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Sample records for chum salmon spawning

  1. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, E.V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

  2. Population Estimates for Chum Salmon Spawning in the Mainstem Columbia River, 2002 Technical Report.

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    Rawding, Dan; Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-11-15

    Accurate and precise population estimates of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning in the mainstem Columbia River are needed to provide a basis for informed water allocation decisions, to determine the status of chum salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and to evaluate the contribution of the Duncan Creek re-introduction program to mainstem spawners. Currently, mark-recapture experiments using the Jolly-Seber model provide the only framework for this type of estimation. In 2002, a study was initiated to estimate mainstem Columbia River chum salmon populations using seining data collected while capturing broodstock as part of the Duncan Creek re-introduction. The five assumptions of the Jolly-Seber model were examined using hypothesis testing within a statistical framework, including goodness of fit tests and secondary experiments. We used POPAN 6, an integrated computer system for the analysis of capture-recapture data, to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of standard model parameters, derived estimates, and their precision. A more parsimonious final model was selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Final chum salmon escapement estimates and (standard error) from seining data for the Ives Island, Multnomah, and I-205 sites are 3,179 (150), 1,269 (216), and 3,468 (180), respectively. The Ives Island estimate is likely lower than the total escapement because only the largest two of four spawning sites were sampled. The accuracy and precision of these estimates would improve if seining was conducted twice per week instead of weekly, and by incorporating carcass recoveries into the analysis. Population estimates derived from seining mark-recapture data were compared to those obtained using the current mainstem Columbia River salmon escapement methodologies. The Jolly-Seber population estimate from carcass tagging in the Ives Island area was 4,232 adults with a standard error of 79. This population estimate appears reasonable and precise but batch

  3. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

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    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Brooks, Robert (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Columbia River Section, John Day, OR)

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 a total of 253 adult fall chinook and 113 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 221 fall chinook and 109 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 190. The peak redd count for chum was 262. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 24 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 24 November. There were estimated to be a total of 1,533 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2003. The study area's 2003 chum population was estimated to be 688 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2003 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on January 6, 2004 and ended 28 April 2004, with peak emergence occurring 13 April. 2003 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 22 February and continued through 15 April 2004. Peak chum emergence took place 25 March. A total of 25,433 juvenile chinook and 4,864 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 20 January and 28 June 2004 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2004 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2003 all of the fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence

  4. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam -- Annual Report -- October 2007-September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations----a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezo¬meters. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet.

  5. Quantifying the Behavioral Response of Spawning Chum Salmon to Elevated Discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River : Annual Report 2005-2006.

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    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Haskell, Craig A.; Kock, Tobias J.

    2008-12-01

    In unimpounded rivers, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) typically spawn under relatively stable stream flows, with exceptions occurring during periodic precipitation events. In contrast, hydroelectric development has often resulted in an artificial hydrograph characterized by rapid changes in discharge and tailwater elevation that occur on a daily, or even an hourly basis, due to power generation (Cushman 1985; Moog 1993). Consequently, populations of Pacific salmon that are known to spawn in main-stem habitats below hydroelectric dams face the risks of changing habitat suitability, potential redd dewatering, and uncertain spawning success (Hamilton and Buell 1976; Chapman et al. 1986; Dauble et al. 1999; Garland et al. 2003; Connor and Pflug 2004; McMichael et al. 2005). Although the direct effects of a variable hydrograph, such as redd dewatering are apparent, specific effects on spawning behavior remain largely unexplored. Chum salmon (O. keta) that spawn below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are particularly vulnerable to the effects of water level fluctuations. Although chum salmon generally spawn in smaller tributaries (Johnson et al. 1997), many fish spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam near Ives Island (Tomaro et al. 2007; Figure 1). The primary spawning area near Ives Island is shallow and sensitive to changes in water level caused by hydroelectric power generation at Bonneville Dam. In the past, fluctuating water levels have dewatered redds and changed the amount of available spawning habitat (Garland et al. 2003). To minimize these effects, fishery managers attempt to maintain a stable tailwater elevation at Bonneville Dam of 3.5 m (above mean sea level) during spawning, which ensures adequate water is provided to the primary chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek (Figure 1). Given the uncertainty of winter precipitation and water supply, this strategy has been effective at restricting spawning to a specific

  6. Development of a Conceptual Chum Salmon Emergence Model for Ives Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher J.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Bott, Yi-Ju; Nabelek, Marc A.

    2011-02-09

    The objective of the study described herein was to develop a conceptual model of chum salmon emergence that was based on empirical water temperature of the riverbed and river in specific locations where chum salmon spawn in the Ives Island area. The conceptual model was developed using water temperature data that have been collected in the past and are currently being collected in the Ives Island area. The model will be useful to system operators who need to estimate the complete distribution of chum salmon emergence (first emergence through final emergence) in order to balance chum salmon redd protection and power system operation.

  7. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon allozyme baseline

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Allozymes from 46 loci were analyzed from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) collected at 61 locations in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Of the 42...

  8. Evidence for competition at sea between Norton Sound chum salmon and Asian hatchery chum salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Agler, B.A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing production of hatchery salmon over the past four decades has led to concerns about possible density-dependent effects on wild Pacific salmon populations in the North Pacific Ocean. The concern arises because salmon from distant regions overlap in the ocean, and wild salmon populations having low productivity may compete for food with abundant hatchery populations. We tested the hypothesis that adult length-at-age, age-at-maturation, productivity, and abundance of a Norton Sound, Alaska, chum salmon population were influenced by Asian hatchery chum salmon, which have become exceptionally abundant and surpassed the abundance of wild chum salmon in the North Pacific beginning in the early 1980s. We found that smaller adult length-at-age, delayed age-at-maturation, and reduced productivity and abundance of the Norton Sound salmon population were associated with greater production of Asian hatchery chum salmon since 1965. Modeling of the density-dependent relationship, while controlling for other influential variables, indicated that an increase in adult hatchery chum salmon abundance from 10 million to 80 million adult fish led to a 72% reduction in the abundance of the wild chum salmon population. These findings indicate that competition with hatchery chum salmon contributed to the low productivity and abundance of Norton Sound chum salmon, which includes several stocks that are classified as Stocks of Concern by the State of Alaska. This study provides new evidence indicating that large-scale hatchery production may influence body size, age-at-maturation, productivity and abundance of a distant wild salmon population.

  9. Chum and pink salmon genetics - Genetic and life history variation of southern chum and pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The distribution of genetic and life history variation in chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in their southern range in North America is key to...

  10. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to

  11. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection of Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon, Columbia River.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.

    2001-10-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat.

  12. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam Annual Report October 2006 - September 2007.

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    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.; Murray, Katherine J.; Bott, Yi-Ju [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-08-08

    From 1999 through 2007, the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Bonneville Power Administration funded a project to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning areas, and the flows necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Data were collected to ensure that established flow guidelines are appropriate and provide adequate protection for the species of concern. The projects objectives are consistent with the high priority placed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Independent Scientific Advisory Board and the salmon managers on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Because of the influence of mainstem habitat on salmon production, there is a continued need to better understand the physical habitat variables used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. During FY 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory focused on (1) locating and mapping deep-water fall Chinook salmon and chum salmon spawning areas, (2) investigating the interaction between groundwater and surface water near fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning areas, and (3) providing in-season hyporheic temperature and water surface elevation data to assist state agencies with emergence timing and redd dewatering estimates. This report documents the studies and tasks performed by PNNL during FY 2007. Chapter 1 provides a description of the searches conducted for deepwater redds-adjacent to Pierce and Ives islands for fall Chinook salmon and near the Interstate 205 bridge for chum salmon. The chapter also provides data on redd location, information about habitat associations, and estimates of total spawning populations. Chapter 2 documents the collection of data on riverbed and river temperatures and water surface elevations, from the onset of spawning to the

  13. Atmospheric depression-mediated water temperature changes affect the vertical movement of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Takashi; Hyodo, Susumu; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-08-01

    The Sanriku coastal area, Japan, is one of the southern-most natural spawning regions of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. Here, we report their behavioral response to changes in ambient temperature after the passage of an atmospheric depression during the early spawning season. Before the passage, all electrically tagged fish moved vertically for several hours to depths below the shallow thermocline at >100 m. However, during the atmospheric depression, the salmon shortened the duration of their vertical movements and spent most time at the surface. The water column was homogenous at energy cost during migration.

  14. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  15. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan; Mueller, Robert; Murray, Christopher [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-03-01

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and tule fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by WDFW biologists in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and near Ives Island. Limited surveys of spawning ground were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands from 1994 through 1997. Based on those surveys, it is believed that fall Chinook salmon are spawning successfully in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1800 to 5200 fish. Chum salmon also have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon were listed as threatened under the ESA in March 1999. At present there is a need to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning

  16. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam, Annual Report October 2005 - September 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.; Murray, Christopher J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-09-21

    Since FY 2000, scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have conducted research to assess the extent of spawning by chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the lower mainstem Columbia River. Their work supports a larger project funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) aimed at characterizing the physical habitat used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations. Multiple collaborators in addition to PNNL are involved in the BPA project--counterparts include the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Data resulting from the individual tasks each agency conducts are providing a sound scientific basis for developing strategies to operate the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance the chum and tule fall Chinook salmon populations--both listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Fall Chinook salmon, thought to originate from Bonneville Hatchery, were first noted to be spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam by WDFW biologists in 1993. Known spawning areas include gravel beds on the Washington side of the river near Hamilton Creek and near Ives Island. Limited surveys of spawning ground were conducted in the area around Ives and Pierce islands from 1994 through 1997. Based on those surveys, it is believed that fall Chinook salmon are spawning successfully in this area. The size of this population from 1994 to 1996 was estimated at 1800 to 5200 fish. Chum salmon also have been documented spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam. Chum salmon were listed as threatened under the ESA in March 1999. At present there is a need to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning

  17. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to

  18. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon bycatch genetic stock identification 1994-1995 Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In some years, the Bering Sea trawl fishery incidentally harvests (bycatch) large numbers of chum salmon. Because chum salmon were declining in some western Alaska...

  19. AFSC/ABL: Genetic Analysis of Immature Bering Sea Chum Salmon: Part I. Baseline Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chum salmon populations from across their geographic distribution have been analyzed with a set of SNP and microsatellite markers. As is typical for chum salmon...

  20. Application of laser ablation ICPMS to trace the environmental history of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takaomi; Hirata, Takafumi; Takagi, Yasuaki

    2007-02-01

    Trace element levels in otoliths of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta were examined by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). A close linear relationship in the Sr:Ca ratios between EPMA (X-ray analysis with an electron microprobe) and LA-ICPMS analyses was found (p<0.0001), suggesting that the latter technique could be used to separate the marine and freshwater life phases. Mg:Ca, Cr:Ca, Zn:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios in either the core region or the oceanic growth zone of the otoliths varied among sites. These differences suggest that elemental compositions may reflect environmental variability among spawning (breeding) or habitat sites. Thus, those element ratios demonstrate the potential to be used to distinguish between fish spawning (breeding) sites and habitats for this species of salmon.

  1. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-10-15

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present day spawners. Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline of Columbia River chum salmon. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Currently, only two main populations are recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning has been documented in most lower Columbia River tributaries. The first is located in the Grays River (RKm 34) (Grays population), a tributary of the Columbia, and the second is a group of spawners that utilize the Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks (Lower Gorge population). A possible third population of mainstem spawners, found in the fall of 1999, were located spawning above the I-205 bridge (approximately RKm 182), this aggregation is referred to as the Woods Landing/Rivershore population or the I-205 group. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum as outlined in Hatchery Genetic Management Plans (HGMP) has three main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of LCR chum salmon exist in LCR tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans involving habitat restoration including the creation of

  2. Cardiac arrest during gamete release in chum salmon regulated by the parasympathetic nerve system.

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    Yuya Makiguchi

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.

  3. Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta respond to moonlight during homeward migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, E I

    2012-07-01

    The swimming depth of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta equipped with archival tags was investigated off the Pacific Ocean coast of Hokkaido and North Honshu, Japan. As shown from movements of the fish with disc tags, O. keta swam at shallower depths during the full-moon phase than in the other phases and their swimming speed during this phase was faster compared to other phases. In addition, the circadian rhythm suggests a biological clock. These observations are all consistent with the view that O. keta make use of moonlight in order to navigate at night-time during homeward migration.

  4. AFSC/ABL: 2012 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch from the 2012 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) trawl fishery was...

  5. AFSC/ABL: 2010 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2010 Bering Sea groundfish trawl fishery was undertaken to determine the...

  6. AFSC/ABL: 2011 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch from the 2011 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  7. AFSC/ABL: 2008 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2008 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  8. AFSC/ABL: 2009 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2009 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  9. AFSC/ABL: Immature chum salmon allozyme ID of mixed stocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Immature chum salmon were collected by the F/V Northwest Explorer between September 5 and October 8, during the 2002 BASIS survey across the eastern Bering Sea shelf...

  10. AFSC/ABL: Taku chum salmon project diet and energy database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study is a cooperative effort between Douglas Island Pink in contrast, most wild chum salmon fry had already emigrated from the estuary by the time of late...

  11. AFSC/ABL: 2005 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2005 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  12. AFSC/ABL: 2007 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2007 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  13. AFSC/ABL: 2006 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2006 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  14. Mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon and chum salmon detected by restriction enzyme analysis of polymerase chain reaction products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M.; Spearman, R.; Wilmot, R.; Patton, J.; Bickman, J.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze intraspecific mitochondrial DNA variation in chinook salmon from drainages in the Yukon River, the Kenai River, and Oregon and California rivers; and chum salmon from the Yukon River and vancouver Island, and Washington rivers. For each species, three different portions of the mtDNA molecule were amplified seperately using the polymerase chain reaction and then digested with at least 19 restrictions enzymes. Intraspecific sequence divergences between haplotypes were less than 0.01 base subsitution per nucleotide. Nine chum salmon haplotypes were identified. Yukon River chum salmon stocks displayed more haplotypes (8) occurred in all areas. Seven chinook salmon haplotypes were identified. Four haplotypes occurred in the Yukon and Kenai rviers and four occured in the Oregon/California, with only one haplotype shared between the regions. Sample sizes were too small to quantify the degree of stock seperation among drainages, but the patterns of variation that we observed suggest utility of the technique in genetic stock identification.

  15. AFSC/ABL: Genetic data for juvenile chum salmon samples collected in the eastern Bering Sea on the U.S. BASIS cruises during 2003-2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) are an important natural resource in western Alaska for subsistence, commercial and cultural reasons. Declines in chum salmon returns...

  16. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-09-01

    Currently, two methods of reintroduction are being simultaneously evaluated at Duncan Creek. Recolonization is occurring by introducing adult chum salmon from the Lower Gorge (LG) population into Duncan Creek and allowing them to naturally reproduce. The supplementation strategy required adults to be collected and artificially spawned, incubated, reared, and released at the mouth of Duncan Creek. All eggs from the artificial crossings at Washougal Hatchery were incubated and the fry reared to release size at the hatchery. The Duncan Creek chum salmon project was very successful in 2003-04, providing knowledge and experience that will improve program execution in future years. The gear used to collect adult brood stock was changed from tangle nets to beach seines. This increased efficiency and the speed at which adults could be processed in the field, and most likely reduced stress on the adults handled. Certain weaknesses exposed in past seasons still exist and new ones were exposed (e.g. inadequate incubation and rearing space at Washougal Hatchery for any large salvage operation and having to move the rearing troughs outside the raceway in 2004). Egg-to-fry survival rates of 64% and 58% showed that the channels are functioning at the upper end of what can be expected from them. Possibly the most important event this season was the ability to strontium mark and release all naturally-produced fry from the spawning channels. Channel and floodplain modifications reduced the likelihood that floods will damage the channels and negatively impact survival rates.

  17. AFSC/ABL: Origins of sockeye and chum salmon seized from the F/V Ying Fa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and sockeye (O. nerka) salmon seized from the stateless fishing vessel Ying Fa were analyzed to determine their region of origin...

  18. Involvement of hormones in olfactory imprinting and homing in chum salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shingo; Nakamura, Taro; Inada, Kaoru; Okubo, Takashi; Furukawa, Naohiro; Murakami, Reiichi; Tsuchida, Shigeo; Zohar, Yonathan; Konno, Kotaro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2016-02-16

    The olfactory hypothesis for salmon imprinting and homing to their natal stream is well known, but the endocrine hormonal control mechanisms of olfactory memory formation in juveniles and retrieval in adults remain unclear. In brains of hatchery-reared underyearling juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), thyrotropin-releasing hormone gene expression increased immediately after release from a hatchery into the natal stream, and the expression of the essential NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor increased during downstream migration. Gene expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH) and NR1 increased in the adult chum salmon brain during homing from the Bering Sea to the natal hatchery. Thyroid hormone treatment in juveniles enhanced NR1 gene activation, and GnRHa treatment in adults improved stream odour discrimination. Olfactory memory formation during juvenile downstream migration and retrieval during adult homing migration of chum salmon might be controlled by endocrine hormones and could be clarified using NR1 as a molecular marker.

  19. High Population Density of Juvenile Chum Salmon Decreased the Number and Sizes of Growth Hormone Cells in the Pituitary

    OpenAIRE

    Salam, Md. Abdus; Ota, Yuki; Ando, Hironori; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Urano, Akihisa

    1999-01-01

    Juveniles of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) held at high population density were apparently smaller than those held at medium and low population densities. The effects of high population density on pituitary growth hormone (GH) cells in juvenile chum salmon were examined using immunocytochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. The ratio of GH-immunoreactive (ir) area to the whole pituitary was almost constant in all of the high, medium and low population density groups, although the nu...

  20. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  1. Effect of salinity changes on olfactory memory-related genes and hormones in adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Lim, Sang-Gu; Jeong, Minhwan; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2015-09-01

    Studies of memory formation have recently concentrated on the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NRs). We examined changes in the expression of three NRs (NR1, NR2B, and NR2C), olfactory receptor (OR), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) during salinity change (seawater→50% seawater→freshwater). NRs were significantly detected in the diencephalon and telencephalon and OR was significantly detected in the olfactory epithelium. The expression of NRs, OR, and ACTH increased after the transition to freshwater. We also determined that treatment with MK-801, an antagonist of NRs, decreased NRs in telencephalon cells. In addition, a reduction in salinity was associated with increased levels of dopamine, ACTH, and cortisol (in vivo). Reductions in salinity evidently caused NRs and OR to increase the expression of cortisol and dopamine. We concluded that memory capacity and olfactory imprinting of salmon is related to the salinity of the environment during the migration to spawning sites. Furthermore, salinity affects the memory/imprinting and olfactory abilities, and cortisol and dopamine is also related with olfactory-related memories during migration.

  2. Sea lice infestations on juvenile chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada, from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Krkosek, Martin; Jones, Simon R M; Revie, Crawford W

    2013-07-22

    Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta were sampled by beach or purse seine to assess levels of sea lice infestation in the Knight Inlet and Broughton Archipelago regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada, during the months of March to July from 2003 to 2012. Beach seine data were analyzed for sea lice infestation that was described in terms of prevalence, abundance, intensity, and intensity per unit length. The median annual prevalence for chum was 30%, ranging from 14% (in 2008 and 2009) to 73% (in 2004), while for pink salmon, the median was 27% and ranged from 10% (in 2011) to 68% (in 2004). Annual abundance varied from 0.2 to 5 sea lice per fish with a median of 0.47 for chum and from 0.1 to 3 lice (median 0.42) for pink salmon. Annual infestation followed broadly similar trends for both chum and pink salmon. However, the abundance and intensity of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi, the 2 main sea lice species of interest, were significantly greater on chum than on pink salmon in around half of the years studied. Logistic regression with random effect was used to model prevalence of sea lice infestation for the combined beach and purse seine data. The model suggested inter-annual variation as well as a spatial clustering effect on the prevalence of sea lice infestation in both chum and pink salmon. Fish length had an effect on prevalence, although the nature of this effect differed according to host species.

  3. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Jasper

    Full Text Available The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta in Prince William Sound (PWS, Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982 with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010 and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  4. Spatial variability of Chinook salmon spawning distribution and habitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Jeremy M.; Torgersen, Christian; Klett, Ryan S.; Pess, George R.; May, Darran; Pearsons, Todd N.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated physical habitat conditions associated with the spawning sites of Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and the interannual consistency of spawning distribution across multiple spatial scales using a combination of spatially continuous and discrete sampling methods. We conducted a census of aquatic habitat in 76 km of the upper main-stem Yakima River in Washington and evaluated spawning site distribution using redd survey data from 2004 to 2008. Interannual reoccupation of spawning areas was high, ranging from an average Pearson’s correlation of 0.62 to 0.98 in channel subunits and 10-km reaches, respectively. Annual variance in the interannual correlation of spawning distribution was highest in channel units and subunits, but it was low at reach scales. In 13 of 15 models developed for individual years (2004–2008) and reach lengths (800 m, 3 km, 6 km), stream power and depth were the primary predictors of redd abundance. Multiple channels and overhead cover were patchy but were important secondary and tertiary predictors of reach-scale spawning site selection. Within channel units and subunits, pool tails and thermal variability, which may be associated with hyporheic exchange, were important predictors of spawning. We identified spawning habitat preferences within reaches and channel units that are relevant for salmonid habitat restoration planning. We also identified a threshold (i.e., 2-km reaches) beyond which interannual spawning distribution was markedly consistent, which may be informative for prioritizing habitat restoration or conservation. Management actions may be improved through enhanced understanding of spawning habitat preferences and the consistency with which Chinook Salmon reoccupy spawning areas at different spatial scales.

  5. 2002 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

    2003-10-01

    From January to July of 2002, 79 entrapments and 22 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 2,272 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (49%), chum salmon (29%), and coho salmon (22%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  6. 2004 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

    2005-08-01

    From January to July of 2004, 33 entrapments and 56 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 7,834 salmonids, made up of three species, were collected (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (85%), chum salmon (8%), and coho salmon (7%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three species of salmon.

  7. 2003 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duston, Reed A.; Wilson, Jeremy (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

    2004-09-01

    From January to July of 2003, 42 entrapments and 25 stranding sites were examined on the Columbia River near Ives Island, downstream of Bonneville Dam. A total of 6,122 salmonids, consisting of three different species, were collected at these sites (Table 1). The fish sampled during this time were chinook salmon (69%), chum salmon (7%), and coho salmon (24%). The following analysis of the relationship between environmental factors and salmon placed at risk by river level fluctuations focuses on each of these three salmon species.

  8. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

    2009-01-29

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

  9. Growth and condition of juvenile chum and pink salmon in the northeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechter, Melissa E.; Beckman, Brian R.; Andrews, Alexander G., III; Beaudreau, Anne H.; McPhee, Megan V.

    2017-01-01

    As the Arctic continues to warm, abundances of juvenile Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the northern Bering Sea are expected to increase. However, information regarding the growth and condition of juvenile salmon in these waters is limited. The first objective of this study was to describe relationships between size, growth, and condition of juvenile chum (O. keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon and environmental conditions using data collected in the northeastern Bering Sea (NEBS) from 2003-2007 and 2009-2012. Salmon collected at stations with greater bottom depths and cooler sea-surface temperature (SST) were longer, reflecting their movement further offshore out of the warmer Alaska Coastal Water mass, as the season progressed. Energy density, after accounting for fish length, followed similar relationships with SST and bottom depth while greater condition (weight-length residuals) was associated with warm SST and shallower stations. We used insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations as an indicator of relative growth rate for fishes sampled in 2009-2012 and that found fish exhibited higher IGF-1 concentrations in 2010-2012 than in 2009, although these differences were not clearly attributable to environmental conditions. Our second objective was to compare size and condition of juvenile chum and pink salmon in the NEBS between warm and cool spring thermal regimes of the southeastern Bering Sea (SEBS). This comparison was based on a hypothesis informed by the strong role of sea-ice retreat in the spring for production dynamics in the SEBS and prevailing northward currents, suggesting that feeding conditions in the NEBS may be influenced by production in the SEBS. We found greater length (both species) and condition (pink salmon) in years with warm thermal regimes; however, both of these responses changed more rapidly with day of year in years with cool springs. Finally, we compared indicators of energy allocation between even and odd brood

  10. Physiological and hematological changes in Chum Salmon artificially infected with Erythrocytic Necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, D.C.; Hursh, D.A.; Mix, M.C.; Winton, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta were injected with erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV) to study the physiological and hematological consequences of ENV infection. Infected and control fish were held in pathogen-free seawater and sampled for 5 weeks. Physiological tests included measures of plasma cortisol, glucose, protein, and osmolality; blood lactic acid; and liver glycogen. In general, ENV-infected fish had lower plasma glucose and blood lactic acid, and higher liver glycogen concentrations than did control fish. Hematological tests included red and white blood cell (RBC and WBC) counts, hematocrit, measurement of blood hemoglobin concentration, and a determination of erythrocyte fragility. Infected fish had lower RBC counts, hematocrits, and hemoglobin concentrations; higher WBC counts; and less fragile erythrocytes than did control fish. The hematology data indicated that erythrocytes of infected fish had higher mean corpuscular volume, depressed mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and slightly lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Erythrocytic inclusions were observed in the cytoplasm of RBCs from infected fish. The infection progressed steadily through week 4, after which the fish appeared to begin recovering. In a second study, fish were infected with ENV for 3 weeks, and recovery from a stress challenge test was measured. Plasma glucose concentrations and osmclality were higher in infected fish, whereas plasma cortisol and blood lactate were only slightly elevated. These studies indicate that chum salmon withstood the effects of ENV infection without in-eversible physiological consequences. However, when subjected to a stress challenge test, infected fish recovered more slowly than control fish and had increased osmoregulatory difficulties.

  11. 2005 Evaluation of Chum, Chinook and Coho Salmon Entrapment near Ives Island in the Columbia River; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jeremy; Duston, Reed A. (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Vancouver, WA)

    2006-01-01

    During mid-1990s, Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) identified several populations of salmon spawning approximately three miles downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. These populations are exposed to rapidly changing flow regimes associated with Bonneville Dam's operation. This study investigated the relationship between changing water levels and stranding or entrapment of juvenile salmon in the Ives Island area. Walking surveys of the Ives Island and Pierce Island shorelines were conducted every one to three days throughout the juvenile emigration period. The nearby shorelines of the Washington and Oregon mainland were also surveyed. Between January and June of 2005, surveyors examined 21 substantial entrapments and 20 stranding sites. A total of 14,337 salmonids, made up of three species, were found either entrapped or stranded. Nearly 92% of the salmonids were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), 4.5% were federally listed chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), and 3.8% were coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). When compared to the 2004 study year, 2005 showed an 83% increase in the overall number of observed entrapped or stranded juvenile salmon. Much of this increase can be attributed to one entrapment found along the north shore of Pierce Island (identified as E501). E501 has historically been known to contain relatively large numbers of entrapped salmon. Even so, the number of entrapped salmon observed during 2005 was a 732% increase (5926) over any prior study years. Over 83% of all chum, 63.1% of all chinook, and 63.2% of all coho sampled during 2005 were retrieved from entrapments that were likely to have formed when Bonneville Dam tailwater levels dropped to elevations between 11.5 and 12.9 feet. Peak numbers of chum and chinook were sampled in mid-April when tailwater levels ranged between 11.6ft and 15.6ft. Peak numbers of coho were sampled during the last week of

  12. Modelling of variation in productivity of pink and chum salmon stocks in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska and other regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some statistical models of variation in productivity of pink and chum salmon populations (Oncorhynchus...

  13. Marine-entry timing and growth rates of juvenile Chum Salmon in Alaskan waters of the Chukchi and northern Bering seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Stacy L.; Sutton, Trent M.; Murphy, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change in the Arctic has implications for influences on juvenile Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta early life-history patterns, such as altered timing of marine entry and/or early marine growth. Sagittal otoliths were used to estimate marine entry dates and daily growth rates of juvenile Chum Salmon collected during surface trawl surveys in summers 2007, 2012, and 2013 in the Chukchi and northern Bering seas. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to discriminate between freshwater and marine sagittal growth on the otoliths, and daily growth increments were counted to determine marine-entry dates and growth rates to make temporal and regional comparisons of juvenile Chum Salmon characteristics. Marine-entry dates ranged from mid-June to mid-July, with all region and year combinations exhibiting similar characteristics in entry timing (i.e. larger individuals at the time of capture entered the marine environment earlier in the growing season than smaller individuals in the same region/year), as well as similar mean marine-entry dates. Juvenile Chum Salmon growth rates were on average 4.9% body weight per day in both regions in summers 2007 and 2012, and significantly higher (6.8% body weight per day) in the Chukchi Sea in 2013. These results suggest that juvenile Chum Salmon in the northern Bering and Chukchi seas currently exhibit consistent marine-entry timing and early marine growth rates, despite some differences in environmental conditions between regions and among years. This study also provides a baseline of early marine life-history characteristics of Chum Salmon for comparisons with future climate change studies in these regions.

  14. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  15. AFSC/ABL: Stock composition, timing, and spawning distribution of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radio telemetry was used to determine the distribution, locate spawning sites, and evaluate the tagging response of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha...

  16. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  17. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile chum salmon allozyme stock identification, Bering Sea 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Genetic stock identification techniques were used to identify the origin and provide stock-specific migration and distribution patterns of juvenile chum...

  18. Effects of dam removal on Tule Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Engle, Rod; Barton, Gary J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Warren, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric dams ever removed in the USA. Breached in a single explosive event in October 2011, hundreds-of-thousands of cubic metres of sediment washed down the White Salmon River onto spawning grounds of a threatened species, Columbia River tule fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We investigated over a 3-year period (2010–2012) how dam breaching affected channel morphology, river hydraulics, sediment composition and tule fall Chinook salmon (hereafter ‘tule salmon’) spawning habitat in the lower 1.7 km of the White Salmon River (project area). As expected, dam breaching dramatically affected channel morphology and spawning habitat due to a large load of sediment released from Northwestern Lake. Forty-two per cent of the project area that was previously covered in water was converted into islands or new shoreline, while a large pool near the mouth filled with sediments and a delta formed at the mouth. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model revealed that pool area decreased 68.7% in the project area, while glides and riffles increased 659% and 530%, respectively. A spatially explicit habitat model found the mean probability of spawning habitat increased 46.2% after dam breaching due to an increase in glides and riffles. Shifting channels and bank instability continue to negatively affect some spawning habitat as sediments continue to wash downstream from former Northwestern Lake, but 300 m of new spawning habitat (river kilometre 0.6 to 0.9) that formed immediately post-breach has persisted into 2015. Less than 10% of tule salmon have spawned upstream of the former dam site to date, but the run sizes appear healthy and stable. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. The effect of climate change on the growth of Japanese chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) using a bioenergetics model coupled with a three-dimensional lower trophic ecosystem model (NEMURO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Michio J.; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Ueno, Hiromichi; Kamezawa, Yasuko

    2010-07-01

    From the 1970s to 1990s, a reduction in the body size of Japanese chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) was observed. To investigate this body size reduction in the North Pacific, we developed a bioenergetics model for chum salmon coupled with the results from a lower trophic ecosystem model embedded into a three-dimensional global model. In the bioenergetics model, respiration and consumption terms are assumed to be functions of water temperature and prey zooplankton density, which are the determining factors of the reduction of body size. The model reproduced the body size of the 1972 and 1991 year classes of chum salmon. The reproduced body size of the 1972 year class was larger than that of 1991 year class, and this result agrees with observations from the Bering Sea. Our model also reproduced the body size trend from l970 to 2000. The prey density, especially in the eastern North Pacific, had a greater influence on the change of body size than did the SST. This suggests that the size reduction of Japanese chum salmon in the 1990s was partly affected by changes in prey zooplankton density. In the context of the global warming scenario, we discuss changes in the migration route of chum salmon and predict that the population of Japanese chum salmon experience significant declines over this century.

  20. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  1. Modern analytics for naturally derived complex drug substances: NMR and MS tests for protamine sulfate from chum salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucinski, Ashley C; Boyne, Michael T; Keire, David A

    2015-01-01

    This work describes orthogonal NMR and MS tests for the structure and composition of the drug protamine sulfate derived from chum salmon. The spectral response pattern obtained by 1D-(1)H-NMR and MS methods from salmon protamine, a mixture of four predominant peptide chains, is dependent on the amino acid sequence and abundance of each peptide. Thus, an assay was developed based on the ratios of alanine, glycine and arginine amino acid residue NMR peaks (relative to the arginine CδH proton signal) in this mixture that are unique to the salmon source. In addition, MS analysis provided sensitive sequence determination and impurity analysis based on shifts from exact masses. Spectra from protamine sulfate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) suppliers and from a formulated drug product purchased from the US market were examined. Based on these marketplace survey data, NMR acceptance criteria for chum salmon derived protamine sulfate could be based on the absence of aromatic amino acid signals and on ratios of Ala βH/Arg δH, Gly αH/Arg δH and Arg αH/Arg δH integrated areas of 2.4 ± 1%, 9.4 ± 3% and 50 ± 5%, respectively. For MS, acceptance criteria based on the presence of specific mass to charge (m/z) ratio peaks (m/z = +8 of 530.455, 540.841, 532.208 and 508.950) could be used for the four major peptides present in the mixture with relative abundances of 17 ± 1%, 31 ± 2%, 27 ± 1% and 25 ± 3%, respectively. The specificity of the combined NMR and MS assay was tested by comparison to data obtained from herring protamine which contains a different mixture of peptides with related amino acid sequences. Both assays were able to clearly distinguish protamine derived from these different natural sources.

  2. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  3. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-01-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the

  4. Factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon, with emphasis on human impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Aarestrup, Kim

    2008-01-01

    be delayed at natural migration barriers. Often, the magnitude of delay is not predictable; fish may be considerably delayed at barriers that appear to humans to be easily passable, or they may quickly pass barriers that appear difficult. Stressful events like catch-and-release angling may affect upstream...... migration. Impacts of human activities may also cause altered migration patterns, affect the within-river distribution of the spawning population, and severe barriers may result in displacement of the spawning population to other rivers. Factors documented to affect within-river migration include previous......We review factors affecting the within-river spawning migration of Atlantic salmon. With populations declining across the entire distribution range, it is important that spawners survive in the last phase of the spawning migration. Knowledge on the factors affecting migration is essential...

  5. Benzocaine as a fish anesthetic: efficacy and safety for spawning-phase salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilderhus, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The anesthetic benzocaine was tested for efficacy and safety for spawning-phase chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at federal fish hatcheries. Tests were conducted in the existing hatchery water supplies (soft water; temperatures, 10–13 °C. Crystalline benzocaine was dissolved in ethanol (1 g/30 mL), and aliquots of that stock solution were added to the water in test tanks. Benzocaine concentrations of 25–30 mg/L anesthetized most fish in less than 3.5 min, and most fish recovered in less than 10 min after 15 min of exposure. Safety margins were narrow; both species tolerated 30 mg/L for about 20 min, but 25 min of exposure caused deaths. For 15 min exposures, concentrations of 35 mg/L for chinook salmon and 40 mg/L for Atlantic salmon were lethal.

  6. Seasonal changes in CRF-I and urotensin I transcript levels in masu salmon: correlation with cortisol secretion during spawning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westring, Christian G; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Ueda, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa; Dores, Robert M; Sher, Anna A; Danielson, Phillip B

    2008-01-01

    Pacific salmon employ a semelparous reproductive strategy where sexual maturation is followed by rapid senescence and death. Cortisol overproduction has been implicated as the central physiologic event responsible for the post-spawning demise of these fish. Cortisol homeostasis is regulated through the action of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. These include corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (UI). In the present study, masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) were assayed for changes in the levels CRF-I and UI mRNA transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results were compared to plasma cortisol levels in juvenile, adult, and spawning masu salmon to identify specific regulatory factors that appear to be functionally associated with changes in cortisol levels. Intramuscular implantation of GnRH analog (GnRHa) capsules was also used to determine whether GnRH influences stress hormone levels. In both male and female masu salmon, spawning fish experienced a 5- to 7-fold increase in plasma cortisol levels relative to juvenile non-spawning salmon. Changes in CRF-I mRNA levels were characterized by 1-2 distinctive short-term surges in adult masu salmon. Conversely, seasonal changes in UI mRNA levels displayed broad and sustained increases during the pre-spawning and spawning periods. The increases in UI mRNA levels were positively correlated (R(2)=0.21 male and 0.26 female, pcortisol in the pre-spawning and spawning periods. Despite the importance of GnRH in sexual maturation and reproduction, the administration of GnRHa to test animals failed to produce broad changes in CRF-I, UI or plasma cortisol levels. These findings suggest a more direct role for UI than for CRF-I in the regulation of cortisol levels in spawning Pacific salmon.

  7. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile chum salmon allozyme stock identification, Gulf of Alaska 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summer surveys (Julyb??August) of juvenile salmon ecology along the continental shelf of the Gulf of Alaska are conducted annually by scientists from the Ocean...

  8. Chum salmon egg extracts induce upregulation of collagen type I and exert antioxidative effects on human dermal fibroblast cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshino A

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Yoshino,1 Natalia Polouliakh,1–3 Akira Meguro,1 Masaki Takeuchi,1,4 Tatsukata Kawagoe,1 Nobuhisa Mizuki1 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 2Sony Computer Science Laboratories Inc., Fundamental Research Laboratories, 3Systems Biology Institute, Tokyo, Japan; 4Inflammatory Disease Section, National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA Abstract: Components of fish roe possess antioxidant and antiaging activities, making them potentially very beneficial natural resources. Here, we investigated chum salmon eggs (CSEs as a source of active ingredients, including vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, and proteins. We incubated human dermal fibroblast cultures for 48 hours with high and low concentrations of CSE extracts and analyzed changes in gene expression. Cells treated with CSE extract showed concentration-dependent upregulation of collagen type I genes and of multiple antioxidative genes, including OXR1, TXNRD1, and PRDX family genes. We further conducted in silico phylogenetic footprinting analysis of promoter regions. These results suggested that transcription factors such as acute myeloid leukemia-1a and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein may be involved in the observed upregulation of antioxidative genes. Our results support the idea that CSEs are strong candidate sources of antioxidant materials and cosmeceutically effective ingredients. Keywords: fish egg, antiaging, gene expression analysis, antioxidative gene, phylogenetic footprinting analysis

  9. Antioxidant Effect of a Marine Oligopeptide Preparation from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta by Enzymatic Hydrolysis in Radiation Injured Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine oligopeptide preparation (MOP obtained from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta by the method of enzymatic hydrolysis, has been found to possess a radioprotective property through stimulation of the radiation-induced immunosuppression. The current study aimed to further investigate the free radicals scavenging and antioxidant effects of MOP in radiation injured mice. Female ICR mice (6–8 weeks old were randomly divided into 5 groups, i.e., blank control, irradiation control and MOP (0.225, 0.450 and 1.350 g/kg body weight plus an irradiation-treated group. The result revealed that MOP significantly increased the white blood cell counts after irradiation, and lessened the radiation-induced oxidative damage. These effects may be caused by augmentation of the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GSH-Px, reduction of the lipid peroxidation (MDA level in liver, and protection against radiation-induced apoptosis. Therefore, we propose that MOP be used as an ideal antioxidant to alleviate radiation-induced oxidation damage in cancer patients.

  10. Rearing in seawater mesocosms improves the spawning performance of growth hormone transgenic and wild-type coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A Leggatt

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH transgenes can significantly accelerate growth rates in fish and cause associated alterations to their physiology and behaviour. Concern exists regarding potential environmental risks of GH transgenic fish, should they enter natural ecosystems. In particular, whether they can reproduce and generate viable offspring under natural conditions is poorly understood. In previous studies, GH transgenic salmon grown under contained culture conditions had lower spawning behaviour and reproductive success relative to wild-type fish reared in nature. However, wild-type salmon cultured in equal conditions also had limited reproductive success. As such, whether decreased reproductive success of GH transgenic salmon is due to the action of the transgene or to secondary effects of culture (or a combination has not been fully ascertained. Hence, salmon were reared in large (350,000 L, semi-natural, seawater tanks (termed mesocosms designed to minimize effects of standard laboratory culture conditions, and the reproductive success of wild-type and GH transgenic coho salmon from mesocosms were compared with that of wild-type fish from nature. Mesocosm rearing partially restored spawning behaviour and success of wild-type fish relative to culture rearing, but remained lower overall than those reared in nature. GH transgenic salmon reared in the mesocosm had similar spawning behaviour and success as wild-type fish reared in the mesocosm when in full competition and without competition, but had lower success in male-only competition experiments. There was evidence of genotype×environmental interactions on spawning success, so that spawning success of transgenic fish, should they escape to natural systems in early life, cannot be predicted with low uncertainty. Under the present conditions, we found no evidence to support enhanced mating capabilities of GH transgenic coho salmon compared to wild-type salmon. However, it is clear that GH transgenic

  11. Adaptive strategies and life history characteristics in a warming climate: salmon in the Arctic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2013-01-01

    In the warming Arctic, aquatic habitats are in flux and salmon are exploring their options. Adult Pacific salmon, including sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka), coho (O. kisutch), Chinook (O. tshawytscha), pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) have been captured throughout the Arctic. Pink and chum salmon are the most common species found in the Arctic today. These species are less dependent on freshwater habitats as juveniles and grow quickly in marine habitats. Putative spawning populations are rare in the North American Arctic and limited to pink salmon in drainages north of Point Hope, Alaska, chum salmon spawning rivers draining to the northwestern Beaufort Sea, and small populations of chum and pink salmon in Canada’s Mackenzie River. Pacific salmon have colonized several large river basins draining to the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas in the Russian Arctic. These populations probably developed from hatchery supplementation efforts in the 1960’s. Hundreds of populations of Arctic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are found in Russia, Norway and Finland. Atlantic salmon have extended their range eastward as far as the Kara Sea in central Russian. A small native population of Atlantic salmon is found in Canada’s Ungava Bay. The northern tip of Quebec seems to be an Atlantic salmon migration barrier for other North American stocks. Compatibility between life history requirements and ecological conditions are prerequisite for salmon colonizing Arctic habitats. Broad-scale predictive models of climate change in the Arctic give little information about feedback processes contributing to local conditions, especially in freshwater systems. This paper reviews the recent history of salmon in the Arctic and explores various patterns of climate change that may influence range expansions and future sustainability of salmon in Arctic habitats. A summary of the research needs that will allow informed expectation of further Arctic colonization by salmon is given.

  12. Comparative mapping reveals quantitative trait loci that affect spawning time in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Araneda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spawning time in salmonids is a sex-limited quantitative trait that can be modified by selection. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, various quantitative trait loci (QTL that affect the expression of this trait have been discovered. In this study, we describe four microsatellite loci associated with two possible spawning time QTL regions in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. The four loci were identified in females from two populations (early and late spawners produced by divergent selection from the same base population. Three of the loci (OmyFGT34TUF, One2ASC and One19ASC that were strongly associated with spawning time in coho salmon (p < 0.0002 were previously associated with QTL for the same trait in rainbow trout; a fourth loci (Oki10 with a suggestive association (p = 0.00035 mapped 10 cM from locus OmyFGT34TUF in rainbow trout. The changes in allelic frequency observed after three generations of selection were greater than expected because of genetic drift. This work shows that comparing information from closely-related species is a valid strategy for identifying QTLs for marker-assisted selection in species whose genomes are poorly characterized or lack a saturated genetic map.

  13. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  14. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1996-08-01

    Spawning ground surveys were conducted in 1994 as part of a five year study of Snake River chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawyacha begun in 1991. Observations of fall chinook salmon spawning in the Snake River were limited to infrequent aerial red counts in the years prior to 1987. From 1987-1990, red counts were made on a limited basis by an interagency team and reported by the Washington Department of Fisheries. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and other cooperating agencies and organizations, expanded the scope of spawning ground surveys to include: (1) additional aerial surveys to improve red counts and provide data on the timing of spawning; (2) the validation (ground truthing) of red counts from aerial surveys to improve count accuracy; (3) underwater searches to locate reds in water too deep to allow detection from the air; and (4) bathymetric mapping of spawning sites for characterizing spawning habitat. This document is the 1994 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon. The studies were undertaken because of the growing concern about the declining salmon population in the Snake River basin.

  15. Central administration of growth hormone-releasing hormone triggers downstream movement and schooling behavior of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) fry in an artificial stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Daisuke; Iwata, Munehico

    2009-03-01

    Anadromous salmonids migrate downstream to the ocean (downstream migration). The neuroendocrine mechanism of triggering the onset of downstream migration is not well known. We investigated the effects of 14 chemicals, including neuropeptides, pineal hormones, neurotransmitters, and neuromodulators (growth hormone-releasing hormone: GHRH, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone: CRH, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, melatonin, N-acetyl serotonin, serotonin, beta-endorphin, enkephalin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, acetylcholine, and histamine) on the onset of downstream migration in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) fry. We defined downstream migration as a downstream movement (negative rheotaxis) with schooling behavior and counted the number of downstream movements and school size in experimental circulation tanks. An intracerebroventricular injection of GHRH, CRH, melatonin, N-acetyl serotonin, or serotonin stimulated the number of downstream movements. However, GHRH was the only chemical that also stimulated an increase in schooling behavior. These results suggest that CRH, melatonin, N-acetyl serotonin, and serotonin are involved in the stimulation of downstream movement in chum salmon, while GHRH stimulates both downstream movement and schooling behavior.

  16. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darimont Chris T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resource, consumed in areas where deer are scarce, or as a targeted resource, consumed as a positive function of its availability. Faecal (n = 2203 wolf scats and isotopic analyses (n = 60 wolf hair samples provide independent data sets, also allowing us to examine how consistent these common techniques are in estimating foraging behaviour. Results At the population level during spring and summer, deer remains occurred in roughly 90 and 95% of faeces respectively. When salmon become available in autumn, however, the population showed a pronounced dietary shift in which deer consumption among groups was negatively correlated (r = -0.77, P 13C isotopic signatures (r = 0.78; P = 0.008, which were calculated by intra-hair comparisons between segments grown during summer and fall. The magnitude of this seasonal isotopic shift, our proxy for salmon use, was related primarily to estimates of salmon availability, not deer availability, among wolf groups. Conclusion Concordance of faecal and isotopic data suggests our intra-hair isotopic methodology provides an accurate proxy for salmon consumption, and might reliably track seasonal dietary shifts in other consumer-resource systems. Use of salmon by wolves as a function of its abundance and the adaptive explanations we provide suggest a long-term and widespread association between wolves and salmon. Seasonally, this system departs from the common wolf-ungulate model. Broad ecological implications include the potential

  17. Spawning and abundance of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1948--1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D.D.; Watson, D.G.

    1990-03-01

    The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River provides the only major spawning habitat for the upriver bright (URB) race of fall chinook salmon in the mainstem Columbia River. Hanford Site biologists have conducted aerial surveys of spawning salmon in the Hanford Reach since 1948. This report summarizes data on fall chinook salmon spawning in the Hanford Reach and presents a discussion of factors that may affect population trends. Most data are limited to fisheries agency reports and other working documents. Fisheries management practices in the Columbia River system have changed rapidly over the last decade, particularly under requirements of the Pacific Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980. New information has been generated and included in this report. 75 refs., 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    1994-12-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered fall chinook salmon necessitates knowledge of the factors limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which affect spawning of the fish in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing seward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs. The spawning was generally a November event in 1993, with some activity in late Oct. and early Dec. Spawning habitat availability was assessed by applying hydraulic and habitat models to known fall chinook salmon spawning sites. Juveniles were seined and PIT tagged in the free-flowing Snake River, and in the Columbia River in he Hanford Reach and in McNary Reservoir. Subyearling fish were marked at McNary Dam to relate river flow and migration patterns of juveniles to adult returns. Hydroacoustic surveys were conducted on McNary and John Day reservoirs and in net pens.

  19. Distribution, persistence, and hydrologic characteristics of salmon spawning habitats in clearwater side channels of the Matanuska River, southcentral Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; McTeague, Monica L.; Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2011-01-01

    Turbid, glacially influenced rivers are often considered to be poor salmon spawning and rearing habitats and, consequently, little is known about salmon habitats that do occur within rivers of this type. To better understand salmon spawning habitats in the Matanuska River of southcentral Alaska, the distribution and characteristics of clearwater side-channel spawning habitats were determined and compared to spawning habitats in tributaries. More than 100 kilometers of clearwater side channels within the braided mainstem of the Matanuska River were mapped for 2006 from aerial images and ground-based surveys. In reaches selected for historical analysis, side channel locations shifted appreciably between 1949 and 2006, but the relative abundance of clearwater side channels was fairly stable during the same period. Geospatial analysis of side channel distribution shows side channels typically positioned along abandoned bars at the braid plain margin rather than on bars between mainstem channels, and shows a strong correlation of channel abundance with braid plain width. Physical and geomorphic characteristics of the channel and chemical character of the water measured at 19 side channel sites, 6 tributary sites, 4 spring sites, and 5 mainstem channel sites showed conditions suitable for salmon spawning in side channels and tributaries, and a correlation of side channel characteristics with the respective tributary or groundwater source water. Autumn-through-spring monitoring of intergravel water temperatures adjacent to salmon redds (nests) in three side channels and two tributaries indicate adequate accumulated thermal units for incubation and emergence of salmon in side channels and relatively low accumulated thermal units in tributaries.

  20. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting

  1. Redd Site Selection and Spawning Habitat Use by Fall Chinook Salmon, Hanford Reach, Columbia River : Final Report 1995 - 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.

    1999-05-01

    This report summarizes results of research activities conducted from 1995 through 1998 on identifying the spawning habitat requirements of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The project investigated whether traditional spawning habitat models could be improved in order to make better predictions of available habitat for fall chinook salmon in the Snake River. Results suggest models could be improved if they used spawning area-specific, rather than river-specific, spawning characteristics; incorporated hyporheic discharge measurements; and gave further consideration to the geomorphic features that are present in the unconstrained segments of large alluvial rivers. Ultimately the recovery of endangered fall chinook salmon will depend on how well we are able to recreate the characteristics once common in alluvial floodplains of large rivers. The results from this research can be used to better define the relationship between these physical habitat characteristics and fall chinook salmon spawning site selection, and provide more efficient use of limited recovery resources. This report is divided into four chapters which were presented in the author's doctoral dissertation which he completed through the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife at Oregon State University. Each of the chapters has been published in peer reviewed journals or is currently under review. Chapter one is a conceptual spawning habitat model that describes how geomorphic features of river channels create hydraulic processes, including hyporheic flows, that influence where salmon spawn in unconstrained reaches of large mainstem alluvial rivers. Chapter two describes the comparison of the physical factors associated with fall chinook salmon redd clusters located at two sites within the Reach. Spatial point pattern analysis of redds showed that redd clusters averaged approximately 10 hectares in area and their locations were consistent from

  2. Prespawning migratory behaviour and spawning success of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in the River Gudenaa, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels; Rasmusssen, Gorm

    2000-01-01

    The migratory behaviour of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was analysed by radio-telemetry in the River Gudenaa, Denmark. The main objectives were to: (1) estimate mortality of returning adults through the fjord; (2) observe rate of progression and migratory pattern in the fjord...... of the spawning period. Eight were retrieved dead from the river during or after the spawning period; four with empty gonads assumed to be successful spawners, and four with intact gonads. In 1994, unsuccessful spawners (found dead with intact gonads) entered the river earlier and had a longer total migration...... distance in the river compared to successful. spawners. This suggests that spawning success of sea-ranched salmon is associated with time of river entry and river migration length...

  3. Differential use of salmon by vertebrate consumers: implications for conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmon and other anadromous fish are consumed by vertebrates with distinct life history strategies to capitalize on this ephemeral pulse of resource availability. Depending on the timing of salmon arrival, this resource may be in surplus to the needs of vertebrate consumers if, for instance, their populations are limited by food availability during other times of year. However, the life history of some consumers enables more efficient exploitation of these ephemeral resources. Bears can deposit fat and then hibernate to avoid winter food scarcity, and highly mobile consumers such as eagles, gulls, and other birds can migrate to access asynchronous pulses of salmon availability. We used camera traps on pink, chum, and sockeye salmon spawning grounds with various run times and stream morphologies, and on individual salmon carcasses, to discern potentially different use patterns among consumers. Wildlife use of salmon was highly heterogeneous. Ravens were the only avian consumer that fed heavily on pink salmon in small streams. Eagles and gulls did not feed on early pink salmon runs in streams, and only moderately at early sockeye runs, but were the dominant consumers at late chum salmon runs, particularly on expansive river flats. Brown bears used all salmon resources far more than other terrestrial vertebrates. Notably, black bears were not observed on salmon spawning grounds despite being the most frequently observed vertebrate on roads and trails. From a conservation and management perspective, all salmon species and stream morphologies are used extensively by bears, but salmon spawning late in the year are disproportionately important to eagles and other highly mobile species that are seasonally limited by winter food availability.

  4. Pacific salmon in hot water: applying aerobic scope models and biotelemetry to predict the success of spawning migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, A P; Hinch, S G; Cooke, S J; Patterson, D A; Crossin, G T; Lapointe, M; Mathes, M T

    2008-01-01

    Concern over global climate change is widespread, but quantifying relationships between temperature change and animal fitness has been a challenge for scientists. Our approach to this challenge was to study migratory Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), fish whose lifetime fitness hinges on a once-in-a-lifetime river migration to natal spawning grounds. Here, we suggest that their thermal optimum for aerobic scope is adaptive for river migration at the population level. We base this suggestion on several lines of evidence. The theoretical line of evidence comes from a direct association between the temperature optimum for aerobic metabolic scope and the temperatures historically experienced by three Fraser River salmon populations during their river migration. This close association was then used to predict that the occurrence of a period of anomalously high river temperatures in 2004 led to a complete collapse of aerobic scope during river migration for a portion of one of the sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations. This prediction was corroborated with empirical data from our biotelemetry studies, which tracked the migration of individual sockeye salmon in the Fraser River and revealed that the success of river migration for the same sockeye population was temperature dependent. Therefore, we suggest that collapse of aerobic scope was an important mechanism to explain the high salmon mortality observed during their migration. Consequently, models based on thermal optima for aerobic scope for ectothermic animals should improve predictions of population fitness under future climate scenarios.

  5. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geist, D. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arntzen, E. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  6. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, James R.; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to web. Understanding how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  7. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  8. Identifying and Quantifying Sources of Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Gravel to the Snake River in Hells Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcker, C. W.; Burke, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Snake River in Hells Canyon supports a growing population of spawning Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) immediately downstream of the Hells Canyon Complex (HCC) of hydroelectric dams for the last 60 years. The long-term survival of this salmon run depends on the input of spawning gravel (25-150 mm) from local tributaries balancing the losses of spawning gravel through attrition and export out of the reach between the HCC and the Salmon River confluence. We are working to quantify the gravel input of these local tributaries at different time-scales and put this into the context of historical supply and transport. Long-term total sediment production rates of these tributaries estimated through various methods have varied by over 2 orders of magnitude, but we have recently completed 10Be work to constrain these estimates. We are measuring the change in storage of Fall Chinook spawning-size gravel through repeat multibeam echosounder surveys of the riverbed. The limited amount of repeat data collected to date has shown complex patterns of change in the riverbed. One possible driver of this complexity is the episodic and spatially variable nature of sediment inputs from these tributaries. We are attempting to quantify the frequency of the debris flows or floods capable of transporting spawning gravel through digitizing historic imagery of the last 60 years to determine the recurrence interval. We are measuring the magnitude of these events by surveying tributary fans pre and post-event to measure the sediment volume and particle size produced by specific events. These floods and debris flows are driven by extreme rainfall or snowmelt events, so we have also reconstructed historical meteorological conditions to identify the triggering conditions for transport, and identify the areas where snowmelt or rainfall is the more likely trigger. We are currently testing whether the unique bedrock geology of Hells Canyon can be used as a tracer to identify the

  9. Variability in stream discharge and temperature: a preliminary assessment of the implications for juvenile and spawning Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tetzlaff

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding the temporal variability in hydrological and thermal conditions in a small mountain stream and its potential implication for two life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar – stream resident juveniles and returning adult spawners. Stream discharge and temperature in the Girnock Burn, NE Scotland, were characterised over ten hydrological years (1994/1995–2003/2004. Attention was focussed on assessing variations during particular ecologically 'sensitive' time periods when selected life-stages of salmon behaviour may be especially influenced by hydrological and thermal conditions. Empirical discharge data were used to derive hydraulic parameters to predict the Critical Displacement Velocity (CDV of juvenile salmon. This is the velocity above which fish may no longer be able to hold station in the water column and thus can be used as an index of time periods where feeding behaviour might be constrained. In the Girnock Burn, strong inter- and intra-annual variability in hydrological and thermal conditions may have important implications for feeding opportunities for juvenile fish; both during important growth periods in late winter and early spring, and the emergence of fry in the late spring. Time periods when foraging behaviour of juvenile salmon may be constrained by hydraulic conditions were assessed as the percentage time when CDV for 0+ and 1+ fish were exceeded by mean daily stream velocities. Clear seasonal patterns of CDV were apparent, with higher summer values driven by higher stream temperatures and fish length. Inter-annual variability in the time when mean stream velocity exceeded CDV for 0+ fish ranged between 29.3% (1997/1998 and 44.7% (2000/2001. For 1+ fish mean stream velocity exceeded CDV between 14.5% (1997/1998 and 30.7% (2000/2001 of the time. The movement of adult spawners into the Girnock Burn in preparation for autumn spawning (late October to mid-November exhibited a complex

  10. Effects of Hydroelectric Dam Operations on the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Spawning Habitat Final Report, October 2005 - September 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Arntzen, Evan V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-11-13

    This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Fish and Wildlife Program directed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council. The study evaluated the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat within the impounded lower Snake River. The objective of the research was to determine if hydroelectric dam operations could be modified, within existing system constraints (e.g., minimum to normal pool levels; without partial removal of a dam structure), to increase the amount of available fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the lower Snake River. Empirical and modeled physical habitat data were used to compare potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Snake River, under current and modified dam operations, with the analogous physical characteristics of an existing fall Chinook salmon spawning area in the Columbia River. The two Snake River study areas included the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Highway 12 bridge and the Lower Granite Dam tailrace downstream approximately 12 river kilometers. These areas represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We used a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats was the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat use data, including water depth, velocity, substrate size and channelbed slope, from the Wanapum reference area were used to define spawning habitat suitability based on these variables. Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat suitability of the Snake River study areas was estimated by applying the Wanapum reference reach habitat

  11. Using remotely sensed imagery and GIS to monitor and research salmon spawning: A case study of the Hanford Reach fall chinook (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RH Visser

    2000-03-16

    The alteration of ecological systems has greatly reduced salmon populations in the Pacific Northwest. The Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, for example, is a component of the last ecosystem in eastern Washington State that supports a relatively healthy population of fall chinook salmon ([Oncorhynchus tshawytscha], Huntington et al. 1996). This population of fall chinook may function as a metapopulation for the Mid-Columbia region (ISG 1996). Metapopulations can seed or re-colonize unused habitat through the mechanism of straying (spawning in non-natal areas) and may be critical to the salmon recovery process if lost or degraded habitat is restored (i.e., the Snake, Upper Columbia, and Yakima rivers). For these reasons, the Hanford Reach fall chinook salmon population is extremely important for preservation of the species in the Columbia River Basin. Because this population is important to the region, non-intrusive techniques of analysis are essential for researching and monitoring population trends and spawning activities.

  12. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing, and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1993-07-01

    This document is the 1991 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. In April 1992, Snake River fall chinook salmon were listed as ``threatened`` under the Endangered Species Act. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon can not be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  13. Stream life of spawning pink salmon and the method of escapement enumeration by aerial survey: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys are currently used as the method tor escapement enumeration of pink salmon throughout Alaska. Other escapement enumeration methods cannot be...

  14. Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Ground Surveys in the Snake River Basin Upriver of Lower Granite Dam, Annual Report 2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, A.P.; Bradbury, S.M.; Arnsberg, B.D.

    2004-08-01

    Redd counts were used to document the spawning distribution of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River basin upriver of Lower Granite Dam. The first reported redd counts were from aerial searches conducted intermittently between 1959 and 1978 (Irving and Bjornn 1981, Witty 1988; Groves and Chandler 1996)(Appendix 1). In 1986, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife began an annual monitoring program that, in addition to the Snake River, included aerial searches of the Grande Ronde River the first year (Seidel and Bugert 1987), and the Imnaha River in subsequent years (Seidel et al. 1988; Bugert et al. 1989-1991; Mendel et al. 1992). The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and Idaho Power Company began contributing to this effort in 1991 by increasing the number of aerial searches conducted each year and adding underwater searches in areas of the Snake River that were too deep to be searched from the air (Connor et al. 1993; Garcia et al. 1994a, 1994b, 1996-2003; Groves 1993; Groves and Chandler 1996). The Nez Perce Tribe added aerial searches in the Clearwater River basin beginning in 1988 (Arnsberg et. al 1992) and the Salmon River beginning in 1992. Currently searches are conducted cooperatively by the Nez Perce Tribe, Idaho Power Company, and U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our objective for this report was to consolidate the findings from annual redd searches into a single document containing detailed information about the searches from the most recent spawning season, and summary information from previous years. The work conducted in 2003 was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (Projects 199801003, 199801004, 199403400, 198335003), Idaho Power Company, and Bureau of Land Management.

  15. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures

  16. Recurrent die-offs of adult coho salmon returning to spawn in Puget Sound lowland urban streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel L Scholz

    Full Text Available Several Seattle-area streams in Puget Sound were the focus of habitat restoration projects in the 1990s. Post-project effectiveness monitoring surveys revealed anomalous behaviors among adult coho salmon returning to spawn in restored reaches. These included erratic surface swimming, gaping, fin splaying, and loss of orientation and equilibrium. Affected fish died within hours, and female carcasses generally showed high rates (>90% of egg retention. Beginning in the fall of 2002, systematic spawner surveys were conducted to 1 assess the severity of the adult die-offs, 2 compare spawner mortality in urban vs. non-urban streams, and 3 identify water quality and spawner condition factors that might be associated with the recurrent fish kills. The forensic investigation focused on conventional water quality parameters (e.g., dissolved oxygen, temperature, ammonia, fish condition, pathogen exposure and disease status, and exposures to metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and current use pesticides. Daily surveys of a representative urban stream (Longfellow Creek from 2002-2009 revealed premature spawner mortality rates that ranged from 60-100% of each fall run. The comparable rate in a non-urban stream was <1% (Fortson Creek, surveyed in 2002. Conventional water quality, pesticide exposure, disease, and spawner condition showed no relationship to the syndrome. Coho salmon did show evidence of exposure to metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, both of which commonly originate from motor vehicles in urban landscapes. The weight of evidence suggests that freshwater-transitional coho are particularly vulnerable to an as-yet unidentified toxic contaminant (or contaminant mixture in urban runoff. Stormwater may therefore place important constraints on efforts to conserve and recover coho populations in urban and urbanizing watersheds throughout the western United States.

  17. Conceptual Spawning Habitat Model to Aid in ESA Recovery Plans for Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2005-09-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a spawning habitat model that can be used to determine the physical habitat factors that are necessary to define the production potential for fall chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Columbia River's Hanford Reach and Snake River. This project addresses RPA 155 in the NMFS 2000 Biological Opinion: Action 155: BPA, working with BOR, the Corps, EPA, and USGS, shall develop a program to: (1) Identify mainstem habitat sampling reaches, survey conditions, describe cause-and-effect relationships, and identify research needs; (2) Develop improvement plans for all mainstem reaches; and (3) Initiate improvements in three mainstem reaches. During FY 2003 we continued to collect and analyze information on fall chinook salmon spawning habitat characteristics in the Hanford Reach that will be used to address RPA 155, i.e., items 1-3 above. For example, in FY 2003: (1) We continued to survey spawning habitat in the Hanford Reach and develop a 2-dimensional hydraulic and habitat model that will be capable of predicting suitability of fall chinook salmon habitat in the Hanford Reach; (2) Monitor how hydro operations altered the physical and chemical characteristics of the river and the hyporheic zone within fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach; (3) Published a paper on the impacts of the Columbia River hydroelectric system on main-stem habitats of fall chinook salmon (Dauble et al. 2003). This paper was made possible with data collected on this project; (4) Continued to analyze data collected in previous years that will ultimately be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships and identify research needs that will assist managers in the improvement of fall chinook habitat quality in main-stem reaches. During FY 2004 we plan to: (1) Complete preliminary reporting and submit papers based on the results of the project through FY 2004. Although we have proposed additional analysis of data be

  18. Salmon as biogeomorphic agents in gravel-bed rivers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Spawning salmon have been known to affect streambed texture, influence sediment transport, and play an important geomorphological role in streams by digging nests or redds. We examined the impact of salmon and floods on channel morphology, bed material dispersion and yield, bed surface texture and stability, fine sediment dynamics and nutrient retention of small gravel bed streams in British Columbia, Canada. Channel morphology and dynamics of a large number of streams in British Columbia are partially or wholly affected by fish bioturbation. The scale of the impact is controlled by the salmon species, population density, and channel size and characteristics. Sediment transport measurements show that salmon play a significant role in erosion and deposition within the channel by promoting vertical and longitudinal mixing of the substrate, as well as by changing the relative mobility of the gravel on the bed. The action of salmon bioturbation promotes distinctive bedforms and packing of sediment grains. In streams with dense populations of sockeye or chum salmon the whole surface of spawning reaches may be modified, as bars are excavated and pools are filled. For chinook salmon the organization of spawning bedforms ranges from scattered mounds or ‘gravel pile-ups’ to well-ordered dunes. Such dunes extend for hundreds of meters to kilometres along the river bed. They exhibit amplitudes of more than one metre and wavelengths of 10 to 15 m. Our conclusion that mass-spawning fish can dominate sediment transport in mountain drainage basins has fundamental implications for understanding channel morphology, aquatic ecosystem dynamics, stream responses to environmental change, and river restoration programs.

  19. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-28

    We investigated differences in the statistical power to assign parentage between an artificially propagated and wild salmon population. The propagated fish were derived from the wild population, and are used to supplement its abundance. Levels of genetic variation were similar between the propagated and wild groups at 11 microsatellite loci, and exclusion probabilities were >0.999999 for both groups. The ability to unambiguously identify a pair of parents for each sampled progeny was much lower than expected, however. Simulations demonstrated that the proportion of cases the most likely pair of parents were the true parents was lower for propagated parents than for wild parents. There was a clear relationship between parentage assignment ability and the degree of linkage disequilibrium, the estimated effective number of breeders that produced the parents, and the size of the largest family within the potential parents. If a stringent threshold for parentage assignment was used, estimates of relative fitness were biased downward for the propagated fish. The bias appeared to be largely eliminated by either fractionally assigning progeny among parents in proportion to their likelihood of parentage, or by assigning progeny to the most likely set of parents without using a statistical threshold. We used a DNA-based parentage analysis to measure the relative reproductive success of hatchery- and natural-origin spring Chinook salmon in the natural environment. Both male and female hatchery-origin fish produced far fewer juvenile progeny per parent when spawning naturally than did natural origin fish. Differences in age structure, spawning location, weight and run timing were responsible for some of the difference in fitness. Male size and age had a large influence on fitness, with larger and older males producing more offspring than smaller or younger individuals. Female size had a significant effect on fitness, but the effect was much smaller than the effect of size on

  20. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  1. Design of a groundwater model to determine the feasibility of extending an artificial salmon-spawning stream: case study for Marx Creek, near Hyder, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T. P.; Lachmar, T. E.

    2013-09-01

    Marx Creek is a groundwater-fed, artificial salmon-spawning stream near Hyder, Alaska. The purpose of this project was to develop a groundwater flow model to predict baseflow to a proposed 450-m extension of Marx Creek. To accomplish this purpose, water levels were monitored in 20 monitor wells and discharge measurements were recorded from Marx Creek. These data were used to create a three-dimensional groundwater flow model using Visual MODFLOW. Three predictive simulations were run after the model was calibrated to groundwater levels and stream discharge measurements. The proposed extension was added to the calibrated model during the first simulation, resulting in simulated baseflow to the extension stream exceeding simulated baseflow to the existing Marx Creek by 39 %. Sections of Marx Creek were removed from the model during the second simulation, resulting in a 5 % increase in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. A 32-cm reduction in the water table was simulated during the third simulation, resulting in an 18 % decrease in simulated baseflow to the extension stream. These modeling results were used by Tongass National Forest personnel to determine that baseflow to the proposed extension would likely be sufficient to provide habitat conducive to salmon spawning. The extension stream was constructed and portions of Marx Creek were decommissioned during the summer of 2008. It was observed that there is comparable or greater discharge in the extension stream than there was in the decommissioned sections of Marx Creek, although neither discharge nor stream stage measurements have yet been collected.

  2. Monitoring the Reproductive Success of Naturally Spawning Hatchery and Natural Spring Chinook Salmon in the Wenatchee River, 2008-2009 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Michael J.; Williamson, Kevin S. [Northwest Fisheries Science Center

    2009-05-28

    We investigated differences in the statistical power to assign parentage between an artificially propagated and wild salmon population. The propagated fish were derived from the wild population, and are used to supplement its abundance. Levels of genetic variation were similar between the propagated and wild groups at 11 microsatellite loci, and exclusion probabilities were >0.999999 for both groups. The ability to unambiguously identify a pair of parents for each sampled progeny was much lower than expected, however. Simulations demonstrated that the proportion of cases the most likely pair of parents were the true parents was lower for propagated parents than for wild parents. There was a clear relationship between parentage assignment ability and the degree of linkage disequilibrium, the estimated effective number of breeders that produced the parents, and the size of the largest family within the potential parents. If a stringent threshold for parentage assignment was used, estimates of relative fitness were biased downward for the propagated fish. The bias appeared to be largely eliminated by either fractionally assigning progeny among parents in proportion to their likelihood of parentage, or by assigning progeny to the most likely set of parents without using a statistical threshold. We used a DNA-based parentage analysis to measure the relative reproductive success of hatchery- and natural-origin spring Chinook salmon in the natural environment. Both male and female hatchery-origin fish produced far fewer juvenile progeny per parent when spawning naturally than did natural origin fish. Differences in age structure, spawning location, weight and run timing were responsible for some of the difference in fitness. Male size and age had a large influence on fitness, with larger and older males producing more offspring than smaller or younger individuals. Female size had a significant effect on fitness, but the effect was much smaller than the effect of size on

  3. The protective effects of long-term oral administration of marine collagen hydrolysate from chum salmon on collagen matrix homeostasis in the chronological aged skin of Sprague-Dawley male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiang; Pei, Xinrong; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Nan; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2010-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of marine collagen hydrolysate (MCH) from Chum Salmon skin on the aberrant collagen matrix homeostasis in chronological aged skin, Sprague-Dawley male rats of 4-wk-old were orally administrated with MCH at the diet concentrations of 2.25% and 4.5% for 24 mo. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that MCH had the potential to inhibit the collagen loss and collagen fragmentation in chronological aged skin. Based on immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, collagen type I and III protein expression levels in MCH-treated groups significantly increased as compared with the aged control group. Furthermore, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis showed MCH was able to increase the expressions of procollagen type I and III mRNA (COL1A2 and COL3A1) through activating Smad signaling pathway with up-regulated TGF-βRII (TβRII) expression level. Meanwhile, MCH was shown to inhibit the age-related increased collagen degradation through attenuating MMP-1 expression and increasing tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, MCH could alleviate the oxidative stress in chronological aged skin, which was revealed from the data of superoxide dismutase activity and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level in skin homogenates. Therefore, MCH was demonstrated to have the protective effects on chronological skin aging due to the influence on collagen matrix homeostasis. And the antioxidative property of MCH might play an important role in the process.

  4. Calibration of aerial surveys and determination of streamlife for coho salmon (O. kitsuch) spawning in the Gechiak River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report of species distributions of voles and shrews identified by trap lines near Upinnivgik. Presented at Bristol Bay Coho Salmon workshop, February , 1986.

  5. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  6. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnas, C. R.; Czuba, J. A.; Gendaszek, A. S.; Magirl, C. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River.

  7. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  8. Impact of naturally spawning captive-bred Atlantic salmon on wild populations: depressed recruitment and increased risk of climate-mediated extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnity, Philip; Jennings, Eleanor; DeEyto, Elvira; Allott, Norman; Samuelsson, Patrick; Rogan, Gerard; Whelan, Ken; Cross, Tom

    2009-10-22

    The assessment report of the 4th International Panel on Climate Change confirms that global warming is strongly affecting biological systems and that 20-30% of species risk extinction from projected future increases in temperature. It is essential that any measures taken to conserve individual species and their constituent populations against climate-mediated declines are appropriate. The release of captive bred animals to augment wild populations is a widespread management strategy for many species but has proven controversial. Using a regression model based on a 37-year study of wild and sea ranched Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) spawning together in the wild, we show that the escape of captive bred animals into the wild can substantially depress recruitment and more specifically disrupt the capacity of natural populations to adapt to higher winter water temperatures associated with climate variability. We speculate the mechanisms underlying this seasonal response and suggest that an explanation based on bio-energetic processes with physiological responses synchronized by photoperiod is plausible. Furthermore, we predict, by running the model forward using projected future climate scenarios, that these cultured fish substantially increase the risk of extinction for the studied population within 20 generations. In contrast, we show that positive outcomes to climate change are possible if captive bred animals are prevented from breeding in the wild. Rather than imposing an additional genetic load on wild populations by releasing maladapted captive bred animals, we propose that conservation efforts should focus on optimizing conditions for adaptation to occur by reducing exploitation and protecting critical habitats. Our findings are likely to hold true for most poikilothermic species where captive breeding programmes are used in population management.

  9. Comparison of two fluorescent antibody techniques (FATS) for detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum in coelomic fluid of spawning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D.G.; McKibben, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Two versions of the fluorescent antibody technique (FAT) were compared for detection and quantification of Renibacterium salmoninarum in coelomic fluid samples from naturally infected spawning chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. For the membrane filtration-FAT (MF-FAT), trypsin-treated samples were passed through 0.2 ??m polycarbonate filters to concentrate bacteria for direct enumeration by immunofluorescence microscopy. For the smear-FAT (S-FAT), samples were centrifuged at 8800 x g for 10 min and the pelleted material was smeared on slides for immunofluorescence staining Detected prevalences of Renibacterium salmoninarum were 1.8 to 3.4 times higher by the MF-FAT than by the S-FAT: differences were significant at p ??? 0.0002. The S-FAT consistently detected R. salmoninarum only in samples with calculated bacterial concentrations ??? 2.4 x 103 cells ml-1 by MF-FAT testing. Increasing the area examined on a filter or slide from 50 to 100 microscope fields at 1000x magnification resulted in the detection of a maximum of 4% additional positive samples by the MF-FAT and 7% additional positive samples by the S-FAT. In individual samples for which bacterial counts were obtained by both the MF-FAT and the S-FAT, the counts averaged from 47 times (??30 SD) to 175 times (??165 SD) higher by the MF-FAT. Centrifugation of samples at 10000 x g for 10 min resulted in a 4-fold increase in mean bacterial counts by the S-FAT compared with a 10-min centrifugation at 2000 x g, but the highest calculated bacterial concentration obtained by S-FAT testing was more than 6-fold lower than that obtained for the same sample by MF-FAT testing. Because of its greater sensitivity, the MF-FAT is preferable to the S-FAT for use in critical situations requiring the detection of low numbers of R. salmoninarum.

  10. Relative resistance of Pacific salmon to infectious salmon anaemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, J.B.; Winton, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a major disease of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by an orthomyxovirus (ISAV). Increases in global aqua culture and the international movement of fish made it important to determine if Pacific salmon are at risk. Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chum, O. keta, Chinook, O. tshawytscha, coho, O. kisutch, and Atlantic salmon were injected intraperitoneally with a high, medium, or low dose of a Norwegian strain of ISAV. In a second challenge, the same species, except chum salmon, were injected with a high dose of either a Canadian or the Norwegian strain. Average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 1 was 12% in the high dose group, 20% in the medium dose group and 16% in the low dose group. The average cumulative mortality of Atlantic salmon in trial 2 was 98%. No signs typical of ISA and no ISAV-related mortality occurred among any of the groups of Oncorhynchus spp. in either experiment, although ISAV was reisolated from some fish sampled at intervals post-challenge. The results indicate that while Oncorhynchus spp. are quite resistant to ISAV relative to Atlantic salmon, the potential for ISAV to adapt to Oncorhynchus spp. should not be ignored.

  11. AFSC/ABL: Origins of salmon seized from the F/V Arctic Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples of chum (Oncorhynchus keta), sockeye (O. nerka), and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) seized from the F/V Arctic Wind were analyzed to determine their region...

  12. 76 FR 6383 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Delist Coho Salmon South of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... efforts which began in 1906. Because the scientific literature prior to 1906 referenced coho salmon as... literature, the BRT found evidence that coho salmon were likely missidentified as chum salmon (O. keta) or... situation such as this and that few if any museum collections, even contemporary collections, could...

  13. [The effect of electrical and acoustic stimulation in early ontogeny on the characteristics of higher nervous activity and on the nucleic acid content of the tissues in chum salmon fry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A M; Vitvitskaia, L V

    1991-01-01

    Stimulation of salmon larvae by electric current led further to unstable character of reactions in the open field. Acoustic stimulation both by tonal and musical signals favourably influenced the behaviour in the open field and the ability to elaborate conditioned reflexes. Changes of the content of nucleic acids were not found in the brain tissue but were found in the muscles, where they correlated with the growth speed and motor activity of the experimental fishes. The obtained data show the possibility of elaboration of applied methods of the control of CNS development and behaviour of young fishes at fishing plants.

  14. 75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... ``blueback''), Humpback (``pink'') and Chum (``dog''). Atlantic salmon is a whole or nearly-whole fish... and other cuts of Atlantic salmon. Also excluded are frozen, canned, smoked or otherwise processed... for all shipments of the subject merchandise entered, or withdraw from a warehouse, for consumption...

  15. Relationship of farm salmon, sea lice, and wild salmon populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Gary D.; Saksida, Sonja M.; Quinn, Terrance J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased farm salmon production has heightened concerns about the association between disease on farm and wild fish. The controversy is particularly evident in the Broughton Archipelago of Western Canada, where a high prevalence of sea lice (ectoparasitic copepods) was first reported on juvenile wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in 2001. Exposure to sea lice from farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was thought to be the cause of the 97% population decline before these fish returned to spawn in 2002, although no diagnostic investigation was done to rule out other causes of mortality. To address the concern that sea lice from fish farms would cause population extinction of wild salmon, we analyzed 10–20 y of fish farm data and 60 y of pink salmon data. We show that the number of pink salmon returning to spawn in the fall predicts the number of female sea lice on farm fish the next spring, which, in turn, accounts for 98% of the annual variability in the prevalence of sea lice on outmigrating wild juvenile salmon. However, productivity of wild salmon is not negatively associated with either farm lice numbers or farm fish production, and all published field and laboratory data support the conclusion that something other than sea lice caused the population decline in 2002. We conclude that separating farm salmon from wild salmon—proposed through coordinated fallowing or closed containment—will not increase wild salmon productivity and that medical analysis can improve our understanding of complex issues related to aquaculture sustainability. PMID:21149706

  16. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  17. Life history tactics of Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, John; Haedrich, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Popular articles about the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) usually state that ‘the Atlantic salmon is an anadromous species’, e.g. publications by the Atlantic Salmon Federation (North America), Atlantic Salmon Trust (UK), and WWF (World Wildlife Fund), and the life history is depicted as migration of juveniles from fresh water to the marine environment, with a return to where the fish were born as spawning adults. This article reviews the life history tactics of Atlantic salmon in Newfoundland...

  18. Biodiveristy and Stability of Aboriginal Salmon Fisheries in the Fraser River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, H. K.; Moore, J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural watersheds are hierarchical networks that may confer stability to ecosystem functions through integration of upstream biodiversity, whereby upstream asset diversification stabilizes the aggregate downstream through the portfolio effect. Here we show that riverine structure and its associated diversity confer stability of salmon catch and lengthened fishing seasons for Aboriginal fisheries on the Fraser River (1370km) in BC, Canada, the second longest dam-free salmon migration route in North America. In Canada, Aboriginal people have rights to fish for food, social, and ceremonial (FSC) purposes. FSC fisheries are located throughout the Fraser watershed and have access to varying levels of salmon diversity based on their location. For instance, fisheries at the mouth of the river have access to all of the salmon that spawn throughout the entire watershed, thus integrating across the complete diversity profile of the entire river. In contrast, fisheries in the headwaters have access to fewer salmon species and populations and thus fish from a much less diverse portfolio. These spatial gradients of diversity within watersheds provide a natural contrast for quantifying the effects of different types of diversity on interannual resource stability and seasonal availability. We acquired weekly and yearly catch totals from 1983 to 2012 (30 years) for Chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye salmon for 21 FSC fishing sites throughout the Fraser River watershed from Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We examined how both population- and species-level diversity affects catch stability and season length at each site by quantifying year-to-year variability and within-year season length respectively. Salmon species diversity made fisheries up to 28% more stable in their catch than predicted with 3.7 more weeks to fish on average. Fisheries with access to high population diversity had up to 3.8 times more stable catch and 3 times longer seasons than less diverse fisheries. We

  19. Early marine life history of juvenile Pacific salmon in two regions of Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, E.J.; Beauchamp, D.A.; Buckley, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Puget Sound could differentially represent either a simple migration corridor or an important rearing environment during the potentially critical early marine residence period for different species of Pacific salmon. Recent declines in various stocks of Puget Sound salmon could reflect degraded rearing conditions or changes in temporal-spatial utilization patterns by juvenile salmon in Puget Sound, and these patterns could vary between habitats and regions of Puget Sound in response to different environmental conditions or hatchery practices. In April-September 2001 and 2002, we evaluated spatial and temporal differences in distribution and size structure among juvenile chum, pink, coho, and chinook salmon at delta and nearshore habitats in a northern and southern region of Puget Sound, Washington. Water was consistently warmer (8-18.8??C) and less saline (0.0-27.7) in the northern (N) than in the southern region (S: 9.5-14.6??C, 13.0-30.4). Salinities were lower and water temperatures more variable in delta sites than exposed nearshore marine sites. Peak densities of juvenile salmon coincided at delta and nearshore sites within sampling regions but differed between regions. Nearshore densities were highest during April-June with pink and chum salmon generally preceding chinook and coho salmon, and peak catch rates of most species occurred in May. A second, late pulse of chinook salmon also occurred during July at northern sites. Juvenile chinook salmon were predominantly of hatchery origin in the southern region (98%), and of mixed origin in the northern region (44% marked hatchery fish) during 2002. The lengths of chinook and chum salmon in nearshore regions increased steadily through time, whereas pink and coho salmon varied inconsistently. Mean sizes of juvenile salmon were slightly but consistently smaller at delta than nearshore sites and at northern versus southern sites. Hatchery chinook salmon were slightly larger than their unmarked counterparts. Extended

  20. Deschutes River Spawning Gravel Study, Volume I, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1985-09-01

    Spawning habitat in the Deschutes River was inventoried, gravel permeability and composition were sampled at selected gravel bars, historical flow records for the Deschutes were analyzed, salmon and trout utilization of spawning habitat was examined, and potential methods of enhancing spawning habitat in the river were explored. Some changes in river conditions since the mid-1960's were identified, including a reduction in spawning habitat immediately downstream from the hydroelectric complex. The 1964 flood was identified as a factor which profoundly affected spawning habitat in the river, and which greatly complicated efforts to identify recent changes which could be attributed to the hydrocomplex. A baseline on present gravel quality at both chinook and steelhead spawning areas in the river was established using a freeze-core methodology. Recommendations are made for enhancing spawning habitat in the Deschutes River, if it is independently determined that spawning habitat is presently limiting populations of summer steelhead or fall chinook in the river. 53 refs., 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries.

  2. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  3. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  4. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  5. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  6. Spawning ascent durations of pelagic spawning reef fishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline A. HABRUN; Gorka SANCHO

    2012-01-01

    Predation risks have been hypothesized to influence spawning behaviors of coral reef fishes that broadcast gametes pelagically.The duration of spawning ascents of 13 species were measured from video footage at a single spawning site for multiple coral reef fishes to investigate if this behavior was influenced by varying risks of predation.Fishes that spawned in pairs had ascents of longer duration than group-spawning species.Duration of spawning ascents did not vary between fishes spawning at daytime and dusk,nor between group-spawning species with specific anti-predatory morphological adaptations.These results indicate that risk of predation may not significantly influence the duration of spawning ascents of pair spawning reef fishes at our study site,while group-spawning behaviors are influenced by predation.Avoidance of egg predation by benthic organisms and female mate choice are more likely to influence the pelagic spawning behaviors of all fishes observed [Current Zoology 58 ( 1 ):95-102,2012].

  7. Salmon as drivers of physical and biological disturbance in river channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2012-04-01

    Large migrations across landscapes and ecosystem boundaries combined with disturbances of riverine spawning habitats through nest construction indicate the huge potential that Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus sp.) have to disturb and alter regional energy flow. Nutrients derived from ocean-reared dead and decaying salmon are released into surrounding aquatic ecosystems fertilizing the water column, recently disturbed by increased suspended sediments due to nest construction. These opposing forces of disturbance and fertilization on spawning habitat have been demonstrated to impact local geomorphic and ecological cycles within salmon streams. An often cited, yet not fully tested, hypothesis is that this pulse of nutrients provided by decaying salmon can shift freshwater habitats to higher production levels. This hypothesis, however, remains contested and uncertain. Fine sediments are increasingly being recognized as important delivery and storage vectors for marine-derived nutrients (MDNs) in spawning streams. The temporal and spatial significance of these sediment vectors on gravelbed storage of MDN have not been quantified thereby restricting our ability to estimate the impact of gravelbed storage of MDNs on the riverine habitats. The objectives of this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of sediment deposition and retention in an active spawning area and ii) determine the contribution of MDN associated with the fine sediment storage. The Horsefly River spawning channel (HFC), an artificial salmon stock enhancement stream, was used to examine the biogeomorphic impacts of salmon spawning. We organized the HFC in an upstream-downstream paired treatment approach where the upstream enclosure was kept free of salmon and the downstream enclosure was loaded with actively spawning salmon. We used the difference in suspended sediment concentration between the salmon enclosure and the control enclosure to determine the contribution of salmon nest construction to suspended

  8. Froude Number is the Single Most Important Hydraulic Parameter for Salmonid Spawning Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, E.; Moir, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Many gravel-bed rivers exhibit historic straightening or embanking, reducing river complexity and the available habitat for key species such as salmon. A defensible method for predicting salmonid spawning habitat is an important tool for anyone engaged in assessing a river restoration. Most empirical methods to predict spawning habitat use lookup tables of depth, velocity and substrate. However, natural site selection is different: salmon must pick a location where they can successfully build a redd, and where eggs have a sufficient survival rate. Also, using dimensional variables, such as depth and velocity, is problematic: spawning occurs in rivers of differing size, depth and velocity range. Non-dimensional variables have proven useful in other branches of fluid dynamics, and instream habitat is no different. Empirical river data has a high correlation between observed salmon redds and Froude number, without insight into why. Here we present a physics based model of spawning and bedform evolution, which shows that Froude number is indeed a rational choice for characterizing the bedform, substrate, and flow necessary for spawning. It is familiar for Froude to characterize surface waves, but Froude also characterizes longitudinal bedform in a mobile bed river. We postulate that these bedforms and their hydraulics perform two roles in salmonid spawning: allowing transport of clasts during redd building, and oxygenating eggs. We present an example of this Froude number and substrate based habitat characterization on a Scottish river for which we have detailed topography at several stages during river restoration and subsequent evolution of natural processes. We show changes to the channel Froude regime as a result of natural process and validate habitat predictions against redds observed during 2014 and 2015 spawning seasons, also relating this data to the Froude regime in other, nearby, rivers. We discuss the use of the Froude spectrum in providing an indicator of

  9. Wenatchee Chinook Parentage - Evaluate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild Chinook salmon in the Wenatchee River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic parentage analysis to measure the relative fitness of hatchery and wild spring run Chinook salmon that spawn in the Wenatchee River. In addition...

  10. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  11. Comparative diets of subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario could potentially be negatively affected by the presence of non-native salmonids that are naturalized in the basin. Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have been spawning successfully in Lake Ontario tributaries for over 40 years and their juveniles will reside in streams with juvenile Atlantic salmon for one year. This study sought to examine interspecific diet associations between these species, and to compare diets to the composition of the benthos and drift in three Lake Ontario tributaries. Aquatic insects, mainly ephemeropterans and chironomids were the major prey consumed by subyearling Atlantic salmon whereas terrestrial invertebrates made up only 3.7% of the diet. Ephemeropterans and chironomids were the primary aquatic taxa consumed by subyearling coho salmon but, as a group, terrestrial invertebrates (41.8%) were the major prey. In sympatry, Atlantic salmon fed more actively from the benthos whereas the diet of coho salmon was more similar to the drift. The different feeding pattern of each species resulted in low interspecific diet similarity. There is likely little competition between these species for food in Lake Ontario tributaries as juveniles.

  12. Fate of chlorinated fatty acids in migrating sockeye salmon and their transfer to arctic grayling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Ewald, G.; Nilsson, E.;

    2004-01-01

    organohalogen compounds in the salmon were halogenated fatty acids, predominantly chlorinated species that accounted for up to 35% of the extractable, organically bound chlorine (EOCl) in the fish tissues. The amount of chlorinated fatty acids in the salmon muscle decreased as a result of spawning migration....... The decrease was correlated with that of triacylglycerols in the salmon muscle, indicating the chlorinated fatty acids to be mobilized and metabolized to approximately the same extent as the other fatty acids. Chlorinated fatty acids were also transferred to the maturing roe in a manner similar...... to that of the unchlorinated fatty acids. Lipids of the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus), a fish resident to the spawning lake of the salmon, contained higher concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids than grayling in a lake without migratory salmon. This may reflect a food-chain transfer of the chlorinated fatty acids...

  13. STABLE ISOTOPE STUDIES ON THE USE OF MARINE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS BY COHO SALMON JUVENILES IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatly reduced spawning runs of anadromous salmon in streams of the Pacific Northwest (USA) have led to concerns about the effects of reduced marine derived nutrients (MDN's) on sustaining over-wintering juvenile salmon in those streams. In response to these concerns, state a...

  14. Temporal patterns in adult salmon migration timing across southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Ryan P.; Ellison, Stephen; Pyare, Sanjay; Tallmon, David

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon migration timing can drive population productivity, ecosystem dynamics, and human harvest. Nevertheless, little is known about long-term variation in salmon migration timing for multiple species across broad regions. We used long-term data for five Pacific salmon species throughout rapidly warming southeast Alaska to describe long-term changes in salmon migration timing, interannual phenological synchrony, relationships between climatic variation and migratory timing, and to test whether long-term changes in migration timing are related to glaciation in headwater streams. Temporal changes in the median date of salmon migration timing varied widely across species. Most sockeye populations are migrating later over time (11 of 14), but pink, chum, and especially coho populations are migrating earlier than they did historically (16 of 19 combined). Temporal trends in duration and interannual variation in migration timing were highly variable across species and populations. The greatest temporal shifts in the median date of migration timing were correlated with decreases in the duration of migration timing, suggestive of a loss of phenotypic variation due to natural selection. Pairwise interannual correlations in migration timing varied widely but were generally positive, providing evidence for weak region-wide phenological synchrony. This synchrony is likely a function of climatic variation, as interannual variation in migration timing was related to climatic phenomenon operating at large- (Pacific decadal oscillation), moderate- (sea surface temperature), and local-scales (precipitation). Surprisingly, the presence or the absence of glaciers within a watershed was unrelated to long-term shifts in phenology. Overall, there was extensive heterogeneity in long-term patterns of migration timing throughout this climatically and geographically complex region, highlighting that future climatic change will likely have widely divergent impacts on salmon

  15. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  16. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices. This ...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product.......The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices....... This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...

  17. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  18. Escapement Monitoring of Adult Chinook Salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Lapwai, ID)

    2001-04-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology was used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in spawning areas in Lake Creek and the Secesh River, Idaho, in 1999. This technique is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. This was the third year of testing the remote application of this methodology in the Secesh River drainage. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild salmon spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. Adult chinook salmon spawner abundance was estimated in Lake Creek with the remote time-lapse video application. Adult spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 1999 was 67 salmon. Significant upstream and downstream spawner movement affected the ability to determine the number of fish that contributed to the spawning population. The first passage on Lake Creek was recorded on July 11, two days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement occurred at the Lake Creek site on July 20, peak of total movement activity was August 19 with the last fish observed on August 26. A minimum of 133 adult chinook salmon migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River site prior to the July 15 installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream adult movement at the Secesh River site occurred July 19, peak of total movement was August 15, 17 and 18 and the last fish passed on September 10. Migrating salmon in the Secesh River and Lake Creek exhibited two behaviorally distinct segments of fish movement. Mainly upstream only, movement characterized the first segment. The second segment consisted of upstream and downstream movement with very little net upstream movement. Estimated abundance was compared to single and multiple-pass redd count surveys within the drainage. There were

  19. Interspecific competition in tributaries: Prospectus for restoring Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Wedge, Leslie R.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, Lake Ontario may have supported the world's largest freshwater population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, by the late 1800's, salmon were virtually extinct in the lake due to the damming of tributaries, overharvest, deforestation, and pollution. Of these factors, the building of dams on tributaries, which precluded access by the salmon to natal spawning streams, was probably the most detrimental. Since the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Lake Ontario watershed over a century ago, considerable change has occurred throughout the lake and tributary ecosystem. The changes within the ecosystem that may have the most profound effect on Atlantic salmon restoration include the presence of exotic species, including other salmonines, and reduced habitat quality, especially in tributaries. These changes must be taken into account when considering Atlantic salmon restoration.

  20. AFSC/ABL: Genetic analysis of juvenile chum salmon from the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arctic region has experienced warming in recent years, resulting in decreased summer sea ice cover and increased sea surface temperatures. In 2007, the U.S....

  1. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul A.

    2001-05-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier than the first fish arrival at Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999

  2. Mainstem Clearwater River study: Assessment for Salmonid Spawning, Incubation, and Rearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, William P.; Pishl, Markley J.; Whitman, Marc A.

    1990-06-01

    This is the second annual progress report for studies conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe to evaluate the potential for increasing fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations and establishing summer chinook salmon spawning in the lower 57.5 km of the mainstem Clearwater River (LMCR) of Idaho. The report presents study methods and preliminary results for the 1988--1989 phase of the study. The overall study plan was designed to quantitatively evalulate the available spawning, incubation and rearing habitat for fall and summer chinook salmon. We also studied steelhead trout (O. mykiss) rearing habitat since there is a stable population of these fish in the LMCR's tributaries and their parr are known to rear periodically in the mainstem. Resident fish were studied to assess the potential for habitat overlap with that of anadromous fish. Based on these findings the Nez Perce Tribe could determine chinook salmon habitat conditions for selected stocks under existing flow and temperature regimes and consult with the US Army Corps of Engineering concerning the effects of Dworshak Dam operation on flows and measures to restore or establish stocks identified in this study. 38 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  4. Early life history study of Grande Ronde River Basin chinook salmon. Annual progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, M.; Anderson, D.J.; Carmichasel, R.W.; Jonasson, B.C.

    1996-06-01

    The Grande Ronde River originates in the Blue Mountains in northeast Oregon and flows 334 kilometers to its confluence with the Snake River near Rogersburg, Washington. Historically, the Grande Ronde River produced an abundance of salmonids including stocks of spring, summer and fall chinook salmon, sockeye salmon, coho salmon, and summer steelhead. During the past century, numerous factors have caused the reduction of salmon stocks such that only stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead remain. The sizes of spring chinook salmon populations in the Grande Ronde basin also have been declining steadily and are substantially depressed from estimates of historic levels. It is estimated that prior to the construction of the Columbia and Snake River dams, more than 20,000 adult spring chinook salmon returned to spawn in the Grande Ronde River basin. A spawning escapement of 12,200 adults was estimated for the Grande Ronde River basin in 1957. Recent population estimates have been variable year to year, yet remain a degree of magnitude lower than historic estimates. In 1992, the escapement estimate for the basin was 1,022 adults (2.4 {times} number of redds observed). In addition to a decline in population abundance, a constriction of spring chinook salmon spawning distribution is evident in the Grande Ronde basin. Historically, 21 streams supported spawning chinook salmon, yet today the majority of production is limited to eight tributary streams and the mainstem upper Grande Ronde River. Numerous factors are thought to contribute to the decline of spring chinook salmon in the Snake River and its tributaries. These factors include passage problems and increased mortality of juvenile and adult migrants at mainstem Columbia and Snake river dams, overharvest, and habitat degradation associated with timber, agricultural, and land development practices. More than 80% of anadromous fish habitat in the upper Grande Ronde River is considered to be degraded.

  5. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Bryan

    Full Text Available Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75 with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42. As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  6. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  7. Habitats of Weak Salmon Stocks of the Snake River Basin and Feasible Recovery Measures : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 1 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D.W.; Witty, Kenneth L.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes spawning aggregations of Snake River salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and numerical status of aggregations. It summarizes habitat quality and problems between the natal area and the open ocean. It reviews critical habitat designation, identifies mitigative measures and suggests monitoring and research.

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-06-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation

  9. [Ultrastructure of melanocytes from retina and choroid of the Pacific salmon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagal'skaia, E O

    2001-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the retina and choroid cells in three species of the Pacific salmon, Oncohrynchus gorbuscha, O. keta and O. masou, was studied. The structure of retina pigment cells is similar in all the three species, only a small difference was found in the percentage of lengthened and rounded forms of melanosomes. Melanocytes of the masu salmon differ also in the structure of their nuclei. The pigment cells of choroid differ from those of retina by a more extended form of melanosomes and by the presence of less rounded melanosomes. In the chum salmon retina we found electron lucent "contact vesicles", whose assignment is open to discussion. In retina pigment cells of the masu salmon smolts ready for migration, the activity of Golgi appararus rises, mitochondria and mature melanosomes increase in number. The choroid pigment cells are slightly swollen, their processes more often and deeper penetrate into the walls of vessels, down to the endothelium. Results of the experiment with the application of an artificial magnetic field (AMF) have shown that the retina and choroid pigment cells in the masu salmon fry react to the field of a certain direction. The phenomenon of magnetosensitivity of pigment cells is discussed in addition to their possible involvement in magnetoreception.

  10. Domestic cultivation of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and aquaculture of Malaysian prawns in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.A.; Sandifer, P.A.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1978-07-01

    Aquaculture of salmon and shrimp is discussed. Domsea Farms in the Pacific Northwest has facilities for spawning, hatching, and rearing of coho salmon for U.S. markets. Health management programs operate to keep salmon free from bacterial or viral diseases. Recent developments in technology for the intensive culture of a tropical prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are considered. Commercial facilities in South Carolina consisting of hatchery, nursery, production, and brood stock phases are described. Designs for very intensive grow-out systems include small earthen pond units, modified Shigueno-type tanks, and aquacells. Major problem areas of commercial shrimp production are identified. (10 diagrams, 1 graph, 11 photos, numerous references)

  11. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  12. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  13. Post-mortem sporulation of Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) after death in adult Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.; Soderlund, K.; Thomann, E.; Schreck, Carl B.; Sharpton, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ceratomyxa shasta (Myxozoa) is a common gastrointestinal pathogen of salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. We have been investigating this parasite in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Willamette River, Oregon. In prior work, we observed differences in the pattern of development of C. shasta in adult salmon compared to juvenile salmon. Adult salmon consistently had large numbers of prespore stages in many of the fish that survived to spawn in the fall. However, myxospores were rarely observed, even though they were exposed and presumably infected for months before spawning. We evaluated the ability of C. shasta to sporulate following fish death because it is reported that myxosores are common in carcasses of Chinook salmon. We collected the intestine from 30 adult salmon immediately after artificial spawning and death (T0). A total of 23 fish were infected with C. shasta based on histology, but only a few myxospores were observed in 1 fish by histology. Intestines of these fish were examined at T0 and T7 (latter held at 17 C for 7 days) using quantified wet mount preparations. An increase in myxospore concentrations was seen in 39% of these fish, ranging between a 1.5- to a 14.5-fold increase. The most heavily infected fish exhibited a 4.6-fold increase from 27,841 to 129,352 myxospores/cm. This indicates, supported by various statistical analyses, that under certain conditions presporogonic forms are viable and continue to sporulate after death in adult salmon. Considering the life cycle of C. shasta and anadromous salmon, the parasite may have evolved 2, non-mutually exclusive developmental strategies. In young fish (parr and smolts), the parasite sporulates shortly after infection and is released into freshwater from either live or dead fish before their migration to seawater, where the alternate host is absent. The second strategy occurs in adult salmon, particularly spring Chinook salmon, which become infected upon

  14. Analyzing variations in life-history traits of Pacific salmon in the context of Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecquerie, Laure; Johnson, Leah R.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Nisbet, Roger M.

    2011-11-01

    To determine the response of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.) populations to environmental change, we need to understand impacts on all life stages. However, an integrative and mechanistic approach is particularly challenging for Pacific salmon as they use multiple habitats (river, estuarine and marine) during their life cycle. Here we develop a bioenergetic model that predicts development, growth and reproduction of a Pacific salmon in a dynamic environment, from an egg to a reproducing female, and that links female state to egg traits. This model uses Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to predict how life history traits vary among five species of Pacific salmon: Pink, Sockeye, Coho, Chum and Chinook. Supplemented with a limited number of assumptions on anadromy and semelparity and external signals for migrations, the model reproduces the qualitative patterns in egg size, fry size and fecundity both at the inter- and intra-species levels. Our results highlight how modeling all life stages within a single framework enables us to better understand complex life-history patterns. Additionally we show that body size scaling relationships implied by DEB theory provide a simple way to transfer model parameters among Pacific salmon species, thus providing a generic approach to study the impact of environmental conditions on the life cycle of Pacific salmon.

  15. Thermal regime, predation danger and the early marine exit of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katinic, P.J.; Patterson, D.A.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Marine exit timing of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations on the Haida Gwaii Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, is described, with specific focus on Copper Creek. Marine exit in Copper Creek occurs¿>¿130¿days prior to spawning, one of the longest adult freshwater residence periods r

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E. [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; Griswold, Robert G. [Biolines Environmental Consulting; Taki, Doug [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

    2009-07-31

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  17. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1996-09-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye salmon conducted by IDFG during the period of April 1994 to April 1995 are covered by this report. One female anadromous adult returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year. She was spawned at Eagle Fish Hatchery on October 21, 1994. Her fecundity was 2,896. The mean fertilization rate and percent swim-up were 96% and 95%, respectively. Four hundred eighty eyed eggs were shipped to the NMFS Big Beef Creek Fish Hatchery in Washington state, leaving 2,028 fish on site at Eagle. Additionally, captive broodstock and wild residual sockeye salmon (captured at Redfish Lake) were spawned. Spawning data from 234 females spawned during this period are included in this report. Other spawning data (i.e., genetic cross and incubation temperature) are included in the Captive Broodstock Research section of this report.

  18. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2001, 26 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Basin. Twenty-three of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Three of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on October 12, 2001). Nine anadromous adults were incorporated into the captive broodstock program spawning design in 2001. The remaining adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Two sockeye salmon females from the anadromous group and 152 females from the brood year 1998 captive

  19. Salmon and steelhead in the White Salmon River after the removal of Condit Dam–Planning efforts and recolonization results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brady; Engle, Rod O; Zendt, Joseph S; Shrier, Frank C; Wilson, Jeremy T; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and completely removed in 2012. This action opened habitat to migratory fish for the first time in 100 years. The White Salmon Working Group was formed to create plans for fish salvage in preparation for fish recolonization and to prescribe the actions necessary to restore anadromous salmonid populations in the White Salmon River after Condit Dam removal. Studies conducted by work group members and others served to inform management decisions. Management options for individual species were considered, including natural recolonization, introduction of a neighboring stock, hatchery supplementation, and monitoring natural recolonization for some time period to assess the need for hatchery supplementation. Monitoring to date indicates that multiple species and stocks of anadromous salmonids are finding and spawning in the now accessible and recovering habitat.

  20. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Paul A.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1997 are presented in this report. One hundred twenty-six female sockeye salmon from one captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1997. Successful spawn pairings produced approximately 148,781 eyed-eggs with a cumulative mean survival to eyed-egg rate of 57.3%. Approximately 361,600 sockeye salmon were released to Sawtooth basin waters in 1997. Reintroduction strategies included eyed-eggs (brood year 1997), presmolts (brood year 1996), and prespawn adults for volitional spawning (brood year 1994). Release locations included Redfish Lake, Alturas Lake, and Pettit Lake. During this reporting period, four broodstocks and two unique production groups were in culture at the Eagle Fish Hatchery. Two of the four broodstocks were incorporated into the 1997 spawning design, and one broodstock was terminated following

  2. Histological assessment of organs in sexually mature and post-spawning steelhead trout and insights into iteroparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Zachary L.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are anadromous and iteroparous, but repeat-spawning rates are generally low. Like other anadromous salmonids, steelhead trout fast during freshwater spawning migrations, but little is known about the changes that occur in vital organs and tissues. We hypothesized that fish capable of repeat-spawning would not undergo the same irreversible degeneration and cellular necrosis documented in semelparous salmon. Using Snake River steelhead trout as a model we used histological analysis to assess the cellular architecture in the pyloric stomach, ovary, liver, and spleen in sexually mature and kelt steelhead trout. We observed 38 % of emigrating kelts with food or fecal material in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence of feeding was more likely in good condition kelts, and feeding was associated with a significant renewal of villi in the pyloric stomach. No vitellogenic oocytes were observed in sections of kelt ovaries, but perinucleolar and early/late stage cortical alveolus oocytes were present suggesting iteroparity was possible. We documented a negative correlation between the quantity of perinucleolar oocytes in ovarian tissues and fork length of kelts suggesting that larger steelhead trout may invest more into a single spawning event. Liver and spleen tissues of both mature and kelt steelhead trout had minimal cellular necroses. Our findings indicate that the physiological processes causing rapid senescence and death in semelparous salmon are not evident in steelhead trout, and recovery begins in fresh water. Future management efforts to increase iteroparity in steelhead trout and Atlantic salmon must consider the physiological processes that influence post-spawning recovery.

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J,; Heindel, Jeff A.; Kline, Paul A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Marine Fisheries Service at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Marine Fisheries Service are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases are also reported under separate cover. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 are presented in this report. In 1999, seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley and were captured at the adult weir located on the upper Salmon River. Four anadromous adults were incorporated in the captive broodstock program spawning design for year 1999. The remaining three adults were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. All seven adults were adipose and left ventral fin-clipped, indicating hatchery origin. One sockeye salmon female from the anadromous group and 81 females from the captive broodstock group were spawned at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in 1999. Spawn pairings produced approximately 63,147 eyed-eggs with egg survival to eyed-stage of development averaging 38.97%. Eyed-eggs (20,311), presmolts (40,271), smolts (9,718), and adults (21) were planted or released into Sawtooth Valley waters in 1999. Supplementation strategies involved releases to Redfish Lake, Redfish Lake Creek

  4. Evidence of Olfactory Imprinting at an Early Life Stage in Pink Salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, Nolan N; Hinch, Scott G; Dittman, Andrew H; Yun, Sang-Seon

    2016-11-09

    Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) navigate towards spawning grounds using olfactory cues they imprinted on as juveniles. The timing at which imprinting occurs has been studied extensively, and there is strong evidence that salmon imprint on their natal water during the parr-smolt transformation (PST). Researchers have noted, however, that the life histories of some species of Pacific salmon could necessitate imprinting prior to the PST. Juvenile pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) spend less time in fresh water than any other species of Pacific salmon, and presumably must imprint on their natal water at a very young age. The time at which imprinting occurs in this species, however, has not been experimentally tested. We exposed juvenile pink salmon as alevins to phenethyl alcohol (PEA) or control water, reared these fish to adulthood, and then tested their behavioural responses to PEA to determine whether the fish successfully imprinted. We found that pink salmon exposed to PEA as alevins were attracted to the chemical as adults, suggesting that imprinting can occur during this stage. Our finding provides some of the first evidence to support the long-standing belief that imprinting can occur in pink salmon prior to the PST.

  5. Salmon redd identification using environmental DNA (eDNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Laramie, Matthew B.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionThe purpose of this project was to develop a technique to use environmental DNA (eDNA) to distinguish between redds made by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and redds made by Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to distinguish utilized redds from test/abandoned redds or scours that have the appearance of redds. The project had two phases:Phase 1. Develop, test, and optimize a molecular assay for detecting and identifying Coho salmon DNA and differentiating it from Chinook salmon DNA.Phase 2. Demonstrate the efficacy of the technique.Collect and preserve water samples from the interstitial spaces of 10 known redds (as identified by expert observers) of each species and 10 gravel patches that do not include a redd of either species.Collect control samples from the water column adjacent to each redd to establish background eDNA levels.Analyze the samples using the developed molecular assays for Coho salmon (phase I) and Chinook salmon (Laramie and others, 2015).Evaluate whether samples collected from Chinook and Coho redds have significantly higher levels of eDNA of the respective species than background levels (that is, from gravel, water column).Evaluate whether samples collected from the interstitial spaces of gravel patches that are not redds are similar to background eDNA levels.The Sandy River is a large tributary of the Columbia River. The Sandy River meets the Columbia River approximately 23 km upstream of Portland, Oregon. The Sandy River Basin provides overlapping spawning habitat for both Chinook and Coho salmon.Samples provided by Portland Water Bureau for analysis were collected from the Bull Run River, Sixes Creek, Still Creek, Arrah Wanna Side Channel, and Side Channel 18.

  6. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andy; Taki, Doug; Teton, Angelo

    2001-11-01

    As part of the Idaho Supplementation Studies, fisheries crews from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes have been snorkeling tributaries of the Salmon River to estimate chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) parr abundance; conducting surveys of spawning adult chinook salmon to determine the number of redds constructed and collect carcass information; operating a rotary screw trap on the East Fork Salmon River and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River to enumerate and PIT-tag emigrating juvenile chinook salmon; and collecting and PIT-tagging juvenile chinook salmon on tributaries of the Salmon River. The Tribes work in the following six tributaries of the Salmon River: Bear Valley Creek, East Fork Salmon River, Herd Creek, South Fork Salmon River, Valley Creek, and West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River. Snorkeling was used to obtain parr population estimates for ISS streams from 1992 to 1997. However, using the relatively vigorous methods described in the ISS experimental design to estimate summer chinook parr populations, results on a project-wide basis showed extraordinarily large confidence intervals and coefficients of variation. ISS cooperators modified their sampling design over a few years to reduce the variation around parr population estimates without success. Consequently, in 1998 snorkeling to obtain parr population estimates was discontinued and only General Parr Monitoring (GPM) sites are snorkeled. The number of redds observed in SBT-ISS streams has continued to decline as determined by five year cycles. Relatively weak strongholds continue to occur in the South Fork Salmon River and Bear Valley Creek. A rotary screw trap was operated on the West Fork Yankee Fork during the spring and fall of 1999 and the spring of 2000 to monitor juvenile chinook migration. A screw trap was also operated on the East Fork of the Salmon River during the spring and fall from 1993 to 1997 and 1999 (fall only) to 2000. Significant supplementation treatments have occurred in the South

  7. Klamath River Basin Hydrologic Conditions Prior to the September 2002 Die-Off of Salmon and Steelhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Dennis D.; Risley, John C.

    2003-05-27

    More than 33,000 salmon and steelhead died in the lower Klamath River in late September 2002 on their way to spawning areas upstream. According to the California Department of Fish and Game, the cause of death was infection by protozoan and bacterial pathogens. Two factors that may have contributed to the disease incidence are low streamflow and high water temperature.

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E. (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-01-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6

  9. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

    2006-07-14

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2002 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. n 2002, 22 anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Fifteen of these adults were captured at adult weirs located on the upper Salmon River and on Redfish Lake Creek. Seven of the anadromous sockeye salmon that returned were observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir and allowed to migrate upstream volitionally (following the dismantling of the weir on September 30, 2002). All adult returns were released to Redfish Lake for natural spawning. Based on their marks, returning adult sockeye salmon originated from a variety of release options. Sixty-six females from brood year 1999 and 28 females from brood year 2000 captive broodstock groups were spawned at the Eagle Hatchery in 2002. Spawn pairings produced approximately 65

  11. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  12. John Day Fall Chinook/Salmon Mitigation Plan Acclimation and Imprinting Site Feasibility Study: Summary Report : Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Sverdrup Corporation; United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to replace upriver bright fall chinook salmon which were lost by construction of the John Day Dam. This will be accomplished by releasing salmon fry and smolts, incubated in the Spring Creek and Bonneville Hatcheries, at several upriver locations. Prior to release it is desired to feed and acclimate the juvenile fish to relieve the stress of truck transport, and to imprint them to the release site. This will ultimately produce adult chinook salmon that return to their historic spawning areas through traditional common property fisheries. It will also provide sexually mature broodstock fish that can be captured and spawned to supplement continued hatchery operation. This report summarizes results of an engineering feasibility study done for 10 potential acclimation sites on the Columbia, Yakima and Walla Walla Rivers. A detailed report has been prepared for each site and each is bound separately.

  13. Results from a sixteen year study on the effects of oiling from the Exxon Valdez on adult pink salmon returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, E.L. [University of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Center for Salmonid and Feshwater Species at Risk; Maki, A.W. [Exxon Mobil Production Company, Anchorage, AK (United States); Moulton, L.L. [MJM Research, Lopez Island, WA (United States); Parker, K.R. [Data Analysis Group, Cloverdale, CA (United States)

    2006-08-15

    For sixteen years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill adult returns of pink salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska were monitored to assess spill effects on survival. No evidence of spill effects was detected for either intertidal or whole-stream spawning fish. From 1989 through 2004 mean densities for oiled and reference streams tracked each other, illustrating similar responses of oiled and reference stream adult populations to naturally changing oceanographic and climactic conditions. Hatchery fish strayed into the study streams, but similar incursions occurred in oiled and reference streams, and their presence was compensated for to eliminate their influence on determining the success of the returning natural populations. These results, showing no detectable effects of oiling on pink salmon spawning populations, are supported by published field studies on pink salmon incubation success in oiled streams. (author)

  14. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  15. A critical assessment of the ecological assumptions underpinning compensatory mitigation of salmon-derived nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Scott F.; Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    We critically evaluate some of the key ecological assumptions underpinning the use of nutrient replacement as a means of recovering salmon populations and a range of other organisms thought to be linked to productive salmon runs. These assumptions include: (1) nutrient mitigation mimics the ecological roles of salmon, (2) mitigation is needed to replace salmon-derived nutrients and stimulate primary and invertebrate production in streams, and (3) food resources in rearing habitats limit populations of salmon and resident fishes. First, we call into question assumption one because an array of evidence points to the multi-faceted role played by spawning salmon, including disturbance via redd-building, nutrient recycling by live fish, and consumption by terrestrial consumers. Second, we show that assumption two may require qualification based upon a more complete understanding of nutrient cycling and productivity in streams. Third, we evaluate the empirical evidence supporting food limitation of fish populations and conclude it has been only weakly tested. On the basis of this assessment, we urge caution in the application of nutrient mitigation as a management tool. Although applications of nutrients and other materials intended to mitigate for lost or diminished runs of Pacific salmon may trigger ecological responses within treated ecosystems, contributions of these activities toward actual mitigation may be limited.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research : Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, Scott

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock.

  17. Dual annual spawning races in Atlantic sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Balazik

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, Acipenseridae populations in the United States were listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2012. Because of the endangered/threatened status, a better understanding of Atlantic sturgeon life-history behavior and habitat use is important for effective management. It has been widely documented that Atlantic sturgeon reproduction occurs from late winter to early summer, varying clinally with latitude. However, recent data show Atlantic sturgeon also spawn later in the year. The group that spawns later in the year seems to be completely separate from the spring spawning run. Recognition of the later spawning season has drastically modified estimates of the population status of Atlantic sturgeon in Virginia. With the combination of new telemetry data and historical documentation we describe a dual spawning strategy that likely occurs in various degrees along most, if not all, of the Atlantic sturgeon's range. Using new data combined with historical sources, a new spawning strategy emerges which managers and researchers should note when determining the status of Atlantic sturgeon populations and implementing conservation measures.

  18. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Program, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2000.

  19. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2003-03-01

    Endangered Species Permit Number 1011 (formerly Permit No. 973) authorizes ODFW to take listed spring chinook salmon juveniles from Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and Grande Ronde River (GR) for research and enhancement purposes. Modification 2 of this permit authorizes ODFW to take adults for spawning and the production and release of smolts for the Captive and Conventional broodstock programs. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted. Herein we report on activities conducted and provide cursory data analyses for the Grande Ronde spring chinook salmon Captive and Conventional broodstock projects from 1 January-31 December 2001.

  20. Recurrent evolution of life history ecotypes in sockeye salmon: implications for conservation and future evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris C; Bickham, John W; John Nelson, R; Foote, Chris J; Patton, John C

    2008-05-01

    We examine the evolutionary history and speculate about the evolutionary future of three basic life history ecotypes that contribute to the biocomplexity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The 'recurrent evolution' (RE) hypothesis claims that the sea/river ecotype is ancestral, a 'straying' form with poorly differentiated (meta)population structure, and that highly structured populations of lake-type sockeye and kokanee have evolved repeatedly in parallel adaptive radiations between recurrent glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch. Basic premises of this hypothesis are consistent with new, independent evidence from recent surveys of genetic variation in mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA: (1) sockeye salmon are most closely related to pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon with sea-type life histories; (2) the sockeye life history ecotypes exist as polyphyletic lineages within large drainages and geographic regions; (3) the sea/river ecotype exhibits less genetic differentiation among populations than the lake or kokanee ecotypes both within and among drainages; and (4) genetic diversity is typically higher in the sea/river ecotype than in the lake and kokanee ecotypes. Anthropogenic modification of estuarine habitat and intensive coastal fisheries have likely reduced and fragmented historic metapopulations of the sea/river ecotype, particularly in southern areas. In contrast, the kokanee ecotype appears to be favoured by marine fisheries and predicted changes in climate.

  1. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  2. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  3. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the

  4. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is important that you get enough calcium and vitamin D while you are using calcitonin salmon. Your doctor ... symptoms such as crusts, dryness, redness, or swelling back pain joint pain upset stomach flushing (feeling of warmth) ...

  5. Atlantic Salmon Smolt Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual data are collected as part of smolt trapping operations using fish trapping methods. Traps collect emigrating salmon smolts to identify cohort...

  6. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  7. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine

  8. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) in striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), milkfish (Chanos chanos), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): comparison with salmon Gn-RH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, N.M.; Harvey, B.; Brownstein, M.J.; Eiden, L.E.

    1984-08-01

    Immunoreactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) was extracted from brains of striped mullet, milkfish, rainbow trout, and chum salmon with acetone/HCl and petroleum ether. High pressure liquid chromatography and cross-reactivity studies show mullet, milkfish, and trout brains to contain a peptide chromatographically and immunologically identical to synthetic salmon Gn-RH, while the mammalian form of Gn-RH is detectable in none of these fishes. Gn-RH is present in immature 7-month-old and 4-year-old milkfish. A second immunoreactive peptide is separable by HPLC in all the fish studied. This early-eluting form of Gn-RH is unlikely to be a precursor; its cross-reactivity with antisera R-42 and number185 suggests that any modification is in the C-terminal region. Several possible roles for this peptide are advanced.

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock; Research Element, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith A.

    1995-12-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game during the period of April 1993 to April 1994 are covered by this report. Eight anadromous adults (two female and six male) returned to the Redfish Lake Creek trap this year and were spawned at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. Fecundity was 3160 for each female. The mean fertilization rate was 52% for female {open_quotes}A{close_quotes} and 65% for female {open_quotes}B.{close_quotes} Captive broodstock also spawned as well as residual sockeye captured in a Merwin trap in Redfish Lake. Spawning data from 72 fish spawned during this period is included in this report. Captive broodstock also matured later than normal (winter and spring 1994). Fish were spawned and samples were taken to investigate reasons for poor fertilization rates. Twenty-four out migrants of 1991 were selected for return to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning. Releases were made in August of 1993. All fish were implanted with sonic tags and tracking of this group began soon after the release to identify spawning-related activities. A research project is being conducted on captive broodstock diets. The project will investigate the effect of diet modification on spawn timing, gamete quality, and fertilization rates. A second project used ultrasound to examine fish for sexual maturity. The goal was to obtain a group a fish to be released f or volitional spawning. A total of 44 fish were found to be mature. The performance of all captive groups held at Eagle are included in this report.

  11. Coho salmon spawner mortality in western US urban watersheds: bioinfiltration prevents lethal storm water impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Spromberg, Julann A.; David H. Baldwin; Damm, Steven E.; McIntyre, Jenifer K.; Huff, Michael; Sloan, Catherine A.; Anulacion, Bernadita F.; Jay W Davis; Nathaniel L Scholz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run‐off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long‐term conservat...

  12. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for detecting β'-component (Onk k 5), a major IgE-binding protein in salmon roe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Oda, Hiroshi; Seiki, Kohsuke; Saeki, Hiroki

    2015-08-15

    A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system has been established for selective detection of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) yolk protein (SYP). Rabbit and rat polyclonal Immunoglobulin G antibodies to β'-component (the major allergic protein in fish roe; anti-β) were applied for designing the ELISA system. The sandwich ELISA using rabbit anti-β for the capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase-labeled F(ab')2 fragment of rat anti-β for the detection antibody obtained high sensitivity and narrow specificity for SYP. Protein extraction using sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-mercaptoethanol ensured strict specificity of the ELISA, and components of three popular processed foods had no effect on the ELISA response. The limits of determination and quantification of SYP were estimated to be 0.78 μg/g and 2.60 μg/g of food sample, respectively. In conclusion, the developed ELISA system has a probability to be applied for the detection of contaminated chum salmon roe in processed food.

  13. Patterns of color phase indicate spawn timing at a Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus spawning aggregation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie K ARCHER; Scott A HEPPELL; Brice X SEMMENS; Christy V PATTENGILL-SEMMENS; Phillippe G BUSH; Croy M MCCOY; Bradley C JOHNSON

    2012-01-01

    Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus are a large bodied,top level predator that is ecologically important throughout the Caribbean.Although typically solitary,Nassau grouper form large annual spawning aggregations at predictable times in specific locations.In 2003,The Cayman Islands Marine Conservation Board established protection for a newly rediscovered Nassau grouper spawning aggregation on Little Cayman,British West Indies.The large size of this aggregation provides a unique opportunity to study the behavior of Nassau grouper on a relatively intact spawning aggregation.During non-spawning periods Nassau grouper display a reddish-brown-and-white barred coloration.However,while aggregating they exhibit three additional color phases:“bicolor”,“dark”,and “white belly”.We video sampled the population on multiple days leading up to spawning across five spawning years.Divers focused a laser caliper equipped video camera on individual fish at the aggregation.We later analyzed the video to determine the length of the fish and record the color phase.Our observations show that the relative proportion of fish in the bicolor color phase increases significantly on the day leading up to the primary night of spawning.The increase in the proportion of the bicolor color phase from 0.05 early in the aggregation to 0.40 on the day of spawning suggests that this color phase conveys that a fish is behaviorally and physiologically prepared to spawn.Additionally,82.7% of fish exhibiting dark or white belly coloration early in the aggregation period suggests that these color phases are not only shown by female fish as was previously posited [Current Zoology 58 (1):73-83,2012].

  14. Natural selection constrains personality and brain gene expression differences in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Höglund, Erik; Winberg, Svante

    2015-01-01

    In stream-spawning salmonid fishes there is a considerable variation in the timing of when fry leave the spawning nests and establish a feeding territory. The timing of emergence from spawning nests appears to be related to behavioural and physiological traits, e.g. early emerging fish are bolder...... and more aggressive. In the present study, emerging Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) alevins were sorted into three fractions: early, intermediate and late emerging. At the parr stage, behaviour, stress responses, hindbrain monoaminergic activity and forebrain gene expression were explored in fish from...... the early and late emerging fractions (first and last 25%). The results show that when subjected to confinement stress, fish from the late emerging fraction respond with a larger activation of the brain serotonergic system than fish from the early fraction. Similarly, in late emerging fish, stress resulted...

  15. Assessing the suitability of a partial water reuse system for rearing juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha for stocking in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health and welfare of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytsha reared in a pilot circular tank-based partial water reuse system in Washington State were evaluated in comparison to fish from the same spawn reared in a flow-through raceway, in order to assess the suitability of using water reus...

  16. Grande Ronde Basin Chinook Salmon Captive Brood and Conventional Supplementation Programs, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Don; Carmichael, Richard W. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, La Grande, OR)

    2004-07-01

    BPA Fish and Wildlife Program Project Number 1998-01-001 provides funding for the Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program. This report satisfies the requirement that an annual report be submitted for FY 2003. The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Project is designed to rapidly increase numbers of salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation. Parr are captured in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River and reared to adulthood in captivity. Upon maturation, these fish are spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. This report covers activities conducted and provides data analyses for the Grande Ronde Spring Chinook Salmon Captive broodstock Program from 1 January--31 December 2003. Since the fiscal year ends in the middle of the spawning period, an annual report based on calendar year is more logical. This document is the FY 2003 annual report. Detailed information on historic and present population status, project background, goals and objectives, significance to regional programs and relationships to other programs, methods and previous results are available in the 1995-2002 Project Status Report (Hoffnagle et al 2003).

  17. Dorsal hump morphology in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Kenta; Ichimura, Masaki; Koshino, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Takagi, Yasuaki; Adachi, Shinji; Kudo, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) develop a dorsal hump, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. Previous gross anatomical studies have indicated that the dorsal humps of salmon are mainly composed of cartilaginous tissue (Davidson [1935] J Morphol 57:169-183.) However, the histological and biochemical characteristics of such humps are poorly understood. In this study, the detailed microstructures and components of the dorsal humps of pink salmon were analyzed using histochemical techniques and electrophoresis. In mature males, free interneural spines and neural spines were located in a line near to the median septum of the dorsal hump. No cartilaginous tissue was detected within the dorsal hump. Fibrous and mucous connective tissues were mainly found in three regions of the dorsal hump: i) the median septum, ii) the distal region, and iii) the crescent-shaped region. Both the median septum and distal region consisted of connective tissue with a high water content, which contained elastic fibers and hyaluronic acid. It was also demonstrated that the lipid content of the dorsal hump connective tissue was markedly decreased in the mature males compared with the immature and maturing males. Although, the crescent-shaped region of the hump consisted of connective tissue, it did not contain elastic fibers, hyaluronic acid, or lipids. In an ultrastructural examination, it was found that all of the connective tissues in the dorsal hump were composed of collagen fibers. Gel electrophoresis of collagen extracts from these tissues found that the collagen in the dorsal hump is composed of Type I collagen, as is the case in salmon skin. These results indicate that in male pink salmon the dorsal hump is formed as a result of an increase in the amount of connective tissue, rather than cartilage, and the growth of free interneural spines and neural spines.

  18. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-08-26

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  19. Wing Chun’s Chum Kiu Form. A Study in Stability and Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyotpaul Chaudhuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the keys to motion in the second empty-hand form of Wing Chun gongfu: Chum Kiu. The focus is on the proper maintenance of the body’s central axis and its motions, which helps with the development of Wing Chun power and the foundations of delivering that power. The form includes short bridges, stepping, turning, and kicking. The motions are built on the structural foundations created by regular practice of the first form, Siu Lim Tau.

  20. Physiological consequences of the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha): implications for wild salmon ecology and management, and for salmon aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauner, C J; Sackville, M; Gallagher, Z; Tang, S; Nendick, L; Farrell, A P

    2012-06-19

    Pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, are the most abundant wild salmon species and are thought of as an indicator of ecosystem health. The salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, is endemic to pink salmon habitat but these ectoparasites have been implicated in reducing local pink salmon populations in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. This allegation arose largely because juvenile pink salmon migrate past commercial open net salmon farms, which are known to incubate the salmon louse. Juvenile pink salmon are thought to be especially sensitive to this ectoparasite because they enter the sea at such a small size (approx. 0.2 g). Here, we describe how 'no effect' thresholds for salmon louse sublethal impacts on juvenile pink salmon were determined using physiological principles. These data were accepted by environmental managers and are being used to minimize the impact of salmon aquaculture on wild pink salmon populations.

  1. Investigations into the [Early] Life History of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project, Oregon : Annual Report 1994 : Project Period 1 June 1993 to 31 May 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies of spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde basin. During the past year we focused on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles and surveys of spawning adults. The specific objectives for the early life history portion of the study were: Objective 1, document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; Objective 2, estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake River dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; Objective 3 initiate study of the winter habitat utilized by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. The specific objectives for the spawning ground surveys were: Objective 4, conduct extensive and supplemental spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in spawning streams in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha basin, Objective 5; determine how adequately historic index area surveys index spawner abundance by comparing index counts to extensive and supplemental redd counts; Objective 6, determine what changes in index areas and timing of index surveys would improve the accuracy of index surveys; Objective 7, determine the relationship between number of redds observed and fish escapement for the Grande Ronde and Imnaha river basins.

  2. Brood Year 2004: Johnson Creek Chinook Salmon Supplementation Report, June 2004 through March 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebhards, John S.; Hill, Robert; Daniel, Mitch [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-02-19

    The Nez Perce Tribe, through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration, has implemented a small scale chinook salmon supplementation program on Johnson Creek, a tributary in the South Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. The Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement project was established to enhance the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to Johnson Creek to spawn through artificial propagation. This was the sixth season of adult chinook broodstock collection in Johnson Creek following collections in 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003. Weir installation was completed on June 21, 2004 with the first chinook captured on June 22, 2004 and the last fish captured on September 6, 2004. The weir was removed on September 18, 2004. A total of 338 adult chinook, including jacks, were captured during the season. Of these, 211 were of natural origin, 111 were hatchery origin Johnson Creek supplementation fish, and 16 were adipose fin clipped fish from other hatchery operations and therefore strays into Johnson Creek. Over the course of the run, 57 natural origin Johnson Creek adult chinook were retained for broodstock, transported to the South Fork Salmon River adult holding and spawning facility and held until spawned. The remaining natural origin Johnson Creek fish along with all the Johnson Creek supplementation fish were released upstream of the weir to spawn naturally. Twenty-seven Johnson Creek females were artificially spawned with 25 Johnson Creek males. Four females were diagnosed with high bacterial kidney disease levels resulting in their eggs being culled. The 27 females produced 116,598 green eggs, 16,531 green eggs were culled, with an average eye-up rate of 90.6% resulting in 90,647 eyed eggs. Juvenile fish were reared indoors at the McCall Fish Hatchery until November 2005 and then transferred to the outdoor rearing facilities during the Visual Implant Elastomer tagging operation

  3. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  4. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  5. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  6. Temporally isolated lineages of Pink salmon reveal unique signatures of selection on distinct pools of standing genetic variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Limborg, Morten; Waples, R.K.; Seeb, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    A species’ genetic diversity bears the marks of evolutionary processes that have occurred throughout its history. However, robust detection of selection in wild populations is difficult and often impeded by lack of replicate tests. Here, we investigate selection in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus...... gorbuscha) using genome scans coupled with inference from a haploid-assisted linkage map. Pink salmon have a strict 2-year semelparous life history which has resulted in temporally isolated (allochronic) lineages that remain sympatric through sharing of spawning habitats in alternate years. The lineages...

  7. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P., E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Asbell, A.M., E-mail: aasbell@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Hecht, S.A., E-mail: scott.hecht@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, 510 Desmond Drive S.E., Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Scholz, N.L., E-mail: nathaniel.scholz@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Lydy, M.J., E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: > Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. > Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. > Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. > Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. > Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  8. The spawning of plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Else; Støttrup, Josianne; Heilmann, Jens

    2004-01-01

    in the northern coastal Kattegat. The results indicate that spawning in the southern part of Kattegat occurs earlier than in the northern Kattegat. The preferred spawning depth was found to be around 30-40 m. Juvenile recruitment in the nursery areas along the Danish east coast derives mainly from the southern......Cruises were carried out in the entire Kattegat in early March of 1998 and 2000 to investigate the spawning of plaice Pleuronectes platessa. The data showed that plaice still spawn in the Kattegat, with a main spawning area in the southern Kattegat and an area of less, but variable importance...

  9. Use of Dual Frequency Identification Sonar to Determine Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Escapement in the Secesh River, Idaho ; Annual Report, January 2008 – December 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management

    2009-06-26

    Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1992 (NMFS 1992). The Secesh River represents the only stream in the Snake River basin where natural origin (wild) salmon escapement monitoring occurs at the population level, absent a supplementation program. As such the Secesh River has been identified as a long term salmon escapement and productivity monitoring site by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management. Salmon managers will use this data for effective population management and evaluation of the effect of conservation actions on a natural origin salmon population. The Secesh River also acts as a reference stream for supplementation program comparison. Dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) was used to determine adult spring and summer Chinook salmon escapement in the Secesh River in 2008. DIDSON technology was selected because it provided a non-invasive method for escapement monitoring that avoided listed species trapping and handling incidental mortality, and fish impedance related concerns. The DIDSON monitoring site was operated continuously from June 13 to September 14. The first salmon passage was observed on July 3. DIDSON site total estimated salmon escapement, natural and hatchery fish, was 888 fish {+-} 65 fish (95% confidence interval). Coefficient of variation associated with the escapement estimate was 3.7%. The DIDSON unit was operational 98.1% of the salmon migration period. Adult salmon migration timing in the Secesh River occurred over 74 days from July 3 to September 14, with 5,262 total fish passages observed. The spawning migration had 10%, median, and 90% passage dates of July 8, July 16, and August 12, respectively. The maximum number of net upstream migrating salmon was above the DIDSON monitoring site on August 27. Validation monitoring of DIDSON target counts with underwater optical cameras occurred for species identification. A total of 860 optical

  10. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    nutrient concentration that year. This suggests nutrients were more effectively by phytoplankton in FY08. In addition, the abundance of lipid-rich northern copepods increased from FY05 to FY08, whereas lipid-poor southern copepods showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that growth conditions were more favorable to juvenile salmon in FY08 than in previous years. However, growth indices for juvenile coho salmon were near the 1998-2008 average, both off the west coast of Vancouver Island and Southeast Alaska, indicating that additional factors beside prey quality affect juvenile salmon growth in the marine environment. Catches of juvenile Chinook, sockeye and chum salmon off the west coast of Vancouver Island in June-July 2008 were the highest on record during summer since 1998, suggesting that early marine survival for the 2008 smolt year was high. Interestingly, the proportion of hatchery fish was high (80-100%) among the juvenile Columbia River Chinook salmon caught off the British Columbia coast during summer, suggest that relatively few wild Chinook salmon are produced in the Columbia River Chinook. In addition, we also recovered two coded-wire tagged juvenile Redfish Lake sockeye salmon in June 2008 off the west coast of British Columbia. As relatively few Redfish Lake sockeye smolts are tagged each year, this also suggests that early marine survival was high for these fish, and may result in a high return in 2009 if they mature at age three, or in 2010 if they mature at age four. To date, our research shows that different populations of Columbia River salmon move to different locations along the coastal zone where they establish their ocean feeding grounds and overwinter. We further show that ocean conditions experienced by juvenile Columbia River salmon vary among regions of the coast, with higher plankton productivity and temperatures off the west coast of Vancouver Island than in Southeast Alaska. Hence, different stocks of juvenile salmon originating from the

  11. Natural selection constrains personality and brain gene expression differences in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Höglund, Erik; Winberg, Svante

    2015-04-01

    In stream-spawning salmonid fishes there is a considerable variation in the timing of when fry leave the spawning nests and establish a feeding territory. The timing of emergence from spawning nests appears to be related to behavioural and physiological traits, e.g. early emerging fish are bolder and more aggressive. In the present study, emerging Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) alevins were sorted into three fractions: early, intermediate and late emerging. At the parr stage, behaviour, stress responses, hindbrain monoaminergic activity and forebrain gene expression were explored in fish from the early and late emerging fractions (first and last 25%). The results show that when subjected to confinement stress, fish from the late emerging fraction respond with a larger activation of the brain serotonergic system than fish from the early fraction. Similarly, in late emerging fish, stress resulted in elevated expression of mRNA coding for serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1A), GABA-A receptor-associated protein and ependymin, effects not observed in fish from the early emerging fraction. Moreover, fish from the early emerging fraction displayed bolder behaviour than their late emerging littermates. Taken together, these results suggest that time of emergence, boldness and aggression are linked to each other, forming a behavioural syndrome in juvenile salmon. Differences in brain gene expression between early and late emerging salmon add further support to a relationship between stress coping style and timing of emergence. However, early and late emerging salmon do not appear to differ in hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis reactivity, another characteristic of divergent stress coping styles.

  12. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Hatchery Element, 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Redding, Jeremy (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, and the National Marine Fisheries Service initiated efforts to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Initial steps to recover sockeye salmon included the establishment of a captive broodstock program at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game Eagle Fish Hatchery. Sockeye salmon broodstock and culture responsibilities are shared with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at two locations adjacent to Puget Sound in Washington State. Activities conducted by the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration are reported under separate cover. Idaho Department of Fish and Game monitoring and evaluation activities of captive broodstock program fish releases (annual report to the Bonneville Power Administration for the research element of the program) are also reported separately. Captive broodstock program activities conducted between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 for the hatchery element of the program are presented in this report. In 2004, twenty-seven anadromous sockeye salmon returned to the Sawtooth Valley. Traps on Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery intercepted one and four adults, respectively. Additionally, one adult sockeye salmon was collected at the East Fork Salmon River weir, 18 were seined from below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir, one adult sockeye salmon was observed below the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery weir but not captured, and two adult sockeye salmon were observed in Little Redfish Lake but not captured. Fish were captured/collected between July 24 and September 14, 2004. The captured/collected adult sockeye salmon (12 females and 12 males) originated from a variety of release strategies and were transferred to

  15. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2003 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the seventh season (1997-2003) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the fifth season (1999-2003) of acclimating the resultant progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2003, acclimation of

  16. Hatching time and alevin growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding in farmed, wild and hybrid Norwegian Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Favnebøe Solberg

    Full Text Available The onset of exogenous feeding, when juveniles emerge from the gravel, is a critical event for salmonids where early emergence and large size provide a competitive advantage in the wild. Studying 131 farmed, hybrid and wild Norwegian Atlantic salmon families, originating from four wild populations and two commercial strains, we investigated whether approximately 10 generations of selection for faster growth has also resulted in increased somatic growth prior to the onset of exogenous feeding. In addition, we tested whether relaxed selection in farms has allowed for alterations in hatching time between farmed and wild salmon. Across three cohorts, wild salmon families hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, while hybrid families displayed intermediate hatching times. While the observed differences were small, i.e., 1-15 degree-days (0-3 days, as water temperatures were c. 5-6°C, these data suggest additive genetic variation for hatching time. Alevin length prior to exogenous feeding was positively related to egg size. After removal of egg size effects, no systematic differences in alevin length were observed between the wild and farmed salmon families. While these results indicate additive genetic variation for egg development timing, and wild salmon families consistently hatched earlier than farmed salmon families, these differences were so small they are unlikely to significantly influence early life history competition of farmed and wild salmon in the natural environment. This is especially the case given that the timing of spawning among females can vary by several weeks in some rivers. The general lack of difference in size between farmed and wild alevins, strongly suggest that the documented differences in somatic growth rate between wild and farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon under hatchery conditions are first detectable after the onset of exogenous feeding.

  17. Production of Ceratonova shasta Myxospores from Salmon Carcasses: Carcass Removal Is Not a Viable Management Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foott, J S; Stone, R; Fogerty, R; True, K; Bolick, A; Bartholomew, J L; Hallett, S L; Buckles, G R; Alexander, J D

    2016-06-01

    Severe infection by the endemic myxozoan parasite, Ceratonova (synonym, Ceratomyxa) shasta, has been associated with declines in and impaired recovery efforts of populations of fall-run Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the Klamath River, California. The parasite has a complex life cycle involving a polychaete worm host as well as a salmon host. Myxospore transmission of this parasite, from salmon to polychaete, is a life cycle step during which there is a potential for applied disease management. A 3-year data set on prevalence, intensity, and spore characteristics of C. shasta myxospores was obtained from adult Chinook Salmon carcasses surveyed in the main stem of the Klamath River and three of its tributaries, Bogus Creek and the Shasta and Trinity rivers. Annual prevalence of myxospore detection in salmon intestines ranged from 22% to 52%, and spore concentration values per intestinal scraping ranged from 3.94 × 10(2) to 1.47 × 10(7) spores. A prevalence of 7.3% of all carcasses examined produced >5.0 × 10(5) spores, and these carcasses with "high" spore counts accounted for 76-95% of the total spores in a given spawning season. Molecular analysis of visually negative carcasses showed that 45-87% of these samples had parasite DNA, indicating they contained either low spore numbers or presporogonic stages of the parasite. Myxospores were rarely found in carcasses of freshly spawned adults but were common in decomposed carcasses of both sexes. The date of collection or age (based indirectly on FL) did not influence detection. The longer prespawn residence time for spring-run Chinook Salmon compared with that for fall-run Chinook Salmon in the Trinity River was associated with higher spore loads. The dye exclusion method for assessing spore viability in fresh smears indicated an inverse relationship in spore integrity and initial spore concentration. A carcass-removal pilot project in Bogus Creek for 6 weeks in the fall of 2008 (907 carcasses removed

  18. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P. (National Marine Fisheries Service); Endicott, Rick (Long Live the Kings, Seattle, WA)

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  19. Lake trout in northern Lake Huron spawn on submerged drumlins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Stephen C.; Binder, Thomas; Wattrus, Nigel J.; Faust, Matthew D.; Janssen, John; Menzies, John; Marsden, J. Ellen; Ebener, Mark P.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji X.; Tucker, Taaja R.; Hansen, Michael J.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations of spawning lake trout Salvelinus namaycush near Drummond Island in northern Lake Huron indicate that lake trout use drumlins, landforms created in subglacial environments by the action of ice sheets, as a primary spawning habitat. From these observations, we generated a hypothesis that may in part explain locations chosen by lake trout for spawning. Most salmonines spawn in streams where they rely on streamflows to sort and clean sediments to create good spawning habitat. Flows sufficient to sort larger sediment sizes are generally lacking in lakes, but some glacial bedforms contain large pockets of sorted sediments that can provide the interstitial spaces necessary for lake trout egg incubation, particularly if these bedforms are situated such that lake currents can penetrate these sediments. We hypothesize that sediment inclusions from glacial scavenging and sediment sorting that occurred during the creation of bedforms such as drumlins, end moraines, and eskers create suitable conditions for lake trout egg incubation, particularly where these bedforms interact with lake currents to remove fine sediments. Further, these bedforms may provide high-quality lake trout spawning habitat at many locations in the Great Lakes and may be especially important along the southern edge of the range of the species. A better understanding of the role of glacially-derived bedforms in the creation of lake trout spawning habitat may help develop powerful predictors of lake trout spawning locations, provide insight into the evolution of unique spawning behaviors by lake trout, and aid in lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes.

  20. Biannual Spawning and Temporal Reproductive Isolation in Acropora Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Gilmour

    Full Text Available Coral spawning on the oceanic reef systems of north-western Australia was recently discovered during autumn and spring, but the degree to which species and particularly colonies participated in one or both of these spawnings was unknown. At the largest of the oceanic reef systems, the participation by colonies in the two discrete spawning events was investigated over three years in 13 species of Acropora corals (n = 1,855 colonies. Seven species spawned during both seasons; five only in autumn and one only in spring. The majority of tagged colonies (n = 218 spawned once a year in the same season, but five colonies from three species spawned during spring and autumn during a single year. Reproductive seasonality was not influenced by spatial variation in habitat conditions, or by Symbiodinium partners in the biannual spawner Acropora tenuis. Colonies of A. tenuis spawning during different seasons separated into two distinct yet cryptic groups, in a bayesian clustering analysis based on multiple microsatellite markers. These groups were associated with a major genetic divergence (G"ST = 0.469, despite evidence of mixed ancestry in a small proportion of individuals. Our results confirm that temporal reproductive isolation is a common feature of Acropora populations at Scott Reef and indicate that spawning season is a genetically determined trait in at least A. tenuis. This reproductive isolation may be punctuated occasionally by interbreeding between genetic groups following favourable environmental conditions, when autumn spawners undergo a second annual gametogenic cycle and spawn during spring.

  1. Skipped spawning in fishes: More common than you might think

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rideout, Rick M.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2011-01-01

    on elemental and isotope signatures. Skipped spawning is most commonly attributed to deficient diet and poor nutritional condition. Advances made in this field of study in recent years include descriptions of hormonal changes that precede and perhaps initiate skipped spawning, the development of life history...... research on skipped spawning, covering a broad range of fishes with diverse life history strategies. Evidence for skipped spawning has been collected by use of traditional histological techniques as well as modern technological advances, such as satellite tags and the ability to track fish movements based...

  2. Spring-spawning herring ( Clupea harengus L.) in the southwestern Baltic Sea: do they form genetically distinct spawning waves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H.B.H.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2005-01-01

    Temporal sampling within the spring-spawning season has revealed differentiation in length-at-age in herring at Rugen and differentiation in, e.g., Anisakis infestation rate, otolith microstructure, and gillraker counts in Gdansk Bay, leading to the expectation that spawning waves consist of dist...... genetically distinct but sympatric spawning populations may be found at Rugen. (c) 2005 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Reproductive energy expenditure and changes in body morphology for a population of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha with a long distance migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowerman, T E; Pinson-Dumm, A; Peery, C A; Caudill, C C

    2017-02-16

    Energetic demands of a long freshwater migration, extended holding period, gamete development and spawning were evaluated for a population of stream-type Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Female and male somatic mass decreased by 24 and 21%, respectively, during migration and by an additional 18 and 12% during holding. Between freshwater entry and death after spawning, females allocated 14% of initial somatic energy towards gonad development and 78% for metabolism (46, 25 and 7% during migration, holding and spawning, respectively). Males used only 2% of initial somatic energy for gonad development and 80% on metabolic costs, as well as an increase in snout length (41, 28 and 11% during migration, holding and spawning, respectively). Individually marked O. tshawytscha took between 27 and 53 days to migrate 920 km. Those with slower travel times through the dammed section of the migration corridor arrived at spawning grounds with less muscle energy than faster migrants. Although energy depletion did not appear to be the proximate cause of death in most pre-spawn mortalities, average final post-spawning somatic energy densities were low at 3·6 kJ g(-1) in females and 4·1 kJ g(-1) in males, consistent with the concept of a minimum energy threshold required to sustain life in semelparous salmonids.

  4. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Athos, Jaime I.; Dittman, Andrew H. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-07-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. We were able to develop an analytical method for optimizing the detection of spawning events in Chinook salmon using EMG signals. The method developed essentially captured the consistently greater frequency of higher EMG values associated with females cover digging immediately following spawning. However, females implanted with EMG tags retained the majority of their eggs, which significantly reduced their reproductive success compared to non-tagged females. Future work will include increased sample sizes, and modified tagging methods to reduce negative effects on reproductive success. Upper Columbia River sockeye salmon exposed to the odorants PEA, L-threonine, Larginine and L-glutamate were able to learn and remember these odorants as maturing adults up to 2.5 years after exposure. These results suggest that the alevin and smolt stages are both important developmental periods for successful olfactory imprinting. Furthermore, the period of time that fish are exposed to imprinting odors may be important for successful imprinting. Experimental fish exposed to imprinting odors as smolts for six or one weeks successfully imprinted to these odors but imprinting could not be demonstrated in smolts exposed to odors for only one day. A 2-3 C reduction in seawater rearing temperature during the fall and winter prior to final maturation had little effect on reproductive development of spring Chinook salmon. Body size at spawning and total ovary mass were similar between temperature treatments. The percentage of fertilized eggs was significantly higher for females exposed to the ambient temperature compared

  5. Climatic and anthropogenic factors changing spawning pattern and production zone of Hilsa fishery in the Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shohidullah Miah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha Hamilton as a single species accounts 12% for more than half of the total marine catches. About 2% of the entire population of the country is directly or indirectly engaged with Hilsa fishing. Hilsa has a wide geographical distribution in Asia from the Persian Gulf to the South China Sea. Particularly large stocks are found in Upper Bay of Bengal (BoB region sustained by the large river systems. The global Hilsa catch is reported 75% from Bangladesh water, 15% from Myanmar, 5% from India and 5% from other countries such as Thailand and Iran. Hilsa is a highly migratory and anadromous fish with the same migratory and same breeding behavior as that of Atlantic Salmon fish (Salmo sp.. Due to various anthropogenic activities, climate change effect, increased siltation and rising of the river basins, the migratory routes as well as spawning grounds of Hilsa are disturbed, displaced or even destroyed. During last two decades hilsa production from inland water declined about 20%, whereas marine water yield increased about 3 times. Major Hilsa to catch has been gradually shifted from inland to marine water. Hilsa fish ascend for spawning migration from sea into estuaries. It has been found that the major spawning areas have been shifted to the lower estuarine regions of Hatia, Sandwip and Bhola. At the spawning ground of Hilsa, the fishing level F=1.36 yr−1, where in the river Meghna the Fmsy=0.6 yr−1 and exploitation rate E=0.70 is (Emsy>0.5. Oceanographic changes viz. high turbidity increased flooding, more tidal action and changes of salinity etc. have accelerated the change of migration patterns of spawning, growth and its production. Hilsa fecundity ranges from 1.5 to 2.0 million eggs for fish ranging in length from 35 to 50 cm. Hilsa fecundity is declining in different areas due to climate change and the declining fecundity impacting greatly on Hilsa production. Due to shifting of the spawning ground at the lower

  6. Salmon Population Summary - Impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This work involves 1) synthesizing information from the literature and 2) modeling impacts of climate change on specific aspects of salmon life history and...

  7. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  8. Effects of fishing during the spawning period: implications for sustainable management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overzee, van H.M.J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    While fishery closures during the spawning season are commonplace, direct evidence for their benefit is mainly restricted to species forming large spawning aggregations. This paper analyses the conditions under which spawning closures could contribute to sustainable fisheries management by reviewing

  9. 3种不同来源的鲑鱼降钙素基因的克隆及其序列比较%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Salmon Calcitonin Genes from Three Different Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝红; 茅云翔; 王高歌; 杨官品; 张学成

    2002-01-01

    以3种不同来源的鲑鱼基因组DNA为模板,采用PCR方法获得完整的sCT基因.与Genbank中Pink Salmon(Oncorhynchus gorbuscha)的降钙素基因序列进行比较,结果显示:实验组的Pink Salmon(O. gorbuscha)降钙素基因有2个碱基差异(第39位C→A;第51位T→C),氨基酸没有变化;Chum Salmon(O.keta)有1个碱基的差异(第86位G→A),且引起1个氨基酸的变化(第29位S→N);而中国黑龙江产的鲑鱼(Oncorhynchus sp.)降钙素基因序列与Genbank中Pink Salmon(O. gorbuscha)的降钙素序列完全相同,没有碱基差别.

  10. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  11. Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jonghan; Hayton, William L.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-08-24

    To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17a,20b-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.

  12. Steroidogenesis in the testes and seminal vesicles of spawning and non-spawning African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.G.E.J.; Granneman, J.C.M.; Lambert, J.G.D.; Oordt, P.G.W.J. van

    1987-01-01

    The in vitro biosynthesis of steroids was studied in testes as well as seminal vesicles of non-spawning pond and spawning feral African catfish, collected during the breeding season. In testes of non-spawners the conversion of [3H]-pregnenolone was directed towards 11-oxygenated androgens and 5β-pre

  13. Using a Genetic mixture model to study Phenotypic traits: Differential fecundity among Yukon river Chinook Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromaghin, J.F.; Evenson, D.F.; McLain, T.H.; Flannery, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Fecundity is a vital population characteristic that is directly linked to the productivity of fish populations. Historic data from Yukon River (Alaska) Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha suggest that length-adjusted fecundity differs among populations within the drainage and either is temporally variable or has declined. Yukon River Chinook salmon have been harvested in large-mesh gill-net fisheries for decades, and a decline in fecundity was considered a potential evolutionary response to size-selective exploitation. The implications for fishery conservation and management led us to further investigate the fecundity of Yukon River Chinook salmon populations. Matched observations of fecundity, length, and genotype were collected from a sample of adult females captured from the multipopulation spawning migration near the mouth of the Yukon River in 2008. These data were modeled by using a new mixture model, which was developed by extending the conditional maximum likelihood mixture model that is commonly used to estimate the composition of multipopulation mixtures based on genetic data. The new model facilitates maximum likelihood estimation of stock-specific fecundity parameters without first using individual assignment to a putative population of origin, thus avoiding potential biases caused by assignment error.The hypothesis that fecundity of Chinook salmon has declined was not supported; this result implies that fecundity exhibits high interannual variability. However, length-adjusted fecundity estimates decreased as migratory distance increased, and fecundity was more strongly dependent on fish size for populations spawning in the middle and upper portions of the drainage. These findings provide insights into potential constraints on reproductive investment imposed by long migrations and warrant consideration in fisheries management and conservation. The new mixture model extends the utility of genetic markers to new applications and can be easily adapted

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, Research Element : Project Progress Report, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance (Jason Lance); Castillo, Jason; Kline, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2000, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: eyed-eggs were placed in Pettit Lake; age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish and Alturas lakes for volitional spawning in September. Anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to all three lakes. Total kokanee abundance in Redfish Lake was estimated at 10,268, which was the lowest abundance since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Alturas Lake was estimated at 125,462, which was one of the highest values recorded since 1991. Abundance of kokanee in Pettit Lake was estimated at 40,599, which is the third highest value recorded since 1991. Upon the recommendation of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee, the National Marine Fisheries Service reopened the kokanee fishery on Redfish Lake in 1995 in an attempt to reduce kokanee numbers. Anglers fished an estimated 3,063 hours and harvested approximately 67 kokanee during the 2000 season. Angler effort and harvest were also monitored on Alturas Lake during 2000. Effort on Alturas Lake was 5,190 hours, and harvest of

  15. Long-term Records of Pacific Salmon Abundance From Sediment Core Analysis: Relationships to Past Climatic Change, and Implications for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, B.

    2002-12-01

    The response of Pacific salmon to future climatic change is uncertain, but will have large impacts on the economy, culture and ecology of the North Pacific Rim. Relationships between sockeye salmon populations and climatic change can be determined by analyzing sediment cores from lakes where sockeye return to spawn. Sockeye salmon return to their natal lake system to spawn and subsequently die following 2 - 3 years of feeding in the North Pacific Ocean. Sockeye salmon abundance can be reconstructed from stable nitrogen isotope analysis of lake sediment cores as returning sockeye transport significant quantities of N, relatively enriched in N-15, from the ocean to freshwater systems. Temporal changes in the input of salmon-derived N, and hence salmon abundance, can be quantified through downcore analysis of N isotopes. Reconstructions of sockeye salmon abundance from lakes in several regions of Alaska show similar temporal patterns, with variability occurring on decadal to millennial timescales. Over the past 2000 years, shifts in sockeye salmon abundance far exceed the historical decadal-scale variability. A decline occurred from about 100 BC - 800 AD, but salmon were consistently more abundant 1200 - 1900 AD. Declines since 1900 AD coincide with the period of extensive commercial fishing. Correspondence between these records and paleoclimatic data suggest that changes in salmon abundance are related to large scale climatic changes over the North Pacific. For example, the increase in salmon abundance c.a. 1200 AD corresponds to a period of glacial advance in southern Alaska, and a shift to drier conditions in western North America. Although the regionally coherent patterns in reconstructed salmon abundance are consistent with the hypothesis that climate is an important driver, the relationships do not always follow patterns observed in the 20th century. A main feature of recorded climate variability in this region is the alternation between multi-decade periods of

  16. Genomic organization and evolution of the trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) repertoire in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarolo, Jordan A; Tabesh, Mohammad J; Nesbitt, Michael; Davidson, William S

    2014-04-22

    There is strong evidence that olfaction plays a key role in the homing of salmonids to their natal spawning grounds, particularly in the freshwater phase. However, the physiological and genetic mechanisms behind this biological phenomenon are largely unknown. It has been shown that Pacific salmon respond to dissolved free amino acids from their natal streams. This indicates that amino acids comprise part of the olfcatory cues for imprinting and homing in salmonids. As trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs), a class of olfactory receptors that are close relatives of the G protein-coupled aminergic neurotransmitter receptors, recognize amino acid metabolites, we hypothesize that TAARs play an important role in salmon homing by recognizing olfactory cues. Therefore, to better understand homing in Atlantic salmon, we set out to characterize the TAAR genes in this species. We searched the first assembly of the Atlantic salmon genome for sequences resembling TAARs previously characterized in other teleosts. We identified 27 putatively functional TAAR genes and 25 putative TAAR pseudogenes, which cluster primarily on chromosome 21 (Ssa21). Phylogenetic analysis of TAAR amino acid sequences from 15 vertebrate species revealed the TAAR gene family arose after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. The TAARs group into three classes with salmon possessing class I and class III TAARs. Within each class, evolution is characterized by species-specific gene expansions, which is in contrast to what is observed in other olfactory receptor families (e.g., OlfCs and oras).

  17. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    fjord system and had, thus, entered the ocean when the more pathogenic pre-adult and adult lice stages developed. The brown trout, in comparison to Atlantic salmon, remained to a larger extent than Atlantic salmon in the inner part of the fjord system. No effect of salmon lice infection, or protection...

  18. Thiamine content of eggs and lengths of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to abundance of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in eastern Lake ontario, 2003 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.; Rinchard, J.; O'Gorman, R.; Begnoche, L.J.; Bishop, D.L.; Greulich, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Early mortality syndrome in fry of Great Lakes salmonines is linked to reduced levels of thiamine in eggs, which reflects maternal consumption of forage fishes such as alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) that contain thiaminase, an enzyme that destroys thiamine. We assessed annual variations in abundance and condition of alewives and thiamine status of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario. We analyzed total thiamine in eggs of 20 coho salmon collected annually between 2003 and 2006 at the Salmon River Hatchery on the Salmon River, New York. Alewife abundance was assessed annually in southern and eastern Lake Ontario with bottom trawls during late April and early May. Mean thiamine concentration in eggs varied annually, with those collected in 2003 (2.5 nmol/g) being significantly higher than those collected in 2004 to 2006 (1.5 to 1.7 nmol/g). Although we did not test survival of fry, if reported threshold levels of thiamine for preventing mortality of Lake Michigan coho salmon fry apply, then many or most Lake Ontario coho salmon produced fry were likely to incur thiamine-deficiency mortality, especially during years 2004 to 2006. Comparison to indices of annual abundance of alewife in Lake Ontario with thiamine concentration in coho salmon eggs failed to show any significant correlations (P > 0.05). However, total length of female spawning coho salmon was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with increasing condition and estimated energy content of adult alewives in the previous spring. These results suggest that growth of coho salmon in Lake Ontario was first limited by energy intake, whereas the amount of thiamine provided by alewives was sufficient for growth (in length) but not for producing thiamine-adequate eggs.

  19. Chum-RNA allows preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA without PCR amplification

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is useful in genome-wide analysis of gene expression using DNA microarrays, but exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still required for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. We have designed a small RNA molecule called chum-RNA that has enabled us to prepare a single-cell cDNA library after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. Chum-RNA drove cDNA synt...

  20. Changes in Habitat and Populations of Steelhead Trout, Coho Salmon, and Chinook Salmon in Fish Creek, Oregon; Habitat Improvement, 1983-1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everest, Fred H. (Oregon State University, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Corvallis, OR); Hohler, David B.; Cain, Thomas C. (Mount Hood National Forest, Clackamas River Ranger District, Estacada, OR)

    1988-03-01

    Construction and evaluation of salmonid habitat improvements on Fish Creek, a tributary of the upper Clackamas River, began in 1982 as a cooperative venture between the Estacada Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Anadromous Fish Habitat Research Unit of the Pacific Northwest Research Station (PNW), USDA Forest Service. The project was initially conceived as a 5-year effort (1982-1987) to be financed with Forest Service funds. The habitat improvement program and the evaluation of improvements were both expanded in mid-1983 when the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into an agreement with the Mt. Hood National Forest to cooperatively fund work on Fish Creek. Habitat improvement work in the basin is guided by the Fish Creek Habitat Rehabilitation-Enhancement Framework developed cooperatively by the Estacada Ranger District, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station. The framework examines potential factors limiting production of salmonids in the basin, and the appropriate habitat improvement measures needed to address the limiting factors. Habitat improvement work in the basin has been designed to: (1) improve quantity, quality, and distribution of spawning habitat for coho and spring chinook salmon and steelhead trout, (2) increase low flow rearing habitat for steelhead trout and coho salmon, (3) improve overwintering habitat for coho salmon and steelhead trout, (4) rehabilitate riparian vegetation to improve stream shading to benefit all species, and (5) evaluate improvement projects from a drainage wide perspective. The objectives of the evaluation include: (1) Drainage-wide evaluation and quantification of changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements. (2) Evaluation and quantification of changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements. (3) Benefit-cost analysis of habitat improvements.

  1. Composition and Relative Abundance of Fish Species in the Lower White Salmon River, Washington, Prior to the Removal of Condit Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    the upriver bright fall Chinook salmon out-migration period. When water levels in the White Salmon River declined in late summer, we electrofished the river margins in 2006-09 along three sites at rkm 1.5, 2.3, and 4.2. Age-0 steelhead were the most abundant fish captured (n=565, 62 percent), followed by age-0 coho salmon (n=222, 24 percent). In autumn, age-0 Chinook salmon were collected while electrofishing (n=40, 4 percent). This suggests that there may be a migration in the autumn as age-0 Chinook salmon or in the spring as age-1 Chinook salmon, since the Chinook salmon that migrate as age-0 fish in the spring departed several months earlier (the typical life history for fall Chinook salmon). The only age-1 salmonids captured while electrofishing were steelhead (n=84, 9 percent). Fish distribution and abundance will likely change when Condit Dam is removed and anadromous fish gain access to their historical spawning and rearing areas in the White Salmon River. These findings should provide a baseline with which to compare juvenile fish species composition and relative abundance after Condit Dam is removed.

  2. Identification of marine-derived lipids in juvenile coho salmon and aquatic insects through fatty acid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Ron A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic benefits enjoyed by consumers in streams with salmon runs depend on how those benefits are accrued. Adult Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. deliver significant amounts of nutrients (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) and carbon to streams when they spawn and die; these nutrient additions can have demonstrable effects on primary production in streams. Consumption of carcass tissues or eggs provides for direct energy subsidies to consumers and may have significant effects on their condition. In this study, comparisons of juvenile coho salmon O. kisutch and aquatic insects exposed to terrestrial and marine energy sources demonstrated that direct consumption of marine-derived lipids had a significant effect on the lipid reserves of consumers. Direct consumption of marine-derived tissues was verified through fatty acid analysis. Selected aquatic insects and juvenile coho salmon were reared for 6 weeks in experimental streams supplied with terrestrial or marine energy sources. Chironomid midges, nemourid stoneflies, and juvenile coho salmon exposed to the marine energy source altered their fatty acid compositions by incorporating the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that are characteristic of marine fish. The fatty acid composition of baetid mayflies was unaffected. The direct movement of specific fatty markers indicated that direct consumption of marine-derived tissues led to increased energy reserves (triacylglycerols) in consumers. Similar results were obtained for juvenile coho salmon sampled from natural streams before and after the arrival of adult salmon runs. These data indicate that marine-derived lipids from anadromous fish runs are an important source of reserve lipids for consumers that overwinter in streams.

  3. Evaluation Of Functional Flows To Prioritize The Restoration Of Spawning Habitat Geomorphic Units Among Three Tributaries Of The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, M. I.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2006-12-01

    Biologists have identified fish spawning habitat rehabilitation as a primary goal in the recovery of river ecosystems. Prioritization of restoration efforts in large river ecosystems is a management strategy for an efficient use of available resources. Recognizing that science-based tools to evaluate restoration actions lack the incorporation of key hydrogeomorphic and ecologic attributes of river processes, a method to prioritize salmon spawning habitat restoration efforts that explores the complex linkages among different hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecologic variables was developed. The present work summarizes the conceptual background of the method and presents applications to three tributaries of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta system to make management conclusions for those rivers. The method is based on the definition of functional flows. Within the spawning habitat context, functional flows are those flow processes that provide optimal habitat conditioning before the freshwater lifestage begins by creating pool-riffle sequences, and that grant healthy habitat throughout the freshwater lifestage by maintaining the required water depth, velocity, and substrate composition. The method incorporates hydrogeomorphic and ecologic attributes through classifying magnitude and timing of functional flows and determining their effects on the habitat. Essential variables to evaluate the status of spawning habitat (i.e. slope, grain size, discharge, channel geometry, shear stress) are non- dimensionalized to provide comparability. Feasible combinations of the variables are put into an algorithm that discloses scenarios of flow functionality for characteristic hydrographs. The method was used to evaluate the ecological functionality of individual geomorphic units along the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and Yuba Rivers and to compare them within each river and between rivers. Ranking according to the number of days with functional flows provided a hierarchical comparison of the

  4. Dynamic modelling of the long term behaviour of cadmium, lead and mercury in Swiss forest soils using CHUM-AM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stephan R; Tipping, Edward; Zimmermann, Stefan; Graf-Pannatier, Elisabeth; Waldner, Peter; Meili, Markus; Frey, Beat

    2014-01-15

    The applicability of the dynamic soil model CHUM-AM was tested to simulate concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in five Swiss forest soils. Soil cores of up to 50 cm depth were sampled and separated into two defined soil layers. Soil leachates were collected below the litter by zero-tension lysimeters and at 15 and 50 cm soil depths by tension lysimeters over two years. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in the solid phase and soil solution were measured by ICP-MS (Cd, Pb) or CV-AFS (Hg). Measured metal concentrations were compared with modelled concentrations using CHUM-AM. Additionally we ran the model with three different deposition scenarios (current deposition; maximum acceptable deposition according to the Swiss ordinance on Air Pollution Control; critical loads according to CLRTAP) to predict metal concentrations in the soils for the next 1000 years. Assuming current loads concentrations of Cd and Pb showed varying trends (increasing/decreasing) between the soils. Soils rich in organic carbon or with a high pH value showed increasing trends in Cd and Pb concentrations whereas the concentrations in the other soils decreased. In contrast Hg concentrations are predicted to further increase in all soils. Critical limits for Pb and Hg will partly be exceeded by current loads or by the critical loads proposed by the CLRTAP but the critical limits for Cd will rarely be reached within the next 1000 years. In contrast, maximal acceptable deposition will partly lead to concentrations above the critical limits for Pb in soils within the next 400 years, whereas the acceptable deposition of Cd will not lead to concentrations above the proposed critical limits. In conclusion the CHUM-AM model is able to accurately simulate heavy metal (Cd, Pb and Hg) concentrations in Swiss forest soils of various soil properties.

  5. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine

  6. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  7. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2002 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake (3) conduct kokanee salmon (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a

  9. Study of Wild Spring Chinook Salmon in the John Day River System, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Robert B.

    1986-02-01

    A study of wild spring chinook salmon was conducted in the John Day River, Oregon: (1) recommend harvest regulations to achieve escapement goals in the John Day River; (2) recommend adtustments in timing of fish passage operations at Columbia River dams that will increase survival of John Day migrants; (3) recommend habitat or environmental improvements that will increase production of spring chinook salmon; (4) determine escapement goals for wild spring chinook salmon in the John Day River; and (5) recommend procedures for hatchery supplementation in the John Day River in the event it becomes necessary to artificially maintain the run of spring chinook salmon. Juveniles were captured as smolts during migration and as fingerlings during summer rearing. Juveniles were coded-wire tagged, and recoveries of tagged adults were used to assess contribution to ocean and Columbia River fisheries, timing of adult migrations through the Columbia River in relation to fishing seasons, and age and size of fish in fisheries. Scoop traps and seines were used to determine timing of smolt migrations through the John Day River. In addition, recoveries of tagged smolts at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Jones Beach were used to determine migration timing through the Columbia River. We examined freshwater life history of spring chinook salmon in the John Day River and related it to environmental factors. We looked at adult holding areas, spawning, incubation and emergence, fingerling rearing distribution, size and growth of juveniles and scales. Escapement goals fo the John Day River as well as reasons for declines in John Day stocks were determiend by using stock-recruitment analyses. Recommendations for hatchery supplementation in the John Day were based on results from other study objectives.

  10. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased

  11. Spawning of coral reef invertebrates and a second spawning season for scleractinian corals in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bouwmeester, Jessica

    2016-06-22

    Recent coral spawning observations in the central Red Sea show that most scleractinian species release their gametes in the spring, with a majority of species spawning in April. There is, however, a lack of reproductive data for several other coral species, as well as a general lack of data for other invertebrates. Here, we document the detailed timing of spawning for 13 scleractinian coral species, one sea anemone, and six echinoderms from an inshore reef off the coast of Thuwal, Saudi Arabia, in the spring between April and June 2014. Furthermore, inferred from the presence of mature gametes, we report the month of spawning for three additional coral species in the spring. Seven scleractinian coral species were inferred to release their gametes in a second reproductive season, in the autumn, between September and November. This is the first report of a second spawning season in the Arabian region. Biannual spawning has so far been reported on the Great Barrier Reef, in Western Australia, in Indonesia, in Malaysia, in Palau, in Thailand, in Taiwan, and in Western Samoa. © 2016, The American Microscopical Society, Inc.

  12. Coral spawning in the Gulf of Oman and relationship to latitudinal variation in spawning season in the northwest Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, E J; Abrego, D; Vaughan, G O; Burt, J A

    2014-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on sexual reproduction in scleractinian corals, there are regional gaps in reproductive records. In the Gulf of the Oman in the Arabian Sea, reproductive timing was assessed in four common species of broadcast spawning corals using field surveys of gamete maturity and aquarium observations of spawning activity. The appearance of mature gametes within the same month for Acropora downingi, A. hemprichii, Cyphastrea microphthalma and Platygyra daedalea (≥ 75% of colonies, n = 848) indicated a synchronous and multi-specific spawning season. Based on gamete disappearance and direct observations, spawning predominantly occurred during April in 2013 (75-100% of colonies) and May in 2014 (77-94% of colonies). The difference in spawning months between survey years was most likely explained by sea temperature and the timing of lunar cycles during late-stage gametogenesis. These reproductive records are consistent with a latitudinal gradient in peak broadcast spawning activity at reefs in the northwestern Indian Ocean which occurs early in the year at low latitudes (January to March) and progressively later in the year at mid (March to May) and high (June to September) latitudes.

  13. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  14. Behavior and movements of adult spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Chehalis River Basin, southwestern Washington, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Holt, Curt; Jennings, Lyle

    2016-09-14

    Recent interest in flood control and restoration strategies in the Chehalis River Basin has increased the need to understand the current status and ecology of spring Chinook salmon. Based on the extended period between freshwater entry and spawn timing, spring Chinook salmon have the longest exposure of all adult Chinook salmon life histories to the low-flow and high water temperature conditions that typically occur during summer. About 100 adult spring Chinook salmon were found dead in the Chehalis River in July and August 2009. Adult Chinook salmon are known to hold in cool-water refugia during warm summer months, but the extent to which spring Chinook salmon might use thermal refugia in the Chehalis River is unknown. The movements and temperature exposures of adult spring Chinook salmon following their return to the Chehalis River were investigated using radiotelemetry and transmitters equipped with temperature sensors, combined with water temperature monitoring throughout the basin. A total of 23 spring Chinook salmon were radio-tagged between April and early July 2015; 11 were captured and released in the main-stem Chehalis River, and 12 were captured and released in the South Fork Newaukum River. Tagged fish were monitored with a combination of fixed-site monitoring locations and regular mobile tracking, from freshwater entry through the spawning period.Water temperature and flow conditions in the main-stem Chehalis River during 2015 were atypical compared to historical averages. Mean monthly water temperatures between March and July 2015 were higher than any decade since 1960 and mean daily flows were 30–70 percent of the flows in previous years. Overall, 96 percent of the tagged fish were detected, with a mean of 62 d in the detection history of tagged fish. Of the 11 fish released in the main-stem Chehalis River, six fish (55 percent) moved upstream, either shortly after release (2–7 d, 50 percent), or following a short delay (12–18 d, 50 percent

  15. Multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Jared R; Wilcox, Andrew C.; Woessner, William W.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated multiscale hydrogeomorphic influences on the distribution and abundance of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) spawning in snowmelt-dominated streams of the upper Flathead River basin, northwestern Montana. Within our study reaches, bull trout tended to spawn in the finest available gravel substrates. Analysis of the mobility of these substrates, based on one-dimensional hydraulic modeling and calculation of dimensionless shear stresses, indicated that bed materials in spawning reaches would be mobilized at moderate (i.e., 2-year recurrence interval) high-flow conditions, although the asynchronous timing of the fall–winter egg incubation period and typical late spring – early summer snowmelt high flows in our study area may limit susceptibility to redd scour under current hydrologic regimes. Redd occurrence also tended to be associated with concave-up bedforms (pool tailouts) with downwelling intragravel flows. Streambed temperatures tracked stream water diurnal temperature cycles to a depth of at least 25 cm, averaging 6.1–8.1 °C in different study reaches during the spawning period. Ground water provided thermal moderation of stream water for several high-density spawning reaches. Bull trout redds were more frequent in unconfined alluvial valley reaches (8.5 versus 5.0 redds·km−1 in confined valley reaches), which were strongly influenced by hyporheic and groundwater – stream water exchange. A considerable proportion of redds were patchily distributed in confined valley reaches, however, emphasizing the influence of local physical conditions in supporting bull trout spawning habitat. Moreover, narrowing or “bounding” of these alluvial valley segments did not appear to be important. Our results suggest that geomorphic, thermal, and hydrological factors influence bull trout spawning occurrence at multiple spatial scales.

  16. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  17. Status and Monitoring of Natural and Supplemented Chinook Salmon in Johnson Creek, Idaho, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabe, Craig D.; Nelson, Douglas D. [Nez Perce Tribe

    2008-11-17

    The Nez Perce Tribe Johnson Creek Artificial Propagation Enhancement Project (JCAPE) has conducted juvenile and adult monitoring and evaluation studies for its 10th consecutive year. Completion of adult and juvenile Chinook salmon studies were conducted for the purpose of evaluating a small-scale production initiative designed to increase the survival of a weak but recoverable spawning aggregate of summer Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. The JCAPE program evaluates the life cycle of natural origin (NOR) and hatchery origin (HOR) supplementation fish to quantify the key performance measures: abundance, survival-productivity, distribution, genetics, life history, habitat, and in-hatchery metrics. Operation of a picket style weir and intensive multiple spawning ground surveys were completed to monitor adult Chinook salmon and a rotary screw trap was used to monitor migrating juvenile Chinook salmon in Johnson Creek. In 2007, spawning ground surveys were conducted on all available spawning habitat in Johnson Creek and one of its tributaries. A total of 63 redds were observed in the index reach and 11 redds for all other reaches for a combined count of 74 redds. Utilization of carcass recovery surveys and adult captures at an adult picket weir yielded a total estimated adult escapement to Johnson Creek of 438 Chinook salmon. Upon deducting fish removed for broodstock (n=52), weir mortality/ known strays (n=12), and prespawning mortality (n=15), an estimated 359 summer Chinook salmon were available to spawn. Estimated total migration of brood year 2005 NOR juvenile Chinook salmon at the rotary screw trap was calculated for three seasons (summer, fall, and spring). The total estimated migration was 34,194 fish; 26,671 of the NOR migrants left in the summer (July 1 to August 31, 2005) as fry/parr, 5,852 left in the fall (September 1 to November 21, 2005) as presmolt, and only 1,671 NOR fish left in the spring (March 1 to June 30, 2006) as smolt. In addition, there

  18. Barriers impede upstream spawning migration of flathead chub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, David M.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Crockett, Harry J.; Bruce, James F.; Lukacs, Paul M.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2014-01-01

    Many native cyprinids are declining throughout the North American Great Plains. Some of these species require long reaches of contiguous, flowing riverine habitat for drifting eggs or larvae to develop, and their declining populations have been attributed to habitat fragmentation or barriers (e.g., dams, dewatered channels, and reservoirs) that restrict fish movement. Upstream dispersal is also needed to maintain populations of species with passively drifting eggs or larvae, and prior researchers have suggested that these fishes migrate upstream to spawn. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a mark–recapture study of Flathead Chub Platygobio gracilis within a 91-km reach of continuous riverine habitat in Fountain Creek, Colorado. We measured CPUE, spawning readiness (percent of Flathead Chub expressing milt), and fish movement relative to a channel-spanning dam. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Flathead Chub migrate upstream to spawn during summer. The CPUE was much higher at the base of the dam than at downstream sites; the seasonal increases in CPUE at the dam closely tracked seasonal increases in spawning readiness, and marked fish moved upstream as far as 33 km during the spawning run. The upstream migration was effectively blocked by the dam. The CPUE of Flathead Chub was much lower upstream of the OHDD than at downstream sites, and barriers limit adult dispersal of these and other plains fishes.

  19. Chemical regulation of spawning in the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Jeffrey L.; Nichols, S. Jerrine; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1992-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that spawning in bivalves is chemically regulated, both by environmental chemical cues and by internal chemical mediators. In a model proposed for zebra mussels, chemicals from phytoplankton initially trigger spawning, and chemicals associated with gametes provide further stimulus for spawning. The response to environmental chemicals is internally mediated by a pathway utilizing serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, a neurotransmitter), which acts directly on both male and female gonads. The role of serotonin and most other aspects of the model have been tested only on bivalves other than zebra mussels. The effect of serotonin on zebra mussel spawning was tested. Serotonin (10-5 and 10-3 M) injected into ripe males induced spawning, but injection of serotonin into females did not. Gametes were not released by 10-6 serotonin; in most cases, serotonin injection did not release gametes from immature recipients. Serotonin injection provides a reliable means for identifying ripe male zebra mussels and for obtaining zebra mussel sperm without the need for dissection.

  20. Spawning Coordination of Mates in a Shell Brooding Cichlid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Schütz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. External fertilisation requires synchronisation of gamete release between the two sexes. Adequate synchronisation is essential in aquatic media because sperm is very short-lived in water. In the cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, fertilisation of the eggs takes place inside an empty snail shell, where females stay inside the shell and males have to ejaculate into the shell opening. This spawning pattern makes the coordination of gamete release difficult. Methods. This study examined the synchronisation of males and females during egg laying. Results. The results showed that the male initiates each spawning sequence and that sperm release and egg laying are very well synchronised. 68% of all sperm releases occurred at exactly the same time when the female laid an egg, and 99% of ejaculations occurred within ±5 seconds from egg deposition. On average 95 eggs are laid one by one with intervals of several minutes between subsequent eggs, leading to a total spawning duration in excess of six hours. Conclusions. We discuss this exceptional spawning pattern and how it might reflect a conflict between the sexes, with males attempting to induce egg laying and females extending the egg laying period to raise the chance for parasitic males to participate in spawning.

  1. Parallel signatures of selection in temporally isolated lineages of pink salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeb, L W; Waples, R K; Limborg, M T; Warheit, K I; Pascal, C E; Seeb, J E

    2014-05-01

    Studying the effect of similar environments on diverse genetic backgrounds has long been a goal of evolutionary biologists with studies typically relying on experimental approaches. Pink salmon, a highly abundant and widely ranging salmonid, provide a naturally occurring opportunity to study the effects of similar environments on divergent genetic backgrounds due to a strict two-year semelparous life history. The species is composed of two reproductively isolated lineages with overlapping ranges that share the same spawning and rearing environments in alternate years. We used restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to discover and genotype approximately 8000 SNP loci in three population pairs of even- and odd-year pink salmon along a latitudinal gradient in North America. We found greater differentiation within the odd-year than within the even-year lineage and greater differentiation in the southern pair from Puget Sound than in the northern Alaskan population pairs. We identified 15 SNPs reflecting signatures of parallel selection using both a differentiation-based method (BAYESCAN) and an environmental correlation method (BAYENV). These SNPs represent genomic regions that may be particularly informative in understanding adaptive evolution in pink salmon and exploring how differing genetic backgrounds within a species respond to selection from the same natural environment.

  2. Calibrating acoustic acceleration transmitters for estimating energy use by wild adult Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S M; Hinch, S G; Eliason, E J; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J

    2013-03-01

    This study is the first to calibrate acceleration transmitters with energy expenditure using a vertebrate model species. We quantified the relationship between acoustic accelerometer output and oxygen consumption across a range of swim speeds and water temperatures for Harrison River adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). First, we verified that acceleration transmitters with a sampling frequency of 10 Hz could be used as a proxy for movement in sockeye salmon. Using a mixed effects model, we determined that tailbeat frequency and acceleration were positively correlated (pAcceleration (pspeed while fork length (p=0.051) was negatively related to swim speed. Oxygen consumption and accelerometer output (plinear relationship and were temperature dependent (pspeed was 1.25±0.03 body lengths s(-1) and cost of transport was 3.39±0.17 mg O(2) kg(-1)min(-1), averaged across the three detected fish. Acceleration transmitters can be effectively used to remotely evaluate fine-scale behavior and estimate energy consumption of adult Pacific salmon throughout their homeward spawning migration.

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Research Elements : 2007 Annual Project Progess Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mike; Plaster, Kurtis; Redfield, Laura; Heindel, Jeff; Kline, Paul

    2008-12-17

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2007, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: (1) eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in November; (2) age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October; (3) age-1 smolts were released into Redfish Lake Creek and the upper Salmon River in May; and (4) hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2007. Population abundances were estimated at 73,702 fish for Redfish Lake, 124,073 fish for Alturas Lake, and 14,746 fish for Pettit Lake. Angler surveys were conducted from May 26 through August 7, 2007 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 102 anglers and estimated that 56 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.03 fish/hour for each kokanee kept. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 14 to June 13, 2007. We estimated that 5,280 natural origin and 14,256 hatchery origin sockeye salmon smolts out-migrated from

  4. Imaging fall Chinook salmon redds in the Columbia River with a dual-frequency identification sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, K.F.; Rondorf, D.W.; Skalicky, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    We tested the efficacy of a dual-frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) for imaging and enumeration of fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds in a spawning area below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. The DIDSON uses sound to form near-video-quality images and has the advantages of imaging in zero-visibility water and possessing a greater detection range and field of view than underwater video cameras. We suspected that the large size and distinct morphology of a fall Chinook salmon redd would facilitate acoustic imaging if the DIDSON was towed near the river bottom so as to cast an acoustic shadow from the tailspill over the redd pocket. We tested this idea by observing 22 different redds with an underwater video camera, spatially referencing their locations, and then navigating to them while imaging them with the DIDSON. All 22 redds were successfully imaged with the DIDSON. We subsequently conducted redd searches along transects to compare the number of redds imaged by the DIDSON with the number observed using an underwater video camera. We counted 117 redds with the DIDSON and 81 redds with the underwater video camera. Only one of the redds observed with the underwater video camera was not also documented by the DIDSON. In spite of the DIDSON's high cost, it may serve as a useful tool for enumerating fall Chinook salmon redds in conditions that are not conducive to underwater videography.

  5. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon; Assessment of Captive Broodstock Technologies, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Current velocity in rearing vessels had little if any effect on reproductive behavior of captively reared steelhead. However, males and females reared in high velocity vessels participated a greater number of spawning events than siblings reared in low velocity tanks. Observations of nesting females and associated males in a natural stream (Hamma Hamma River) were consistent with those observed in a controlled spawning channel. DNA pedigree analyses did not reveal significant differences in the numbers of fry produced by steelhead reared in high and low velocity vessels. To determine the critical period(s) for imprinting for sockeye salmon, juvenile salmon are being exposed to known odorants at key developmental stages. Subsequently they will be tested for development of long-term memories of these odorants. In 2002-2003, the efficacy of EOG analysis for assessing imprinting was demonstrated and will be applied in these and other behavioral and molecular tools in the current work plan. Results of these experiments will be important to determine the critical periods for imprinting for the offspring of captively-reared fish destined for release into natal rivers or lakes. By early August, the oocytes of all of Rapid River Hatchery chinook salmon females returning from the ocean had advanced to the tertiary yolk globule stage; whereas, only some of the captively reared Lemhi River females sampled had advanced to this stage, and the degree of advancement was not dependent on rearing temperature. The mean spawning time of captive Lemhi River females was 3-4 weeks after that of the Rapid River fish

  6. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams : 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Steven W.

    1992-07-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) are native to many tributaries of the Snake River in southeast Washington. The Washington Department of Wildlife (WDW) and the American Fisheries Society (AFS) have identified bull trout as a species of special concern which means that they may become threatened or endangered by relatively, minor disturbances to their habitat. Steelhead trout/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O.tshawytscha) are also native to several tributaries of the Snake river in southeast Washington. These species of migratory fishes are depressed, partially due to the construction of several dams on the lower Snake river. In response to decreased run size, large hatchery program were initiated to produce juvenile steelhead and salmon to supplement repressed tributary stocks, a practice known as supplementation. There is a concern that supplementing streams with artificially high numbers of steelhead and salmon may have an impact on resident bull trout in these streams. Historically, these three species of fish existed together in large numbers, however, the amount of high-quality habitat necessary for reproduction and rearing has been severely reduced in recent years, as compared to historic amounts. The findings of the first year of a two year study aimed at identifying species interactions in southeast Washington streams are presented in this report. Data was collected to assess population dynamics; habitat utilization and preference, feeding habits, fish movement and migration, age, condition, growth, and the spawning requirements of bull trout in each of four streams. A comparison of the indices was then made between the study streams to determine if bull trout differ in the presence of the putative competitor species. Bull trout populations were highest in the Tucannon River (supplemented stream), followed by Mill Creek (unsupplemented stream). Young of the year bull trout utilized riffle and cascade habitat the most in all

  7. Abundance, stock origin, and length of marked and unmarked juvenile Chinook salmon in the surface waters of greater Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.A.; Greene, C.M.; Moran, P.; Teel, D.J.; Kuligowski, D.R.; Reisenbichler, R.R.; Beamer, E.M.; Karr, J.R.; Fresh, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the use by juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha of the rarely studied neritic environment (surface waters overlaying the sublittoral zone) in greater Puget Sound. Juvenile Chinook salmon inhabit the sound from their late estuarine residence and early marine transition to their first year at sea. We measured the density, origin, and size of marked (known hatchery) and unmarked (majority naturally spawned) juveniles by means of monthly surface trawls at six river mouth estuaries in Puget Sound and the areas in between. Juvenile Chinook salmon were present in all months sampled (April-November). Unmarked fish in the northern portion of the study area showed broader seasonal distributions of density than did either marked fish in all areas or unmarked fish in the central and southern portions of the sound. Despite these temporal differences, the densities of marked fish appeared to drive most of the total density estimates across space and time. Genetic analysis and coded wire tag data provided us with documented individuals from at least 16 source populations and indicated that movement patterns and apparent residence time were, in part, a function of natal location and time passed since the release of these fish from hatcheries. Unmarked fish tended to be smaller than marked fish and had broader length frequency distributions. The lengths of unmarked fish were negatively related to the density of both marked and unmarked Chinook salmon, but those of marked fish were not. These results indicate more extensive use of estuarine environments by wild than by hatchery juvenile Chinook salmon as well as differential use (e.g., rearing and migration) of various geographic regions of greater Puget Sound by juvenile Chinook salmon in general. In addition, the results for hatchery-generated timing, density, and length differences have implications for the biological interactions between hatchery and wild fish throughout Puget Sound. ?? American

  8. Salmon carcasses increase stream productivity more than inorganic fertilizer pellets: A test on multiple trophic levels in streamside experimental channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipfli, Mark S.; Hudson, John P.; Caouette, John P.; Mitchell, N.L.; Lessard, Joanna L.; Heintz, Ron A.; Chaloner, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    Inorganic nutrient amendments to streams are viewed as possible restoration strategies for re-establishing nutrients and stream productivity throughout the western coast of North America, where salmon runs and associated marine-derived nutrient subsidies have declined. In a mesocosm experiment, we examined the short-term (6 weeks) comparative effects of artificial nutrient pellets and salmon carcasses, alone (low and high amounts) and in combination, on stream food webs. Response variables included dissolved nutrient concentrations, biofilm ash-free dry mass (AFDM) and chlorophyll-alevels, macroinvertebrate density, growth and body condition of juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and whole-body lipid content of invertebrates and juvenile coho salmon. Most of the response variables were significantly influenced by carcass treatment; the only response variable significantly influenced by fertilizer pellet treatment was soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration. Ammonium-nitrogen concentration was the only response variable affected by both (low and high) levels of carcass treatment; all others showed no significant response to the two carcass treatment levels. Significant treatment × time interactions were observed for all responses except nitrate; for most responses, significant treatment effects were detected at certain time periods and not others. For example, significantly higher SRP concentrations were recorded earlier in the experiment, whereas significant fish responses were observed later. These results provide evidence that inorganic nutrient additions do not have the same ecological effects in streams as do salmon carcasses, potentially because inorganic nutrient additions lack carbon-based biochemicals and macromolecules that are sequestered directly or indirectly by consumers. Salmon carcasses, preferably deposited naturally during spawning migrations, appear to be far superior to inorganic nutrient amendments for sustaining and restoring

  9. Modeling Fall Run Chinook Salmon Populations in the San Joaquin River Basin Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyantash, J.; Quinn, N. W.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Dracup, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    The number of chinook salmon returning to spawn during the fall run (September-November) were separately modeled for three San Joaquin River tributaries-the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers-to determine the sensitivity of salmon populations to hydrologic alterations associated with potential climate change. The modeling was accomplished using a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) with error backpropagation. Inputs to the ANN included modeled monthly river temperature and streamflow data for each tributary, and were lagged multiple years to include the effects of antecedent environmental conditions upon populations of salmon throughout their life histories. Temperature and streamflow conditions at downstream locations in each tributary were computed using the California Dept. of Water Resources' DSM-2 model. Inputs to the DSM-2 model originated from regional climate modeling under a CO2 doubling scenario. Annual population data for adult chinook salmon (1951-present) were provided by the California Dept. of Fish and Game, and were used for supervised training of the ANN. It was determined that Stanislaus, Tuolumne and Merced River chinook runs could be impacted by alterations to the hydroclimatology of the San Joaquin basin.

  10. White sturgeon spawning areas in the lower Snake River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, M.J.; Kappenman, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    We documented 17 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning locations in the Snake River from the mouth to Lower Granite Dam (river km 0 to 173). Spawning locations were determined by the collection of fertilized eggs on artificial substrates or in plankton nets. We collected 245 eggs at seven locations in McNary Reservoir, 22 eggs at three locations in Ice Harbor Reservoir, 30 eggs from two locations in Lower Monumental Reservoir, and 464 eggs at five locations in Little Goose Reservoir. All 17 locations were in high water velocity areas and between 1.0 and 7.0 km downstream from a hydroelectric dam. The documentation of spawning areas is important because this habitat is necessary to maintain natural and viable populations.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms unravel hierarchical divergence and signatures of selection among Alaskan sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habicht Christopher

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disentangling the roles of geography and ecology driving population divergence and distinguishing adaptive from neutral evolution at the molecular level have been common goals among evolutionary and conservation biologists. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP multilocus genotypes for 31 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka populations from the Kvichak River, Alaska, we assessed the relative roles of geography (discrete boundaries or continuous distance and ecology (spawning habitat and timing driving genetic divergence in this species at varying spatial scales within the drainage. We also evaluated two outlier detection methods to characterize candidate SNPs responding to environmental selection, emphasizing which mechanism(s may maintain the genetic variation of outlier loci. Results For the entire drainage, Mantel tests suggested a greater role of geographic distance on population divergence than differences in spawn timing when each variable was correlated with pairwise genetic distances. Clustering and hierarchical analyses of molecular variance indicated that the largest genetic differentiation occurred between populations from distinct lakes or subdrainages. Within one population-rich lake, however, Mantel tests suggested a greater role of spawn timing than geographic distance on population divergence when each variable was correlated with pairwise genetic distances. Variable spawn timing among populations was linked to specific spawning habitats as revealed by principal coordinate analyses. We additionally identified two outlier SNPs located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC class II that appeared robust to violations of demographic assumptions from an initial pool of eight candidates for selection. Conclusions First, our results suggest that geography and ecology have influenced genetic divergence between Alaskan sockeye salmon populations in a hierarchical manner depending on the spatial scale. Second

  12. Implications of climate change on flow regime affecting Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The UKCIP02 climate change scenarios (2070–2100 suggest that the UK climate will become warmer (an overall increase of 2.5–3°C, with temperature increases being greater in the summer and autumn than in the spring and winter seasons. In terms of precipitation, winters are expected to become wetter and summers drier throughout the UK. The effect of changes in the future climate on flow regimes are investigated for the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in a case study in an upland UK river. Using a hydraulic modelling approach, flows simulated across the catchment are assessed in terms of hydraulic characteristics (discharge per metre width, flow depths, flow velocities and Froude number. These, compared with suitable characteristics published in the literature for various life stages of Atlantic salmon, enable assessment of habitat suitability. Climate change factors have been applied to meteorological observations in the Eden catchment (north-west England and effects on the flow regime have been investigated using the SHETRAN hydrological modelling system. High flows are predicted to increase by up to 1.5%; yet, a greater impact is predicted from decreasing low flows (e.g. a Q95 at the outlet of the study catchment may decrease to a Q85 flow. Reliability, Resilience and Vulnerability (RRV analysis provides a statistical indication of the extent and effect of such changes on flows. Results show that future climate will decrease the percentage time the ideal minimum physical habitat requirements will be met. In the case of suitable flow depth for spawning activity at the outlet of the catchment, the percentage time may decrease from 100% under current conditions to 94% in the future. Such changes will have implications for the species under the Habitats Directive and for catchment ecological flow management strategies.

  13. Differences in Reproductive Behavior between Spawning and Non-Spawning Zebrafish Pairs and the Effects of 17α-Ethinylestradiol (EE2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per G. Henriksen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive success manifested by spawning and fertilization, in most fish, depends partly on an appropriate courtship behavior by both sexes. The zebrafish reproductive behavior can be resolved in some of its constituent elements by a computerized vision system and described in unbiased quantitative terms. Pairs of adult male and female zebrafish were monitored with automatic video tracking at 16 Hz for 45 min in a tank with a spawning area in one corner. Subsequently, spawning, if any, was registered and the swimming behavior and mutual interactions of the two fish were quantified. Further, temporal and frequency distributions of average velocity and turning rate were produced. It is demonstrated that the courtship behavior in spawning pairs differs markedly from non-spawning pairs with differences in both male and female behavior. EE2 (17α-ethinylestradiol, a contraceptive hormone found in aquatic environments, has only a slight effect on these behavior differences between spawning and non-spawning pairs.

  14. Increased susceptibility to infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) in Lepeophtheirus salmonis – infected Atlantic salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The salmon louse and infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAv) are the two most significant pathogens of concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture industry. However, the interactions between sea lice and ISAv, as well as the impact of a prior sea lice infection on the susceptibility of th...

  15. Microphytoplankton variations during coral spawning at Los Roques, Southern Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Cavada-Blanco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton drives primary productivity in marine pelagic systems. This is also true for the oligotrophic waters in coral reefs, where natural and anthropogenic sources of nutrients can alter pelagic trophic webs. In this study, microphytoplankton assemblages were characterized for the first time in relation to expected coral spawning dates in the Caribbean. A hierarchical experimental design was used to examine these assemblages in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela, at various temporal and spatial scales for spawning events in both 2007 and 2008. At four reefs, superficial water samples were taken daily for 9 days after the full moon of August, including days before, during and after the expected days of coral spawning. Microphytoplankton assemblages comprised 100 microalgae taxa at up to 50 cells per mL (mean ± 8 SD and showed temporal and spatial variations related to the coral spawning only in 2007. However, chlorophyll a concentrations increased during and after the spawning events in both years, and this was better matched with analyses of higher taxonomical groups (diatoms, cyanophytes and dinoflagellates, that also varied in relation to spawning times in 2007 and 2008, but asynchronously among reefs. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic dinoflagellates increased in abundance, correlating with a decrease of the diatom Cerataulina pelagica and an increase of the diatom Rhizosolenia imbricata. These variations occurred during and after the coral spawning event for some reefs in 2007. For the first time, a fresh-water cyanobacteria species of Anabaena was ephemerally found (only 3 days in the archipelago, at reefs closest to human settlements. Variability among reefs in relation to spawning times indicated that reef-specific processes such as water residence time, re-mineralization rates, and benthic-pelagic coupling can be relevant to the observed patterns. These results suggest an important role of microheterotrophic grazers in re

  16. Analysis of the association between spawning time QTL markers and the biannual spawning behavior in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Colihueque

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow trout is a salmonid fish that occasionally exhibits broodstocks with biannual spawning behavior, a phenomenon known as a double annual reproductive cycle (DARC. Spawning time quantitative trait loci (SPT-QTLs affect the time of the year that female rainbow trout spawn and may influence expression of the DARC trait. In this study, microsatellite markers linked and unlinked to SPT-QTLs were genotyped to investigate the underlying genetics of this trait. SPT-QTLs influenced the DARC trait since in two case-control comparisons three linked markers (OmyFGT12TUF, One3ASC and One19ASC had significant levels of allelic frequency differentiation and marker-character association. Furthermore, alleles of One3ASC and One19ASC had significantly higher frequencies in populations that carried the DARC trait.

  17. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 1995-2002 Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy; Carmichael, Richard; Noll, William

    2003-12-01

    The Grande Ronde Basin once supported large runs of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and estimated peak escapements in excess of 10,000 occurred as recently as the late 1950's (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 1975). Natural escapement declines in the Grande Ronde Basin have been severe and parallel those of other Snake River populations. Reduced productivity has primarily been attributed to increased mortality associated with downstream and upstream migration past eight dams and reservoirs in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Reduced spawner numbers, combined with human manipulation of previously important spawning and rearing habitat in the Grande Ronde Basin, have resulted in decreased spawning distribution and population fragmentation of chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde Basin (Figure 1; Table 1). Escapement of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Snake River basin included 1,799 adults in 1995, less than half of the previous record low of 3,913 adults in 1994. Catherine Creek, Grande Ronde River and Lostine River were historically three of the most productive populations in the Grande Ronde Basin (Carmichael and Boyce 1986). However, productivity of these populations has been poor for recent brood years. Escapement (based on total redd counts) in Catherine Creek and Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers dropped to alarmingly low levels in 1994 and 1995. A total of 11, 3 and 16 redds were observed in 1994 in Catherine Creek, upper Grande Ronde River and Lostine River, respectively, and 14, 6 and 11 redds were observed in those same streams in 1995. In contrast, the maximum number of redds observed in the past was 505 in Catherine Creek (1971), 304 in the Grande Ronde River (1968) and 261 in 1956 in the Lostine River (Tranquilli et al 2003). Redd counts for index count areas (a standardized portion of the total stream) have also decreased dramatically for most Grande Ronde Basin streams from 1964-2002, dropping to as low as 37 redds in the 119.5 km in the index

  18. AFSC/ABL: Intra-annual growth in body weight of chum salmon captured incidentally in the Bering Sea commercial fishery for walleye pollock

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ecosystem-based fisheries management requires the development of physical and biological time series that index ocean productivity for stock assessment and...

  19. A chronic oral toxicity study of marine collagen peptides preparation from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) skin using Sprague-Dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiang; Pei, Xin-Rong; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Wang, Nan; Wang, Jun-Bo; Li, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increased consumption of marine collagen peptides preparation (MCP) as ingredients in functional foods and pharmaceuticals, it was necessary to carry out safety requirements in the form of an oral chronic toxicity assessment. In order to define the oral chronic toxicity of MCP, a 24-month feeding study of MCP was carried out. Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats at the age of four-week of both sexes were treated with MCP at the diet concentrations of 0%, 2.25%, 4.5%, 9% and 18% (wt/wt). The actual food intake and bodyweight of the individual animals were recorded periodically until sacrifice. Blood and urine samples were collected for serum chemistry evaluations and urinalysis. Throughout the experimental period, there was no toxicologically significant difference between the vehicle and MCP-treated animals with respect to the survival rate, body weight, food consumption, urinalysis, clinical biochemistry parameter and relative organ weight in either sex. Moreover, incidences of non-neoplastic lesions in MCP-treated groups did not significantly increase compared with the control group. Under the present experimental conditions, no higher risk of chronic toxic effects was observed in MCP-treated rats at the diet concentrations of 2.25%, 4.5%, 9% and 18% (wt/wt) than in the rats fed with basal rodent diet.

  20. Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol.

  1. Crims Island-Restoration and monitoring of juvenile salmon rearing habitat in the Columbia River Estuary, Oregon, 2004-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    -channel' was extended westward and connected to Bradbury Slough to create a second outlet to the main river. New intertidal channels were constructed from the existing 'T-channel' and tidal mudflats became inundated at high tide to increase rearing habitat for juvenile salmonids. The restoration action resulted in a 95-percent increase in available juvenile salmon rearing habitat. We collected juvenile salmon and other fishes at Crims Island and a nearby reference site using beach seines and fyke nets annually from March through August during all years. Benthic invertebrates were collected with sediment corers and drift invertebrates were collected with neuston nets. Juvenile salmon stomach contents were sampled using lavage. Vegetation and sediments characteristics were surveyed and we conducted a topographic/bathymetric survey using a RTK (real time kinematic) GPS (global positioning system). The fish assemblage at Crims Island, composed primarily of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), non-native banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), peamouth chub (Mylocheilus caurinus), subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (hereinafter referred to as subyearlings), and small numbers of juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), did not differ appreciably pre- and post-restoration. Subyearlings were the primary salmonid collected and were seasonally abundant from April through May during all years. The abundance of juvenile salmon declined seasonally as water temperature exceeded 20 degrees C in the Reference site by mid-June; however, subyearlings persisted at the Mainstem site and in subtidal channels of the Restoration site through the summer in water temperatures exceeding 22 degrees C. Residence times of subyearlings in Crims Island backwaters generally were short consisting of one or two tidal cycles. Median residence time was longer in the Restoration site than in the Reference site pre- and post-restoration. Small (mean = 55.7 millimeters) subyea

  2. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2006 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the tenth season (1997-2006) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the eighth season (1999-2006) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2006

  3. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2004 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eighth season (1997-2004) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the sixth season (1999-2004) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progency for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies. In 2004

  4. Do Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarkii) die from spawning stress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Lambert, G.; Bastardie, Francois

    2012-01-01

    The mortality patterns of Norway pout (NP) are not well understood. It has been suggested that NP undergo heavy spawning mortality, and this paper summarizes and provides new evidence in support of this hypothesis. The very low–absent fishing activity in recent years provides a unique opportunity...

  5. Coral mass spawning predicted by rapid seasonal rise in ocean temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Keith, Sally A.

    2016-05-11

    Coral spawning times have been linked to multiple environmental factors; however, to what extent these factors act as generalized cues across multiple species and large spatial scales is unknown. We used a unique dataset of coral spawning from 34 reefs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to test if month of spawning and peak spawning month in assemblages of Acropora spp. can be predicted by sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically available radiation, wind speed, current speed, rainfall or sunset time. Contrary to the classic view that high mean SST initiates coral spawning, we found rapid increases in SST to be the best predictor in both cases (month of spawning: R2 = 0.73, peak: R2 = 0.62). Our findings suggest that a rapid increase in SST provides the dominant proximate cue for coral mass spawning over large geographical scales. We hypothesize that coral spawning is ultimately timed to ensure optimal fertilization success.

  6. Coral mass spawning predicted by rapid seasonal rise in ocean temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Sally A; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Edwards, Alasdair J; Guest, James R; Bauman, Andrew G; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Heron, Scott F; Berumen, Michael L; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Piromvaragorn, Srisakul; Rahbek, Carsten; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-05-11

    Coral spawning times have been linked to multiple environmental factors; however, to what extent these factors act as generalized cues across multiple species and large spatial scales is unknown. We used a unique dataset of coral spawning from 34 reefs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to test if month of spawning and peak spawning month in assemblages of Acropora spp. can be predicted by sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically available radiation, wind speed, current speed, rainfall or sunset time. Contrary to the classic view that high mean SST initiates coral spawning, we found rapid increases in SST to be the best predictor in both cases (month of spawning: R(2) = 0.73, peak: R(2) = 0.62). Our findings suggest that a rapid increase in SST provides the dominant proximate cue for coral mass spawning over large geographical scales. We hypothesize that coral spawning is ultimately timed to ensure optimal fertilization success.

  7. Use of Dual Frequency Identification Sonar to Determine Adult Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Escapement in the Secesh River, Idaho ; Annual Report, January 2008 – December 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucera, Paul A. [Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management

    2009-06-26

    Chinook salmon in the Snake River basin were listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1992 (NMFS 1992). The Secesh River represents the only stream in the Snake River basin where natural origin (wild) salmon escapement monitoring occurs at the population level, absent a supplementation program. As such the Secesh River has been identified as a long term salmon escapement and productivity monitoring site by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management. Salmon managers will use this data for effective population management and evaluation of the effect of conservation actions on a natural origin salmon population. The Secesh River also acts as a reference stream for supplementation program comparison. Dual frequency identification sonar (DIDSON) was used to determine adult spring and summer Chinook salmon escapement in the Secesh River in 2008. DIDSON technology was selected because it provided a non-invasive method for escapement monitoring that avoided listed species trapping and handling incidental mortality, and fish impedance related concerns. The DIDSON monitoring site was operated continuously from June 13 to September 14. The first salmon passage was observed on July 3. DIDSON site total estimated salmon escapement, natural and hatchery fish, was 888 fish {+-} 65 fish (95% confidence interval). Coefficient of variation associated with the escapement estimate was 3.7%. The DIDSON unit was operational 98.1% of the salmon migration period. Adult salmon migration timing in the Secesh River occurred over 74 days from July 3 to September 14, with 5,262 total fish passages observed. The spawning migration had 10%, median, and 90% passage dates of July 8, July 16, and August 12, respectively. The maximum number of net upstream migrating salmon was above the DIDSON monitoring site on August 27. Validation monitoring of DIDSON target counts with underwater optical cameras occurred for species identification. A total of 860 optical

  8. Seasonal, diel, and lunar spawning periodicities and associated sound production of white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis)

    OpenAIRE

    Aalbers, Scott A.

    2008-01-01

    Spawning periodicities of white seabass (Atractoscion nobilis) were evaluated by observing spawning behavior, by collecting eggs, and monitoring recognizable sounds produced during the release of gametes. A total of 297 spawning events were documented from 15 male and 47 female white seabass contained within the seminatural confines of a 526-m3 net pen located in Catalina Harbor, Santa Catalina Island, California. Consistent spawning occurred from March through July 2001−03, and peaked ...

  9. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  10. FDA Approved Registration of Erythromycin for Treatment of Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) in Juvenile and Adult Chinook Salmon : Annual Report, Reporting Period March 10, 1989 to March 9, 1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffitt, Christine A.

    1991-04-01

    Erythromycin is a therapeutic substance useful against bacterial kidney disease in salmon. In 1989 we began a multi year project to learn more about erythromycin applied to juvenile and adult salmon, with the goal of achieving registration of erythromycin with the US Food and Drug Administration. To begin the study, we studied the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin administered to both adult and juvenile chinook salmon. We monitored blood plasmas time curves from individual adult fish injected with two forms of injectable erythromycin using one of three routes of administration. In addition, we began experiments to evaluate hatchery applications of erythromycin to individually marked adult salmon, and we recovered blood tissues from these fish at the time of spawning. To determine how to use erythromycin in juvenile salmon, we evaluated the adsorption and elimination of erythromycin applied arterially and orally to individual juvenile fish. In feeding trials we determined the palatability to juvenile chinook salmon of feed made with one of two different carriers for erythromycin thiocyanate. 35 refs., 4 figs. , 3 tabs.

  11. Shifts in the timing of spawning in sole linked to warming sea temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fincham, J.I.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Engelhard, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic traits such as peak spawning time may vary within and differ between populations in relation to environmental factors, such as temperature. Sole (Solea solea) is a valuable, commercially exploited species that spawns in late winter or spring. The date of peak spawning was estimated for ea

  12. Ecological effects of re-introduction of salmonid spawning gravel in lowland Danish streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Kristensen, Esben; Kronvang, Brian;

    2009-01-01

    is still functional. The intensive study of three streams showed that spawning was enhanced by the introduction of spawning gravel at the restored sites compared to control sites and that habitat quality generally were improved. Our results also suggest complex interactions exist between spawning activity...

  13. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  14. Spawning site selection and contingent behavior in Common Snook, Centropomus undecimalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lowerre-Barbieri

    Full Text Available Reproductive behavior affects spatial population structure and our ability to manage for sustainability in marine and diadromous fishes. In this study, we used fishery independent capture-based sampling to evaluate where Common Snook occurred in Tampa Bay and if it changed with spawning season, and passive acoustic telemetry to assess fine scale behavior at an inlet spawning site (2007-2009. Snook concentrated in three areas during the spawning season only one of which fell within the expected spawning habitat. Although in lower numbers, they remained in these areas throughout the winter months. Acoustically-tagged snook (n = 31 showed two seasonal patterns at the spawning site: Most fish occurred during the spawning season but several fish displayed more extended residency, supporting the capture-based findings that Common Snook exhibit facultative catadromy. Spawning site selection for iteroparous, multiple-batch spawning fishes occurs at the lifetime, annual, or intra-annual temporal scales. In this study we show colonization of a new spawning site, indicating that lifetime spawning site fidelity of Common Snook is not fixed at this fine spatial scale. However, individuals did exhibit annual and intra-seasonal spawning site fidelity to this new site over the three years studied. The number of fish at the spawning site increased in June and July (peak spawning months and on new and full lunar phases indicating within population variability in spawning and movement patterns. Intra-seasonal patterns of detection also differed significantly with sex. Common Snook exhibited divergent migration tactics and habitat use at the annual and estuarine scales, with contingents using different overwintering habitat. Migration tactics also varied at the spawning site at the intra-seasonal scale and with sex. These results have important implications for understanding how reproductive behavior affects spatio-temporal patterns of fish abundance and their

  15. Adaptive significance of the formation of multi-species fish spawning aggregations near submerged capes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Karnauskas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many fishes are known to spawn at distinct geomorphological features such as submerged capes or "promontories," and the widespread use of these sites for spawning must imply some evolutionary advantage. Spawning at these capes is thought to result in rapid offshore transport of eggs, thereby reducing predation levels and facilitating dispersal to areas of suitable habitat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this "off-reef transport" hypothesis, we use a hydrodynamic model and explore the effects of topography on currents at submerged capes where spawning occurs and at similar capes where spawning does not occur, along the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef. All capes modeled in this study produced eddy-shedding regimes, but specific eddy attributes differed between spawning and non-spawning sites. Eddies at spawning sites were significantly stronger than those at non-spawning sites, and upwelling and fronts were the products of the eddy formation process. Frontal zones, present particularly at the edges of eddies near the shelf, may serve to retain larvae and nutrients. Spawning site eddies were also more predictable in terms of diameter and longevity. Passive particles released at spawning and control sites were dispersed from the release site at similar rates, but particles from spawning sites were more highly aggregated in their distributions than those from control sites, and remained closer to shore at all times. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings contradict previous hypotheses that cape spawning leads to high egg dispersion due to offshore transport, and that they are attractive for spawning due to high, variable currents. Rather, we show that current regimes at spawning sites are more predictable, concentrate the eggs, and keep larvae closer to shore. These attributes would confer evolutionary advantages by maintaining relatively similar recruitment patterns year after year.

  16. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  17. Spawning aggregation of white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus: spatial distribution and annual variation in the fish density within a spawning ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taku; Kawabata, Yuuki; Okuyama, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    White-streaked grouper (Epinephelus ongus) is an important fisheries target and forms spawning aggregations at particular spawning grounds. The aims of the present study were to investigate the ecological characteristics of annual spawning aggregations such as (1) spatial variations in the density of E. ongus at the spawning ground, (2) the relationship between fish density and environmental variables, (3) inter-annual variations in the spawning aggregation, (4) the proportion of males to females at the spawning ground for several days pre—and post-spawning and (5) the relationship between male density and female density at the protected spawning ground, based on observations over five years at an Okinawan coral reef. Although the protected spawning ground area was large (ca. 2,500 m × 700 m), high density of E. ongus (over 25 individuals per 100 m2) was found in a limited area (within c.a. 750 m × 50 m). Current velocity and coverage of rocks had significant positive effects on the spatial distribution of E. ongus at the spawning ground. Inter-annual variation in the degree of aggregation was found and this variation was explained by the annual variation of mean seawater temperature during 40 days before the spawning day. The male–female ratio (male:female) at the spawning ground was ca. 3:1 for three years (May 2012, May 2014 and May 2015) whereas >13:1 for one year (May 2013). Significant positive relationships between male density and female density were found at the aggregation sites. It is suggested that E. ongus use aggregation sites with greater current velocity to reduce the risk of egg predation and seawater temperature is one of the main factors that is responsible for determining the degree of aggregation. It is also suggested that females possibly select sites with a greater density of males and this selection behavior might be the reason why females arrived at the spawning ground after the arrival of the males. For effective management of

  18. Research and Recovery of Snake River Sockeye Salmon, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pravecek, Jay J.

    1997-07-01

    In 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Initial steps to recover the species include the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s Eagle Fish Hatchery in Eagle, Idaho. Research and recovery activities for sockeye conducted by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game at the Eagle Fish Hatchery during the period April 1, 1995 to April 1, 1996 are covered by this report. The performance of all captive broodstock groups held at Eagle Fish Hatchery is included in this report. No anadromous adults returned to Redfish Lake in 1995. Three adult residual males were captured in a merwin trap and used in the spawning of captive residual females held at Eagle Fish Hatchery.

  19. Valuing the salmon resource: Columbia River stocks under climate change and fishery enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.M.; Scott, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    This paper represents an update to ongoing multidisciplinary research in the area of climate change and associated regional impacts to fisheries and economies. This work particularly deals with the total value of Columbia River salmon and the idea that fish have capital value, articulated here as spawning value. Earlier work dealt solely with the Yakima River spring chinook fishery`s response to climate change and fishery enhancement programs and the associated direct economic effects (Anderson et al. 1992). We have expanded our modeling attempts to examine similar impacts in the Grande Ronde River subbasin of the Columbia River basin, and added the summer steelhead stock to the analysis. Relatively recent developments and improvements in climate change modeling and fishery modeling enabled us to attempt such an endeavor.

  20. Spatiotemporal patterns and habitat associations of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) invading salmon-rearing habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David J.; Olden, Julian D.; Torgersen, Christian E.

    2012-01-01

    and 2010, respectively) as stream temperatures seasonally warmed, but subyearling Chinook salmon were also found farther upstream during this time. 4. Our multiscale analysis suggests that bass were selecting habitat based on antecedent thermal history at a broad scale, and if satisfactory temperature conditions were met, mesoscale habitat features (i.e. channel-unit type and depth) played an additional role in determining bass abundance. The upstream extent of bass in the late summer corresponded to a high-gradient geomorphic discontinuity in the NFJDR, which probably hindered further upstream movements of bass. The habitat determinants and upstream extent of bass were largely consistent across years, despite marked differences in the magnitude and timing of spring peak flows prior to bass spawning.5. The overriding influence of water temperature on smallmouth bass distribution suggests that managers may be able limit future upstream range expansions of bass into salmon-rearing habitat by concentrating on restoration activities that mitigate climate- or land-use-related stream warming. These management activities could be prioritised to capitalise on survival bottlenecks in the life history of bass and spatially focused on landscape knick points such as high-gradient discontinuities to discourage further upstream movements of bass.

  1. Male reproductive competition in spawning aggregations of cod ( Gadus morhua , L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive competition may lead to a large skew in reproductive success among individuals. Very few studies have analysed the paternity contribution of individual males in spawning aggregations of fish species with huge census population sizes. We quantified the variance in male reproductive...... success in spawning aggregations of cod under experimental conditions over an entire spawning season. Male reproductive success was estimated by microsatellite-based parentage analysis of offspring produced in six separate groups of spawning cod. In total, 1340 offspring and 102 spawnings distributed...... across a spawning season were analysed. Our results show that multiple males contributed sperm to most spawnings but that paternity frequencies were highly skewed among males, with larger males on average siring higher proportions of offspring. It was further indicated that male reproductive success...

  2. Development of an Implantable Fish Spawning Sensor Tag

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    microcontroller system (Arduino) for rapid prototype development. A functional prototype was built with a recording accelerometer, magnetometer, and...remains mostly in sleep mode and depth data are temporarily stored to memory onboard the microcontroller . For example, the tag will make a measurement...flow of spawned red drum eggs. This would allow us to determine whether the sensor calibration is different between eggs and water. Phase I was

  3. Effects of a Novel Fish Transport System on the Health of Adult Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.; Colotelo, Alison H.; Linley, Timothy J.; Wagner, Katie A.; Miracle, Ann L.

    2016-12-01

    Movement past hydroelectric dams and related in-river structures has important implications for habitat connectivity and population persistence in migratory fish. A major problem is that many of these structures lack effective fish passage facilities, which can fragment spawning and rearing areas and negatively impact recruitment. While traditional fish passage facilities (e.g., ladders, trap and haul) can effectively enable fish to pass over barriers, their capital or operational costs can be significant. We evaluated the utility of a novel transport device that utilizes a flexible tube with differential internal air pressure to pass fish around in-river barriers. Three treatments and a control group were tested. In two of the treatments, adult fall Chinook Salmon nearing maturation were transported through the device via two lengths of tube (12 or 77 m) and their injury, stress, and immune system responses and reproductive function were compared to a third treatment where fish were moved by a standard trap and haul method and also to a control group. We observed no significant differences among the treatment or control groups in post-treatment adult survival, injury or stress. Indicators of immune system response and reproductive readiness were also not significantly different among the four groups. Egg survival was significantly different among the groups, but the differences were highly variable within groups and not consistent with the duration of treatment or degree of handling. Taken together, the results suggest the device did not injure or alter normal physiological functioning of adult fall Chinook Salmon nearing maturation and may provide an effective method for transporting such fish around in-river barriers during their spawning migration. Keywords: Whooshh, transport, in-stream barriers, hydropower

  4. Effect of exposure on salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patursson, Esbern J.; Simonsen, Knud; Visser, Andre

    2017-01-01

    We assessed variations in salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis population dynamics in Faroese salmon farms in relationship to their physical exposure to local circulation patterns and flushing with adjacent waters. Factors used in this study to quantify physical exposure are estimates...... of the freshwater exchange rate, the tidal exchange rate and dispersion by tidal currents. Salmon farms were ranked according to the rate of increase in the average numbers of salmon lice per fish. In a multiple linear regression, physical exposure together with temperature were shown to have a significant effect...... threshold of salmon stocking numbers for outbreaks of infection. The study presents a simple method of characterizing salmon farming fjords in terms of their different exposure levels and how they relate to potential self-infection at these sites...

  5. Twilight spectral dynamics and the coral reef invertebrate spawning response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Alison M; Boch, Charles A; Johnsen, Sonke; Morse, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    There are dramatic and physiologically relevant changes in both skylight color and intensity during evening twilight as the pathlength of direct sunlight through the atmosphere increases, ozone increasingly absorbs long wavelengths and skylight becomes increasingly blue shifted. The moon is above the horizon at sunset during the waxing phase of the lunar cycle, on the horizon at sunset on the night of the full moon and below the horizon during the waning phase. Moonlight is red shifted compared with daylight, so the presence, phase and position of the moon in the sky could modulate the blue shifts during twilight. Therefore, the influence of the moon on twilight color is likely to differ somewhat each night of the lunar cycle, and to vary especially rapidly around the full moon, as the moon transitions from above to below the horizon during twilight. Many important light-mediated biological processes occur during twilight, and this lunar effect may play a role. One particularly intriguing biological event tightly correlated with these twilight processes is the occurrence of mass spawning events on coral reefs. Therefore, we measured downwelling underwater hyperspectral irradiance on a coral reef during twilight for several nights before and after the full moon. We demonstrate that shifts in twilight color and intensity on nights both within and between evenings, immediately before and after the full moon, are correlated with the observed times of synchronized mass spawning, and that these optical phenomena are a biologically plausible cue for the synchronization of these mass spawning events.

  6. Discovery of a spawning ground reveals diverse migration strategies in Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E; Marancik, Katrin E; Guyon, Jeffrey R; Lutcavage, Molly E; Galuardi, Benjamin; Lam, Chi Hin; Walsh, Harvey J; Wildes, Sharon; Yates, Douglas A; Hare, Jonathan A

    2016-03-22

    Atlantic bluefin tuna are a symbol of both the conflict between preservationist and utilitarian views of top ocean predators, and the struggle to reach international consensus on the management of migratory species. Currently, Atlantic bluefin tuna are managed as an early-maturing eastern stock, which spawns in the Mediterranean Sea, and a late-maturing western stock, which spawns in the Gulf of Mexico. However, electronic tagging studies show that many bluefin tuna, assumed to be of a mature size, do not visit either spawning ground during the spawning season. Whether these fish are spawning in an alternate location, skip-spawning, or not spawning until an older age affects how vulnerable this species is to anthropogenic stressors including exploitation. We use larval collections to demonstrate a bluefin tuna spawning ground in the Slope Sea, between the Gulf Stream and northeast United States continental shelf. We contend that western Atlantic bluefin tuna have a differential spawning migration, with larger individuals spawning in the Gulf of Mexico, and smaller individuals spawning in the Slope Sea. The current life history model, which assumes only Gulf of Mexico spawning, overestimates age at maturity for the western stock. Furthermore, individual tuna occupy both the Slope Sea and Mediterranean Sea in separate years, contrary to the prevailing view that individuals exhibit complete spawning-site fidelity. Overall, this complexity of spawning migrations questions whether there is complete independence in the dynamics of eastern and western Atlantic bluefin tuna and leads to lower estimates of the vulnerability of this species to exploitation and other anthropogenic stressors.

  7. Spawning sites of the Japanese eel in relation to oceanographic structure and the West Mariana Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Jun; Watanabe, Shun; Miller, Michael J; Mochioka, Noritaka; Otake, Tsuguo; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150-180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front), longitude (seamount ridge), and depth (top of the thermocline) to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning.

  8. Spawning Sites of the Japanese Eel in Relation to Oceanographic Structure and the West Mariana Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Jun; Watanabe, Shun; Miller, Michael J.; Mochioka, Noritaka; Otake, Tsuguo; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150–180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front), longitude (seamount ridge), and depth (top of the thermocline) to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning. PMID:24551155

  9. Spawning sites of the Japanese eel in relation to oceanographic structure and the West Mariana Ridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Aoyama

    Full Text Available The Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, spawns within the North Equatorial Current that bifurcates into both northward and southward flows in its westward region, so its spawning location and larval transport dynamics seem important for understanding fluctuations in its recruitment to East Asia. Intensive research efforts determined that Japanese eels spawn along the western side of the West Mariana Ridge during new moon periods, where all oceanic life history stages have been collected, including eggs and spawning adults. However, how the eels decide where to form spawning aggregations is unknown because spawning appears to have occurred at various latitudes. A salinity front formed from tropical rainfall was hypothesized to determine the latitude of its spawning locations, but an exact spawning site was only found once by collecting eggs in May 2009. This study reports on the collections of Japanese eel eggs and preleptocephali during three new moon periods in June 2011 and May and June 2012 at locations indicating that the distribution of lower salinity surface water or salinity fronts influence the latitude of spawning sites along the ridge. A distinct salinity front may concentrate spawning south of the front on the western side of the seamount ridge. It was also suggested that eels may spawn at various latitudes within low-salinity water when the salinity fronts appeared unclear. Eel eggs were distributed within the 150-180 m layer near the top of the thermocline, indicating shallow spawning depths. Using these landmarks for latitude (salinity front, longitude (seamount ridge, and depth (top of the thermocline to guide the formation of spawning aggregations could facilitate finding mates and help synchronize their spawning.

  10. Empirical observations of the spawning migration of European eels: The long and dangerous road to the Sargasso Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Righton, David; Westerberg, H.; Feunteun, E.;

    2016-01-01

    Fresh data on the timing and speed of the oceanic spawning migration of European eels suggest a new paradigm for spawning ecology.......Fresh data on the timing and speed of the oceanic spawning migration of European eels suggest a new paradigm for spawning ecology....

  11. Hydrologic Alterations from Climate Change Inform Assessment of Ecological Risk to Pacific Salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Wobus

    Full Text Available We developed an integrated hydrologic model of the upper Nushagak and Kvichak watersheds in the Bristol Bay region of southwestern Alaska, a region under substantial development pressure from large-scale copper mining. We incorporated climate change scenarios into this model to evaluate how hydrologic regimes and stream temperatures might change in a future climate, and to summarize indicators of hydrologic alteration that are relevant to salmon habitat ecology and life history. Model simulations project substantial changes in mean winter flow, peak flow dates, and water temperature by 2100. In particular, we find that annual hydrographs will no longer be dominated by a single spring thaw event, but will instead be characterized by numerous high flow events throughout the winter. Stream temperatures increase in all future scenarios, although these temperature increases are moderated relative to air temperatures by cool baseflow inputs during the summer months. Projected changes to flow and stream temperature could influence salmon through alterations in the suitability of spawning gravels, changes in the duration of incubation, increased growth during juvenile stages, and increased exposure to chronic and acute temperature stress. These climate-modulated changes represent a shifting baseline in salmon habitat quality and quantity in the future, and an important consideration to adequately assess the types and magnitude of risks associated with proposed large-scale mining in the region.

  12. Repeat surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in western Lake Superior: timing, distribution and composition of spawning stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Addison, Peter A.; Seider, Michael J.; Evrard, Lori M.; Geving, Steven A.; Quinlan, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic (AC) and midwater trawl (MT) surveys of spawning cisco (Coregonus artedi) in Lake Superior have been combined with commercial yield to estimate exploitation. To time surveys properly, it is important to understand when adults typically arrive at spawning grounds and how numbers change as the spawning season progresses. We conducted repeat autumn surveys during nighttime hours at coastal sites where commercial roe fisheries occur. Spawner densities increased significantly from October to mid-November, but differences measured at sites sampled from mid- to late-November were comparatively small. Spawners occupied the upper 20–30 m of the water column during mid-November before utilizing a wider range of depths by late-November. We compared repeat AC densities to temporal trends of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) in suspended commercial gillnets and found good agreement within sites. Because different gillnet mesh sizes were used in each roe fishery. CPUE and AC density were poorly correlated among sites. We recommend that future surveys be conducted between mid- and late-November, and that MT gear be used to measure cisco densities in the uppermost 10 m of the water column where AC estimates may be conservative. Given the short temporal window for assessing spawner density, we believe both AC-MT and gillnet surveys will be needed to ensure that harvest of different stocks is kept at a sustainable level.

  13. Monitoring and Evaluation of Supplemented Spring Chinook Salmon and Life Histories of Wild Summer Steelhead in the Grande Ronde Basin, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, Stephen J.; Crump, Carrie A.; Weldert, Rey L. [Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation

    2009-04-10

    This is the ninth annual report for a multi-year project designed to monitor and evaluate supplementation of endemic spring Chinook salmon in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River. These two streams historically supported anadromous fish populations that provided significant tribal and non-tribal fisheries, but in recent years, have experienced severe declines in abundance. Conventional and captive broodstock supplementation methods are being used to restore these spring Chinook salmon populations. Spring Chinook salmon populations in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, and other streams in the Snake River Basin have experienced severe declines in abundance over the past two decades (Nehlsen et al. 1991). A supplementation program was initiated in Catherine Creek and the upper Grande Ronde River, incorporating the use of both captive and conventional broodstock methods, in order to prevent extinction in the short term and eventually rebuild populations. The captive broodstock component of the program (BPA Project 199801001) uses natural-origin parr collected by seining and reared to maturity at facilities near Seattle, Washington (Manchester Marine Laboratory) and Hood River, Oregon (Bonneville Hatchery). Spawning occurs at Bonneville Hatchery, and resulting progeny are reared in hatcheries. Shortly before outmigration in the spring, juveniles are transferred to acclimation facilities. After an acclimation period of about 2-4 weeks, volitional release begins. Any juveniles remaining after the volitional release period are forced out. The conventional broodstock component uses returning adults collected at traps near the spawning areas, transported to Lookingglass Hatchery near Elgin, Oregon, held, and later spawned. The resulting progeny are reared, acclimated, and released similar to the captive broodstock component. All progeny released receive one or more marks including a fin (adipose) clip, codedwire tag, PIT tag, or visual implant

  14. Consistent boldness behaviour in early emerging fry of domesticated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Decoupling of behavioural and physiological traits of the proactive stress coping style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz-Serrano, J.; Ruiz-Gomez, M. L.; Gjøen, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    style seem to be coupled to the time to emerge of fry from spawning redds in natural populations of salmonid fishes. In the present study, behavioural and physiological traits of stress coping styles were compared two and five months after emergence in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), using......, early and late emerging individuals did not differ. Therefore, this study demonstrates that boldness in a novel environment is uncoupled from other traits of the proactive and reactive stress coping styles in farmed salmonids. It is possible that this decoupling is caused by the low competitive...

  15. Sockeye salmon repatriation leads to population re-establishment and rapid introgression with native kokanee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Andrew J; Russello, Michael A

    2016-12-01

    Re-establishing salmonid populations to areas historically occupied has the substantial potential for conservation gains; however, such interventions also risk negatively impacting native resident stocks. Here, we assessed the success of the hatchery-assisted reintroduction of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) into Skaha Lake, British Columbia, Canada, and evaluated the genetic consequences for native kokanee, a freshwater-obligate ecotype, using single nucleotide polymorphism genotypic data collected from the reference samples of spawning Okanagan River sockeye and Skaha Lake kokanee presockeye reintroduction, along with annual trawl survey and angler-caught samples obtained over an eight-year period. Significant differentiation was detected between sockeye and kokanee reference samples, with >99% stock assignment. Low proportions of sockeye and hybrids were detected within 2008 and 2010 age-0 trawl samples; however, by 2012, 28% were sockeye, rising to 41% in 2014. The number of hybrids detected rose proportionally with the increase in sockeye and exhibited an intermediate phenotype. Our results indicate that the reintroduction of anadromous sockeye to Skaha Lake is succeeding, with large numbers returning to spawn. However, hybridization with native kokanee is of concern due to the potential for demographic or genetic swamping, with ongoing genetic monitoring necessary to assess the long-term effects of introgression and to support interactive fisheries management.

  16. Thermal regime, predation danger and the early marine exit of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katinic, P J; Patterson, D A; Ydenberg, R C

    2015-01-01

    Marine exit timing of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations on the Haida Gwaii Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, is described, with specific focus on Copper Creek. Marine exit in Copper Creek occurs > 130 days prior to spawning, one of the longest adult freshwater residence periods recorded for any O. nerka population. Copper Creek presents an easy upstream migration, with mild water temperatures (7 to 14°  C), short distance (13·1 km) and low elevation gain (41 m) to the lake where fish hold prior to spawning. An energetic model estimates that Haida Gwaii has ever exceeded the presumed temperature threshold (19° C) for early marine exit. Although it is not impossible that the thermal tolerance of Copper Creek O.nerka is very low, the data presented here appear inconsistent with thermal avoidance as an explanation for the early marine exit timing in Copper Creek and in three other populations on the archipelago with early marine exit.

  17. Toxicity of road deicing salt (NaCl) and copper (Cu) to fertilization and early developmental stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrosh, Urma; Kleiven, Merethe; Meland, Sondre; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian

    2014-09-15

    In many countries, salting of ice or snow covered roads may affect aquatic organisms in the catchment directly or indirectly by mobilization of toxic metals. We studied the toxicity of road deicing salt and copper (Cu) on the vulnerable early life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), from fertilization till hatching. Controlled episodic exposure to road salt (≥ 5,000 mg/L) during fertilization resulted in reduced swelling and less percent egg survival. Exposure to Cu both during and post fertilization caused delayed hatching. Larval deformities were, however found as an additional effect, when eggs were exposed to high salt concentration (≥ 5,000 mg/L) mixed with Cu (10 μg Cu/L) during fertilization. Thus, it appears that the sensitivity of early developmental stages of Atlantic salmon increased when exposed to these stressors, and road salt application during spawning can pose threat to Atlantic salmon in water bodies receiving road runoff. The study gives insight on assessment and management of risks on Atlantic salmon population posed by road related hazardous chemicals.

  18. A Two-Stage Information-Theoretic Approach to Modeling Landscape-Level Attributes and Maximum Recruitment of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    2000-11-01

    Many anadromous salmonid stocks in the Pacific Northwest are at their lowest recorded levels, which has raised questions regarding their long-term persistence under current conditions. There are a number of factors, such as freshwater spawning and rearing habitat, that could potentially influence their numbers. Therefore, we used the latest advances in information-theoretic methods in a two-stage modeling process to investigate relationships between landscape-level habitat attributes and maximum recruitment of 25 index stocks of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin. Our first-stage model selection results indicated that the Ricker-type, stock recruitment model with a constant Ricker a (i.e., recruits-per-spawner at low numbers of fish) across stocks was the only plausible one given these data, which contrasted with previous unpublished findings. Our second-stage results revealed that maximum recruitment of chinook salmon had a strongly negative relationship with percentage of surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and private moderate-high impact managed forest. That is, our model predicted that average maximum recruitment of chinook salmon would decrease by at least 247 fish for every increase of 33% in surrounding subwatersheds categorized as predominantly containing U.S. Forest Service and privately managed forest. Conversely, mean annual air temperature had a positive relationship with salmon maximum recruitment, with an average increase of at least 179 fish for every increase in 2 C mean annual air temperature.

  19. Distinctive metabolite profiles in in-migrating Sockeye salmon suggest sex-linked endocrine perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benskin, Jonathan P; Ikonomou, Michael G; Liu, Jun; Veldhoen, Nik; Dubetz, Cory; Helbing, Caren C; Cosgrove, John R

    2014-10-07

    The health of Skeena River Sockeye salmon (Onchorhychus nerka) has been of increasing concern due to declining stock returns over the past decade. In the present work, in-migrating Sockeye from the 2008 run were evaluated using a mass spectrometry-based, targeted metabolomics platform. Our objectives were to (a) investigate natural changes in a subset of the hepatic metabolome arising from migration-associated changes in osmoregulation, locomotion, and gametogenesis, and (b) compare the resultant profiles with animals displaying altered hepatic vitellogenin A (vtg) expression at the spawning grounds, which was previously hypothesized as a marker of xenobiotic exposure. Of 203 metabolites monitored, 95 were consistently observed in Sockeye salmon livers and over half of these changed significantly during in-migration. Among the most dramatic changes in both sexes were a decrease in concentrations of taurine (a major organic osmolyte), carnitine (involved in fatty acid transport), and two major polyunsaturated fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid). In females, an increase in amino acids was attributed to protein catabolism associated with vitellogenesis. Animals with atypical vtg mRNA expression demonstrated unusual hepatic amino acid, fatty acid, taurine, and carnitine profiles. The cause of these molecular perturbations remains unclear, but may include xenobiotic exposure, natural senescence, and/or interindividual variability. These data provide a benchmark for further investigation into the long-term health of migrating Skeena Sockeye.

  20. Migratory Behavior of Adult Spring Chinook Salmon in the Willamette River and its Tributaries: Completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl B.

    1994-01-01

    Migration patterns of adult spring chinook salmon above Willamette Falls differed depending on when the fish passed the Falls, with considerable among-fish variability. Early-run fish often terminated their migration for extended periods of time, in association with increased flows and decreased temperatures. Mid-run fish tended to migrate steadily upstream at a rate of 30-40 km/day. Late-run fish frequently ceased migrating or fell back downstream after migrating 10-200 km up the Willamette River or its tributaries; this appeared to be associated with warming water during summer and resulted in considerable mortality. Up to 40% of the adult salmon entering the Willamette River System above Willamette Falls (i.e. counted at the ladder) may die before reaching upriver spawning areas. Up to 10% of the fish passing up over Willamette Falls may fall-back below the Falls; some migrate to the Columbia River or lower Willamette River tributaries. If rearing conditions at hatcheries affect timing of adult returns because of different juvenile development rates and improper timing of smolt releases, then differential mortality in the freshwater segment of the adult migrations may confound interpretation of studies evaluating rearing practices.

  1. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Project; Lostine River Operations and Maintenance 2007 Smolt Acclimation and Adult Return Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollman, Richard L.; Eschler, Russell; Sealey, Shawn [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-03-31

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), through funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), has implemented a Chinook salmon supplementation program (250,000 smolts) on the Lostine River, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River of Oregon. The Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation project, which involves supplementation of the Upper Grande Ronde River and Catherine Creek in addition to the Lostine River, was established to prevent extirpation and increase the number of threatened Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to the Grande Ronde River. This report covers the eleventh season (1997-2007) of adult Chinook salmon broodstock collection in the Lostine River and the ninth season (1999-2007) of acclimation of resulting Lostine River progeny. Production of Lostine River spring Chinook salmon smolts currently occurs at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LGH). The Lostine River supplementation program utilizes two strategies to obtain egg source for production of smolts for supplementation: captive broodstock and conventional broodstock. The captive broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural juvenile spring Chinook salmon smolts from the Lostine River, (2) rearing those to adult and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for eventual acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. The conventional broodstock strategy involves (1) capture of natural and hatchery origin adults returning to the Lostine River, (2) holding those adults and spawning them, and (3) rearing the resultant progeny for acclimation and release back into the Lostine River. This report focuses on (1) the trapping and collection of adult spring Chinook salmon that return to the Lostine River, which provides the broodstock source for the conventional strategy and (2) the acclimation and release of juvenile spring Chinook salmon produced from the captive broodstock and conventional broodstock strategies In 2007

  2. Biomass estimates of Pacific herring Clupea harengus pallasi, in California from the 1985-86 spawning-ground surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Spratt, Jerome D.

    1986-01-01

    The 1985-86 spawning biomass estimate of Pacific herring, Clupea harengus pallasi, in San Francisco Bay is 49,000 tons. The relatively small population increases during 1984 and 1985 indicate that the population is rebuilding slowly from the 1983-84 season when only 40,000 tons of herring spawned. Spawning-ground surveys in Tomales Bay were inconclusive. Herring normally spawn in eelgrass, Zostera marina, beds; this season herring spawned unexpectedly in deeper water, disrupting our...

  3. Karluk Lake sockeye salmon studies 1984: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on Karluk Lake sockeye salmon. The objectives of the study were to: collect sediment core samples from Karluk Lake and...

  4. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental data....

  5. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  6. Cloning of somatolactin alpha, beta forms and the somatolactin receptor in Atlantic salmon: Seasonal expression profile in pituitary and ovary of maturing female broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranger Geir

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatolactin (Sl is a fish specific adenohypophyseal peptide hormone related to growth hormone (Gh. Some species, including salmonids, possess two forms: Sl alpha and Sl beta. The somatolactin receptor (slr is closely related to the growth hormone receptor (ghr. Sl has been ascribed many physiological functions, including a role in sexual maturation. In order to clarify the role of Sl in the sexual maturation of female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, the full length cDNAs of slr, Sl alpha and Sl beta were cloned and their expression was studied throughout a seasonal reproductive cycle using real-time quantitative PCR (RTqPCR. Methods Atlantic salmon Sl alpha, Sl beta and slr cDNAs were cloned using a PCR approach. Gene expression of Sl alpha, SL beta and slr was studied using RTqPCR over a 17 month period encompassing pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis, ovulation and post ovulation in salmon females. Histological examination of ovarian samples allowed for the classification according to the degree of follicle maturation into oil drop, primary, secondary or tertiary yolk stage. Results The mature peptide sequences of Sl alpha, Sl beta and slr are highly similar to previously cloned salmonid forms and contained the typical motifs. Phylogenetic analysis of Atlantic salmon Sl alpha and Sl beta shows that these peptides group into the two Sl clades present in some fish species. The Atlantic salmon slr grouped with salmonid slr amongst so-called type I ghr. An increase in pituitary Sl alpha and Sl beta transcripts before and during spawning, with a decrease post-ovulation, and a constant expression level of ovarian slr were observed. There was also a transient increase in Sl alpha and Sl beta in May prior to transfer from seawater to fresh water and ensuing fasting. Conclusion The up-regulation of Sl alpha and Sl beta during vitellogenesis and spawning, with a subsequent decrease post-ovulation, supports a role for Sl during gonadal

  7. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (Council). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2001 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake, fertilization of Pettit and Alturas lakes was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  8. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIOUS SALMON ANEMIA (ISA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Østergaard, Peter

    The first outbreak of ISA on the Faroe Islands was diagnosed in March 2000. Despite intensive surveillance, control and eradication of ISA, the disease has since spread to most of the Faroe Islands affecting about half of the 23 aquaculture farms. Sampling and laboratory diagnosis of ISA is perfo...... characterisation of the virus causing infectious salmon anemia in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L): an orthomyxo-like virus in a teleost....

  9. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  10. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  11. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Brood Program, FY 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.; Gallinat, Michael P.

    2001-06-01

    This report summarizes the objectives, tasks, and accomplishments of the Tucannon River spring chinook captive brood program from program inception (1997) through April 2001. The WDFW initiated a captive broodstock program in 1997. The overall goal of the Tucannon River captive broodstock program is for the short-term, and eventually long-term, rebuilding of the Tucannon River spring chinook salmon run, with the hope that natural production will eventually sustain itself. The project goal is to rear captive salmon to adults, spawn them, rear their progeny, and release approximately 150,000 smolts annually into the Tucannon River between 2003-2007. These smolt releases, in combination with the current hatchery supplementation program (132,000 smolts), and wild production, is expected to produce 600-700 returning adult spring chinook to the Tucannon River each year from 2005-2010. The Master Plan, Environmental Assessment, and most facility modifications at LFH were completed for the Tucannon River spring chinook captive broodstock program during FY2000 and FY2001. DNA samples collected since 1997 have been sent to the WDFW genetics lab in Olympia for baseline DNA analysis. Results from the genetic analysis are not available at this time. The captive broodstock program is planned to collect fish from five (1997-2001) brood years (BY). The captive broodstock program was initiated with 1997 BY juveniles, and the 2000 BY fish have been selected. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 172 BY 1997, 262 BY 1998, 407 BY 1999, and approximately 1,190 BY 2000 fish on hand at LFH. Twelve of 13 mature 97 BY females were spawned in 2000. Total eggtake was 14,813. Mean fecundity was 1,298 eggs/female based on 11 fully spawned females. Egg survival to eye-up was 47.3%. This low survival was expected for three year old captive broodstock females. As of April 30, 2001, WDFW has 4,211 captive broodstock progeny on hand. These fish will be tagged with blank wire tag without fin clips and

  12. Determination of Swimming Speeds and Energetic Demands of Upriver Migrating Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus Tshawytscha) in the Klickitat River, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Geist, David R.; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Washington

    2002-08-30

    This report describes a study conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Bonneville Power Administration's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program during the fall of 2001. The objective was to study the migration and energy use of adult fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) traveling up the Klickitat River to spawn. The salmon were tagged with either surgically implanted electromyogram (EMG) transmitters or gastrically implanted coded transmitters and were monitored with mobile and stationary receivers. Swim speed and aerobic and anaerobic energy use were determined for the fish as they attempted passage of three waterfalls on the lower Klickitat River and as they traversed free-flowing stretches between, below, and above the falls. Of the 35 EMG-tagged fish released near the mouth of the Klickitat River, 40% passed the first falls, 24% passed the second falls, and 20% made it to Lyle Falls. None of the EMG-tagged fish were able to pass Lyle Falls, either over the falls or via a fishway at Lyle Falls. Mean swimming speeds ranged from as low as 52.6 centimeters per second (cm s{sup -1}) between falls to as high as 189 (cm s{sup -1}) at falls passage. Fish swam above critical swimming speeds while passing the falls more often than while swimming between the falls (58.9% versus 1.7% of the transmitter signals). However, fish expended more energy swimming the stretches between the falls than during actual falls passage (100.7 to 128.2 kilocalories [kcals] to traverse areas between or below falls versus 0.3 to 1.0 kcals to pass falls). Relationships between sex, length, and time of day on the success of falls passage were also examined. Average swimming speeds were highest during the day in all areas except at some waterfalls. There was no apparent relationship between either fish condition or length and successful passage of waterfalls in the lower Klickitat River. Female fall chinook salmon, however, had a much lower likelihood of

  13. Infectious salmon anaemia virus infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weli Simon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV, a member of the Orthomyxoviridae family, infects and causes disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.. Previous studies have shown Atlantic salmon endothelial cells to be the primary targets of ISAV infection. However, it is not known if cells other than endothelial cells play a role in ISAV tropism. To further assess cell tropism, we examined ISAV infection of Atlantic salmon gill epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated the susceptibility of epithelial cells to ISAV infection. On comparison of primary gill epithelial cell cultures with ISAV permissive fish cell cultures, we found the virus yield in primary gill epithelial cells to be comparable with that of salmon head kidney (SHK-1 cells, but lower than TO or Atlantic salmon kidney (ASK-II cells. Light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that the primary gill cells possessed characteristics consistent with epithelial cells. Virus histochemistry showed that gill epithelial cells expressed 4-O-acetylated sialic acid which is recognized as the ISAV receptor. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of ISAV infection in Atlantic salmon primary gill epithelial cells. This study thus broadens our understanding of cell tropism and transmission of ISAV in Atlantic salmon.

  14. Coho salmon spawner mortality in western US urban watersheds: bioinfiltration prevents lethal storm water impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spromberg, Julann A; Baldwin, David H; Damm, Steven E; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Huff, Michael; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Davis, Jay W; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2016-04-01

    Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run-off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long-term conservation of threatened wild coho populations, a causal role for toxic run-off in the mortality syndrome has not been demonstrated.We exposed otherwise healthy coho spawners to: (i) artificial storm water containing mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, at or above concentrations previously measured in urban run-off; (ii) undiluted storm water collected from a high traffic volume urban arterial road (i.e. highway run-off); and (iii) highway run-off that was first pre-treated via bioinfiltration through experimental soil columns to remove pollutants.We find that mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons - conventional toxic constituents in urban storm water - are not sufficient to cause the spawner mortality syndrome. By contrast, untreated highway run-off collected during nine distinct storm events was universally lethal to adult coho relative to unexposed controls. Lastly, the mortality syndrome was prevented when highway run-off was pretreated by soil infiltration, a conventional green storm water infrastructure technology.Our results are the first direct evidence that: (i) toxic run-off is killing adult coho in urban watersheds, and (ii) inexpensive mitigation measures can improve water quality and promote salmon survival. Synthesis and applications. Coho salmon, an iconic species with exceptional economic and cultural significance, are an ecological sentinel for the harmful effects of untreated urban run-off. Wild coho populations cannot withstand the high rates of mortality

  15. Characterization of Atlantic Cod Spawning Habitat and Behavior in Icelandic Coastal Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy B Grabowski; Kevin M Boswell; McAdam, Bruce J.; R J David Wells; Guđrún Marteinsdóttir

    2012-01-01

    The physical habitat used during spawning may potentially be an important factor affecting reproductive output of broadcast spawning marine fishes, particularly for species with complex, substrate-oriented mating systems and behaviors, such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We characterized the habitat use and behavior of spawning Atlantic cod at two locations off the coast of southwestern Iceland during a 2-d research cruise (15-16 April 2009). We simultaneously operated two different active hyd...

  16. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  17. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  18. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod ( Gadus morhua ) by direct and indirect means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, C.J.; Taylor, M.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey...... with known spawning locations from the period 1940 to 1970. We were, however, unable to directly detect significant numbers of cod eggs at the historic spawning ground off Flamborough (northeast coast of England). The results demonstrate that most of the major spawning grounds of cod in the North Sea...

  19. Multi-species spawning synchrony within scleractinian coral assemblages in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Bouwmeester, Jessica

    2014-09-21

    Early work on coral reproduction in the far northern Red Sea suggested that the spawning times of ecologically abundant species did not overlap, unlike on the Great Barrier Reef where many species spawn with high synchrony. In contrast, recent work in the northern and central Red Sea indicates a high degree of synchrony in the reproductive condition of Acropora species: over 90 % of species sampled in April/May contain mature gametes. However, it has yet to be determined when most Acropora release their gametes. In addition, there is a lack of data for other ecologically important scleractinian species such as merulinids and poritids. Here, we document the date and time of spawning for 51 species in the central Red Sea over three consecutive years, and the month of spawning for an additional 17 species inferred from the presence of mature gametes. Spawning occurs on nights around the full moon, the spawning season lasts at least 4 months from April until July, and observations are consistent with the few other records from the Red Sea. The number of Acropora species spawning was highest in April with 13 species spawning two nights before the full moon in 2011, 13 species spawning on the night of the full moon in 2012, and eight species spawning four nights after the full moon in 2013. The total number of species spawning was high in April, May, and June and involved 15–19 species per month in 2012. Only four species spawned in July 2012. Few regions worldwide have been similarly sampled and include the Philippines, Okinawa in Japan, and Palau, where spawning patterns are very similar to those in the central Red Sea and where corals spawn on nights around the full moon over a period of 3–4 months. In particular, in all four locations, Acropora are among the first species to spawn. Our results add to a growing body of evidence indicating that multi-species spawning synchrony is a feature of all speciose coral assemblages.

  20. Use of behavioral and physiological indicators to evaluate Scaphirhynchus sturgeon spawning success

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Annis, M.L.; Bryan, J.L.; Griffith, S.A.; Holan, S.H.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thirty gravid, female shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) were captured in the Lower Missouri River in March 2004 to evaluate the effectiveness of physiology, telemetry and remote sensor technology coupled with change point analysis in identifying when and where Scaphirhynchus sturgeon spawn. Captured sturgeons were instrumented with ultrasonic transmitters and with archival data storage tags (DST) that recorded temperature and pressure. Female sturgeon were tracked through the suspected spawning period. Thereafter, attempts were made to recapture fish to evaluate spawning success. At the time of transmitter implantation, blood and an ovarian biopsy were taken. Reproductive hormones and cortisol were measured in blood. Polarization indices and germinal vesicle breakdown were assessed on the biopsied oocytes to determine readiness to spawn. Behavioral data collected using telemetry and DST sensors were used to determine the direction and magnitude of possible spawning-related movements and to identify the timing of potential spawning events. Upon recapture observations of the ovaries and blood chemistry provided measures of spawning success and comparative indicators to explain differences in observed behavior. Behavioral and physiological indicators of spawning interpreted along with environmental measures may assist in the determination of variables that may cue sturgeon reproduction and the conditions under which sturgeon successfully spawn.

  1. Multi-species spawning synchrony within scleractinian coral assemblages in the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, J.; Baird, A. H.; Chen, C. J.; Guest, J. R.; Vicentuan, K. C.; Berumen, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    Early work on coral reproduction in the far northern Red Sea suggested that the spawning times of ecologically abundant species did not overlap, unlike on the Great Barrier Reef where many species spawn with high synchrony. In contrast, recent work in the northern and central Red Sea indicates a high degree of synchrony in the reproductive condition of Acropora species: over 90 % of species sampled in April/May contain mature gametes. However, it has yet to be determined when most Acropora release their gametes. In addition, there is a lack of data for other ecologically important scleractinian species such as merulinids and poritids. Here, we document the date and time of spawning for 51 species in the central Red Sea over three consecutive years, and the month of spawning for an additional 17 species inferred from the presence of mature gametes. Spawning occurs on nights around the full moon, the spawning season lasts at least 4 months from April until July, and observations are consistent with the few other records from the Red Sea. The number of Acropora species spawning was highest in April with 13 species spawning two nights before the full moon in 2011, 13 species spawning on the night of the full moon in 2012, and eight species spawning four nights after the full moon in 2013. The total number of species spawning was high in April, May, and June and involved 15-19 species per month in 2012. Only four species spawned in July 2012. Few regions worldwide have been similarly sampled and include the Philippines, Okinawa in Japan, and Palau, where spawning patterns are very similar to those in the central Red Sea and where corals spawn on nights around the full moon over a period of 3-4 months. In particular, in all four locations, Acropora are among the first species to spawn. Our results add to a growing body of evidence indicating that multi-species spawning synchrony is a feature of all speciose coral assemblages.

  2. Exceptional aerobic scope and cardiovascular performance of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) may underlie resilience in a warming climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Timothy D; Jeffries, Kenneth M; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2011-09-15

    Little is known of the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of climate change on animals, yet it is clear that some species appear more resilient than others. As pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) in British Columbia, Canada, have flourished in the current era of climate warming in contrast to other Pacific salmonids in the same watershed, this study investigated whether the continuing success of pink salmon may be linked with exceptional cardiorespiratory adaptations and thermal tolerance of adult fish during their spawning migration. Sex-specific differences existed in minimum and maximum oxygen consumption rates (M(O2,min) and M(O2,max), respectively) across the temperature range of 8 to 28°C, reflected in a higher aerobic scope (M(O2,max)-M(O2,min)) for males. Nevertheless, the aerobic scope of both sexes was optimal at 21°C (T(opt)) and was elevated across the entire temperature range in comparison with other Pacific salmonids. As T(opt) for aerobic scope of this pink salmon population is higher than in other Pacific salmonids, and historic river temperature data reveal that this population rarely encounters temperatures exceeding T(opt), these findings offer a physiological explanation for the continuing success of this species throughout the current climate-warming period. Despite this, declining cardiac output was evident above 17°C, and maximum attainable swimming speed was impaired above ∼23°C, suggesting negative implications under prolonged thermal exposure. While forecasted summer river temperatures over the next century are likely to negatively impact all Pacific salmonids, we suggest that the cardiorespiratory capacity of pink salmon may confer a selective advantage over other species.

  3. Upstream movements of Atlantic Salmon in the Lower Penobscot River, Maine following two dam removals and fish passage modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, Lisa K.; Maynard, George A.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Penobscot River Restoration Project (PRRP), to be completed in 2016, involved an extensive plan of dam removal, increases in hydroelectric capacity, and fish passage modifications to increase habitat access for diadromous species. As part of the PRRP, Great Works and Veazie dams were removed, making Milford Dam the first impediment to federally endangered Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar. Upstream habitat access for Atlantic Salmon is dependent upon successful and timely passage at Milford Dam because nearly all suitable spawning habitat is located upstream. In 2014 and 2015, a total of 73 adult salmon were radio-tagged to track their upstream movements through the Penobscot River to assess potential delays at (1) the dam remnants, (2) the confluence of the Stillwater Branch and the main stem of the Penobscot River below the impassable Orono Dam, and (3) the Milford Dam fish lift (installed in 2014). Movement rates through the dam remnants and the Stillwater confluence were comparable to open river reaches. Passage efficiency of the fish lift was high in both years (95% and 100%). However, fish experienced long delays at Milford Dam, with approximately one-third of fish taking more than a week to pass in each year, well below the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission passage standard of 95% within 48 h. Telemetry indicates most fish locate the fishway entrance within 5 h of arrival and were observed at the entrance at all hours of the day. These data indicate that overall transit times through the lower river were comparable to reported movement rates prior to changes to the Penobscot River due to the substantial delays seen at Milford Dam. The results of this study show that while adult Atlantic Salmon locate the new fish lift entrance quickly, passage of these fish was significantly delayed under 2014–2015 operations.

  4. Coral spawn timing is a direct response to solar light cycles and is not an entrained circadian response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, A. K.; Hilton, J. D.; Vize, P. D.

    2009-09-01

    Broadcast spawning corals release gametes into the oceans with extraordinarily accurate timing. While the date of spawning is set by the lunar cycle, the hour/minute of spawning is set by the solar cycle. In this report, we describe experiments that test whether the time of spawning is regulated by an entrained biological clock or whether it is directly controlled by the solar cycle. Montastraea franksi samples were collected on the morning of the predicted spawning. Fragments from colonies were kept under three different lighting conditions and spawning monitored. The three conditions were sunset times of 0, 1 or 2 h earlier than normal. Fragments from the same colony spawned differently under these three conditions, with an early sunset causing a corresponding early shift in spawning. These results indicate that spawn timing is not controlled by a circadian rhythm and that it is directly controlled by local solar light cycle.

  5. Bacterial acquisition in juveniles of several broadcast spawning coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Koty H; Ritchie, Kim B; Schupp, Peter J; Ritson-Williams, Raphael; Paul, Valerie J

    2010-05-28

    Coral animals harbor diverse microorganisms in their tissues, including archaea, bacteria, viruses, and zooxanthellae. The extent to which coral-bacterial associations are specific and the mechanisms for their maintenance across generations in the environment are unknown. The high diversity of bacteria in adult coral colonies has made it challenging to identify species-specific patterns. Localization of bacteria in gametes and larvae of corals presents an opportunity for determining when bacterial-coral associations are initiated and whether they are dynamic throughout early development. This study focuses on the early onset of bacterial associations in the mass spawning corals Montastraea annularis, M. franksi, M. faveolata, Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, Diploria strigosa, and A. humilis. The presence of bacteria and timing of bacterial colonization was evaluated in gametes, swimming planulae, and newly settled polyps by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using general eubacterial probes and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The coral species investigated in this study do not appear to transmit bacteria via their gametes, and bacteria are not detectable in or on the corals until after settlement and metamorphosis. This study suggests that mass-spawning corals do not acquire, or are not colonized by, detectable numbers of bacteria until after larval settlement and development of the juvenile polyp. This timing lays the groundwork for developing and testing new hypotheses regarding general regulatory mechanisms that control bacterial colonization and infection of corals, and how interactions among bacteria and juvenile polyps influence the structure of bacterial assemblages in corals.

  6. Bacterial acquisition in juveniles of several broadcast spawning coral species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koty H Sharp

    Full Text Available Coral animals harbor diverse microorganisms in their tissues, including archaea, bacteria, viruses, and zooxanthellae. The extent to which coral-bacterial associations are specific and the mechanisms for their maintenance across generations in the environment are unknown. The high diversity of bacteria in adult coral colonies has made it challenging to identify species-specific patterns. Localization of bacteria in gametes and larvae of corals presents an opportunity for determining when bacterial-coral associations are initiated and whether they are dynamic throughout early development. This study focuses on the early onset of bacterial associations in the mass spawning corals Montastraea annularis, M. franksi, M. faveolata, Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis, Diploria strigosa, and A. humilis. The presence of bacteria and timing of bacterial colonization was evaluated in gametes, swimming planulae, and newly settled polyps by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using general eubacterial probes and laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The coral species investigated in this study do not appear to transmit bacteria via their gametes, and bacteria are not detectable in or on the corals until after settlement and metamorphosis. This study suggests that mass-spawning corals do not acquire, or are not colonized by, detectable numbers of bacteria until after larval settlement and development of the juvenile polyp. This timing lays the groundwork for developing and testing new hypotheses regarding general regulatory mechanisms that control bacterial colonization and infection of corals, and how interactions among bacteria and juvenile polyps influence the structure of bacterial assemblages in corals.

  7. Adhesion mechanism of salmon to polymer-coated can walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommershuijzen, H.; Hviid, L.; Hartog, den H.; Vereijken, J.

    2005-01-01

    Minimization of the amount of salmon adhering to the can wall after emptying is one of the convenience requirements of consumers of canned salmon. In order to achieve this, the mechanism by which salmon adheres to cans needs to be understood. The aim of this study was to provide such knowledge for p

  8. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it... and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  9. Passive acoustic monitoring to detect spawning in large-bodied catostomids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Carrie A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Documenting timing, locations, and intensity of spawning can provide valuable information for conservation and management of imperiled fishes. However, deep, turbid or turbulent water, or occurrence of spawning at night, can severely limit direct observations. We have developed and tested the use of passive acoustics to detect distinctive acoustic signatures associated with spawning events of two large-bodied catostomid species (River Redhorse Moxostoma carinatum and Robust Redhorse Moxostoma robustum) in river systems in north Georgia. We deployed a hydrophone with a recording unit at four different locations on four different dates when we could both record and observe spawning activity. Recordings captured 494 spawning events that we acoustically characterized using dominant frequency, 95% frequency, relative power, and duration. We similarly characterized 46 randomly selected ambient river noises. Dominant frequency did not differ between redhorse species and ranged from 172.3 to 14,987.1 Hz. Duration of spawning events ranged from 0.65 to 11.07 s, River Redhorse having longer durations than Robust Redhorse. Observed spawning events had significantly higher dominant and 95% frequencies than ambient river noises. We additionally tested software designed to automate acoustic detection. The automated detection configurations correctly identified 80–82% of known spawning events, and falsely indentified spawns 6–7% of the time when none occurred. These rates were combined over all recordings; rates were more variable among individual recordings. Longer spawning events were more likely to be detected. Combined with sufficient visual observations to ascertain species identities and to estimate detection error rates, passive acoustic recording provides a useful tool to study spawning frequency of large-bodied fishes that displace gravel during egg deposition, including several species of imperiled catostomids.

  10. Instream flow characterization of Upper Salmon River basin streams, central Idaho, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Terry R.; Hortness, Jon E.; Ott, Douglas S.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River Basin have plummeted in the last 100 years. This severe decline led to Federal listing of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 1990s. Historically, the upper Salmon River Basin (upstream of the confluence with the Pahsimeroi River) in Idaho provided migration corridors and significant habitat for these ESA-listed species, in addition to the ESA-listed bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Human development has modified the original streamflow conditions in many streams in the upper Salmon River Basin. Summer streamflow modifications resulting from irrigation practices, have directly affected quantity and quality of fish habitat and also have affected migration and (or) access to suitable spawning and rearing habitat for these fish. As a result of these ESA listings and Action 149 of the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation was tasked to conduct streamflow characterization studies in the upper Salmon River Basin to clearly define habitat requirements for effective species management and habitat restoration. These studies include collection of habitat and streamflow information for the Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) model, a widely applied method to determine relations between habitat and discharge requirements for various fish species and life stages. Model simulation results can be used by resource managers to guide habitat restoration efforts by evaluating potential fish habitat and passage improvements by increasing or decreasing streamflow. In 2005, instream flow characterization studies were completed on Big Boulder, Challis, Bear, Mill, and Morgan Creeks. Continuous streamflow data were recorded upstream of all diversions on Big Boulder. Instantaneous measurements of discharge were also made at selected sites. In

  11. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  12. Pre-Restoration Habitat Use by Chinook Salmon in the Nisqually Estuary Using Otolith Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind-Null, Angela; Larsen, Kimberly; Reisenbichler, Reginald

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Nisqually Fall Chinook population is one of 27 stocks in the Puget Sound evolutionarily significant unit listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. The preservation of the Nisqually delta ecosystem coupled with extensive restoration of approximately 1,000 acres of diked estuarine habitat is identified as the highest priority action for the recovery of naturally spawning Nisqually River Fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Nisqually Chinook Recovery Plan. In order to evaluate the response of Chinook salmon to restoration, a pre-restoration baseline of life history diversity and estuary utilization must be established. Otolith analysis has been proposed as a means to measure Chinook salmon life history diversity, growth, and residence in the Nisqually estuary. Over time, the information from the otolith analyses will be used to: (1) determine if estuary restoration actions cause changes to the population structure (i.e. frequency of the different life history trajectories) for Nisqually River Chinook, (2) compare pre and post restoration residence times and growth rates, and (3) suggest whether estuary restoration yields substantial benefits for Chinook salmon. Otoliths are calcium carbonate structures in the inner ear that grow in proportion to the overall growth of the fish. Daily growth increments can be measured so date and fish size at various habitat transitions can be back-calculated. Careful analysis of otolith microstructure can be used to determine the number of days that a fish resided in the estuary as a juvenile (increment counts), size at entrance to the estuary, size at egress, and the amount that the fish grew while in the estuary. Juvenile Chinook salmon can exhibit a variety of life history trajectories ? some enter the sea (or Puget Sound) as fry, some rear in the estuary before entering the sea, and some rear in the river and then move rapidly through the estuary into the sea as smolts. The

  13. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... coho landed in the treaty Indian ocean troll fishery was $1.8 million, compared with the ex-vessel..., fishing with salmon troll gear is prohibited within the Salmon Troll Yelloweye Rockfish Conservation Area (YRCA). It is unlawful for commercial salmon troll vessels to take and retain, possess, or land...

  14. Migration and spawning of female surubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodidae) in the São Francisco river, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, Boyd; Godinho, Hugo P.

    2007-01-01

    Surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, is the most valuable commercial and recreational fish in the São Francisco River, but little is known about adult migration and spawning. Movements of 24 females (9.5–29.0 kg), which were radio-tagged just downstream of Três Marias Dam (TMD) at river kilometer 2,109 and at Pirapora Rapids (PR) 129 km downstream of TMD, suggest the following conceptual model of adult female migration and spawning. The tagged surubims used only 274 km of the main stem downstream of TMD and two tributaries, the Velhas and Abaeté rivers. Migration style was dualistic with non-migratory (resident) and migratory fish. Pre-spawning females swam at ground speeds of up to 31 km day-1 in late September–December to pre-spawning staging sites located 0–11 km from the spawning ground. In the spawning season (November–March), pre-spawning females migrated back and forth from nearby pre-spawning staging sites to PR for short visits to spawn, mostly during floods. Multiple visits to the spawning site suggest surubim is a multiple spawner. Most post-spawning surubims left the spawning ground to forage elsewhere, but some stayed at the spawning site until the next spawning season. Post-spawning migrants swam up or downstream at ground speeds up to 29 km day-1 during January–March. Construction of proposed dams in the main stem and tributaries downstream of TMD will greatly reduce surubim abundance by blocking migrations and changing the river into reservoirs that eliminate riverine spawning and non-spawning habitats, and possibly, cause extirpation of populations.

  15. Evidence of autumn spawning in Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi (Vladykov, 1955)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, M.T.; Sulak, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of autumn spawning of Gulf sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi in the Suwannee River, Florida, was compiled from multiple investigations between 1986 and 2008. Gulf sturgeon are known from egg collections to spawn in the springtime months following immigration into rivers. Evidence of autumn spawning includes multiple captures of sturgeon in September through early November that were ripe (late-development ova; motile sperm) or exhibited just-spawned characteristics, telemetry of fish that made >175 river kilometer upstream excursions to the spawning grounds in September–October, and the capture of a 9.3 cm TL age-0 Gulf sturgeon on 29 November 2000 (which would have been spawned in late September 2000). Analysis of age-at-length data indicates that ca. 20% of the Suwannee River Gulf sturgeon population may be attributable to autumn spawning. However, with the very low sampling effort expended, eggs or early life stages have not yet been captured in the autumn, which would be the conclusive proof of autumn spawning. More sampling, and sampling at previously unknown sites frequented by acoustic telemetry fish, would be required to find eggs.

  16. Spawning migration of sea trout ( Salmo trutta (L)) in a Danish river

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Kim; Jepsen, Niels

    1998-01-01

    to stay on the southern side of the main river, and Males spent significantly more time of the freshwater stay in spawning tributaries than females. Most of the trout ascended the main spawning tributary, the River Lillea, where none passed a weir, 2 km upstream the confluence, despite the presence...

  17. Fall spawning of Atlantic sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph A.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Flowers, H. Jared

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) declared Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus to be threatened or endangered throughout its range in U.S. waters. Restoration of the subspecies will require much new information, particularly on the location and timing of spawning. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and sampling with anchored artificial substrates (spawning pads) to detect fall (September–November) spawning in the Roanoke River in North Carolina. This population is included in the Carolina Distinct Population Segment, which was classified by NOAA as endangered. Sampling was done immediately below the first shoals encountered by anadromous fishes, near Weldon. Our collection of 38 eggs during the 21 d that spawning pads were deployed appears to be the first such collection (spring or fall) for wild-spawned Atlantic Sturgeon eggs. Based on egg development stages, estimated spawning dates were September 17–18 and 18–19 at water temperatures from 25.3°C to 24.3°C and river discharge from 55 to 297 m3/s. These observations about fall spawning and habitat use should aid in protecting critical habitats and planning research on Atlantic Sturgeon spawning in other rivers.

  18. Estimating spawning habitat availability in flooded areas of the river Waal, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Ruizeveld de Winter, A.C.; Straatsma, M.W.; Brink, N.G.M.; Leeuw, de J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fish spawning habitat availability in the river Waal is significantly influenced by seasonal and annual variations in discharge. In this paper we develop habitat suitability models, based on a literature survey of spawning preferences of the commonly occurring species roach (Rutilus rutilus), bream

  19. Batch fertility and larval parameters of the jaguar cichlid (Cichlasoma managuense spawned in the laboratory (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Günther Nonell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Batch fertility and larval parameters of 32 spawns of the jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense in the laboratory were analyzed. Batch fertility was positively correlated with the female weight with spawns between about 3000 to 6000 larvae for females between 100 and 500 g wet weight. No significant correlation was found between larval parameters (fresh weight and % dry weight and female weight.

  20. Hydrographic features of anguillid spawning areas: Potential signposts for migrating eels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schabetsberger, Robert; Miller, Michael J.; Dall'Olmo, Giorgio;

    2016-01-01

    and fronts are present in some of the areas above the high-salinity cores. Spawning may occur at temperatures between 16 and 24°C where the thermocline locally deepens. At spawning depths, weak westward currents (∼0 to 0.1 m s-1) prevail, and eastward surface countercurrents are present. Anguillid eels...

  1. The effect of chronic chromium exposure on the health of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farag, Aida M. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Jackson Field Research Station, P.O. Box 1089, Jackson, WY 83001 (United States)]. E-mail: aida_farag@usgs.gov; May, Thomas [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Marty, Gary D. [Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, 1 Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616-8732 (United States); Easton, Michael [International EcoGen Inc., 2015 McLallen Court, North Vancouver, BC, Canada V7P 3H6 (Canada); Harper, David D. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Jackson Field Research Station, P.O. Box 1089, Jackson, WY 83001 (United States); Little, Edward E. [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Cleveland, Laverne [United States Geological Survey, Columbia Environmental Research Center, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States)

    2006-03-10

    This study was designed to determine fish health impairment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to chromium. Juvenile Chinook salmon were exposed to aqueous chromium concentrations (0-266 {mu}g l{sup -1}) that have been documented in porewater from bottom sediments and in well waters near salmon spawning areas in the Columbia River in the northwestern United States. After Chinook salmon parr were exposed to 24 and 54 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} for 105 days, neither growth nor survival of parr was affected. On day 105, concentrations were increased from 24 to 120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} and from 54 to 266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} until the end of the experiment on day 134. Weight of parr was decreased in the 24/120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatment, and survival was decreased in the 54/266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatment. Fish health was significantly impaired in both the 24/120 and 54/266 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1} treatments. The kidney is the target organ during chromium exposures through the water column. The kidneys of fish exposed to the greatest concentrations of chromium had gross and microscopic lesions (e.g. necrosis of cells lining kidney tububules) and products of lipid peroxidation were elevated. These changes were associated with elevated concentrations of chromium in the kidney, and reduced growth and survival. Also, variations in DNA in the blood were associated with pathological changes in the kidney and spleen. These changes suggest that chromium accumulates and enters the lipid peroxidation pathway where fatty acid damage and DNA damage (expressed as chromosome changes) occur to cause cell death and tissue damage. While most of the physiological malfunctions occurred following parr exposures to concentrations {>=}120 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1}, nuclear DNA damage followed exposures to 24 {mu}g Cr l{sup -1}, which was the smallest concentration tested. The abnormalities measured during this study are particularly important because they are associated with impaired growth

  2. Salmon: Robust Proxy Distribution for Censorship Circumvention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Frederick

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many governments block their citizens’ access to much of the Internet. Simple workarounds are unreliable; censors quickly discover and patch them. Previously proposed robust approaches either have non-trivial obstacles to deployment, or rely on low-performance covert channels that cannot support typical Internet usage such as streaming video. We present Salmon, an incrementally deployable system designed to resist a censor with the resources of the “Great Firewall” of China. Salmon relies on a network of volunteers in uncensored countries to run proxy servers. Although any member of the public can become a user, Salmon protects the bulk of its servers from being discovered and blocked by the censor via an algorithm for quickly identifying malicious users. The algorithm entails identifying some users as especially trustworthy or suspicious, based on their actions. We impede Sybil attacks by requiring either an unobtrusive check of a social network account, or a referral from a trustworthy user.

  3. The quality of cold smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this Ph. D. thesis was to study the liquid holding capacity/liquid loss of raw and smoked salmonids as affected by raw material and chill storage of the cold smoked product. The liquid holding capacity is an important quality parameter for cold smoked salmon. This study has shown...... the water fraction remained at a constant level. The decrease in the liquid holding capacity during chill storage of the smoked product was related to changes in the water distribution. Three water pools were found in raw and smoked salmon samples. An exchange of water from pool II to pool I was seen during...... that the liquid holding capacity in raw and cold smoked salmon is influenced by several factors. The size of the fish affected the liquid holding capacity as large fish had lower liquid holding capacity than smaller fish. The salt content influenced the liquid holding capacity in smoked fish as it was found...

  4. Spawning behaviour of Allis shad Alosa alosa: new insights based on imaging sonar data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkau, M C; Clavé, D; Schmidt, M B; Borcherding, J

    2016-06-01

    Spawning behaviour of Alosa alosa was observed by high resolution imaging sonar. Detected clouds of sexual products and micro bubbles served as a potential indicator of spawning activity. Peak spawning time was between 0130 and 0200 hours at night. Increasing detections over three consecutive nights were consistent with sounds of mating events (bulls) assessed in hearing surveys in parallel to the hydro acoustic detection. In 70% of the analysed mating events there were no additional A. alosa joining the event whilst 70% of the mating events showed one or two A. alosa leaving the cloud. In 31% of the analysed mating events, however, three or more A. alosa were leaving the clouds, indicating that matings are not restricted to a pair. Imaging sonar is suitable for monitoring spawning activity and behaviour of anadromous clupeids in their spawning habitats.

  5. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.

    2013-04-01

    The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Research, monitoring, and evaluation of emerging issues and measures to recover the Snake River fall Chinook salmon ESU, 1/1/2014 - 12/31/2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, William P.; Mullins, Frank L; Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Perry, Russell W.; Erhardt, John M.; St John, Scott J.; Bickford, Brad; Rhodes, Tobyn

    2015-01-01

    The portion of the Snake River fall Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ESU that spawns upstream of Lower Granite Dam transitioned from low to high abundance during 1992–2014 in association with U.S. Endangered Species Act recovery efforts and other Federally mandated actions. This annual report focuses on (1) numeric and habitat use responses by natural- and hatchery-origin spawners, (2) phenotypic and numeric responses by natural-origin juveniles, and (3) predator responses in the Snake River upper and lower reaches as abundance of adult and juvenile fall Chinook Salmon increased. Spawners have located and used most of the available spawning habitat and that habitat is gradually approaching redd capacity. Timing of spawning and fry emergence has been relatively stable; whereas the timing of parr dispersal from riverine rearing habitat into Lower Granite Reservoir has become earlier as apparent abundance of juveniles has increased. Growth rate (g/d) and dispersal size of parr also declined as apparent abundance of juveniles increased. Passage timing of smolts from the two Snake River reaches has become earlier and downstream movement rate faster as estimated abundance of fall Chinook Salmon smolts in Lower Granite Reservoir has increased. In 2014, consumption of subyearlings by Smallmouth Bass was highest in the upper reach which had the highest abundance of Bass. With a few exceptions, predation tended to decrease seasonally from April through early July. A release of hatchery fish in mid-May significantly increased subyearling consumption by the following day. We estimated that over 600,000 subyearling fall Chinook Salmon were lost to Smallmouth Bass predation along the free-flowing Snake River in 2014. More information on predation is presented in Appendix A.3 (page 51). These findings coupled with stock-recruitment analyses presented in this report provide evidence for density-dependence in the Snake River reaches and in Lower Granite Reservoir that was

  7. Scientific Opinion on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic salmon is the only species in which the disease infectious salmon anaemia (ISA has been observed naturally. Initial reports of findings of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV before 2002, did not distinguish between non virulent HPR0 and virulent HPRΔ viruses, thus making interpretation of older findings difficult in the light of current knowledge. Following a request from the European Commission, EFSA was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the relationship between HPR0 and HPRΔ, the risk of HPRΔ ISAV emerging from HPR0 ISAV, and possible risk factors for such an emergence. HPR0 ISAV does not cause clinical disease in Atlantic salmon; however, it causes a transient subclinical infection and replicates mainly in gills. There is no evidence for HPR0 ISAV leading to natural infection and replication in fish species other than Atlantic salmon. Virulent ISAV have deletions in the HPR region of the HE gene and they have either an insertion or the Q266L mutation in the F gene. The most plausible hypothesis is that virulent ISAV (HPRΔ is derived from HPR0 ISAV. This is further supported by the close association between the genetic relatedness and spatio-temporal distances of virus strains in solitary outbreaks. Epidemiological and historical data from solitary disease outbreaks indicates that the risk of HPRΔ ISAV emerging from HPR0 is low, but not negligible. The risk factors for HPRΔ emergence from HPR0 are unknown. Nevertheless, any factor that affects virus replication or host susceptibility could possibly influence the risk of emergence. More research is needed on the drivers for transition from HPR0 to HPRΔ and factors affecting host susceptibility and thereby emergence of clinical disease. A quantitative assessment of the different evolutionary forces for ISA would be useful, as well as the prevalence of ISAV HPR0 in farmed and wild Atlantic salmon.

  8. Escapement and Productivity of Spring Chinook Salmon and Summer Steelhead in the John Day River Basin, 2005-2006 Annual Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Terra Lang; Wilson, Wayne H.; Ruzycki, James R. [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-04-10

    The objectives are: (1) Estimate number and distribution of spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha redds and spawners in the John Day River subbasin; and (2) Estimate smolt-to-adult survival rates (SAR) and out-migrant abundance for spring Chinook and summer steelhead O. mykiss and life history characteristics of summer steelhead. The John Day River subbasin supports one of the last remaining intact wild populations of spring Chinook salmon and summer steelhead in the Columbia River Basin. These populations, however, remain depressed relative to historic levels. Between the completion of the life history and natural escapement study in 1984 and the start of this project in 1998, spring Chinook spawning surveys did not provide adequate information to assess age structure, progeny-to-parent production values, smolt-to-adult survival (SAR), or natural spawning escapement. Further, only very limited information is available for steelhead life history, escapement, and productivity measures in the John Day subbasin. Numerous habitat protection and rehabilitation projects to improve salmonid freshwater production and survival have also been implemented in the basin and are in need of effectiveness monitoring. While our monitoring efforts outlined here will not specifically measure the effectiveness of any particular project, they will provide much needed background information for developing context for project-specific effectiveness monitoring efforts. To meet the data needs as index stocks, to assess the long-term effectiveness of habitat projects, and to differentiate freshwater and ocean survival, sufficient annual estimates of spawner escapement, age structure, SAR, egg-to-smolt survival, smolt-per-redd ratio, and freshwater habitat use are essential. We have begun to meet this need through spawning ground surveys initiated for spring Chinook salmon in 1998 and smolt PIT-tagging efforts initiated in 1999. Additional sampling and analyses to meet these goals

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the behavior and movements of adult spring Chinook salmon in the Chehalis River, southwestern Washington, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Hurst, William R.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Kock, Tobias J.; Zimmerman, Mara S.

    2017-01-30

    Recent interest in flood control and restoration strategies in the Chehalis River Basin has increased the need to understand the current status and ecology of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Spring Chinook salmon have the longest exposure of all adult Chinook salmon life histories to the low-flow and high water temperature conditions that typically occur during summer. About 100 adult spring Chinook salmon were found dead in the Chehalis River in July and August 2009. Adult Chinook salmon are known to hold in cool-water refugia during warm summer months, but the extent to which spring Chinook salmon might use thermal refugia in the Chehalis River is unknown. A preliminary evaluation of the movements and temperature exposures of adult spring Chinook salmon following their return to the Chehalis River was conducted using radiotelemetry and transmitters equipped with temperature sensors. A total of 12 spring Chinook salmon were captured, radio-tagged, and released in the main-stem Chehalis River between May and late June 2014. Tagged fish were monitored from freshwater entry through the spawning period using a combination of fixedsite monitoring locations and mobile tracking.Water temperature and flow conditions in the main-stem Chehalis River during 2014 were atypical compared to historical averages. Mean monthly water temperatures between March and August 2014 were higher than any decade since 1960 and mean monthly discharge was 90–206 percent of the discharge in previous years. Overall, 92 percent of the tagged fish were detected, with a mean of 102 d in the detection history of tagged fish. Seven tagged fish (58 percent) moved upstream, either shortly after release (5–8 d, 57 percent), or within about a month (34–35 d, 29 percent). One fish (14 percent) remained near the release location for 98 d before moving upstream. The final fates for the seven fish that moved upstream following release included six fish that were assigned a fate of

  10. Salmon and steelhead genetics and genomics - Epigenetic and genomic variation in salmon and steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct analyses of epigenetic and genomic variation in Chinook salmon and steelhead to determine influence on phenotypic expression of life history traits. Genetic,...

  11. Red salmon survival studies in Karluk Lake, Kodiak Island, 1957: Salmon survival investigations field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on red salmon survival in Karluk Lake on Kodiak Island. The objectives were to systematically isolate, study, and...

  12. Chinook salmon Genetic Stock Identification data - Genetic Stock Identification of Washington Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project evaluates data from coded wire tagging with that from parental based tagging to identify stock of origin for Chinook salmon landed in Washington state...

  13. Salmon vulnerability maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  14. Migratory Patterns of Wild Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Returning to a Large, Free-Flowing River Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H Eiler

    Full Text Available Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, virtually pristine river basin. These returns have declined dramatically since the late 1990s, and information is needed to better manage the run and facilitate conservation efforts. A total of 2,860 fish were radio tagged during 2002-2004. Most (97.5% of the fish tracked upriver to spawning areas displayed continual upriver movements and strong fidelity to the terminal tributaries entered. Movement rates were substantially slower for fish spawning in lower river tributaries (28-40 km d-1 compared to upper basin stocks (52-62 km d-1. Three distinct migratory patterns were observed, including a gradual decline, pronounced decline, and substantial increase in movement rate as the fish moved upriver. Stocks destined for the same region exhibited similar migratory patterns. Individual fish within a stock showed substantial variation, but tended to reflect the regional pattern. Differences between consistently faster and slower fish explained 74% of the within-stock variation, whereas relative shifts in sequential movement rates between "hares" (faster fish becoming slower and "tortoises" (slow but steady fish explained 22% of the variation. Pulses of fish moving upriver were not cohesive. Fish tagged over a 4-day period took 16 days to pass a site 872 km upriver. Movement rates were substantially faster and the percentage of atypical movements considerably less than reported in more southerly drainages, but may reflect the pristine conditions within the Yukon River, wild origins of the fish, and discrete run timing of the returns. Movement data can provide numerous insights into the status and management of salmon returns, particularly in large river drainages with widely scattered fisheries where management actions in the lower river potentially impact harvests and escapement farther upstream. However, the substantial variation

  15. Reconstructing the Migratory Behavior and Long-Term Survivorship of Juvenile Chinook Salmon under Contrasting Hydrologic Regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Sturrock

    Full Text Available The loss of genetic and life history diversity has been documented across many taxonomic groups, and is considered a leading cause of increased extinction risk. Juvenile salmon leave their natal rivers at different sizes, ages and times of the year, and it is thought that this life history variation contributes to their population sustainability, and is thus central to many recovery efforts. However, in order to preserve and restore diversity in life history traits, it is necessary to first understand how environmental factors affect their expression and success. We used otolith (87Sr/(86Sr in adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytcha returning to the Stanislaus River in the California Central Valley (USA to reconstruct the sizes at which they outmigrated as juveniles in a wetter (2000 and drier (2003 year. We compared rotary screw trap-derived estimates of outmigrant timing, abundance and size with those reconstructed in the adults from the same cohort. This allowed us to estimate the relative survival and contribution of migratory phenotypes (fry, parr, smolts to the adult spawning population under different flow regimes. Juvenile abundance and outmigration behavior varied with hydroclimatic regime, while downstream survival appeared to be driven by size- and time-selective mortality. Although fry survival is generally assumed to be negligible in this system, >20% of the adult spawners from outmigration year 2000 had outmigrated as fry. In both years, all three phenotypes contributed to the spawning population, however their relative proportions differed, reflecting greater fry contributions in the wetter year (23% vs. 10% and greater smolt contributions in the drier year (13% vs. 44%. These data demonstrate that the expression and success of migratory phenotypes vary with hydrologic regime, emphasizing the importance of maintaining diversity in a changing climate.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999, when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2001, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October and to Pettit and Alturas lakes in July; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September along with anadromous adult sockeye salmon that returned to the Sawtooth basin and were not incorporated into the captive broodstock program. Kokanee population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September. Only age-0 and age-1 kokanee were captured on Redfish Lake, resulting in a population estimate of 12,980 kokanee. This was the second lowest kokanee abundance estimated since 1990. On Alturas Lake age-0, age-1, and age-2 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population was estimated at 70,159. This is a mid range kokanee population estimate for Alturas Lake, which has been sampled yearly since 1990. On Pettit Lake only age-1 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population estimate was 16,931. This estimate is in the midrange of estimates of the kokanee population in Pettit Lake, which has been sampled

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason; Willard, Catherine (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2003-12-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999, when six jacks and one jill were captured at Idaho Department of Fish and Game's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2001, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to all three lakes in October and to Pettit and Alturas lakes in July; age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September along with anadromous adult sockeye salmon that returned to the Sawtooth basin and were not incorporated into the captive broodstock program. Kokanee population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September. Only age-0 and age-1 kokanee were captured on Redfish Lake, resulting in a population estimate of 12,980 kokanee. This was the second lowest kokanee abundance estimated since 1990. On Alturas Lake age-0, age-1, and age-2 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population was estimated at 70,159. This is a mid range kokanee population estimate for Alturas Lake, which has been sampled yearly since 1990. On Pettit Lake only age-1 kokanee were captured, and the kokanee population estimate was 16,931. This estimate is in the midrange of estimates of the kokanee population in Pettit Lake, which has been sampled

  18. Thermal Niche Tracking and Future Distribution of Atlantic Mackerel Spawning in response to Ocean Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine eBruge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North-east Atlantic mackerel spawning distribution has shifted northward in the last three decades probably in response to global sea warming. Yet, uncertainties subsist regarding on the shift rate, causalities, and how this species will respond to future conditions. Using egg surveys, we explored the influence of temperature change on mackerel’s spawning distribution (western and southern spawning components of the stock between 1992 and 2013, and projected how it may change under future climate change scenarios. We developed three generalized additive models: (i a spatiotemporal model to reconstruct the spawning distribution for the north-east Atlantic stock over the period 1992-2013, to estimate the rate of shift; (ii a thermal habitat model to assess if spawning mackerel have tracked their thermal spawning-niche; and (iii a niche-based model to project future spawning distribution under two predicted climate change scenarios. Our findings showed that mackerel spawning activity has shifted northward at a rate of 15.9 ± 0.9 km/decade between 1992 and 2013. Similarly, using the thermal habitat model, we detected a northward shift of the thermal spawning-niche. This indicates that mackerel has spawned at higher latitudes to partially tracking their thermal spawning-niche, at a rate of 28.0 ± 9.0 km/°C of sea warming. Under future scenarios (mid and end of the century, the extrapolation of the niche-based model to coupled hydroclimatic and biogeochemical models indicates that centre of gravity of mackerel spawning distribution is expected to shift westward (32 to 117 km and northward (0.5 to 328 km, but with high variability according to scenarios and time frames. The future of the overall egg production in the area is uncertain (change from -9.3% to 12%. With the aim to allow the fishing industry to anticipate the future distribution of mackerel shoals during the spawning period, future research should focus on reducing uncertainty in

  19. Effects of emergence time and early social rearing environment on behaviour of Atlantic salmon: consequences for juvenile fitness and smolt migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Larsen

    Full Text Available Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival and

  20. Implications of fisheries during the spawning season for the sustainable management and recovery of depleted fish stocks: a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Fishing during the spawning season may negatively affects the reproductive potential and reproductive dynamics of exploited fish stocks due to a variety of mechanisms such as the disturbance of the natural spawning behaviour, effects on the age, size and sex composition of the spawning population an

  1. Collaborative Approaches to Flow Restoration in Intermittent Salmon-Bearing Streams: Salmon Creek, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleo Woelfle-Erskine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean-climate regions of California and southern Oregon, juvenile salmon depend on groundwater aquifers to sustain their tributary habitats through the dry summers. Along California’s North Coast streams, private property regimes on land have created commons tragedies in groundwater and salmon fisheries, both classic examples of commons that are often governed collectively and sustainably by their users. Understanding the linkages between salmon and groundwater is one major focus of salmon recovery and climate change adaptation planning in central California and increasingly throughout the Pacific Northwest. In this paper, I use extended field interviews and participant-observation in field ecology campaigns and regulatory forums to explore how, in one water-scarce, salmon-bearing watershed on California’s central coast, collaborators are synthesizing agency and landowner data on groundwater and salmon management. I focus on three projects undertaken by citizen scientists in collaboration with me and Gold Ridge Resource Conservation District staff: salmonid censuses, mapping of wet and dry stream reaches and well monitoring. I find that collaborative research initiated by local residents and agency personnel has, in some cases, created a new sense of ecological possibility in the region. I also consider some limitations of this collaborations, namely the lack of engagement with indigenous Pomo and Miwok tribal members, with the Confederated Tribes of Graton Rancheria and with farmworkers and other marginalized residents, and suggest strategies for deepening environmental justice commitments in future collaborative work.

  2. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, Joseph E.; Chapman, Duane C.; McElroy, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    We sampled for eggs of Asian carps, (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella) in 12 sites on the Lower Missouri River and in six tributaries from the months of May through July 2005 and May through June 2006 to examine the spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning activity. We categorized eggs into thirty developmental stages, but usually they could not be identified to species. We estimated spawning times and locations based on developmental stage, temperature dependent rate of development and water velocity. Spawning rate was higher in the daytime between 05:00 and 21:00 h than at night. Spawning was not limited to a few sites, as has been reported for the Yangtze River, where these fishes are native, but more eggs were spawned in areas of high sinuosity. We employ a sediment transport model to estimate vertical egg concentration profiles and total egg fluxes during spawning periods on the Missouri River. We did not identify substantial spawning activity within tributaries or at tributary confluences examined in this study.

  3. Induced nest spawning and artificial hatching of the fertilized eggs of mudskipper, Boleophthalmus pectinirostris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Wanshu; ZHANG Qiyong

    2004-01-01

    In this study, nest spawning was successfully induced by exogenous hormone injections and seawater flow stimulation, and optimum condition for hatching fertilized eggs of burrow fish mudskipper, Boleophthalmus pectinirostris, was searched. Apart from spawning inside the nests, females also spawned outside the nests. The percentages of spawned nests were 8.0% to 24.2%. Most eggs were observed adhered to the inner wall of the top half of the nest. Fertilization rates of the nest-spawned eggs varied from 17.3% to 80.8%. Females could spawn after being artificially confined inside the nests with males at ratios of 1:1 or 1:2, but the spawned eggs were not fertilized. Mean hatching rates of artificially fertilized eggs incubated in round plastic buckets were 32.7%-70.6%, and in the net cages, were 4.2%-20.5%, respectively. Mean hatching rates of nest- fertilized eggs incubated in the round plastic buckets were 33.6%-76.3%, and in the net cages, were 5.9%-25.2%. Results showed that round bucket incubation was the best way for hatching fertilized eggs of mudskipper. Keeping the hatching seawater flowing is an important way for increasing the hatching rates of the mudskipper fertilized eggs.

  4. Spawning aggregations of three protogynous groupers in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuz-Sulub, A; Brulé, T

    2015-01-01

    Spawning aggregations of red hind Epinephelus guttatus, tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were identified at two coral-reef systems: Arrecife Alacranes (emergent bank reef) and Bajos del Norte (submerged bank reef) on the continental shelf of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), Mexico. At both reefs, E. guttatus forms large spawning aggregations between February and March. At Bajos del Norte, M. tigris reproduces in a small, low-density aggregation in May, while M. venenosa aggregates at high densities for spawning between March and May. Multi-species use of an aggregation site by E. guttatus and M. venenosa was observed at Bajos del Norte. The identified spawning aggregations are apparently stable in location over time, and all three species were commonly observed to spawn within 1 week following the full moon. Development and survival of the larvae spawned in these aggregations are probably aided by a seasonal (spring-summer) upwelling in the north-east Campeche Bank. A permanent area closure at Bajos del Norte, currently outside any specific fisheries management area or regulations, would provide protection needed for the spawning aggregations of these three species.

  5. Impact of coral spawning on the biogeochemistry of a Hawaiian reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, R. A.; Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Bidigare, R. R.; Gates, R. D.; Ruttenberg, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    We examined the impact of Montipora capitata coral spawning on local biogeochemistry in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. This event supplied labile, spawn-derived organic matter (SDOM) to the water column, triggering a cascading series of related effects on the biogeochemistry of the reef. Specifically, we measured the isotopic composition and nutrient ratios of spawning material and coral tissues, and utilized these signatures to track pathways of SDOM incorporation into this coral-dominated ecosystem. We observed: (1) shifts in the isotopic signatures of coral tissues after the spawning event, (2) rapid turnover of SDOM within the water column and enhanced deposition of POM to the sediment surface, (3) enhanced sediment efflux of NH after the spawning event that triggered a phytoplankton bloom in the overlying water, and (4) drawdown of dissolved nutrients in the water column after spawning that coincided with the occurrence of a water column phytoplankton bloom. Our results show that single-species spawning events can serve as a source of substantial nutrient input to the water column, contributing in similar ways to storm-driven river nutrient input, and with measurable impact on the biogeochemistry of the reef.

  6. Kodiak bear-salmon study, Sulua Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Due to weir failure an accurate escapement figure was not obtained. The total was 14,581 tor all salmon returns at the weir plus upstream surveys totaled 15,008....

  7. Salmon River Ice Jam Control Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    Deadrnan low stream depths often allows ice to pass beneath the Anchor /boom. But during freezeup , when the quantity of frazil ice is large, an ice...report. US Army Engineer District, Walla LITERATURE CITED Walla. Zufelt, J.E. (1987) Salmon River ice control study, Axelson, K.D. (1990) Freezeup

  8. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  9. Stock Identification of Columbia River Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl B.; Li, Hiran W.; Hjort, Randy C.

    1986-08-01

    For the first time genetic similarities among chinook salmon and among steelhead trout stocks of the Columbia River were determined using a holistic approach including analysis of life history, biochemical, body shape and meristic characters. We examined between year differences for each of the stock characteristics and we also correlated the habitat characteristics with the wild stock characteristics. The most important principle for managing stocks of Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead trout is that geographically proximal stocks tend to be like each other. Run timing and similarity of the stream systems should be taken into account when managing stocks. There are similarities in the classifications derived for chinook salmon and steelhead trout. Steelhead trout or chinook salmon tend to be genetically similar to other steelhead or chinook stocks, respectively, that originate from natal streams that are geographically close, regardless of time of freshwater entry. The primary exception Lo this trend is between stocks of spring and fall chinook in the upper Columbia River where fish with the different run timings are dissimilar, though geographically proximate stocks within a run form are generally very similar. Spring chinook stocks have stronger affinities to other spring chinook stocks that originate in the same side of the Cascade Range than to these Spring chinook stock: spawned on the other side of the Cascade Range. Spring chinook from west of the Cascades are more closely related to fall chinook than they are to spring chinook from east of the Cascades. Summer chinook can be divided into two main groups: (1) populations in the upper Columbia River that smolt as subyearlings and fall chinook stocks; and (2) summer chinook stocks from the Salmon River, Idaho, which smolt as yearlings and are similar to spring chinook stocks from Idaho. Fall chinook appear to comprise one large diverse group that is not easily subdivided into smaller subgroups. In

  10. Potential spawn induction and suppression agents in Caribbean Acropora cervicornis corals of the Florida Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Flint

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced ability to direct sexual reproduction may lead to improved restoration outcomes for Acropora cervicornis. Gravid fragments of A. cervicornis were maintained in a laboratory for two sequential trials in the seven days prior to natural spawning in the Florida Keys. Ten replicates of five chemicals known to affect spawning in various invertebrate taxa were tested. Hydrogen peroxide at 2 mM (70% and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP at 5 (40% and 20 µM (30% induced spawning within 15.4 h, 38.8 h and 26.9 h of dosing at or above the rate of release of the control (30% within 14.6 h. Serotonin acetate monohydrate at 1 µM (20% and 10 µM (20%, naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate at 0.01 µM (10% and potassium phosphate monobasic at 0.25 µM (0% induced spawning at rates less than the control. Although the greatest number of fragments spawned using hydrogen peroxide, it was with 100% mortality. There was a significantly higher induction rate closer to natural spawn (Trial 2 compared with Trial 1 and no genotype effect. Mechanisms of action causing gamete release were not elucidated. In Caribbean staghorn corals, 5-HTP shows promise as a spawning induction agent if administered within 72 h of natural spawn and it will not result in excessive mortality. Phosphate chemicals may inhibit spawning. This is the first study of its kind on Caribbean acroporid corals and may offer an important conservation tool for biologists currently charged with restoring the imperiled Acropora reefs of the Florida Keys.

  11. Potential spawn induction and suppression agents in Caribbean Acropora cervicornis corals of the Florida Keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Mark; Than, John T

    2016-01-01

    The enhanced ability to direct sexual reproduction may lead to improved restoration outcomes for Acropora cervicornis. Gravid fragments of A. cervicornis were maintained in a laboratory for two sequential trials in the seven days prior to natural spawning in the Florida Keys. Ten replicates of five chemicals known to affect spawning in various invertebrate taxa were tested. Hydrogen peroxide at 2 mM (70%) and L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) at 5 (40%) and 20 µM (30%) induced spawning within 15.4 h, 38.8 h and 26.9 h of dosing at or above the rate of release of the control (30%) within 14.6 h. Serotonin acetate monohydrate at 1 µM (20%) and 10 µM (20%), naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate at 0.01 µM (10%) and potassium phosphate monobasic at 0.25 µM (0%) induced spawning at rates less than the control. Although the greatest number of fragments spawned using hydrogen peroxide, it was with 100% mortality. There was a significantly higher induction rate closer to natural spawn (Trial 2) compared with Trial 1 and no genotype effect. Mechanisms of action causing gamete release were not elucidated. In Caribbean staghorn corals, 5-HTP shows promise as a spawning induction agent if administered within 72 h of natural spawn and it will not result in excessive mortality. Phosphate chemicals may inhibit spawning. This is the first study of its kind on Caribbean acroporid corals and may offer an important conservation tool for biologists currently charged with restoring the imperiled Acropora reefs of the Florida Keys.

  12. Timing and locations of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, William D.; Karnauskas, Mandy; Kobara, Shinichi; Smart, Tracey I.; Ballenger, Joseph C.; Reichert, Marcel J. M.; Wyanski, David M.; Tishler, Michelle S.; Lindeman, Kenyon C.; Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K.; Switzer, Theodore S.; Solomon, Justin J.; McCain, Kyle; Marhefka, Mark; Sedberry, George R.

    2017-01-01

    Managed reef fish in the Atlantic Ocean of the southeastern United States (SEUS) support a multi-billion dollar industry. There is a broad interest in locating and protecting spawning fish from harvest, to enhance productivity and reduce the potential for overfishing. We assessed spatiotemporal cues for spawning for six species from four reef fish families, using data on individual spawning condition collected by over three decades of regional fishery-independent reef fish surveys, combined with a series of predictors derived from bathymetric features. We quantified the size of spawning areas used by reef fish across many years and identified several multispecies spawning locations. We quantitatively identified cues for peak spawning and generated predictive maps for Gray Triggerfish (Balistes capriscus), White Grunt (Haemulon plumierii), Red Snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), Vermilion Snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens), Black Sea Bass (Centropristis striata), and Scamp (Mycteroperca phenax). For example, Red Snapper peak spawning was predicted in 24.7–29.0°C water prior to the new moon at locations with high curvature in the 24–30 m depth range off northeast Florida during June and July. External validation using scientific and fishery-dependent data collections strongly supported the predictive utility of our models. We identified locations where reconfiguration or expansion of existing marine protected areas would protect spawning reef fish. We recommend increased sampling off southern Florida (south of 27° N), during winter months, and in high-relief, high current habitats to improve our understanding of timing and location of reef fish spawning off the southeastern United States. PMID:28264006

  13. First record of multi-species synchronous coral spawning from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Chelliah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the timing and synchrony of coral spawning has important implications for both the ecology and management of coral reef ecosystems. Data on the timing of spawning and extent of synchrony, however, are still lacking for many coral reefs, particularly from equatorial regions and from locations within the coral triangle. Here we present the first documentation of a multi-species coral spawning event from reefs around Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia, a popular diving and tourist destination located on the edge of the coral triangle. At least 8 coral species from 3 genera (Acropora, Montipora and Porites participated in multi-species spawning over five nights in April 2014, between two nights before and two nights after the full moon. In addition, two Acropora species were witnessed spawning one night prior to the full moon in October 2014. While two of the Acropora species that reproduced in April (A. millepora and A. nasuta exhibited highly synchronous spawning (100% of sampled colonies, two other common species (A. hyacinthus and A. digitifera did not contain visible eggs in the majority of colonies sampled (i.e., <15% of colonies in either April or October, suggesting that these species spawn at other times of the year. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed documented observation of multi-species coral spawning from reefs in Malaysia. These data provide further support for the contention that this phenomenon is a feature of all speciose coral assemblages, including equatorial reefs. More research is needed, however, to determine the seasonal cycles and extent of spawning synchrony on these reefs and elsewhere in Malaysia.

  14. Juvenile salmon usage of the Skeena River estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Harris, Charmaine; Gottesfeld, Allen S; Moore, Jonathan W

    2015-01-01

    Migratory salmon transit estuary habitats on their way out to the ocean but this phase of their life cycle is more poorly understood than other phases. The estuaries of large river systems in particular may support many populations and several species of salmon that originate from throughout the upstream river. The Skeena River of British Columbia, Canada, is a large river system with high salmon population- and species-level diversity. The estuary of the Skeena River is under pressure from industrial development, with two gas liquefaction terminals and a potash loading facility in various stages of environmental review processes, providing motivation for understanding the usage of the estuary by juvenile salmon. We conducted a juvenile salmonid sampling program throughout the Skeena River estuary in 2007 and 2013 to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of different species and populations of salmon. We captured six species of juvenile anadromous salmonids throughout the estuary in both years, and found that areas proposed for development support some of the highest abundances of some species of salmon. Specifically, the highest abundances of sockeye (both years), Chinook in 2007, and coho salmon in 2013 were captured in areas proposed for development. For example, juvenile sockeye salmon were 2-8 times more abundant in the proposed development areas. Genetic stock assignment demonstrated that the Chinook salmon and most of the sockeye salmon that were captured originated from throughout the Skeena watershed, while some sockeye salmon came from the Nass, Stikine, Southeast Alaska, and coastal systems on the northern and central coasts of British Columbia. These fish support extensive commercial, recreational, and First Nations fisheries throughout the Skeena River and beyond. Our results demonstrate that estuary habitats integrate species and population diversity of salmon, and that if proposed development negatively affects the salmon populations that

  15. Environmental change influences the life history of salmon Salmo salar in the North Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, B; Jonsson, N; Albretsen, J

    2016-02-01

    Annual mean total length (LT) of wild one-sea-winter (1SW) Atlantic salmon Salmo salar of the Norwegian River Imsa decreased from 63 to 54 cm with a corresponding decrease in condition factor (K) for cohorts migrating to sea from 1976 to 2010. The reduction in LT is associated with a 40% decline in mean individual mass, from 2 to 1·2 kg. Hatchery fish reared from parental fish of the same population exhibited similar changes from 1981 onwards. The decrease in LT correlated negatively with near-surface temperatures in the eastern Norwegian Sea, thought to be the main feeding area of the present stock. Furthermore, S. salar exhibited significant variations in the proportion of cohorts attaining maturity after only one winter in the ocean. The proportion of S. salar spawning as 1SW fish was lower both in the 1970s and after 2000 than in the 1980s and 1990s associated with a gradual decline in post-smolt growth and smaller amounts of reserve energy in the fish. In wild S. salar, there was a positive association between post-smolt growth and the sea survival back to the River Imsa for spawning. In addition, among smolt year-classes, there were significant positive correlations between wild and hatchery S. salar in LT, K and age at maturity. The present changes may be caused by ecosystem changes following the collapse and rebuilding of the pelagic fish abundance in the North Atlantic Ocean, a gradual decrease in zooplankton abundance and climate change with increasing surface temperature in the Norwegian Sea. Thus, the observed variation in the life-history traits of S. salar appears primarily associated with major changes in the pelagic food web in the ocean.

  16. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Field Activities Conducted on Clear and Pete King Creeks, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gass, Carrie; Olson, Jim M. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2004-11-01

    In 2001 the Idaho Fisheries Resource Office continued as a cooperator on the Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (ISS) project on Pete King and Clear creeks. Data relating to supplementation treatment releases, juvenile sampling, juvenile PIT tagging, brood stock spawning and rearing, spawning ground surveys, and snorkel surveys were used to evaluate project data points and augment past data. Due to low adult spring Chinook returns to Kooskia National Fish Hatchery (KNFH) in brood year 1999 there was no smolt supplementation treatment release into Clear Creek in 2001. A 17,014 spring Chinook parr supplementation treatment (containing 1000 PIT tags) was released into Pete King Creek on July 24, 2001. On Clear Creek, there were 412 naturally produced spring Chinook parr PIT tagged and released. Using juvenile collection methods, Idaho Fisheries Resource Office staff PIT tagged and released 320 naturally produced spring Chinook pre-smolts on Clear Creek, and 16 natural pre-smolts on Pete King Creek, for minimum survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam. There were no PIT tag detections of brood year 1999 smolts from Clear or Pete King creeks. A total of 2261 adult spring Chinook were collected at KNFH. Forty-three females were used for supplementation brood stock, and 45 supplementation (ventral fin-clip), and 45 natural (unmarked) adults were released upstream of KNFH to spawn naturally. Spatial and temporal distribution of 37 adults released above the KNFH weir was determined through the use of radio telemetry. On Clear Creek, a total of 166 redds (8.2 redds/km) were observed and data was collected from 195 carcasses. Seventeen completed redds (2.1 redds/km) were found, and data was collected data from six carcasses on Pete King Creek.

  17. Optimum swimming pathways of fish spawning migrations in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Brandon; DeLonay, Aaron; Jacobson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fishes that swim upstream in rivers to spawn must navigate complex fluvial velocity fields to arrive at their ultimate locations. One hypothesis with substantial implications is that fish traverse pathways that minimize their energy expenditure during migration. Here we present the methodological and theoretical developments necessary to test this and similar hypotheses. First, a cost function is derived for upstream migration that relates work done by a fish to swimming drag. The energetic cost scales with the cube of a fish's relative velocity integrated along its path. By normalizing to the energy requirements of holding a position in the slowest waters at the path's origin, a cost function is derived that depends only on the physical environment and not on specifics of individual fish. Then, as an example, we demonstrate the analysis of a migration pathway of a telemetrically tracked pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River (USA). The actual pathway cost is lower than 105 random paths through the surveyed reach and is consistent with the optimization hypothesis. The implication—subject to more extensive validation—is that reproductive success in managed rivers could be increased through manipulation of reservoir releases or channel morphology to increase abundance of lower-cost migration pathways.

  18. Endogenous and exogenous control of gametogenesis and spawning in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Annie; Hamel, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    Most echinoderms display seasonal or other temporal cycles of reproduction that presumably result from the complex interplay of endogenous and exogenous signals. Various environmental, chemical and hormonal factors, acting directly or indirectly, individually or in combination, have been proposed to cue, favour or modulate a suite of reproductive functions from the onset of gametogenesis to gamete release. From as early as the nineteenth century, an astonishing array of studies has been published on topics related to the control of reproduction in echinoderms, ranging from fortuitous behavioural observations to complex experimental demonstrations and molecular analyses. Although the exact pathways involved in the perception of external signals and their transduction into coordinated spawning events remain obscure for most species, significant advances have been made that shed new light on the information gathered over decades of research. By compiling the existing literature (over 1000 references), interpreting the main results, critically assessing the methodologies used and reviewing the emerging hypotheses, we endeavour to draw a clearer picture of the existing knowledge and to provide a framework for future investigation of the mechanisms that underlie reproductive strategies in echinoderms and, by extension, in other marine invertebrates.

  19. Identification of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawning habitat in northern Lake Huron using high-resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Amanda G.; Brooks, Colin N.; Binder, Thomas R.; Riley, Stephen C.; Farha, Steve A.; Shuchman, Robert A.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    The availability and quality of spawning habitat may limit lake trout recovery in the Great Lakes, but little is known about the location and characteristics of current spawning habitats. Current methods used to identify lake trout spawning locations are time- and labor-intensive and spatially limited. Due to the observation that some lake trout spawning sites are relatively clean of overlaying algae compared to areas not used for spawning, we suspected that spawning sites could be identified using satellite imagery. Satellite imagery collected just before and after the spawning season in 2013 was used to assess whether lake trout spawning habitat could be identified based on its spectral characteristics. Results indicated that Pléiades high-resolution multispectral satellite imagery can be successfully used to estimate algal coverage of substrates and temporal changes in algal coverage, and that models developed from processed imagery can be used to identify potential lake trout spawning sites based on comparison of sites where lake trout eggs were and were not observed after spawning. Satellite imagery is a potential new tool for identifying lake trout spawning habitat at large scales in shallow nearshore areas of the Great Lakes.

  20. Neurotoxic behavioral effects of Lake Ontario salmon diets in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, D.R. (State Univ. of New York, Oswego (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Six experiments were conducted to examine possible neurotoxic effects of the exposure to contaminants in Lake Ontario salmon administered through the diets of rats. Rats were fed different concentrations of fish (8%, 15% or 30%) in one of three diet conditions: Lake Ontario salmon, Pacific Ocean salmon, or laboratory rat chow only. Following 20 days on the diets, rats were tested for five minutes per day in a modified open field for one or three days. Lake Ontario salmon diets consistently produced significantly lower activity, rearing, and nosepoke behaviors in comparison with ocean salmon or rat chow diet conditions. A dose-response effect for concentration of lake salmon was obtained, and the attenuation effect occurred in males, females, adult or young animals, and postweaning females, with fish sampled over a five-year period. While only two of several potential contaminants were tested, both fish and brain analyses of mirex and PCBs relate to the behavioral effects.

  1. Surveys on Gyrodactylus parasites onwild Atlantic salmon in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    on several occasions in Danish rainbow trout farms but has never been recorded as a pathogenic parasite on Danish wild salmon. In the present study the occurrence of G. salaris and other Gyrodactylus parasites on wild Danish salmon fry and parr were monitored. Electrofishing was conducted in three river......Gyrodactylus salaris is a monogenean ectoparasite parasitizing salmonids in freshwater. This parasite is highly pathogenic to both Norwegian and Scottish salmon and has decimated the salmon populations in 45 Norwegian rivers after anthropogenic transfer from Sweden. G. salaris has also been found......-systems (River Skjern, Ribe and Varde) and 0+ and 1+ salmon were collected and sacrificed using an overdose of MS222. During spring or summer time more salmon fry and parr will be collected. The fins were excised and fins and body were conserved separately in 96% ethanol. In the laboratory, the fins and body...

  2. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  3. The calcitonin gene is expressed in salmon gills.

    OpenAIRE

    Martial, K; Maubras, L; Taboulet, J; Jullienne, A; M. Berry; Milhaud, G; Benson, A A; Moukhtar, M S; Cressent, M

    1994-01-01

    Calcitonin is an important physiological regulator of salmon gills. Although the calcitonin receptor was found in salmon gills, the critical question concerning the source of the hormone remained unanswered. In this communication, evidence is presented for expression of calcitonin mRNA and its encoded peptide in gills of the pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha. The expression of calcitonin gene transcripts was demonstrated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Southern hybridiza...

  4. Spawning migration of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas (Muller), in relation to lunal cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Rathod, V.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Effects of lunar phases and tidal height on the spawning migration of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus gigas, along the northeastern coast of India were studied. Mature pairs of crabs migrate towards the shore and build their nests in sandy beaches...

  5. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio multiple spawning studies of hexamethylcyclopentadiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, T. J. A.; Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby; Schalk, O.

    2014-01-01

    Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio multiple spawning were applied to the ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of hexamethylcyclopentadiene. The high level of agreement between experiment and theory associates wavepacket motion with a distinct degree of freedom....

  6. Spawning ecology of flannelmouth sucker, Catostomus lattipinnis (Catostomidae), in two small tributaries of the lower Colorado river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S.J.; Otis, E.O.; Maughan, O.E.

    1998-01-01

    We report the first published accounts of spawning behavior and spawning site selection of the flannelmouth sucker in two small tributaries of the lower Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Spawning was observed on 20 March 1992 and from 28 March to 10 April 1993 in the Paria River, and from 16 to 19 March 1993 in Bright Angel Creek. Flannelmouth suckers exhibited promiscuous spawning behavior-individual females were typically paired with two or more males for a given event and sometimes changed partners between events. Multiple egg deposits by different females sometimes occurred at one spawning site. Flannelmouth sucker selected substrates from 16 to 32 mm diameter in both streams. Spawning occurred at depths of 10 to 25 cm in the Paria River and 19 to 41 cm in Bright Angel Creek. Mean column water velocities at spawning locations ranged from 0.15 to 1.0 m sec-1 in the Paria River and from 0.23 to 0.89 m sec-1 in Bright Angel Creek. Water temperatures recorded during spawning ranged from 9 to 18??C in the Paria River and 13 to 15??C in Bright Angel Creek. Spawning flannelmouth sucker ascended 9.8 km upstream in the Paria River and 1.25 km in Bright Angel Creek. Spawning females (410-580 mm) were significantly larger than spawning males (385-530 mm) in the Paria River. The mean size of spawning fish in the Paria River was significantly smaller than the entire stock, averaged throughout the study period (380-620 mm). However, fish spawning in 1992-1993 averaged 53 mm larger than fish spawning in the same reach of the Paria River in 1981, indicating a shift in the size structure of this stock.

  7. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-11-01

    Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus began in March and continued through April 1999. Forty-six adult sturgeon were captured with 4,091 hours of angling and set-lining effort, while an additional three adult sturgeon were captured during gillnetting for juveniles. Flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning were expected to be high because the snow pack in the basin was estimated at 130% of normal, but runoff came very slowly. Discharge from Libby Dam from mid-March through mid-June was maintained at 113 m{sup 3}/s (4,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry during early April, including local inflow, were 227-255 m{sup 3}/s (8,000-9,000 cfs) but increased gradually in late April to a peak of 657 m{sup 3}/s (23,200 cfs). Flows subsided in early May to about 340 m{sup 3}/s (12,000 cfs), but rose to 1,031 m{sup 3}/s (36,370 cfs) by Mary 26 because of local runoff, and white sturgeon began spawning. However, flows subsided again to 373 m{sup 3}/s (13,200 cfs) June 11, 1999 and some female white sturgeon with transmitters began leaving the spawning reach. Water temperature ranged from about 8 C to 10 C (45 F to 50 F) during these two weeks. On June 13 (two weeks after sturgeon began spawning), spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began. The flow was brought up to 1,136 m{sup 3}/s (40,100 cfs) and temperature rose to about 11 C (52 F). They sampled for 3,387 mat days (one mat day is a single 24 h set) with artificial substrate mats and captured 184 white sturgeon eggs. The Middle Shorty's Island reach (river kilometer [rkm] 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (144), with 388 mat days of effort; the Refuge section (rkm 234.8 to 237.5) with 616 mat days of effort produced 23 eggs; and the Lower Shorty's section produced 19 eggs with 548 days of mat effort. No eggs were collected above the Refuge section (> rkm 240.5) with 988 mat days of effort. They do not believe flows for sturgeon spawning in 1999

  8. Kootenai river velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - A mystery unraveled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0-246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a 'short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam

  9. Chronic oral DDT toxicity in juvenile coho and chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Donald R.; Rasmusson, Mary E.; Shanks, W.E.

    1969-01-01

    Technical and p,p′-DDT was incorporated into test diets and fed to juvenile chinook and coho salmon for periods as long as 95 days. Pure p,p′-DDT was slightly more toxic to young salmon than was the technical DDT mixture. Chinook salmon appeared to be 2–3 times more sensitive to a given concentration of DDT in the diet than were coho salmon. The size of the fish greatly influenced toxicity, smaller younger fish being more susceptible to a given diet than larger older fish. The dose of DDT accumulated within the median survival time ranged from 27–73 mg/kg for chinook salmon and from 56–72 mg/kg for coho salmon. The extrapolated 90-dose LD50 (Hayes, 1967) for young chinook and coho salmon were 0.0275 and 0.064 mg/kg/day, respectively. Liver size decreased on prolonged feeding with DDT, and carcass lipid content was increased. A severe surface ulceration of the nose region appeared in coho salmon fed DDT over long periods. In addition, an interesting localized degeneration of the distal convoluted tubule was observed in the kidney of coho salmon receiving DDT.

  10. Thermal and hydrologic suitability of Lake Erie and its major tributaries for spawning of Asian carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, Patrick M.; Chapman, Duane C.; McKenna, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, silver carp H. molitrix, and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (hereafter Asian carps) have expanded throughout the Mississippi River basin and threaten to invade Lakes Michigan and Erie. Adult bighead carp and grass carp have been captured in Lake Erie, but self-sustaining populations probably do not exist. We examined thermal conditions within Lake Erie to determine if Asian carps would mature, and to estimate time of year when fish would reach spawning condition. We also examined whether thermal and hydrologic conditions in the largest tributaries to western and central Lake Erie were suitable for spawning of Asian carps. We used length of undammed river, predicted summer temperatures, and predicted water velocity during flood events to determine whether sufficient lengths of river are available for spawning of Asian carps. Most rivers we examined have at least 100 km of passable river and summer temperatures suitable (> 21 C) for rapid incubation of eggs of Asian carps. Predicted water velocity and temperature were sufficient to ensure that incubating eggs, which drift in the water column, would hatch before reaching Lake Erie for most flood events in most rivers if spawned far enough upstream. The Maumee, Sandusky, and Grand Rivers were predicted to be the most likely to support spawning of Asian carps. The Black, Huron, Portage, and Vermilion Rivers were predicted to be less suitable. The weight of the evidence suggests that the largest western and central Lake Erie tributaries are thermally and hydrologically suitable to support spawning of Asian carps.

  11. Spawning and rearing behavior of bull trout in a headwaterlake ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora B. Tennant,; Gresswell, Bob; Guy, Christopher S.; Michael H. Meeuwig,

    2015-01-01

    Numerous life histories have been documented for bull trout Salvelinus confluentus. Lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout populations that occupy small, headwater lake ecosystems and migrate short distances to natal tributaries to spawn are likely common; however, much of the research on potamodromous bull trout has focused on describing the spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout populations that occupy large rivers and lakes and make long distance spawning migrations to natal headwater streams. This study describes the spawning and rearing characteristics of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage, Glacier National Park, USA, a small headwater lake ecosystem. Many spawning and rearing characteristics of bull trout in the Quartz Lake drainage are similar to potamodromous bull trout that migrate long distances. For example, subadult bull trout distribution was positively associated with slow-water habitat unit types and maximum wetted width, and negatively associated with increased stream gradient. Bull trout spawning also occurred when water temperatures were between 5 and 9 °C, and redds were generally located in stream segments with low stream gradient and abundant gravel and cobble substrates. However, this study also elucidated characteristics of bull trout biology that are not well documented in the literature, but may be relatively widespread and have important implications regarding general characteristics of bull trout ecology, use of available habitat by bull trout, and persistence of lacustrine-adfluvial bull trout in small headwater lake ecosystems.

  12. Phenotypic plasticity in the spawning traits of bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) in novel ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Alison A.; Keller, Doug; Amberg, Jon J.; Bailey, Elizabeth J.; Goforth, Reuben R.

    2013-01-01

    1. Bigheaded carp, including both silver (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead (H. nobilis) carp, are successful invasive fishes that threaten global freshwater biodiversity. High phenotypic plasticity probably contributes to their success in novel ecosystems, although evidence of plasticity in several spawning traits has hitherto been largely anecdotal or speculative. 2. We collected drifting eggs from a Midwestern U.S.A. river from June to September 2011 and from April to June 2012 to investigate the spawning traits of bigheaded carp in novel ecosystems. 3. Unlike reports from the native range, the presence of drifting bigheaded carp eggs was not related to changes in hydrological regime or mean daily water temperature. Bigheaded carp also exhibited protracted spawning, since we found drifting eggs throughout the summer and as late as 1 September 2011. Finally, we detected bigheaded carp eggs in a river reach where the channel is c. 30 m wide with a catchment area of 4579 km2, the smallest stream in which spawning has yet been documented. 4. Taken with previous observations of spawning traits that depart from those observed within the native ranges of both bighead and silver carp, our findings provide direct evidence that bigheaded carp exhibit plastic spawning traits in novel ecosystems that may facilitate invasion and establishment in a wider range of river conditions than previously envisaged.

  13. Spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Thomas; Riley, Stephen C.; Holbrook, Christopher; Hansen, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Bronte, Charles R.; He, Ji; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Fidelity to high-quality spawning sites helps ensure that adults repeatedly spawn at sites that maximize reproductive success. Fidelity is also an important behavioural characteristic to consider when hatchery-reared individuals are stocked for species restoration, because artificial rearing environments may interfere with cues that guide appropriate spawning site selection. Acoustic telemetry was used in conjunction with Cormack–Jolly–Seber capture–recapture models to compare degree of spawning site fidelity of wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in northern Lake Huron. Annual survival was estimated to be between 77% and 81% and did not differ among wild and hatchery males and females. Site fidelity estimates were high in both wild and hatchery-reared lake trout (ranging from 0.78 to 0.94, depending on group and time filter), but were slightly lower in hatchery-reared fish than in wild fish. The ecological implication of the small difference in site fidelity between wild and hatchery-reared lake trout is unclear, but similarities in estimates suggest that many hatchery-reared fish use similar spawning sites to wild fish and that most return to those sites annually for spawning.

  14. Oxygen depletion in coastal seas and the effective spawning stock biomass of an exploited fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, H-H; von Dewitz, B; Dierking, J; Haslob, H; Makarchouk, A; Petereit, C; Voss, R

    2016-01-01

    Environmental conditions may have previously underappreciated effects on the reproductive processes of commercially exploited fish populations, for example eastern Baltic cod, that are living at the physiological limits of their distribution. In the Baltic Sea, salinity affects neutral egg buoyancy, which is positively correlated with egg survival, as only water layers away from the oxygen consumption-dominated sea bottom contain sufficient oxygen. Egg buoyancy is positively correlated to female spawner age/size. From observations in the Baltic Sea, a field-based relationship between egg diameter and buoyancy (floating depth) could be established. Hence, based on the age structure of the spawning stock, we quantify the number of effective spawners, which are able to reproduce under ambient hydrographic conditions. For the time period 1993-2010, our results revealed large variations in the horizontal extent of spawning habitat (1000-20 000 km(2)) and oxygen-dependent egg survival (10-80%). The novel concept of an effective spawning stock biomass takes into account offspring that survive depending on the spawning stock age/size structure, if reproductive success is related to egg buoyancy and the extent of hypoxic areas. Effective spawning stock biomass reflected the role of environmental conditions for Baltic cod recruitment better than the spawning stock biomass alone, highlighting the importance of including environmental information in ecosystem-based management approaches.

  15. Location Isn't Everything: Timing of Spawning Aggregations Optimizes Larval Replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Megan J; Karnauskas, Mandy; Toews, Carl; Paris, Claire B

    2015-01-01

    Many species of reef fishes form large spawning aggregations that are highly predictable in space and time. Prior research has suggested that aggregating fish derive fitness benefits not just from mating at high density but, also, from oceanographic features of the spatial locations where aggregations occur. Using a probabilistic biophysical model of larval dispersal coupled to a fine resolution hydrodynamic model of the Florida Straits, we develop a stochastic landscape of larval fitness. Tracking virtual larvae from release to settlement and incorporating changes in larval behavior through ontogeny, we found that larval success was sensitive to the timing of spawning. Indeed, propagules released during the observed spawning period had higher larval success rates than those released outside the observed spawning period. In contrast, larval success rates were relatively insensitive to the spatial position of the release site. In addition, minimum (rather than mean) larval survival was maximized during the observed spawning period, indicating a reproductive strategy that minimizes the probability of recruitment failure. Given this landscape of larval fitness, we take an inverse optimization approach to define a biological objective function that reflects a tradeoff between the mean and variance of larval success in a temporally variable environment. Using this objective function, we suggest that the length of the spawning period can provide insight into the tradeoff between reproductive risk and reward.

  16. Supplementing long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned wild Pacific pink salmon with Alaska salmon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapis, Trina J; Oliveira, Alexandra C M; Crapo, Charles A; Himelbloom, Brian; Bechtel, Peter J; Long, Kristy A

    2013-01-01

    Establishing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in canned wild Alaska pink salmon products is challenging due to ample natural variation found in lipid content of pink salmon muscle. This study investigated the effect of adding salmon oil (SO) to canned pink salmon produced from fish exhibiting two opposite degrees of skin watermarking, bright (B) and dark (D). Specific goals of the study were to evaluate the benefits of adding SO to canned pink salmon with regard to nutritional value of the product, sensory characteristics, and the oxidative and hydrolytic stability of the lipids over thermal processing. Six groups of canned pink salmon were produced with variable levels of SO, either using bright (with 0, 1, or 2% SO) or dark (with 0, 2, or 4% SO) pink salmon. Compositional analysis revealed highest (P  0.05) ranging from 5.7% to 6.8%. Consequently, addition of SO to canned pink salmon allowed for consistent lipid content between bright and dark fish. Addition of 1% or 2% SO to canned bright pink salmon was not detrimental to the sensory properties of the product. It is recommended that canned bright pink salmon be supplemented with at least 1% SO, while supplementation with 2% SO would guarantee a minimum quantity of 1.9 g of n-3 fatty acids per 100 g of product. Addition of 4% SO to canned dark pink salmon was detrimental to product texture and taste, while supplementation with 2% SO did not negatively affect sensorial properties of the product. Accordingly, canned dark pink salmon should be supplemented with 2% SO so that a minimum n-3 fatty acids content of 1.5 g per 100 g of product.

  17. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation (U.S.)

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on

  18. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Donald; Gee, Sally

    2009-03-31

    The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program is designed to rapidly increase numbers of Chinook salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation in Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and upper Grande Ronde River (GR). Natural parr are captured and reared to adulthood in captivity, spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Presmolt rearing was initially conducted at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LFH) but parr collected in 2003 and later were reared at Wallowa Fish Hatchery (WFH). Post-smolt rearing is conducted at Bonneville Fish Hatchery (BOH - freshwater) and at Manchester Research Station (MRS - saltwater). The CC and LR programs are being terminated, as these populations have achieved the goal of a consistent return of 150 naturally spawning adults, so the 2005 brood year was the last brood year collected for theses populations. The Grande Ronde River program continued with 300 fish collected each year. Currently, we are attempting to collect 150 natural parr and incorporate 150 parr collected as eggs from females with low ELISA levels from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Hatchery Program. This is part of a comparison of two methods of obtaining fish for a captive broodstock program: natural fish vs. those spawned in captivity. In August 2007, we collected 152 parr (BY 2006) from the upper Grande Ronde River and also have 155 Grande Ronde River parr (BY 2006) that were hatched from eyed eggs at LFH. During 2008, we were unable to collect natural parr from the upper Grande Ronde River. Therefore, we obtained 300 fish from low ELISA females from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Program. In October 2008 we obtained 170 eyed eggs from the upper Grande Ronde river Conventional

  19. Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Hair, Donald; Gee, Sally

    2009-03-31

    The Grande Ronde Basin Spring Chinook Salmon Captive Broodstock Program is designed to rapidly increase numbers of Chinook salmon in stocks that are in imminent danger of extirpation in Catherine Creek (CC), Lostine River (LR) and upper Grande Ronde River (GR). Natural parr are captured and reared to adulthood in captivity, spawned (within stocks) and their progeny reared to smoltification before being released into the natal stream of their parents. This program is co-managed by ODFW, National Marine Fisheries Service, Nez Perce Tribe and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Presmolt rearing was initially conducted at Lookingglass Fish Hatchery (LFH) but parr collected in 2003 and later were reared at Wallowa Fish Hatchery (WFH). Post-smolt rearing is conducted at Bonneville Fish Hatchery (BOH - freshwater) and at Manchester Research Station (MRS - saltwater). The CC and LR programs are being terminated, as these populations have achieved the goal of a consistent return of 150 naturally spawning adults, so the 2005 brood year was the last brood year collected for theses populations. The Grande Ronde River program continued with 300 fish collected each year. Currently, we are attempting to collect 150 natural parr and incorporate 150 parr collected as eggs from females with low ELISA levels from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Hatchery Program. This is part of a comparison of two methods of obtaining fish for a captive broodstock program: natural fish vs. those spawned in captivity. In August 2007, we collected 152 parr (BY 2006) from the upper Grande Ronde River and also have 155 Grande Ronde River parr (BY 2006) that were hatched from eyed eggs at LFH. During 2008, we were unable to collect natural parr from the upper Grande Ronde River. Therefore, we obtained 300 fish from low ELISA females from the upper Grande Ronde River Conventional Program. In October 2008 we obtained 170 eyed eggs from the upper Grande Ronde river Conventional

  20. SALMON-TRINITY ALPS WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Preston E.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness in the Klamath Mountains province occupies an area of about 648 sq mi in parts of Trinity, Siskiyou, and Humboldt Counties, northwestern California. As a result of field studies it was determined that the Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness has an area with substantiated potential for gold resources in known lode deposits. Small amounts of quicksilver have been produced from one mine but there is little promise for the discovery of additional mercury resources. Geochemical sampling showed that anomalously high amounts of several other metals occur in a few places, but there is little promise for the discovery of energy or mineral resources other than mercury and gold.

  1. White-spot disease of salmon fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuranich, J.J.; Nielson, W.E.

    1959-01-01

     White-spot disease, sometimes referred to as coagulated-yolk disease, has been associated with excessive mortalities occurring among the fry and early fingerling stages of the fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytacha) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Stations at Carson, Cook, Underwood, and Willard, Washington. This disease of eggs and fry should not be confused with the "white-spot" infection that is caused in fingerlings by members of the protozoan genus Ichthyophthirius.

  2. Spermatophore affects the egg-spawning and egg-carrying behavior in the female giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruangkum, Thanapong; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-10-01

    In crustaceans, mating occurs during the ecdysis after female molting. During this period, a male transfers its spermatophore into a female which, in some species, stores the spermatophore for a long period prior to spawning and fertilization. However, in some species including the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, the male deposits its spermataphore onto the external surface of the thoracic segment of the female which affects the spawning time and maternal behavior. This study investigated the spawning behavior of the M. rosenbergii females, which was divided into pre-spawning, spawning, and post-spawning phases. It was revealed that mated female prawns with attached spermatophore exhibited an earlier spawning than unmated individuals, leading to assessment of the factors that may elicit this phenomenon. Four groups of female prawns were allocated to groups including mating females with spermatophore still attached, mating females with the spermatophore removed, artificially inseminated females with spermatophores, and an unmated control. There was a significant reduction in the time of egg-spawning in the presence of spermatophores, and the mating activity was also a contributing factor. Furthermore, over 90% of the mated and artificially inseminated females in which spermatophores were deposited carried the eggs in the abdominal brood chamber until completion of embryonic development while others discarded the eggs within 2 days post-spawning. This study implies that the spermatophore may contain ovulation-inducing factors which stimulate an earlier spawning and fostering of brooding behavior.

  3. New insight into the spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, from a recovering population in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Thomas R.; Thompson, Henry T.; Muir, Andrew M.; Riley, Stephen C.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Bronte, Charles R.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Spawning behavior of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, is poorly understood, relative to stream-dwelling salmonines. Underwater video records of spawning in a recovering population from the Drummond Island Refuge (Lake Huron) represent the first reported direct observations of lake trout spawning in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These observations provide new insight into lake trout spawning behavior and expand the current conceptual model. Lake trout spawning consisted of at least four distinct behaviors: hovering, traveling, sinking, and gamete release. Hovering is a new courtship behavior that has not been previously described. The apparent concentration of hovering near the margin of the spawning grounds suggests that courtship and mate selection might be isolated from the spawning act (i.e., traveling, sinking, and gamete release). Moreover, we interpret jockeying for position displayed by males during traveling as a unique form of male-male competition that likely evolved in concert with the switch from redd-building to itinerant spawning in lake trout. Unlike previous models, which suggested that intra-sexual competition and mate selection do not occur in lake trout, our model includes both and is therefore consistent with evolutionary theory, given that the sex ratio on spawning grounds is skewed heavily towards males. The model presented in this paper is intended as a working hypothesis, and further revision may become necessary as we gain a more complete understanding of lake trout spawning behavior.

  4. Geomorphic and Salmon Habitat Response to Dam Removal with Minimal Constraints to Channel Evolution, Wa'atch Creek, Western Washington, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, A. C.; Shellberg, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    Dam removal has become an important component of aquatic ecosystem restoration, but studies documenting the physical and ecological response to dam removal across a range of human modified hydroclimatic and physiographic settings are still lacking. This research documents channel geomorphic response and fine sediment storage in salmon spawning gravels after removing two derelict dams (largest 6m) from Wa’atch Creek, located in the temperate coastal-marine zone of the Pacific Northwest, USA. After removing dam sheet pile and earthen fill, natural river processes including sediment flushing were allowed occur. Technical engineering solutions were avoided, unlike comparably sized dam removals in western Washington that over-engineered channel stability. However, two-hundred large-logs (LWD) were placed unanchored below the dam sites and throughout the reservoir before drawdown to sort and store sediment and provide future habitat complexity. Initial sedimentation impacts were severe following dam removal, temporarily smothering the bed of the creek with a fine sediment slurry (fluid mud) from dam to delta, killing aquatic biota, and covering spawning gravels with inhospitable levels of fine sediment. Subsequently, several large floods within the first year (max 10-yr recurrence interval) flushed the channel sediment slurry and over half (11,000 m^3) of the fine sediment stored in the reservoir out to sea. Coarse sediment aggraded immediately below the dam where wood was placed in the channel, while channel incision occurred through the reservoir and into tributaries, both diminishing away from the disturbance center. Channel changes were greatest immediately following removal due to high stream power, steep energy slope and saturated unconsolidated alluvium. The rate of change in sediment volume diminished over time (2003 to 2008) due to sediment consolidation, vegetation colonization, and a reduction in energy slope. After reservoir and channel flushing, fine

  5. Does fish reproduction and metabolic activity influence metal levels in fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, during fish spawning and post-spawning period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Vardić Smrzlić, Irena; Raspor, Biserka

    2014-10-01

    Application of fish intestinal parasites, acanthocephalans, as bioindicators in metal exposure assessment usually involves estimation of their metal levels and bioconcentration factors. Metal levels in parasite final host, fishes, are influenced by fish physiology but there is no data for acanthocephalan metal levels. Gastrointestinal Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ag levels in European chub (Squalius cephalus L.) from the Sava River were significantly higher during chub spawning (April/May) compared to the post-spawning period (September). In acanthocephalans (Pomphorhynchus laevis and Acanthocephalus anguillae) significantly higher metal levels during chub spawning were observed only for Zn in P. laevis. Bioconcentration factors were twice as high for Fe, Mn, Ag, Pb in the post-spawning period, probably as a consequence of lower gastrointestinal metal levels in fish rather than metal exposure. Therefore, bioconcentration factors should be interpreted with caution, due to their possible variability in relation to fish physiology. In addition, gastrointestinal Cu, Cd and Pb levels were lower in infected than uninfected chub, indicating that metal variability in fishes might be affected by the presence of acanthocephalans.

  6. DANUBE SALMON (HUCHO HUCHO L.. THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creating of the thematic bibliographic list of publications dedicated to ecological and zoogeographical, morphological and biological, physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics of the Danube salmon, as well as to its cultivation in Ukraine and abroad. Methodology. In the process of systematic search complete and selective methods were applied. The bibliographic core have been formed by the literature from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. There was composed the thematic list of publications in a quantity of 100 sources, containing characteristics of Danube salmon as representative of salmonids. Literary sources was arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style – international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding, and researching of the salmon biological features.

  7. Spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod revisited: Using hydrodynamic modelling to reveal spawning habitat suitability, egg survival probability, and connectivity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Lehmann, A.; Petereit, C.; Nissling, A.; Ustups, D.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2016-04-01

    In the highly variable environment of the Baltic Sea two genetically distinct cod stocks exist, one west of the island of Bornholm, which is referred to as the western stock, and one to the east of Bornholm, the eastern stock. A hydrodynamic model combined with a Lagrangian particle tracking technique was utilised to provide spatially and temporally resolved long-term information on environmentally-related (i) spawning habitat size, (ii) egg/yolk-sac larval survival, (iii) separation of causes of mortality, and (iv) connectivity between spawning areas of eastern Baltic cod. Simulations were performed to quantify processes generating heterogeneity in spatial distribution of cod eggs and yolk sac larvae up to the first-feeding stage. The spatial extent of cod eggs represented as virtual drifters is primarily determined by oxygen and salinity conditions at spawning, which define the habitat requirement to which cod's physiology is suited for egg development. The highest habitat suitability occurred in the Bornholm Basin, followed by the Gdansk Deep, while relatively low habitat suitability was obtained for the Arkona and the Gotland Basin. During drift egg and yolk sac larval survival is to a large extent affected by sedimentation. Eggs initially released in the western spawning grounds (Arkona and Bornholm Basin) were more affected by sedimentation than those released in the eastern spawning grounds (Gdansk Deep and Gotland Basin). Highest relative survival of eastern Baltic cod eggs occurred in the Bornholm Basin, with a pronounced decrease towards the Gdansk Deep and the Gotland Basin. Relatively low survival rates in the Gdansk Deep and in the Gotland Basin were attributable to oxygen-dependent mortality. Low oxygen content had almost no impact on survival in the Arkona Basin. For all spawning areas temperature dependent mortality was only evident after severe winters. Egg buoyancy in relation to topographic features like bottom sills and strong bottom slopes

  8. The association between parental life history and offspring phenotype in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Travis E; McLennan, Darryl; McKelvey, Simon; Stewart, David C; Adams, Colin E; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2016-02-01

    In many taxa there is considerable intraspecific variation in life history strategies from within a single population, reflecting alternative routes through which organisms can achieve successful reproduction. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) show some of the greatest within-population variability in life history strategies amongst vertebrates, with multiple discrete male and female life histories co-existing and interbreeding on many spawning grounds, although the effect of the various combinations of life histories on offspring traits remains unknown. Using crosses of wild fish we show here that the life history strategy of both parents was significantly associated with a range of offspring traits. Mothers that had spent longer at sea (2 versus 1 year) produced offspring that were heavier, longer and in better condition at the time of first feeding. However, these relationships disappeared shortly after fry had begun feeding exogenously. At this stage, the juvenile rearing environment (i.e. time spent in fresh water as juveniles) of the mother was a better predictor of offspring traits, with mothers that were faster to develop in fresh water (migrating to sea after two rather than three years of age) producing offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, aerobic scopes, and that grew faster. Faster developing fathers (1 year old sneaker males) tended to produce offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, were in better body condition and grew faster. The results suggest that both genetic effects and those related to parental early and late life history contribute to offspring traits.

  9. Carcass analog addition enhances juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) growth and condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyette, Margaret Q.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Our study used historic marine-derived nutrient (MDN) delivery timing to simulate potential effects of restored connectivity on juvenile Atlantic salmon (ATS; Salmo salar) growth and condition. Four headwater streams were stocked with ATS young of the year (YOY) and received carcass analog additions (0.10 kg·m–2 wetted area) in treatment reaches to match the timing of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) spawning. Individual ATS mass was 33%–48% greater and standard length was 9%–15% greater in treatment reaches relative to control reaches for 4 months following nutrient additions. Percent total lipids in YOY ATS were twice as great in treatment reaches 1 month following carcass analog additions and remained elevated in treatment fish for 2 more months. Absolute growth rates, based on otolith microstructure analysis, correlated with water temperature fluctuations in all reaches and were elevated by an average of 0.07 mm·day–1 in treatment reaches for 1 month following carcass analog additions. Simulated sea lamprey MDNs increased juvenile ATS growth, which, via potential increases in overwinter survival and decreases in smolt age, may contribute to population persistence and ecosystem productivity.

  10. Spring Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha Supplementation in the Clearwater Subbasin ; Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, Thomas; Sprague, Sherman; Bretz, Justin [Nez Perce Tribe

    2009-06-10

    The Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery (NPTH) program has the following goals (BPA, et al., 1997): (1) Protect, mitigate, and enhance Clearwater Subbasin anadromous fish resources; (2) Develop, reintroduce, and increase natural spawning populations of salmon within the Clearwater Subbasin; (3) Provide long-term harvest opportunities for Tribal and non-Tribal anglers within Nez Perce Treaty lands within four generations (20 years) following project initiation; (4) Sustain long-term fitness and genetic integrity of targeted fish populations; (5) Keep ecological and genetic impacts to non-target populations within acceptable limits; and (6) Promote Nez Perce Tribal management of Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery Facilities and production areas within Nez Perce Treaty lands. The NPTH program was designed to rear and release 1.4 million fall and 625,000 spring Chinook salmon. Construction of the central incubation and rearing facility NPTH and spring Chinook salmon acclimation facilities were completed in 2003 and the first full term NPTH releases occurred in 2004 (Brood Year 03). Monitoring and evaluation plans (Steward, 1996; Hesse and Cramer, 2000) were established to determine whether the Nez Perce Tribal Hatchery program is achieving its stated goals. The monitoring and evaluation action plan identifies the need for annual data collection and annual reporting. In addition, recurring 5-year program reviews will evaluate emerging trends and aid in the determination of the effectiveness of the NPTH program with recommendations to improve the program's implementation. This report covers the Migratory Year (MY) 2007 period of the NPTH Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) program. There are three NPTH spring Chinook salmon treatment streams: Lolo Creek, Newsome Creek, and Meadow Creek. In 2007, Lolo Creek received 140,284 Brood Year (BY) 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average weight of 34.9 grams per fish, Newsome Creek received 77,317 BY 2006 acclimated pre-smolts at an average of 24

  11. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Plaster, Kurtis; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-01-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) and Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focused on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced adults occurred in 1993. The first release of juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. In 1999, the first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded when six jacks and one jill were captured at the IDFG Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2003, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using three strategies: eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit and Alturas lakes in November and December, age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in October, and hatchery-produced adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2003. Age-0 through age-4 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 81,727 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 46,234 fish. Age-0 through age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 11,961 fish. Angler surveys were conducted from May 25 through August 7, 2003 on Redfish Lake to estimate kokanee harvest. On Redfish Lake, we interviewed 179 anglers and estimated that 424 kokanee were harvested. The calculated kokanee catch rate was 0.09 fish/hour. The juvenile out-migrant trap on Redfish Lake Creek was operated from April 15 to May 29

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  14. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  15. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  16. Reproductive longevity and fecundity associated with nonannual spawning in cui-ui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Rissler, P.H.; Buettner, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The cui-ui Chasmistes cujus, a long-lived (40 years or more) and highly fecund catostomid, is often prevented from spawning in drought years. We studied the effect of cui-ui age on egg viability and the effect of nonannual spawning on fecundity in relation to length, age, and growth rate. Egg hatching and survival of swim-up larvae were examined for the offspring of first-time spawners, intermediate-aged females, and old females. Fecundity was tested for three growth categories (fast, intermediate, and slow) in years that were sufficiently wet to allow fish to spawn in the Truckee River and after dry years when fish did not spawn because of river inaccessibility. Females in the fast-growth category were first-time spawners, those in the middle-growth category were young to middle aged, and those in the slow-growth category were middle aged to old. Females up to 44 years of age still had viable eggs and a reproductive life of at least 29 years. Fecundity was greater after no-spawn years (dry year) compared with a spawn year (wet year), especially for fish in the slow-growth category. This study provides insight into the reproductive adaptation of a long-lived western North American catostomid and suggests possible reasons for the wide variation in fecundity in other long-lived catostomids. Our data will be used to improve the accuracy of an existing cui-ui population viability model. The revised model will have greater sensitivity to cui-ui survival relative to their spawning frequency and, thus, contribute to better management of conditions needed for the long-term survival of endangered cui-ui.

  17. Size as indicator of origin of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordhagen, J.R.; Heuch, P.A.; Schram, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) from farmed Atlantic salmon have been implicated in the drastic sea trout and salmon stock declines found in Ireland and Norway. Can salmon lice from farmed and wild fish be distinguished? The hypothesis has been advanced that the treatment of salmo

  18. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Tapeworm Larvae in Salmon from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Mikuláš; Ferguson, Jayde; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is reemerging because of global importation and increased popularity of eating raw fish. We detected Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense plerocercoids in the musculature of wild pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Alaska, USA. Therefore, salmon from the American and Asian Pacific coasts and elsewhere pose potential dangers for persons who eat these fish raw. PMID:28098540

  19. Indirect benefits for female salmon from mating with brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ana G F; Beall, Edward; Morán, Paloma; Martinez, Jose L; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    By genetic analysis of 1625 samples from 10 south European rivers, we have found that Atlantic salmon Salmo salar hybridize with sympatric brown trout S. trutta in the wild and provide the female in most heterospecific crosses. Hybrids exhibit reduced fertility and could be considered a wasted reproductive effort by salmon females. In 7 experiments involving salmon females, large brown trout males, and small salmon male sneakers, reproductive success of Atlantic salmon females mating with brown trout males was not significantly different from that of 5 experiments of females mating with conspecific males because small Atlantic salmon sneakers fertilized most ova (mean 93%) in salmon x trout matings. Although egg retention tended to be higher in heterospecific than in conspecific crosses (mean 5.7% vs. 20.5% respectively), mean offspring survival was 24.4% and 30.3%, respectively (t = 1.5 x 10(-8), not significant). Brown trout males taking on a courting role may benefit late-maturing females in absence or scarcity of anadromous salmon males because they play a protective role against disturbances from other fishes (including cannibal sneakers).

  20. Preserving Salmon Byproducts through Smoke-Processing Prior to Ensilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon is an important fishery in Alaska and accounts for about 9% of the annual catch. Processing these fish results in valuable byproducts that contain oils with high concentrations of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Previous research demonstrated that when discarded salmon head...

  1. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.

  2. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... forms of canned Pacific salmon are processed from fish prepared by removing the head, gills, and tail... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned Pacific salmon. 161.170 Section 161.170... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FISH AND SHELLFISH Requirements for Specific Standardized Fish and...

  3. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review). Issued: February 17, 2012....

  4. Habitat use by subyearling Chinook and coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The habitat use of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was examined in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. A total of 1781 habitat observations were made on Chinook salmon (698) and coho salmon (1083). During both spring and fall, subyearling coho salmon used pool habitat with abundant cover. During spring, principal component analysis revealed that water depth was the most important variable governing subyearling Chinook salmon habitat use. Substrate materials used by Chinook salmon in the spring and coho salmon in the fall were significantly smaller than were present on average within the study reaches. When the two species occurred sympatrically during spring they exhibited similar habitat selection. Although the habitat used by coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries was consistent with observations of habitat use in their native range, higher water velocities were less important to Chinook salmon than has previously been reported.

  5. Variation in the Mating Systems of Wrasses (Labridae at a Spawning Aggregation Site on Guam, Mariana Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry J. Donaldson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrasses (family Labridae exhibit a diverse number of mating strategies and behaviors. This diversity is expressed not only interspecifically but also intraspecifically. At Guam, Mariana Islands, over twenty species of wrasses spawn on a small, shallow coral reef known as Finger Reef that projects outward from the main reef into Apra Harbor. Preliminary observations indicated that the mating system utilized by some wrasses varied within species. To examine why this occurs, I utilized direct visual observations supplemented by underwater video and photography. I recorded the identity of the species courting, the number of individuals participating, the distribution of male mating territories, courtship and spawning behaviors, and courtship success. Field work utilized snorkeling for several hours a day variously within the lunar month during 2013-2015. I found that courtship and spawning occurs either in temporary resident spawning aggregations or within a protogynous haremic mating system. Within spawning aggregations, mating systems include a lek-like system with paired spawning, and group or promiscuous spawning. Haremic species followed the traditional single male-multiple female model. Both group-spawning and haremic species, however, also spawned in simple male-female pairs. Sneaking or streaking behavior during pelagic spawning events were observed in all mating systems. The results of these observations found that lek-like behavior and group spawning were dependent upon higher densities of males and females at the site. At lower densities, however, some species reverted to simple paired spawning while others used a haremic system rather than a lek-like system. This suggests that some species of wrasses practice a mixed strategy that is dependent upon fish density during the courtship period.

  6. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn;

    2008-01-01

    We reasoned that by challenging large numbers of Atlantic salmon families with the causative agents of furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), we could show unequivocally that resistance to these diseases expresses moderate-to-high levels of additive...

  7. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BA55 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce....

  8. Antibody against infectious salmon anaemia virus among feral Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Archived sera from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that returned to the Penobscot River (Maine), Merrimack River (Massachusetts), and Connecticut River (in Massachusetts) from 1995 to 2002 were analysed for antibodies against infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Up to 60 samples were archived per river system per year. In a given year, the number of fish sampled by ELISA for ISAV antibodies in the Penobscot River ranged from 2.9 to 11.2, and the range of salmon sampled in the Merrimack River and the Connecticut River was 31.3-100 and 20.0-67.5, respectively. Archived sera were not available for the 1995 and 2002 year classes from the Connecticut River. In all, 1141 samples were processed; 14 serum samples tested positive for antibodies to ISAV. In the Penobscot River, serum from one fish tested positive in each of the 1995 and 1999 year-class returns, and sera from two fish tested positive in the 1998 returns. In the Merrimack River, sera from four fish tested positive in each of the 1996 and 1997 returns, and sera from two fish were positive in the 2002 return. None of the archived sera from Atlantic salmon that returned to the Connecticut River tested positive. ?? 2009 United States Government, Department of the Interior.

  9. Salmon Futures: Stakeholder-driven salmon management scenarios under changing environmental conditions on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, E. J.; Krupa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the adaptive capacity of individuals within natural resource management agencies is a key component of assessing the vulnerability of salmon to future environmental change. We seek to explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula by exploring the drivers and implications of different salmon allocation scenarios through participatory workshops with managers. We present here the initial results from the first workshop, which explores the various drivers responsible for changes in salmon allocation. Ranging from global to local, and biophysical to socioeconomic, these drivers are also linked to specific actors in the region. These complex interactions comprise the Kenai Peninsula's social-ecological system and determine its ability to react to change. Using a stakeholder-driven scenario framework, we aim to: 1) explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies in the region by exploring and exposing managers to different but logically coherent salmon allocation scenarios; 2) build stakeholder confidence in the science of environmental change on the Kenai Peninsula; and 3) develop a decision support tool that helps regional resource managers better understand their changing environment. We utilize and present the scenario framework as a platform for integrating hydrologic, landscape, and cultural change information into actionable decisions, crafted by the stakeholders, so that landscape change on the Kenai becomes more coordinated.

  10. Microbial ecology of the salmon necrobiome: evidence salmon carrion decomposition influences aquatic and terrestrial insect microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric

    2016-05-01

    Carrion decomposition is driven by complex relationships that affect necrobiome community (i.e. all organisms and their genes associated with a dead animal) interactions, such as insect species arrival time to carrion and microbial succession. Little is understood about how microbial communities interact with invertebrates at the aquatic-terrestrial habitat interface. The first objective of the study was to characterize internal microbial communities using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for aquatic insects (three mayfly species) in streams with salmon carcasses compared with those in streams without salmon carcasses. The second objective was to assess the epinecrotic microbial communities of decomposing salmon carcasses (Oncorhynchus keta) compared with those of terrestrial necrophagous insects (Calliphora terraenovae larvae and adults) associated with the carcasses. There was a significant difference in the internal microbiomes of mayflies collected in salmon carcass-bearing streams and in non-carcass streams, while the developmental stage of blow flies was the governing factor in structuring necrophagous insect internal microbiota. Furthermore, the necrophagous internal microbiome was influenced by the resource on which the larvae developed, and changes in the adult microbiome varied temporally. Overall, these carrion subsidy-driven networks respond to resource pulses with bottom-up effects on consumer microbial structure, as revealed by shifting communities over space and time.

  11. Importance of reservoir tributaries to spawning of migratory fish in the upper Paraná River

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, P.S.; Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; Miranda, Leandro E.; Makrakis, Sergio; Assumpcao, L.; Paula, S.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro; Marques, H.

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of rivers by dams transforms previously lotic reaches above the dam into lentic ones and limits or prevents longitudinal connectivity, which impairs access to suitable habitats for the reproduction of many migratory fish species. Frequently, unregulated tributaries can provide important habitat heterogeneity to a regulated river and may mitigate the influence of impoundments on the mainstem river. We evaluated the importance of tributaries to spawning of migratory fish species over three spawning seasons, by comparing several abiotic conditions and larval fish distributions in four rivers that are tributaries to an impounded reach of the Upper Parana River, Brazil. Our study confirmed reproduction of at least 8 long-distance migrators, likely nine, out of a total of 19 occurring in the Upper Parana River. Total larval densities and percentage species composition differed among tributaries, but the differences were not consistent among spawning seasons and unexpectedly were not strongly related to annual differences in temperature and hydrology. We hypothesize that under present conditions, densities of larvae of migratory species may be better related to efficiency of fish passage facilities than to temperature and hydrology. Our study indicates that adult fish are finding suitable habitat for spawning in tributaries, fish eggs are developing into larvae, and larvae are finding suitable rearing space in lagoons adjacent to the tributaries. Our findings also suggest the need for establishment of protected areas in unregulated and lightly regulated tributaries to preserve essential spawning and nursery habitats.

  12. Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Differential Gene Expression of Amur Ide (Leuciscus waleckii during Spawning Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cui

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Amur ide (Leuciscus waleckii, an important aquaculture species, inhabits neutral freshwater but can tolerate high salinity or alkalinity. As an extreme example, the population in Dali Nor lake inhabits alkalized soda water permanently, and migrates from alkaline water to neutral freshwater to spawn. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome profiling study on the livers of Amur ide to interrogate the expression differences between the population that permanently inhabit freshwater in Ganggeng Nor lake (FW and the spawning population that recently migrated from alkaline water into freshwater (SM. A total of 637,234,880 reads were generated, resulting in 53,440 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of these transcriptome files revealed 444 unigenes with significant differential expression (p-value ≤ 0.01, fold-change ≥ 2, including 246 genes that were up-regulated in SM and 198 genes that were up-regulated in FW. The gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the mTOR signaling pathway, Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT signaling pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation were highly likely to affect physiological changes during spawning migration. Overall, this study demonstrates that transcriptome changes played a role in Amur ide spawning migration. These results provide a foundation for further analyses on the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying Amur ide spawning migration.

  13. Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Differential Gene Expression of Amur Ide (Leuciscus waleckii) during Spawning Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jun; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Songhao; Wang, Kai; Jiang, Yanliang; Mahboob, Shahid; Al-Ghanim, Khalid A.; Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Amur ide (Leuciscus waleckii), an important aquaculture species, inhabits neutral freshwater but can tolerate high salinity or alkalinity. As an extreme example, the population in Dali Nor lake inhabits alkalized soda water permanently, and migrates from alkaline water to neutral freshwater to spawn. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome profiling study on the livers of Amur ide to interrogate the expression differences between the population that permanently inhabit freshwater in Ganggeng Nor lake (FW) and the spawning population that recently migrated from alkaline water into freshwater (SM). A total of 637,234,880 reads were generated, resulting in 53,440 assembled contigs that were used as reference sequences. Comparisons of these transcriptome files revealed 444 unigenes with significant differential expression (p-value ≤ 0.01, fold-change ≥ 2), including 246 genes that were up-regulated in SM and 198 genes that were up-regulated in FW. The gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the mTOR signaling pathway, Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway, and oxidative phosphorylation were highly likely to affect physiological changes during spawning migration. Overall, this study demonstrates that transcriptome changes played a role in Amur ide spawning migration. These results provide a foundation for further analyses on the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying Amur ide spawning migration. PMID:26096003

  14. Spawning of migratory fish species between two reservoirs of the upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Reynalte-Tataje

    Full Text Available This study investigated the migratory fish spawning within the reservoirs of the Machadinho and Itá dams (upper Uruguay River, Brazil and its relationship to environmental variables. Sampling was conducted in the lotic region of the river in two sites between the dams' reservoirs: Uruguay (main river and Ligeiro (tributary. Sampling included nine consecutive reproductive periods (RP spanning the period from 2001 to 2010 and was conducted at night on the water surface using cylindrical-conical plankton nets (0.5 mm mesh; environmental variables were also recorded. The spawning of the migratory species Salminus brasiliensis, Prochilodus lineatus, and Steindachneridion scriptum was registered: S. brasiliensis and P. lineatus spawned in the tributary river at the end of spring/beginning of summer, during flooding and during periods of high water temperature. Steindachneridion scriptum spawned in the main river at the beginning of spring. The study showed that S. brasiliensis, P. lineatus, and S. scriptum are able to spawn in small lotic river stretches within two reservoirs, but only under very specific and not common environmental conditions.

  15. Female reproductive biology of the bluemouth Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus: spawning and fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M; Dimitriadis, C; Casadevall, M; Vila, S; Delgado, E; Lloret, J; Saborido-Rey, F

    2010-12-01

    The bluemouth Helicolenus dactylopterus dactylopterus is a zygoparous species that spawns multiple batches of embryos enclosed within a gelatinous matrix. Oocyte development is asynchronous, and the recruitment of secondary growth oocytes occurs continuously during the developing phase, but stops before the start of the first spawning (i.e. fecundity is determinate). The number of developing oocytes can be estimated as a function of the total length of the fish, its ovary mass and its gonado-somatic index. Only at the onset of spawning, when potential fecundity is determined, does condition also have a significant effect. The low levels of atresia detected during most of the spawning season show that this mechanism does not substantially affect the process. There is variability both in the spawning interval (with a mean of 2 days) and in the number of embryos comprising every single batch (up to 37,000). Expected effect of fisheries on the reproductive traits of this deep-sea species is also discussed.

  16. Inhibitory mechanism of l-glutamic acid on spawning of the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Masatoshi

    2016-12-22

    l-Glutamic acid was previously identified as an inhibitor of spawning in the starfish Patiria (Asterina) pectinifera; this study examined how l-glutamic acid works. Oocyte release from ovaries of P. pectinifera occurred after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and follicular envelope breakdown (FEBD) when gonads were incubated ex vivo with either relaxin-like gonad-stimulating peptide (RGP) or 1-methyladenine (1-MeAde). l-Glutamic acid blocked this spawning phenotype, causing the mature oocytes to remain within the ovaries. Neither RGP-induced 1-MeAde production in ovarian follicle cells nor 1-MeAde-induced GVBD and FEBD was affected by l-glutamic acid. l-G