracy, citizenship, and even secularism.

  5. Ancient Worship Wars: An Investigation of Conflict in Church Music History

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    Michael J. Wood

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to prove that conflict in church music is nothing new. Even in the time of the early church fathers, dissenting views on what were acceptable and unacceptable practices in church music were present. The music of the 2nd century through the 14th century is examined. The method used to find specific conflicts in church music history involved reading early Christian literature on music. When possible, both sides of the conflicts included in the project are presented. However, oftentimes only one side of an argument can be found since there is not an abundant supply of early Christian writings on music. When this is the case, a brief attempt at reconstructing the opposing side is made. The most important resources for this research were James McKinnon’s Music in Early Christian Literature and Oliver Strunk’s Source Readings in Music History: Revised Edition. These were integral to this project as they provided primary sources translated into English.

  6. Keluarga gerejani, an ecclesial family : A catechetical exploration of church-images among Catholics in Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedjoworo, H.

    2013-01-01

    Title: Keluarga gerejani, an ecclesial family Subtitle: A catechetical exploration of church-images among Catholics in Java Author: Hadrianus Tedjoworo (Yogyakarta, 1971) Abstract: The realness images can evoke in the minds of the believers gives rise to an ‘imagerial’ way of apprehending the reali

  7. An Evaluation of Diet and Physical Activity Messaging in African American Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E.; Blake, Christine E.; Thrasher, James F.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The use of faith-based organizations as sites to deliver diet and physical activity interventions is increasing. Methods to assess the messaging environment within churches are limited. Our research aimed to develop and test an objective assessment methodology to characterize health messages, particularly those related to diet and physical…

  8. Some considerations on Transparency, Accountability and Good Governance in Church Finances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2013-01-01

    Also churches and religious communities need to be accountable for the ressources they are taking care of. Transparency and accountability both internally and externally seems inescapable, but also dimensions of good governance are relevant unless freedom of religion sets clear boundaries...

  9. The Effect of Group Differences among Church-Related Youth in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Examines the influence of nationality, ethnicity, language, and beliefs on priority concerns among church related college students in Indonesia (N=122), Malaysia and Singapore (N=341). Results confirm the importance of traditional values with less agreement between groups about peers and adults. Implications for counselors are discussed. (JAC)

  10. Compassion and Grace: Spiritual Gifts and Relations of Exchange in Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauterbach, Karen

    This paper is about gift-giving and relations of exchange in Congolese churches in Kampala, Uganda. It focuses in particular on the moral discourses of providing assistance and help, of giving, and sharing that accompany these relations of exchange. The paper is based on a research project that l...

  11. The orientation as a signature of cultural identity: The historic churches of Lanzarote

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro; Betancort, Maria Antonia Perera; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The orientation of Christian churches is a well-known distinctive feature of their architecture. There is a general tendency to align their apses in the solar range, favoring orientations close to the east (astronomical equinox), although the alignments in the opposite direction, namely, with the apse towards the west, are not unusual. The case of the churches built in northwest Africa before the arrival of Islam is paradigmatic in this regard, and may reflect earlier traditions. The Canary Islands is the western end of this North African cultural koine, so we thought it would be relevant to study a compact set of old churches in one of the islands of the archipelago, choosing to start our project with Lanzarote. We have measured the orientation of a total of 30 churches built prior to 1810, as well as a few buildings of later times, nearly a complete sample of all the island Christian sanctuaries. The analysis of this sample indicates that a definite orientation pattern was followed on the island but, unlike...

  12. The Catholic Church and reproductive health and rights in Timor-Leste: contestation, negotiation and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Esther

    2015-01-01

    In Timor-Leste, high fertility, high maternal mortality and low levels of contraceptive prevalence demonstrate the importance of exploring perceptions, policies and practices around reproductive health and rights. This paper explores the influence of the Catholic Church on reproductive decision-making at different levels of policy and practice. Utilising a feminist qualitative research methodology, in-depth interviews were conducted with a range of participants including nuns and priests, Timorese women and men of different ages and backgrounds and local and national stakeholders working in reproductive health and women's rights. Findings reveal that the Church is reported to play a significant role in reproductive health and rights decision-making at all levels of society, from policy-making to the reproductive decisions made by individual Timorese women and men. Nevertheless, the translation of Church teachings into practice, particularly by nuns, priests and Timorese men and women, reveal a range of attitudes and opinions; some that support and others that contest official Catholic doctrine. In light of the significant influence of the Timorese Catholic Church on policy and practice at many levels of society, there is a need to prioritise the development of rights-based strategies to improve reproductive health services in Timor-Leste.

  13. OCTOPUS--A Church-Based Sex Education Program for Teens and Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacknik, Michele; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes OCTOPUS (Open Communication Regarding Teenagers or Parents Understanding of Sexuality), which was established as a forum for family discussion within a church setting. The program was designed to enhance communication skills, convey information, and help teenagers acquire appropriate morals and values. Feedback from four churches…

  14. Pretending to Be Japanese: Artistic Play in a Japanese-American Church and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2008-01-01

    With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…

  15. Education and Training Initiatives at the Central Methodist Church Refugee House in Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausigere, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Zimbabwean economic migrants and political refugees have been given refuge and provided with shelter at the Central Methodist Church (CMC) Refugee House, in central Johannesburg. The refugees have successfully initiated learning and training programmes which resulted in the establishment of a combined school, namely "St. Albert Street Refugee…

  16. Designing the Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls Church-Based Diabetes Prevention Program through a Participatory Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Amber; Confair, Amy R.; Flamm, Laura; Goheer, Attia; Graham, Karlene; Muindi, Mwende; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls (HBHS) program aims to reduce diabetes risk among urban African Americans by creating healthy food and physical activity environments within churches. Participant engagement supports the development of applicable intervention strategies by identifying priority concerns, resources, and opportunities.…

  17. ANALYSIS OF JOINTS AND ORNAMENTS OF THE WOODEN CHURCHES STRUCTURES IN MARAMUREȘ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela COMAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of wooden joints and ornaments used in construction of wooden churches built in XVIII-XIX centuries in Maramureș County, Romania. In the structure of wooden churches, Romanian masters revealed the wood - natural material and representative of Romanian culture and civilization of the Carpathian, faith-Christian monotheistic, Dacian population subsequently the only Roman people of the Carpathian basin which has cultivated such a faith, unlike existing polytheistic beliefs of the ancient peoples, woodworking skills that manifested from the creation of wood joints to ornaments and floral and geomorphic with sacred meaning to human existence. Wood joints, besides proving refinement and craftsmanship, good knowledge of proportions, showed the inclination to achieve balance of form - material - requests and tension accumulated in the structure of the wooden churches. This paper aims to present the triad: material - form - resistance (mechanical and over time the most important joints in wood used in the structure of the churches of Maramureș.

  18. Church music in the light of national legislation in the principality of Serbia and the Kingdom of Serbia

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    Peno Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Officially, the Serbian Orthodox Church enjoyed a legally guaranteed status throughout the 19th century and Orthodox faith was considered to be prevalent both in the Principality of Serbia and in the Kingdom of Serbia. Nevertheless, after gaining its autonomy within the Constantinople Patriarchate in 1831 (under whose forced jurisdiction it had been since 1766, Knez Milos’s attitude and a number of state provisions led to the unsparing diminishing of the Church authority together with frequent subversions of the Church Canon law. Introduction of the constitutional and legislative framework for the activities of the Serbian church, the enforcement of institutionalized mechanisms of control, and above all, direct interference of the State authorities in the elections of Church hierarchs and their activities, marked relations of the Church and the State in the 19th century. “Might makes right” rule was always on the State side. Investigations so far have least examined those provisions of the Government concerning general and theological education, in which church music also found its place. Presentation and analysis of the facts about the beginnings of organized music education go in favor of the existing findings on concurrencies and discrepancies in two cultural policies - that of the State and the one of the Church. Attitudes of the Sovereign and the Government towards the educational process, so vital during the decades of the State formation, are also indicative for affirmation of chanting practice and music art in general, as are (non- conflicting interests between the prelates and distinguished public figures on one, and those in charge at the ministries on the other side. This paper presents all relevant government legislations regulating religious and music education at regular and theological schools. Attempts of the Church dignitaries and learned Serbian musicians to raise the level of music culture with the help of the State

  19. Reformed Churches in South Africa’s strategies for poverty reduction in urban communities

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    Motshine A. Sekhaulelo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates and outlines the strategies, which the Reformed Churches in South Africa (RCSA can employ for poverty alleviation in the South African urban communities. By RCSA, the author refers to the local churches that constitute a familyof churches or church organisation. It is important to note that, historically, the churches stood at the forefront of giving freely to the poor, caring for widows, taking in destitute orphans, visiting the sick, and caring for the dying. Despite this long and often appreciated legacy of support for the poor and the needy, the church ceased or slowed to provide such ministry. This was probably due to the emphasis on the ’social gospel’ in liberal theology,which many churches began to view with deep suspicion. In talking about the church’s stance towards poverty, it should also be noted that, historically, the poor have suffered due to those churches that, without warrant, preach the health, wealth and prosperity gospel, incorrectly stating that God wants everyone to be equally rich. By promoting false hope about the prospects for overnight success through prayer and tithing, some of these churches take advantage of a vulnerable congregation that is often desperate for an improvement in their economic circumstances. This article investigates not only the complex of poverty and inequality in the South African (SA urban community, but also the prophetic calling of the RCSA with respect to poverty today. The conclusion arrived at is that poverty and inequality persist in the urban community whilst the church, both as institution and organism, should be able to study and respond positively to the dynamics involved in urban poverty.Die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid Afrika (GKSA se strategieë vir armoedeverligtingin stedelike gebiede. Hierdie artikel ondersoek en skets die strategieë wat die GKSA kan benut om armoede in stedelike gebiede te verlig. Die GKSA verwys na plaaslike kerke wat

  20. Geoconservation evaluation of the sites of Miocene sedimentary rocks in the quarries of north-eastern Slovenia

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    Mojca Planjšek

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the sites of Miocene sedimentary rocks in north-eastern Slovenia. Due to dense vegetation cover and consequently rare rock outcrops mostly abandoned quarries were elaborated. According to evaluation criteria defined by Nature Conservation Act and Decree on the categories of valuable natural features, out of 28 examined locations 6 were selected as important from the nature conservation point of view. These sites contain mainly the fossilferous lithothamnian limestone and they are proposed to be listed as valuable geological natural features. The quarries Osek – oolite limestone and sandstone site and Zgornji Duplek 1 –lithothamnian limestone siteare proposed as geological natural values of national importance. The lithothamnian rocks used to be importantbuilding stone. Nowadays we find it in some of important cultural monuments like castles, churches and other cultural monuments. In this respect some of the sites of Miocene sedimentary rocks have significant cultural value as well.

  1. From the nm to the Mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, I. M.

    2003-12-01

    Tectonic models for the evolution of an orogen start at the Mm scale, and use field work on smaller subunits at the km scale and rocks collected at the m scale. At the mm scale, minerals are identified, analyzed by mass spectrometry, their "cooling ages" assigned to a specific closure temperature, a cooling rate attributed to a particular tectonic regime, and a large body of self-referential literature is the product of an oiled machinery. Problems become apparent if one attempts to harmonize mm-scale science with the nasty little details at even smaller scales. Atoms are invisible to the naked eye (unlike the minerals mentioned above) and their actual behavior is, or was, only accessible to indirect argumentations and simplified calculations. Increased computing power now allows calculating the transport of atoms in a crystal from the Schr”dinger equation: results do not fit 19th century continuum physics for infinitely dilute solutions (Fick's and Arrhenius' "laws"). Moreover, improved nanochemical analyses allow characterizing the supposedly homogeneous mineral matrix. TEM images show how layers or chains in pristine minerals are substituted in a non-periodic way by alteration products. EMP analyses show the almost ubiquitous presence of razor-sharp boundaries rather than Erf profiles. Disequilibrium recrystallization textures thus prevail over diffusive reequilibration; diffusion sensu stricto is shown to be a much slower process than heterochemical replacement. Alterability sequences are well known to surface scientists: e.g. halite, olivine, biotite, muscovite, zircon. Such sequences are reflected in the isotopic retentivity. The link only becomes clear at the nm scale: isotopic exchange occurs during the replacement reactions that affect all rocks on their retrograde P-T evolution. This is sufficient to explain why zircons record higher isotopic ages than muscovites, which in turn undergo less isotope exchange than biotites etc. While there is a vague

  2. CRITERIA FOR ROCK ENGINEERING FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUDeren; ZHANGYuzhuo

    1995-01-01

    A great number of underground rock projects are maintained in the rock mass which is subject to rock damage and failure development. In many cases, the rock. engineering is still under normal working conditions even though rock is already fails to some extent. This paper introduces two different concepts: rock failure and rock engineering failure. Rock failure is defined as a mechanical state under which an applicable characteristic is changed or lost.However, the rock engineering failure is an engineering state under which an applicable function is changed or lost. The failure of surrounding rocks is the major reason of rock engineering failure. The criterion of rock engineering failure depends on the limit of applicable functions. The rock engineering failure state possesses a corresponding point in rock failure state. In this paper, a description of rock engineering failure criterion is given by simply using a mechanical equation or expression. It is expected that the study of rock engineering failure criterion will be an optimal approach that combines research of rock mechanics with rock engineering problems.

  3. Power from the sun. Guideline for photovoltaics for church congregations of the Protestant Church of Palatinate. 3. ed.; Strom aus der Sonne. Leitfaden zur Photovotaik fuer Kirchengemeinden der Evangelischen Kirche der Pfalz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Thomas

    2009-05-15

    The increased utilization of solar energy is an alternative to the combustion of fossil fuels. Photovoltaic systems on roofs contribute to a reduction of the global warming. The roofs of church buildings offer good opportunities for a environmentally friendly power generation using a photovoltaic power plant. Church congegrations can invest in photovoltaic systems, and thus produce electricity. Church congregations can also rent out suitable roof surfaces to a provider of photovoltaic systems. In both cases, the money collected may be used for municipal purposes. This brochure answers questions that may arise in the design of photovoltaic systems. The brochure also contains a model contract for the leasing of roof surfaces.

  4. A critical historical analysis of the South African Catholic Church's HIV/AIDS response between 2000 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Stephen Muoki

    2010-12-01

    The South African HIV and AIDS experience is unique in many ways considering the country's delayed and robust epidemic, the apartheid context, and successive HIV-denialist government regimes. While the struggle for democracy may have overshadowed the enormity of the unfolding HIV epidemic, there was also a delay in constructive religious responses to it early on. In 1990, HIV/AIDS was declared a Catholic institutional focus, and by 2000 the Church had established the largest system of care and treatment in the country besides that of the government. However, the Catholic Church suffered severe criticism on account of its anti-condom policy to HIV prevention. As a result, the institutional Church underwent both organisational and ideological changes in an attempt to adapt to the contextual challenges brought about by HIV and AIDS. Informed by archival collections and oral sources, this article endeavours to critically analyse the HIV/AIDS-related care and treatment activities of the Catholic Church in South Africa between 2000 and 2005. It argues that the complex interplay between HIV and AIDS, the controversy about condom use, and the availability of antiretroviral therapy, accompanied by church activists' multiple engagements with these issues, changed the Church's institutional HIV/AIDS response at that time, in effect transforming the Catholic Church in South Africa into a substantial health asset and agent. However, its stance against the use of condoms for HIV prevention, informed by a larger religious tradition on sexuality, proved to be a health liability.

  5. On the Publishing of the Collections of Documents on the History of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1920–1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Kiseleva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The review analyzes the collections of documents on anti-church policy in the Don in 1920–1930s, which were published in 2013–2015. They talk about the seizure of the church property, the church split and the closing of churches and prayer houses. Compilers, L.V. Tabunshchikova and A.V. Shadrina, have discovered the hundred of sources, prepared for publication and added a carefully prepared scientific-reference apparatus. The Collections of documents represent a panorama of unstudied aspects of the Soviet policy implementation towards the Church in the Don region.

  6. Where is the church on Monday? Awakening the church to the theology and practice of ministry and mission in the marketplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion A. Forster

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research by the Call42 group has shown that South African Christians experience that they are not adequately prepared or equipped for Christian living and discipleship in the world of work – here called the marketplace. This article has argued for the importance of a rediscovery of a theology of work that can empower and equip the church and individual Christians for ministry in the marketplace. The article traces why such a theological deficiency exists in the South African church by considering areas such as an inadequate theology of work and mission, a dualism between faith and work, and an unbalanced emphasis on the role of clergy and a lesser focus on the role of the laity in themissio Dei. Having considered these challenges to the mission and theological identity of the church, the article discusses the three general theological views of the church in South Africa as presented by Smit and adapted by Forster. It considers how the church could become an agent of mission and transformation in the marketplace in each of these three forms. The article comes to the conclusion that the church will need to revisit its missional theology, refocuses its efforts on broader society, and empowers and equips its members for ministry in the marketplace in order to be faithful in partnering with God in the missio Dei.Waar is die kerk op Maandag? Ontwaking van die kerk tot die teologie en praktyk vanbediening en sending in die markplein. Onlangse navorsing deur die Call42 groep het bevind dat Suid-Afrikaanse Christene ervaar dat hulle nie voldoende voorbereid en toegerus is vir die Christelike lewe en dissipelskap in die arbeidsmark - hier genoem die markplein – nie. Hierdie artikel poog om aan te toon dat ’n herontdekking van ’n teologie van werk belangrik is ten einde die kerk in die algemeen asook individuele Christene te bemagtig en toe te rus vir die bediening in die markplein. Hierdie artikel poog dus om die kwessie van die sodanige

  7. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  8. Art on Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed to take the breath away from visitors. The area has another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  9. Art on Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed totake the breath away from visitors. The areahas another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  10. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  11. Days of Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN

    2004-01-01

    FROM last October 1 st to 3rd, at the foot of Fragrant Hill, a suburban Beijing resort famous for its flaming maple leaves in autumn, more than 20,000 rock fans indulged themselves in music for three days.

  12. Writing Rock Music Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donal

    1980-01-01

    Suggests ways student reviewers of rock music groups can write better reviews. Among the suggestions made are that reviewers occasionally discuss the audience or what makes a particular group unique, support general comment with detail, and avoid ecstatic adjectives. (TJ)

  13. A contribution to the study of architecture of the monastery church of St. Archangel Michael in Prilep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korunovski Sasho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with architecture of the one of the most significant churches in the Prilep region that was built in the years around 1280 as a foundation of John, the megas chartoularious of the West. The main focus is on the typological concept of the church, and its’ unique combination of a two-domed and two-storeyed structure. In the survey the particular elements of the church structure are elaborated with a reference to the most striking structures that bear such elements in the architecture of the Byzantine sphere of influence.

  14. Rock avalanches on glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Shugar, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines relations between rock avalanches and the glaciers on which they are deposited. I have attempted to understand a geophysical phenomenon from two viewpoints: sedimentology and glaciology. The contributions are both methodological, and practical. I have used a GIS to quantify debris sheet geomorphology. A thorough characterization of rock avalanche debris is a necessary step in understanding the flow mechanics of large landslide. I have also developed a technique for solvin...

  15. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  16. The Byzantine Church of ``40 Holy Martyrs'' in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria: Pigments and Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, E.; Zorba, T.; Pavlidou, E.; Angelova, S.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The "St. 40 Martyrs" church is the most famous medieval building in Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria. It is located in Assenova mahala, just next to Tsarevets. It was built and its walls were painted during the reign of Bulgarian king Ivan Assen II after the victory against Epyrus despot Theodoros Comninos (1230 AD). It consists of two buildings - a six-column basilica and another, smaller building on its western wall, which was built later. During the presence of the Ottoman Turks, maybe until the first half of the 18th century, the church remained christian. When it was converted to a mosque, all the christian symbols in it were destroyed. The archeological researches on site were initiated in 1969. As it is clear, the 40 Martyrs church is a historical monument of culture with great significance. The church had murals, from the earlier period, but in the following years and especially during the Ottoman period, the church has suffered many and different destructions. Nevertheless, the very few pieces of murals that are rescued till nowadays provide important information for the technique and the pigments that were used on its wall paintings. In the present work, twelve series of samples from the wall paintings were studied in order to characterize the materials and the technique used for church iconography. The study was based on the micro-analytical techniques of the Fourier Transform Infrared micro-spectroscopy (μs-FTIR), the Optical Microscopy and the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS). In the FTIR spectra of all pigments the characteristic peaks of calcite were detected, confirming the use of fresco technique for the creation of murals. The combination of FTIR spectroscopy and SEM-EDS analysis, reveal the existence of lapis-lazuli for the blue color, green earth for the green color, cinnabar for the red color, calcite for the white color and carbon black for the black color. Moreover, in other chromatic layers

  17. Scottish influences upon the Reformed churches in north-west England, c. 1689-1829:a study of the ministry within the Congregational and Presbyterian churches in Lancashire, Cumberland and Westmorland

    OpenAIRE

    Westaway, Jonathan Howard

    1996-01-01

    This thesis examines developments within the ministry of the Congregational churches of the north-west of England in the period 1689-1829, with a number of aims in mind. In focusing on the role of Scottish-born and Scottish-trained ministers within these churches the attempt had been made to get away from the narrow national and denominational dogmas that have constrained our understanding of English Congregationalism. In line with recent historiographical attempts to produce historical expla...

  18. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  19. The busts of the church hierarchs in the altar of the virgin Peribleptos in Ohrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grozdanov Cvetan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author writes about the seventeen busts of the church hierarchs painted in the central part of the altar area above the figures of officiating Church Fathers. Starting from the north side, there are depictions of St. Dionysios, St. Hierotheos, St. Michael the Confessor, St. Eutychios, St. Paul the Confessor, St. Germanos, St. Tarasios, St. Methodios, St. James the Brother of God, St. Silvester, St. Clement of Rome, St. Metrophanes, St. John the Almsgiver, St. Meletios, St. Epiphanios, St. Andrew of Crete and St. Amphilochios. The fact that the central position in the frieze of busts is occupied by St. James Adelphotheos points to the significance of Jerusalem, James' devotion to Christ and the aposties' decision to elect him as the first bishop of Jerusalem. Other monuments of Byzantine painting are mentioned in which an important role was attached to this bishop. The grouping of the Constantinopolitane patriarchs around St. James Adelphotheos (St. Germanos, St. Tarasios, St. Methodios is considered in the context of the victory over the iconoclasts, after 843. Among them is the patriarch of Constantinople, St. Paul the Confessor, while on the other side St. Metrophanes is painted. This article also contains an excursus about St. Germanos of Constantinople, with a description of his cult in the region of Prespa. Author mentions that among the popes, St. Clement of Rome was widely revered in the Ohrid diocese, by virtue of the fact that St. Clement of Ohrid received the same monastic name as that Roman pontiff, and also because of the transfer of his relics from Cherson in the Crimea to Rome, by the brothers from Thessalonica, SS. Cyril and Methodios. The author refers to the figures of St. Michael the Confessor and St. Eutyhios, expressing the assumption that St. Michael, bishop of Synada, was painted alongside of St. Eutyhios, patriarch of Constantinople, in the effort to preserve the memory of the painters of the Ohrid church, Michael

  20. Christ Apostolic Church women in dialogue with 1 Corinthians 14:34�36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Folarin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The command for women to be silent in church worship in 1 Corinthians 14 has generated much debate. After examining the controversies, this article has adopted the view that the sanction in verses 34�35 was a punishment for certain local offences of the female Christians in Corinth. The contention of the article is that interpretations of the text which criticise women �talking to the congregation� when under inspiration in worship services, and which universalise such local rules are unfair. The article attempts to correct the sexist interpretation of 1 Corinthians 14:34�36 by re-interpreting the text in the context of women founding new assemblies, preaching, teaching, and leading congregational prayers in the Christ Apostolic Church (CAC, a Nigerian initiated Pentecostal denomination.

  1. First-time installation of a floor heating mat in a church

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, E.

    Floor heating mats operate at a very low flow temperature of about 30/sup 0/C. This results in a considerable reduction of transfer losses and allows for the utilization of both renewable energy sources obtaining at a low level and waste heat. Floor heating mats need no costly and high-piling floor structure and are simply spread on to the foot fall-sound insulation. The system has been used successfully for heating a church in Belgium. The floor of the church was covered with Thermoflex heating elements consisting of PVC-coated Trevira fabric equipped with spacing fixators. The covered surface of 187 sqm was subdivided into 5 separately switchable circuits. A 30 kW low-temperature boiler was employed. The heating water with added antifreeze circulates throughout the total covered surface. Heating element costs amounted to DM 23,000, i.e. about DM 120 per sqm.

  2. Space Scouts: a collaboration between university researchers and African American churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Joel; Kadela Collins, Karen; Bailey-Burch, Brendolyn; Walker-Thoth, Daphne; Pancella, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Space Scouts, funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and produced by the Missouri Institute of Mental Health (MIMH), is a three-episode series of media tools designed to teach fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children from African American churches about the science of drug addiction. This article examines the effectiveness of the principles of practice for community-based participatory research used to create Space Scouts. Academic researchers at MIMH collaborated with an inter-faith agency-Committed Caring Faith Communities (CCFC)-and solicited feedback from members of the target audience, their pastors, and other church staff, substance abuse researchers, and curriculum development specialists in order to ensure that the final program would meet the needs of all involved parties.

  3. A Voyage of Christian Medieval Astronomy: Symbolic, Ritual and Political Orientation of Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César

    2015-05-01

    According to the words of the early Christian writers, churches should be oriented, i.e., the priest should be facing east (oriens) while praying. However, this prescription offers a wide diversity of interpretations. This review aims at summarizing the work done so far regarding Church orientation with special emphasis on the work carried out in the last decades. A general eastern orientation appears common to all areas and epochs although it is far from clear what 'oriens' was intended. Some possibilities are explored. In contrast to the common picture of eastern orientations possible regional variations appear. It is discussed if these variations are due to local interpretations of the general rule or if they stem from the different methodological approaches carried out by the researchers. In those cases where a regional variation could be identified possible symbolic, ritual or political aspects are explored and contrasted.

  4. Does John 17:11b, 21−23 refer to church unity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Malan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In ecumenical circles, John 17:11b, 21–23 has been understood as Jesus’ prayer for church unity, be it confessional or structural. This article questioned such readings and conclusions from historical, literary and sosio-cultural viewpoints. The Fourth Gospel’s language is identified as ’antilanguage’ typical of an ’antisociety’, like that of the Hermetic, Mandean and Qumran sects. Such a society is a separate entity within society at large, but opposes it. Read as a text of an antisociety, John 17:11b, 21–23 legitimises the unity of the separatist Johannine community, which could have comprised several such communities. This community opposed the Judean religion, Gnosticism, the followers of John the Baptist and three major groups in early Christianity. As text from the canon, this Johannine text legitimates tolerance of diversity rather than the confessional or structural unity of the church.

  5. The Romanian Schools and Churches in Balkan Peninsula. 1864-1948. Archives Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Berciu-Drăghicescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article on Romanian schools and churches, in the Balkan Peninsula, over the period 1918-1948 is based on the unprecedented documents identified in the funds preserved in the Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in the Central Historic National Archives in Bucharest. The author has studied and selected the unprecedented documents that had the most important significance for the purpose of presenting the evolution of the school and churche situation of the Romanian communities situated at the south of the Danube, starting from year 1864, when the first school was established in Tarnova, (Macedonia and up to 1948 when the Romanian state abandoned the work unveiled by ruler Al. Ioan Cuza. The article presents this situation, very dramatic, of the Romanian communities from the Balkans based on the documents of Archives.

  6. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P.K.; Hansen, Tessa Kvist

    A new mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults was tested in a full scale experiment in Annisse Church, DK. The mortar consists of perlite, a highly porous aggregate, mixed with slaked lime. These materials are compatible with the fired clay bricks and the lime mortar joints....... The lambda-value of the insulation mortar is 0.08 W/m K or twice the lambda-value for mineral wool. The water vapour permeability is equal to a medieval clay brick, and it has three times higher capacity for liquid water absorption. The mortar was applied to the top side of the vaults in a thickness of 10 cm......, and covered by 10 mm lime plaster, reinforced with cattle hair. This assembly can carry the weight of a person, working with maintenance of the roof. Climate measurements confirmed excellent properties in regards to both moisture transport and thermal insulation. Condensation did not occur at any time...

  7. NEW GEOPOLITICS, CHURCHES AND PEOPLE WITHOUT RELIGION: RELIGIOUS ANARCHY IN BRASIL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pereira dos Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a synthesis of our doctoral thesis in human geography, defended at the University of São Paulo. What are the relationships between geopolitics and religion? Our hypothesis held that churches make use of geopolitics to maintain and expand the "religious capital". On the other hand, the geographical analysis of the Brazilian reality identifies a slow and fruitful process of metamorphosis of beliefs and spiritual emancipation through the growth of the religious population without religion. This process occurs without the government of the churches. Based on the ideas of geoethic and mutual support, it is argued that the existence of the population without religion represents religious anarchy in Brazil.

  8. Effects and impact of witchcraft on Sotho Reformed Churches and the Biblical view of witchcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the effects and impact of witchcraft on members of the Basotho Reformed Church who ascribe to witchcraft. From the literature, it is clear that some members of the Basotho Reformed Church practise various forms of witchcraft. Some Christians do not directly involve themselves with practices linked to witchcraft but do participate in healing practices. This article highlights a number of such instances and provides a number of guidelines to churchgoers who are adhering to practices of witchcraft. These guidelines should be relevant to them when they are reflecting on their relationship with the Lord with the aim to live in obedience to God�s Word.

  9. ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF CHURCHES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN SETTLEMETS. STUDY CASE: IASI CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Georgiana PARASCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is not wrong said that monasteries and churches were one of the elements that led to the development of human settlements in Iasi, especially the city of Iasi. Most churches/monasteries from the feudal period, received from princes / noblemen vast areas of land in order to develop economically, so buildings can survive in time, but also the administrators. Gradually, this lands got to be populated by those who worked and eventually they built houses to live closer to the land they worked on. Subsequently, these small settlements led to the formation of rural settlements and with time they gained an urban character. Today, we have reached the stage where these religious buildings have grown importance in the development of tourism, attracting tourists from around the country and abroad.

  10. A multilingual church leader for a multilingual world: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coetzee-Van Rooy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The world is increasingly becoming more multilingual. South Africa has a long history of multilingualism. In the post-1994 South Africa, integrated organisations like churches where individual and organisational multilingualism are prevalent are growing. Previous and current studies of language use in integrated congregations indicate that multilingualism is a challenge to church leaders. In post-1994 integrated churches in South Africa where multilingualism is prevalent, congregations can foster innovative functional multilingual arrangements to benefit their ministry. However, evidence from research indicates that church leaders struggle to make functional multilingual arrangements and often monolingual English services are offered instead. The multilingual abilities and willingness of church leaders to foster functional multilingual arrangements for their churches is a core factor in this matter. The ability of church leaders to foster effective communication in a linguistically complex setting is important in the general interest of successful evangelisation. In this article, a case study approach is used to explore the latent potential present in the multilingual repertoire of a church leader to foster a functionally multilingual context in his congregation. The multilingual repertoire of a church leader is described and related to his perceptions of its usefulness to ministry as a profession. Descriptions of this nature are important in a context where the abilities and willingness of ministers to foster multilingual congregations have been acknowledged as core factors that determine the success of implementation. Improving the understanding of the nature of the multilingual repertoires of ministers would enable educators of ministers to as certain how these resources could be activated to enhance ministry in the post-1994 South Africa. The main findings from this case study are that the multilingual repertoire of this church leader is

  11. An oral history of the early years of Christ Church College, Canterbury

    OpenAIRE

    Antonini, F.

    2012-01-01

    Student experiences of Higher Education are playing an increasingly important role in both educational and historical research. In particular, the adoption of an ‘oral history’ methodology in writing commemorative histories of colleges and universities offers unique insights into their life and culture. For the Golden Jubilee Year of Canterbury Christ Church University, a series of narrative interviews has been conducted with the first members of the institution, which began life as a teacher...

  12. Characterisation of the mural paintings from the Misericordia Church of Odemira (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Valadas, Sara; Tavares, Deolinda; João COROADO; Silva, António; Pedro, Jorge; Mirão, José; Candeias, António

    2008-01-01

    Several mortars from mural paintings were collected from the Misericórdia Church of Odemira and analysed by using different techniques namely X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis with differential thermal analysis, SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, CHNS elemental analysis and chemical analysis. Microfragments of paint layers were collected and analysed by microchemical analysis. The results showed that the mortars are aerial lime mortars with siliceous aggregates and that the pigments us...

  13. Separation of Church and State and the First Amendment: A Historical Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    first draft which he gave to, among other people, his Attorney General Levi Lincoln for review . In reading the draft as well as his note to Lincoln...authority be sprung, since it is 8 ecclesiastical , it ought to be confined within the bounds of the Church, nor can it in any manner be...and State.” University of Toledo Law Review , vol. 38., 1141. 63. Rosen, Katcoff v. Marsh, 1145. 64. Wills [Wills, Head and Heart, 8.] citing Roger

  14. Contemporary challenges to the Church Mission from the perspective of post-modern art and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Istodor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The secular challenges coming from postmodern art and postmodern technology constitute a serious challenge to be addressed by the mission and life of the Church. The distortion of the Christian Orthodox teaching and the blasphemous trends coming from the contemporary art scene is adding to the distortion of man as God’s special creation from the point of view of genetic engineering, biotechnology, and artificial intelligence, as the core elements of God’s empowerment of man through technology.

  15. Comparison between In-situ recordings and Auralizations for Mosques and Byzantine Churches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Christoffer A.; Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2003-01-01

    The CAHRISMA project (Conservation of the Acoustical Heritage by the Revival and Identification of the Sinan's Mosques Acoustics) investigates, among other things, the acoustics in some of the old churches and mosques in Istanbul. The present paper deals with acoustic computer simulations and in ...... and in particular comparison between In-situ recordings and auralization obtained from simulations carried out in the Odeon program. Three of the rooms in the project -Sokullu, Süleymaniye and Saint Irene, were compared....

  16. Interview with Members of the Good Shepherd Episcopal Church, February 13, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Cannady, Gloria Wesley; Cardwell, Gloria Mosby; Dabney, Patricia P.; Haythe, Dolores Johnson; Witt, Helen P.; Salmon, Nina Vest

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Nina Salmon conducted this oral history interview with members of the Good Shepherd Episcopal Church – Mrs. Gloria Cannady, Mrs. Gloria Cardwell, Mrs. Patricia Dabney, Mrs. Dolores Haythe, and Mrs. Helen Witt – to inform her work on the unintended consequences of the racial integration of the Episcopal diocese of Southwestern Virginia. This interview underpins the research outlined in Dr. Salmon's dissertation, “Paved with Good Intentions: The Road to Racial Unity in the Episcopal Diocese...

  17. An assessment of the management skills required of ministers in the Reformed Churches of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Grobler

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A congregation is not a business, and to manage it as such would be inappropriated. Although the church is primarily invis- ible and spiritual by nature, in this world it is functioning as an institution which must be managed efficiently and effectively to ensure that everything is done successfully and in good order. A major part of the responsibility to ensure order and effective- ness rests on the shoulders of the minister. The training of as- piring ministers in the Reformed Churches of South Africa does not involve specific training in managing and leading an organi- sation. This fact might leave them vulnerable, especially in the earlier stages of their careers.  Although some people are blessed with natural skills and ta- lents regarding management and leadership, it has been pro- ven that management skills required to manage an organisation successfully can be acquired by means of study and training.  An empirical study was performed to determine whether training in management could assist ministers in the execution of their calling. A questionnaire was sent to all the ministers of the Re- formed Churches of South Africa regarding the scope of circum- stances in a congregation which can be compared with other organisations, as well as the minister’s role in managing the situations.  The research concludes with a recommendation that considera- tion should be given to include a course on management in the training syllabus of aspiring ministers. Furthermore, it is sugges- ted that this course be developed specifically taking into ac- count the background and circumstances of the Reformed Churches of South Africa, and should not be generic like the course which is included for Baccalaureus Commercii or Mas- ters of Business Administration (MBA students.

  18. Placing and displacing martyrdom : martyr-making in the Protestant Church in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sang Do

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the phenomenon of making martyrs in the Protestant Church in Korea (PCK) especially the relationship between the institution and the designation. Tracing the historical development of ideology of martyrdom linguistically and semantically from the pre-Constantinian base-line, the writer points out that martyrdom is not a fixed or universal concept but is variously employed in different times, settings, and places to justify, legitimate and memorialise a ...

  19. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeota, Judith A; Napier, Julia E; Armstrong, Douglas L; Riethoven, Jean-Jack; Rogers, Douglas G

    2009-07-01

    Seven juveniles and 3 adults from a closed group of 19 rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis) housed in a zoo's indoor rock exhibit died or were euthanized after developing blepharoconjunctivitis and orofacial ulcers over a 2-week period. Histopathologic examination of dermal ulcers and ulcerated tongues revealed amphophilic to basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells bordering ulcers. Epithelial cells with inclusion bodies were often characterized by cytomegaly and karyomegaly, and many cells had formed syncytia. Examination of inclusion bodies in tongue epithelium by transmission electron microscopy revealed icosahedral nucleocapsids, approximately 80-95 nm in diameter, with morphologic features consistent with herpesvirus. Cytopathic effect (CPE) typical of alphaherpesvirus infection was seen in bovine turbinate, equine dermal, and Vero cell monolayers after inoculation with homogenates of the skin lesions, but CPE was not seen after inoculation onto Madin-Darby canine kidney or swine testicle cell monolayers. Polymerase chain reaction analysis using degenerate primers that targeted a portion of the herpesvirus polymerase gene generated a product of approximately 227 base pairs. The product was cloned, sequenced, and then analyzed using BLAST. At the nucleotide level, there was 86%, 77%, and 76% shared identity with Eidolon herpesvirus 1, Human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and Cercopithecine herpesvirus 2, respectively. Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes have not been characterized. The data presented in the current study suggest that a novel alphaherpesvirus caused the lesions seen in these rock hyraxes. The molecular characteristics of this virus would tentatively support its inclusion in the genus Simplexvirus.

  20. Indicators of the church in John’s metaphor of the vine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Fourie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to answer the question of what belongs to the essence of the church, as God intended it to be, by identifying certain indicators of the essence of the church through a study of one of the central metaphors of the New Testament: the vine in the Gospel of John. Through structural analyses, commentary and metaphorical analyses, several indicators of unity as part of the essence of the church emerge in this metaphor. These indicators are the primacy (or authority of Christ, trinitarian balance, equality, interdependence, inclusivity, growth and unity (in diversity.Hierdie artikel poog om die volgende vraag te beantwoord: Wat behoort tot die essensie van kerkwees soos God dit bedoel het? Dit word gedoen deur sekere aanwysers van die essensie van kerkwees te identifiseer vanuit ’n studie van een van die essensiële metafore vir kerkwees in die Nuwe Testament, naamlik die Wynstok in die Evangelie van Johannes. Deur middel van struktuuranalise, kommentaar en metaforiese analise kom verskeie eenheidsaanwysers as deel van die essensie van kerkwees in hierdie metafoor na vore. Hierdie aanwysers is die hoër gesag (of outoriteit van Christus, die balans van die Drie-eenheid, gelykheid, interafhanklikheid, inklusiwiteit, groei en eenheid (in diversiteit.

  1. Creating and refining boundaries--church splitting among Pentecostal Vietnamese migrants in Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüwelmeier, Gertrud

    2013-06-01

    In many parts of the world, Pentecostalism is becoming the fastest growing religious movement. As a result of migration, people from Asia, Africa and Latin America carry religious ideas and practices across borders, in other cases, migrants establish religious networks in the diaspora. However, while embracing newcomers from various backgrounds, Pentecostal believers constantly cross cultural boundaries by incorporating people from different ethnic, national and language backgrounds. While Pentecostal charismatic practitioners blurr boundaries in many situations, simultaneously, they create 'bright boundaries' by rejecting 'traditional' religious practices, imagined as the Other of Pentecostalism and thus to be eliminated. By referring to the concept of boundaries (Barth 1969; Alba (Ethnic and Racial Studies 1:20-69, 2005)) this article argues that charismatic Pentecostal Christianity, alongside its embracing practices with regard to social, ethnic and political boundaries, generates religious boundaries: First, church members reject "traditional" religious practices such as ancestor veneration and spirit possession, practices migrants carry across borders. Second, Pentecostal believers create boundaries towards those who split from the church. By exploring the ambiguities of migrant converts, I will investigate, how some of them subvert and reject control and authority exerted by religious leaders. Therefore, this article, based on ethnographic fieldwork among Vietnamese Pentecostalists, contributes to widely underresearched practices of boundary making and church splitting in the diaspora.

  2. Christians‟ Response to Persecution: Its Implications to Contemporary Churches in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Olusola Awotunde

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The series of crises reported daily on local, national and international media on killing and destruction of Christians and properties worth millions of naira is alarming. Christian persecution in today’s world has taken a dangerous trend that warrants academic discourse. Persecution has become a serious challenge which has turned to global threat. The church has suffered much security challenges from people of opposing religious faith, who felt threatened by the unique presence of God, convincing miracles, power-oriented and dominating spirituality, unparalleled missionary spirit, and more significantly, her particularistic doctrinal claims. The paper appraisingly evaluates the response of the church in the Bible, especially in the New Testament during the time of Apostles in (Acts 4:23-31. For this reason, this paper adopted historic narrative and exegetical approaches. The paper, postulates reintegrating, internalizing and implementing the importance of prayer, unity, righteous living and boldness in the contemporary church. This paper discusses how Christians should respond during the time of persecution from within and without and proffer recommendations that will reduce to barest minimum the persecution of Christian throughout the world.

  3. Reproductive rights in Poland: when politicians fear the wrath of the Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Jacqueline; Portet, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    The historical prestige of the Polish Catholic Church is the result of its presence as a national symbol of resistance, both under foreign occupation and during the communist regime. In the post-communist era the power of the Church within the political arena has significantly increased, through the Concordat that was signed with the state as well as through formal and informal ties with political parties. Catholicism is the de facto religion of the state, even if Poland remains a nominally secular country. This was illustrated by the adoption, in 1993, of a total abortion ban. Although the relation of Poles to the Catholic dogma on sexuality and reproductive rights tends to be weak, fearing criticism from Church authorities, most politicians avoid controversial topics and express their commitment to Catholic dogma. Thus women's groups have encountered serious difficulties in their efforts to defend women's rights to sexual and reproductive autonomy. Although accession to the European Union has put Poland in an awkward position with respect to equality of rights between women and men, it has not fundamentally altered the real situation with respect to the controversial topic of abortion.

  4. Mapping structural influences on sex and HIV education in church and secular schools in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Elias; Mutepfa, Magen Mhaka; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2012-09-01

    The authors used state-of-the-art concept mapping approaches to examine structural institutional effects of church and secular high schools on the types of sexual and HIV-prevention education messages transmitted to learners in Zimbabwe. Participants were school teachers (n = 26), school counselors (n = 28), and pastors involved in student pastoral care (n = 14; males = 27, females = 41). They reported on messages perceived to influence sexual decisions of learners in their school setting. The self-report data were clustered into message types using concept mapping and contrasted for consistency of content and structure both between and within type of school. The authors also engaged in curriculum document study with member checks in the participant schools to determine convergence of the evidence on school-type effects of the messages transmitted to students. Church schools prioritized faith-informed sexual and HIV-prevention messages, whereas both types of schools prioritized Life skills education and a future focus. Secular schools prioritized sex and HIV messages in the context of community norms. Facts about HIV and AIDS were relatively underemphasized by church schools. The implicit knowledge values that differentiate types of schools influence learner access to information important for their sexual decisions.

  5. Church Construction in the Early Justinian’s Rule (527–534

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim V. Serov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There are some unsolved problems in the historiographical field of the church history of Early Byzantium. One of them concerns the public rules and standards for the construction of religious objects. Why did they begin to form only in the 520s? And how this phenomenon was connected with the construction activity of Justinian the Great? The former question is of great significance for solution of one of aforesaid problems, namely, the problem of the determination of size, stages, and costs for the church building in the rule of the emperor. The author used a new approach to demonstrate the poor participation of Justinian in the erection of “divine houses” in Byzantium in the first years of his individual ruling (527-534. This approach bases on the analyses of legislative data on religious building. Comparison of the obtained results with well-known corresponding reports of Procopius (in Anecdota and Buildings gives all the reasons to say about almost only private activity in the sphere of the church building before 535, as well as the absence of a state building program in this period of Justinian’s rule.

  6. Inter-Institutional Social Partnerships Between The State And The Church In Romania (With Reference To The Child Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrică Ion

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the European countries, the sociologic research related to religiousness and religious affiliation ranks Romania among the most religious countries, this aspect being proved also by the active positioning of the Church in society, especially in the public space. The verification of the phenomenon may be done also through our research theme, which has a content focused on social work, whose result may be used accordingly. There are publications in the field of social work also containing chapters about the Church as an institution, describing the specific activities with social character (either of philanthropy, or of empirical assistance, or even professionalised social work. Nevertheless, most papers mention the Church only in the description of some historical aspects of social work in Romania. Our topic is new because a research similar to ours has not been conducted in Romania yet, in our opinion, as in all bibliographic sources used in the writing of our paper he have found no research approaching such topics. The entire scientific endeavour starts from the formal systematic and non-systematic collaboration already existing between Churches and DGASPCs, but in order to scientifically validate this hypothesis we chose to conduct also a quantitative analysis of the data collected through a questionnaire with closed questions. The main purpose of our paper is the highlighting of the specificity of the interaction between the Church and the social work practice in Romania, through the existing partnership links between the State and the Church.

  7. Digital carbonate rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  8. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  9. THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH AND THE STRENGTHENING OF NATIONAL SECURITY IN TSARIST RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Gorozhanina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An integral component of national security is the Patriotic education. Currently, there are different approaches to the understanding of patriotism; the most successful seem to be the Orthodox concept. It was the Russian Orthodox Church played an important role in strengthening national security in tsaristRussiathrough the active moral and spiritual work among the population. There are three stages in the formation of the Orthodox concept of Patriotic education. First XI – XV centuries. Formed the basic provisions of the concept, a patriot is first and foremost a defender of the native land (presented in the image of the mother and guardian of Orthodoxy. In the second phase of the XV – XVIII centuries. n. to named above components is added a nationwide coloring, formed the Assembly of Russian saints, whose life becomes an example for educating the younger generation. Orthodox symbolism falls on Russian banners. It was under the aegis of Orthodoxy there was a Union of Russia in the time of Troubles. In General, in the second phase, existing components of the concept of international added. Creating the theory of "Moscow– the Third Rome, the Russian Orthodox Church for the first time identified the role ofRussiain the world community. On this basis, the understanding of patriotism has gained a new dimension. The purpose of "Holy Russia", which became a spiritual center of the world, the preservation of the moral principles not only at home but also in other countries. Third period n of XVIII – 1917 is associated with the development of absolutism and its crisis. By this time, the basic theoretical provisions of the concept were formulated. Therefore, the main attention was paid to development of practical methods for their implementation. Unfortunately, a strong dependence of the Russian Orthodox Church from the monarchy and the bureaucracy of the Church as an institution, the formalization of spiritually-moral work led to the events of

  10. A proposition for an integrated church and community intervention to adolescent and youth sexual reproductive health challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents and youth in South Africa comprise about 30% of the total population. This phenomenon is referred to as a youth bubble. Research shows that 52% of young people have had full penetrative sex by age 17, and yet 35% of teenagers who have sex say they only sometimes wear a condom, while 32% who have sex say they never wear a condom. Furthermore, studies show that more than half (52% of parents of teenagers and youth are unaware of their children’s sexual experiences. This situation is insignificantly different between the youth who frequently attend church and those who do not go to church. Responses by churches to the situation have ranged from denialism and hence only maintaining an abstinence stance to superficial youth sexuality discussions that only scratch on the surface. Data indicate that many adolescents seldom have an opportunity to discuss issues of sexual and reproductive health with a caring, knowledgeable adult and are often confronted with unresponsive health services. In response to the situation, there is growing awareness of the important role that religious communities play in adolescents and youth sexual health. The National Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights Framework Strategy (2014–2019 encourage parents and faith-based organisations to bridge this gap by empowering adolescents and youth regarding sexuality issues. The fourth priority of the strategy advocates for a strengthening and scaling up of community networks aimed at supporting adolescents. The churches, however, are caught in a dilemma where on the one hand they have to uphold (teaching the biblical moral values of abstinence and at the same time respond to the realities of youth who are engaging in sex. With the church being a subsystem of society, a question that is posed is: how should a constructive engagement between church and society regarding youth sexual reproductive health be done? A practical theological response of the

  11. Slippery Rock University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  12. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  13. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the e

  14. Microcraters on lunar rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Heiken, G. H.; Moore, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Microcrater frequency distributions have been obtained for nine Apollo rocks and an exterior chip of an Apollo 12 rock. The frequency distributions indicate that five of the Apollo 14 rocks were tumbled more than once exposing different rock faces whereas four were not tumbled and represent a single exposure interval. The cumulative frequency of craters per square centimeter was extended below optical resolution limits using a SEM scan of an exterior chip of breccia 12073. No craters with central pit diameters less than 15 microns were seen in a total area of 0.44 sq cm. A detailed SEM scan of crystal faces and glassy crater liners revealed no microcraters equal to or larger than the resolution limit of 5 microns. An upper limit of 170 craters per sq cm with central pit diameters larger than 5 microns was set. The slope of the cumulative frequency curve for craters with central pit diameters less than about 75 microns is less than that obtained by other workers.

  15. Orientations and other features of the Neolithic 'giants' churches' of Finland from on-site and lidar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstad, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    The orientations and placement of 52 Neolithic stone enclosures in Finland known as 'Giants' Churches' were analysed. In addition, other characteristic features, such as cairns and standing stones in or near the Giants' Churches, were investigated. The axis and gate orientations of the structures were measured using both on-site and airborne laser scanning (lidar) observations. The results showed lidar observations to be useful in archaeoastronomical analysis as a complementary tool to be used with on-site measurements and observations. The Giants' Churches were found to be orientations towards certain solar and lunar events that could have acted as 'seasonal pointers'. The orientations of the gates of the GCs were found to replicate the axis orientations to a large degree. The majority (over 90%) of the GCs were positioned on the eastern or southeastern side of the ridge they were built on, indicating the interest of the builders in the eastern horizon and possibly the rising of celestial bodies. The orientations of large (>35-m long) Giants' Churches and small (≤35-m long) ones were compared. The observed differences in the orientations of these two groups suggested that the structures traditionally known as Giants' Churches may be a heterogeneous group consisting of at least two types of structures represented in this study by the two selected size groups. Many large GCs were found to have been oriented towards the solstices, while the smaller ones did not show this feature. It is possible that the smaller Giants' Churches were oriented towards the Moon, while the larger ones were associated to solar events. The smaller Giants' Churches could be the remains of large houses or otherwise belong to a different tradition of construction.

  16. THE ADVANTAGES OF PARAMETRIC MODELING FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF HISTORIC BUILDINGS. THE EXAMPLE OF THE IN WAR DESTROYED CHURCH OF ST. CATHERINE (KATHARINENKIRCHE) IN NUREMBERG

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, M.; Herbst, G.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; R. Rosenbauer; S. Rutishauser; Zellweger, A.

    2013-01-01

    Consecrated in 1297 as the monastery church of the four years earlier founded St. Catherine’s monastery, the Gothic Church of St. Catherine was largely destroyed in a devastating bombing raid on January 2nd 1945. To counteract the process of disintegration, the departments of geo-information and lower monument protection authority of the City of Nuremburg decided to getting done a three dimensional building model of the Church of St. Catherine’s. A heterogeneous set of data was used ...

  17. DIGITAL REBIRTH OF THE GREATEST CHURCH OF CLUNY MAIOR ECCLESIA: FROM OPTRONIC SURVEYS TO REAL TIME USE OF THE DIGITAL MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Landrieu, J.; C. Père; J. Rollier; S. Castandet; Schotte, G.

    2012-01-01

    Our multidisciplinary team has virtually reconstructed the greatest church of the Romanesque period in Europe. The third church of the Abbey of Cluny (12th c.) has been destroyed after the French Revolution, leaving only 8% of the building standing. Many documents have been studied, to include the latest archaeological knowledge in the virtual model. Most remains have been scanned for CAD restitution. The mock-up of the church needed 1600 different numerical files, including the scanned piece...

  18. Design of an 1800 nm Raman Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    in the pump power requirement and deteriorated noise properties. Here we demonstrate a Raman amplifier designed for signal wavelengths around 1800 nm. The amplification fiber is an OFS PM Raman fiber, and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser emitting at 1680 nm [4]. The amplifier was pumped co......-polarized and backward, with respect to the singal. In Fig. 2 a measured Raman on/off gain exceeding 9 dB for 285 mW of injected pump power is obtained in a 4.35 km long fiber. A broadband supercontinuum source was used as a signal from 1700 nm to 1900 nm.......Different approaches are being explored to increase the capacity of communication systems [1,2], both long and short range systems. One approach is by exploiting new optical wavelength bands, outside the conventional communication window from 1530 nm to 1625 nm. Hollow core fibers have been...

  19. Hypersensitisation using 266nm Laser Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, John; Kristensen, Martin

    UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions.......UV-hypersensitisation using 266nm VW-light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum fluence to be between 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with results obtained using 355nm light, indicating same end-process in both reactions....

  20. Pitted Rock Named Ender

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This image was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 33. The rock in the foreground, nicknamed 'Ender', is pitted and marked by a subtle horizontal texture. The bright material on the top of the rock is probably wind-deposited dust. The Pathfinder Lander is seen in the distance at right. The lander camera is the cylindrical object on top of the deployed mast.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  1. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  2. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  3. Theological and ethical dimensions of addressing climate change : reflections from the World Council of Churches (WCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallman, D.G. [World Council of Churches, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The World Council of Churches (WCC) has supported regional workshops around the world which focus on examining climate change issues from a theological and ethical perspective. The human responsibility is one dimension of the ethics of climate change and is supplemented by the fact that the problem is caused largely by rich industrialized countries, the consequences of which will be suffered in most part by the poor and politically weak developing nations and by future generations. When the WCC delivered a statement at the Kyoto Climate Conference in December 1997, they integrated these two ethical dimensions and spoke of climate change as an issue of justice. Their point of view was that as individuals and as societies, particularly in the over-developed parts of the world, we must be held responsible for the destructive impact of our actions which are leading to climate change and threatening vulnerable human communities, other species and broader ecosystems. Justice implies that we must be accountable for promises that we make to limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. The WCC has been actively involved in the climate change issue since 1988 through the education of its member churches around the world and through monitoring the inter-governmental negotiations through the UN, as well as through advocacy at national levels. In May 2000, the WCC held an international consultation to examine the issue of emissions trading from a perspective of equity. This paper included 2 appendices: Appendix A entitled Statement by the World Council of Churches to the high level segment of the third session of the Conference of the Parties (COP3) to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and Appendix B entitled The atmosphere as a global commons : responsible caring and equitable sharing.

  4. The Biblicism of the Korean Protestant churches: Its origin and early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Buhm Hwang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to clarify the origin and early stages of the Biblicism of the Korean Protestant churches in general, and of the Presbyterian Church of Korea (PCK in particular. The Biblicism is very important for Korean Protestant churches, because it is believed to be a main cause of their unusual growth on the one hand, and on the other hand, of their Fundamentalism and many schisms in the post-liberation era. The article, in the beginning part, investigates the four crucial elements of Korean Biblicism and then examines how the four elements worked together to form a resilient Biblicism whose two distinctive theological forms were practical on the one hand, and dogmatic (fundamentalist, on the other. Among the four basic Biblicist elements, the first was the firm Biblicist theology of the early North American missionaries in Korea who tried to follow and flower their original, puritanical and Old Princeton theology in Korea. The second was Korean Protestants’ original, Neo-Confucian biblicism, which facilitated them to readily accept the missionaries’ Biblicist teachings of the Bible. The third element was the so-called Nevius [Mission] Methods, which emphasised simplistic Biblicist Bible studies, and offered both opportunities of learning and ways to become meaningful leaders in their communities. The fourth and last element was the Biblicist creed of PCK, which became the fundamentalist weapon against its modernist or liberalist wing. To sum up, Korean Biblicism has been the result of those four Biblicist elements working together. The Korean Biblicism was developed into two more or less different positions; the one being practical, exemplified by Rev. Samuel A. Moffett; and the other, dogmatic and fundamentalist, represented by Rev. Dr W.D. Reynolds.

  5. Dust Explosion Characteristics of Agglomerated 35 nm and 100 nm Aluminum Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chun Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, nanoparticles of 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders, respectively, formed particles with average sizes of 161 nm and 167 nm in agglomeration. The characteristics of dust cloud explosions with the two powder sizes, 35 nm and 100 nm, revealed considerable differences, as shown here: (dp/dtmax-35 nm = 1254 bar/s, (dp/dtmax-100 nm = 1105 bar/s; Pmax-35 nm = 7.5 bar, Pmax-100 nm = 12.3 bar, and MEC-35 nm = 40 g/m3, MEC-100 nm = 50 g/m3. The reason of Pmax-35 nm value is smaller than Pmax-100 nm may be due to agglomeration. From an analysis of the explosive residue, the study found that nanoparticles of 35 nm Al powder became filamentous strands after an explosion, where most of 100 nm Al nanoparticles maintained a spherical structure, This may be because the initial melting temperature of 35 nm Al is 435.71°C, while that for 100 nm Al is 523.58°C, higher by 87.87°C. This study discovered that explosive property between the 35 nm Al and 100 nm Al powders after agglomeration were different.

  6. The Impact of Consecutive Interpreting on Church Sermons: A Study of English to Kamba Interpretation in Machakos town, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Odhiambo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines consecutive interpreting in Pentecostal church sermons. Interpreting is a major communication skill used in communication process in society. It is used in Pentecostal churches as a strategy to reach the entire congregation (audience in a multilingual situation. Machakos town, in which the study is conducted, is a multilingual town in which the preachers use consecutive interpreting to reach the congregation. This study examined sermons preached in English and consecutively interpreted to Kamba. The study analysed the communication strategies in order to examine the impact of consecutive interpreting based on Tarone (1981, Faerch and Kasper (1983 communication strategies taxonomies. A descriptive research design was used to obtain information. Purposive sampling was used to select five churches that used consecutive interpreting, in which the sermons were preached in English and interpreted to Kamba. The audience who understood both English and Kamba were purposively selected and the interpreters from the sampled churches formed part of the sample. Data was collected through non-participant observation and interviews. Ten sermons were audio-taped from the sampled Pentecostal churches. Data from the audio tapes was transcribed word for word to create texts for analysis. The analysis used Tarone (1981 and Faerch and Kasper (1983 taxonomies to illustrate the communication strategies used by the interpreters in order to examine their impact on the interpreted text.

  7. Characterization of mudejar mortars from St. Gil Abbot church (Zaragoza, Spain: Investigation of the manufacturing technology of ancient gypsum mortars

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    Igea, J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work has been focused on the investigation of the technological procedure of Mudejar mortars applied to the characterization of a group of unaltered samples from an example church of Mudejar architecture of Aragon. The research was carried out using multi-analytical techniques including petrographic study, chemistry and mineralogical analysis. All mortars present a homogeneous composition. The binder is made up of a mixture of gypsum and a very low proportion of lime, while the main components of the aggregate are gypsum and carbonate rock fragments, both in a different thermal state of decomposition. The results have proved that both, binder and aggregates display the same composition in these mortars. These aggregates are the by-product of a grinding process of the previously burnt raw materials which have had a positive influence on the properties of the mortars in improving their quality.

    Este trabajo se ha centrado en la investigación de la tecnología de fabricación de morteros mudéjares mediante la caracterización de un conjunto de muestras inalteradas procedentes de una iglesia representativa de la arquitectura Mudéjar aragonesa. La investigación se llevó a cabo mediante el uso combinado de técnicas analíticas incluyendo el estudio petrográfico y el análisis químico y mineralógico. Todos los morteros presentan una composición constante formada por una mezcla de yeso y cal, en muy baja proporción, como ligante, mientras que el árido está formado por fragmentos de rocas yesíferas y carbonatadas en distinto estado de descomposición térmica. Los resultados confirman que en la fabricación de los morteros, ligante y áridos presentan la misma composición, siendo éstos últimos el subproducto de la misma materia prima calcinada, incorporados para elaborar el mortero, tras un proceso de molienda. Esta característica ha influido positivamente en las propiedades de los morteros, mejorando su calidad.

  8. PARTICLE CONCENTRATIONS IN A CHURCH DURING DIFFERENT WEATHER CONDITIONS – A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Polednik; Aleksandra Polednik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report particle number (PN) and particle mass (PM) concentration changes in the church during three 60-minute Masses held on a cloudy, sunny and rainy day. At each Mass with a similar number of participants the same number of candles was lit and incense was burned. The highest average PN1 and PM1 concentrations of submicrometer particles which respectively amounted to 23.9 pt/cm3 and 241.1 µg/m3 were obtained for the Mass held on a rainy day. During that Mass t...

  9. The Liability of Churches for the Historical Sexual Assault of Children by Priests

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    Karin Calitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Could a church be held liable for the sexual assault of children by priests when the victims claim as adults only many years after the event? Complainants can claim damages on the basis that the church is either directly or vicariously liable for the alleged acts. If the victims rely on vicarious liability, they will have to prove that the wrongdoer was an employee of the defendant and will further have to prove that the assaults were committed within the course and scope of the wrongdoer's employment. The requirement that a priest must be an employee has in the past created a hurdle for victims, since courts in different countries have traditionally held that priests are not employees of the church as they are servants of God, subject to ecclesiastic law and not civil law. However, in John Doe v Bennet in Canada and JGE v Diocese of Portsmouth in the UK the courts have recently held that even a relationship akin to employment is sufficient to be a basis for vicarious liability. In Bazley v Curry the Canadian Supreme Court moreover extended the traditional meaning of the "course and scope of employment" by developing the "close connection" test. The court found that the acts of a warden of a children's home were so closely connected with his duties that it was fair that his employer (a charitable organisation should be held liable for his conduct. The close connection test was followed by the House of Lords in the United Kingdom and by the South African Constitutional Court in K v Minister of Safety and Security, although in another context. Adult complainants in cases such as these will further have to prove that their claim has not expired as a result of prescription. In Canada, the UK and South Africa courts have in different ways acknowledged the fact that victims of child sexual abuse are often not able to process their claims timeously, because of psychological factors. The victims are allowed to bring their claims often decades after

  10. The wall painting in the church of St. Nicholas tes Rhodias near Arta

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    Fundić Leonela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the wall paintings in the Church of St. Nicholas tes Rhodias near Arta. Many scenes and individual figures are identified for the first time, and the majority of inscriptions on the frescoes are deciphered. A significant part of the text consists of a detailed analysis of the iconographic program, with particular emphasis on the iconography and style of certain depictions, which are seldom encountered in Byzantine wall painting, or possess specific features. The findings suggest that the decoration should be dated in the second half of the thirteenth century.

  11. Determination of stress-strain state of the wooden church log walls with software package

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    Chulkova Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The restoration of architectural monuments is going on all over the world today. The main aim of restoration is the renewal of stable functioning of building constructions in normal state. In this article, we have tried to figure out with special software the bearing capacity of log cabins of the Church of Transfiguration on Kizhi island. As shown in research results, determination of stress-strain stage with software package is necessary for the bearing capacity computation as well as field tests.

  12. Notes from the church of the Virgin at the island of Mali grad

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    Cvetkovski Sašo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text the unknown parts of the wall paintings from the Church of the Virgin at the island of Mali Grad (The Great Prespa Lake are analyzed: the figure of a monk praying to St. Paraskeve, on the southern wall of the nave, as well as the painting on the southern faüade with the depictions of St. George on horseback, the Virgin as Empress enthroned, and the bust of two saints, St. Paraskeve and St. Nicholas. The monk is identified with the hegoumenos Jona, mentioned in the donor’s inscription dating from 1369.

  13. Notes on Calvin’s knowledge, use, and misuse of the Church Fathers

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    Johannes van Oort

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available John Calvin (1509–1564 started his career as a thoroughly trained humanist who possessed, in addition, a thorough knowledge of the Fathers of the Church. This article provides an overview of this particular knowledge. It also focuses on the use Calvin made of the patristic argument in both his instructive and apologetic writings. Some evident cases of Calvin’s misuse of the patres are discussed as well. It is concluded that Calvin’s special patristic knowledge gave his theology its special hallmark and still links authentic Calvinism with the church’s catholic tradition through the ages.

  14. The Church of San Miniato al Monte, Florence: Astronomical and Astrological Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimplin, V.

    2011-06-01

    The church of San Miniato al Monte is examined in the context of interest in astrology and astronomy in early Renaissance Florence. Vitruvius emphasised the need for architects to "be acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens" in his famous Ten Books of Architecture and, at San Miniato, astronomical and astrological features are combined in order to link humanity with the celestial or spiritual realm. The particular significance of Pisces and Taurus is explored in relation to Christian symbolism, raising questions about the role of astronomy and astrology in art and architecture.

  15. THE SLAVO-RUSSIAN EUCHOLOGION OF THE GREAT CHURCH AND ITS GREEK ORIGINAL

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    T. I. Afanas’eva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article looks at the composition of the Slavo-Russian Euchologion of the Great Church according to State Historical Museum (Moscow manuscript Syn.900 incomparison with three Greek copies of this work, which were introduced by Miguel Arranz (Paris, Coisl.213, Grottaferrata, Γ.β.Ι. and Athens 662. It is concluded that the Slavo-Russian version, created at the turn of the XIV–XV centuries, serves as evidence for existence of a new edition of the Euchologion of theGreatChurch, which was most likely completed under Patriarch Philotheus. This edition of the  Euchologion  preserved  many  unique  features  of  the  oldest  Greek  сopy  – Coisl. 213 of 1027, which was written at the request of priest Strategius from thechurchofSt. Sophia. In this way, it preserved, more than other Greek copies of the patriarchal prayer books, the rites of the Holy Week performed in the Great church as well as lities for different places inConstantinople, and prayers for various needs. In addition, it also included a number of new rites and prayers for monastic tonsure, communion and repentance, as well as had an inserted Church New Year rite, edited by Patriarch Philotheus. The structure of the ᾀσματικὴ ἀκολουθία went through serious changes: it was re-arranged and broken up into two parts. The Slavonic scribe translated only some services that were in the Greek codex, that is only those that were previously unknown or not very well known in Rus’. For instance, the Slavonic version does not include rites of baptism, marriage, burial, Great Blessing of Water, or the Prayer of Genuflection for the Holy Week, all of which were widely known in Rus’. When translating theConstantinoplerites, the Russian scribe left out all of the toponyms, which, as the author of this article thinks, shows his attempt to adapt these services to the Russian ones.

  16. “Speaking in the Unknown Tongue, Holiness Church, Jackson, 1939”

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    Diana Almeida

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Speaking in the Unknown Tongue, Holiness Church, Jackson, 1939, ” Photographs, p. 104, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationDear Welty,Writing by the fireplace, I see you standing with the camerathe eye of the eye of the eyein awe and wonder,a guest in Holiness Churchwatching: the painted horse “The Lord on the Cloud” in the centera white mass moving through mountainslines upon valleys, there goes the Lord ridingoh yes, rise your heart to God in praise, sisterspeaking i...

  17. The Philippine Church, State, and People on the Problem of Population

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    F. P. A. Demeterio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will take a look at six things, namely: 1 the global picture of the population problem; 2 the leading theories on population; 3 the place of the Philippines among the worlds' most populated, densest and fastest growing countries; 4 the contours and behavior of Philippine demographics; 5 the existing power relations amidst the Philippine Church, State, and people concerning the issue of population; and 6 the possibility of a better alternative paradigm of power relations from the encyclical Deus Caritas Est of Pope Benedict XVI.

  18. [Medical reflections on the Cranach altar in the St. Wolfgang church at Schneeberg/Saxony].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhn, R

    2002-09-01

    When looking at some figures of the Cranach altar in the St. Wolfgang church at Schneeberg/Saxony, congenital syphilis and other diseases must be taken into diagnostic consideration. An earlier edition of this magazine contained a reference to a quite similar, possibly luetic saddle nose on a carved figure in the monastery of Waldsassen, which was made almost 200 years later. For iconographical reasons and because of the very early time of its creation around 1530, the deliberate representation of such a diagnosis, at least for Schneeberg, seems doubtful.

  19. Conditions for experimental Boson-sampling computer to disprove the Extended Church-Turing thesis

    CERN Document Server

    Shchesnovich, V S

    2014-01-01

    We consider the experimentally verifiable Extended Church-Turing thesis and derive sufficient conditions for an imperfect experimental realization of the Boson-sampling computer of Aaronson & Arkhipov to disprove it. Since the effect of the photon mode mismatch and the network imperfections (noise) are already known, we focus on the multi-photon and vacuum components of the input, the photons losses, and the detector dark counts. The main result is the complete set of sufficient conditions on the experimental imperfections for scalability of the experimental BS computer.

  20. The role of the church in the birth and nurture of a new nation

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    M. Dandala

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Bishop Mvume Dandala, in his inaugural lecture as honorary professor at the Faculty of Theology, University of Pretoria, describes the challenges awaiting the churches in the new South Africa. He does it by defending five theses: (1 It takes strong visionary leadership to lay foundations for reconciliation; (2 Ground base support and initiatives are critical for the success of reconciliation; (3 Social transformation, fairness and justice must be understood as an intrinsic fabric of reconciliation; (4 Reconciliation is not possible where the contending factions do not have a common understanding of the truth; (5 A healthy memory of the past is essential for a reconciled/reconciling future.

  1. Rock in Rio: eternamente jovem

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas; Flávio Lins Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark ...

  2. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  3. Rock blasting and explosives engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, P.-A.; Holmberg, R.; Lee, J. (New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Research Center for Energetic Materials)

    1994-01-01

    The book covers the practical engineering aspects of different kinds of rock blasting. It includes a thorough analysis of the cost of the entire process of tunneling by drilling and blasting compared with full-face boring. It covers the economics of the entire rock blasting operation and its dependence on the size of excavation. The book highlights the fundamentals of rock mechanics, shock waves and detonation, initiation and mechanics of rock motion. It describes the engineering design principles and computational techniques for many separate mining methods and rock blasting operations. 274 refs.

  4. Laser hypersensitisation using 266nm light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Canning, J.; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    UV hypersensitisation using CW 266 nm light on hydrogenated Ge-doped fibre is reported. The optimum sensitisation fluence is found to be in the range of 5 to 10 kJ/cm2, coinciding with previous results obtained using 355 nm light, indicating the same end-process used in the photochemical reaction...

  5. A Niche in a Conflict Area: The Development of the Baptist Church in the Areas of Petrinja, Glina, Sisak and Dvor

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    Laura Šakaja

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the aspects of social changes during the transitional period in most post-socialist countries was the revival of religion. The revival of Churches that accompanied the national upsurge in some countries was associated with the growth of post-socialist nationalism. This discussion focuses on the development of a different, transnational religious option in an area of ethnic conflict. It analyses the development of the Baptist Church in the post-conflict region of Banovina. The paper is based on interviews conducted mostly among representatives and members of the Baptist Church. After the Croatian Homeland War, in Banovina there was an increase in the number of members of this Church. Among new members the majority were ethnic Serbs, persons from mixed marriages and former communists. Neither the Catholic Church nor the Serbian Orthodox Church were acceptable options to them. The authors conclude that the Baptist option was sustainable due to three factors. First, the development of the Church was based on an already existing tradition and on memories of events from World War II, which were activated by the new war situation at the beginning of the Nineties. Second, the Baptist Church ensured a middle, transnational option in an ethnically mixed setting, and in this way attracted all those who were looking for a neutrality niche in an ethnically strongly divided and conflictive society. Third, the active involvement and help of humanitarian organisations associated with the Baptist Church, during the war and the afterwards, helped to create an image of the Baptist Church as a shelter. These humanitarian activities made it possible for the Baptist Church to leave the shadows and become “visible”, and thus prevail over perceptions in which it was seen as an obscure sect.

  6. The weathering of natural and artificial stones in the baroque church of S. Pietro in Valle (Fano-Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Michela; Mangani, Filippo; Amadori, Maria Letizia; Campagna, Michele

    2003-04-01

    The church of San Pietro in Valle in Fano is with good reason considered one of the outstanding examples of baroque art in Central Italy. Currently the church is in a serious degradation status. For this reason, and in order to devise a correct conservative restoration project, a scientific study has been carried out, aimed at characterizing mortars used for the application of marble decorations and the different degradation products occurring in the church (i.e. pulverizations, encrustations, salt efflorescences, and condensation water). In the following, results obtained analyzing the different sample typologies by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electron scanning microscopy with energy-dispersion micro-analytical system, ion chromatography, and head-space solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry will be reported.

  7. Arsenic poisoning caused by intentional contamination of coffee at a church gathering--an epidemiological approach to a forensic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensheimer, Kathleen F; Rea, Vicki; Mills, Dora Anne; Montagna, Christopher P; Simone, Karen

    2010-07-01

    An outbreak of apparent food-borne illness following a church gathering was promptly reported to the Maine Bureau of Health. Gastrointestinal symptoms among church attendees were initially attributed to consumption of leftover sandwiches that had been served the previous day. However, a rapid epidemiological and laboratory assessment revealed the etiology of illness, including the death of an elderly gentleman, was not food-borne in origin. A criminal investigation determined that deliberate arsenic contamination of the brewed coffee by one of the church members was the source of the outbreak. Public health officials and criminal investigators must be aware that intentional biologic aggression can initially present as typical unintentional disease outbreaks. Practitioners must also consider the need to properly maintain and preserve potential forensic evidence. This case demonstrates the key role public health practitioners may play in criminal investigations.

  8. Magnetic coupling at perovskite and rock-salt structured interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matvejeff, M., E-mail: mikko.matvejeff@picosun.com [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8581 Chiba (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Ahvenniemi, E. [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, Kemistintie 1, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Takahashi, R.; Lippmaa, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8581 Chiba (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    We study magnetic coupling between hole-doped manganite layers separated by either a perovskite or a rock-salt barrier of variable thickness. Both the type and the quality of the interface have a strong impact on the minimum critical barrier thickness where the manganite layers become magnetically decoupled. A rock-salt barrier layer only 1 unit cell (0.5 nm) thick remains insulating and is able to magnetically de-couple the electrode layers. The technique can therefore be used for developing high-performance planar oxide electronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions and quantum well structures that depend on magnetically and electronically sharp heterointerfaces.

  9. Three-Dimensional Modeling of the Romanesque Church of Santa Maria de Castrelos (vigo - Spain) Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Medina, A.; Martinez, J.; Arias, P.; Armesto, J.; Buffara-Antunes, A. Z.

    2013-07-01

    This article shows the results obtained in the three dimensional survey of the church of Santa Maria of Castrelos realized through a terrestrial Laser Scanner. The Church of Santa Maria of Castrelos, which was built in the early thirteenth century, is located in Vigo Spain. It is a Romanesque style church with a nave and semicircular apse with three gates decorated with rosettes and typically Romanesque geometrical figures. The survey was conducted by the laboratory of Close Range Photogrammetry of Natural Resources Department, Mining School, at University of Vigo - Spain, jointly with the Geomatics Department, Federal University of Parana - Brazil. This work explores the use of laser scanning for the surveying, three-dimensional modeling and documentation of historical monuments but also the generation of quoted plans and cross sections of this Romanesque church in the city of Vigo. The resolution of point clouds used to obtain the models varied according to need. Namely, the point cloud used for three-dimensional model for the general external and internal church was used with an approximate step width of 10 cm, while 5 cm and 1 cm step widths were used for details of geometric figures and rosettes. The results of both the three-dimensional model and the plans and sections are in accordance with the specifications and scales of representation usually used in conventional surveys of historic monuments recommended in the specialized literature in the area. The objective of this study is showing the potential of the use of terrestrial laser scanner in the documentation of historical heritage through achieving the 3D model by joining external and internal point clouds and the generation of planes and sections of the church of Santa Maria of Castrelos, Vigo.

  10. PARTICLE CONCENTRATIONS IN A CHURCH DURING DIFFERENT WEATHER CONDITIONS – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Polednik

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to report particle number (PN and particle mass (PM concentration changes in the church during three 60-minute Masses held on a cloudy, sunny and rainy day. At each Mass with a similar number of participants the same number of candles was lit and incense was burned. The highest average PN1 and PM1 concentrations of submicrometer particles which respectively amounted to 23.9 pt/cm3 and 241.1 µg/m3 were obtained for the Mass held on a rainy day. During that Mass the maximum PN1 and PM1 concentrations (amounting to 59.4×103 pt/cm3 and 632 µg/m3 were respectively about 15 and 39 times higher than the church background levels. The greatest number of submicrometer particles (about 18.5×109 was inhaled by an average participant of the Mass held on a sunny day and it was approximately 7 times higher than the number that would have been inhaled at the same time outdoors. The greatest mass of such particles (about 195.4 µg was inhaled by an average participant of the Mass held on a rainy day and it was approximately 8 times higher than the mass of particles that would have been inhaled outdoors during the same time.

  11. PRAYER IN ALEXANDER BLOK'S LYRIC POETRY ("A GIRL WAS SINGING IN THE CHURCH CHOIR..."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrovna Spiridonova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the genre clash of a prayer and stanzas in Alexander Blok’s poem A girl was singing in the church choir... (1905. Prayer is the main ecclesiastical source, shaping the poem’s lyric model. The genre canon of stanzas with the strophes detached substantially and compositionally, transforms the central musical theme into four scene-developments linked by dissonance. Each of the strophes in A girl was singing in the church choir... has its own semantic point (prayer – singings – illusion – enlightenment and reveals a different content of the event, intensifies and develops the tragic theme of two worlds, intended and unintended substitutions, spiritual quest and time losses. Blok’s stanzas are poetic evidence of a modern man’s exit from a prayerful concentration. The model of “conflicting synthesis” of ecclesiastical and literary genres reflects the religious/mystical opposition in symbolism aesthetics and strengthens the tragic pathos of Blok’s lyric poetry.

  12. The Orthodox Church and the Young Generation – Today’s Problems

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    Tucă Nicuşor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lately, the Orthodox Church has been very concerned by the issue of the youngster's migration into a multicultural and pluri-religious area. Migration is an objective reality that we can notice but we are not able to stop. We emphasize the fact that the young generation needs to be seen in the light of hope and of the future, as resources and not as problems. Under these circumstances, the Church needs to find a new way of working and adequate pastoral means for people to be able to live a normal life from a spiritual and religious perspective as well. We need to find means of awakening and of shaping the youngstersř moral conscience, of guiding them towards Christian holiness and perfection. It is only by having such a perspective, the perspective of those who want to give the young generation the chance to discover Christ our Redeemer, that a correct spiritual guidance for the young can be realized, able to save them from the mirage of the contemporary temptations.

  13. Rural education: Reimagining the role of the church in transforming poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Thesnaar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The desire to remember the plight of the poor in South Africa has reduced in the last 20 years after the transition from apartheid to freedom. To a large extent, Faith Based Organizations (FBOs and the religious society at large have lost their ‘dangerous memory’ which keeps us mindful of those who suffered and whose plight is usually forgotten or suppressed. In this contribution the conditions of poor farm school children in multigrade rural education will be scrutinised by unpacking the contextual factors that cause us to forget their plight. This article will seek to reimagine the role of the church in poverty-stricken South Africa by engaging with the work of Talcott Parsons, the practical theologian Johannes A. Van der Ven, as well as the work of the political theologian Johann Baptist Metz in order to affirm the focus of Practical Theology to transform society and to contribute to the quest for justice and liberation for the poor in rural education. This reimagining discourse has a fundamental responsibility to challenge the social, political and economic realities that shape the lives of human beings within rural education, remembering the plight of the poor, and participating on their journey towards liberation and healing. It is proposed that if the church can activate its ‘dangerous memory’ it will be able to reimagine its role by transforming our poverty-stricken South African society, open new avenues for breaking the cycle of poverty and contribute to rural education.

  14. Rural education: Reimagining the role of the church in transforming poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo Thesnaar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The desire to remember the plight of the poor in South Africa has reduced in the last 20 years after the transition from apartheid to freedom. To a large extent, Faith Based Organizations (FBOs and the religious society at large have lost their ‘dangerous memory’ which keeps us mindful of those who suffered and whose plight is usually forgotten or suppressed. In this contribution the conditions of poor farm school children in multigrade rural education will be scrutinised by unpacking the contextual factors that cause us to forget their plight. This article will seek to reimagine the role of the church in poverty-stricken South Africa by engaging with the work of Talcott Parsons, the practical theologian Johannes A. Van der Ven, as well as the work of the political theologian Johann Baptist Metz in order to affirm the focus of Practical Theology to transform society and to contribute to the quest for justice and liberation for the poor in rural education. This reimagining discourse has a fundamental responsibility to challenge the social, political and economic realities that shape the lives of human beings within rural education, remembering the plight of the poor, and participating on their journey towards liberation and healing. It is proposed that if the church can activate its ‘dangerous memory’ it will be able to reimagine its role by transforming our poverty-stricken South African society, open new avenues for breaking the cycle of poverty and contribute to rural education.

  15. From Idealised Moral Community to Real Tiger Society. The Catholic Church in Secular Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Penet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available From the 1960s to the 1980s, a time of “tension management” between “the old hegemony of Catholicism and nationalism and the emergence of liberalism and materialism” (Fogarty 1984: 102, Ireland’s self-image as a moral community came under the influence of secularisation. The country’s secularisation process speeded up when it decided to embrace new technologies – and consequently met with huge economic success – in the early 1990s, the results of which for Catholicism in Ireland were the visible and apparently irreversible undermining of the institution. However, I believe that Ireland’s secularisation through economic and psychological transformation affected the Irish Catholic Church as a whole, that is to say, its people as well as the institution. My argument in this article is that, whereas in an Ireland which many viewed as a traditional, well-integrated religious nation, it was possible for Irish Catholics to live their faith in an institutionalised manner through the idealised moral community desirable both to Church and State, economic success and increased internationalisation made this idea of community less sustainable. Indeed, in what has now become a “network society” (Castells 1996: 469, there has emerged a new breed of Catholics who no longer live their religion as a transcendent inheritance but as an immanent choice, and who, therefore, seem to “connect” to their religion more than they “commune” with it.

  16. Pneumatology and discipleship: Trinity and church in the theology of Stanley Grenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Spjuth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s ecclesiology, the notion of the Spirit and the church has been heavily influenced by a recent and broad retrieval of Trinitarian theology. In this article, I discuss this in relationship to baptist and evangelical traditions as it is represented by Stanley Grenz. His “theology for the community of God” demonstrates the fruitfulness of the Trinitarian retrieval for such traditions. However, the main argument in the article is that it also implies certain risks. According to the Baptist tradition, the central message of the New Testament is the invitation to be a disciple of Jesus Christ. As Kathryn Tanner and Karen Kilby have argued elsewhere, when the biblical challenge to be like Jesus Christ is turned into a more general exhortation to become an image of the Trinity, it often results in abstract ethics and an ecclesiology that focuses mainly on general exhortations to love and to live in community. In contrast, this article claims that the biblical notion of discipleship has greater possibilities to allow for a more substantial and more holistic account of the Church, one that reunites ecclesiology, ethics and the Spirit’s transformative work within liturgy, charismatic service and mission.

  17. Final report on the torque comparison EURAMET.M.T-S2, measurand torque: 10 N.m, 20 N.m, 40 N.m, 60 N.m, 80 N.m, and 100 N.m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röske, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the EURAMET comparison EURAMET.M.T-S2 was to compare the measuring capabilities up to 100 N.m of a reference-type torque calibration machine of ZAG, Slovenia, with the torque standard machine of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) acting as pilot laboratory. A very stable TT1 torque transducer with well-known properties and two torque measuring bridges was used as travelling standard. According to the technical protocol, torque steps of at least 10 N.m, 20 N.m, 40 N.m, 60 N.m, 80 N.m, and 100 N.m had to be measured both in clockwise and anticlockwise directions. For each of the torque steps and both senses of direction of the torque vector, En values were calculated. The results are in general in good agreement with the claimed measurement uncertainties except for the very first measurement at ZAG with additional support and four plate couplings. It seems to be sufficient in a vertical set-up (vertical torque axis) to use only two flexible couplings and there is no need for a further support between the transducers. The measurements with two couplings fulfill the requirement to the En value and support ZAG's claimed uncertainties of measurement. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Application of some integrated non-invasive sensing techniqes for conservation and restoration of the Underground Church and frescoes of S. Maria della Palomba's Sanctuary, Matera (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Filiberto; Marino, Francesco P.; Ambrosecchia, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Santa Maria della Palomba's Sanctuary was built in XV century on a pre-existing medioeval crypt, in a splendid landscape situation, on the front looking south of the ravine on which stands Matera, integrating in a wonderful way underground and sub divo building; in fairly following time one important cycle of frescoes renewed decoration of underground church. In the long run, felt the building into decay, structures and frescoes were flooded and damaged; so that from 1980 were executed important restoration works, realizing ventilation canals under the floor of hypogeic church, in which were incorporated heating pipes, joined to solar thermic panels, wanting to determine the thermo-hygrometric optimum conditions for conservation. Almost thirty years after, willing restorate the frescoes, it was necessary to caracterize completely and objectively physical existing conditions. So was used an integrated mix of some non-invasive sensing techniques: - internal and external high resolution Sanctuary's measurement, using laser scanner 3D, in WebGIS ambient, so as to specify, in particular, whether dimensional data of non accessible parts (thickness of rock-bank, morphology and way of lying down of fracture lines), whether consistence state of frescoes; - thermo-hygrometrical sensing of surfaces, using infrared thermography, during a time of two weeks, in correspondence of many storm, so that to establish the relation between eventual atmospherical conditions variations and changes in conditions of surfaces; - continuous sensing of condition of surfaces, by means of thermo-hygrometrical and temperature sounds; - continuous sensing of operating temperature, by means of a globothermometer; all these tools were linked in a net with a data logger, and informations were transmitted using Web to computer in the office of the Society responsible for the procedure. Remote sensing integrated system proved high liability, allowing many important functions : - to georefer all data

  19. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2003-12-01

    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  20. The traditional and modern in church music: A study in canon and creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Definitions of the terms "traditional" and "modern", relating to the chanting tradition of the Eastern Church, sprang from research into so-called kalophony – a specific compositional method that established melismatic melody. Despite differing academic opinions about the origins of this melody in the liturgical practice of the Eastern Church, it is evident that very embellished and elaborate kalophonic melodies appeared frequently from the mid-13th century onwards. The compositional treatment of various genres of these melodies began historically with partial respect for the established hymnographic text. This was followed by a more liberal arrangement, ending in a total departure from any textual base (kratema. The fact that the melody in melismatic mode superseded the text suggests that kalophony represented a certain kind of modernity. Even though musical manuscripts in neumatic notation had no written rules about methods of composition or how to balance tones and words, in the tradition of the Easternchanting practice, melody was always recognized as a helpful addition, an exegesis of the textus receptus. In order to fully comprehend the introduction of this "new sound" and "new style", this study focuses on the work of a major protagonist of them, a monk from the Great Lavra, blessed John Koukouzeles. I consider the following questions: 1 The purpose and function of chant in the art of Byzantium in general 2 The role of the composer/ artist and his creative freedom 3 Evaluating criteria for church-related arts/composition 4 Criteria which immortalized or buried artwork/composition of the time Allowing for what possibly motivated John Koukouzeles and his contemporaries to compose kalophonic melodies or to kalophonically modify old, traditional melodies this study focuses on the effects that hesychasm had on the chanting practice of the time. Considering the theological validation of kalophonic modifications of some liturgical hymns, an

  1. From the works of the Faculty of the History of the Church at the Papal Theological Academy, 1981-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Piech

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pontifical Academy of Theology in Krakow was established by Pope John Paul II's motu proprio "Beata Hedvigis" of 8 December 1981. "...We hereby establish in perpetuity and erect, by the power of the Scriptures and our solemnity, this Pontifical Academy of Theology in Krakow, granting it rights, honours, privileges and duties held by all such Universities in the Catholic world," wrote the pope in the document. "The Academy, presently composed of three departments, i.e. Holy Theology, Philosophy and Church History, should be governed by the academic law of the Church". /AAS 74:1982 p. 371-372/.

  2. The church Saint-Symphorien in Nuits-Saint-Georges. An architectural and decorative syncretism, ca 1220-1240

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Demarthe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Saint Symphorian’s church in Nuits-Saint-Georges (Burgundy, which dates from near 1220-1240, is situated during the transition of two architectural styles and attests a local but rather backward-looking Cistercian legacy that some Gothic urban and more innovative elements modernize. Moreover the church takes part, for the same reasons as those in Agencourt, Gerland and Prissey, in the surprising wave of reconstructions which denotes among others the important economic development of the country of Cîteaux at the beginning of the 13th century.

  3. The earliest phases of the parish church of Saint Margaret and Saint Stanislaus in Żębocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Dryja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper has been based on archaeological and architectural exploration of the church in Żębocin carried out in 2011. Żębocin, a village in the Miechów district and the Proszowice deanery, had its beginnings reportedly in the mid-11th century. However, the first squire of Żębocin documented in historical sources was Tomko, coat of arms unknown, mentioned in 1384. According to tradition, the first church in the village, which has not survived, was built in the years 1059–1071 and consecrated by St. Stanislas of Szczepanów. In a local legend, the wife of knight Mikołaj of Żębocin took shelter in the tower of a stone church in Żębocin during the unrest in the reign of Boleslaus the Brave. The stone foundation under the north-eastern corner of the chancel belonged probably to a stone building, its function unknown, which may have stood there already in those turbulent times. The extant church, erected in the mid-13th century or soon afterwards, was a small single-nave structure with a chancel closed with a straight wall, built from bricks (with a wendian bond pattern on its elevation on stone foundations. It combined two styles: Romanesque (as shown by the surviving splayed window in the northern elevation of the chancel and Gothic (the brick ogival frame in the northern elevation of the nave. The important question whether the church had a tower from the start and where that tower was located remains undecided; the tower could have been incorporated into the body of the nave from the west or built above the chancel; it could also have been added afterwards, in the 16th century at the latest. Reportedly, the church in Żębocin once had a defensive character and was located in knights’ fortified town. Its founder may have been a progenitor of the Strzemieńczyk or the Odrowąż families. It should be remembered that Romanesque single-nave “village” churches built on a simple plan are quite frequent in Central Europe; there are

  4. From stones to rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Marie-Astrid; Jean-Leroux, Kathleen; Cirio, Raymond

    2013-04-01

    With the Aquila earthquake in 2009, earthquake prediction is more and more necessary nowadays, and people are waiting for even more accurate data. Earthquake accuracy has increased in recent times mainly thanks to the understanding of how oceanic expansion works and significant development of numerical seismic prediction models. Despite the improvements, the location and the magnitude can't be as accurate as citizen and authorities would like. The basis of anticipating earthquakes requires the understanding of: - The composition of the earth, - The structure of the earth, - The relations and movements between the different parts of the surface of the earth. In order to answer these questions, the Alps are an interesting field for students. This study combines natural curiosity about understanding the predictable part of natural hazard in geology and scientific skills on site: observing and drawing landscape, choosing and reading a representative core drilling, replacing the facts chronologically and considering the age, the length of time and the strength needed. This experience requires students to have an approach of time and space radically different than the one they can consider in a classroom. It also limits their imagination, in a positive way, because they realize that prediction is based on real data and some of former theories have become present paradigms thanks to geologists. On each location the analyzed data include landscape, core drilling and the relation established between them by students. The data is used by the students to understand the meaning, so that the history of the formation of the rocks tells by the rocks can be explained. Until this year, the CBGA's perspective regarding the study of the Alps ground allowed students to build the story of the creation and disappearance of the ocean, which was a concept required by French educational authorities. But not long ago, the authorities changed their scientific expectations. To meet the

  5. Michael Learns to Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪海涛

    2004-01-01

    夜幕降临.空气中传来北欧的声音,来自丹麦的四人流行乐队Michael Learns to Rock(迈克学摇滚)正把探情款款的歌声带到上海的咖啡厅和酒吧。北欧一直活跃着一批世界顶级的乐队.从丹麦的A-Ha到Aqua,从瑞典的ABBA到Roxette和Ace of Base,从挪威的Se

  6. Design of an 1800nm Raman amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results for a Raman amplifier that operates at 1810 nm and is pumped by a Raman fiber laser at 1680 nm. Both the pump laser and the Raman amplifier is polarization maintaining. A challenge when scaling Raman amplifiers to longer wavelengths is the increase...... performance of the amplifier is also investigated for both configurations. Our results show an on/off gain exceeding 20 dB at 1810 nm for which the obtained effective noise figure is below 3 dB....

  7. The temptation of Realpolitik and vox populi in the ecclesiology of the Emerging Apostolic Churches with special reference to the fivefold ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thomas Resane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Emerging Apostolic Churches do not have a uniform church polity since the power of governance is claimed to be with the fivefold ministers, while at the same time embracing either the Episcopal, Presbyterial, or Congregational church governments. The fivefold ministry is a generally accepted term that refers to the five ministries given by Christ to the Church to stand in unique spiritual offices, as found in Ephesians 4:11. This article tries to answer the question: “Are the Emerging Apostolic Churches ecclesiologically correct by centring the authority of governance in the fivefold ministers and the popular voices of the followers?” At the same time it is endeavored to argue that due to Biblical and theological grounds the fivefold ministry is untenable to church polity hence Realpolitik and vox populi dominating the ecclesiastical life and polity of the Emerging Apostolic Churches. The aim is to demonstrate that these two concepts (Realpolitik and vox populi play a significant part in shaping the church polity and structures of this ecclesiastical phenomenon.

  8. The role of refugee-established churches in integrating forced migrants: A case study of Word of Life Assembly in Yeoville, Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedaste Nzayabino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing embeddedness of religious issues within contemporary global phenomena has increased the role religion plays in migrants’ spiritual, social, and economic lives. Drawing on the findings of the study, conducted within one of the Pentecostal migrant churches in Johannesburg, this paper explored ways in which a (migrant church shapes a refugee’s motivation to integrate and his resultant quest for a transient alternative belonging and inclusion within diasporic communities through church affiliation. Through interviews with members of the Word of Life Assembly (WOLA, one of the independent churches established by forced migrants in Yeoville, the study revealed that refugees tend to integrate themselves within their own churches, while the refugee church itself – labelled a ‘foreign’ entity by South African community members – works to garner approval and acceptance from South Africans and faith-based institutions. Cultural and linguistic problems were identified as major barriers to a refugee’s attempts to integrate into local churches, thereby becoming important issues that need to be considered in the establishment of migrant churches within the South African host community.

  9. Comparative analysis of cyanobacteria inhabiting rocks with different light transmittance in the Mojave Desert: a Mars terrestrial analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather D.; Baqué, Mickael; Duncan, Andrew G.; Lloyd, Christopher R.; McKay, Christopher P.; Billi, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    The Mojave Desert has been long considered a suitable terrestrial analogue to Mars in many geological and astrobiological aspects. The Silver Lake region in the Mojave Desert hosts several different rock types (talc, marble, quartz, white carbonate and red-coated carbonate) colonized by hypoliths within a few kilometres. This provides an opportunity to investigate the effect of rock type on hypolithic colonization in a given environment. Transmission measurements from 300 to 800 nm showed that the transmission of blue and UVA varied between rock types. The wavelength at which the transmission fell to 1% of the transmission at 600 nm was 475 nm for white carbonate and quartz, 425 nm for red-coated carbonate and talc and 380 nm for marble. The comparative analysis of the cyanobacterial component of hypoliths under different rocks, as revealed by sequencing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, showed no significant variation with rock type; hypoliths were dominated by phylotypes of the genus Chroococcidiopsis, although less abundant phylotypes of the genus Loriellopsis, Leptolyngbya and Scytonema occurred. The comparison of the confocal laser scanning microscopy-λ (CLSM-λ) scan analysis of the spectral emission of the photosynthetic pigments of Chroococcidiopsis in different rocks with the spectrum of isolated Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029, revealed a 10 nm red shift in the emission fingerprinting for quartz and carbonate and a 5 nm red shift for talc samples. This result reflects the versatility of Chroococcidiopsis in inhabiting dry niches with different light availability for photosynthesis.

  10. Rock Properties Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Lum

    2004-09-16

    The purpose of this model report is to document the Rock Properties Model version 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties model provides mean matrix and lithophysae porosity, and the cross-correlated mean bulk density as direct input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'', MDL-NBS-HS-000021, REV 02 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in Section 6.6 and 8.2. Model validation accomplished by corroboration with data not cited as direct input is discussed in Section 7. The revision of this model report was performed as part of activities being conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan for: The Integrated Site Model, Revision 05'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169635]). The purpose of this revision is to bring the report up to current procedural requirements and address the Regulatory Integration Team evaluation comments. The work plan describes the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and procedures for this process.

  11. Fossils, rocks, and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lucy E.; Pojeta, John

    1999-01-01

    We study our Earth for many reasons: to find water to drink or oil to run our cars or coal to heat our homes, to know where to expect earthquakes or landslides or floods, and to try to understand our natural surroundings. Earth is constantly changing--nothing on its surface is truly permanent. Rocks that are now on top of a mountain may once have been at the bottom of the sea. Thus, to understand the world we live on, we must add the dimension of time. We must study Earth's history. When we talk about recorded history, time is measured in years, centuries, and tens of centuries. When we talk about Earth history, time is measured in millions and billions of years. Time is an everyday part of our lives. We keep track of time with a marvelous invention, the calendar, which is based on the movements of Earth in space. One spin of Earth on its axis is a day, and one trip around the Sun is a year. The modern calendar is a great achievement, developed over many thousands of years as theory and technology improved. People who study Earth's history also use a type of calendar, called the geologic time scale. It looks very different from the familiar calendar. In some ways, it is more like a book, and the rocks are its pages. Some of the pages are torn or missing, and the pages are not numbered, but geology gives us the tools to help us read this book.

  12. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  13. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  14. “Let Me Help You Help Me”: Church-based HIV Prevention for Young Black Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Terrinieka W.; Herbert, Ann; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify strategies that could yield more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) living in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample had an equal number of regular and infrequent church attendees. Nearly one-fourth of the sample was HIV-positive. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using a qualitative content analytic approach. Two main recommendations emerged for churches to offer more inclusive HIV prevention efforts: (1) reduce homosexuality stigma by increasing interpersonal and institutional acceptance, and (2) address the sexual health needs of all congregants by offering universal and targeted sexual health promotion. Thus, results support a tiered approached to providing more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. We conclude that Black churches can be a critical access point for HIV prevention among YBMSM and represent an important setting to intervene. PMID:27244189

  15. A pastoral evaluation on the issue of ‘vat en sit’ with special reference to the Black Reformed Churches of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Semenya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate and give practical guidelines to the church councils of the mainly Black Reformed Churches in South Africa and also to the couples and families involved in vat en sit relationship. Vat en sit is now becoming a common thing in South Africa. This however does not only affect the black members in the Reformed Churches in South Africa but moreover affect the family structures of the society. Therefore the aim of this article is to find out why in most cases couples opt for vat en sit relationship and also how the church councils could be assisted in dealing with the issue of vat en sit.   The Biblical overview regarding the issue of vat en sit will be discussed and thereafter the practical guidelines be given in order to help both the church councils; the couples in the vat en sit relationship and also their families.

  16. 130-nm tunable grating-mirror VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that a combination of the high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirror as movable mirror and the extended cavity configuration with an antireflection layer can provide a tuning wavelength range of 100 nm for tunable VCSELs. Here, we report that using the air-coupled cavity configurat......We have reported that a combination of the high-index-contrast grating (HCG) mirror as movable mirror and the extended cavity configuration with an antireflection layer can provide a tuning wavelength range of 100 nm for tunable VCSELs. Here, we report that using the air-coupled cavity...... configuration instead of the extended cavity configuration can bring 130-nm tuning range around 1330-nm wavelength. The air-coupled cavity is known to reduce the quantum confinement factor in VCSELs, increasing threshold. In our air-coupled cavity HCG VCSEL case, the very short power penetration length...

  17. PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth.......We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth....

  18. A novel 852-nm tunable fiber laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanlong Shen; Chun Gu; LixinXu; Anting Wang; Hai Ming; Yang Liu; Xiaobing Wang

    2009-01-01

    @@ We report a novel fiber laser operating at 850-nm band by using semiconductor optical amplifier and fiber grating.The laser system is stable, compact, and the operating wavelength can be tuned continuously from about 851 to 854 nm for Cs atomic clock system by stretching the fiber grating.An output power up to 20 mW is obtained with a signal-to-background ratio beyond 30 dB.

  19. Cascaded quadratic soliton compression at 800 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Moses, Jeffrey;

    2007-01-01

    We study soliton compression in quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion.......We study soliton compression in quadratic nonlinear materials at 800 nm, where group-velocity mismatch dominates. We develop a nonlocal theory showing that efficient compression depends strongly on characteristic nonlocal time scales related to pulse dispersion....

  20. Managing Rock Squirrels in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Nicki

    2015-01-01

    Although they do not exist in large colonies like other ground squirrels, rock squirrels can still sometimes generate conflicts with homeowners and farmers alike. Most damage occurs when a few rock squirrels take residence in a homeowner’s back yard, and begin to forage on garden vegetables and fruit trees. There are several direct and indirect ways that private landowners can manage and reduce rock squirrels on their property. This fact sheet give management tips.

  1. [Hearing disorders and rock music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhardt, Bjarne Orskov

    2008-12-15

    Only few studies have investigated the frequency of hearing disorders in rock musicians. Performing rock music is apparently associated with a hearing loss in a fraction of musicians. Tinnitus and hyperacusis are more common among rock musicians than among the background population. It seems as if some sort of resistance against further hearing loss is developed over time. The use of ear protection devices have not been studied systematically but appears to be associated with diminished hearing loss.

  2. L’influence des Églises sur le processus de dévolution en Écosse The Influence of the Scottish Churches in the Devolution Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwige Camp

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The two main Christian Churches in Scotland, the Presbyterian Church and the Catholic Church, each sent representatives to the Constitutional Convention which produced the recommendations serving as the basis for the devolved institutions set up in 1999 (Parliament and Executive. Since then, the Scottish Churches have been acting as pressure groups on the new institutions. This article deals with their involvement both in the devolution process and in the post-devolution period.

  3. Colloid investigations of acid rock drainage solution from an abandoned Zn-Pb-Ag mine by ultrafiltration and PCS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, W.; Zaenker, H.

    2002-05-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) solution from an abandoned ore mine was investigated by photon correlation spectroscopy, ultrafiltration and ICP-MS. A colloid concentration of about 1 g/L was found. The prevailing particle size was < 5 nm. (orig.)

  4. Critical issues in soft rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ground are added, with emphasis on their types of problems and solutions.

  5. Cataclastic rheology of carbonate rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiancai; SUN Yan; SHU Liangshu; GU Lianxing; GUO Jichun; ZHU Wenbin

    2005-01-01

    Based on the knowledge of the shallow-level mylonitization of detrital rocks and intrusive rocks, the poorly-known cataclastic rheology of carbonate rocks is discussed comprehensively in this paper. The cases taken from eastern China are analyzed in various aspects including ductile-brittle fault zone, rock texture and structure, clastomylonite layer, leucocratic stress minerals, and frictional dynamometamorphism. It is proposed that the cataclastic flow structure represented by clastomylonite texture is a cooling pattern of flow assemblage characterized by cooling metamorphism, cooling mylonite and cooling stress minerals. Such a pattern is formed generally in mildly reducing physicochemical environments, and is commonly related to regional tectonism and mesothermal and epithermal mineralization.

  6. Fabrication of sub-10 nm metal nanowire arrays with sub-1 nm critical dimension control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Shuang; Lin, Peng; Xia, Qiangfei

    2016-11-01

    Sub-10 nm metal nanowire arrays are important electrodes for building high density emerging ‘beyond CMOS’ devices. We made Pt nanowire arrays with sub-10 nm feature size using nanoimprint lithography on silicon substrates with 100 nm thick thermal oxide. We further studied the critical dimension (CD) evolution in the fabrication procedure and achieved 0.4 nm CD control, providing a viable solution to the imprint lithography CD challenge as specified by the international technology roadmap for semiconductors. Finally, we fabricated Pt/TiO2/Pt memristor crossbar arrays with the 8 nm electrodes, demonstrating great potential in dimension scaling of this emerging device.

  7. Comparison of Nd:YAG Ceramic Laser Pumped at 885 nm and 808 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZONG Nan; ZHANG Xiao-Fu; MA Qing-Lei; WANG Bao-Shan; CUI Da-Fu; PENG Qin-Jun; XU Zu-Yan; PAN Yu-Bai; FENG Xi-Qi

    2009-01-01

    Laser performance of 1064 nm domestic Nd: YA G ceramic lasers for 885 nm direct pumping and 808 nm traditional pumping are compared. Higher slope efficiency of 34% and maximum output power of 16.5 W are obtained for the 885nm pump with a 6ram length 1 at% Nd:YAG ceramic. The advantages for 885nm direct pumping are discussed in detail. This pumping scheme for highly doping a Nd:YAG ceramic laser is considered as an available way to generate high power and good beam quality simultaneously.

  8. Philippines. Church vs. state: Fidel Ramos and family planning face "Catholic Power".

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-24

    Catholic groups and individuals united in a public rally in Manila's Rizal Park to decry a "cultural dictatorship," which promotes abortion, homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual perversion, condoms, and artificial contraception. Government spokesmen responded that condoms and contraception were part of government policy to spread family planning knowledge and informed choices among the population. Cardinal Jaime Sin and former president Corazon Aquino joined forces to lead the movement against the national family planning program in the largest demonstration since the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos in 1986. Also criticized was the 85-page draft action plan for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) scheduled for September 1994. Cardinal Sin accused President Clinton of using the action plan to promote worldwide abortion. Under the administration of President Fidel Ramos, family planning funding has quintupled and the number of family planning workers has increased from 200 to 8000. President Ramos has gone the farthest of any administration in opposing the Church's positions on contraception and abortion, although years ago Fidel Ramos and Cardinal Sin were allies in the effort to push out Ferdinand Marcos. The population of the Philippines is 85% Catholic, and laws reflect the Church's doctrine against divorce and abortion. The current growth rate is 2.3%, and the goal is to reduce growth to 2.0% by 1998, the end of Ramos's term in office. The population target is in accord with demographic goals proposed in the UN draft action plan. The Vatican has opposed the language in the plan and may have encouraged other religious leaders to join those opposed to the "war against our babies and children." Sin said that contraceptive distribution was "intrinsically evil" and should be stopped now. Ramos's administration stated that their policies and programs are not "in the hands of the devil" and there is support for the Church on family values and

  9. Binder characterisation of mortars used at different ages in the San Lorenzo church in Milan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Luca, E-mail: luca.bertolini@polimi.it; Carsana, Maddalena, E-mail: maddalena.carsana@polimi.it; Gastaldi, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.gastaldi@polimi.it; Lollini, Federica, E-mail: federica.lollini@polimi.it; Redaelli, Elena, E-mail: elena.redaelli@polimi.it

    2013-06-15

    The paper describes a study on the mortars of the basilica of San Lorenzo in Milan, which was carried out to support an archaeological study aimed at dating and documenting the construction techniques used throughout the centuries. The church, which was founded between the 4th and 5th century, at the end of the period when Milan was the capital of the Roman Empire, was subjected in time to extensions, collapses and reconstructions that lasted until the Renaissance period and even later on. Thanks to the good state of conservation, San Lorenzo church is a collection of materials and construction techniques throughout a period of more than a millennium. Mortars were investigated in order to compare the binders used for structural elements built in different historical ages. From an archaeological study, samples of mortars attributed to the late Roman period, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance were available. The binder of each sample was separated by the aggregates and it was characterised on the basis of X-ray diffraction analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Constituents of the binder were identified and their origin is discussed in order to investigate if they could be attributed to the original composition of the binder or to possible alteration in time due to atmospheric pollution. Results show that, even though the binder is mainly based on magnesian lime, there are significant differences in the microstructure of the binding matrix used in mortars ascribed to the different historical periods. In the Roman period, in correspondence of the structural elements that required higher strength, also hydraulic cocciopesto mortars were detected. Gypsum was found in most samples, which was maybe added intentionally. - Highlights: • Binders of mortars of San Lorenzo church in Milan were investigated. • Roman, Middle Ages and Renaissance samples were studied by XRD, TG and SEM. • Magnesian-lime binders containing silico

  10. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  11. Optical lithography at a 126-nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hoyoung; Bourov, Anatoly; Smith, Bruce W.

    2001-08-01

    There is a window of opportunity for optical lithography between wavelengths of 100 nm and 157 nm that warrants exploration as a next generation technology. We will present activities underway to explore the feasibility of VUV optical lithography in this region with respect to source, optical design, materials, processes, masks, resolution enhancement, and compatibility with existing technologies. We have constructed a small field prototype lithography system using the second continuum 126nm emission wavelength of the Argon excimer. This has been accomplished using a small dielectric barrier discharge lamp with output on the order of 10mW/cm2 and small field catoptric imaging systems based on a modified Cassegrain system. Capacitance focus gauge and piezo electric stage has been installed for fine focusing. In order to achieve sub-half wavelength resolution that would be required to compete with 157nm lithography and others, we have started exploring the feasibility of using liquefied noble gas immersion fluids to increase effective value of lens numerical aperture by factors approaching 1.4x. Conventional silylation process works well with 126nm with high sensitivity. Chemically amplified DUV negative resist looks very good material for 126 nm. Initial contact printing image shows good selectivity and process control. An effort is also underway to explore the use of inorganic resist materials, as silver halide material for instance, to replace the conventional polymeric imaging systems that are currently employed at longer wavelengths, but may be problematic at these VUV wavelengths. Early accomplishments are encouraging. Prototype optical research tools can be used to reveal issues involved with 126nm lithography and solve initial problems. Though many challenges do exist at this short wavelength, it is quite feasible that lithography at this wavelength could meet the part of the needs of future device generations.

  12. A disease of frozen feelings: ethically working on emotional worlds in a Russian Orthodox Church drug rehabilitation program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zigon

    2010-01-01

    In a Russian Orthodox Church drug rehabilitation program in St. Petersburg, drug addiction was often described as a disease of frozen feelings. This image suggests that rehabilitation is a process of thawing emotional worlds and, thus, allows the emotions to flow once again. In this article I argue

  13. The Romani People and Selected Churches in Slovakia: a description, analysis, and interpretation of their relations (1989-2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robertson, G.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Romani People of Slovakia are marginalized in all areas of society including the church. The hypothesis of this study is that the influence of Christianity reduces the prejudicial marginalization of the Roma, providing them with a non-syncretistic faith that enables them to participate more read

  14. Electrochemical desalination of the ionic mixture measured in the vault of Rørby Church - Laboratory scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge; Bøllingtoft, P.

    2011-01-01

    Salt induced deterioration of the vault in Rørby Church has resulted in extensive deterioration of the vault itself and of the murals on the lower surface of the vault. The upper surface of the vault has previously been covered with cement mortar. After removing this cement mortar some of the bri...

  15. Perceptions of Classroom versus Online Education on the Ministerial Competencies of the Church of the Nazarene for Adult Ministerial Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirer, David H.

    2010-01-01

    This study addressed the comparison of classroom education with online education in helping adult ministerial students reach the specific levels of competencies in the fields of theology and pastoral care in the Church of the Nazarene. As the Director of the Alabama Nazarene School of Ministry and a member of the Master's Teacher Program of…

  16. Commodity fetichismo, the Holy Spirit, and the turn to Pentecostal and African Independent Churches in Central Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, James

    2005-09-01

    Pentecostal and African Independent Churches have rapidly spread throughout central Mozambique in the aftermath of war and in the midst of a recent structural adjustment program that has hastened commoditization of community life and intensified local inequalities. This extraordinary expansion signals a shift away from reliance on "traditional" healers to treat persistent afflictions believed to have spiritual causes. Survey data and illness narratives collected from recent church recruits and local residents during research in 2002 and 2003 in the city of Chimoio reveal that healers have increased fees and tailored treatments to clients searching for good fortune in ways that have alienated many other help seekers in this changing social environment. While traditional healing has been celebrated in the international health world, community attitudes are less generous; many healers are increasingly viewed with suspicion because of their engagement with malevolent occult forces to foment social conflict, competition, and confrontation for high fees. Church healing approaches offer free and less divisive spiritual protection reinforced by social support in a new collectivity. One vital source of church popularity derives from pastors' efforts to tap the already considerable community anxiety over rising healer fees and their socially divisive treatments in an insecure environment.

  17. Perceived importance of church-based assets to HIV/AIDS prevention and control in a Nigerian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aja, Godwin N; Modeste, Naomi N; Lee, Jerry W; Montgomery, Susanne; Belliard, Juan C

    This study explored the extent to which church members thought the assets they might have to engage in HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities were important. Eight hundred and thirty members from 83 Christian churches in Aba, Nigeria completed a multi-item survey questionnaire designed to obtain information on the importance they attached to church-based assets relevant to HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rating of importance of assets was on a scale of 1 to 5. Rating on the importance of assets was highest in the spiritual asset category (mean = 4.20), followed by health education (4.02), capacity building (4.01), social (3.62), and financial assets (3.54). Among the denominational assets, free HIV/AIDS drug donation was rated higher (4.10) than other assets in the subcategories. This study demonstrates the usefulness of ascertaining members' perspectives on the importance of church-based assets and provides a basis for recommendation to health education administrators.

  18. "Stand Therefore!" -Bishop Michael Bolton Furse, the Diocese of St. Albans, and the Church Schools Controversy, 1919-1939.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the educational problems and opportunities facing Hertfordshire (England) and the Anglican Diocese of St. Albans. Argues that the anxieties and aspirations of parishes and dioceses within the Church of England influenced the pace and nature of educational developments. Considers the involvement of Bishop Michael Bolton Furse. (CMK)

  19. Saving the World - Shaping Europe: The Relation between Church and Politics in the Theology of Bernard of Clairvaux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2009-01-01

    Against the background of a recent resurgence of the term "crusade" in public debate, president George Bush's and pope Benedict XVI's use of the term includede, Else Marie Wiberg Pedersen describes the Second Crusade (1146-1149) and the role of the Cistercian abbot and prominent "church politician...

  20. The Holy Office Against Fascism: Book Censorship and the Political Independence of the Church (1928–1931)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brera, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Studies into the activity of the Congregation of the Index and of the Holy Office have examined extensively the history of Vatican’s practices of book censorship. While up until the sixteenth century the Church imposed substantial modifications to literary texts, mainly in order to moralise them, in

  1. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, Lower Mississippi Delta, African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess the feasibility of implementing a six-month, church-based, dietary, pilot intervention, called Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. Effectiveness of the intervention to improve diet quality [measured using t...

  2. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

  3. Józef Putek. Path of interdict. The conflict between local authorities and parish priest in Chocznia in church documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Witkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Józef Putek (1892–1974, Juris Doctor, was distinguished people’s radical, peasant activist and member of parliment. He began his political career in his native village Chocznia, where, since 1919, he held the office of the Vogt. His uncompromising anticlericalism, fierce criticism of the Church and its position in the nation, brought about the conflict with the parson of Chocznia, Józef Dunajecki. Putek accused the parson of mismanagement and lawlessness in having at one’s disposal church wealth. A critical moment in the conflict between the Vogt and parson Dunajecki was the matter of the foundation of bells. The purchase was financed by parishioners and emigrants from Chocznia, who lived in Detroit and Chicago. Józef Putek objected to hanging bells on the church tower. Incursion to the church and stamping one of the bells was a direct cause of interdict. Another reason for the interdict by archbishop Adam Stefan Sapieha was the effect of anticlerical political and publicistic activity of the Vogt. Some examples include, publishing in Chocznia a radical newspaper „Sztandar Chłopski”. In 1929 Dr. Jur. Putek was canceled from the post of the Vogt and soon after that, in 1930, was imprisoned by the Sanation government in the fortress of Brześć.

  4. Reason, Grace and Charity: Augustine and the Impact of Church Doctrine on the Construction of Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainton, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how early church doctrine influenced the construction of and response to intellectual disability. Though the main focus of the paper is on intellectual disability, much of the discussion is more broadly relevant to other types of impairments and human differences. The vehicle for this examination is the work of the key figure…

  5. Who Is Called to Be a Bishop? A Study in Psychological Type Profiling of Bishops in the Church of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Whinney, Michael; Robbins, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 168 bishops, serving or retired, in the Church of England completed the Francis Psychological Type Scales. The psychological type profile of these bishops was compared with that of 626 Anglican clergymen. The bishops differed significantly from the clergymen on three of the four aspects of psychological type. The bishops were more…

  6. Conversion and conflict in Palestine : the missions of the Church Missionary Society and the protestant bishop Samuel Gobat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leest, Charlotte van der

    2008-01-01

    On 30 December 1846 Samuel Gobat (1799-1879) arrived in Jerusalem. This was the start of almost thirty-five years in office as bishop of the Protestant bishopric in Jerusalem. Throughout his episcopate Gobat closely cooperated with the missionaries of the Church Missionary Society (CMS), who were on

  7. We Make This Road by Walking: Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) Diaconal Ministers as Emancipatory Educators of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Nancy Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed method study was to discover how diaconal ministers in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) practice their ministry and describe and understand their role as educators of adults. The theoretical framework of the study was informed by the intersection of critical theory, feminist theory, and liberation…

  8. Empirical and Historical Perspectives on the Growth of Pentecostal-Style Churches in Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, William K.

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the growth of Pentecostal-style churches in Southeast Asia, and specifically in Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. It outlines four reasons for the growth that occurred and then, using qualitative and quantitative data in a mixed mode, seeks to test the hypotheses it derives. It concludes that each of the hypotheses…

  9. Church Schools Preparing Adolescents for Living in a Religiously Diverse Society: An Empirical Enquiry in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The Young People's Attitudes to Religious Diversity Project was established to compare the attitudes of students (13-to 15-years of age) educated within the state-maintained sector in church schools (Catholic, Anglican, joint Anglican and Catholic) and in schools without a religious foundation. Data provided by 5,402 students recruited from…

  10. Decolonization and the Politics of Syncretism: The Catholic Church, Indigenous Theology and Cultural Autonomy in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norget, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    The author's examination of Indigenous Theology and the indigenous pastoral is based on several periods of research over the past ten years in both rural and urban areas of Oaxaca state in Mexico, including participant-observation in several different kinds of church-directed settings and activities, and extensive interviews with clergy and…

  11. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  12. Negotiating Social Inclusion: The Catholic Church in Australia and the Public Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Lynch

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that for religion, social inclusion is not certain once gained, but needs to be constantly renegotiated in response to continued challenges, even for mainstream religious organisations such as the Catholic Church. The paper will analyse the Catholic Church’s involvement in the Australian public sphere, and after a brief overview of the history of Catholicism’s struggle for equal status in Australia, will consider its response to recent challenges to maintain its position of inclusion and relevance in Australian society. This will include an examination of its handling of sexual abuse allegations brought forward by the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, and its attempts to promote its vision of ethics and morals in the face of calls for marriage equality and other social issues in a society of greater religious diversity.

  13. First experiences with electrochemical in-situ desalination of bricks in a church vault construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Deterioration of surfaces on building constructions and especially historical constructions caused by presence of salts is a well known problem in Europe and on other continents as well, however there is still a lack of an efficient desalination method. Salt induced deterioration is especially...... problematic in relation to church vault constructions with murals as the surface deterioration can result in loss of valuable cultural heritage. An electrochemical method has been investigated with focus on possible use for desalination of salt loaded vault constructions with murals in laboratory scale....... In the present paper all necessary considerations were made and described prior to electrochemical in-situ desalination. Experiences in getting started with experiments on cultural heritage has been obtained, it needs some extra time and should therefore be considered as an extra step during the preparation...

  14. The facade of the church of Saint Spirit in Urbino: from scientific investigations to restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Amadori

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The state of advanced deterioration of the church of Saint Spirito of Urbino has induced the Superintendence for the Historical Artistic and Demoetnoanthropological Heritage of the Marches-Urbino and the Archiepiscopal Curia to program an intervention of restoration. Before that, the facade was covered from black crusts, grey deposits and yellowish films. The bricks of the wall, until to a height of approximately three meters from the bottom, moreover they were interested from processes of detachment, disintegration and exfoliation. In such area the presence of humidity was rather obvious and was attributable to phenomena of rising dump. In order to identify the constituent materials and to estimate of the state of conservation they have been carry out scientific investigations, whose it turns out have supplied profits indications for the restoration.

  15. Narrative Structure in Religious Conversion: The Case of Converts to the Pentecostal Methodist Church of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Masías

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I analyze the narrative structure of the discourse of individuals who have converted to the Pentecostal Methodist Church of Chile. I use Grounded Theory to analyze 11 conversion narratives, which were collected through a narrative-biographical interview, and with support from the graphical tool called Story-Line. The results identify two types of conversion narrative structure. The first one is understood as a personal salvation narrative, the second one is described as a spiritual renewal narrative. This allowed the construction of a conceptual model illustrating the way in which the conversion narrative of the convert is structured. The discussion is centered on comparing the findings of this study with other similar investigations; debating the similarities and differences found in conversion narratives and their differing philosophies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001210

  16. Shaping the worship of the Reformed Church in Geneva: Calvin on prayer and praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasdair Heron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to investigate the Calvin’s Genevan Service Order. It focuses on the question how the Psalter Calvin shaped the worship of the Reformed Church in Geneva. The article follows the critical edition of the Genevan prayer in Calvini Opera Selecta and in the German Studienausgabe as the two main published editions of the Genevan order with its related texts. The article shows that Calvin adhered to the general line of the Swiss and Upper German Reformations. It explores the understanding of worship reflected in the Genevan Service Order and the specific significance of its musical aspect. The article illustrates why Calvin gave the psalms the place he did in Genevan Reformed worship.

  17. Probabilistic Reconstruction of Orthodox Churches from Precision Point Clouds Using Bayesian Networks and Cellular Automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhova, M.; Korovin, D.; Gurianov, A.; Brodovskii, M.; Brunn, A.; Stilla, U.; Luhmann, T.

    2017-02-01

    The point cloud interpretation and reconstruction of 3d-buildings from point clouds has already been treated for a few decades. There are many articles which consider the different methods and workows of the automatic detection and reconstruction of geometrical objects from point clouds. Each method is suitable for the special geometry type of object or sensor. General approaches are rare. In our work we present an algorithm which develops the optimal process sequence of the automatic search, detection and reconstruction of buildings and building components from a point cloud. It can be used for the detection of the set of geometric objects to be reconstructed, independent of its destruction. In a simulated example we reconstruct a complete Russian-orthodox church starting from the set of detected structural components and reconstruct missing components with high probability.

  18. Using simulation to develop testable functionalist explanations: a case study of church survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoe, Edmund

    2006-09-01

    Many arguments for and against functionalism have revolved around logical and methodological issues, discouraging attempts to develop testable functionalist theories. This paper takes a different approach, arguing that the problem with sociological functionalism is not its logic of explanation but the absence of appropriate techniques for formalizing functionalist theories. The solution presented --agent-based simulation --is illustrated by a case study: a functionalist account of church survival. The case study suggests that there is nothing wrong with the logic of functionalism properly formalized, illustrates how simulation can enable testing of functionalist explanations and suggests why existing sociological methods have not proved fruitful for this task. In the light of new techniques like simulation, the current neglect of functionalism may no longer be justified.

  19. The 2007 Dutch Reformed Church Synod Resolution: Impact on gay ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie van Loggerenberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At the 2007 General Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church (DRC, a compromise resolution was accepted regarding homosexual members. The resolution, inter alia, requires of gay ministers to remain celibate as a prerequisite to be legitimated. This research is a qualitative inquiry to evaluate the impact this resolution has on the lives of gay ministers and gay candidate ministers. Apart from doing a literature study Narrative and Post-foundational perspectives were obtained by interviewing six gay ministers and/or candidate ministers as co-researchers, and also by engaging in dialogue with interdisciplinary experts from Sociology, Psychology and Law. From the stories told by the gay ministers and/or gay candidate ministers, certain themes emerged, revealing the immense impact caused by the resolution.

  20. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Larsen, Poul Klenz; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    There are 1700 medieval churches in Denmark, and many of these have brick vaults. The thickness is only 12 – 15 cm, and the heat loss through this building component is large. Thermal insulation has not been permitted until now in respect for the antiquarian values and doubts about the effect...... on water vapour transport through the vault, and the risk of condensation inside the insulation. A new mortar was developed for thermal insulation of bricks vaults, consisting mainly of expanded perlite, mixed with slaked lime. These materials are compatible with the fired clay bricks and the lime mortar...... joints. The insulation mortar is applied to the top side of the vault in a thickness of 10 cm, and covered by 10 mm lime plaster, reinforced with cattle hair. This assembly is resistant to the weight of a person, working with maintenance of the roof. The thermal conductivity of the insulation mortar...

  1. Aging and social networks in Spain: the importance of pubs and churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buz, José; Sanchez, Marta; Levenson, Michael R; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the social convoy model and socioemotional selectivity theory apply in collectivistic cultures by examining the contextual factors which are hypothesized to mediate age-related differences in social support in a collectivist European country. Five hundred Spanish community-dwelling older adults (Mean age = 74.78, SD = 7.76, range = 60-93) were interviewed to examine structural aspects of their social networks. We found that age showed highly complex relationships with network size and frequency of interaction, depending on the network circle and the mediation of cultural factors. Family structure was important for social relations in the inner circle, while pubs and churches were important for peripheral relations. Surprisingly, pub attendance was the most important variable for maintenance of social support of peripheral network members. In general, the results support the applicability of the social convoy and socioemotional selectivity constructs to social support among Spanish older adults.

  2. Nikolaos Mesarites, Description of the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople. New Critical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Daskas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study offers a reappraisal of Nikolaos Mesarites’ Description of the church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople, by providing new insights into its genre and the context of its composition. By concentrating on the text’s encomiastic features, the first part of the study retraces its carefully carved rhetorical construction. The second part analyses the so far neglected concluding section of the Description, in which the author, by hinting at the current historical juncture – the very years preceding the fourth Crusade – would seem to disclose a specific purpose for its composition. Finally, an hypothesis for dating the Description is also suggested, with the intention of defining it further in a forthcoming dedicated article.

  3. Radiation Failures in Intel 14nm Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossev, Dobrin P.; Duncan, Adam R.; Gadlage, Matthew J.; Roach, Austin H.; Kay, Matthew J.; Szabo, Carl; Berger, Tammy J.; York, Darin A.; Williams, Aaron; LaBel, K.; Ingalls, James D.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the 14 nm Intel Broadwell 5th generation core series 5005U-i3 and 5200U-i5 was mounted on Dell Inspiron laptops, MSI Cubi and Gigabyte Brix barebones and tested with Windows 8 and CentOS7 at idle. Heavy-ion-induced hard- and catastrophic failures do not appear to be related to the Intel 14nm Tri-Gate FinFET process. They originate from a small (9 m 140 m) area on the 32nm planar PCH die (not the CPU) as initially speculated. The hard failures seem to be due to a SEE but the exact physical mechanism has yet to be identified. Some possibilities include latch-ups, charge ion trapping or implantation, ion channels, or a combination of those (in biased conditions). The mechanism of the catastrophic failures seems related to the presence of electric power (1.05V core voltage). The 1064 nm laser mimics ionization radiation and induces soft- and hard failures as a direct result of electron-hole pair production, not heat. The 14nm FinFET processes continue to look promising for space radiation environments.

  4. The friendly heating project and the conservation of the cultural heritage preserved in churches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camuffo, Dario [National Research Council (CNR), Padua (IT). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (ISAC)

    2011-07-01

    The buildings sector is receiving important attention in the development of sustainable energy efficiency policies. Historic buildings and churches constitute a problem because they have enormous volumes, the envelope has low efficiency and for their nature such buildings escape from the legislative framework. This paper discusses the main findings of the EU funded project Friendly-Heating. Heating only finalized to the thermal comfort of churchgoers is not compatible with conservation: the higher the comfort level, the stronger the departure from the historical climate and the higher the risk for conservation. The importance of keeping the unchanged the historical climate is stressed by the European standard EN 15757: 2010 ''Conservation of Cultural Property - Specifications for temperature and relative humidity to limit climate-induced mechanical damage in organic hygroscopic materials''. A compromise should be necessarily found between different needs, i.e. thermal comfort, artwork conservation, energy saving and cost. Thermal comfort is negatively correlated with all other needs, the others going all in the same direction. An optimisation can be found by controlling the heat dispersion: instead to heating the whole building, it is convenient to keep heat localised around the congregation and reduce dispersions as far as possible. Instead of using systems that require continuous operation, it is more convenient to use only local, occasional heating. Artworks will safely remain in their historical climate; a small quantity of heat will reach and cross the envelope, thus reducing energy consumption and cost. Churchgoers may have some heat, especially on feet and legs and heavier clothing too may be helpful to optimise the balance towards a better advantage. The above concepts have inspired the European standard EN 15759: 2011 ''Conservation of cultural property - Specification and control of indoor environment - Part 1. Heating of

  5. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  6. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-01-01

    Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  7. Leo Tolstoy’s Anticlericalism in Its Context and Beyond: A Case against Churches and Clerics, Religious and Secular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Christoyannopoulos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last thirty years of his life, Leo Tolstoy wrote numerous books, essays and pamphlets expounding his newly-articulated views on violence, the state, the church, and on how to improve the human condition. Since then, these “Christian anarchist” views have often been dismissed as utopian or naive, and, despite inspiring many activists and intellectuals, often forgotten or ignored. Some of those views and arguments, however, arguably remain apposite today—and can in some cases be applied to broader phenomena than those he identified. This article focuses on one of the aspects of his Christian anarchist thought: his anticlericalism. The first Section recounts the evolution of Tolstoy’s views on religion and the church, and briefly describes Tolstoy’s peculiar metaphysics. The second outlines his main charges against the church, discusses some common objections to it, and considers the continuing relevance of his anticlericalism. The third seeks to secularise his anticlerical arguments by applying them beyond the church, against secular preachers and institutions, and does so by reflecting on the quality of debate in the contemporary public sphere, on the hypocritical distance between the morality preached by secular “clerics” and their practice, and on the steady process of ossification and betrayal which befalls secular political ideals. The article thus contributes to the literature firstly by summarising, discussing and reflecting upon the anticlericalism of a famous writer who also espoused controversial religious and political views; secondly by succinctly outlining his idiosyncratic metaphysics, including his peculiar reinterpretation of traditional Christian referents; and thirdly by applying the arguments that informed his criticisms of the church to a broader variety of religious and secular secular institutions.

  8. PROBLEMS OF MODERN MONUMENTAL PAINTING DEVELOPMENT OF ORTHODOX CHURCHES OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES BY EXAMPLE OF WORKSHOP G. KORDIS ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Levchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the sources and specific features of stylistic decision of the frescoes created by the icon-painting studio that is led by Georgios Kordis in Orthodox churches on the territory of the United States in the 2000-2010’s. These frescoes were created by icon-painting studio that is led by Georgios Kordis. The activity of this studio in the sphere of monumental painting in the USA and the other foreign countries is a notable and significant phenomenon of apprehension and use of the heritage of Byzantium art, first of all, the epoch of so-called Paleologs’ Renaissance. There is revealed the cause of use of basic means of organization of fresco ensemble that were worked out in the Byzantium church art of the 14th century. Particularly here is featured some basic methods of creation of the fresco ensemble that had been worked out in Byzantium art and are used by the contemporary icon-painters. There is emphasized that choice of origin that is used as handmark by G. Kordis and his work team is based on elegance and completeness of plastic language. From the other side on example of frescoes of St. Catherine church in Braintree and Holy Trinity Church (Carmel, Indiana there is revealed the clearly defined individuality of master who is the leader of team of icon-painters and determines the choice of stylistic source and in one or another fresco. In the context of frescoes that are investigated in the article the question is conscious accentuation of some means that are connected with rhythmic organization of frescoes and handling of their subjects. Such means allows approach the proximity to the origin that is significant from the artistic point of view and in some cases to make the subjects of the Sacred history to the congregation of contemporary American churches.

  9. Workshop on hydrology of crystalline basement rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.N. (comp.)

    1981-08-01

    This workshop covered the following subjects: measurements in relatively shallow boreholes; measurement and interpretation of data from deep boreholes; hydrologic properties of crystalline rocks as interpreted by geophysics and field geology; rock mechanics related to hydrology of crystalline rocks; the possible contributions of modeling to the understanding of the hydrology of crystalline rocks; and geochemical interpretations of the hydrology of crystalline rocks. (MHR)

  10. Common scale features of the recent Greek and Serbian church chant traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to show the similarity between the Serbian and Greek Post-Byzantine chanting traditions, especially those which relate to the scale organization of modes. Three teachers and reformers from Constantinople, Chrisantos, Gregorios and Chourmousios, established a fairly firm theoretical system for the first time during the long history of church chant. One of the main results of their reform, beside changes relating to neums, was the assignment of strict sizes to the intervals in the natural tonal system. There are three kinds of natural scales: diatonic, chromatic and encharmonic. They all have their place in the Greek Anastasimatarion chant book, whose first edition was prepared by Petar Peloponesios, and later edited by Ionnes Protopsaltes. The first, first plagal and forth plagal modes are diatonic in each of their melos, with very few exceptions; the second and second plagal are soft and hard chromatic, while the third and varis are encharmonic. It is important to note that the Greek chanter is very conscious of the scale foundation of the melody, so he begins to chant the apechima foremost, the intonation formula that comprehends all indisposed details to enter the adequate mode, i. e. melos. One mode could use one sort of scale for all groups of melodies - melos. However, in some modes there are different melos, whose scale organisation is not equal at all. That means that it is not proper to equate mode with scale, but rather to look for the specific scale's shape through the melodies that belong to the melos. The absence of formal Serbian church music theory and, especially, the very conservative way in which church melodies are learnt by ear and by heart, has caused significant gaps, which preclude an adequate approach to the essentional principals of Serbian chant. Over the years many Serbian chanters and musicians have noted down church melodies, especially those from the Octoechos, in F or in G, with the key

  11. Diode laser (980nm) cartilage reshaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kharbotly, A.; El Tayeb, T.; Mostafa, Y.; Hesham, I.

    2011-03-01

    Loss of facial or ear cartilage due to trauma or surgery is a major challenge to the otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons as the complicated geometric contours are difficult to be animated. Diode laser (980 nm) has been proven effective in reshaping and maintaining the new geometric shape achieved by laser. This study focused on determining the optimum laser parameters needed for cartilage reshaping with a controlled water cooling system. Harvested animal cartilages were angulated with different degrees and irradiated with different diode laser powers (980nm, 4x8mm spot size). The cartilage specimens were maintained in a deformation angle for two hours after irradiation then released for another two hours. They were serially measured and photographed. High-power Diode laser irradiation with water cooling is a cheep and effective method for reshaping the cartilage needed for reconstruction of difficult situations in otorhinolaryngologic surgery. Key words: cartilage,diode laser (980nm), reshaping.

  12. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  13. Liquid Carbon Reflectivity at 19 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Mincigrucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby report on a pump-probe reflectivity experiment conducted on amorphous carbon, using a 780 nm laser as a pump and a 19 nm FEL emission as probe. Measurements were performed at 50 degrees with respect to the surface normal to have an un-pumped reflectivity higher than 0.5%. A sub-10 fs time synchronization error could be obtained exploiting the nearly jitter-free capabilities of FERMI. EUV FEL-based experiments open the way to study the behaviour of a liquid carbon phase being unaffected by plasma screening.

  14. External cavity diode laser around 657 nm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Desheng Lǖ (吕德胜); Kaikai Huang (黄凯凯); Fengzhi Wang (王凤芝); DonghaiYang (杨东海)

    2003-01-01

    Operating a laser diode in an external cavity, which provides frequency-selective feedback, is a very effective method to tune the laser frequency to a range far from its free running frequency. For the Ca atomic Ramsey spectroscopy experiment, we have constructed a 657-nm laser system based on the LittmanMetcalf configuration with a 660-nm commercial laser diode. Continuously 10-GHz tuning range was achieved with about 100-kHz spectral linewidth, measured with beat-note spectrum of two identical laser systems.

  15. Seismic properties of polyphase rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin

    2005-11-01

    Knowledge about the seismic properties of polyphase rocks is fundamental for interpreting seismic refraction and reflection data and for establishing lithospheric structure and composition models. This study aims to obtain more precise relationships between seismic properties of rocks and controlling factors (e.g., pressure, temperature, mineralogical and chemical compositions, microstructure of rocks), particularly for those rocks imprinted by ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism. These relationships will be very helpful to extrapolate calculated and measured seismic properties of rocks to depths of interest and to engender interpretations relevant to petrological composition and tectonic process. An Internet Database of Rock Seismic Properties (DRSP) was set up and a Handbook of Seismic Properties of Minerals, Rocks and Ores was published. They comprise almost all data available in the literature during the past 4 decades and can serve as a convenient, comprehensive and concise information source on physical properties of rocks to the earth sciences and geotechnical communities. Statistical results of the DRSP reveal the dependence of seismic properties on density, porosity, humidity, and mineralogical and chemical compositions. Using 16 different averaging methods, we calculated P-wave velocities of 696 dry samples according to the volume fraction and elastic constants of each constituent mineral. Although only 22 common minerals were taken into account in the computation, the calculated P-wave velocities agree well with laboratory values measured at about 300 MPa, where most microcracks are closed and the mean Vp of a polymineralic rock is exclusively controlled by its modal composition. However, none of these mixture rules can simultaneously fit measured P-wave velocities for all lithologies or at all pressures. Therefore, more prudence is required in selecting an appropriate mixture rule for calculation of seismic velocities of different rock types.

  16. Research on Mechanism of Rock Burst Generation and Development for High Stress Rock Tunnels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高全臣; 赫建明; 王代华

    2001-01-01

    Through the investigation and analysis of high stress distribution in surrounding rock during the excavation of rock tunnels,the key factors to cause rock burst and the mechanism of rock burst generation and development are researched. The result shows that the scale and range of rock burst are related with elastic deformation energy storied in rock mass and the characteristics of unloading stress waves. The measures of preventing from rock burst for high stress rock tunnels are put forward.

  17. [Study on the Character Relationship Between the Density and Susceptibility of the Rock and the Reflection Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng-long; Yang, Chang-bao; Liu, Wan-song; Wu, Yan-gang; Zhang, Chen-xi

    2015-08-01

    It chooses 15 kinds of rock from the three major rock categories as the rock samples (the number of rock samples is 208) and obtains the density, susceptibility and reflection spectrum at the wave band of 350~2500 nm. It calculates the correlative coefficients with the aim of studying the characteristic relationship between the property (including the density and the susceptibility) of the rock and the reflectivity. It concludes the wave band of the reflection spectrum which owes the prospect to discuss the density and susceptibility of the rock qualitatively or quantitatively, meanwhile, it sums up the characteristic of the curves of the correlative coefficients. In this paper, the discussion and analysis based on the results show that the study on the character relationship between the property of rock (density and susceptibility) and the reflection spectrum is meaningful and workable.

  18. Tracer tomography (in) rocks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyvári, Márk; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Jimenez Parras, Santos; Bayer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Physical behavior of fractured aquifers is rigorously controlled by the presence of interconnected conductive fractures, as they represent the main pathways for flow and transport. Ideally, they are simulated as a discrete fracture network (DFN) in a model to capture the role of fracture system geometry, i.e. fracture length, height, and width (aperture/transmissivity). Such network may be constrained by prior geological information or direct data resources such as field mapping, borehole logging and geophysics. With the many geometric features, however, calibration of a DFN to measured data is challenging. This is especially the case when spatial properties of a fracture network need to be calibrated to flow and transport data. One way to increase the insight in a fractured rock is by combining the information from multiple field tests. In this study, a tomographic configuration that combines multiple tracer tests is suggested. These tests are conducted from a borehole with different injection levels that act as sources. In a downgradient borehole, the tracer is recorded at different levels or receivers, in order to maximize insight in the spatial heterogeneity of the rock. As tracer here we chose heat, and temperature breakthrough curves are recorded. The recorded tracer data is inverted using a novel stochastic trans-dimensional Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedure. An initial DFN solution is generated and sequentially modified given available geological information, such as expected fracture density, orientation, length distribution, spacing and persistency. During this sequential modification, the DFN evolves in a trans-dimensional inversion space through adding and/or deleting fracture segments. This stochastic inversion algorithm requires a large number of thousands of model runs to converge, and thus using a fast and robust forward model is essential to keep the calculation efficient. To reach this goal, an upwind coupled finite difference method is employed

  19. MEPHISTO spectromicroscope reaches 20 nm lateral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stasio, Gelsomina; Perfetti, Luca; Gilbert, B.; Fauchoux, O.; Capozi, M.; Perfetti, P.; Margaritondo, G.; Tonner, B. P.

    1999-03-01

    The recently described tests of the synchrotron imaging photoelectron spectromicroscope MEPHISTO (Microscope à Emission de PHotoélectrons par Illumination Synchrotronique de Type Onduleur) were complemented by further resolution improvements and tests, which brought the lateral resolution down to 20 nm. Images and line plot profiles demonstrate such performance.

  20. General considerations regarding the importance of a study of the acoustic conditions of churches with historic and artistic value in Mexico. The case of baroque architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Manzo, Fausto; Kotasek Gonzalez, Eduardo

    2002-11-01

    This paper deals with the problem of old churches in Mexico with historic and artistic value. Some churches in the baroque period in Mexico are examples of a kind of building used as concert and conference halls. However there is a lack of acoustic knowledge of these kinds of architectural spaces in Mexico. This knowledge will also augment that of the historic, artistic and architectural point of view, and be a foundation for high-quality renovation and preservation projects for this type of building. The particular characteristics of some of the most significant churches of this period are presented as well as a first architectural acoustics review of them.

  1. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church.

  2. Uranium series, volcanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Application of U-series dating to volcanic rocks provides unique and valuable information about the absolute timing of crystallization and differentiation of magmas prior to eruption. The 238U–230Th and 230Th-226Ra methods are the most commonly employed for dating the crystallization of mafic to silicic magmas that erupt at volcanoes. Dates derived from the U–Th and Ra–Th methods reflect crystallization because diffusion of these elements at magmatic temperatures is sluggish (Cherniak 2010) and diffusive re-equilibration is insignificant over the timescales (less than or equal to 10^5 years) typically associated with pre-eruptive storage of nearly all magma compositions (Cooper and Reid 2008). Other dating methods based on elements that diffuse rapidly at magmatic temperatures, such as the 40Ar/39Ar and (U–Th)/He methods, yield dates for the cooling of magma at the time of eruption. Disequilibrium of some short-lived daughters of the uranium series such as 210Po may be fractionated by saturation of a volatile phase and can be employed to date magmatic gas loss that is synchronous with volcanic eruption (e.g., Rubin et al. 1994).

  3. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-03-18

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (..nu.. ..-->.. 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard.

  4. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  5. Source rock potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, H.A. (Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan))

    1991-03-01

    Pakistan contains two sedimentary basins: Indus in the east and Balochistan in the west. The Indus basin has received sediments from precambrian until Recent, albeit with breaks. It has been producing hydrocarbons since 1914 from three main producing regions, namely, the Potwar, Sulaisman, and Kirthar. In the Potwar, oil has been discovered in Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, and Tertiary rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Infra-Cambrian, Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene successions, but Paleocene/Eocene Patala Formation seems to be the main source of most of the oil. In the Sulaiman, gas has been found in Cretaceous and Tertiary; condensate in Cretaceous rocks. Potential source rocks are indicated in Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene successions. The Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age appears to be the source of gas. In the Kirthar, oil and gas have been discovered in Cretaceous and gas has been discovered in paleocene and Eocene rocks. Potential source rocks are identified in Kirthar and Ghazij formations of Eocene age in the western part. However, in the easter oil- and gas-producing Badin platform area, Union Texas has recognized the Sembar Formation of Early Cretaceous age as the only source of Cretaceous oil and gas. The Balochistan basin is part of an Early Tertiary arc-trench system. The basin is inadequately explored, and there is no oil or gas discovery so far. However, potential source rocks have been identified in Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene successions based on geochemical analysis of surface samples. Mud volcanoes are present.

  6. Geoelectrical Characterization of Sulphate Rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Guinea Maysounave, Ander

    2012-01-01

    [eng] Gypsum rocks are widely exploited in the world as industrial minerals. The purity of the gypsum rocks (percentage in gypsum mineral –CaSO4•2H2O- in the whole rock) is a critical factor to evaluate the potential exploitability of a gypsum deposit. It is considered than purities higher than 80% in gypsum are required to be economically profitable. Gypsum deposits have been studied with geoelectrical methods; a direct relationship between the electrical resistivity values of the gypsum roc...

  7. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  8. Photoresist outgassing at 157 nm exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hien, Stefan; Angood, Steve; Ashworth, Dominic; Basset, Steve; Bloomstein, Theodore M.; Dean, Kim R.; Kunz, Roderick R.; Miller, Daniel A.; Patel, Shashikant; Rich, Georgia K.

    2001-08-01

    Contamination of optical elements during photoresist exposure is a serious issue in optical lithography. The outgassing of photoresist has been identified as a problem at 248nm and 193nm in production because the organic films that can be formed on an exposure lens can cause transmission loss and sever image distortion. At these exposure energies, the excitation of the photo acid generator, formation of acid, and cleavage of the protecting group are highly selective processes. At 157nm, the exposure energy is much higher (7.9 eV compared to 6.4 eV at 193nm) and it is known from laser ablation experiments that direct laser cleavage of sigma bonds occurs. The fragments formed during this irradiation can be considered as effective laser deposition precursors even in the mid ppb level. In this study, methods to quantify photoresist outgassing at 157 nm are discussed. Three criteria have been set up at International SEMATECH to protect lens contamination and to determine the severity of photoresist outgassing. First, we measured film thickness loss as a function of exposure dose for a variety of materials. In a second test we studied the molecular composition of the outgassing fragments with an exposure chamber coupled to a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer detector. Our third method was a deposition test of outgassing vapors on a CaF2 proof plate followed by analysis using VUV and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS). With this technique we found deposits for many different resists. Our main focus is on F- and Si- containing resists. Both material classes form deposits especially if these atoms are bound to the polymer side chains. Whereas the F-containing films can be cleaned off under 157nm irradiation, cleaning of Si-containing films mainly produces SiO2. Our cleaning studies of plasma deposited F-containing organic films on SiO2 did not indicate damage of this surface by the possible formation of HF. Despite that we strongly recommend engineering

  9. How much for the beetles and the church? — Landslide effects on nature and cultural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suer, Pascal; Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne

    2010-05-01

    The Swedish Geotechnical Institute is currently engaged in evaluating the consequences of landslides in the Göta älv river valley. The overall risk assessment method is to multiply landslide probability with consequence, expressed in monetary terms. Landslide damage may either be direct on the landslide area itself, or indirect through water pollution and shock waves. The intention is a holistic view of the entire consequences. These include road and rail transport systems, agriculture and forestry, life and inhabitants, buildings, contaminated sites and hazardous industries, … , and the special subject of this presentation: values of the natural and cultural environment. Biodiversity, landscape, recreation and fishing were the four functions that had caused designation of areas as of special interest from a nature perspective. The inventory comprised all areas designated as of national interest, all Natura 2000 areas, and a sample of the nature reserves in the area. Biodiversity may be either decreased or increased by landslides. The damageable part consists for example of old deciduous forests, fish spawning sites, or marsh areas with high biological diversity. Trees are disturbed by landslides; marsh areas may slide into the river or dry out. At the same time, landslides and mass movements contribute to biodiversity because they enable pioneer vegetation and natural succession of vegetation, cause dead trees and create a landscape with many micro-habitats. The landscape function includes a geodiversity value, biophysical diversity, an opportunity to study natural processes, and an educational possibility. These gain rather than lose by each landslide. Recreation and fishing are ecosystem services that may be hindered by landslides. Designated cultural values of national interest were primarily architectonic: City blocks from the 17th century or the 1920s own-home movement, a village structure from prior to the major land consolidation, a church village etc

  10. Digital Reconstruction of the Church of San Ildefonso at Zamora (spain) Using Orthoware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A.; Cachero, R.; Navarro, S.; Jordá, F.; López, D.; Lerma, J. L.; Martos, A.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes the surveying process performed on the Church of San Ildefonso in Zamora (Spain) using Orthoware©, an innovative photogrammetric software tool specially designed for the digital reconstruction of cultural heritage. This software is the result of intense R&D at Metria Digital after several years producing heritage true orthoimages, plans and full color 3D models in a commercial environment. Orthoware allows true measurements and produces high quality true orthoimages and full color 3D models starting out from conventional digital photographs. This is a progressive tool designed for non-specialist users, providing intuitive and quick methods to visually diagnose the quality of the results. The Church of San Ildefonso in Zamora was built over a previously existing temple whose Romanesque construction dates back to the 11th century, although it is nowadays hidden among extensions and remodelings carried out up until 18th century. With a length of more than 30 meters, the original floor plan of the Church consists on three naves and three apses, although only one nave is visible now, covered by groin vault, and one semicircular apse partially hidden by the current building. The south front maintains the greater part of its Romanesque origins, in spite of being hidden and higher than the present ground level. At the feet of the temple a tower rises, whose first stage is Romanesque but which has been altered by numerous Baroque elements. The objective of the photogrammetric reconstruction was the integral survey of the monument, including its four façades, interior faces and roofs for the production of some true-orthoimages, cross-sections, longitudinal-sections and ground plans at scale 1/50 with an accuracy of 10 mm for the drawings and a pixel size below 10 mm for the synthetic imagery. The usual photogrammetric workflow for producing true-orthoimages and digital 3D models in cultural heritage depends to a great extent on finding and matching

  11. Photochemistry of acrylates at 222 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Madani, Mohamed; von Sonntag, Clemens

    2005-07-01

    Excimer lamps as monochromatic UV sources with an intense short-wavelength emission (especially KrCl∗, 222 nm) allow a photoinitiator-free initiation of the acrylate polymerisation. Laser photolysis (KrCl∗ excimer laser, pulse width 20 ns, up to 5 mJ per pulse) gives rise to similar transient spectra (λmax ≈ 280 nm) for all acrylates studied. As the rather unspecific spectra do not allow conclusions as to the main reaction channel, a product study has been performed by GC-MS following steady-state photolysis of acrylate solutions in acetonitrile, methanol and n-hexane. Somewhat unexpected, α-cleavage seems to be a main reaction channel, and quantum chemical calculations show that such a reaction can occur from either the excited singlet state or the unrelaxed triplet state, but not from the relaxed triplet state that is observed spectroscopically. A reaction scheme accounting for the observed products is presented.

  12. ROCK DEFORMATION. Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-05-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at II Ciocco from 5/19/02 thru 5/24/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  13. Anthropic Rock: a brief history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Cathcart

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stone tool-making is a reductive process. Synthetic rock manufacturing, preeminently an additive process, will not for-ever be confined to only the Earth-biosphere. This brief focuses on humanity's ancient past, hodiernal and possible future even more massive than present-day creation of artificial rocks within our exploitable Solar System. It is mostly Earth-centric account that expands the factual generalities underlying the unique non-copyrighted systemic technogenic rock classification first publicly presented (to the American Geological Society during 2001, by its sole intellectual innovator, James Ross Underwood, Jr. His pioneering, unique exposition of an organization of this ever-increasingly important aspect of the Anthropic Rock story, spatially expansive material lithification, here is given an amplified discussion for the broader geo and space science social group-purpose of encouragement of a completer 21st Century treatment of Underwood's explicative subject-chart (Fig. 2.

  14. Radiation Status of Sub-65 nm Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Ultra-scaled complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) includes commercial foundry capabilities at and below the 65 nm technology node Radiation evaluations take place using standard products and test characterization vehicles (memories, logic/latch chains, etc.) NEPP focus is two-fold: (1) Conduct early radiation evaluations to ascertain viability for future NASA missions (i.e. leverage commercial technology development). (2) Uncover gaps in current testing methodologies and mechanism comprehension -- early risk mitigation.

  15. Questioning generational labels and their usefulness for church policy (A response to Leslie van Rooi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk De Roest

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    First, you quote Hestorff, Kruger and others in order to find ´defining characteristics´ of Generation Y. You state that Generation Y members have a common philosophy of life, are very busy and at times, stressed out and can often feel lonely, the two last points also being confirmed by the Stellenbosch University inquiry. Often they participate in and develop their identity in a particular peer cluster. It is a generation that is highly ambitious and wants to be successful. They are critical with regard to absolutism. What counts is being genuine, original and authentic. Generation Y members are socially concerned and internet savvy. Despite the diversity, which is a feature of this generation too, the commonality is striking: it allows you, Leslie, to speak of an ‘apparent gap’ with former generations. Second, you assert that Generation Y members are ´keenly interested in finding a safe place to belong´. The experience with divorces among the previous, baby boomer and X generations may have had, as you suggest, a formative effect upon the core values of the members of the Y generation. You quote Reggie Nel who found that young people highly value their home as a place of care, love and safety. You add that if the family structure does not function or is torn apart young people will have serious difficulties in developing their identity. Third, for the Stellenbosch students, being representative of generation Y, the church and spirituality play an important role. You question the URCSA focus on ethical and doctrinal education and specifically, you raise criticism as to whether this education responds to the needs of the Generation Y-members. Implicitly you seem to suggest that the church can and should play a more formative role. I think this implicit proposal deserves to become more explicit and developed more fully.

  16. Inimluud Mihkli kiriku võlvidelt / Human remains on the vaulted ceiling of Mihkli Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Malve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 4029 human bones or their fragments from the C 13th–18th were gathered and analysed from soil on the vaults of Mihkli (St Michael’s Church in western Estonia during the rescue works in 2011 (photo 1. Ribs and vertebrae formed the majority of bones, but wholly preserved long bones and other larger bones, as well as, hand and foot bones that are quite typical among mixed human remains were almost absent in this case. Therefore, it can be concluded that during the earthworks larger bones were taken from the soil. The minimum number of adults was determined by the ribs of the right side. Only the ribs with preserved heads (figure 1 were used in calculations. The rib fragments indicate approximately 60 adults among the assorted bones. Judging by the radius, there were at least 16 children among the bone assemblage. Scarceness of children in the Mihkli church can be the result of poor preservation, smallness and fragility of their bones, but the possibility that subadult (child and juvenile burials were fewer in the destroyed part of the churchyard cannot be ruled out.Pathological analysis of the osteological material ascertained several diseases and traumas, the most common pathologies being connected to ageing, for example, wearing of joints (Osteoarthrosis. Various diseases related to degeneration of the spine were present – spondylosis, spondyloarthrosis and osteochondrosis. Compression fractures (fractura compressiva and Schmorl´s nodes (nodi Schmorl indicated strenuous physical activity and/or traumas. Dental diseases included caries (photo 2, alveolar reduction, hypoplasia and tooth abscesses. Several upper and lower jaws showed traces of ante mortem lost teeth (photo 3. In one case a canine of the right mandible of an adult man (age 45 + years had formed but had not erupted (photo 4.Various healed fractures of ribs and limb bones formed the bulk of traumas detected on the bones. Three right ribs had fractures in a stage of

  17. Migration crisis and the church: A response to lacunae and considerations for Christian ministry engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Magezi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically assesses some theological-ecclesiological responses and approaches to migration challenges in order to ascertain lacunae within Christian ministry engagement. Although other academic disciplines such economics, politics, geography, demography, sociology, psychology, law, history, anthropology and environmental studies shape the discourse of migration, theology boarders the migration debate as if it does not have anything to offer. However, this does not necessarily mean there are no existing theological-ecclesiological responses and approaches to migration challenges. Thus, this article proceeds to categorise the theological-ecclesiological responses to migration challenges into four approaches: (1 the approach that focuses on practical responses from pastoral care that is limited to particular social contexts, (2 the approach of theological motif and ministry praxis from narrow and single biblical texts, (3 the response that focuses on Israel as a paradigm of how the native churches and hosting nations should treat migrants and (4 a systematic approach which focuses on doctrinal formulations that respond to migration challenges. In considering these positions but moving beyond them in response to migration challenges, this article exposes a theological debate and agenda for migration ministry. In doing so, this article identifies some lacunae for further exploration in Christian migration ministry engagement. It concludes by underscoring the need for a meaningful and responsive theology that shapes the discourse of migration, as well as the formulation of operative ecclesiological responses. This article thus contends and paves the way for theological research to become central to migration studies in a manner that demonstrates that theology transcends spiritual reflection to include practical psycho-social, emotional, economic and other dimensions. The contribution of this article lies in its examination of the existing

  18. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  19. The Advantages of Parametric Modeling for the Reconstruction of Historic Buildings. The Example of the in War Destroyed Church of ST. Catherine (katharinenkirche) in Nuremberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, M.; Herbst, G.; Rieke-Zapp, D.; Rosenbauer, R.; Rutishauser, S.; Zellweger, A.

    2013-02-01

    Consecrated in 1297 as the monastery church of the four years earlier founded St. Catherine's monastery, the Gothic Church of St. Catherine was largely destroyed in a devastating bombing raid on January 2nd 1945. To counteract the process of disintegration, the departments of geo-information and lower monument protection authority of the City of Nuremburg decided to getting done a three dimensional building model of the Church of St. Catherine's. A heterogeneous set of data was used for preparation of a parametric architectural model. In effect the modeling of historic buildings can profit from the so called BIM method (Building Information Modeling), as the necessary structuring of the basic data renders it into very sustainable information. The resulting model is perfectly suited to deliver a vivid impression of the interior and exterior of this former mendicant orders' church to present observers.

  20. A Transferencia do Controle da Educacao da Igreja para o Estado (The Transfer of Educational Control from the Church to the State).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcos

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the principal phases in the historical process of the occidental world that resulted in the transfer of educational control from the church to the state, demonstrating some of the consequences of this historic turn. (BT)

  1. Institute for Rock Magnetism established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    There is a new focal point for cooperative research in advanced rock magnetism. The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis has established an Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) that will provide free access to modern equipment and encourage visiting fellows to focus on important topics in rock magnetism and related interdisciplinary research. Funding for the first three years has been secured from the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the University of Minnesota.In the fall of 1986, the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) section of the AGU held a workshop at Asilomar, Calif., to pinpoint important and emerging research areas in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, and the means by which to achieve them. In a report of this workshop published by the AGU in September 1987, two urgent needs were set forth. The first was for interdisciplinary research involving rock magnetism, and mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, and the like. The second need was to ease the access of rock magnetists and paleomagnetists around the country to the latest equipment in modern magnetics technology, such as magneto-optics or electronoptics. Three years after the publication of the report, we announced the opening of these facilities at the GP section of the AGU Fall 1990 Meeting. A classified advertisement inviting applications for visiting fellowships was published in the January 22, 1991, issue of Eos.

  2. The contribution of the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa (NHKA to theological training at the Transvaal University College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. van der Merwe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ideal of theological training of candidates for the ministry of the Dutch Reformed Church (NHK found its first (formal expression in 1884. Difficult ecclesiastical, social and economic circumstances (including the consequences of the First and Second Anglo-Boer Wars prevented dreams and plans from being realised. The opening of a Pretoria division of the Transvaal University College (TUC in 1908 created new opportunities, but it would take another eight years before planning for theological training at the TUC could start. The NHK and the Presbyterian Church were involved as denominational partners in this undertaking. This phase lasted from 1917 to 1933. These humble beginnings laid the foundation for the theological training of ministers at university level – a paradigm which is still applicable in South Africa today.

  3. 3D Documentation and BIM Modeling of Cultural Heritage Structures Using UAVs: The Case of the Foinikaria Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Hadjimitsis, D.

    2016-10-01

    The documentation of architectural cultural heritage sites has traditionally been expensive and labor-intensive. New innovative technologies, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), provide an affordable, reliable and straightforward method of capturing cultural heritage sites, thereby providing a more efficient and sustainable approach to documentation of cultural heritage structures. In this study, hundreds of images of the Panagia Chryseleousa church in Foinikaria, Cyprus were taken using a UAV with an attached high resolution camera. The images were processed to generate an accurate digital 3D model by using Structure in Motion techniques. Building Information Model (BIM) was then used to generate drawings of the church. The methodology described in the paper provides an accurate, simple and cost-effective method of documenting cultural heritage sites and generating digital 3D models using novel techniques and innovative methods.

  4. ON THE PROBLEM OF THE PROVENANCE OF THE SLAVONIC TRANSLATION OF THE EUCHOLOGION OF THE GREAT CHURCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana I. Afanasyeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the Slavonic translation of the Euchologion of the Great Church preserved in two vellum Russian manuscripts of the late XIV — early XV centuries from the State Historical Museum, the Synodal Collection, No. 675 and No. 900. The norms of this translation are similar to those found in metropolitan Cyprian’s translations of liturgical texts. We suggest that the Slavonic version of the Euchologion of the Great Church was composed by scribes who belonged to the Cyprian’s circle but worked under the next metropolitan, Photius, who arranged the dynastic marriage between the Russian princess and the heir of the Byzantine throne. We also surmise that this marriage led to the adoption in the Moscovite Russia of the Cathedral rite of Constantinople, whereas under Cyprian the Athos liturgical traditions were in practice. Some linguistic peculiarities testify Russian provenance of the translation. 

  5. Content and Symbolics of Polychromy in Cistercian Church in Jędrzejów (outline of issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Rotter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A close theological and artistic co-operation has been observed in religious art since the Middle Ages. In the Baroque this co-operation was best revealed in monumental decorations inside churches. An example of it is the polychromy in the abbot church in Jędrzejów, whose author was Andrzej Radwański. Intention plan includes both theological content and issues connected with spirituality and activity of the Cistercian order. The history of the Jędrzejów Abbey was particularly emphasized and so was the person of the Blessed Wincenty Kadłubek, who was connected with it. A correlation between historical and symbolical depictions is very interesting; a method often used by Radwański in his monumental decorative painting.

  6. Re-Innovating. Technological research contribution in the recovery of Our Lady of Mercy Church in Baranzate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mangiarotti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The recovery project of Our Lady of Mercy Church in Baranzate, by Angelo Mangiarotti and Bruno Morassutti, with Aldo Favini for structures, built in 1956, and now in charge by Giulio Barazzetta, Anna Mangiarotti, Ingrid Paoletti, Tito Neri for structures and Giancarlo Chiesa for hvac, has requested a high technological effort in order to identify the technical options in order to ‘re-innovate’ on this building. The aim is to increase performances and internal comfort, while maintaining the original concept of the church. The deteriorated envelope will be changed with a façade envelope in steel dry assembled and a triple glazed unit high performance and with face fritted surfaced in order to reproduce the original architectural effects. Thanks to hvac, performances are radically improved.

  7. The issue of reform of the Church Calendar: The level of information and positions of citizens of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović-Banović Milesa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though the issue of the Calendar used by the Serbian Orthodox Church has been discussed for more than one century, it is still equally as current as in the time of the first attempts aimed at its reform. In the discussions on this topic, the Church Calendar is frequently connected to the religious, i.e. national identity and traditions. This paper is aimed at exploring whether and how citizens of Serbia consider this issue and which arguments are employed by the most fervent supporters of the Calendar, or the opponents of its reform. It aims at providing answers to a range of issues, among which the impact of knowledge and level of information relating to positions about this topic has the central position.

  8. Weak-signal conversion from 1550nm to 532nm with 84% efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Samblowski, Aiko; Baune, Christoph; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-01-01

    We report on the experimental frequency conversion of a dim, coherent continuous-wave light field from 1550nm to 532nm with an external photon-number conversion efficiency of (84.4 +/- 1.5)%. We used sum-frequency generation, which was realized in a standing-wave cavity built around a periodically poled type I potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal, pumped by an intense field at 810 nm. Our result is in full agreement with a numerical model. For optimized cavity coupler reflectivities it predicts a conversion efficiency of up to 93% using the same PPKTP crystal.

  9. Late Maastrichtian-Early Paleocene sea level and climate changes in the Antioch Church Core (Alabama, Gulf of Mexico margin, USA): A multi-proxy approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Peter; Speijer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Antioch Church core from central Alabama, spanning the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-P) boundary, was investigated by a multi-proxy approach to study paleoenvironmental and sea level hanges within the wellconstrained sequence stratigraphic setting of the Gulf of Mexico margin. The Antioch Church core comprises the Maastrichtian calcareous nannoplankton Zone CC25 and the Danian Zones NP1 to NP4 corresponding to the Maastrichtian planktonic foraminifera Zones CF3 and the Danian Zones P1a to P2....

  10. Contribution of Orders and Institutes of Consecrated Life of Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church to the Formation of National Consciousness of Ukrainian Children and Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myshchyshyn Iryna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Ukrainian nation, its cultural and spiritual inheritance is the bright example of the selfless mission of the Ukrainian church. In the end of XIX – beg. XX the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church played the most important role in the formation of national consciousness, deepening of the inner world, cultural rise of the Ukrainian nation on the territory of West Ukrainian lands.

  11. Analytical study of the wall paintings in the Borgherini chapel in the Sant Pietro in Montorio church (Rome, Italy) by Sebastiano del Piombo

    OpenAIRE

    Osete Cortina, Laura; Vázquez de Agredos Pascual, María Luisa; Domenech Carbo, Mª Teresa; DOMENECH CARBO, ANTONIO

    2011-01-01

    The wall paintings "La Trasfigurazione" and "La Flagellazione" studied in the present work are located in the Sant Pietro in Montoro Church, which is an outstanding monument in Italian Renaissance style. Borgherini family commissioned the decoration of one of the Chapels in this church to Sebastiano del Piombo, one of the most relevant Italian painters at that time. The color palette identified in these paintings is in correspondence with the artistic technique used by the artist in each one ...

  12. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Simón E. Morales-Soto; Alina Rodríguez-Infante

    2016-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela) church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The ...

  13. The resilience of the eighteenth century hymn in contemporary Church of Ireland (Anglican) worship : a liturgical study / David Joseph Baxter

    OpenAIRE

    Baxter, David Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The combination of observational, anecdotal and circumstantial evidence suggests that, in the present-day Christian church, older, traditional hymns are slowly but inexorably being replaced by modern, contemporary ones. Whilst it is a truism that hymnody, like every other aspect of civilisation, moves forward with the times, there still remains a large number of people, congregations and clergy for whom the early eighteenth century English hymn is a genre that remains ever-popu...

  14. JOHN CALVIN’S PERSPECTIVE ON MUSIC AND WORSHIP, AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Different views on worship and music have been expressed by different Reformers. The Reformers rejected some aspects of medieval worship such as the Gregorian chant, the use of elaborate vocal and instrumental music, overly theatrical performances at worship, the unwarranted expense of elaborate ceremonies, enormous pipe organs and the uselessness of text unintelligible to the common man. The Reformers aimed at introducing simple forms of worship and music in the Church, and to restore the tr...

  15. 3D DOCUMENTATION AND BIM MODELING OF CULTURAL HERITAGE STRUCTURES USING UAVS: THE CASE OF THE FOINIKARIA CHURCH

    OpenAIRE

    K. Themistocleous; A. Agapiou; D. Hadjimitsis

    2016-01-01

    The documentation of architectural cultural heritage sites has traditionally been expensive and labor-intensive. New innovative technologies, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), provide an affordable, reliable and straightforward method of capturing cultural heritage sites, thereby providing a more efficient and sustainable approach to documentation of cultural heritage structures. In this study, hundreds of images of the Panagia Chryseleousa church in Foinikaria, Cyprus were ta...

  16. THE USE OF 3D MODELS IN INTEGRATE SURVEY: THE CHURCH OF ST. THOMAS OF VILLANOVA IN CASTEL GANDOLFO

    OpenAIRE

    Canciani, M.; Saccone, M.

    2012-01-01

    The research illustrated below describes the integrated survey method as applied to the Church of St. Thomas of Villanova in Castel Gandolfo, the work of G. L. Bernini. In particular, integration of the various survey methods with 3D modelling to reconstruct all the elements with complex and/or hard to measure geometries has made it possible to obtain an accurate survey model. Comparison of this model with Bernini's original project, based on the analysis of several drawings, has given a clea...

  17. S.S. Annunziata Church (L'Aquila, Italy) unveiled by non- and micro-destructive testing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfarra, Stefano; Cheilakou, Eleni; Theodorakeas, Panagiotis; Paoletti, Domenica; Koui, Maria

    2017-03-01

    The present research work explores the potential of an integrated inspection methodology, combining Non-destructive testing and micro-destructive analytical techniques, for both the structural assessment of the S.S. Annunziata Church located in Roio Colle (L'Aquila, Italy) and the characterization of its wall paintings' pigments. The study started by applying passive thermal imaging for the structural monitoring of the church before and after the application of a consolidation treatment, while active thermal imaging was further used for assessing this consolidation procedure. After the earthquake of 2009, which seriously damaged the city of L'Aquila and its surroundings, part of the internal plaster fell off revealing the presence of an ancient mural painting that was subsequently investigated by means of a combined analytical approach involving portable VIS-NIR fiber optics diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and laboratory methods, such as environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The results obtained from the thermographic analysis provided information concerning the two different constrictive phases of the Church, enabled the assessment of the consolidation treatment, and contributed to the detection of localized problems mainly related to the rising damp phenomenon and to biological attack. In addition, the results obtained from the combined analytical approach allowed the identification of the wall painting pigments (red and yellow ochre, green earth, and smalt) and provided information on the binding media and the painting technique possibly applied by the artist. From the results of the present study, it is possible to conclude that the joint use of the above stated methods into an integrated methodology can produce the complete set of useful information required for the planning of the Church's restoration

  18. Review:Reconstructing Christianity in China:K.H.Ting and the Chinese Church,by Philip L.Wickeri

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ray; Whitehead

    2008-01-01

    Philip Wicked spent many years researching and writing this magnificent study of Bishop K.H.Ting and his era.In this brief review I can only high- light a few dimensions of the book.I will approach his study in what I see as four intertwined aspects of his writing.He presents us with a huge amount of information on the twentieth century Chinese Protestant Church,

  19. Protocol of Taste and See: A Feasibility Study of a Church-Based, Healthy, Intuitive Eating Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Lycett

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity treatment remains a high global priority. Evidence suggests holistic approaches, which include a religious element, are promising. Most research is from the USA, but recent evidence suggests a need within the UK population. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of running and evaluating a Christian-based, healthy, intuitive-eating programme, in a UK church. This is the protocol of a mixed-methods single-group feasibility study of a ten-week programme. The programme focuses on breaking the “diet and weight regain” cycle using principles from intuitive eating uniquely combined with biblical principles of love, freedom, responsibility, forgiveness, and spiritual need. We will recruit at least ten adult participants who are obese, overweight, or of a healthy weight with problematic eating behaviours. Participants can be from any faith or none. Robust measures of physical, psychological and spiritual outcomes will be used. Results are not yet available. Findings will be used to design a cluster-randomised controlled trial to test efficacy through many churches. If weight reduces by a small amount, there will be substantial benefits to public health. With a strong association between obesity and mental-ill health, a holistic intervention is particularly important. Using churches addresses religious and spiritual health, and uses existing social structures and a voluntary workforce that are sustainable and cost-effective.

  20. Adaptation Of Forgotten Buildings The Example Of The Ruins Of The Kościelec Protestant Church In Piaski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleń Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Small towns in the Lublin Province are abundant with buildings possessed of outstanding historical and architectural values, representing the culture of past generations. Piaski, about 30 km east of Lublin, also boasts some of the remarkable characteristic of small towns. Not only does it feature post-Jewish tenements, but also a palace and complexes of religious buildings situated on its outskirts. This article focuses on the Kościelec - an unused, dilapidated former Protestant church. Now, works are being carried out that have inspired the Piaski town authorities to try to find a best-use scenario for the former church, in order to preserve its architectural values for future generations. The authors of this article aim to prove the necessity of research and analysis in finding the best new functions for properties whose function has already been imposed. The example of successfully completed revitalisation works at the palace and park complex in Gardzienice, located not far from the baroque Protestant church in Piaski, illustrates the advantages of some of the adaptation processes that can be employed in such buildings.