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Sample records for chum salmon regulated

  1. Cardiac arrest during gamete release in chum salmon regulated by the parasympathetic nerve system.

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    Yuya Makiguchi

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest caused by startling stimuli, such as visual and vibration stimuli, has been reported in some animals and could be considered as an extraordinary case of bradycardia and defined as reversible missed heart beats. Variability of the heart rate is established as a balance between an autonomic system, namely cholinergic vagus inhibition, and excitatory adrenergic stimulation of neural and hormonal action in teleost. However, the cardiac arrest and its regulating nervous mechanism remain poorly understood. We show, by using electrocardiogram (ECG data loggers, that cardiac arrest occurs in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta at the moment of gamete release for 7.39+/-1.61 s in females and for 5.20+/-0.97 s in males. The increase in heart rate during spawning behavior relative to the background rate during the resting period suggests that cardiac arrest is a characteristic physiological phenomenon of the extraordinarily high heart rate during spawning behavior. The ECG morphological analysis showed a peaked and tall T-wave adjacent to the cardiac arrest, indicating an increase in potassium permeability in cardiac muscle cells, which would function to retard the cardiac action potential. Pharmacological studies showed that the cardiac arrest was abolished by injection of atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, revealing that the cardiac arrest is a reflex response of the parasympathetic nerve system, although injection of sotalol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the cardiac arrest. We conclude that cardiac arrest during gamete release in spawning release in spawning chum salmon is a physiological reflex response controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system. This cardiac arrest represents a response to the gaping behavior that occurs at the moment of gamete release.

  2. Chum and pink salmon genetics - Genetic and life history variation of southern chum and pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The distribution of genetic and life history variation in chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in their southern range in North America is key to...

  3. Chum Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for CHUM SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  4. AFSC/ABL: Genetic Analysis of Immature Bering Sea Chum Salmon: Part I. Baseline Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chum salmon populations from across their geographic distribution have been analyzed with a set of SNP and microsatellite markers. As is typical for chum salmon...

  5. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon bycatch genetic stock identification 1994-1995 Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In some years, the Bering Sea trawl fishery incidentally harvests (bycatch) large numbers of chum salmon. Because chum salmon were declining in some western Alaska...

  6. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

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    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Friesen, Thomas A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-02-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. populations have declined over the last century due to a variety of human impacts. Chum salmon O. keta populations in the Columbia River have remained severely depressed for the past several decades, while upriver bright (URB) fall Chinook salmon O. tschawytscha populations have maintained relatively healthy levels. For the past seven years we have collected data on adult spawning and juvenile emergence and outmigration of URB fall Chinook and chum salmon populations in the Ives and Pierce islands complex below Bonneville Dam. In 2004, we estimated 1,733 fall Chinook salmon and 336 chum salmon spawned in our study area. Fall Chinook salmon spawning peaked 19 November with 337 redds and chum salmon spawning peaked 3 December with 148 redds. Biological characteristics continue to suggest chum salmon in our study area are similar to nearby stocks in Hardy and Hamilton creeks, and Chinook salmon we observe are similar to upriver bright stocks. Temperature data indicated that 2004 brood URB fall Chinook salmon emergence began on 6 January and ended 27 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring 12 March. Chum salmon emergence began 4 February and continued through 2 May 2005, with peak emergence occurring on 21 March. Between 13 January and 28 June, we sampled 28,984 juvenile Chinook salmon and 1,909 juvenile chum salmon. We also released 32,642 fin-marked and coded-wire tagged juvenile fall Chinook salmon to assess survival. The peak catch of juvenile fall Chinook salmon occurred on 18 April. Our results suggested that the majority of fall Chinook salmon outmigrate during late May and early June, at 70-80 mm fork length (FL). The peak catch of juvenile chum salmon occurred 25 March. Juvenile chum salmon appeared to outmigrate at 40-55 mm FL. Outmigration of chum salmon peaked in March but extended into April and May.

  7. Development of a Conceptual Chum Salmon Emergence Model for Ives Island

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    Murray, Christopher J.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Bott, Yi-Ju; Nabelek, Marc A.

    2011-02-09

    The objective of the study described herein was to develop a conceptual model of chum salmon emergence that was based on empirical water temperature of the riverbed and river in specific locations where chum salmon spawn in the Ives Island area. The conceptual model was developed using water temperature data that have been collected in the past and are currently being collected in the Ives Island area. The model will be useful to system operators who need to estimate the complete distribution of chum salmon emergence (first emergence through final emergence) in order to balance chum salmon redd protection and power system operation.

  8. Genetic stock identification of immature chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) in the western Bering Sea, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minho; Kim, Suam; Low, Loh-Lee

    2016-03-01

    Genetic stock identification studies have been widely applied to Pacific salmon species to estimate stock composition of complex mixed-stock fisheries. In a September-October 2004 survey, 739 chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) specimens were collected from 23 stations in the western Bering Sea. We determined the genetic stock composition of immature chum salmon based on the previous mitochondria DNA baseline. Each regional estimate was computed based on the conditional maximum likelihood method using 1,000 bootstrap resampling and then pooled to the major regional groups: Korea - Japan - Primorie (KJP) / Russia (RU) / Northwest Alaska (NWA) / Alaska Peninsula - Southcentral Alaska - Southeast Alaska - British Columbia - Washington (ONA). The stock composition of immature chum salmon in the western Bering Sea was a mix of 0.424 KJP, 0.421 RU, 0.116 NWA, and 0.039 ONA stocks. During the study period, the contribution of Asian chum salmon stocks gradually changed from RU to KJP stock. In addition, North American populations from NWA and ONA were small but present near the vicinity of the Russian coast and the Commander Islands, suggesting that the study areas in the western Bering Sea were an important migration route for Pacific chum salmon originating both from Asia and North America during the months of September and October. These results make it possible to better understand the chum salmon stock composition of the mixed-stock fisheries in the western Bering Sea and the stock-specific distribution pattern of chum salmon on the high-seas.

  9. AFSC/ABL: Taku chum salmon project diet and energy database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study is a cooperative effort between Douglas Island Pink in contrast, most wild chum salmon fry had already emigrated from the estuary by the time of late...

  10. AFSC/ABL: 2006 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2006 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  11. AFSC/ABL: 2007 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2007 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  12. AFSC/ABL: 2009 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2009 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  13. AFSC/ABL: 2011 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch from the 2011 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  14. AFSC/ABL: 2005 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2005 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  15. AFSC/ABL: 2008 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2008 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) trawl fishery was...

  16. AFSC/ABL: 2012 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch from the 2012 Bering Sea walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) trawl fishery was...

  17. AFSC/ABL: Immature chum salmon allozyme ID of mixed stocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Immature chum salmon were collected by the F/V Northwest Explorer between September 5 and October 8, during the 2002 BASIS survey across the eastern Bering Sea...

  18. AFSC/ABL: 2010 Chum Salmon Bycatch Sample Analysis Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analysis of samples from the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) bycatch of the 2010 Bering Sea groundfish trawl fishery was undertaken to determine the...

  19. Hood Canal Summer-run Chum Salmon Nearshore Marine Area Critical Habitat

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    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Nearshore marine areas within the Puget Sound have been designated as Critical Habitat for the Hood Canal Summer-run (HCS) Chum salmon Evolutionarily Significant...

  20. AFSC/ABL: Chum salmon length and weight monitoring at Fish Creek (Hyder, AK), Chilkat River (Haines, AK), Olsen Creek (Cordova, AK), and Quilcene River (Quilcene, WA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Changes in size and age at maturity of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) were monitored for two locations in North America. Chum salmon spawners returning to Fish...

  1. AFSC/ABL: Genetic data for juvenile chum salmon samples collected in the eastern Bering Sea on the U.S. BASIS cruises during 2003-2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) are an important natural resource in western Alaska for subsistence, commercial and cultural reasons. Declines in chum salmon...

  2. Abundance, Timing of Migration, and Egg-to-Smolt Survival of Juvenile Chum Salmon, Kwethluk River, Alaska, 2007 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burril, Sean E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Finn, James E.; U.S. Geological Survey; Gillikin, Daniel; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

    2010-01-01

    To better understand and partition mortality among life stages of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), we used inclined-plane traps to monitor the migration of juveniles in the Kwethluk River, Alaska in 2007 and 2008. The migration of juvenile chum salmon peaked in mid-May and catch rates were greatest when water levels were rising. Movement of chum salmon was diurnal with highest catch rates occurring during the hours of low light (that is, 22:00 to 10:00). Trap efficiency ranged from 0.37 to 4.04 percent (overall efficiency = 1.94 percent). Total abundance of juvenile chum salmon was estimated to be 2.0 million fish in 2007 and 2.9 million fish in 2008. On the basis of the estimate of chum salmon females passing the Kwethluk River weir and age-specific fecundity, we estimated the potential egg deposition (PED) upstream of the weir and trapping site. Egg-to-smolt survival, calculated by dividing the estimate of juvenile chum salmon emigrating past the weir site by the estimate of PED, was 4.6 percent in 2007 and 5.2 percent in 2008. In addition to chum salmon, Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), as well as ten other fish species, were captured in the traps. As with chum salmon, catch of these species increased during periods of increasing discharge and peaked during hours of low light. This study successfully determined the characteristics of juvenile salmon migrations and estimated egg-to-smolt survival for chum salmon. This is the first estimate of survival for any juvenile salmon in the Arctic-Yukon-Kuskokwim region of Alaska and demonstrates an approach that can help to partition mortality between freshwater and marine life stages, information critical to understanding the dynamics of salmon in this region.

  3. AFSC/ABL: Origins of sockeye and chum salmon seized from the F/V Ying Fa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and sockeye (O. nerka) salmon seized from the stateless fishing vessel Ying Fa were analyzed to determine their region of origin...

  4. Quantifying the behavioral response of spawning chum salmon to elevated discharges from Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, K.F.; Haskell, C.A.; Kock, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta that spawn in main-stem habitats below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River, USA, are periodically subjected to elevated discharges that may alter spawning behaviour. We investigated behavioural responses of spawning chum salmon to increased water velocities associated with experimental increases in tailwater elevation using acoustic telemetry and a dual-frequency identification sonar. Chum salmon primarily remained near their redds at base tailwater elevations (3.5 m above mean sea level), but displayed different movement and behavioural responses as elevations were increased to either 4.1 or 4.7m for 8-h periods. When velocities remained suitable (activity as water velocities increased. However, when velocities exceeded 0.8m s-1, the females that remained on their redds exhibited increased swimming activity and digging virtually ceased. Female and male chum salmon that left their redds when velocities became unsuitable moved mean distances ranging from 32 to 58 m to occupy suitable velocities, but returned to their redds after tailwaters returned to base levels. Spawning events (i.e. egg deposition) were observed for five of nine pairs of chum salmon following tests indicating any disruptions to normal behaviour caused by elevated tailwaters were likely temporary. We believe a chum salmon's decision to either remain on, or leave, its redd during periods of unsuitably high water velocities reflects time invested in the redd and the associated energetic costs it is willing to incur. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  6. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

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    Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-06-12

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March, 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to the reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than one-half million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 present-day spawners. Harvest, habitat degradation, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for this decline. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of this species. This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam, where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. Prior to 1997, only two chum salmon populations were recognized as genetically distinct in the Columbia River, although spawning had been documented in many Lower Columbia River tributaries. The first population was in the Grays River (RKm 34), a tributary of the Columbia River, and the second was a group of spawners utilizing the mainstem Columbia River just below Bonneville Dam (RKm 235) adjacent to Ives Island and in Hardy and Hamilton creeks. Using additional DNA samples, Small et al. (2006) grouped chum salmon spawning in the mainstem Columbia River and the Washington State tributaries into three groups: the Coastal, the Cascade and the Gorge. The Coastal group comprises those spawning in the Grays River, Skamokawa Creek and the broodstock used at the Sea Resources facility on the Chinook River. The Cascade group comprises those spawning in the Cowlitz (both summer and fall stocks), Kalama, Lewis, and East Fork Lewis rivers, with most supporting unique populations. The Gorge group comprises those spawning in the mainstem Columbia River from the I-205 Bridge up to

  7. Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hyporheic Zone Affect Redd Site Selection of Chum and Fall Chinook Salmon, Columbia River.

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    Geist, David R.

    2001-10-01

    Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) may historically have been the most abundant species of Columbia River salmon, contributing as much as 50% of the total biomass of all salmon in the Pacific Ocean prior to the 1940's (Neave 1961). By the 1950's, however, run sizes to the Columbia River dropped dramatically and in 1999 the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Columbia River chum salmon as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA; NMFS 1999). Habitat degradation, water diversions, harvest, and artificial propagation are the major human-induced factors that have contributed to the species decline (NMFS 1998). Columbia River chum salmon spawn exclusively in the lower river below Bonneville Dam, including an area near Ives Island. The Ives Island chum salmon are part of the Columbia River evolutionary significant unit (ESU) for this species, and are included in the ESA listing. In addition to chum salmon, fall chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) also spawn at Ives Island. Spawning surveys conducted at Ives Island over the last several years show that chum and fall chinook salmon spawned in clusters in different locations (US Fish and Wildlife Service and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpublished data). The presence of redd clusters suggested that fish were selecting specific habitat features within the study area (Geist and Dauble 1998). Understanding the specific features of these spawning areas is needed to quantify the amount of habitat available to each species so that minimum flows can be set to protect fish and maintain high quality habitat.

  8. Comparative transcriptomics of Atlantic Salmo salar, chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon O. gorbuscha during infections with salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, Ben JG; Koczka, Kim W; Yasuike, Motoshige; Jantzen, Stuart G; Yazawa, Ryosuke; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon RM

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmon species vary in susceptibility to infections with the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Comparing mechanisms underlying responses in susceptible and resistant species is important for estimating impacts of infections on wild salmon, selective breeding of farmed salmon, and expanding our knowledge of fish immune responses to ectoparasites. Herein we report three L. salmonis experimental infection trials of co-habited Atlantic Salmo salar, chum Oncorhynchus keta and pink...

  9. The Olfactory Transcriptome and Progression of Sexual Maturation in Homing Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan P Palstra

    Full Text Available Reproductive homing migration of salmonids requires accurate interaction between the reception of external olfactory cues for navigation to the spawning grounds and the regulation of sexual maturation processes. This study aimed at providing insights into the hypothesized functional link between olfactory sensing of the spawning ground and final sexual maturation. We have therefore assessed the presence and expression levels of olfactory genes by RNA sequencing (RNAseq of the olfactory rosettes in homing chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta Walbaum from the coastal sea to 75 km upstream the rivers at the pre-spawning ground. The progression of sexual maturation along the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis was assessed through determination of plasma steroid levels by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays (TR-FIA, pituitary gonadotropin subunit expression and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sgnrh expression in the brain by quantitative real-time PCR. RNAseq revealed the expression of 75 known and 27 unknown salmonid olfactory genes of which 13 genes were differentially expressed between fish from the pre-spawning area and from the coastal area, suggesting an important role of these genes in homing. A clear progression towards final maturation was characterised by higher plasma 17α,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP levels, increased pituitary luteinizing hormone β subunit (lhβ expression and sgnrh expression in the post brain, and lower plasma testosterone (T and 17β-estradiol (E2 levels. Olfactomedins and ependymin are candidates among the differentially expressed genes that may connect olfactory reception to the expression of sgnrh to regulate final maturation.

  10. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

    2009-01-29

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

  11. Population Estimates for Chum Salmon Spawning in the Mainstem Columbia River, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawding, Dan; Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2003-11-15

    Accurate and precise population estimates of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning in the mainstem Columbia River are needed to provide a basis for informed water allocation decisions, to determine the status of chum salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and to evaluate the contribution of the Duncan Creek re-introduction program to mainstem spawners. Currently, mark-recapture experiments using the Jolly-Seber model provide the only framework for this type of estimation. In 2002, a study was initiated to estimate mainstem Columbia River chum salmon populations using seining data collected while capturing broodstock as part of the Duncan Creek re-introduction. The five assumptions of the Jolly-Seber model were examined using hypothesis testing within a statistical framework, including goodness of fit tests and secondary experiments. We used POPAN 6, an integrated computer system for the analysis of capture-recapture data, to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of standard model parameters, derived estimates, and their precision. A more parsimonious final model was selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Final chum salmon escapement estimates and (standard error) from seining data for the Ives Island, Multnomah, and I-205 sites are 3,179 (150), 1,269 (216), and 3,468 (180), respectively. The Ives Island estimate is likely lower than the total escapement because only the largest two of four spawning sites were sampled. The accuracy and precision of these estimates would improve if seining was conducted twice per week instead of weekly, and by incorporating carcass recoveries into the analysis. Population estimates derived from seining mark-recapture data were compared to those obtained using the current mainstem Columbia River salmon escapement methodologies. The Jolly-Seber population estimate from carcass tagging in the Ives Island area was 4,232 adults with a standard error of 79. This population estimate appears reasonable and precise but batch

  12. Atmospheric depression-mediated water temperature changes affect the vertical movement of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Takashi; Hyodo, Susumu; Sato, Katsufumi

    2016-08-01

    The Sanriku coastal area, Japan, is one of the southern-most natural spawning regions of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta. Here, we report their behavioral response to changes in ambient temperature after the passage of an atmospheric depression during the early spawning season. Before the passage, all electrically tagged fish moved vertically for several hours to depths below the shallow thermocline at >100 m. However, during the atmospheric depression, the salmon shortened the duration of their vertical movements and spent most time at the surface. The water column was homogenous at thermocline was no longer in a thermally defined layer, due to strong vertical mixing by high wave action. Instead, they likely spent time within the cooler water temperatures at the surface of bays to minimize metabolic energy cost during migration.

  13. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat near Ives and Pierce Islands in the Columbia River, Progress Report 1999-2001.

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    Garland, Rodney; Tiffan, Kenneth; Rondorf, Dennis

    2003-09-01

    The area around Ives Island below Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River supports spawning populations of chum and fall chinook salmon. Because this area is sensitive to water level fluctuations caused by changes in discharge from Bonneville Dam and from tidal cycles, we initiated a study to quantify flow-dependent changes in available spawning habitat for chum and fall chinook salmon. We conducted surveys to characterize the substrates available in the Ives Island study area. Detailed bathymetry was also obtained to serve as a foundation for two-dimension hydrodynamic modeling, which was used to estimate water velocities, depths, and wetted area over a range of simulated flows. Habitat surveys were conducted and logistic regression was used to identify physical habitat variables that were important in determining the presence of chum and fall chinook salmon redds. The physical habitat data were analyzed using the logistic regression models to create probability coverages for the presence of redds in a Geographic Information System. There was generally good agreement between chum and fall chinook salmon redd locations and areas where we predicted suitable spawning habitat. We found that at Columbia River discharges less than 120 kcfs, an important chum salmon spawning area below the mouth of Hamilton Creek could only be supported by discharge from Hamilton Creek. Chum salmon did not appear to spawn in proportion to habitat availability, however our predictive model did not include all variables known to be important to chum salmon redd-site selection. Fall chinook salmon spawning habitat was less sensitive to flow and the main channel of the Columbia River along Pierce Island was predicted to contain sufficient habitat at all modeled flows.

  14. Effect of halotolerant starter microorganisms on chemical characteristics of fermented chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shuji; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Kawai, Yuji; Yamazaki, Koji; Tanaka, Akira; Nishikiori, Takafumi; Ohta, Tomoki

    2010-05-26

    Chum salmon sauce mash was inoculated with barley koji (barley steamed and molded with Aspergillus oryzae ) and halotolerant microorganisms (HTMs), Zygosaccharomyces rouxii , Candida versatilis , and Tetragenococcus halophilus , in nine different combinations under non-aseptic conditions similar to the industrial fish sauce production and fermented at 35 +/- 2.5 degrees C for 84 days. The changes in the chemical components, color, and sensory properties during fermentation were investigated. Free amino acid content was increased, and the browning of fish sauce was enhanced by the usage of barley koji during fermentation. The halotolerant yeast (HTY) produced ethanol and repressed the browning by consumption of reducing sugar. Inoculated Z. rouxii in the fish sauce mash produced 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) and 4-hydoxy-2(or 5)-ethyl-5(or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF), and C. versatilis in the fish sauce mash produced 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), known as characteristic flavor compounds in soy sauce, adding soy-sauce-like flavor to the fish sauce. Thus, inoculation of HTMs and barley koji was effective for conferring the soy-sauce-like flavor and increasing free amino acid and ethanol contents in fish sauce product. PMID:20405947

  15. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Brooks, Robert (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Columbia River Section, John Day, OR)

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 a total of 253 adult fall chinook and 113 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 221 fall chinook and 109 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 190. The peak redd count for chum was 262. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 24 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 24 November. There were estimated to be a total of 1,533 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2003. The study area's 2003 chum population was estimated to be 688 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2003 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on January 6, 2004 and ended 28 April 2004, with peak emergence occurring 13 April. 2003 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 22 February and continued through 15 April 2004. Peak chum emergence took place 25 March. A total of 25,433 juvenile chinook and 4,864 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 20 January and 28 June 2004 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2004 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2003 all of the fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence

  16. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA)

    2004-09-01

    Currently, two methods of reintroduction are being simultaneously evaluated at Duncan Creek. Recolonization is occurring by introducing adult chum salmon from the Lower Gorge (LG) population into Duncan Creek and allowing them to naturally reproduce. The supplementation strategy required adults to be collected and artificially spawned, incubated, reared, and released at the mouth of Duncan Creek. All eggs from the artificial crossings at Washougal Hatchery were incubated and the fry reared to release size at the hatchery. The Duncan Creek chum salmon project was very successful in 2003-04, providing knowledge and experience that will improve program execution in future years. The gear used to collect adult brood stock was changed from tangle nets to beach seines. This increased efficiency and the speed at which adults could be processed in the field, and most likely reduced stress on the adults handled. Certain weaknesses exposed in past seasons still exist and new ones were exposed (e.g. inadequate incubation and rearing space at Washougal Hatchery for any large salvage operation and having to move the rearing troughs outside the raceway in 2004). Egg-to-fry survival rates of 64% and 58% showed that the channels are functioning at the upper end of what can be expected from them. Possibly the most important event this season was the ability to strontium mark and release all naturally-produced fry from the spawning channels. Channel and floodplain modifications reduced the likelihood that floods will damage the channels and negatively impact survival rates.

  17. The effect of climate change on the growth of Japanese chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) using a bioenergetics model coupled with a three-dimensional lower trophic ecosystem model (NEMURO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Michio J.; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Ueno, Hiromichi; Kamezawa, Yasuko

    2010-07-01

    From the 1970s to 1990s, a reduction in the body size of Japanese chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) was observed. To investigate this body size reduction in the North Pacific, we developed a bioenergetics model for chum salmon coupled with the results from a lower trophic ecosystem model embedded into a three-dimensional global model. In the bioenergetics model, respiration and consumption terms are assumed to be functions of water temperature and prey zooplankton density, which are the determining factors of the reduction of body size. The model reproduced the body size of the 1972 and 1991 year classes of chum salmon. The reproduced body size of the 1972 year class was larger than that of 1991 year class, and this result agrees with observations from the Bering Sea. Our model also reproduced the body size trend from l970 to 2000. The prey density, especially in the eastern North Pacific, had a greater influence on the change of body size than did the SST. This suggests that the size reduction of Japanese chum salmon in the 1990s was partly affected by changes in prey zooplankton density. In the context of the global warming scenario, we discuss changes in the migration route of chum salmon and predict that the population of Japanese chum salmon experience significant declines over this century.

  18. 1998-1999 evaluation of fall chinook and chum salmon spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes work conducted by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) from 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999. The work is part of studies to evaluate spawning of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) below the four lowermost Columbia River dams under the Bonneville Power Administration's Project 99-003. The purpose of this project is twofold: (1) Document the existence of fall chinook and chum populations spawning below Bonneville Dam (river mile (RM) 145), The Dalles Dam (RM 192), John Day Dam (RM 216), and McNary Dam (RM 292) (Figure 1) and estimate the size of these populations; and (2) Profile stocks for important population characteristics; including spawning time, genetic make-up, emergence timing, migration size and timing, and juvenile to adult survival rates. Specific tasks conducted by ODFW and WDFW during this period were: (1) Documentation of fall chinook and chum spawning below Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day and McNary dams using on-water observations; (2) Collection of biological data to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (3) Determination of spawning population estimates and age composition, average size at return, and sex ratios in order to profile stocks in areas described in Task 1; (4) Collection of data to determine stock origin of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1; (5) Determination of possible stock origins of adult salmon found in areas described in Task 1 using tag rates based on coded-wire tag recoveries and genetic baseline analysis; (6) Determination of emergence timing and hatching rate of juvenile fall chinook and chum below Bonneville Dam; (7) Determination of migration time and size for juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6; (8) Investigation of feasibility of determining stock composition of juvenile fall chinook and chum rearing in the area described in Task 6

  19. Expression of GnRH genes is elevated in discrete brain loci of chum salmon before initiation of homing behavior and during spawning migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Takeshi A; Makino, Keita; Ando, Hironori; Ban, Masatoshi; Fukuwaka, Masa-Aki; Azumaya, Tomonori; Urano, Akihisa

    2010-09-15

    Our previous studies suggested the importance of gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) for initiation of spawning migration of chum salmon, although supporting evidence had been not available from oceanic fish. In farmed masu salmon, the amounts of salmon GnRH (sGnRH) mRNAs in the forebrain increased in the pre-pubertal stage from winter through spring, followed by a decrease toward summer. We thus hypothesized that gene expression for GnRHs in oceanic chum salmon changes similarly, and examined this hypothesis using brain samples from winter chum salmon in the Gulf of Alaska and summer fish in the Bering Sea. They were classified into sexually immature and maturing adults, which had maturing gonads and left the Bering Sea for the natal river by the end of summer. The absolute amounts of GnRH mRNAs were determined by real-time PCRs. The amounts of sGnRH mRNA in the maturing winter adults were significantly larger than those in the maturing summer adults. The amounts of sGnRH and chicken GnRH mRNAs then peaked during upstream migration from the coast to the natal hatchery. Such changes were observed in various brain loci including the olfactory bulb, terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, nucleus preopticus parvocellularis anterioris, nucleus preopticus magnocellularis and midbrain tegmentum. These results suggest that sGnRH neurons change their activity for gonadal maturation prior to initiation of homing behavior from the Bering Sea. The present study provides the first evidence to support a possible involvement of neuropeptides in the onset of spawning migration. PMID:20470776

  20. Oral administration of marine collagen peptides prepared from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta improves wound healing following cesarean section in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of the present study was to investigate the wound-healing potential of marine collagen peptides (MCPs from chum salmon skin administered to rats following cesarean section (CS. Methods: Ninety-six pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: a vehicle group and three MCP groups. After CS, rats were intragastrically given MCPs at doses of 0, 0.13, 0.38, 1.15 g/kg*bw, respectively. On postoperative days 7, 14, and 21, the uterine bursting pressure, skin tensile strength, hydroxyproline (Hyp concentrations, and histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the scar tissue were examined. Results: In the MCP groups, the skin tensile strength, uterine bursting pressure, and Hyp were significantly higher than those in the vehicle group at all three time points (p<0.05. The formation of capillary, fibroblast, and collagen fiber, the expression of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta-1 were increased in the MCP groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: MCPs could accelerate the process of wounding healing in rats after CS.

  1. AFSC/ABL: Juvenile chum salmon allozyme stock identification, Gulf of Alaska 2000-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Summer surveys (Julyb??August) of juvenile salmon ecology along the continental shelf of the Gulf of Alaska are conducted annually by scientists from the Ocean...

  2. The Olfactory Transcriptome and Progression of Sexual Maturation in Homing Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta

    OpenAIRE

    Palstra, A.P.; Fukaya, K.; Chiba, H; Dirks, R.P.; Planas, J.V.; Ueda, H

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive homing migration of salmonids requires accurate interaction between the reception of external olfactory cues for navigation to the spawning grounds and the regulation of sexual maturation processes. This study aimed at providing insights into the hypothesized functional link between olfactory sensing of the spawning ground and final sexual maturation. We have therefore assessed the presence and expression levels of olfactory genes by RNA sequencing (RNAseq) of the olfactory roset...

  3. A remote-sensing, GIS-based approach to identify, characterize, and model spawning habitat for fall-run chum salmon in a sub-arctic, glacially fed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Lisa; Rosenberger, Amanda; Prakash, Anupma; Gens, Rudiger; Margraf, F. Joseph; Hamazaki, Toshihide

    2012-01-01

    At northern limits of a species’ distribution, fish habitat requirements are often linked to thermal preferences, and the presence of overwintering habitat. However, logistical challenges and hydrologic processes typical of glacial systems could compromize the identification of these habitats, particularly in large river environments. Our goal was to identify and characterize spawning habitat for fall-run chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and model habitat selection from spatial distributions of tagged individuals in the Tanana River, Alaska using an approach that combined ground surveys with remote sensing. Models included braiding, sinuosity, ice-free water surface area (indicating groundwater influence), and persistent ice-free water (i.e., consistent presence of ice-free water for a 12-year period according to satellite imagery). Candidate models containing persistent ice-free water were selected as most likely, highlighting the utility of remote sensing for monitoring and identifying salmon habitat in remote areas. A combination of ground and remote surveys revealed spatial and temporal thermal characteristics of these habitats that could have strong biological implications. Persistent ice-free sites identified using synthetic aperture radar appear to serve as core areas for spawning fall chum salmon, and the importance of stability through time suggests a legacy of successful reproductive effort for this homing species. These features would not be captured with a one-visit traditional survey but rather required remote-sensing monitoring of the sites through time.

  4. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  5. Microbiota during fermentation of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) sauce mash inoculated with halotolerant microbial starters: analyses using the plate count method and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shuji; Yasokawa, Daisuke; Nagashima, Koji; Yamazaki, Koji; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Ohta, Tomoki; Kawai, Yuji

    2010-06-01

    Nine different combinations of mugi koji (barley steamed and molded with Aspergillus oryzae) and halotolerant microorganisms (HTMs), Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida versatilis, and Tetragenococcus halophilus, were inoculated into chum salmon sauce mash under a non-aseptic condition used in industrial fish sauce production and fermented at 35 +/- 2.5 degrees C for 84 days to elucidate the microbial dynamics (i.e., microbial count and microbiota) during fermentation. The viable count of halotolerant yeast (HTY) in fermented chum salmon sauce (FCSS) mash showed various time courses dependent on the combination of the starter microorganisms. Halotolerant lactic acid bacteria (HTL) were detected morphologically and physiologically only from FCSS mash inoculated with T. halophilus alone or with T. halophilus and C. versatilis during the first 28 days of fermentation. Only four fungal species, Z. rouxii, C. versatilis, Pichia guilliermondii, and A. oryzae, were detected throughout the fermentation by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). In FCSS mash, dominant HTMs, especially eumycetes, were nonexistent. However, under the non-aseptic conditions, undesirable wild yeast such as P. guilliermondii grew fortuitously. Therefore, HTY inoculation into FCSS mash at the beginning of fermentation is effective in preventing the growth of wild yeast and the resultant unfavorable flavor. PMID:20417400

  6. Blood types in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, G.L.; Klontz, G.W.

    1961-01-01

    Intraspecific differences in erythrocyte antigens (blood types) were shown to occur in four species of Pacific salmon, the sockeye or red salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), the chinook or king salmon (0. tshawytscha), the chum salmon (O. keta), and the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha). Antisalmon-erythrocyte sera prepared in rabbits and chickens were used after absorption of species-specific antibodies. Some of these blood types were shown to differ in their frequency of occurrence between different geographic races. In addition, isoimmunizations were conducted on one race of sockeye salmon. Antisera of seven different specificities were prepared and at least eight different patterns of antigenic composition were displayed by the cells tested.

  7. Health management of hatched fry for sustainable salmon propagation and provide a "safe and worry-free" salmon product

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimizu, Mamoru

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable propagation of salmonid fish under the ocean ecosystem is essential for salmon industry. Salmonid fish including chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) and masu salmon (O. masou) are important species for hatchery reared and released fish in Japan. Diseases, especially viral and bacterial diseases are serious problems and one of the limitations of successful propagation and/or aquaculture of salmonid fish. Methods currently used to control the diseases in hatc...

  8. AFSC/ABL: Origins of salmon seized from the F/V Arctic Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples of chum (Oncorhynchus keta), sockeye (O. nerka), and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) seized from the F/V Arctic Wind were analyzed to determine their region...

  9. Characterisation of the salmon cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein for structural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi L. Pollock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR is a chloride channel highly expressed in the gills of Salmo salar, with a role in osmoregulation. It shares 60% identity with the human CFTR channel, mutations to which can cause the common genetic disorder cystic fibrosis CF. The expression and localisation of salmon CFTR have been investigated, but the isolated protein has not been extensively characterised. Here we present a protocol for the purification of recombinant salmon CFTR, along with biophysical and structural characterisation of the purified protein. Salmon CFTR was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, solubilised in the detergent LPG-14 and chromatographically purified by nickel-affinity and size-exclusion chromatography methods. Prior to size-exclusion chromatography samples of salmon CFTR had low purity, and contained large quantities of aggregated protein. Compared to size-exclusion chromatography profiles of other orthologues of CFTR, which had less evidence of aggregation, salmon CFTR appeared to have lower intrinsic stability than human and platypus CFTR. Nonetheless, repeated size-exclusion chromatography allowed monodisperse salmon CFTR to be isolated, and multi-angle light scattering was used to determine its oligomeric state. The monodispersity of the sample and its oligomeric state were confirmed using cryo-electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. These data were also processed to calculate a low-resolution structure of the salmon CFTR, which showed similar architecture to other ATP-binding cassette proteins.

  10. [The effect of electrical and acoustic stimulation in early ontogeny on the characteristics of higher nervous activity and on the nucleic acid content of the tissues in chum salmon fry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A M; Vitvitskaia, L V

    1991-01-01

    Stimulation of salmon larvae by electric current led further to unstable character of reactions in the open field. Acoustic stimulation both by tonal and musical signals favourably influenced the behaviour in the open field and the ability to elaborate conditioned reflexes. Changes of the content of nucleic acids were not found in the brain tissue but were found in the muscles, where they correlated with the growth speed and motor activity of the experimental fishes. The obtained data show the possibility of elaboration of applied methods of the control of CNS development and behaviour of young fishes at fishing plants.

  11. Evaluation of Salmon Spawning Below Bonneville Dam Annual Report October 2006 - September 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Mueller, Robert P.; Murray, Katherine J.; Bott, Yi-Ju [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-08-08

    From 1999 through 2007, the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Bonneville Power Administration funded a project to determine the number of fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning downstream of Bonneville Dam, the characteristics of their spawning areas, and the flows necessary to ensure their long-term survival. Data were collected to ensure that established flow guidelines are appropriate and provide adequate protection for the species of concern. The projects objectives are consistent with the high priority placed by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Independent Scientific Advisory Board and the salmon managers on determining the importance of mainstem habitats to the production of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Because of the influence of mainstem habitat on salmon production, there is a continued need to better understand the physical habitat variables used by mainstem fall Chinook and chum salmon populations and the effects of hydropower project operations on spawning and incubation. During FY 2007, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory focused on (1) locating and mapping deep-water fall Chinook salmon and chum salmon spawning areas, (2) investigating the interaction between groundwater and surface water near fall Chinook and chum salmon spawning areas, and (3) providing in-season hyporheic temperature and water surface elevation data to assist state agencies with emergence timing and redd dewatering estimates. This report documents the studies and tasks performed by PNNL during FY 2007. Chapter 1 provides a description of the searches conducted for deepwater redds-adjacent to Pierce and Ives islands for fall Chinook salmon and near the Interstate 205 bridge for chum salmon. The chapter also provides data on redd location, information about habitat associations, and estimates of total spawning populations. Chapter 2 documents the collection of data on riverbed and river temperatures and water surface elevations, from the onset of spawning to the

  12. Species and life-history affects the utility of otolith chemical composition to determine natal stream-of-origin in Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christian E.; Swanson, Heidi K.; Volk, Eric C.; Kent, Adam J.R.

    2013-01-01

    To test the utility of otolith chemical composition as a tool for determining the natal stream of origin for salmon, we examined water chemistry and otoliths of juvenile and adult Chum Salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Coho Salmon O. kisutch from three watersheds (five rivers) in the Norton Sound region of Alaska. The two species are characterized by different life histories: Coho Salmon rear in freshwater for up to 3 years, whereas Chum Salmon emigrate from freshwater shortly after emergence. We used laser ablation (LA) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS) to quantify element: Ca ratios for Mg, Mn, Zn, Sr, and Ba, and we used multicollector LA-ICP-MS to determine 87Sr:86Sr ratios in otolith regions corresponding to the period of freshwater residence. Significant differences existed in both water and otolith elemental composition, suggesting that otolith composition could be used to discriminate the natal origin of Coho Salmon and Chum Salmon but only when 87Sr:86Sr ratios were included in the discriminant function analyses. The best discriminant model included 87Sr:86Sr ratios, and without 87Sr:86Sr ratios it was difficult to discriminate among watersheds and rivers. Classification accuracy was 80% for Coho Salmon and 68% for Chum Salmon, indicating that this method does not provide sufficient sensitivity to estimate straying rates of Pacific salmon at the scale we studied.

  13. Cloning and expression of cDNA for salmon growth hormone in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Sekine, Susumu; Mizukami, Tamio; Nishi, Tatsunari; Kuwana, Yoshihisa; Saito, Akiko; Sato, Moriyuki; Itoh, Seiga; Kawauchi, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) growth hormone (sGH) have been isolated from a cDNA library prepared from chum salmon pituitary gland poly(A)+ RNA. Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide mixtures based on amino acid residues 23-28 of sGH were used as hybridization probes to select recombinant plasmids carrying the sGH coding sequence. The complete nucleotide sequence of sGH cDNA has been determined. The cDNA sequence codes for a polypeptide of 210 amino acids, including a putativ...

  14. Rapid counting of nematoda in salmon by peptic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Joseph A.; Chakravarti, Diptiman; Uzmann, J.R.; Hesselholt, M.N.

    1961-01-01

    The nematode parasite Anisakis sp. can be recovered, relatively unaltered, from chum salmon musculature by high temperature (52°+2°C.) peptic digestion of the flesh. The procedure, which is presented in detail, appears to be more thorough in isolating the parasite than dissection of the flesh and manual isolation of the worms. In addition, the procedure is rapid, comparatively simple, economical, and suitable for the examination of large numbers of samples.

  15. Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, Marc; Tucker, Strahan; Morris, John

    2009-03-09

    Historically, salmon stocks from the Columbia River and Snake River formed one of the most valuable fisheries on the west coast of North America. However, salmon and steelhead returns sharply declined during the 1980s and 1990s to reach nearly 1 million fish. Although several factors may be responsible for the decline of Columbia River salmon and steelhead, there is increasing evidence that these drastic declines were primarily attributable to persistently unfavorable ocean conditions. Hence, an understanding of the effects of ocean conditions on salmon production is required to forecast the return of salmon to the Columbia River basin and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures such as flow regulation on salmon resources in this system. The Canadian Program on High Seas Salmon has been collecting juvenile salmon and oceanographic data off the west coast of British Columbia and Southeast Alaska since 1998 to assess the effects of ocean conditions on the distribution, migration, growth, and survival of Pacific salmon. Here, we present a summary of the work conducted as part of the Canada-USA Salmon Shelf Survival Study during the 2008 fiscal year and compare these results with those obtained from previous years. The working hypothesis of this research is that fast growth enhances the marine survival of salmon, either because fast growing fish quickly reach a size that is sufficient to successfully avoid predators, or because they accumulate enough energy reserves to better survive their first winter at sea, a period generally considered critical in the life cycle of salmon. Sea surface temperature decreased from FY05 to FY08, whereas, the summer biomass of phytoplankton increased steadily off the west coast of Vancouver Island from FY05 to FY08. As in FY07, zooplankton biomass was generally above average off the west coast of Vancouver Island in FY08. Interestingly, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were higher in FY08 than was expected from the observed

  16. A global assessment of salmon aquaculture impacts on wild salmonids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Ford

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s, wild salmon catch and abundance have declined dramatically in the North Atlantic and in much of the northeastern Pacific south of Alaska. In these areas, there has been a concomitant increase in the production of farmed salmon. Previous studies have shown negative impacts on wild salmonids, but these results have been difficult to translate into predictions of change in wild population survival and abundance. We compared marine survival of salmonids in areas with salmon farming to adjacent areas without farms in Scotland, Ireland, Atlantic Canada, and Pacific Canada to estimate changes in marine survival concurrent with the growth of salmon aquaculture. Through a meta-analysis of existing data, we show a reduction in survival or abundance of Atlantic salmon; sea trout; and pink, chum, and coho salmon in association with increased production of farmed salmon. In many cases, these reductions in survival or abundance are greater than 50%. Meta-analytic estimates of the mean effect are significant and negative, suggesting that salmon farming has reduced survival of wild salmon and trout in many populations and countries.

  17. Regulation of feeding behavior and food intake by appetite-regulating peptides in wild-type and growth hormone-transgenic coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Volkoff, Helene; Devlin, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Survival, competition, growth and reproductive success in fishes are highly dependent on food intake, food availability and feeding behavior and are all influenced by a complex set of metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic fish can result in greatly enhanced growth rates, feed conversion, feeding motivation and food intake. The objectives of this study were to compare seasonal feeding behavior of non-transgenic wild-type (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to examine the effects of intraperitoneal injections of the appetite-regulating peptides cholecystokinin (CCK-8), bombesin (BBS), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on feeding behavior. T salmon fed consistently across all seasons, whereas NT dramatically reduced their food intake in winter, indicating the seasonal regulation of appetite can be altered by overexpression of GH in T fish. Intraperitoneal injections of CCK-8 and BBS caused a significant and rapid decrease in food intake for both genotypes. Treatment with either GLP-1 or α-MSH resulted in a significant suppression of food intake for NT but had no effect in T coho salmon. The differential response of T and NT fish to α-MSH is consistent with the melanocortin-4 receptor system being a significant pathway by which GH acts to stimulate appetite. Taken together, these results suggest that chronically increased levels of GH alter feeding regulatory pathways to different extents for individual peptides, and that altered feeding behavior in transgenic coho salmon may arise, in part, from changes in sensitivity to peripheral appetite-regulating signals. PMID:27149948

  18. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  19. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size. PMID:27420790

  20. Acute physiological stress down-regulates mRNA expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Nakano

    Full Text Available Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH binding to the GH receptor (GHR. Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish.

  1. Regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar during smoltification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAZURAIS D.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR transcript was investigated in the gills of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar during the parr-smolt transformation. Sampling of parr and smolt fish was performed between December and July and in particular during the smoltification period occurring in spring. Quantification of GR transcripts revealed differences between the two groups in March and at the beginning of April. During these dates, the amounts of GR mRNA in parr gills were respectively three and two fold lower than those measured in smolts. In order to determine which factors are responsible for these differences, we studied the long-term effects of prolactin and Cortisol treatments on GR transcript in the gills of presmolt fish. The plasma levels of these two hormones respectively drop and rise during smoltification. Contrary to Cortisol long-term treatment which did not modify the amount of gill GR transcript, short-term treatment induced a significant decrease within 12 hours. Prolactin long-term treatment caused a significant increase of GR transcript abundance after 13 days of implant treatment. This result is unexpected with regard to those obtained in the smoltification analysis but is in agreement with previous studies performed in mammary gland revealing a positive control of PRL on GR in epithelial cells. Our data suggest that the regulation of the GR transcript during the parr-smolt transformation probably involves several hormonal factors.

  2. Differential Regulation of FXYD5, FXYD9 and FXYD11 Expression in Atlantic Salmon Gill During Parr-Smolt Transformation and Sea Water Acclimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    . We identified 3 isoforms of the FXYD protein family (FXYD5, FXYD9 and FXYD11) in the salmon gill, which may assist in regulating the catalytic rate of the Na,K-ATPase in these situations. FXYD proteins are auxiliary subunits which may associate with the alpha-subunit of the Na,K-ATPase. Expression in...... the gill of the 3 isoforms was investigated during PST and acclimation of freshwater (FW) salmon to sea water (SW). During the PST, FXYD5 mRNA levels were unaltered, whereas the expression of FXYD9 and FXYD11 peaked in May, coinciding with optimal SW-tolerance and peak levels of Na,K-ATPase of the FW...

  3. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices....... This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  4. AFSC/ABL: Genetic analysis of juvenile chum salmon from the Chukchi Sea and Bering Strait

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Arctic region has experienced warming in recent years, resulting in decreased summer sea ice cover and increased sea surface temperatures. In 2007, the U.S....

  5. Salmon's Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents Paul Salmon's old-fashioned, common-sense guidelines for success in practical school administration. The maxims advise on problem ownership; the value of selective neglect; the importance of empowerment, enthusiasm, and effective communication; and the need for positive reinforcement, cultivation of support, and good relations with media,…

  6. [Ultrastructure of melanocytes from retina and choroid of the Pacific salmon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagal'skaia, E O

    2001-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the retina and choroid cells in three species of the Pacific salmon, Oncohrynchus gorbuscha, O. keta and O. masou, was studied. The structure of retina pigment cells is similar in all the three species, only a small difference was found in the percentage of lengthened and rounded forms of melanosomes. Melanocytes of the masu salmon differ also in the structure of their nuclei. The pigment cells of choroid differ from those of retina by a more extended form of melanosomes and by the presence of less rounded melanosomes. In the chum salmon retina we found electron lucent "contact vesicles", whose assignment is open to discussion. In retina pigment cells of the masu salmon smolts ready for migration, the activity of Golgi appararus rises, mitochondria and mature melanosomes increase in number. The choroid pigment cells are slightly swollen, their processes more often and deeper penetrate into the walls of vessels, down to the endothelium. Results of the experiment with the application of an artificial magnetic field (AMF) have shown that the retina and choroid pigment cells in the masu salmon fry react to the field of a certain direction. The phenomenon of magnetosensitivity of pigment cells is discussed in addition to their possible involvement in magnetoreception.

  7. Transcriptional regulation of the IGF signaling pathway by amino acids and insulin-like growth factors during myogenesis in Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil I Bower

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor signalling pathway is an important regulator of skeletal muscle growth. We examined the mRNA expression of components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF signalling pathway as well as Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2 during maturation of myotubes in primary cell cultures isolated from fast myotomal muscle of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The transcriptional regulation of IGFs and IGFBP expression by amino acids and insulin-like growth factors was also investigated. Proliferation of cells was 15% d(-1 at days 2 and 3 of the culture, increasing to 66% d(-1 at day 6. Three clusters of elevated gene expression were observed during the maturation of the culture associated with mono-nucleic cells (IGFBP5.1 and 5.2, IGFBP-6, IGFBP-rP1, IGFBP-2.2 and IGF-II, the initial proliferation phase (IGF-I, IGFBP-4, FGF2 and IGF-IRb and terminal differentiation and myotube production (IGF2R, IGF-IRa. In cells starved of amino acids and serum for 72 h, IGF-I mRNA decreased 10-fold which was reversed by amino acid replacement. Addition of IGF-I and amino acids to starved cells resulted in an 18-fold increase in IGF-I mRNA indicating synergistic effects and the activation of additional pathway(s leading to IGF-I production via a positive feedback mechanism. IGF-II, IGFBP-5.1 and IGFBP-5.2 expression was unchanged in starved cells, but increased with amino acid replacement. Synergistic increases in expression of IGFBP5.2 and IGFBP-4, but not IGFBP5.1 were observed with addition of IGF-I, IGF-II or insulin and amino acids to the medium. IGF-I and IGF-II directly stimulated IGFBP-6 expression, but not when amino acids were present. These findings indicate that amino acids alone are sufficient to stimulate myogenesis in myoblasts and that IGF-I production is controlled by both endocrine and paracrine pathways. A model depicting the transcriptional regulation of the IGF pathway in Atlantic salmon muscle following feeding is proposed.

  8. Bioaccumulation of HCHs and DDTs in organs of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) from the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanova, Olga N; Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Khristoforova, Nadezhda K

    2016-08-01

    Concentrations of isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (α-, β-, γ-HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were assessed in organs of the pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), chum (Oncorhynchus keta), chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), caught near the Kuril Islands (the northern-western part of the Pacific Ocean), in the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea. Pesticides have been found to accumulate in fish organs in the following: muscles < liver < eggs < male gonads. The highest concentrations in muscles and liver have been recorded from sockeye. Of the DDT group, only DDE has been detected. The average concentration of HCHs + DDE in the muscles of pink, chum, chinook, and sockeye was 141, 125, 1241, 1641 ng/g lipids, respectively; and in the liver, 279, 183, 1305, 3805 ng/g lipids, respectively. The total concentration of HCHs isomers was higher than that of DDE. Average HCHs + DDE concentration in organs of salmon from study area is lower than that in salmon from Pacific coast of North America. PMID:27219293

  9. Genotype-temperature interaction in the regulation of development, growth, and morphometrics in wild-type, and growth-hormone transgenic coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neuroendocrine system is an important modulator of phenotype, directing cellular genetic responses to external cues such as temperature. Behavioural and physiological processes in poikilothermic organisms (e.g. most fishes, are particularly influenced by surrounding temperatures. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By comparing the development and growth of two genotypes of coho salmon (wild-type and transgenic with greatly enhanced growth hormone production at six different temperatures, ranging between 8 degrees and 18 degrees C, we observed a genotype-temperature interaction and possible trend in directed neuroendocrine selection. Differences in growth patterns of the two genotypes were compared by using mathematical models, and morphometric analyses of juvenile salmon were performed to detect differences in body shape. The maximum hatching and alevin survival rates of both genotypes occurred at 12 degrees C. At lower temperatures, eggs containing embryos with enhanced GH production hatched after a shorter incubation period than wild-type eggs, but this difference was not apparent at and above 16 degrees C. GH transgenesis led to lower body weights at the time when the yolk sack was completely absorbed compared to the wild genotype. The growth of juvenile GH-enhanced salmon was to a greater extent stimulated by higher temperatures than the growth of the wild-type. Increased GH production significantly influenced the shape of the salmon growth curves. CONCLUSIONS: Growth hormone overexpression by transgenesis is able to stimulate the growth of coho salmon over a wide range of temperatures. Temperature was found to affect growth rate, survival, and body morphology between GH transgenic and wild genotype coho salmon, and differential responses to temperature observed between the genotypes suggests they would experience different selective forces should they ever enter natural ecosystems. Thus, GH transgenic fish would be expected to

  10. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pump is now primed. To use the nasal spray, follow these steps: Keep your head up and place the nozzle in one nostril. Press down on the pump ... reach of children. Store unopened calcitonin salmon nasal spray in the ... the nozzle clean. Opened calcitonin salmon stored at room temperature ...

  11. Wing Chun’s Chum Kiu Form. A Study in Stability and Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyotpaul Chaudhuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the keys to motion in the second empty-hand form of Wing Chun gongfu: Chum Kiu. The focus is on the proper maintenance of the body’s central axis and its motions, which helps with the development of Wing Chun power and the foundations of delivering that power. The form includes short bridges, stepping, turning, and kicking. The motions are built on the structural foundations created by regular practice of the first form, Siu Lim Tau.

  12. Recurrent evolution of life history ecotypes in sockeye salmon: implications for conservation and future evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris C; Bickham, John W; John Nelson, R; Foote, Chris J; Patton, John C

    2008-05-01

    We examine the evolutionary history and speculate about the evolutionary future of three basic life history ecotypes that contribute to the biocomplexity of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). The 'recurrent evolution' (RE) hypothesis claims that the sea/river ecotype is ancestral, a 'straying' form with poorly differentiated (meta)population structure, and that highly structured populations of lake-type sockeye and kokanee have evolved repeatedly in parallel adaptive radiations between recurrent glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch. Basic premises of this hypothesis are consistent with new, independent evidence from recent surveys of genetic variation in mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA: (1) sockeye salmon are most closely related to pink (O. gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon with sea-type life histories; (2) the sockeye life history ecotypes exist as polyphyletic lineages within large drainages and geographic regions; (3) the sea/river ecotype exhibits less genetic differentiation among populations than the lake or kokanee ecotypes both within and among drainages; and (4) genetic diversity is typically higher in the sea/river ecotype than in the lake and kokanee ecotypes. Anthropogenic modification of estuarine habitat and intensive coastal fisheries have likely reduced and fragmented historic metapopulations of the sea/river ecotype, particularly in southern areas. In contrast, the kokanee ecotype appears to be favoured by marine fisheries and predicted changes in climate.

  13. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system for detecting β'-component (Onk k 5), a major IgE-binding protein in salmon roe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yutaka; Oda, Hiroshi; Seiki, Kohsuke; Saeki, Hiroki

    2015-08-15

    A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system has been established for selective detection of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) yolk protein (SYP). Rabbit and rat polyclonal Immunoglobulin G antibodies to β'-component (the major allergic protein in fish roe; anti-β) were applied for designing the ELISA system. The sandwich ELISA using rabbit anti-β for the capture antibody and horseradish peroxidase-labeled F(ab')2 fragment of rat anti-β for the detection antibody obtained high sensitivity and narrow specificity for SYP. Protein extraction using sodium dodecyl sulfate and 2-mercaptoethanol ensured strict specificity of the ELISA, and components of three popular processed foods had no effect on the ELISA response. The limits of determination and quantification of SYP were estimated to be 0.78 μg/g and 2.60 μg/g of food sample, respectively. In conclusion, the developed ELISA system has a probability to be applied for the detection of contaminated chum salmon roe in processed food.

  14. Atlantic Salmon Telemetry Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual telemetry data are collected as part of specific projects (assessments within watersheds) or as opportunistic efforts to characterize Atlantic salmon smolt...

  15. Atlantic Salmon Smolt Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual data are collected as part of smolt trapping operations using fish trapping methods. Traps collect emigrating salmon smolts to identify cohort...

  16. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  17. Persistent infections of fish cell lines by paramyxovirus isolates from Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannan, C.N.

    1989-01-01

    We have reported the isolation of a paramyxovirus from stocks of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) returning to coastal rivers of Oregon, USA (Winton et al 1985). The isolates were obtained from kidney and spleen tissues using the chinook salmon embryo cell line, CHSE-214. Initial cytopathic effect (CPE) was slow to develop, requiring 28 days incubation at 18°C. The virus replicated in CHSE-214, chum heart (CHH-1), kokanee ovary (K0-6), coho salmon embryo (CSE-119), and fathead minnow (FHM) cell lines where it produced a lytic type of CPE.The virus was stable at pH 3-11 and iodo-deoxyuridine did not inhibit wiral replication. Infectivity was lost after treatment with chloroform indicating the presence of essential lipids. The density of virions in CsCl was 1.2 g/ml. The virus hemagglutinated cells of 11 of 14 species of birds, mammals, and fish tested. Electron microscopy of infected cells revealed enveloped particles 125-250 nm in dia. containing coiled nucleocapsids and examination of freon-treated virions showed the nucleocapsid was a helix approximately 18 nm in dia. and > 1000 nm in length (Winton et al 1985).In addition to causing hemagglutination, members of the Paramyxoviridae are known for the ability to establish persistent infections of cell lines (Choppin and Compans 1975). The purpose of this study was to determine if the paramyxovirus isolates from salmon were able to establish persistent infections in fish cell lines and to study the nature of the infection.

  18. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  19. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Gausmian, Mohd Hanafy; Zulkifli, Faizah

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM) salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country. PMID:24489695

  20. Determinants of public attitudes to genetically modified salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Amin

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the attitude of Malaysian stakeholders to genetically modified (GM salmon and to identify the factors that influence their acceptance of GM salmon using a structural equation model. A survey was carried out on 434 representatives from various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Public attitude towards GM salmon was measured using self-developed questionnaires with seven-point Likert scales. The findings of this study have confirmed that public attitudes towards GM salmon is a complex issue and should be seen as a multi-faceted process. The most important direct predictors for the encouragement of GM salmon are the specific application-linked perceptions about religious acceptability of GM salmon followed by perceived risks and benefits, familiarity, and general promise of modern biotechnology. Encouragement of GM salmon also involves the interplay among other factors such as general concerns of biotechnology, threatening the natural order of things, the need for labeling, the need for patenting, confidence in regulation, and societal values. The research findings can serve as a database that will be useful for understanding the social construct of public attitude towards GM foods in a developing country.

  1. Status and restoration of salmon (Salmo salar L.) stocks in the Nemunas River Basin, Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Vytautas Kesminas

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of salmon resources is of a great importance to most countries in the Baltic Sea region, including Lithuania. Currently, human activity is the main cause of negative impact on salmon stocks status mainly through habitat loss. Salmon restocking program started in 1998 with the aim to recover stocks in the Nemunas River basin. The program involved artificial rearing, construction of fish ladders, protection of spawning grounds, stock monitoring, fishery regulation in the sea and rivers...

  2. Biodiveristy and Stability of Aboriginal Salmon Fisheries in the Fraser River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, H. K.; Moore, J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural watersheds are hierarchical networks that may confer stability to ecosystem functions through integration of upstream biodiversity, whereby upstream asset diversification stabilizes the aggregate downstream through the portfolio effect. Here we show that riverine structure and its associated diversity confer stability of salmon catch and lengthened fishing seasons for Aboriginal fisheries on the Fraser River (1370km) in BC, Canada, the second longest dam-free salmon migration route in North America. In Canada, Aboriginal people have rights to fish for food, social, and ceremonial (FSC) purposes. FSC fisheries are located throughout the Fraser watershed and have access to varying levels of salmon diversity based on their location. For instance, fisheries at the mouth of the river have access to all of the salmon that spawn throughout the entire watershed, thus integrating across the complete diversity profile of the entire river. In contrast, fisheries in the headwaters have access to fewer salmon species and populations and thus fish from a much less diverse portfolio. These spatial gradients of diversity within watersheds provide a natural contrast for quantifying the effects of different types of diversity on interannual resource stability and seasonal availability. We acquired weekly and yearly catch totals from 1983 to 2012 (30 years) for Chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye salmon for 21 FSC fishing sites throughout the Fraser River watershed from Fisheries and Oceans Canada. We examined how both population- and species-level diversity affects catch stability and season length at each site by quantifying year-to-year variability and within-year season length respectively. Salmon species diversity made fisheries up to 28% more stable in their catch than predicted with 3.7 more weeks to fish on average. Fisheries with access to high population diversity had up to 3.8 times more stable catch and 3 times longer seasons than less diverse fisheries. We

  3. Infectious Salmon Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). ISA is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  4. Salmon spawning studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975 fall chinook salmon population estimates in the Columbia River near Hanford are compared with those of previous years. The current year's spawning population is threefold greater than that observed last year but is less than the brood year of 1971

  5. Dynamic modelling of the long term behaviour of cadmium, lead and mercury in Swiss forest soils using CHUM-AM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stephan R; Tipping, Edward; Zimmermann, Stefan; Graf-Pannatier, Elisabeth; Waldner, Peter; Meili, Markus; Frey, Beat

    2014-01-15

    The applicability of the dynamic soil model CHUM-AM was tested to simulate concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in five Swiss forest soils. Soil cores of up to 50 cm depth were sampled and separated into two defined soil layers. Soil leachates were collected below the litter by zero-tension lysimeters and at 15 and 50 cm soil depths by tension lysimeters over two years. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in the solid phase and soil solution were measured by ICP-MS (Cd, Pb) or CV-AFS (Hg). Measured metal concentrations were compared with modelled concentrations using CHUM-AM. Additionally we ran the model with three different deposition scenarios (current deposition; maximum acceptable deposition according to the Swiss ordinance on Air Pollution Control; critical loads according to CLRTAP) to predict metal concentrations in the soils for the next 1000 years. Assuming current loads concentrations of Cd and Pb showed varying trends (increasing/decreasing) between the soils. Soils rich in organic carbon or with a high pH value showed increasing trends in Cd and Pb concentrations whereas the concentrations in the other soils decreased. In contrast Hg concentrations are predicted to further increase in all soils. Critical limits for Pb and Hg will partly be exceeded by current loads or by the critical loads proposed by the CLRTAP but the critical limits for Cd will rarely be reached within the next 1000 years. In contrast, maximal acceptable deposition will partly lead to concentrations above the critical limits for Pb in soils within the next 400 years, whereas the acceptable deposition of Cd will not lead to concentrations above the proposed critical limits. In conclusion the CHUM-AM model is able to accurately simulate heavy metal (Cd, Pb and Hg) concentrations in Swiss forest soils of various soil properties.

  6. Biodiesel from Waste Salmon Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon oils separated from salmon processing waste and hydrolysate and their derived methyl esters were analyzed and compared with corn oil and its methyl ester. These materials were characterized for their fatty acid profiles, viscosity, volatility, thermal properties, low temperature properties, o...

  7. Dynamic modelling of the long term behaviour of cadmium, lead and mercury in Swiss forest soils using CHUM-AM

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Stephan R.; Tipping, Edward; Zimmermann, Stefan; Graf-Pannatier, Elisabeth; Waldner, Peter; Meili, Markus; Frey, Beat

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of the dynamic soil model CHUM-AM was tested to simulate concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in five Swiss forest soils. Soil cores of up to 50 cm depth were sampled and separated into two defined soil layers. Soil leachateswere collected below the litter by zero-tension lysimeters and at 15 and 50 cm soil depths by tension lysimeters over two years. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in the solid phase and soil solution weremeasured by ICP-MS (Cd, Pb) or CV-AFS (Hg). Mea...

  8. Infectious diseases of Pacific salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1954-01-01

    Investigations on infectious diseases of Pacific salmon due to micro-organisms other than viruses are reviewed. The etiological agents include trematodes, fungi, protozoa and bacteria. Bacteria have been found to be the most important agents of disease in the several species of Pacific salmon. Kidney disease, due to a small, unnamed Gram-positive diplobacillus, causes serious mortalities in young salmon reared in hatcheries. The disease has also been found in wild fish. Aquatic myxobacteria are important agents of disease both in the hatchery and in the natural habitat. One of the myxobacteria, Chondrococcus columnaris, causes disease at relatively high water temperatures. The problem of the taxonomy of this organism is discussed. Another myxobacterium, Cytophaga psychrophila, has been found responsible for epizootics in coho salmon at lower water temperatures, i.e., in the range of 40° to 55° F. In outbreaks of gill disease in young salmon, myxobacteria of several kinds have been implicated.

  9. Tricellulin, occludin and claudin-3 expression in salmon intestine and kidney during salinity adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Madsen, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Molecular regulation of tight junctions in osmoregulatory epithelia of euryhaline fishes must be extensive during ontogeny and acclimation to salinity changes. In this study, five tight junction proteins were examined in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): tight junction associated tricellulin, occludin...

  10. Salmon, Science, and Reciprocity on the Northwest Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bruce Johnsen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Severe depletion of many genetically distinct Pacific salmon populations has spawned a contentious debate over causation and the efficacy of proposed solutions. No doubt the precipitating factor was overharvesting of the commons beginning along the Northwest Coast around 1860. Yet, for millenia before that, a relatively dense population of Indian tribes managed salmon stocks that have since been characterized as “superabundant.” This study investigates how they avoided a tragedy of the commons, where in recent history, commercial ocean fishers guided by scientifically informed regulators, have repeatedly failed. Unlike commercial fishers, the tribes enjoyed exclusive rights to terminal fisheries enforced through rigorous reciprocity relations. The available evidence is compelling that they actively husbanded their salmon stocks for sustained abundance.

  11. Historical rise of waterpower initiated the collapse of salmon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenders, H J R; Chamuleau, T P M; Hendriks, A J; Lauwerier, R C G M; Leuven, R S E W; Verberk, W C E P

    2016-01-01

    The collapse of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) stocks throughout North-Western Europe is generally ascribed to large-scale river regulation, water pollution and over-fishing in the 19(th) and 20(th) century. However, other causes have rarely been quantified, especially those acting before the 19(th) century. By analysing historical fishery, market and tax statistics, independently confirmed by archaeozoological records, we demonstrate that populations declined by up to 90% during the transitional period between the Early Middle Ages (c. 450-900 AD) and Early Modern Times (c. 1600 AD). These dramatic declines coincided with improvements in watermill technology and their geographical expansion across Europe. Our extrapolations suggest that historical Atlantic salmon runs must have once been very abundant indeed. The historical perspective presented here contributes to a better understanding of the primary factors that led to major declines in salmon populations. Such understanding provides an essential basis for the effective ecological rehabilitation of freshwater ecosystems. PMID:27435118

  12. Salmon Population Summary - Impacts of climate change on Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This work involves 1) synthesizing information from the literature and 2) modeling impacts of climate change on specific aspects of salmon life history and...

  13. Salmon as drivers of physical and biological disturbance in river channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2012-04-01

    sediment concentration. To monitor sediment infiltration into the gravelbed we used modified infiltration bag samplers. Lastly, to examine the contribution of salmon nutrients to the infiltrated sediment we sampled for the presence of a marine isotope signature (15N) in the sediment. Increased sediment in the water column of the salmon enclosure during the active spawn period indicated salmon-mediated sediment resuspension. A gravelbed response to this water column disturbance was detected via increased sediment infiltration during salmon spawning. This stored sediment was enriched in organic matter and 15N indicating a marine salmon signal. Significant relationships between sediment infiltration and salmon enrichment provided further evidence that salmon organic matter, using resuspended sediment as a vector, was infiltrating into the gravelbed. During the post-spawn period organic sediment was elevated in the water column and gravelbed infiltration was reduced reflecting respectively, the release of decay products from salmon carcasses and MDN release from temporary gravelbed storage. This study demonstrated that localized patterns of sediment deposition are regulated by salmon activity, which control gravelbed MDN storage and release. Salmon-mediated, sediment vector influences on riverine habitat have been quantified here on a small experimental scale, but we expect that the effect is replicated and magnified, as it occurs regionally throughout the spawning grounds, with significant ecosystem implications.

  14. Effects of salmon lice infection and salmon lice protection on fjord migrating Atlantic salmon and brown trout post-smolts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivertsgard, Rolf; Thorstad, Eva B.; Okland, Finn;

    2007-01-01

    fjord system and had, thus, entered the ocean when the more pathogenic pre-adult and adult lice stages developed. The brown trout, in comparison to Atlantic salmon, remained to a larger extent than Atlantic salmon in the inner part of the fjord system. No effect of salmon lice infection, or protection...

  15. AquAdvantage Salmon Genetically modified organism

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Saurí, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Póster AquAdvantage Salmon is a genetically modified organism developed by AquBounty Technologies. The objective of this transgenic organism is to increase the growth rate to obtain the same of conventional salmon faster.

  16. Cortisol regulation of ion transporter mRNA in Atlantic salmon gill and the effect of salinity on the signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Pia; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Steffen S

    2007-01-01

    Based on real-time RT-PCR, analysis of transcripts of selected ion-regulatory proteins (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha1a and alpha1b subunit, Na(+), K(+), 2Cl(-) cotransporter, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and H(+)-ATPase B-subunit), the regulatory role of cortisol and the...... gills from freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) acclimated fish. The effect of cortisol was highly dependent on acclimation to salinity. In FW, cortisol stimulated the transcript levels of CFTR-I and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha1a and alpha1b. Addition of RU486 totally abolished the cortisol effects on CFTR...... transcript levels of CFTR-I, CFTR-II, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha1a and alpha1b, and NKCC. Interestingly, the effect of cortisol on CFTR-I and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase alpha1a was mediated through GR and MR respectively, while both GR and MR signaling were required in the regulation of CFTR-II and Na(+), K...

  17. Effects of cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin on gill claudin expression in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Jørgensen, Charlotte; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna;

    2009-01-01

    We recently showed that a series of tight junction proteins of the claudin family are regulated in the gill of salmon during salinity acclimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) on regulation of expression of these iso......We recently showed that a series of tight junction proteins of the claudin family are regulated in the gill of salmon during salinity acclimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) on regulation of expression...

  18. Comparative studies of oral administration of marine collagen peptides from Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiang; Li, Qiong; Lin, Bing; Yu, Yongchao; Ding, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqian; Li, Yong

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of an oral administration of marine collagen peptides (MCPs) pre- and post-acute ethanol intoxication in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MCPs were orally administered to rats at doses of 0 g per kg bw, 2.25 g per kg bw, 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw, prior to or after the oral administration of ethanol. Thirty minutes after ethanol treatment, the effect of MCPs on motor incoordination and hypnosis induced by ethanol were investigated using a screen test, fixed speed rotarod test (5 g per kg bw ethanol) and loss of righting reflex (7 g per kg bw ethanol). In addition, the blood ethanol concentrations at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after ethanol administration (5 g per kg bw ethanol) were measured. The results of the screen test and fixed speed rotarod test suggested that treatment with MCPs at 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw prior to ethanol could attenuate ethanol-induced loss of motor coordination. Moreover, MCP administered both pre- and post-ethanol treatment had significant potency to alleviate the acute ethanol induced hypnotic states in the loss of righting reflex test. At 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ethanol ingestion at 5 g per kg bw, the blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of control rats significantly increased compared with that in the 4.5 g per kg bw and 9.0 g per kg bw MCP pre-treated groups. However, post-treatment with MCPs did not exert a significant inhibitory effect on the BEC of the post-treated groups until 120 minutes after ethanol administration. Therefore, the anti-inebriation effect of MCPs was verified in SD rats with the possible mechanisms related to inhibiting ethanol absorption and facilitating ethanol metabolism. Moreover, the efficiency was better when MCPs were administered prior to ethanol.

  19. AFSC/ABL: Intra-annual growth in body weight of chum salmon captured incidentally in the Bering Sea commercial fishery for walleye pollock

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ecosystem-based fisheries management requires the development of physical and biological time series that index ocean productivity for stock assessment and...

  20. Protecting the endangered lake salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soimakallio, H.; Oesch, P. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    In addition to the Ringed Seal, the labyrinthine Saimaa lake system created after the Ice Age also trapped a species of salmon, whose entire life cycle became adapted to fresh water. In order to improve the living conditions of this lake salmon which - like the ringed seal - is today classified as an endangered species, an intensive research programme has been launched. The partners include the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, fishing and environmental authorities and - in collaboration with UPM-Kymmene Oy and Kuurnan Voima Oy - the IVO subsidiary Pamilo Oy

  1. Preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA using chum-RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Hiroshi; Tougan, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    Unlike exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is advantageous for genome-wide analysis of gene expression and for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. However, the use of RNA polymerase requires a large amount of RNA, as the optimum concentration of the substrate (mRNA), or the Michaelis constant (K(m)), is one millionfold higher than the single-cell amount of mRNA. To circumvent this K(m) problem, we designed a small mRNA-like dummy molecule, termed chum-RNA, which can be easily removed after the completion of the reaction. Chum-RNA allowed the preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from single-cell quantities of RNA after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. The use of chum-RNA may also facilitate quantitative reverse-transcription (qRT)-PCR from small quantities of substrate. PMID:21365481

  2. Chum-RNA allows preparation of a high-quality cDNA library from a single-cell quantity of mRNA without PCR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougan, Takahiro; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    Linear RNA amplification using T7 RNA polymerase is useful in genome-wide analysis of gene expression using DNA microarrays, but exponential amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still required for cDNA library preparation from single-cell quantities of RNA. We have designed a small RNA molecule called chum-RNA that has enabled us to prepare a single-cell cDNA library after four rounds of T7-based linear amplification, without using PCR amplification. Chum-RNA drove cDNA synthesis from only 0.49 femtograms of mRNA (730 mRNA molecules) as a substrate, a quantity that corresponds to a minor population of mRNA molecules in a single mammalian cell. Analysis of the independent cDNA clone of this library (6.6 x 10(5) cfu) suggests that 30-fold RNA amplification occurred in each round of the amplification process. The size distribution and representation of mRNAs in the resulting one-cell cDNA library retained its similarity to that of the million-cell cDNA library. The use of chum-RNA might also facilitate reactions involving other DNA/RNA modifying enzymes whose Michaelis constant (K(m)) values are around 1 mM, allowing them to be activated in the presence of only small quantities of substrate. PMID:18603591

  3. Gene-expression signatures of Atlantic salmon's plastic life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin-Horth, N.; Letcher, B.H.; Hofmann, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    How genomic expression differs as a function of life history variation is largely unknown. Atlantic salmon exhibits extreme alternative life histories. We defined the gene-expression signatures of wild-caught salmon at two different life stages by comparing the brain expression profiles of mature sneaker males and immature males, and early migrants and late migrants. In addition to life-stage-specific signatures, we discovered a surprisingly large gene set that was differentially regulated-at similar magnitudes, yet in opposite direction-in both life history transitions. We suggest that this co-variation is not a consequence of many independent cellular and molecular switches in the same direction but rather represents the molecular equivalent of a physiological shift orchestrated by one or very few master regulators. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamelfot, Maria; McBeath, Alastair; Christiansen, Debes H; Matejusova, Iveta; Falk, Knut

    2015-01-01

    All viruses infecting fish must cross the surface mucosal barrier to successfully enter a host. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), the causative agent of the economically important infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., has been shown to use the gills as its entry point. However, other entry ports have not been investigated despite the expression of virus receptors on the surface of epithelial cells in the skin, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the conjunctiva. Here we investigate the ISAV mucosal infection in Atlantic salmon after experimental immersion (bath) challenge and in farmed fish collected from a confirmed outbreak of ISA in Norway. We show for the first time evidence of early replication in several mucosal surfaces in addition to the gills, including the pectoral fin, skin and GI tract suggesting several potential entry points for the virus. Initially, the infection is localized and primarily infecting epithelial cells, however at later stages it becomes systemic, infecting the endothelial cells lining the circulatory system. Viruses of low and high virulence used in the challenge revealed possible variation in virus progression during infection at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:26490835

  5. Crims Island-Restoration and monitoring of juvenile salmon rearing habitat in the Columbia River Estuary, Oregon, 2004-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    -channel' was extended westward and connected to Bradbury Slough to create a second outlet to the main river. New intertidal channels were constructed from the existing 'T-channel' and tidal mudflats became inundated at high tide to increase rearing habitat for juvenile salmonids. The restoration action resulted in a 95-percent increase in available juvenile salmon rearing habitat. We collected juvenile salmon and other fishes at Crims Island and a nearby reference site using beach seines and fyke nets annually from March through August during all years. Benthic invertebrates were collected with sediment corers and drift invertebrates were collected with neuston nets. Juvenile salmon stomach contents were sampled using lavage. Vegetation and sediments characteristics were surveyed and we conducted a topographic/bathymetric survey using a RTK (real time kinematic) GPS (global positioning system). The fish assemblage at Crims Island, composed primarily of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), non-native banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus), peamouth chub (Mylocheilus caurinus), subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (hereinafter referred to as subyearlings), and small numbers of juvenile chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta), did not differ appreciably pre- and post-restoration. Subyearlings were the primary salmonid collected and were seasonally abundant from April through May during all years. The abundance of juvenile salmon declined seasonally as water temperature exceeded 20 degrees C in the Reference site by mid-June; however, subyearlings persisted at the Mainstem site and in subtidal channels of the Restoration site through the summer in water temperatures exceeding 22 degrees C. Residence times of subyearlings in Crims Island backwaters generally were short consisting of one or two tidal cycles. Median residence time was longer in the Restoration site than in the Reference site pre- and post-restoration. Small (mean = 55.7 millimeters) subyea

  6. Status and restoration of salmon (Salmo salar L. stocks in the Nemunas River Basin, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Kesminas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of salmon resources is of a great importance to most countries in the Baltic Sea region, including Lithuania. Currently, human activity is the main cause of negative impact on salmon stocks status mainly through habitat loss. Salmon restocking program started in 1998 with the aim to recover stocks in the Nemunas River basin. The program involved artificial rearing, construction of fish ladders, protection of spawning grounds, stock monitoring, fishery regulation in the sea and rivers. Our study presents data on salmon stocks status and productivity in Lithuania, including abundance of fry and smolts, age composition and genetic structure of the populations. In total, 12 rivers in Lithuania have salmon populations, but the status of the populations varies. Despite the many measures taken, smolt production in Nemunas basin is increasing slowly. Notable increase in production was observed only in recent years. Production increased substantially during 2007- 2010 period, from 13 thousand individuals to over 47 thousand. Salmon parr density in studied rivers varied from 0.3 – 33.7 per 100 m² (mean value 9.8 individuals per 100 m². Mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP DNA markers were used to investigate genetic structure of salmon populations. MtDNA was subjected to RFLP analysis, 17 microsatellite loci were used as markers, also samples genotyped with 5568 SNPs. Salmon population from the Nemunas basin was fixed at one haplotype for mtDNA and fell into the same group as the populations from Latvia, Estonia, Russia and Southern Sweden. Microsatellite DNA and SNPs demonstrated distinctiveness from other neighboring populations, however it also indicated lower genetic variability, which could be caused by bottleneck event.

  7. Predation on Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery salmonids and Fallfish in the Salmon River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross; McKenna Jr, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally reproduced Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha contribute substantially to the fishery in Lake Ontario. The Salmon River, a Lake Ontario tributary in New York, produces the largest numbers of naturally spawned Chinook Salmon, with parr abundance in the river often exceeding 10 million. In the spring of each year, large numbers of hatchery salmonid yearlings—potential predators of Chinook Salmon parr—are released into the Salmon River by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. We sought to examine predation on Chinook Salmon parr in the Salmon River during May and June prior to out-migration. Over the 4 years examined (2009–2012), annual consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by hatchery-released yearling steelhead O. mykiss and Coho Salmon O. kisutch ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 million and from 0.4 to 2.1 million, respectively. In 2009, Fallfish Semotilus corporalis were estimated to consume 2.9 million Chinook Salmon parr. Predation was higher in May, when the average TL of Chinook Salmon parr was 44.5 mm, than in June. Fallfish were also important predators of naturally reproduced steelhead subyearlings, consuming an estimated 800,000 steelhead in 2009. Hatchery-released yearling salmonids consumed 13.8–15.3% of the Chinook Salmon parr that were estimated to be present in the Salmon River during 2010–2012. Earlier releases of hatchery salmonid yearlings could reduce the riverine consumption of Chinook Salmon parr by facilitating the out-migration of yearlings prior to Chinook Salmon emergence.

  8. Proactive responses to human impacts that balance development and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) conservation: An integrative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilzbach, M.A.; Mather, M. E.; Folt, C.L.; Moore, A.; Naiman, R.J.; Youngson, A.F.; McMenemy, J.

    1998-01-01

    Incorporating human impacts into conservation plans is critical to protect natural resources. Using a model that examines how anthropogenic changes might be proactively influenced to promote conservation, we argue that a denser human population does not spell inevitable doom for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Humans affect the Atlantic salmon ecosystem deleteriously through landscape alteration, exploitation, external inputs, and resource competition. An intact ecosystem provides positive feedback to society by providing food, ecosystem services, and improving the quality of life. As Atlantic salmon and associated ecosystem benefits are increasingly valued by society, policies, laws, and regulations that protect salmon populations and habitats are codified into a 'control system' or institutional infrastructure. Via research that helps maintain wild salmon populations and in informing the public about the benefits of a healthy Atlantic salmon ecosystem, scientists can influence public attitudes and facilitate the implementation of environmental policies that moderate harmful anthropogenic changes. Because exchange among scientists is of paramount importance in increasing our understanding of important interrelationships between humans and fish, we recommend the establishment of an international salmon organizational for research.

  9. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  10. Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. as a Marine Functional Source of Gamma-Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Menoyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamma tocopherol (gT exhibits beneficial cardiovascular effects partly due to its anti-inflammatory activity. Important sources of gT are vegetable oils. However, little is known to what extent gT can be transferred into marine animal species such as Atlantic salmon by feeding. Therefore, in this study we have investigated the transfer of dietary gT into salmon. To this end, fish were fed a diet supplemented with 170 ppm gT for 16 weeks whereby alpha tocopherol levels were adjusted to 190 ppm in this and the control diet. Feeding gT-rich diets resulted in a three-fold increase in gT concentrations in the liver and fillet compared to non-gT-supplemented controls. Tissue alpha tocopherol levels were not decreased indicating no antagonistic interaction between gamma- and alpha tocopherol in salmon. The concentration of total omega 3 fatty acids slightly increased in response to dietary gT. Furthermore, dietary gT significantly decreased malondialdehyde in the fillet, determined as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation. In the liver of gT fed salmon we observed an overall down-regulation of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. Additionally, gT improved the antioxidant capacity by up-regulating Gpx4a gene expression in the pyloric caeca. We suggest that Atlantic salmon may provide a marine functional source capable of enriching gT for human consumption.

  11. THE FUTURE OF PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON: ANATOMY OF A CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon are categorized biologically into two groups: Pacific salmon or Atlantic salmon. All seven species of Pacific salmon on both sides of the North Pacific Ocean have declined substantially from historic levels, but large runs still occur in northern British Columbia, Yukon,...

  12. Large scale modelling of salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis infection pressure based on lice monitoring data from Norwegian salmonid farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja B. Kristoffersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection by parasitic sea lice is a substantial problem in industrial scale salmon farming. To control the problem, Norwegian salmonid farms are not permitted to exceed a threshold level of infection on their fish, and farms are required to monitor and report lice levels on a weekly basis to ensure compliance with the regulation. In the present study, we combine the monitoring data with a deterministic model for salmon lice population dynamics to estimate farm production of infectious lice stages. Furthermore, we use an empirical estimate of the relative risk of salmon lice transmission between farms, that depend on inter-farm distances, to estimate the external infection pressure at a farm site, i.e. the infection pressure from infective salmon lice of neighbouring farm origin. Finally, we test whether our estimates of infection pressure from neighbouring farms as well as internal within farm infection pressure, predicts subsequent development of infection in cohorts of farmed salmonids in their initial phase of marine production. We find that estimated external infection pressure is a main predictor of salmon lice population dynamics in newly stocked cohorts of salmonids. Our results emphasize the importance of keeping the production of infectious lice stages at low levels within local networks of salmon farms. Our model can easily be implemented for real time estimation of infection pressure at the national scale, utilizing the masses of data generated through the compulsory lice monitoring in salmon farms. The implementation of such a system should give the salmon industry greater predictability with respect to salmon lice infection levels, and aid the decision making process when the development of new farm sites are planned.

  13. Modeling parasite dynamics on farmed salmon for precautionary conservation management of wild salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke A Rogers

    Full Text Available Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity, local host density (measured as cohort surface area, and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March-June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.

  14. 75 FR 7228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... salmon that may be caught incidentally with an incentive plan agreement and performance standard designed... Portal http://www.regulations.gov . Fax: (907) 586-7557, Attn: Ellen Sebastian Mail: P.O. Box 21668... fishery was over $1.4 billion in 2008. Pollock is harvested with fishing vessels using trawl gear...

  15. Local and systemic gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. to infection with the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Frank

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse (SL is an ectoparasitic caligid crustacean infecting salmonid fishes in the marine environment. SL represents one of the major challenges for farming of salmonids, and veterinary intervention is necessary to combat infection. This study addressed gene expression responses of Atlantic salmon infected with SL, which may account for its high susceptibility. Results The effects of SL infection on gene expression in Atlantic salmon were studied throughout the infection period from copepodids at 3 days post infection (dpi to adult lice (33 dpi. Gene expression was analyzed at three developmental stages in damaged and intact skin, spleen, head kidney and liver, using real-time qPCR and a salmonid cDNA microarray (SFA2. Rapid detection of parasites was indicated by the up-regulation of immunoglobulins in the spleen and head kidney and IL-1 receptor type 1, CD4, beta-2-microglobulin, IL-12β, CD8α and arginase 1 in the intact skin of infected fish. Most immune responses decreased at 22 dpi, however, a second activation was observed at 33 dpi. The observed pattern of gene expression in damaged skin suggested the development of inflammation with signs of Th2-like responses. Involvement of T cells in responses to SL was witnessed with up-regulation of CD4, CD8α and programmed death ligand 1. Signs of hyporesponsive immune cells were seen. Cellular stress was prevalent in damaged skin as seen by highly significant up-regulation of heat shock proteins, other chaperones and mitochondrial proteins. Induction of the major components of extracellular matrix, TGF-β and IL-10 was observed only at the adult stage of SL. Taken together with up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP, this classifies the wounds afflicted by SL as chronic. Overall, the gene expression changes suggest a combination of chronic stress, impaired healing and immunomodulation. Steady increase of MMP expression in all tissues except liver was a

  16. CROOS - Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Goal 1: Improve understanding of salmon ocean ecology by integrating stock-specific distribution patterns over space and time with biological and environmental...

  17. Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the Pacific Northwest Salmon Habitat Project Database Across the Pacific Northwest, both public and private agents are working to improve riverine habitat for a...

  18. Karluk Lake sockeye salmon studies 1984: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on Karluk Lake sockeye salmon. The objectives of the study were to: collect sediment core samples from Karluk Lake...

  19. Quantifying Temperature Effects on Fall Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The motivation for this study was to recommend relationships for use in a model of San Joaquin fall Chinook salmon. This report reviews literature pertaining to relationships between water temperature and fall Chinook salmon. The report is organized into three sections that deal with temperature effects on development and timing of freshwater life stages, temperature effects on incubation survival for eggs and alevin, and temperature effects on juvenile survival. Recommendations are made for modeling temperature influences for all three life stages.

  20. Industrial analysis of the farmed salmon industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arnar Sigurjónsson 1982

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a great consolidation of international food processors in the salmon farming industry in form of mergers and acquisitions (M&A). This development has not only been taking place between neighboring countries, but corporations have been investing in other continents. Marine Harvest Group (MHG) is the largest processor of farmed salmon in the world and has been the center of this development. The practical elements of the research are to support Marel, a major ...

  1. Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, J; Piesik, P; Hershberger, P K; Garver, K A

    2013-09-27

    In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes. PMID:23838146

  2. Experimental infection studies demonstrating Atlantic salmon as a host and reservoir of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVa with insights into pathology and host immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovy, Jan; Piesik, P.; Hershberger, P.K.; Garver, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada (BC), aquaculture of finfish in ocean netpens has the potential for pathogen transmission between wild and farmed species due to the sharing of an aquatic environment. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is enzootic in BC and causes serious disease in wild Pacific herring, Clupea pallasii, which often enter and remain in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, netpens. Isolation of VHSV from farmed Atlantic salmon has been previously documented, but the effects on the health of farmed salmon and the wild fish sharing the environment are unknown. To determine their susceptibility, Atlantic salmon were exposed to a pool of 9 isolates of VHSV obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon in BC by IP-injection or by waterborne exposure and cohabitation with diseased Pacific herring. Disease intensity was quantified by recording mortality, clinical signs, histopathological changes, cellular sites of viral replication, expression of interferon-related genes, and viral tissue titers. Disease ensued in Atlantic salmon after both VHSV exposure methods. Fish demonstrated gross disease signs including darkening of the dorsal skin, bilateral exophthalmia, light cutaneous hemorrhage, and lethargy. The virus replicated within endothelial cells causing endothelial cell necrosis and extensive hemorrhage in anterior kidney. Infected fish demonstrated a type I interferon response as seen by up-regulation of genes for IFNα, Mx, and ISG15. In a separate trial infected salmon transmitted the virus to sympatric Pacific herring. The results demonstrate that farmed Atlantic salmon can develop clinical VHS and virus can persist in the tissues for at least 10 weeks. Avoiding VHS epizootics in Atlantic salmon farms would limit the potential of VHS in farmed Atlantic salmon, the possibility for further host adaptation in this species, and virus spillback to sympatric wild fishes.

  3. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  4. Harvest Management and Recovery of Snake River Salmon Stocks : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 7 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Gilbertson, Larry G.

    1993-06-01

    Management measures to regulate salmon fishing harvest have grown increasingly complex over the past decade in response to the needs for improved protection for some salmon runs and to alter harvest sharing between fisheries. The development of management plans that adequately address both needs is an immensely complicated task, one that involves a multitude of stocks, each with its own migration patterns and capacity to sustain exploitation. The fishing industry that relies on these fish populations is also highly diverse. The management task is made especially difficult because the stocks are often intermingled on the fishing grounds, creating highly mixed aggregates of stocks and species on which the fisheries operate. This situation is the one confronting harvest managers attempting to protect Snake River salmon. This report provides an overview of some of the factors that will need to be addressed in assessing the potential for using harvest management measures in the recovery of Snake River salmon stocks. The major sections of the report include the following: perspectives on harvest impacts; ocean distribution and in-river adult migration timing; description of management processes and associated fisheries of interest; and altemative harvest strategies.

  5. Molecular and immunohistochemical studies on epidermal responses in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. induced by Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walter; Evensen, O.; Larsen, Thomas Bjerre;

    2010-01-01

    salmon, and IL-10 may play a role in this regard. It can be hypothesized that resistant salmon regulate the parasite population by restricting nutrients (sloughed epithelial cells and associated material) and thereby starve the parasites. In association with this ‘scorchedearth strategy’, the production......Various strains of Atlantic salmon exhibit different levels of susceptibility to infections with the ectoparasitic monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris. The basic mechanisms involved in this differential ability to respond to this monogenean were elucidated using controlled and duplicated challenge...

  6. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  7. Reconnecting Social and Ecological Resilience in Salmon Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Courtland L. Smith; Simenstad, Charles A.; Kim K. Jones; Daniel L. Bottom

    2009-01-01

    Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosystem resilience that have been overlooked by traditional salmon management approaches. The dynamics of salmon ecosystems involve social–ecologic...

  8. Assessment of the sustainability of organic salmon farming

    OpenAIRE

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and sustainable aspects of food production are receiving increasingly more attention, which is also evident through the increasing demand for organic food products. This paper is concerned with the sustainability of organic salmon farming, an emerging segment of salmon aquaculture. The use of wild fish stocks in salmon feeds, pollution of local environments, escape of farmed salmons, the use of GMO raw materials in the feeds, medication of the fish, waste handling etc. are issue...

  9. Future challanges for the maturing Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asche, Frank; Guttormsen, Atle G.; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze total factor productivity change in the Norwegian salmon aquaculture sector from 1996 to 2008. During this period, the production has on average been growing with 8% per year. At the same time, the price of salmon has stabilized indicating that an increase in demand...... factor to future production growth in the salmon aquaculture industry....

  10. Adhesion mechanism of salmon to polymer-coated can walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommershuijzen, H.; Hviid, L.; Hartog, den H.; Vereijken, J.

    2005-01-01

    Minimization of the amount of salmon adhering to the can wall after emptying is one of the convenience requirements of consumers of canned salmon. In order to achieve this, the mechanism by which salmon adheres to cans needs to be understood. The aim of this study was to provide such knowledge for p

  11. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  12. Comparative diets of subyearling Atlantic salmon and subyearling coho salmon in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Ringler, Neil H.

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario could potentially be negatively affected by the presence of non-native salmonids that are naturalized in the basin. Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) have been spawning successfully in Lake Ontario tributaries for over 40 years and their juveniles will reside in streams with juvenile Atlantic salmon for one year. This study sought to examine interspecific diet associations between these species, and to compare diets to the composition of the benthos and drift in three Lake Ontario tributaries. Aquatic insects, mainly ephemeropterans and chironomids were the major prey consumed by subyearling Atlantic salmon whereas terrestrial invertebrates made up only 3.7% of the diet. Ephemeropterans and chironomids were the primary aquatic taxa consumed by subyearling coho salmon but, as a group, terrestrial invertebrates (41.8%) were the major prey. In sympatry, Atlantic salmon fed more actively from the benthos whereas the diet of coho salmon was more similar to the drift. The different feeding pattern of each species resulted in low interspecific diet similarity. There is likely little competition between these species for food in Lake Ontario tributaries as juveniles.

  13. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the USGS publication and maps may be... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205...

  14. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2016-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  15. Biogeomorphic impacts of migration and disturbance: Implications of salmon spawning and decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    Geomorphologic processes often involve a biotic element that acts to regulate landform development. This biotic element can be plant or animal-based with a feedback that ultimately benefits the ecology of the organism. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) are an example of an animal biogeomorphic agent exhibiting such feedbacks and, because of long migrations from the sea to freshwater spawning grounds, are a species of interest that act on both local and regional scales. Upon returning to their natal streams, salmon generate a dual disturbance, resuspending large amounts of sediment as they construct nests while at the same time generating a substantial nutrient pulse through post-spawn die-off and decay. The retention and export of these nutrients are of importance to any hypothesized productivity boost driven by the marine derived nutrients (MDNs). Using experimental enclosures in the Horsefly River spawning channel in north-central British Columbia, our objectives for this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of organic and inorganic sediment export and retention from an active-spawning area and ii) determine the contribution of fine sediment MDN storage. Using a suspended sediment mass balance model, marine isotope enrichment and a time series of gravel bed sediment infiltration, we found strongly linear relationships between sediment infiltration and marine-derived nutrient enrichment. Elevated suspended sediment produced by salmon redd (nest) construction acted as an effective vector for MDN infiltration into the gravel bed. This study demonstrated that localized patterns of sediment deposition are regulated by salmon activity which in turn act to control MDN storage within, and release from, the gravel bed. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the ability of a biogeomorphic agent like salmon to establish a feedback mechanism that creates favorable conditions which ultimately benefit the organism.

  16. Modelling the Influence of Long-Term Hydraulic Conditions on Juvenile Salmon Habitats in AN Upland Scotish River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, L.; Malcolm, I.; Millidine, K. J.; Buddendorf, B.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.

    2015-12-01

    Wild Atlantic salmon populations in Scottish rivers constitute an important economic and recreational resource, as well as being a key component of biodiversity. Salmon have very specific habitat requirements at different life stages and their distribution is therefore strongly influenced by a complex suite of biological and physical controls. Previous research has shown that stream hydrodynamics and channel morphology have a strong influence on the distribution and density of juvenile salmon. Here, we utilise a unique 20 year data set of spatially distributed juvenile salmon densities derived from annual electro-fishing surveys in an upland Scottish river. We examine to what extent the spatial and temporal variability of in-stream hydraulics regulates the spatial and temporal variability in the performance and density of juvenile salmon. A 2-D hydraulic model (River2D) is used to simulate water velocity and water depth under different flow conditions for seven different electro-fishing sites. The selected sites represent different hydromorphological environments including plane-bed, step-pool and pool riffle reaches. The bathymetry of each site was characterised using a total station providing an accurate DTM of the bed, and hydraulic simulations were driven by 20 year stream flow records. Habitat suitability curves, based on direct observations during electro-fishing surveys, were produced for a range of hydraulic indices for juvenile salmon. The hydraulic simulations showed marked spatial differences in juvenile habitat quality both within and between reaches. They also showed marked differences both within and between years. This is most evident in extreme years with wet summers when salmon feeding opportunities may be constrained. Integration of hydraulic habitat models, with fish preference curves and the long term hydrological data allows us to assess whether long-term changes in hydroclimate may be affecting juvenile salmonid populations in the study stream

  17. An injectable acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z. D.; Carlson, T. J.; Li, H.; Xiao, J.; Myjak, M. J.; Lu, J.; Martinez, J. J.; Woodley, C. M.; Weiland, M. A.; Eppard, M. B.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon recovery and the potential detrimental effects of dams on fish have been attracting national attention due to the environmental and economic implications. In recent years acoustic telemetry has been the primary method for studying salmon passage. However, the size of the existing transmitters limits the minimum size of fish that can be studied, introducing a bias to the study results. We developed the first acoustic fish transmitter that can be implanted by injection instead of surgery. The new injectable transmitter lasts four times longer and weighs 30% less than other transmitters. Because the new transmitter costs significantly less to use and may substantially reduce adverse effects of implantation and tag burden, it will allow for study of migration behavior and survival of species and sizes of fish that have never been studied before. The new technology will lead to critical information needed for salmon recovery and the development of fish-friendly hydroelectric systems.

  18. Cessation of a salmon decline with control of parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Peacock, Stephanie J.

    2013-04-01

    The resilience of coastal social-ecological systems may depend on adaptive responses to aquaculture disease outbreaks that can threaten wild and farm fish. A nine-year study of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) and pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) from Pacific Canada indicates that adaptive changes in parasite management on salmon farms have yielded positive conservation outcomes. After four years of sea lice epizootics and wild salmon population decline, parasiticide application on salmon farms was adapted to the timing of wild salmon migrations. Winter treatment of farm fish with parasiticides, prior to the out-migration of wild juvenile salmon, has reduced epizootics of wild salmon without significantly increasing the annual number of treatments. Levels of parasites on wild juvenile salmon significantly influence the growth rate of affected salmon populations, suggesting that these changes in management have had positive outcomes for wild salmon populations. These adaptive changes have not occurred through formal adaptive management, but rather, through multi-stakeholder processes arising from a contentious scientific and public debate. Despite the apparent success of parasite control on salmon farms in the study region, there remain concerns about the long-term sustainability of this approach because of the unknown ecological effects of parasticides and the potential for parasite resistance to chemical treatments. © 2013 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Evaluation of a chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the Wisconsin bioenergetics model for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in both the laboratory and the field. Chinook salmon in laboratory tanks were fed alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), the predominant food of chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. Food consumption and growth by chinook salmon during the experiment were measured. To estimate the efficiency with which chinook salmon retain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from their food in the laboratory, PCB concentrations of the alewife and of the chinook salmon at both the beginning and end of the experiment were determined. Based on our laboratory evaluation, the bioenergetics model was furnishing unbiased estimates of food consumption by chinook salmon. Additionally, from the laboratory experiment, we calculated that chinook salmon retained 75% of the PCBs contained within their food. In an earlier study, assimilation rate of PCBs to chinook salmon from their food in Lake Michigan was estimated at 53%, thereby suggesting that the model was substantially overestimating food consumption by chinook salmon in Lake Michigan. However, we concluded that field performance of the model could not be accurately assessed because PCB assimilation efficiency is dependent on feeding rate, and feeding rate of chinook salmon was likely much lower in our laboratory tanks than in Lake Michigan.

  20. Archaeological Evidence for Resilience of Pacific Northwest Salmon Populations and the Socioecological System over the last ~7,500 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Campbell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological data on the long history of interaction between indigenous people and salmon have rarely been applied to conservation management. When joined with ethnohistoric records, archaeology provides an alternative conceptual view of the potential for sustainable harvests and can suggest possible social mechanisms for managing human behavior. Review of the ~7,500-year-long fish bone record from two subregions of the Pacific Northwest shows remarkable stability in salmon use. As major changes in the ecological and social system occurred over this lengthy period, persistence in the fishery is not due simply to a lack of perturbation, but rather indicates resilience in the ecological–human system. Of several factors possibly contributing to resilience, low human population size and harvesting pressure, habitat enhancement, and suppression of competing predators do not appear to be of major importance. Flexible resource use, including human use of a range of local resources, many of which are linked in a food web with salmon, likely contributed to resilience. Most important were the beliefs and social institutions (including ownership, regulation, rituals, and monitoring that placed restraints on salmon use as a common pool resource. In contrast, only a small fraction of our modern society relies economically on or has direct interaction with the fish, which limits our concern and willingness to fundamentally change behaviors that contribute to habitat degradation and loss, the main challenges facing salmon populations today. Salmon recovery efforts may benefit substantially from investing more resources into establishing links between community groups and actual fish populations, which would create a sense of proprietorship, one of the keys to resilience in the indigenous salmon fishery.

  1. Two-Dimensional Modeling of Time-Varying Hydrodynamics and Juvenile Chinook Salmon Habitat in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.

    2007-10-10

    The Hanford Reach is the only remaining unimpounded reach of the Columbia River in the United States above Bonneville Dam. Discharge in the Hanford Reach is regulated by several dams and is often subject to rapid changes. Sharp flow reductions have led to the stranding or entrapment, and subsequent mortality, of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha) and other important fish species within the Hanford Reach. A multi-block two-dimensional depth-averaged hydrodynamic model was used to simulate time-varying river velocity and stage in a 37~km portion of the Hanford Reach. Simulation results were used to estimate time-varying juvenile chinook salmon habitat area, and the part of that habitat affected by discharge fluctuations. Affected habitat area estimates were made for the chinook salmon rearing period of four years. These estimates were used, along with other important factors, to establish a statistical relationship between discharge fluctuation and juvenile chinook salmon mortality.

  2. Chinook salmon Genetic Stock Identification data - Genetic Stock Identification of Washington Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project evaluates data from coded wire tagging with that from parental based tagging to identify stock of origin for Chinook salmon landed in Washington state...

  3. Red salmon investigations: Kodiak red salmon studies, plan of operations, April 1966 to April 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The broad objective of the Karluk research program is to study those aspects of the life cycle and ecology of red salmon pertinent to explaining the long-term...

  4. Salmon vulnerability maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  5. Red salmon survival studies in Karluk Lake, Kodiak Island, 1957: Salmon survival investigations field report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a study on red salmon survival in Karluk Lake on Kodiak Island. The objectives were to systematically isolate, study, and...

  6. Salmon and steelhead genetics and genomics - Epigenetic and genomic variation in salmon and steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct analyses of epigenetic and genomic variation in Chinook salmon and steelhead to determine influence on phenotypic expression of life history traits....

  7. A novel oral form of salmon calcitonin improves glucose homeostasis and reduces body weight in diet-induced obese rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feigh, M; Henriksen, K; Andreassen, K V;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of acute and chronic administration of a novel oral formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) on glycaemic control, glucose homeostasis and body weight regulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats-an animal model of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes....

  8. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  9. Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 1998-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassemer, Peter F.

    2001-04-01

    During 1999, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued developing techniques for the captive rearing of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Techniques under development included protocols for rearing juveniles in freshwater and saltwater hatchery environments, and fieldwork to collect brood year 1998 and 1999 juveniles and eggs and to investigate the ability of these fish to spawn naturally. Fish collected as juveniles were held for a short time at the Sawtooth Fish Hatchery and later transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery for rearing. Eyed-eggs were transferred immediately to the Eagle Fish Hatchery where they were disinfected and reared by family groups. When fish from either collection method reached approximately 60 mm, they were PIT tagged and reared separately by brood year and source stream. Sixteen different groups were in culture at IDFG facilities in 1999. Hatchery spawning activities of captive-reared chinook salmon produced eyed-eggs for outplanting in streamside incubation chambers in the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=2,297) and the East Fork Salmon River (N=1,038). Additionally, a number of these eggs were maintained at the Eagle Fish Hatchery to ensure adequate brood year 1999 representation from these systems, and produced 279 and 87 juveniles from the West Fork Yankee Fork and East Fork Salmon River, respectively. Eyed-eggs were not collected from the West Fork Yankee Fork due to low adult escapement. Brood year 1998 juveniles were collected from the Lemhi River (N=191), West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (N=229), and East Fork Salmon River (N=185). Additionally, brood year 1999 eyed-eggs were collected from the Lemhi River (N=264) and East Fork Salmon River (N=143). Sixty-two and seven maturing adults were released into Bear Valley Creek (Lemhi River system) and the East Fork Salmon River, respectively, for spawning evaluation in 1999. Nine female carcasses from Bear Valley Creek were examined for egg retention, and of

  10. Study of Wild Spring Chinook Salmon in the John Day River System, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Robert B.

    1986-02-01

    A study of wild spring chinook salmon was conducted in the John Day River, Oregon: (1) recommend harvest regulations to achieve escapement goals in the John Day River; (2) recommend adtustments in timing of fish passage operations at Columbia River dams that will increase survival of John Day migrants; (3) recommend habitat or environmental improvements that will increase production of spring chinook salmon; (4) determine escapement goals for wild spring chinook salmon in the John Day River; and (5) recommend procedures for hatchery supplementation in the John Day River in the event it becomes necessary to artificially maintain the run of spring chinook salmon. Juveniles were captured as smolts during migration and as fingerlings during summer rearing. Juveniles were coded-wire tagged, and recoveries of tagged adults were used to assess contribution to ocean and Columbia River fisheries, timing of adult migrations through the Columbia River in relation to fishing seasons, and age and size of fish in fisheries. Scoop traps and seines were used to determine timing of smolt migrations through the John Day River. In addition, recoveries of tagged smolts at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Jones Beach were used to determine migration timing through the Columbia River. We examined freshwater life history of spring chinook salmon in the John Day River and related it to environmental factors. We looked at adult holding areas, spawning, incubation and emergence, fingerling rearing distribution, size and growth of juveniles and scales. Escapement goals fo the John Day River as well as reasons for declines in John Day stocks were determiend by using stock-recruitment analyses. Recommendations for hatchery supplementation in the John Day were based on results from other study objectives.

  11. SCIENCE, POLITICS, AND PACIFIC NORTHWEST SALMON RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the Pacific Northwest, since 1850, all wild salmon runs have declined and some have disappeared. Billions of dollars have been spent in a so-far failed attempt to reverse the long-term decline. Each year, hundreds of millions of dollars continue to be spent in variou...

  12. Kodiak bear-salmon study, Sulua Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Due to weir failure an accurate escapement figure was not obtained. The total was 14,581 tor all salmon returns at the weir plus upstream surveys totaled 15,008....

  13. Anatomy of the Pain Centre waiting list at the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas-Schaffer G

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Grisell Vargas-Schaffer,1,2 Ann Rusnov,2 Aline Boulanger1–3 1Pain Clinic Hôtel-Dieu, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montreal CHUM, 2Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montreal CRCHUM, 3Pain Clinic, Hôpital Sacre-Coeur, Montréal, Québec, Canada Background: Waiting list management at chronic pain clinics has become a serious problem throughout Canada. We analyzed the waiting list at the Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM Pain Centre. Methods: The present study is an observational, prospective study. We used a specifically designed survey questionnaire. Survey findings were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods. Results: A total of 270 patients were contacted; only 146 were included. Of these, 93 were women and 53 men. The average age was 55.9 years. Fifty-two percent of the patients were referred by a medical specialist; 34% by family physicians; 3% for emergency; and 11% unknown. The mean for pain score was 6.7/10. Seventy-three percent were taking pain killers with an average improvement on their pain score of 52%. Ten percent of respondents were not taking any type of analgesic medication, while 17% were taking over-the-counter drugs. Fifty-three percent of the patients had been suffering from chronic pain for 5 years or less, while 10% had been suffering and awaiting specialized pain treatment for more than 20 years. Conclusion: Our data suggests that accessibility to specialized health care is not the sole obstacle to the timely and effective management of chronic pain. Seventy-three percent of the patients were taking some form of pharmaceutical treatment for pain and reported an average improvement rate of 52% on their pain score under medication. Such inconsistency may be attributable to patients' lack of compliance with their treatment. The World Health Organization Working Group recommended in chronic patients a novel approach to health care, based on patient

  14. Breaking through barriers to Norwegian fresh salmon trade with China by a new production technology

    OpenAIRE

    Luan, Lan

    2011-01-01

    Atlantic salmon export plays an important role in the total Norwegian seafood export. EU countries are currently the main markets for Norwegian salmon export. China is one of the countries which are expected to have an increased demand for Norwegian salmon. Norwegian fresh salmon exporters are currently facing the trade barriers with respect to new inspection regime and high transportation costs when they export fresh salmon to China. This study is investigating whether Coolnova salmon, fres...

  15. Size as indicator of origin of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nordhagen, J.R.; Heuch, P. A.; Schram, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) from farmed Atlantic salmon have been implicated in the drastic sea trout and salmon stock declines found in Ireland and Norway. Can salmon lice from farmed and wild fish be distinguished? The hypothesis has been advanced that the treatment of salmon infested with salmon lice with organophosphate pesticides has resulted in the evolution of early maturing, smaller female lice, which are favoured because they have the chance to reproduce before...

  16. Columbia River basin fish and wildlife program strategy for salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three species of Snake River salmon have been listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. In response, the Northwest Power Planning Council worked with the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, Indian tribes, federal agencies and interest groups to address the status of Snake River salmon runs in a forum known as the Salmon Summit. The Summit met in 1990 and 1991 and reached agreement on specific, short-term actions. When the Summit disbanded in April 1991, responsibility for developing a regional recovery plan for salmon shifted to the Council. The Council responded with a four-phased process of amending its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The first three phases. completed in September 1992, pertain to salmon and steelhead. Phase four, scheduled for completion in October 1993, will take up issues of resident fish and wildlife. This paper deals with the first three phases, collectively known as Strategy for Salmon

  17. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  18. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Bölscher; Erik van Slobbe; Michelle T.H. van Vliet; Saskia E. Werners

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptiv...

  19. Reconnecting Social and Ecological Resilience in Salmon Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtland L. Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosystem resilience that have been overlooked by traditional salmon management approaches. The dynamics of salmon ecosystems involve social–ecological interactions across multiple scales that create difficult mismatches with the many jurisdictions that manage fisheries and other natural resources. Of particular importance to ecosystem resilience are large-scale shifts in oceanic and climatic regimes or in global economic conditions that unpredictably alter social and ecological systems. Past management actions that did not account for such changes have undermined salmon population resilience and increased the risk of irreversible regime shifts in salmon ecosystems. Because salmon convey important provisioning, cultural, and supporting services to their local watersheds, widespread population decline has undermined both human well-being and ecosystem resilience. Strengthening resilience will require expanding habitat opportunities for salmon populations to express their maximum life-history variation. Such actions also may benefit the “response diversity” of local communities by expanding the opportunities for people to express diverse social and economic values. Reestablishing social–ecological connections in salmon ecosystems will provide important ecosystem services, including those that depend on clean water, ample stream flows, functional wetlands and floodplains, intact riparian systems, and abundant fish populations.

  20. Lysine intake affects gene expression of anabolic hormones in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevrøy, E M; El-Mowafi, A; Taylor, R G; Olsvik, P A; Norberg, B; Espe, M

    2007-05-15

    Nutritional factors influence regulation of the growth hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in fish, but so far there are no published studies describing how single indispensable amino acids influence these systems. Therefore, the present study aimed to test whether lysine (Lys) intake at low (LL=2.85 g/16 gN), medium (ML=4.91 g/16 gN) and high levels (HL=9.19 g/16 gN) affected the expression of genes related to the GH-IGF system (i.e. GH receptor, GH-R, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein 1, IGFBP-1, IGF-I receptor IGF-IR) in Atlantic salmon during seawater growth phase. Salmon fed the HL diet significantly up-regulated hepatic IGF-I mRNA level by a factor of 2.2 as compared to those with medium Lys intake. In addition a significant up-regulation of 2.7-fold in muscle IGF-II mRNA was present. Low Lys intake decreased the nitrogen deposition and muscle protein accretion in fish and significantly down-regulated hepatic IGFBP-1 as well as muscle GH-R and IGF-II, as compared to those fed the ML diet. mRNA of IGF-IR on the other hand was not affected by Lys intake. High Lys intake resulted in a 7-fold up-regulation of muscle IGF-II mRNA level as compared to low Lys intake, and thus might be an important local anabolic regulator in fast muscle tissue. The single indispensable amino acid Lys indeed affected signalling through the genes of IGF-I, IGFBP-1 in hepatic tissue and GH-R, IGF-II in fast muscle in Atlantic salmon. Concomitantly the higher Lys intake increased nitrogen deposition to a certain level.

  1. SALMON-TRINITY ALPS WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Preston E.; Thurber, Horace K.

    1984-01-01

    The Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness in the Klamath Mountains province occupies an area of about 648 sq mi in parts of Trinity, Siskiyou, and Humboldt Counties, northwestern California. As a result of field studies it was determined that the Salmon-Trinity Alps Wilderness has an area with substantiated potential for gold resources in known lode deposits. Small amounts of quicksilver have been produced from one mine but there is little promise for the discovery of additional mercury resources. Geochemical sampling showed that anomalously high amounts of several other metals occur in a few places, but there is little promise for the discovery of energy or mineral resources other than mercury and gold.

  2. The quality of cold smoked salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løje, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    that the liquid holding capacity in raw and cold smoked salmon is influenced by several factors. The size of the fish affected the liquid holding capacity as large fish had lower liquid holding capacity than smaller fish. The salt content influenced the liquid holding capacity in smoked fish as it was found...... that high salt content gave higher liquid holding capacity. The salt uptake of the fillets was affected by the lipid content as a high lipid content lead to a lower salt content. It was also found that the lipid content increased with the size of the fish. The lipid content affected the liquid holding...... capacity in raw salmon, as high lipid content gave lower liquid holding capacity. Thus, the lipid content is an important parameter regarding the liquid holding capacity as it can influence the liquid holding capacity directly or indirectly by affecting other factors e.g. the salt content which influences...

  3. DANUBE SALMON (HUCHO HUCHO L.. THEMATIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsynyak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creating of the thematic bibliographic list of publications dedicated to ecological and zoogeographical, morphological and biological, physiological, biochemical and genetic characteristics of the Danube salmon, as well as to its cultivation in Ukraine and abroad. Methodology. In the process of systematic search complete and selective methods were applied. The bibliographic core have been formed by the literature from the fund of scientific library of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS. Findings. There was composed the thematic list of publications in a quantity of 100 sources, containing characteristics of Danube salmon as representative of salmonids. Literary sources was arranged in alphabetical order by author or title, and described according to DSTU 7.1:2006 «System of standards on information, librarianship and publishing. Bibliographic entry. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules», as well as in accordance with the requirements of APA style – international standard of references. Practical value. The list may be useful for scientists, practitioners, students, whose area of interests covers the questions of breeding, and researching of the salmon biological features.

  4. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  5. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  6. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  7. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  8. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  9. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  10. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  11. Histopathology of fish. II. The salmon-poisoning fluk

    Science.gov (United States)

    1956-01-01

    THE SALMON-POISONING FLUKE is misnamed as far as the fish culturist is concerned, for the disease affects dogs, not fish. There is considerable evidence, however, that fish may also suffer from the complex chain of events leading from snail to dying dog. Histological studies indicate that young salmon and trout may be severely damaged by the encysted stage of the fluke.

  12. 21 CFR 161.170 - Canned Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ends of the container. A small portion of salmon may be added if necessary to complete the fill of the... be added to the food: (i) Salt. (ii) Edible salmon oil comparable in color, viscosity, and flavor to... from a lot. (d) Sample unit. A container, the entire contents of a container, a portion of the...

  13. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  14. Size as indicator of origin of salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordhagen, J.R.; Heuch, P.A.; Schram, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) from farmed Atlantic salmon have been implicated in the drastic sea trout and salmon stock declines found in Ireland and Norway. Can salmon lice from farmed and wild fish be distinguished? The hypothesis has been advanced that the treatment of salmo

  15. 锶对大麻哈鱼稚鱼生长发育及肌肉ATP酶活性的影响%Effects of Strontium Ion on Growth and ATPase Activity in Muscle of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洪建; 刘伟; 王继隆; 唐富江

    2013-01-01

    在实验室条件下,采用长期暴露的方法,研究锶(Sp)对大麻哈鱼(Oncorhynchus keta)稚鱼生长、存活率和肌肉Ca2+-ATP酶及Na+/K+-ATP酶活性的影响.在水温(15±0.2)℃下,将体质量(0.389±0.021)g的大麻哈鱼饲养在可控温玻璃水槽(100cm×50cm×40em)中.水槽中添加SrCl2·6H2O,使Sr2+浓度达10、20、30和40mg·L-1,以不添加锶的水槽为对照组.30d饲养表明,各实验组大麻哈鱼稚鱼均能生长,但高质量浓度的锶不同程度地抑制了大麻哈鱼稚鱼的生长和存活率,显著影响了稚鱼肌肉中Ca2+-ATP酶和Na+/K+-ATP酶的活性.锶(Sr2+)质量浓度为10 mg·L-1时,各项生长指标和存活率最高;随着锶(Sr2+)质量浓度的升高,Ca2+-ATP酶和Na+/K+-ATP酶的活性下降.结果提示,大麻哈鱼稚鱼长期暴露的锶安全质量浓度在10mg·L-1之内.

  16. Reduced Anxiety in Forensic Inpatients after a Long-Term Intervention with Atlantic Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Hansen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Atlantic salmon consumption on underlying biological mechanisms associated with anxiety such as heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate (HR as well as a measure of self-reported anxiety. Moreover, these biological and self-reported outcome measures were investigated in relation to specific nutrients; vitamin D status, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Ninety-five male forensic inpatients were randomly assigned into a Fish (Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February or a Control group (alternative meal, e.g., chicken, pork, or beef three times per week during the same period. HRV measured as the root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD, HR, state- and trait-anxiety (STAI, were assessed before (pre-test and at the end of the 23 weeks dietary intervention period (post-test. The Fish group showed significant improvements in both rMSSD and HR. The Fish group also showed significant decreases in state-anxiety. Finally, there was a positive relationship between rMSSD and vitamin D status. The findings suggest that Atlantic salmon consumption may have an impact on mental health related variables such as underlying mechanisms playing a key role in emotion-regulation and state-anxiety.

  17. A 44K microarray dataset of the changing transcriptome in developing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marass Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. is an environmentally and economically important organism and its gene content is reasonably well characterized. From a transcriptional standpoint, it is important to characterize the changes in gene expression over the course of unperturbed early development, from fertilization through to the parr stage. Findings S. salar samples were taken at 17 time points from 2 to 89 days post fertilization. Total RNA was extracted and cRNA was synthesized and hybridized to a newly developed 44K oligo salmonid microarray platform. Quantified results were subjected to preliminary data analysis and submitted to NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO. Data can be found under the GEO accession number GSE25938. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE25938 Conclusions Throughout the entire period of development, several thousand genes were found to be differentially regulated. This work represents the trancriptional characterization of a very large geneset that will be extremely valuable in further examination of the transcriptional changes in Atlantic salmon during the first few months of development. The expression profiles can help to annotate salmon genes in addition to being used as references against any number of experimental variables to which developing salmonids might be subjected.

  18. Pathological and immunological responses associated with differential survival of Chinook salmon following Renibacterium salmoninarum challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Maureen K.; Elliott, Diane G.; Metzger, C. David; Wargo, Andrew; Park, K. Linda

    2010-01-01

    Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha are highly susceptible to Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). Previously we demonstrated that introduced Chinook salmon from Lake Michigan, Wisconsin (WI), USA, have higher survival following R. salmoninarum challenge relative to the progenitor stock from Green River, Washington, USA. In the present study, we investigated the pathological and immunological responses that are associated with differential survival in the 2 Chinook salmon stocks following intra-peritoneal R. salmoninarum challenge of 2 different cohort years (2003 and 2005). Histological evaluation revealed delayed appearance of severe granulomatous lesions in the kidney and lower overall prevalence of membranous glomerulopathy in the higher surviving WI stock. The higher survival WI stock had a lower bacterial load at 28 d post-infection, as measured by reverse-transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). However, at all other time points, bacterial load levels were similar despite higher mortality in the more susceptible Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that the stocks may differ in their tolerance to infection by the bacterium. Interferon-y, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Mx-1, and transferrin gene expression were up-regulated in both stocks following challenge. A trend of higher iNOS gene expression at later time points (≥28 d post-infection) was observed in the lower surviving Green River stock, suggesting the possibility that higher iNOS expression may contribute to greater pathology in that stock.

  19. Salmon Futures: Stakeholder-driven salmon management scenarios under changing environmental conditions on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, E. J.; Krupa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the adaptive capacity of individuals within natural resource management agencies is a key component of assessing the vulnerability of salmon to future environmental change. We seek to explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula by exploring the drivers and implications of different salmon allocation scenarios through participatory workshops with managers. We present here the initial results from the first workshop, which explores the various drivers responsible for changes in salmon allocation. Ranging from global to local, and biophysical to socioeconomic, these drivers are also linked to specific actors in the region. These complex interactions comprise the Kenai Peninsula's social-ecological system and determine its ability to react to change. Using a stakeholder-driven scenario framework, we aim to: 1) explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies in the region by exploring and exposing managers to different but logically coherent salmon allocation scenarios; 2) build stakeholder confidence in the science of environmental change on the Kenai Peninsula; and 3) develop a decision support tool that helps regional resource managers better understand their changing environment. We utilize and present the scenario framework as a platform for integrating hydrologic, landscape, and cultural change information into actionable decisions, crafted by the stakeholders, so that landscape change on the Kenai becomes more coordinated.

  20. Salmon returns and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increases with spawning salmon abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined how biomass of marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (d15N) of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) parr and juvenile Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) d...

  1. Selective breeding can increase resistance of Atlantic salmon to furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia and infectious pancreatic necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøglum, Sissel; Henryon, Mark; Aasmundstad, Torunn;

    2008-01-01

    We reasoned that by challenging large numbers of Atlantic salmon families with the causative agents of furunculosis, infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN), we could show unequivocally that resistance to these diseases expresses moderate-to-high levels of additive...

  2. Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) habitat/limnologic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock

  3. Chemical data for 7 streams in Salmon River Basin - Importance of biotic and abiotic features of salmon habitat implications for juvenile Chinook and steelhead growth and survival

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a large-scale, long-term comparative study that includes many streams (20+ streams in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho, including a few non-salmon streams for...

  4. Daily rhythms in expression of genes of hepatic lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica B Betancor

    Full Text Available In mammals, several genes involved in liver lipid and cholesterol homeostasis are rhythmically expressed with expression shown to be regulated by clock genes via Rev-erb 1α. In order to elucidate clock gene regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L., the orphan nuclear receptor Rev-erb 1α was cloned and 24 h expression of clock genes, transcription factors and genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism determined in liver of parr acclimated to a long-day photoperiod, which was previously shown to elicit rhythmic clock gene expression in the brain. Of the 31 genes analysed, significant daily expression was demonstrated in the clock gene Bmal1, transcription factor genes Srebp1, Lxr, Pparα and Pparγ, and several lipid metabolism genes Hmgcr, Ipi, ApoCII and El. The possible regulatory mechanisms and pathways, and the functional significance of these patterns of expression were discussed. Importantly and in contrast to mammals, Per1, Per2, Fas, Srebp2, Cyp71α and Rev-erb 1α did not display significant daily rhythmicity in salmon. The present study is the first report characterising 24 h profiles of gene expression in liver of Atlantic salmon. However, more importantly, the predominant role of lipids in the nutrition and metabolism of fish, and of feed efficiency in determining farming economics, means that daily rhythmicity in the regulation of lipid metabolism will be an area of considerable interest for future research in commercially important species.

  5. 76 FR 27017 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Take of Anadromous Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...) bocaccio (Sebastes paucispinis); PS/GB canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger), and PS/GB yelloweye rockfish... currently allows them to take PS Chinook salmon, HC summer-run chum salmon, PS steelhead, and PS/GB...

  6. Assessment of the flow-survival relationship obtained by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon smolts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been much debate recently among fisheries professionals over the data and functional relationships used by Sims and Ossiander to describe the effects of flow in the Snake River on the survival and travel time of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts. The relationships were based on mark and recovery experiments conducted at various Snake and Columbia River sites between 1964 and 1979 to evaluate the effects of dams and flow regulation on the migratory characteristic's chinook sa mon and steelhead trout smolts. The reliability of this information is crucial because it forms the logical basis for many of the flow management options being considered today to protect,upriver populations of chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In this paper I evaluate the primary data, assumptions, and calculations that underlie the flow-survival relationship derived by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for chinook salmon smolts

  7. Assessment of the Flow-Survival Relationship Obtained by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, C.R. (Cleveland R.)

    1994-04-01

    There has been much debate recently among fisheries professionals over the data and functional relationships used by Sims and Ossiander to describe the effects of flow in the Snake River on the survival and travel time of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts. The relationships were based on mark and recovery experiments conducted at various Snake and Columbia River sites between 1964 and 1979 to evaluate the effects of dams and flow regulation on the migratory characteristic`s chinook sa mon and steelhead trout smolts. The reliability of this information is crucial because it forms the logical basis for many of the flow management options being considered today to protect,upriver populations of chinook salmon and steelhead trout. In this paper I evaluate the primary data, assumptions, and calculations that underlie the flow-survival relationship derived by Sims and Ossiander (1981) for chinook salmon smolts.

  8. The Two-sector Economic Problem Of Persistent Organic Pollution and Baltic Sea Salmon Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutniczak, Barbara; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the general nature of two-sector environmental and natural resource problems and highlights the issue of two sector models where one sector imposes a one-sided negative externality on the other sector, e.g. the polluting sector causes changes in the economic value of the fishery...... sector. The paper sets up a general social planner model and demonstrates it in simple functional form, using the problem of persistent organic pollution in the Baltic Sea and its effects on the regulation and economic value of the Baltic Salmon. The paper illustrates how a modified golden rule can...

  9. Physiological and biochemical basis of salmon young ifshes migratory behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Martemyanov

    2016-01-01

    The review presents data on structural changes, physiological and biochemical reactions occurring at salmon young fishes during smoltification. It is shown, that young salmon fishes located in fresh water, in the process of smoltification undergo a complex of structural, physiological and biochemical changes directed on preparation of the organism for living in the sea. These changes cause stress reaction which excites young fishes to migrate down the river towards the sea. Measures to improve reproduction of young salmon fishes at fish farms are offered.

  10. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  11. In situ localisation of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II and CD8 positive cells in infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV)-infected Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Dyveke Lem; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Skjødt, Karsten;

    2010-01-01

    It is assumed that the mobilisation of a strong cellular immune response is important for the survival of Atlantic salmon infected with infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV). In this study, the characterisation of immune cell populations in tissues of non-ISAV infected Atlantic salmon and during...

  12. Characterization of full-length sequenced cDNA inserts (FLIcs from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunner Sigbjørn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of the Atlantic salmon genome is now being planned by an international research consortium. Full-length sequenced inserts from cDNAs (FLIcs are an important tool for correct annotation and clustering of the genomic sequence in any species. The large amount of highly similar duplicate sequences caused by the relatively recent genome duplication in the salmonid ancestor represents a particular challenge for the genome project. FLIcs will therefore be an extremely useful resource for the Atlantic salmon sequencing project. In addition to be helpful in order to distinguish between duplicate genome regions and in determining correct gene structures, FLIcs are an important resource for functional genomic studies and for investigation of regulatory elements controlling gene expression. In contrast to the large number of ESTs available, including the ESTs from 23 developmental and tissue specific cDNA libraries contributed by the Salmon Genome Project (SGP, the number of sequences where the full-length of the cDNA insert has been determined has been small. Results High quality full-length insert sequences from 560 pre-smolt white muscle tissue specific cDNAs were generated, accession numbers [GenBank: BT043497 - BT044056]. Five hundred and ten (91% of the transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms and 440 of the FLIcs are likely to contain a complete coding sequence (cCDS. The sequence information was used to identify putative paralogs, characterize salmon Kozak motifs, polyadenylation signal variation and to identify motifs likely to be involved in the regulation of particular genes. Finally, conserved 7-mers in the 3'UTRs were identified, of which some were identical to miRNA target sequences. Conclusion This paper describes the first Atlantic salmon FLIcs from a tissue and developmental stage specific cDNA library. We have demonstrated that many FLIcs contained a complete coding sequence (cCDS. This

  13. AFSC/ABL: Adult Pink Salmon Predation in Prince William Sound and Southeast Alaska, 2009-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The project objectives were to assess potential salmon predation impact on juvenile salmon and herring by: (1) comparing diets of adult pink salmon during their...

  14. Localised Infection of Atlantic Salmon Epithelial Cells by HPR0 Infectious Salmon Anaemia Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aamelfot

    Full Text Available Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA is an important, systemic viral disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Endothelial cells are the main target cells for highly virulent HPR-deleted ISA virus (ISAV types. Here we examine the pathogenesis of non-virulent ISAV HPR0 infections, presenting evidence of an epithelial tropism for this virus type, including actual infection and replication in the epithelial cells. Whereas all HPR0 RT-qPCR positive gills prepared for cryosection tested positive by immunohistochemistry (IHC and immunofluorescent labelling, only 21% of HPR0 RT-qPCR positive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gills were IHC positive, suggesting different methodological sensitivities. Only specific epithelial cell staining was observed and no staining was observed in endothelial cells of positive gills. Furthermore, using an ISAV segment 7 RT-PCR assay, we demonstrated splicing of HPR0, suggesting initial activation of the replication machinery in the epithelial gill cells. Immunological responses were investigated by the expression of interferon-related genes (e.g. Mx and γIP and by ELISA for presence of anti-ISAV antibodies on samples taken sequentially over several months during an episode of transient HPR0 infection. All fish revealed a variable, but increased expression of the immunological markers in comparison to normal healthy fish. Taken together, we conclude that HPR0 causes a localized epithelial infection of Atlantic salmon.

  15. AFSC/ABL: Movements of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Upriver movements were determined for Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha returning to the Yukon River, a large, relatively pristine river basin. A total of...

  16. Salmon stream reconnaissance Prince William Sound and Afognak Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In April of 1963, salmon stream improvement projects in Prince William Sound were visited. Objectives of the trip, from a fisheries standpoint, were as follows: (1)...

  17. AFSC/ABL: Karluk sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To better understand how density-dependent growth of ocean-dwelling Pacific salmon varied with climate and population dynamics, we examined the marine growth of...

  18. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  19. Fish Culture data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  20. Broodyear data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  1. Spawning data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  2. Fish Health data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  3. Growth data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  4. 1992 Columbia River salmon flow measures Options Analysis/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described

  5. AFSC/ABL: 2007-2013 Chinook Salmon Bycatch Sample

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A genetic analyses of samples from the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) bycatch from the 2007-2013 Bering Sea-Aleutian Island and Gulf of Alaska trawl...

  6. AFSC/ABL: Naknek sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Naknek River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and Game....

  7. AFSC/ABL: Ugashik sockeye salmon scale time series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A time series of scale samples (1956 b?? 2002) collected from adult sockeye salmon returning to Ugashik River were retrieved from the Alaska Department of Fish and...

  8. Production data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gene rescue captive broodstock program was established for ESA-listed endangered Snake River sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake, Idaho. The program has consisted of...

  9. Light Experiment data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  10. Why are not there more Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, D. L. [Vermont Univ., School of Natural Resources, Vermont Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Burlington, VT (United States); Behnke, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology, Fort Collins, CO (United States); Gephard, S. R. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmnetal Protection, Fisheries Div., Old Lyme, CT (United States); McCormick, S. D. [Anadromous Fish Research Center, USGS/Biological Resources Div., Turners Falls, MA (United States); Reeves, G. H. [USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The causes of decline and extirpation of salmon on a global scale are investigated. In some cases single factors such as dams, pollution and dewatering, increased density of humans near salmon rivers, overfishing, changes in ocean conditions or intensive aquaculture could be identified as likely causes. The available evidence is not sufficient to link cause and effect for most declines because they are the result of multiple factors, and data that would help to discriminate factors on scales of space or time are lacking. For this reason, it is not possible to allocate the proportional impact of multiple factors that contribute to the the demise of salmon populations. More rigorous methodologies, including more effective sampling techniques, testing of multiple effects integrated across space and time, and adaptive management are needed to account for the continuing decline of salmon.

  11. Air flotation treatment of salmon processing waste water

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses methods for the reduction of the pollution strength of salmon processing waste water. Past research has indicated the success of air pressure...

  12. Social Behavior - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  13. Diet - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  14. Isotopes - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  15. 1982 Aleutian Islands salmon stock assessment study: Legislative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a comprehensive research study of the Aleutian Islands salmon resources in 1982. The study encompassed the area west of Unimak Pass to Attu...

  16. Pink Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for PINK SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  17. Coho Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for COHO SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear event...

  18. Sockeye Salmon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for SOCKEYE SALMON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  19. Juvenile Salmon Scale Data - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  20. Near coastal ocean attributes of salmon - Ocean Survival of Salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A study to evaluate the role of changing ocean conditions on growth and survival of juvenile salmon from the Columbia River basin as they enter the Columbia River...

  1. Chinook Bycatch - Contemporary Salmon Genetic Stock Composition Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to measure and monitor impacts on ESA-listed populations and to estimate overall Chinook salmon stock composition in bycatch...

  2. Surveys on Gyrodactylus parasites onwild Atlantic salmon in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Heinecke, Rasmus Demuth; Buchmann, Kurt

    Gyrodactylus salaris is a monogenean ectoparasite parasitizing salmonids in freshwater. This parasite is highly pathogenic to both Norwegian and Scottish salmon and has decimated the salmon populations in 45 Norwegian rivers after anthropogenic transfer from Sweden. G. salaris has also been found...... on several occasions in Danish rainbow trout farms but has never been recorded as a pathogenic parasite on Danish wild salmon. In the present study the occurrence of G. salaris and other Gyrodactylus parasites on wild Danish salmon fry and parr were monitored. Electrofishing was conducted in three river...... were examined for Gyrodactylus parasites under a dissection microscope. The location of each parasite was registered and each parasite was isolated for later morphological and genetic typing. The opisthaptor was separated from the body, fixed and mounted using Malmbergs fixative (ammonium picrate...

  3. The Trail Inventory of Little White Salmon NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  4. Comparative Resilience in Five North Pacific Regional Salmon Fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Courtland L. Smith; Xanthippe Augerot

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, regional fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) have been managed primarily for their provisioning function, not for ecological support and cultural significance. We examine the resilience of the regional salmon fisheries of Japan, the Russian Far East, Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington-Oregon-California (WOC) in terms of their provisioning function. Using the three dimensions of the adaptive cycle—capital, connectedness, and resilience—we i...

  5. Salmon, Science, and Reciprocity on the Northwest Coast

    OpenAIRE

    D. Bruce Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    Severe depletion of many genetically distinct Pacific salmon populations has spawned a contentious debate over causation and the efficacy of proposed solutions. No doubt the precipitating factor was overharvesting of the commons beginning along the Northwest Coast around 1860. Yet, for millenia before that, a relatively dense population of Indian tribes managed salmon stocks that have since been characterized as “superabundant.” This study investigates how they avoided a tragedy o...

  6. A new specific reference gene based on growth hormone gene (GH1) used for detection and relative quantification of Aquadvantage® GM salmon (Salmo salar L.) in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hafsa, Ahmed; Nabi, Nesrine; Zellama, Mohamed Salem; Said, Khaled; Chaouachi, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Genetic transformation of fish is mainly oriented towards the improvement of growth for the benefit of the aquaculture. Actually, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is the species most transformed to achieve growth rates quite large compared to the wild. To anticipate the presence of contaminations with GM salmon in fish markets and the lack of labeling regulations with a mandatory threshold, the proper methods are needed to test the authenticity of the ingredients. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method was used in this study. Ct values were obtained and validated using 15 processed food containing salmon. The relative and absolute limits of detection were 0.01% and 0.01 ng/μl of genomic DNA, respectively. Results demonstrate that the developed QRT-PCR method is suitable specifically for identification of S. salar in food ingredients based on the salmon growth hormone gene 1 (GH1). The processes used to develop the specific salmon reference gene case study are intended to serve as a model for performing quantification of Aquadvantage® GM salmon on future genetically modified (GM) fish to be commercialized. PMID:26213073

  7. A new specific reference gene based on growth hormone gene (GH1) used for detection and relative quantification of Aquadvantage® GM salmon (Salmo salar L.) in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hafsa, Ahmed; Nabi, Nesrine; Zellama, Mohamed Salem; Said, Khaled; Chaouachi, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Genetic transformation of fish is mainly oriented towards the improvement of growth for the benefit of the aquaculture. Actually, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is the species most transformed to achieve growth rates quite large compared to the wild. To anticipate the presence of contaminations with GM salmon in fish markets and the lack of labeling regulations with a mandatory threshold, the proper methods are needed to test the authenticity of the ingredients. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method was used in this study. Ct values were obtained and validated using 15 processed food containing salmon. The relative and absolute limits of detection were 0.01% and 0.01 ng/μl of genomic DNA, respectively. Results demonstrate that the developed QRT-PCR method is suitable specifically for identification of S. salar in food ingredients based on the salmon growth hormone gene 1 (GH1). The processes used to develop the specific salmon reference gene case study are intended to serve as a model for performing quantification of Aquadvantage® GM salmon on future genetically modified (GM) fish to be commercialized.

  8. A highly redundant BAC library of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar: an important tool for salmon projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Ben F

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As farming of Atlantic salmon is growing as an aquaculture enterprise, the need to identify the genomic mechanisms for specific traits is becoming more important in breeding and management of the animal. Traits of importance might be related to growth, disease resistance, food conversion efficiency, color or taste. To identify genomic regions responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries have previously proven to be of crucial importance. These large insert libraries can be screened using gene or genetic markers in order to identify and map regions of interest. Furthermore, large-scale mapping can utilize highly redundant libraries in genome projects, and hence provide valuable data on the genome structure. Results Here we report the construction and characterization of a highly redundant bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library constructed from a Norwegian aquaculture strain male of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar. The library consists of a total number of 305 557 clones, in which approximately 299 000 are recombinants. The average insert size of the library is 188 kbp, representing 18-fold genome coverage. High-density filters each consisting of 18 432 clones spotted in duplicates have been produced for hybridization screening, and are publicly available 1. To characterize the library, 15 expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived overgos and 12 oligo sequences derived from microsatellite markers were used in hybridization screening of the complete BAC library. Secondary hybridizations with individual probes were performed for the clones detected. The BACs positive for the EST probes were fingerprinted and mapped into contigs, yielding an average of 3 contigs for each probe. Clones identified using genomic probes were PCR verified using microsatellite specific primers. Conclusion Identification of genes and genomic regions of interest is greatly aided by the availability of the CHORI-214 Atlantic salmon BAC

  9. Resilient Salmon, Resilient Fisheries for British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Healey

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmon are inherently resilient species. However, this resiliency has been undermined in British Columbia by a century of centralized, command-and-control management focused initially on maximizing yield and, more recently, on economic efficiency. Community and cultural resiliency have also been undermined, especially by the recent emphasis on economic efficiency, which has concentrated access in the hands of a few and has disenfranchised fishery-dependent communities. Recent declines in both salmon stocks and salmon prices have revealed the systemic failure of the current management system. If salmon and their fisheries are to become viable again, radically new management policies are needed. For the salmon species, the emphasis must shift from maximizing yield to restoring resilience; for salmon fisheries, the emphasis must shift from maximizing economic efficiency to maximizing community and cultural resilience. For the species, an approach is needed that integrates harvest management, habitat management, and habitat enhancement to sustain and enhance resilience. This is best achieved by giving fishing and aboriginal communities greater responsibility and authority to manage the fisheries on which they depend. Co-management arrangements that involve cooperative ownership of major multistock resources like the Fraser River and Skeena River fisheries and community-based quota management of smaller fisheries provide ways to put species conservation much more directly in the hands of the communities most dependent on the well-being and resilience of these fisheries.

  10. Diet composition and feeding periodicity of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Diel feeding periodicity, daily ration, and diet composition of wild and hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were examined in Lake Ontario and the Salmon River, New York. The diet of wild riverine salmon was composed mainly of aquatic invertebrates (63.4%), mostly ephemeropterans (25.8%), chiromomids (15.8%), and trichopterans (8.3%). The diet of riverine Chinook was more closely associated with the composition of drift samples rather than bottom samples, suggesting mid-water feeding. In Lake Ontario terrestrial invertebrates were more important in the diet of hatchery Chinook (49.0%) than wild salmon (30.5%) and diet overlap between hatchery and wild salmon was low (0.46%). The diet of both hatchery and wild Chinook salmon was more closely associated with the composition of mid-water invertebrate samples rather than benthic core samples, indicating mid-water and surface feeding. Hatchery Chinook salmon consumed significantly less food (P Ontario consumed more food than wild salmon in the Salmon River. Peak feeding of wild Chinook salmon occurred between 1200-1600 hours in Lake Ontario and between 1600-2000 hours in the Salmon River; there was no discernable feeding peak for the hatchery Chinook in Lake Ontario. Hatchery Chinook salmon also had the least diverse diet over the 24-hour sample period. These results suggest that at 7 days post-stocking hatchery Chinook salmon had not yet fully adapted to their new environment.

  11. Looking for sustainable solutions in salmon aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Bailey

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development poses highly complex issues for those who attempt to implement it. Using the Brundtland Commission’s definition of sustainable development as a vantage point, this article discusses the issues posed by the production of one kind of food, farmed Atlantic salmon, as a means of illustrating the complexity, interconnectedness and high-data requirements involved in assessing whether a given industry is sustainable. These issues are explored using the three commonly accepted aspects of sustainability – its environmental, social and economic aspects – and the dilemmas posed by the need to make the trade-offs necessary among these. It concludes by arguing that decisions of this complexity require complex and multiple decision-making structures and suggests four that are essential for the task.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v8i1.1801

  12. Differential expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPaseα - and β-subunits, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Madsen, Steffen S.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Andersson, Eva; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Prunet, Patrick; Stefansson, Sigurd O.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines changes in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) α- and β-subunit isoforms, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR I and II) in anadromous and landlocked strains of Atlantic salmon during parr-smolt transformation, and after seawater (SW) transfer in May/June. Gill NKA activity increased from February through April, May and June among both strains in freshwater (FW), with peak enzyme activity in the landlocked salmon being 50% below that of the anadromous fish in May and June. Gill NKA-α1b, -α3, -β1 and NKCC mRNA levels in anadromous salmon increased transiently, reaching peak levels in smolts in April/May, whereas no similar smolt-related upregulation of these transcripts occurred in juvenile landlocked salmon. Gill NKA-α1a mRNA decreased significantly in anadromous salmon from February through June, whereas α1a levels in landlocked salmon, after an initial decrease in April, remained significantly higher than those of the anadromous smolts in May and June. Following SW transfer, gill NKA-α1b and NKCC mRNA increased in both strains, whereas NKA-α1a decreased. Both strains exhibited a transient increase in gill NKA α-protein abundance, with peak levels in May. Gill α-protein abundance was lower in SW than corresponding FW values in June. Gill NKCC protein abundance increased transiently in anadromous fish, with peak levels in May, whereas a slight increase was observed in landlocked salmon in May, increasing to peak levels in June. Gill CFTR I mRNA levels increased significantly from February to April in both strains, followed by a slight, though not significant increase in May and June. CFTR I mRNA levels were significantly lower in landlocked than anadromous salmon in April/June. Gill CFTR II mRNA levels did not change significantly in either strain. Our findings demonstrates that differential expression of gill NKA-α1a, -α1b and -α3 isoforms may be important for potential functional

  13. Space-time modelling of the spread of salmon lice between and within Norwegian marine salmon farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Aldrin

    Full Text Available Parasitic salmon lice are potentially harmful to salmonid hosts and farm produced lice pose a threat to wild salmonids. To control salmon lice infections in Norwegian salmonid farming, numbers of lice are regularly counted and lice abundance is reported from all salmonid farms every month. We have developed a stochastic space-time model where monthly lice abundance is modelled simultaneously for all farms. The set of farms is regarded as a network where the degree of contact between farms depends on their seaway distance. The expected lice abundance at each farm is modelled as a function of i lice abundance in previous months at the same farm, ii at neighbourhood farms, and iii other, unspecified sources. In addition, the model includes explanatory variables such as seawater temperature and farm-numbers of fish. The model gives insight into factors that affect salmon lice abundance and contributing sources of infection. New findings in this study were that 66% of the expected salmon lice abundance was attributed to infection within farms, 28% was attributed to infection from neighbourhood farms and 6% to non-specified sources of infection. Furthermore, we present the relative risk of infection between neighbourhood farms as a function of seaway distance, which can be viewed as a between farm transmission kernel for salmon lice. The present modelling framework lays the foundation for development of future scenario simulation tools for examining the spread and abundance of salmon lice on farmed salmonids under different control regimes.

  14. Isolation, characterization and comparison of Atlantic and Chinook salmon growth hormone 1 and 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson William S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth hormone (GH is an important regulator of skeletal growth, as well as other adapted processes in salmonids. The GH gene (gh in salmonids is represented by duplicated, non-allelic isoforms designated as gh1 and gh2. We have isolated and characterized gh-containing bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs of both Atlantic and Chinook salmon (Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in order to further elucidate our understanding of the conservation and regulation of these loci. Results BACs containing gh1 and gh2 from both Atlantic and Chinook salmon were assembled, annotated, and compared to each other in their coding, intronic, regulatory, and flanking regions. These BACs also contain the genes for skeletal muscle sodium channel oriented in the same direction. The sequences of the genes for interferon alpha-1, myosin alkali light chain and microtubule associated protein Tau were also identified, and found in opposite orientations relative to gh1 and gh2. Viability of each of these genes was examined by PCR. We show that transposon insertions have occurred differently in the promoters of gh, within and between each species. Other differences within the promoters and intronic and 3'-flanking regions of the four gh genes provide evidence that they have distinct regulatory modes and possibly act to function differently and/or during different times of salmonid development. Conclusion A core proximal promoter for transcription of both gh1 and gh2 is conserved between the two species of salmon. Nevertheless, transposon integration and regulatory element differences do exist between the promoters of gh1 and gh2. Additionally, organization of transposon families into the BACs containing gh1 and for the BACs containing gh2, are very similar within orthologous regions, but much less clear conservation is apparent in comparisons between the gh1- and gh2-containing paralogous BACs for the two fish species. This is consistent with the

  15. The causal relationship between salmon prices and share prices. Price analysis on the Oslo Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Carreira, Raquel Mosquera

    2013-01-01

    Atlantic salmon ((Salmo salar, Linneaus,1758)) is a commodity traded globally and salmon exports are one of the main sources of income for Norway. Despite the great growth both in supply and the demand in the last decades, there is still a substantial variability in industry profits level and an important part of such variability is due to fluctuation in salmon prices. This Master Thesis analyse whether this fluctuation is cause of the variability in share prices, for salmon producer compan...

  16. Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Darren M.; Keith H Nislow; Celia Y. Chen; Folt, Carol L

    2010-01-01

    To assess the effect of rapid individual growth on trace element concentrations in fish, we measured concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cs, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from 15 sites encompassing a 10-fold range in salmon growth. All salmon were hatched under uniform conditions, released into streams, and sampled ~120 days later for trace element analysis. For most elements, element concentrations in salmon tracked those in their prey. Fast-gro...

  17. Salmon redd identification using environmental DNA (eDNA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Laramie, Matthew B.

    2016-06-10

    IntroductionThe purpose of this project was to develop a technique to use environmental DNA (eDNA) to distinguish between redds made by Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and redds made by Coho salmon (O. kisutch) and to distinguish utilized redds from test/abandoned redds or scours that have the appearance of redds. The project had two phases:Phase 1. Develop, test, and optimize a molecular assay for detecting and identifying Coho salmon DNA and differentiating it from Chinook salmon DNA.Phase 2. Demonstrate the efficacy of the technique.Collect and preserve water samples from the interstitial spaces of 10 known redds (as identified by expert observers) of each species and 10 gravel patches that do not include a redd of either species.Collect control samples from the water column adjacent to each redd to establish background eDNA levels.Analyze the samples using the developed molecular assays for Coho salmon (phase I) and Chinook salmon (Laramie and others, 2015).Evaluate whether samples collected from Chinook and Coho redds have significantly higher levels of eDNA of the respective species than background levels (that is, from gravel, water column).Evaluate whether samples collected from the interstitial spaces of gravel patches that are not redds are similar to background eDNA levels.The Sandy River is a large tributary of the Columbia River. The Sandy River meets the Columbia River approximately 23 km upstream of Portland, Oregon. The Sandy River Basin provides overlapping spawning habitat for both Chinook and Coho salmon.Samples provided by Portland Water Bureau for analysis were collected from the Bull Run River, Sixes Creek, Still Creek, Arrah Wanna Side Channel, and Side Channel 18.

  18. Forensic identification of severely degraded Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalvin Sussie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquaculture is a globally important and rapidly growing industry. It contributes positively to the economy and sustainability of coastal communities, but it is not without regulatory challenges. These challenges are diverse, and may include identification of fish discarded in an illegal manner, biological discharge from fish ensilage tanks, and partially destroyed or processed tissues. Robust genetic tools are required by management authorities to address these challenges. In this paper, we describe nine species-specific primer sets amplifying very short DNA fragments within the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase (COI gene, which were designed to permit diagnostic identification of degraded DNA from two of the most commonly farmed salmonids in Europe and North America. Results Of the nine designed primer sets, six were found to be species-specific (four Atlantic salmon, two rainbow trout, whereas the remaining three sets (two Atlantic salmon, one rainbow trout also amplified a product from other, closely related, salmonid DNA templates. Screening of DNA templates from 11 other non-salmonid native fish species did not produce PCR products with any of the primer sets. Specific tests confirmed the ability of these markers to identify Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout tissues in treated food products, chemically treated ensilage waste and fillets left to degrade in saltwater for up to 31 days at 15°C. Importantly, these markers provided diagnostic identification in cases where other genetic methods failed because of degraded DNA quality. Conclusions Results from this study demonstrate that amplification of very short DNA fragments using species-specific primers represents a robust and versatile method to create cheap and efficient genetic tests that can be implemented in a range of forensic applications. These markers will provide fishery, aquaculture and food regulatory authorities with a method to investigate and enforce

  19. Aerobic training stimulates growth and promotes disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Vicente; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Helland, Ståle J; Kristensen, Torstein; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Helgerud, Jan; Claireaux, Guy; Farrell, Anthony P; Krasnov, Aleksei; Takle, Harald

    2011-10-01

    Improving fish robustness is of utmost relevance to reducing fish losses in farming. Although not previously examined, we hypothesized that aerobic training, as shown for human studies, could strengthen disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Thus, we exercised salmon pre-smolts for 6 weeks at two different aerobic training regimes; a continuous intensity training (CT; 0.8bls(-1)) and an interval training (IT; 0.8bl s(-1) 16h and 1.0bl s(-1) 8h) and compared them with untrained controls (C; 0.05bl s(-1)). The effects of endurance training on disease resistance were evaluated using an IPN virus challenge test, while the cardiac immune modulatory effects were characterized by qPCR and microarray gene expression analyses. In addition, swimming performance and growth parameters were investigated. Survival after the IPN challenge was higher for IT (74%) fish than for either CT (64%) or C (61%) fish. While both CT and IT groups showed lower cardiac transcription levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 prior to the IPN challenge test, IT fish showed the strongest regulation of genes involved in immune responses and other processes known to affect disease resistance. Both CT and IT regimes resulted in better growth compared with control fish, with CT fish developing a better swimming efficiency during training. Overall, interval aerobic training improved growth and increased robustness of Atlantic salmon, manifested by better disease resistance, which we found was associated with a modulation of relevant gene classes on the cardiac transcriptome. PMID:21726657

  20. Size- and condition-dependent predation: a seabird disproportionately targets substandard individual juvenile salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Strahan; Hipfner, J Mark; Trudel, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Selection of prey that are small and in poor body condition is a widespread phenomenon in terrestrial predator-prey systems and may benefit prey populations by removing substandard individuals. Similar selection is widely assumed to operate in aquatic systems. Indeed, size-selective predation is a longstanding and central tenet of aquatic food web theory. However, it is not known if aquatic predators select prey based on their condition or state, compared to their size. Surprisingly, no comparable information is available for marine systems because it is exceedingly difficult to make direct observations in this realm. Thus the role of body condition in regulating susceptibility to predation remains a black box in the marine environment. Here we have exploited an ideal model system to evaluate selective predation on pelagic marine fish: comparing characteristics (fork length, mass corrected for fork length) of fresh, whole, intact juvenile Pacific salmon delivered by a seabird to its single nestling with salmon collected concurrently in coastal trawl surveys. Three species of juvenile salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are consumed by provisioning Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca nionocerata); an abundant, colonial, pursuit-diving seabird. Samples were collected from multiple colonies and fisheries surveys in coastal British Columbia in two years. As predicted, Auklets preyed on small individuals in poor condition and consistently selected them at levels higher than their relative availability. This is the first study to provide direct evidence for both size- and condition-selective predation on marine fish in the wild. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point in evaluating how selective predation may structure or influence marine fish populations and bridges a fundamental incongruity between ecological theory and application; although "bigger is better" is considered a fundamental tenet of marine food webs, marine predators are often assumed to consume

  1. 77 FR 31353 - An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... AGENCY An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, AK AGENCY... of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska'' (EPA-910-R-12-004a-d). The... draft ``An Assessment of Potential Mining Impacts on Salmon Ecosystems of Bristol Bay, Alaska''...

  2. Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, James R.; Watson, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to web. Understanding how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.

  3. Norwegian salmon goes to market: The case of the Austevoll seafood cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Gestur

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of the farmed salmon comodity chain upon farmed salmon production in the western Norwegian municipality of Austevoll. On the basis of field research conducted in 2002 and 2003, we conclude that salmon farming in Austevoll has responded to the ch...

  4. Norwegian Salmon Goes to Market: The Case of the Austevoll Seafood Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyne, John; Hovgaard, Gestur; Hansen, Gard

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the globalisation of the farmed salmon commodity chain upon farmed salmon production in the western Norwegian municipality of Austevoll. On the basis of field research conducted in 2002 and 2003, we conclude that salmon farming in Austevoll has responded to the challenges of "buyer-driven" food chains by virtue of…

  5. 77 FR 21716 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Peninsula. The FMP delegates management of the sport fishery to the State in both areas. Although the FMP... FMP and would reaffirm that management of the commercial and sport salmon fisheries in the East Area... commercial and sport salmon fishing in the East Area. Revise the definition of Salmon Management Area, at...

  6. MODELING THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND NATIVE MICROFLORA IN SMOKED SALMON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoked salmon contaminated with L. monocytogenes has been implicated in foodborne listeriosis. The objectives of this study were to model the growth characteristics and examine the growth relationship of L. monocytogenes and native microflora in smoked salmon. Smoked salmon samples with a native m...

  7. Unacknowledged Health Benefits Of Genetically Modified Food - Salmon And Heart Disease Deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Lutter, Randall; Tucker, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Randall Lutter and Katherine Tuckerargue that the marketing of GM salmon will lower salmon prices and increase consumption of salmon, an exceptionally good source of omega-3 fatty acids linked to lower risk of heart disease.The authors estimateestimate that the resulting increase in omega-3 intake will prevent between 600 and 2600 deaths per year in the U.S.

  8. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2000 Project Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2002-04-01

    During 2000, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were collected to establish captive cohorts from three study streams and included 503 eyed-eggs from East Fork Salmon River (EFSR), 250 from the Yankee Fork Salmon River, and 304 from the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF). After collection, the eyed-eggs were immediately transferred to the Eagle Fish Hatchery, where they were incubated and reared by family group. Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease before the majority (approximately 75%) were transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through sexual maturity. Smolt transfers included 158 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 193 from the WFYF, and 372 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from the Manchester facility to the Eagle Fish Hatchery included 77 individuals from the LEM, 45 from the WFYF, and 11 from the EFSR. Two mature females from the WFYF were spawned in captivity with four males in 2000. Only one of the females produced viable eggs (N = 1,266), which were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 70) from the Lemhi River were released into Big Springs Creek to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout the study section and displayed a progression of habitat associations and behavior consistent with progressing maturation and the onset of spawning. Fifteen of the 17 suspected redds spawned by captive-reared parents in Big Springs Creek were hydraulically sampled to assess survival to the eyed stage of development. Eyed-eggs were collected from 13 of these, and

  9. Adaptation Turning Points in River Restoration? The Rhine Salmon Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bölscher

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bringing a sustainable population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar back into the Rhine, after the species became extinct in the 1950s, is an important environmental ambition with efforts made both by governments and civil society. Our analysis finds a significant risk of failure of salmon reintroduction because of projected increases in water temperatures in a changing climate. This suggests a need to rethink the current salmon reintroduction ambitions or to start developing adaptive action. The paper shows that the moment at which salmon reintroduction may fail due to climate change can only be approximated because of inherent uncertainties in the interaction between salmon and its environment. The added value of the assessment presented in this paper is that it provides researchers with a set of questions that are useful from a policy perspective (by focusing on the feasibility of a concrete policy ambition under climate change. Thus, it offers opportunities to supply policy makers with practical insight in the relevance of climate change.

  10. Recognition of purified beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and molecular signalling in the intestine of Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiron, Viswanath; Kulkarni, Amod; Dahle, Dalia; Vasanth, Ghana; Lokesh, Jep; Elvebo, Odd

    2016-03-01

    Atlantic salmon was orally intubated with a highly purified β-glucan product (MacroGard(®)) to study the recognition of the molecule by the receptor genes, the regulation of the downstream signalling genes and global proteins, and the micromorphological changes in the intestine. The β-glucan receptor genes of Atlantic salmon, sclra, sclrb, sclrc and cr3, seem to recognize the molecule, and initiate the downstream ITAM-motif signalling, as evident from the significantly high mRNA levels of ksyk, mapkin2, il1b and mip2a levels. Among the altered proteins, the Apoa4 (involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism); Tagln, Actb (uptake of β-glucan); Psma2 (associated with substrate recognition); and Ckt (energy metabolism-related) were the overexpressed ones. The underexpressed proteins included the Uk114, Rpl9, Ctsb and Lgal that are connected to proliferation, LPS-stimulation, Il1b and lactose recognition, respectively. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of igt and the number of immune cells in the distal intestine were found to increase upon β-glucan uptake by the fish. This study provides some clues on the mechanisms by which the β-glucan evokes response in Atlantic salmon, particularly at the intestinal level.

  11. Identification of surrogates of protection against yersiniosis in immersion vaccinated Atlantic salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Bridle

    Full Text Available Simple cost-effective bacterins are the earliest and most successfully used commercial vaccines in fish. In particular, those prepared from Yersinia ruckeri have proven effective at controlling Enteric Red Mouth Disease (ERM and yersiniosis in rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, respectively. However, the emergence of outbreaks of ERM caused by atypical biotypes of Y. ruckeri and reports of vaccine failure resulting in mass mortality of hatchery Atlantic salmon has reinvigorated interest in vaccines against fish bacterial diseases. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify surrogates of protection against yersiniosis using cDNA microarray to characterise the response of host genes in the gills of unvaccinated and vaccinated Atlantic salmon challenged with Y. ruckeri. Differentially expressed genes were identified using two-way ANOVA and restricted to those with >2.5-fold change at P<0.05. Using cDNA microarray we identified the expression of 6 genes in response to infection and 4 genes associated with the protective host response to yersiniosis. Analysis by real-time PCR confirmed that three immunologically relevant genes, namely a cathelicidin (47-fold and a C-type lectin (19-fold increased in response to yersiniosis. Including collagenase (17-fold increase, an important tissue remodelling and repair enzyme, these genes represent 3 of 6 non-protective and/or pathological responses to yersiniosis. Genes associated with the protective host response included an immunoglobulin gene and a selenoprotein that showed significant fold changes (15-fold increases each, highlighting the importance of antibody-mediated protection against yersiniosis. These findings provide much needed knowledge of the host-pathogen interaction in response to bacterial infection and immunisation in fish. Significantly, we identified a transcriptional biosignature consisting of predominantly immune-relevant genes (14 up and 3 down-regulated in the gills of Atlantic

  12. Salmon calcitonin: conformational changes and stabilizer effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Yang Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic activity of peptides or protein drugs is highly dependent on their conformational structure. The protein structure is flexible and responds to external conditions, which may compromise the protein's native conformation and influence its physical and chemical stability. The physical and chemical stability of peptides or protein drugs are important characteristics of biopharmaceutical products. Calcitonin (CT is a polypeptide hormone that participates in diverse physiological functions in humans; therefore, it is a potentially useful protein for investigations of different aspects of pharmacology and drug delivery systems. Of the different types of CT available for clinical use, salmon CT (sCT is one of the most potent. In this review article, the commercially available sCT was selected as a suitable peptide candidate for the discussion of its stability and conformational changes in the aqueous and solid states using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis under different external conditions, including pH, temperature, drying method, and added excipients. Particularly, excipients that have been optimized as stabilizers of sCT in aqueous solution and as lyophilized and spray-dried drug formulations are also discussed.

  13. Toxicological effect of single contaminants and contaminant mixtures associated with plant ingredients in novel salmon feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søfteland, Liv; Kirwan, Jennifer A; Hori, Tiago S F; Størseth, Trond R; Sommer, Ulf; Berntssen, Marc H G; Viant, Mark R; Rise, Matthew L; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Booman, Marije; Olsvik, Pål A

    2014-11-01

    Increasing use of plant feed ingredients may introduce contaminants not previously associated with farming of salmonids, such as pesticides and PAHs from environmental sources or from thermal processing of oil seeds. To screen for interaction effects of contaminants newly introduced in salmon feeds, Atlantic salmon primary hepatocytes were used. The xCELLigence cytotoxicity system was used to select optimal dosages of the PAHs benzo(a)pyrene and phenanthrene, the pesticides chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and combinations of these. NMR and MS metabolic profiling and microarray transcriptomic profiling was used to identify novel biomarkers. Lipidomic and transcriptomic profiling suggested perturbation of lipid metabolism, as well as endocrine disruption. The pesticides gave the strongest responses, despite having less effect on cell viability than the PAHs. Only weak molecular responses were detected in PAH-exposed hepatocytes. Chlorpyrifos suppressed the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Endosulfan affected steroid hormone synthesis, while benzo(a)pyrene disturbed vitamin D3 metabolism. The primary mixture effect was additive, although at high concentrations the pesticides acted in a synergistic fashion to decrease cell viability and down-regulate CYP3A and FABP4 transcription. This work highlights the usefulness of 'omics techniques and multivariate data analysis to investigate interactions within mixtures of contaminants with different modes of action. PMID:25193261

  14. Toxicological effect of single contaminants and contaminant mixtures associated with plant ingredients in novel salmon feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søfteland, Liv; Kirwan, Jennifer A; Hori, Tiago S F; Størseth, Trond R; Sommer, Ulf; Berntssen, Marc H G; Viant, Mark R; Rise, Matthew L; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Booman, Marije; Olsvik, Pål A

    2014-11-01

    Increasing use of plant feed ingredients may introduce contaminants not previously associated with farming of salmonids, such as pesticides and PAHs from environmental sources or from thermal processing of oil seeds. To screen for interaction effects of contaminants newly introduced in salmon feeds, Atlantic salmon primary hepatocytes were used. The xCELLigence cytotoxicity system was used to select optimal dosages of the PAHs benzo(a)pyrene and phenanthrene, the pesticides chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and combinations of these. NMR and MS metabolic profiling and microarray transcriptomic profiling was used to identify novel biomarkers. Lipidomic and transcriptomic profiling suggested perturbation of lipid metabolism, as well as endocrine disruption. The pesticides gave the strongest responses, despite having less effect on cell viability than the PAHs. Only weak molecular responses were detected in PAH-exposed hepatocytes. Chlorpyrifos suppressed the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. Endosulfan affected steroid hormone synthesis, while benzo(a)pyrene disturbed vitamin D3 metabolism. The primary mixture effect was additive, although at high concentrations the pesticides acted in a synergistic fashion to decrease cell viability and down-regulate CYP3A and FABP4 transcription. This work highlights the usefulness of 'omics techniques and multivariate data analysis to investigate interactions within mixtures of contaminants with different modes of action.

  15. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  16. Thiamine and fatty acid content of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Peters, A.K.; Jones, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status of Lake Michigan Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is inadequately documented. An investigation was conducted to determine muscle and liver thiamine content and whole body fatty acid composition in small, medium and large Chinook salmon. Muscle and liver thiamine concentrations were highest in small salmon, and tended to decrease with increasing fish size. Muscle thiamine was higher in fall than spring in large salmon. The high percentage of Chinook salmon (24-32% in fall and 58-71% in spring) with muscle thiamine concentration below 500 pmol/g, which has been associated with loss of equilibrium and death in other Great Lake salmonines, suggest that Chinook appear to rely less on thiamine than other Great Lakes species for which such low concentrations would be associated with thiamine deficiency (Brown et al. 2005b). A positive correlation was observed between liver total thiamine and percent liver lipids (r = 0.53, P lipids were observed to be low in fish with less than 4,000 pmol/g liver total thiamine. In individuals with greater than 4,000 pmol/g liver thiamine, liver lipid increased with thiamine concentration. Individual fatty acids declined between fall and spring. Essential omega-3 fatty acids appear to be conserved as lipid content declined. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), an essential omega-6 fatty acid was not different between fall and spring, although the sum of omega-6 (Sw6) fatty acids declined over winter. Elevated concentrations of saturated fatty acids (sum) were observed in whole body tissue lipid. In summary, thiamine, a dietary essential vitamin, and individual fatty acids were found to vary in Lake Michigan Chinook salmon by fish size and season of the year.

  17. Control of biological hazards in cold smoked salmon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Jeppesen, V.F.

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the common processing technology for cold smoked salmon in Denmark is presented. The safety hazards related to pathogenic bacteria, parasites and biogenic amines are discussed with special emphasis on hazards related to Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. Critical...... control points are identified for all hazards except growth of L. monocytogenes. For this reason a limitation of shelf life to three weeks at +5 degrees C far cold smoked vacuum-packed salmon having greater than or equal to 3% water phase salt is recommended...

  18. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, D.J.; Wipfli, M.S.; Stricker, C.A.; Heintz, R.A.; Rinella, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  19. Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs and consumer fitness: growth and energy storage in stream-dwelling salmonids increase with salmon spawner density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, Daniel J.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heintz, Ron A.; Rinella, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined how marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the form of spawning Pacific salmon, influenced the nutritional status and δ15N of stream-dwelling fishes. We sampled juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma) during spring and fall from 11 south-central Alaskan streams that ranged widely in spawning salmon biomass (0.1–4.7 kg·m–2). Growth rate (as indexed by RNA–DNA ratios), energy density, and δ15N enrichment in spring-sampled fishes increased with spawner biomass, indicating the persistence of spawner effects more than 6 months after salmon spawning. Point estimates suggest that spawner effects on nutrition were substantially greater for coho salmon than Dolly Varden (268% and 175% greater for growth and energy, respectively), indicating that both species benefitted physiologically, but that juvenile coho salmon accrued more benefits than Dolly Varden. Although the data were less conclusive for fall- than spring-sampled fish, they do suggest spawner effects were also generally positive during fall, soon after salmon spawned. In a follow-up analysis where growth rate and energy density were modeled as a function of δ15N enrichment, results suggested that both increased with MDN assimilation, especially in juvenile coho salmon. Our results support the importance of salmon runs to the nutritional ecology of stream-dwelling fishes.

  20. Salmon and steelhead in the White Salmon River after the removal of Condit Dam–Planning efforts and recolonization results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brady; Engle, Rod O; Zendt, Joseph S; Shrier, Frank C; Wilson, Jeremy T; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam, at river kilometer 5.3 on the White Salmon River, Washington, was breached in 2011 and completely removed in 2012. This action opened habitat to migratory fish for the first time in 100 years. The White Salmon Working Group was formed to create plans for fish salvage in preparation for fish recolonization and to prescribe the actions necessary to restore anadromous salmonid populations in the White Salmon River after Condit Dam removal. Studies conducted by work group members and others served to inform management decisions. Management options for individual species were considered, including natural recolonization, introduction of a neighboring stock, hatchery supplementation, and monitoring natural recolonization for some time period to assess the need for hatchery supplementation. Monitoring to date indicates that multiple species and stocks of anadromous salmonids are finding and spawning in the now accessible and recovering habitat.

  1. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2015-12-01

    Salmon are a valuable cultural and economic resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  2. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon : Project Progress Report, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David A.

    2003-10-01

    During 2001, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 311) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 272) to establish brood year 2001 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared by family group at the Eagle Fish Hatchery (Eagle). Juveniles collected the previous summer were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to the majority of them being transferred to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Manchester Marine Experimental Station for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 210 individuals from the Lemhi River (LEM), 242 from the WFYF, and 178 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 62 individuals from the LEM, 72 from the WFYF, and 27 from the EFSR. Additional water chilling capacity was added at Eagle in 2001 to test if spawn timing could be advanced by temperature manipulations, and adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) water temperature groups while at Eagle. Twenty-five mature females from the LEM (11 chilled, 14 ambient) were spawned in captivity with 23 males with the same temperature history in 2001. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage of development averaged 37.9% and did not differ significantly between the two temperature groups. A total of 8,154 eyed-eggs from these crosses were placed in in-stream incubators by personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe. Mature adults (N = 89) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish

  3. Food Shortage Causes Differential Effects on Body Composition and Tissue-Specific Gene Expression in Salmon Modified for Increased Growth Hormone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Jason; Panserat, Stéphane; Welker, Thomas; Plagne-Juan, Elisabeth; Sakhrani, Dionne; Higgs, David A; Audouin, Florence; Devlin, Robert H; Overturf, Ken

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transgenic salmon possesses markedly increased metabolic rate, appetite, and feed conversion efficiency, as well as an increased ability to compete for food resources. Thus, the ability of GH-transgenic fish to withstand periods of food deprivation as occurs in nature is potentially different than that of nontransgenic fish. However, the physiological and genetic effects of transgenic GH production over long periods of food deprivation remain largely unknown. Here, GH-transgenic coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and nontransgenic, wild-type coho salmon were subjected to a 3-month food deprivation trial, during which time performance characteristics related to growth were measured along with proximate compositions. To examine potential genetic effects of GH-transgenesis on long-term food deprivation, a group of genes related to muscle development and liver metabolism was selected for quantitative PCR analysis. Results showed that GH-transgenic fish lose weight at an increased rate compared to wild-type even though proximate compositions remained relatively similar between the groups. A total of nine genes related to muscle physiology (cathepsin, cee, insulin-like growth factor, myostatin, murf-1, myosin, myogenin, proteasome delta, tumor necrosis factor) and five genes related to liver metabolism (carnitine palmitoyltransferase, fatty acid synthase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase) were shown to be differentially regulated between GH-transgenic and wild-type coho salmon over time. These genetic and physiological responses assist in identifying differences between GH-transgenic and wild-type salmon in relation to fitness effects arising from elevated growth hormone during periods of long-term food shortage.

  4. Estuarine Habitats for Juvenile Salmon in the Tidally-Influenced Lower Columbia River and Estuary : Reporting Period September 15, 2008 through May 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, António M. [Oregon Health & Science University, Science and Technology Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction

    2009-08-02

    This work focuses on the numerical modeling of Columbia River estuarine circulation and associated modeling-supported analyses conducted as an integral part of a multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional effort led by NOAA's Northwest Fisheries Science Center. The overall effort is aimed at: (1) retrospective analyses to reconstruct historic bathymetric features and assess effects of climate and river flow on the extent and distribution of shallow water, wetland and tidal-floodplain habitats; (2) computer simulations using a 3-dimensional numerical model to evaluate the sensitivity of salmon rearing opportunities to various historical modifications affecting the estuary (including channel changes, flow regulation, and diking of tidal wetlands and floodplains); (3) observational studies of present and historic food web sources supporting selected life histories of juvenile salmon as determined by stable isotope, microchemistry, and parasitology techniques; and (4) experimental studies in Grays River in collaboration with Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) and the Columbia Land Trust (CLT) to assess effects of multiple tidal wetland restoration projects on various life histories of juvenile salmon and to compare responses to observed habitat-use patterns in the mainstem estuary. From the above observations, experiments, and additional modeling simulations, the effort will also (5) examine effects of alternative flow-management and habitat-restoration scenarios on habitat opportunity and the estuary's productive capacity for juvenile salmon. The underlying modeling system is part of the SATURN1coastal-margin observatory [1]. SATURN relies on 3D numerical models [2, 3] to systematically simulate and understand baroclinic circulation in the Columbia River estuary-plume-shelf system [4-7] (Fig. 1). Multi-year simulation databases of circulation are produced as an integral part of SATURN, and have multiple applications in understanding estuary

  5. Salmon serum 22 kDa insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) is IGFBP-1

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, M; Dickey, J T; Fukada, H; Dickhoff, W W

    2005-01-01

    Western ligand blotting of salmon serum typically reveals three insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) at 22, 28 and 41 kDa. Physiological regulation of the 22-kDa IGFBP is similar to that of mammalian IGFBP-1; it is increased under catabolic states such as fasting and stress. On the other hand, its molecular weight on Western ligand blotting is closest to mammalian IGFBP-4. The conflict between physiology and molecular weight makes it difficult to conclude the identity of the 2...

  6. FACTS, FANTASIES, AND FORECASTS: THE FUTURE OF WILD PACIFIC SALMON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the far western contiguous United States (California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho), many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline has taken place over the past 150 years, but there have been decades when the numbers increased. Overall...

  7. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SALMON RECOVERY: AN IRRECONCILABLE CONFLICT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the southern region of western North America, many wild salmon stocks have declined and some have disappeared. The decline was induced by an extensively studied and reasonably well understood combination of causal agents. The public appears to support reversing the d...

  8. How Activity Systems Evolve: Making / Saving Salmon in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yew-Jin; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the history of a state-sponsored salmon enhancement project in British Columbia and to explicate the development of the former using cultural historical activity theory. We make thematic the notion of inner contradictions, which express themselves outwardly as a function of both quantitative and…

  9. Price formation of the salmon aquaculture futures market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This study examines price formation of the internationally traded salmon futures exchange. Analyzing data from 2006 to 2015, the study identifies the co-integration relationship between the spot market price and 1–6-, 9- and 12-month futures contract prices. With exception of the 12-month maturit...

  10. Salmon aquaculture and antimicrobial resistance in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Alejandro H; Tomova, Alexandra; López, Alejandra; Maldonado, Miguel A; Henríquez, Luis A; Ivanova, Larisa; Moy, Fred; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobials used in salmon aquaculture pass into the marine environment. This could have negative impacts on marine environmental biodiversity, and on terrestrial animal and human health as a result of selection for bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes. We therefore measured the numbers of culturable bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments in the Calbuco Archipelago, Chile, over 12-month period at a salmon aquaculture site approximately 20 m from a salmon farm and at a control site 8 km distant without observable aquaculture activities. Three antimicrobials extensively used in Chilean salmon aquaculture (oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol) were studied. Although none of these antimicrobials was detected in sediments from either site, traces of flumequine, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial also widely used in Chile, were present in sediments from both sites during this period. There were significant increases in bacterial numbers and antimicrobial-resistant fractions to oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and florfenicol in sediments from the aquaculture site compared to those from the control site. Interestingly, there were similar numbers of presumably plasmid-mediated resistance genes for oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid and florfenicol in unselected marine bacteria isolated from both aquaculture and control sites. These preliminary findings in one location may suggest that the current use of large amounts of antimicrobials in Chilean aquaculture has the potential to select for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in marine sediments.

  11. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower. PMID:19569323

  12. Navigating benefit transfer for salmon improvements in the Western US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew August Weber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A perennial problem in environmental resource management is targeting an efficient level of resource provision that maximizes societal well-being. Such management requires knowledge of both costs and benefits associated with varying management options. This paper illustrates the challenge of estimating the benefits of an improvement in a marine resource when secondary data must be used, and when total economic benefits include non-use values. An example of non-use values is existence value, which is not contingent on resource extraction nor recreational activities. State of the art techniques for adapting secondary data, or benefit transfer, are reviewed in the context of increasing anadromous salmon for an example Western US policy scenario. An extensive summary of applicable primary studies is provided, compiling observations from several studies surveying several thousand Western US households. The studies consistently indicate a high willingness to pay for increased salmon abundance. Analytical techniques for transferring data are described, with calculation examples using published tools, focusing on meta-regression and structural benefit transfer. While these advanced benefit transfer tools offer perspective on benefits beyond what can be learned by relying on a single study, they also represent a variety of challenges limiting their usefulness. While transparently navigating these issues, a monetized estimate of increased salmon for the policy case is provided, along with discussion on interpreting benefit transfer techniques and their results more generally. From this synthesis, several suggestions are also made for future primary salmon valuation studies.

  13. Accounting for risk conflicts in Scottish salmon farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Georgakopoulos; I. Thomson; P. Kaldis

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To offer a theoretical analysis, inspired by contemporary research into risk, of the social and environmental accounting processes observed in an empirical study on Scottish salmon farming. Methodology / Approach: This paper used a Grounded Theory approach. Empirical evidence was collected

  14. Adaptive potential of a Pacific salmon challenged by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nicolas J.; Farrell, Anthony P.; Heath, John W.; Neff, Bryan D.

    2015-02-01

    Pacific salmon provide critical sustenance for millions of people worldwide and have far-reaching impacts on the productivity of ecosystems. Rising temperatures now threaten the persistence of these important fishes, yet it remains unknown whether populations can adapt. Here, we provide the first evidence that a Pacific salmon has both physiological and genetic capacities to increase its thermal tolerance in response to rising temperatures. In juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a 4 °C increase in developmental temperature was associated with a 2 °C increase in key measures of the thermal performance of cardiac function. Moreover, additive genetic effects significantly influenced several measures of cardiac capacity, indicative of heritable variation on which selection can act. However, a lack of both plasticity and genetic variation was found for the arrhythmic temperature of the heart, constraining this upper thermal limit to a maximum of 24.5 +/- 2.2 °C. Linking this constraint on thermal tolerance with present-day river temperatures and projected warming scenarios, we predict a 17% chance of catastrophic loss in the population by 2100 based on the average warming projection, with this chance increasing to 98% in the maximum warming scenario. Climate change mitigation is thus necessary to ensure the future viability of Pacific salmon populations.

  15. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains reports on subprojects involving the determining of alternatives to enhance salmonid habitat on patented land in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, coordination activities for habitat projects occurring on streams within fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribes, and habitat and fish inventories in the Salmon River. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports. (ACR)

  16. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 166) and determined on April 8, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 22422, April..., 2011 (76 FR 38698). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on November 30, 2011, and all persons who... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record...

  17. Microbial communities on Australian modified atmosphere packaged Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Tamplin, M L

    2012-05-01

    The role of specific spoilage organisms (SSO) in products such as Atlantic salmon has been well documented. However, little is known about what other micro-organisms are present and these organisms may indirectly influence spoilage by their interactions with the SS0. We used a combination of culture-based and DNA-based methods to explore the microbial communities found on Atlantic salmon fillets packed in a modified atmosphere of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. After 15 days the communities were dominated by Shewanella spp. or Carnobacterium spp. and a variety of other genera were present in smaller numbers. Variability in the microbial community composition in packages processed on the same day was also observed. This was mostly due to differences in the presence of minor members of the community including species from genera such as Iodobacter, Serratia, Morganella and Yersinia. The combination of culture-based and culture-independent methods provided greater insight into the development of microbial communities on Atlantic salmon than would have been possible using only one method. This work highlights the potential importance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fresh Atlantic salmon stored under modified atmosphere conditions.

  18. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to ΣPCB concentrations and δ15N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and δ15N, as well as ΣPCB concentrations and δ15N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, ΣPCBs and δ15N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years

  19. Variability in stream discharge and temperature: a preliminary assessment of the implications for juvenile and spawning Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tetzlaff

    2005-01-01

    relationship with hydrological variability with marked inter-annual contrasts. In years when discharge in the period prior to spawning was low, fish movement was increasingly triggered by suboptimal flow increases as spawning time approached. In contrast, wet years with numerous events allowed a much more even distribution of fish entry. Elucidating links between discharge/temperature variability and foraging opportunities and upriver migration of adult Atlantic salmon have the potential to contribute to the improvement of conservation strategies in both regulated and unregulated rivers.

  20. Testes and brain gene expression in precocious male and adult maturing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houeix Benoit

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The male Atlantic salmon generally matures in fresh water upon returning after one or several years at sea. Some fast-growing male parr develop an alternative life strategy where they sexually mature before migrating to the oceans. These so called 'precocious' parr or 'sneakers' can successfully fertilise adult female eggs and so perpetuate their line. We have used a custom-built cDNA microarray to investigate gene expression changes occurring in the salmon gonad and brain associated with precocious maturation. The microarray has been populated with genes selected specifically for involvement in sexual maturation (precocious and adult and in the parr-smolt transformation. Results Immature and mature parr collected from a hatchery-reared stock in January were significantly different in weight, length and condition factor. Changes in brain expression were small - never more than 2-fold on the microarray, and down-regulation of genes was much more pronounced than up-regulation. Significantly changing genes included isotocin, vasotocin, cathepsin D, anamorsin and apolipoprotein E. Much greater changes in expression were seen in the testes. Among those genes in the testis with the most significant changes in expression were anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, and zinc finger protein (Zic1, which were down-regulated in precocity and apolipoproteins E and C-1, lipoprotein lipase and anti-leukoproteinase precursor which were up-regulated in precocity. Expression changes of several genes were confirmed in individual fish by quantitative PCR and several genes (anti-Mullerian hormone, collagen 1A, beta-globin and guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein beta polypeptide 2-like 1 (GNB2L1 were also examined in adult maturing testes. Down-regulation of anti-Mullerian hormone was judged to be greater than 160-fold for precocious males and greater than 230-fold for November adult testes in comparison to July testes by this method. For

  1. Dorsal hump morphology in pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susuki, Kenta; Ichimura, Masaki; Koshino, Yosuke; Kaeriyama, Masahide; Takagi, Yasuaki; Adachi, Shinji; Kudo, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    Mature male Pacific salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus) develop a dorsal hump, as a secondary male sexual characteristic, during the spawning period. Previous gross anatomical studies have indicated that the dorsal humps of salmon are mainly composed of cartilaginous tissue (Davidson [1935] J Morphol 57:169-183.) However, the histological and biochemical characteristics of such humps are poorly understood. In this study, the detailed microstructures and components of the dorsal humps of pink salmon were analyzed using histochemical techniques and electrophoresis. In mature males, free interneural spines and neural spines were located in a line near to the median septum of the dorsal hump. No cartilaginous tissue was detected within the dorsal hump. Fibrous and mucous connective tissues were mainly found in three regions of the dorsal hump: i) the median septum, ii) the distal region, and iii) the crescent-shaped region. Both the median septum and distal region consisted of connective tissue with a high water content, which contained elastic fibers and hyaluronic acid. It was also demonstrated that the lipid content of the dorsal hump connective tissue was markedly decreased in the mature males compared with the immature and maturing males. Although, the crescent-shaped region of the hump consisted of connective tissue, it did not contain elastic fibers, hyaluronic acid, or lipids. In an ultrastructural examination, it was found that all of the connective tissues in the dorsal hump were composed of collagen fibers. Gel electrophoresis of collagen extracts from these tissues found that the collagen in the dorsal hump is composed of Type I collagen, as is the case in salmon skin. These results indicate that in male pink salmon the dorsal hump is formed as a result of an increase in the amount of connective tissue, rather than cartilage, and the growth of free interneural spines and neural spines.

  2. Deepening Thermocline Displaces Salmon Catch On The Oregon Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. S.; Lawson, P.

    2015-12-01

    Establishing a linkage between fish stock distributions and physical oceanography at a fine scale provides insights into the dynamic nature of near-shore ocean habitats. Characterization of habitat preferences adds to our understanding of the ecosystem, and may improve forecasts of distribution for harvest management. The Project CROOS (Collaborative Research on Oregon Ocean Salmon) Chinook salmon catch data set represents an unprecedented high-resolution record of catch location and depth, with associated in-situ temperature measurements and stock identification derived from genetic data. Here we connect this data set with physical ocean observations to gain understanding of how circulation affects salmon catch distributions. The CROOS observations were combined with remote and in situ observations of temperature, as well as a data assimilative regional ocean model that incorporates satellite and HF radar data. Across the CROOS data set, catch is primarily located within the upwelling front over the seamounts and reef structures associated with Heceta and Stonewall Banks along the shelf break. In late September of 2014 the anomalously warm "blob" began to arrive on the Oregon coast coincident with a strong downwelling event. At this time the thermocline deepened from 20 to 40 m, associated with a deepening of salmon catch depth. A cold "bulb" of water over Heceta Bank may have provided a thermal refuge for salmon during the initial onshore movement of the anomalously warm water. These observations suggest that a warming ocean, and regional warming events in particular, will have large effects on fish distributions at local and regional scales, in turn impacting fisheries.

  3. Recovery and separation of rare Earth elements using salmon milt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Takahashi

    Full Text Available Recycling rare earth elements (REEs used in advanced materials such as Nd magnets is important for the efficient use of REE resources when the supply of several REEs is limited. In this work, the feasibility of using salmon milt for REE recovery and separation was examined, along with the identification of the binding site of REEs in salmon milt. Results showed that (i salmon milt has a sufficiently high affinity to adsorb REEs and (ii the adsorption capacity of the milt is 1.04 mEq/g, which is comparable with that of commercial cation exchange resin. Heavier REEs have higher affinity for milt. A comparison of stability constants and adsorption patterns of REEs discussed in the literature suggests that the phosphate is responsible for the adsorption of REE in milt. The results were supported by dysprosium (Dy and lutetium (Lu LIII-edge extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS spectroscopy. The REE-P shell was identified for the second neighboring atom, which shows the importance of the phosphate site as REE binding sites. The comparison of REE adsorption pattern and EXAFS results between the milt system and other adsorbent systems (cellulose phosphate, Ln-resin, bacteria, and DNA-filter hybrid revealed that the coordination number of phosphate is correlated with the slope of the REE pattern. The separation column loaded with milt was tested to separate REE for the practical use of salmon milt for the recovery and separation of REE. However, water did not flow through the column possibly because of the hydrophobicity of the milt. Thus, sequential adsorption-desorption approach using a batch-type method was applied for the separation of REE. As an example of the practical applications of REE separation, Nd and Fe(III were successfully separated from a synthetic solution of Nd magnet waste by a batch-type method using salmon milt.

  4. Molecular pathology of vertebral deformities in hyperthermic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hjelde Kirsti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthermia has been shown in a number of organisms to induce developmental defects as a result of changes in cell proliferation, differentiation and gene expression. In spite of this, salmon aquaculture commonly uses high water temperature to speed up developmental rate in intensive production systems, resulting in an increased frequency of skeletal deformities. In order to study the molecular pathology of vertebral deformities, Atlantic salmon was subjected to hyperthermic conditions from fertilization until after the juvenile stage. Results Fish exposed to the high temperature regime showed a markedly higher growth rate and a significant higher percentage of deformities in the spinal column than fish reared at low temperatures. By analyzing phenotypically normal spinal columns from the two temperature regimes, we found that the increased risk of developing vertebral deformities was linked to an altered gene transcription. In particular, down-regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM genes such as col1a1, osteocalcin, osteonectin and decorin, indicated that maturation and mineralization of osteoblasts were restrained. Moreover, histological staining and in situ hybridization visualized areas with distorted chondrocytes and an increased population of hypertrophic cells. These findings were further confirmed by an up-regulation of mef2c and col10a, genes involved in chondrocyte hypertrophy. Conclusion The presented data strongly indicates that temperature induced fast growth is severely affecting gene transcription in osteoblasts and chondrocytes; hence change in the vertebral tissue structure and composition. A disrupted bone and cartilage production was detected, which most likely is involved in the higher rate of deformities developed in the high intensive group. Our results are of basic interest for bone metabolism and contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms involved in development of temperature induced

  5. Effects of dam removal on Tule Fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the White Salmon River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, James R.; Batt, Thomas R.; Skalicky, Joseph J.; Engle, Rod; Barton, Gary J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Warren, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Condit Dam is one of the largest hydroelectric dams ever removed in the USA. Breached in a single explosive event in October 2011, hundreds-of-thousands of cubic metres of sediment washed down the White Salmon River onto spawning grounds of a threatened species, Columbia River tule fall Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. We investigated over a 3-year period (2010–2012) how dam breaching affected channel morphology, river hydraulics, sediment composition and tule fall Chinook salmon (hereafter ‘tule salmon’) spawning habitat in the lower 1.7 km of the White Salmon River (project area). As expected, dam breaching dramatically affected channel morphology and spawning habitat due to a large load of sediment released from Northwestern Lake. Forty-two per cent of the project area that was previously covered in water was converted into islands or new shoreline, while a large pool near the mouth filled with sediments and a delta formed at the mouth. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model revealed that pool area decreased 68.7% in the project area, while glides and riffles increased 659% and 530%, respectively. A spatially explicit habitat model found the mean probability of spawning habitat increased 46.2% after dam breaching due to an increase in glides and riffles. Shifting channels and bank instability continue to negatively affect some spawning habitat as sediments continue to wash downstream from former Northwestern Lake, but 300 m of new spawning habitat (river kilometre 0.6 to 0.9) that formed immediately post-breach has persisted into 2015. Less than 10% of tule salmon have spawned upstream of the former dam site to date, but the run sizes appear healthy and stable. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Interspecific competition in tributaries: Prospectus for restoring Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Wedge, Leslie R.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, Lake Ontario may have supported the world's largest freshwater population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, by the late 1800's, salmon were virtually extinct in the lake due to the damming of tributaries, overharvest, deforestation, and pollution. Of these factors, the building of dams on tributaries, which precluded access by the salmon to natal spawning streams, was probably the most detrimental. Since the extirpation of Atlantic salmon in the Lake Ontario watershed over a century ago, considerable change has occurred throughout the lake and tributary ecosystem. The changes within the ecosystem that may have the most profound effect on Atlantic salmon restoration include the presence of exotic species, including other salmonines, and reduced habitat quality, especially in tributaries. These changes must be taken into account when considering Atlantic salmon restoration.

  7. Captive Rearing Program for Salmon River Chinook Salmon, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venditti, David; Willard, Catherine; James, Chris

    2003-11-01

    During 2002, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued to develop techniques to rear Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha to sexual maturity in captivity and to monitor their reproductive performance under natural conditions. Eyed-eggs were hydraulically collected from redds in the East Fork Salmon River (EFSR; N = 328) and the West Fork Yankee Fork Salmon River (WFYF; N = 308) to establish brood year 2002 culture cohorts. The eyed-eggs were incubated and reared at the Eagle Fish Hatchery, Eagle, Idaho (Eagle). Juveniles collected in 2000 were PIT and elastomer tagged and vaccinated against vibrio Vibrio spp. and bacterial kidney disease prior to being transferred to the NOAA Fisheries, Manchester Marine Experimental Station, Manchester, Washington (Manchester) for saltwater rearing through maturity. Smolt transfers included 203 individuals from the WFYF and 379 from the EFSR. Maturing fish transfers from Manchester to Eagle included 107 individuals from the LEM, 167 from the WFYF, and 82 from the EFSR. This was the second year maturing adults were held on chilled water at Eagle to test if water temperature manipulations could advance spawn timing. Adults from the LEM and WFYF were divided into chilled ({approx} 9 C) and ambient ({approx} 13.5 C) temperature groups while at Eagle. Forty-seven mature females from the LEM (19 chilled, 16 ambient, and 12 ambient not included in the temperature study) were spawned at Eagle with 42 males in 2002. Water temperature group was not shown to affect the spawn timing of these females, but males did mature earlier. Egg survival to the eyed stage averaged 66.5% and did not differ significantly between the temperature groups. Personnel from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe placed a total of 47,977 eyed-eggs from these crosses in in-stream incubators. Mature adults (N = 215 including 56 precocial males) were released into the WFYF to evaluate their reproductive performance. After release, fish distributed themselves throughout

  8. Price and Quality Effects of Generic Advertising: The Case of Norwegian Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Myrland, Oystein; Dong, Diansheng; Kaiser, Harry M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a two-equation sample selection model is used to estimate a household demand function for salmon incorporating domestic generic advertising. The twoequation estimation procedure, based on purchase and unit value equations, allows us to handle heavily censored panel data for salmon purchases by Norwegian households and the quality effects simultaneously. Unit values of the aggregated salmon commodity calculated from the observed expenditures and quantities are hypothesized to re...

  9. Disease resistance is related to inherent swimming performance in Atlantic salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Vicente; Grisdale-Helland Barbara; Jørgensen Sven M; Helgerud Jan; Claireaux Guy; Farrell Anthony P; Krasnov Aleksei; Helland Ståle J; Takle Harald

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Like humans, fish can be classified according to their athletic performance. Sustained exercise training of fish can improve growth and physical capacity, and recent results have documented improved disease resistance in exercised Atlantic salmon. In this study we investigated the effects of inherent swimming performance and exercise training on disease resistance in Atlantic salmon. Atlantic salmon were first classified as either poor or good according to their swimming p...

  10. Comparison of Atlantic salmon net pen and recirculating aquaculture systems: economical, technological and environmental issues

    OpenAIRE

    Dekhtyarev, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    The modern aquaculture industry is a rapidly developing sector of the fisheries industry. Among the fish species reared in marine waters Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) shares a significant part. Nowadays, the largest salmon producing countries are Norway, Chile and Scotland. The common technology used in the salmon production is a sea cage, which is presented in a form of floating plastic rings or robust metal installations fastened to a barge. In both cases, the fish is placed ...

  11. Genomic organization and evolution of the Atlantic salmon hemoglobin repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of salmonids are considered pseudo-tetraploid undergoing reversion to a stable diploid state. Given the genome duplication and extensive biological data available for salmonids, they are excellent model organisms for studying comparative genomics, evolutionary processes, fates of duplicated genes and the genetic and physiological processes associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. The evolution of the tetrapod hemoglobin genes is well studied; however, little is known about the genomic organization and evolution of teleost hemoglobin genes, particularly those of salmonids. The Atlantic salmon serves as a representative salmonid species for genomics studies. Given the well documented role of hemoglobin in adaptation to varied environmental conditions as well as its use as a model protein for evolutionary analyses, an understanding of the genomic structure and organization of the Atlantic salmon α and β hemoglobin genes is of great interest. Results We identified four bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs comprising two hemoglobin gene clusters spanning the entire α and β hemoglobin gene repertoire of the Atlantic salmon genome. Their chromosomal locations were established using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis and linkage mapping, demonstrating that the two clusters are located on separate chromosomes. The BACs were sequenced and assembled into scaffolds, which were annotated for putatively functional and pseudogenized hemoglobin-like genes. This revealed that the tail-to-tail organization and alternating pattern of the α and β hemoglobin genes are well conserved in both clusters, as well as that the Atlantic salmon genome houses substantially more hemoglobin genes, including non-Bohr β globin genes, than the genomes of other teleosts that have been sequenced. Conclusions We suggest that the most parsimonious evolutionary path leading to the present organization of the Atlantic salmon

  12. Commercial biopreservatives combined with salt and sugar to control Listeria monocytogenes during smoked salmon processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Raquel; Bravo, Daniel; Medina, Margarita

    2013-08-01

    Three commercial antimicrobials, applied during the salting stage in the preparation of cold-smoked salmon, were investigated for their effect on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes. Fresh salmon inoculated with L. monocytogenes INIA 2530 was treated with three bacteriocin-based commercial biopreservatives, which were applied in combination with a salt-sugar mix. The product was kept at 8°C for 7 days. L. monocytogenes grew by approximately 3 log CFU/g in control salmon (without the salt-sugar mix or biopreservatives). Pathogen levels were reduced by the three biopreservatives investigated. After 7 days at 8°C, L. monocytogenes counts in salmon treated with biopreservatives combined with the salt-sugar mix were significantly lower than those observed in salmon treated with only salt and sugar. At the end of storage, salmon treated with biopreservative derived from Pediococcus acidilactici had pathogen levels 3.6 log CFU/g lower than in control salmon (without the salt-sugar mix) and 1.5 log CFU/g lower than in the samples treated with only salt and sugar. The application of commercial biopreservatives to fresh salmon during the dry-salting stage might help control L. monocytogenes growth, thus enhancing the safety of cold-smoked salmon during refrigerated storage. PMID:23905807

  13. Land use, fishing, climate change, and decline of Thompson River, British Columbia, coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, M. J.; Irvine, J. R. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)

    2000-01-01

    Reasons for the decline in abundance of Pacific salmon population in the Thompson River watershed in British Columbia was investigated. Results suggests that the decline could be the result of a declining trend in productivity related to changes in ocean conditions, overfishing, and changes in the freshwater habitat. The abundance of salmon correlated with agricultural land use, road density, and qualitative changes in stream habitat status; logging appeared to have had no such effect. It was concluded that salmon populations will continue to decline unless limits on fishing are strictly enforced, and unless salmon producing watersheds are restored and ocean conditions are significantly improved . 12 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Lice pressure from salmon farms on wild sea trout (Salmo trutta in a Norwegian fjord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arechavala-Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Salmon lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis are external parasites on salmonids in the marine environment. However, during recent years, salmon lice abundance has increased due to the presence of salmon farming. Scientific studies shows that salmon farming increases the abundance of lice in the marine habitat and that salmon lice in the most intensively farmed areas have negatively affected wild fish populations. The present study assesses the spatiotemporal distribution of salmon lice infestations on wild sea trout population in the Romsdalsfjord region (Norway, and the potential relationship with fish-farming activity and environmental parameters in this area. Salmon lice at farms varied among localities or farming areas, although infestation levels were under the safety established thresholds (max: 0.5 adult females per fish in most of the cases. However, salmon farms with these levels might produce and release millions of copepods, potentially infecting wild salmonids. In accordance, low lice loads were recorded on wild sea trout captured in areas with low farming activity, while higher mean loads were recorded in areas with higher farming activity. A clear seasonal pattern and a positive correlation between lice on sea trout and sea water temperature were observed throughout the study period. The estimated production of copepods at farms and the mobile lice counted on wild sea trout one month later were correlated, suggesting the potential use of lice monitoring on sea trout as a proxy indicator of salmon lice infestation risks.

  15. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-01

    This report summarizes the 2011 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site1). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi.

  16. Assessments to determine the effect of current and alternate ladder operations on brood stock collection and behavior of hatchery fall Chinook Salmon at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery during 2004-05

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production of upriver bright fall Chinook salmon at Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery was introduced as part of the John Day Dam mitigation program in the...

  17. Gene expression in Atlantic salmon skin in response to infection with the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus salmonis, cortisol implant, and their combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnov Aleksei

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The salmon louse is an ectoparasitic copepod that causes major economic losses in the aquaculture industry of Atlantic salmon. This host displays a high level of susceptibility to lice which can be accounted for by several factors including stress. In addition, the parasite itself acts as a potent stressor of the host, and outcomes of infection can depend on biotic and abiotic factors that stimulate production of cortisol. Consequently, examination of responses to infection with this parasite, in addition to stress hormone regulation in Atlantic salmon, is vital for better understanding of the host pathogen interaction. Results Atlantic salmon post smolts were organised into four experimental groups: lice + cortisol, lice + placebo, no lice + cortisol, no lice + placebo. Infection levels were equal in both treatments upon termination of the experiment. Gene expression changes in skin were assessed with 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR at the chalimus stage 18 days post infection at 9°C. The transcriptomic effects of hormone treatment were significantly greater than lice-infection induced changes. Cortisol stimulated expression of genes involved in metabolism of steroids and amino acids, chaperones, responses to oxidative stress and eicosanoid metabolism and suppressed genes related to antigen presentation, B and T cells, antiviral and inflammatory responses. Cortisol and lice equally down-regulated a large panel of motor proteins that can be important for wound contraction. Cortisol also suppressed multiple genes involved in wound healing, parts of which were activated by the parasite. Down-regulation of collagens and other structural proteins was in parallel with the induction of proteinases that degrade extracellular matrix (MMP9 and MMP13. Cortisol reduced expression of genes encoding proteins involved in formation of various tissue structures, regulators of cell differentiation and growth factors. Conclusions

  18. Weight loss and fillet quality characteristics of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after purging for 5, 10, 15 or 20 days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, are typically cultured in marine net pens. However, technological advancements in recirculating aquaculture systems have increased the feasibility of culturing Atlantic salmon in land-based systems to alleviate environmental and disease issues limiting sustainability. ...

  19. Development of rations for the enhanced survival of salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and ''fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected 1982 through September 1990

  20. Physiological characteristics of wild Atlantic salmon post-smolts during estuarine and coastal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, S.O.; Bjornsson, B. Th; Sundell, K.; Nyhammer, G.; McCormick, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    Changes were measured in some of the major physiological variables associated with seawater adaptability, growth and energetics in wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts and post-smolts migrating from the river and through the estuary, fjord and coastal areas in the River Orkla and the Trondheimsfjord, Norway during late May to early June. Gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity increased to levels of 12-16 ??mol ADP mg protein-1 h -1 in post-smolts caught in higher salinity zones, probably representing long-term levels of Atlantic salmon post-smolts in oceanic conditions. Muscle moisture was regulated within narrow limits (77.7-78.7%) in fish from all zones during both years, suggesting that post-smolts adapt to marine conditions without any long-term disturbance of hydro-mineral balance. Lipid and glycogen content showed a general trend towards depletion from the river, through the fjord and into the ocean. There was, however, no significant change in protein content. The present results confirm that smolts are naturally 'energy deficient' during downstream migration, and suggest that post-smolts also mobilize energy reserves during their early marine phase, while protein is allocated for somatic growth. Plasma growth hormone (GH) levels increased transiently during passage through the estuary and fjord, with lower levels observed in post-smolts caught off-shore, i.e. in fish which were feeding on marine prey and had adapted to the marine environment. These physiological changes may confer substantial selective advantages during the critical early marine phase of anadromous salmonids, and hence are adaptive for long-term survival in sea water. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Sex-dependent dominance at a single locus maintains variation in age at maturity in salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, Nicola J; Aykanat, Tutku; Hindar, Kjetil; Baranski, Matthew; Bolstad, Geir H; Fiske, Peder; Jacq, Céleste; Jensen, Arne J; Johnston, Susan E; Karlsson, Sten; Kent, Matthew; Moen, Thomas; Niemelä, Eero; Nome, Torfinn; Næsje, Tor F; Orell, Panu; Romakkaniemi, Atso; Sægrov, Harald; Urdal, Kurt; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Lien, Sigbjørn; Primmer, Craig R

    2015-12-17

    Males and females share many traits that have a common genetic basis; however, selection on these traits often differs between the sexes, leading to sexual conflict. Under such sexual antagonism, theory predicts the evolution of genetic architectures that resolve this sexual conflict. Yet, despite intense theoretical and empirical interest, the specific loci underlying sexually antagonistic phenotypes have rarely been identified, limiting our understanding of how sexual conflict impacts genome evolution and the maintenance of genetic diversity. Here we identify a large effect locus controlling age at maturity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), an important fitness trait in which selection favours earlier maturation in males than females, and show it is a clear example of sex-dependent dominance that reduces intralocus sexual conflict and maintains adaptive variation in wild populations. Using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism data across 57 wild populations and whole genome re-sequencing, we find that the vestigial-like family member 3 gene (VGLL3) exhibits sex-dependent dominance in salmon, promoting earlier and later maturation in males and females, respectively. VGLL3, an adiposity regulator associated with size and age at maturity in humans, explained 39% of phenotypic variation, an unexpectedly large proportion for what is usually considered a highly polygenic trait. Such large effects are predicted under balancing selection from either sexually antagonistic or spatially varying selection. Our results provide the first empirical example of dominance reversal allowing greater optimization of phenotypes within each sex, contributing to the resolution of sexual conflict in a major and widespread evolutionary trade-off between age and size at maturity. They also provide key empirical evidence for how variation in reproductive strategies can be maintained over large geographical scales. We anticipate these findings will have a substantial impact on

  2. Phasing of muscle gene expression with fasting-induced recovery growth in Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bower Neil I

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many fish species experience long periods of fasting in nature often associated with seasonal reductions in water temperature and prey availability or spawning migrations. During periods of nutrient restriction, changes in metabolism occur to provide cellular energy via catabolic processes. Muscle is particularly affected by prolonged fasting as myofibrillar proteins act as a major energy source. To investigate the mechanisms of metabolic reorganisation with fasting and refeeding in a saltwater stage of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. we analysed the expression of genes involved in myogenesis, growth signalling, lipid biosynthesis and myofibrillar protein degradation and synthesis pathways using qPCR. Results Hierarchical clustering of gene expression data revealed three clusters. The first cluster comprised genes involved in lipid metabolism and triacylglycerol synthesis (ALDOB, DGAT1 and LPL which had peak expression 3-14d after refeeding. The second cluster comprised ADIPOQ, MLC2, IGF-I and TALDO1, with peak expression 14-32d after refeeding. Cluster III contained genes strongly down regulated as an initial response to feeding and included the ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx, myogenic regulatory factors and some metabolic genes. Conclusion Early responses to refeeding in fasted salmon included the synthesis of triacylglycerols and activation of the adipogenic differentiation program. Inhibition of MuRF1 and MAFbx respectively may result in decreased degradation and concomitant increased production of myofibrillar proteins. Both of these processes preceded any increase in expression of myogenic regulatory factors and IGF-I. These responses could be a necessary strategy for an animal adapted to long periods of food deprivation whereby energy reserves are replenished prior to the resumption of myogenesis.

  3. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

  4. CRITICAL ASPECTS IN SCRAPS OF COLD SMOKED SALMON PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bernardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to summarize the critical aspects in the processing of smoked salmon scraps as resulted from seven different lots of samples through microbiological and chemical-physical analysis. Results demonstrate that this product has very variable salt content, high microbial counts influencing the shelf-life, rancidity problems depending on the raw material and is heavily contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes.

  5. CRITICAL ASPECTS IN SCRAPS OF COLD SMOKED SALMON PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, C; B. Ripamonti; M.A. Marzano; Cattaneo, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to summarize the critical aspects in the processing of smoked salmon scraps as resulted from seven different lots of samples through microbiological and chemical-physical analysis. Results demonstrate that this product has very variable salt content, high microbial counts influencing the shelf-life, rancidity problems depending on the raw material and is heavily contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes.

  6. Telemetry link for an automatic salmon migration monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, H. A.; Freyman, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The antenna and transmitter described in this report were designed for integration into the remote acoustic assessment system for detection of sockeye salmon in the Bristol Bay region of the Bering Sea. The assessment system configuration consists of an upward directed sonar buoy anchored 150 ft below the surface and attached by cable to a spar buoy tethered some 300 ft laterally. The spar buoy contains a telemetry transmitter, power supply, data processing electronics, an antenna and a beacon light.

  7. The Atlantic salmon genome provides insights into rediploidization

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Sigbjorn; Koop, Ben F; Sandve, Simen R.; Miller, Jason R.; Kent, Matthew P.; Nome, Torfinn; Hvidsten, Torgeir R.; Leong, Jong S; Minkley, David R; Zimin, Aleksey; Grammes, Fabian; Grove, Harald; Gjuvsland, Arne; Walenz, Brian; Hermansen, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    The whole-genome duplication 80 million years ago of the common ancestor of salmonids (salmonid-specific fourth vertebrate whole-genome duplication, Ss4R) provides unique opportunities to learn about the evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome in 70 extant lineages. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and show that large genomic reorganizations, coinciding with bursts of transposon-mediated repeat expansions, were crucial for the post-...

  8. Development of a vaccine for bacterial kidney disease in salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the executive summary and background review for the final report of ''Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon''. A description of the disease is provided, with microbiological characterization of the infective agent. A brief discussion of attempts to eradicate the disease is included. Recent progress in vaccine development and attempts to control the disease through pharmacological means are described, along with potential ways to break the cycle of infection. 80 refs

  9. Juvenile salmon investigations River Wenning catchment 1981-86

    OpenAIRE

    Ingersent, B.

    1987-01-01

    As part of the River Lune juvenile salmonid investigation, a number of sites on the River Wenning catchment were electrofished annually from 1981 - 1985. Particularly low Salmon parr populations were evident for much of the Wenning catchment which has caused some concern. All the Wenning catchment electrofishing results are reported in this paper and comparisons are made with designated groups of sites on the remainder of the Lune catchment. These groups of sites are: River Lune and t...

  10. Mutation accumulation and the catastrophic senescence of Pacific salmon

    CERN Document Server

    Penna, T J P; Stauffer, D; Stauffer, Dietrich

    1995-01-01

    The bit-string model of biological aging is used to simulate the catastrophic senescence of Pacific Salmon. We have shown that reproduction occuring only once and at a fixed age is the only ingredient needed to explain the catastrophic senescence according the mutation accumulation theory. Several results are presented, some of them with up to 10^8 fishes, showing how the survival rates in catastrophic senescence are affected by changes in the parameters of the model.

  11. Merits and Limits of Ecosystem Protection for Conserving Wild Salmon in a Northern Coastal British Columbia River

    OpenAIRE

    Jack A. Stanford; Bonnie K. Ellis; Thomas S. Bansak; Aaron C. Hill

    2010-01-01

    Loss and degradation of freshwater habitat reduces the ability of wild salmon populations to endure other anthropogenic stressors such as climate change, harvest, and interactions with artificially propagated fishes. Preservation of pristine salmon rivers has thus been advocated as a cost-effective way of sustaining wild Pacific salmon populations. We examine the value of freshwater habitat protection in conserving salmon and fostering resilience in the Kitlope watershed in northern coastal B...

  12. Compendium of Low-Cost Pacific Salmon and Steelhead Trout Production Facilities and Practices in the Pacific Northwest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, Harry G.

    1984-09-01

    The purpose was to research low capital cost salmon and steelhead trout production facilities and identify those that conform with management goals for the Columbia Basin. The species considered were chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), sockeye salmon (O. nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This report provides a comprehensive listing of the facilities, techniques, and equipment used in artificial production in the Pacific Northwest. (ACR)

  13. Comparative Resilience in Five North Pacific Regional Salmon Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtland L. Smith

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past century, regional fisheries for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. have been managed primarily for their provisioning function, not for ecological support and cultural significance. We examine the resilience of the regional salmon fisheries of Japan, the Russian Far East, Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington-Oregon-California (WOC in terms of their provisioning function. Using the three dimensions of the adaptive cycle—capital, connectedness, and resilience—we infer the resilience of the five fisheries based on a qualitative assessment of capital accumulation and connectedness at the regional scale. In our assessment, we evaluate natural capital and connectedness and constructed capital and connectedness. The Russian Far East fishery is the most resilient, followed by Alaska, British Columbia, Japan, and WOC. Adaptive capacity in the fisheries is contingent upon high levels of natural capital and connectedness and moderate levels of constructed capital and connectedness. Cross-scale interactions and global market demand are significant factors in reduced resilience. Greater attention to ecological functioning and cultural signification has the potential to increase resilience in Pacific salmon ecosystems.

  14. Proteomic analysis of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ovarian fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Johnson

    Full Text Available The ovarian, or coelomic, fluid that is released with the egg mass of many fishes is increasingly found to play an important role in several biological processes crucial for reproductive success. These include maintenance of oocyte fertility and developmental competence, prolonging of sperm motility, and enhancing sperm swimming speed. Here we examined if and how the proteome of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ovarian fluid varied among females and then sought to examine the composition of this fluid. Ovarian fluid in chinook salmon was analyzed using 1D SDS PAGE and LC-MS/MS tryptic digest screened against Mascot and Sequest databases. We found marked differences in the number and concentrations of proteins in salmon ovarian fluid across different females. A total of 174 proteins were identified in ovarian fluid, 47 of which were represented by six or more peptides, belonging to one of six Gene Ontology pathways. The response to chemical stimulus and response to hypoxia pathways were best represented, accounting for 26 of the 174 proteins. The current data set provides a resource that furthers our understanding of those factors that influence successful egg production and fertilisation in salmonids and other species.

  15. Gene expression profiling of soft and firm Atlantic salmon fillet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Larsson

    Full Text Available Texture of salmon fillets is an important quality trait for consumer acceptance as well as for the suitability for processing. In the present work we measured fillet firmness in a population of farmed Atlantic salmon with known pedigree and investigated the relationship between this trait and gene expression. Transcriptomic analyses performed with a 21 K oligonucleotide microarray revealed strong correlations between firmness and a large number of genes. Highly similar expression profiles were observed in several functional groups. Positive regression was found between firmness and genes encoding proteasome components (41 genes and mitochondrial proteins (129 genes, proteins involved in stress responses (12 genes, and lipid metabolism (30 genes. Coefficients of determination (R(2 were in the range of 0.64-0.74. A weaker though highly significant negative regression was seen in sugar metabolism (26 genes, R(2 = 0.66 and myofiber proteins (42 genes, R(2 = 0.54. Among individual genes that showed a strong association with firmness, there were extracellular matrix proteins (negative correlation, immune genes, and intracellular proteases (positive correlation. Several genes can be regarded as candidate markers of flesh quality (coiled-coil transcriptional coactivator b, AMP deaminase 3, and oligopeptide transporter 15 though their functional roles are unclear. To conclude, fillet firmness of Atlantic salmon depends largely on metabolic properties of the skeletal muscle; where aerobic metabolism using lipids as fuel, and the rapid removal of damaged proteins, appear to play a major role.

  16. Project Dribble (Salmon event). Project manager's report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1966-07-01

    The Salmon experiment detonated Oct. 22, 1964, was the first of three originally proposed underground nuclear detonations to be conducted as part of Project Dribble. The principal purpose of the Salmon experiment was to determine the seismic propagation factor out of Tatum Dome and study seismic wave propagation in the mantle of the earth from a nuclear explosion in the Southeastern United States. These measurements were then combined with a calculation of the seismic source strength from a 5-kt decoupled detonation at that site to give the amplitudes of distant seismic signals from such a decoupled detonation for comparison with detonations in other media. Other objectives of the Salmon detonation were concerned with measuring seismic waves, comparing them with signals generated from similar detonations in other media, and determining the accuracy with which the location could be determined by seismic measurements. Scientists were also interested in determining the condition of the cavity, which was created by the detonation, and assessing the feasibility of reusing the cavity for futher experiments. The administration, operational planning engineering, construction, public safety, and logistics performed by NV00 in support of the technical and scientific experiments carried out are presented. (TFD)

  17. Adaptive divergence in embryonic thermal plasticity among Atlantic salmon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côte, J; Roussel, J-M; Le Cam, S; Guillaume, F; Evanno, G

    2016-08-01

    In the context of global changes, the long-term viability of populations of endangered ectotherms may depend on their adaptive potential and ability to cope with temperature variations. We measured responses of Atlantic salmon embryos from four populations to temperature variations and used a QST -FST approach to study the adaptive divergence among these populations. Embryos were reared under two experimental conditions: a low temperature regime at 4 °C until eyed-stage and 10 °C until the end of embryonic development and a high temperature regime with a constant temperature of 10 °C throughout embryonic development. Significant variations among populations and population × temperature interactions were observed for embryo survival, incubation time and length. QST was higher than FST in all but one comparison suggesting an important effect of divergent selection. QST was also higher under the high-temperature treatment than at low temperature for length and survival due to a higher variance among populations under the stressful warmer treatment. Interestingly, heritability was lower for survival under high temperature in relation to a lower additive genetic variance under that treatment. Overall, these results reveal an adaptive divergence in thermal plasticity in embryonic life stages of Atlantic salmon suggesting that salmon populations may differentially respond to temperature variations induced by climate change. These results also suggest that changes in temperature may alter not only the adaptive potential of natural populations but also the selection regimes among them. PMID:27177256

  18. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: → Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. → Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. → Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. → Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. → Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  19. Migratory characteristics of spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents our research to examine in detail the migration of juvenile and adult spring chinook salmon in the Willamette River. We seek to determine characteristics of seaward migration of spring chinook smolts in relation to oxygen supplementation practices at Willamette Hatchery, and to identify potential sources of adult spring chinook mortality in the Willamette River above Willamette Falls and use this information towards analysis of the study on efficiency of oxygen supplementation. The majority of juvenile spring chinook salmon released from Willamette hatchery in 1991 begin downstream movement immediately upon liberation. They travel at a rate of 1.25 to 3.5 miles per hour during the first 48 hours post-release. Considerably slower than the water velocities available to them. Juveniles feed actively during migration, primarily on aquatic insects. Na+/K+ gill ATPase and cortisol are significantly reduced in juveniles reared in the third pass of the Michigan series with triple density and oxygen supplementation, suggesting that these fish were not as well developed as those reared under other treatments. Returning adult spring chinook salmon migrate upstream at an average rate of about 10 to 20 miles per day, but there is considerable between fish variation. Returning adults exhibit a high incidence of wandering in and out of the Willamette River system above and below Willamette Falls

  20. Analysis of Salmon and Steelhead Supplementation, 1990 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William H.; Coley, Travis C.; Burge, Howard L.

    1990-09-01

    Supplementation or planting salmon and steelhead into various locations in the Columbia River drainage has occurred for over 100 years. All life stages, from eggs to adults, have been used by fishery managers in attempts to establish, rebuild, or maintain anadromous runs. This report summarizes and evaluates results of past and current supplementation of salmon and steelhead. Conclusions and recommendations are made concerning supplementation. Hatchery rearing conditions and stocking methods can affect post released survival of hatchery fish. Stress was considered by many biologists to be a key factor in survival of stocked anadromous fish. Smolts were the most common life stage released and size of smolts correlated positively with survival. Success of hatchery stockings of eggs and presmolts was found to be better if they are put into productive, underseeded habitats. Stocking time, method, species stocked, and environmental conditions of the receiving waters, including other fish species present, are factors to consider in supplementation programs. The unpublished supplementation literature was reviewed primarily by the authors of this report. Direct contact was made in person or by telephone and data compiled on a computer database. Areas covered included Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Alaska, California, British Columbia, and the New England states working with Atlantic salmon. Over 300 projects were reviewed and entered into a computer database. The database information is contained in Appendix A of this report. 6 refs., 9 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-06-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU); The Tribe's long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through their Integrated Fish and Wildlife Program. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2004 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit Lake; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Fishhook Creek; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye salmon and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation

  2. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Taal; Darimont, Chris T; Macduffee, Misty; Mangel, Marc; Paquet, Paul; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem) equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a generalizable method

  3. Using grizzly bears to assess harvest-ecosystem tradeoffs in salmon fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taal Levi

    Full Text Available Implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM requires a clear conceptual and quantitative framework for assessing how different harvest options can modify benefits to ecosystem and human beneficiaries. We address this social-ecological need for Pacific salmon fisheries, which are economically valuable but intercept much of the annual pulse of nutrient subsidies that salmon provide to terrestrial and aquatic food webs. We used grizzly bears, vectors of salmon nutrients and animals with densities strongly coupled to salmon abundance, as surrogates for "salmon ecosystem" function. Combining salmon biomass and stock-recruitment data with stable isotope analysis, we assess potential tradeoffs between fishery yields and bear population densities for six sockeye salmon stocks in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and British Columbia (BC, Canada. For the coastal stocks, we find that both bear densities and fishery yields would increase substantially if ecosystem allocations of salmon increase from currently applied lower to upper goals and beyond. This aligning of benefits comes at a potential cost, however, with the possibility of forgoing harvests in low productivity years. In contrast, we detect acute tradeoffs between bear densities and fishery yields in interior stocks within the Fraser River, BC, where biomass from other salmon species is low. There, increasing salmon allocations to ecosystems would benefit threatened bear populations at the cost of reduced long-term yields. To resolve this conflict, we propose an EBFM goal that values fisheries and bears (and by extension, the ecosystem equally. At such targets, ecosystem benefits are unexpectedly large compared with losses in fishery yields. To explore other management options, we generate tradeoff curves that provide stock-specific accounting of the expected loss to fishers and gain to bears as more salmon escape the fishery. Our approach, modified to suit multiple scenarios, provides a

  4. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 226 - Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River Spring/Summer and Fall Chinook Salmon 3 Table 3 to... Part 226—Hydrologic Units Containing Critical Habitat for Snake River Sockeye Salmon and Snake River... Snake—Asotin 17060103 17060103 17060103 Upper Grande Ronde 17060104 Wallowa 17060105 Lower Grande...

  5. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... sectors, AFA cooperatives, or IPAs. Except for the sector-level entity allocation and transfer data... Chinook salmon and pollock data on initial allocation, sub-allocations, NMFS-approved Chinook salmon PSC... and qualitative data on Chinook salmon and pollock sub-allocations and transfers. If the...

  6. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Bryan

    Full Text Available Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75 with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42. As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  7. Stress and reproductive hormones in grizzly bears reflect nutritional benefits and social consequences of a salmon foraging niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Paquet, Paul C; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit E G

    2013-01-01

    Physiological indicators of social and nutritional stress can provide insight into the responses of species to changes in food availability. In coastal British Columbia, Canada, grizzly bears evolved with spawning salmon as an abundant but spatially and temporally constrained food source. Recent and dramatic declines in salmon might have negative consequences on bear health and ultimately fitness. To examine broadly the chronic endocrine effects of a salmon niche, we compared cortisol, progesterone, and testosterone levels in hair from salmon-eating bears from coastal BC (n = 75) with the levels in a reference population from interior BC lacking access to salmon (n = 42). As predicted, testosterone was higher in coastal bears of both sexes relative to interior bears, possibly reflecting higher social density on the coast mediated by salmon availability. We also investigated associations between the amount of salmon individual bears consumed (as measured by stable isotope analysis) and cortisol and testosterone in hair. Also as predicted, cortisol decreased with increasing dietary salmon and was higher after a year of low dietary salmon than after a year of high dietary salmon. These findings at two spatial scales suggest that coastal bears might experience nutritional or social stress in response to on-going salmon declines, providing novel insights into the effects of resource availability on fitness-related physiology.

  8. Survival of Juvenile Chinook Salmon during Barge Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Skalski, J. R.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-12-01

    To mitigate for fish losses related to passage through the Federal Columbia River Power System, an extensive fish transportation program using barges and trucks to move fish around and downstream of dams and reservoirs was implemented in 1981. Population modeling and other analyses to support Pacific salmon recovery efforts have assumed that the survival of juvenile salmonids during the transportation experience was 98%. To estimate survival during barge transport from Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River to a release area downstream of Bonneville Dam, a distance of 470 km, we used a novel adaptation of a release-recapture model with acoustic-tagged yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) smolts. A total of 1,494 yearling Chinook salmon were surgically implanted with Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic transmitters and passive integrated transponders (PIT) and divided into three groups. The three tagged groups consisted of; (1) a group which was released into the raceway with the population of fish which were later loaded into transportation barges (R{sub B}), (2) a group which was held in a net-pen suspended within the general barge population until 5-6 h prior to barge evacuation, at which time they were confirmed to be alive and then released into the general barge population (R{sub A}), and (3) to validate a model assumption, a group which was euthanized and released into the barge population 2-8 h prior to barge evacuation (R{sub D}). Six replicates of these groups were loaded onto fish transport barges that departed Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River between 29 April and 13 May, 2010. Acoustic receiver arrays between 70 and 220 km downstream of the barge evacuation site were used to detect tagged fish and served as the basis for estimation of survival within the barge. Tag-life-corrected estimates of reach survival were calculated for barged and control fish in each of the six replicate trials. The ratio of survival from

  9. Effect of temperature and salt on thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in Salmon Roe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a potentially fatal foodborne pathogen that can be found in ready-to-eat seafood products, such as fresh salmon roe. Once contaminated, salmon roe must be decontaminated prior to human consumption. This study was conducted to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics of...

  10. Foraging and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon after tidal restoration of a large river delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aaron T.; Ellings, Christopher; Woo, Isa; Simenstad, Charles A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Turner, Kelley L.; Smith, Ashley L.; Takekawa, Jean E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated whether restoring tidal flow to previously diked estuarine wetlands also restores foraging and growth opportunities for juvenile Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. Several studies have assessed the value of restored tidal wetlands for juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp., but few have used integrative measures of salmon performance, such as habitat-specific growth potential, to evaluate restoration. Our study took place in the Nisqually River delta, Washington, where recent dike removals restored tidal flow to 364 ha of marsh—the largest tidal marsh restoration project in the northwestern contiguous United States. We sampled fish assemblages, water temperatures, and juvenile Chinook Salmon diet composition and consumption rates in two restored and two reference tidal channels during a 3-year period after restoration; these data were used as inputs to a bioenergetics model to compare Chinook Salmon foraging performance and growth potential between the restored and reference channels. We found that foraging performance and growth potential of juvenile Chinook Salmon were similar between restored and reference tidal channels. However, Chinook Salmon densities were significantly lower in the restored channels than in the reference channels, and growth potential was more variable in the restored channels due to their more variable and warmer (2°C) water temperatures. These results indicate that some—but not all—ecosystem attributes that are important for juvenile Pacific salmon can recover rapidly after large-scale tidal marsh restoration.

  11. Genetic structure of European populations of Salmo salar L (Atlantic salmon) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, Michael Møller; Loeschcke, V.

    1996-01-01

    The genetic relationships between the only natural population of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Denmark and seven other European salmon populations were studied using RFLP analysis of PCR amplified mitochondrial DNA segments. Six different haplotypes were detected by restriction enzyme...

  12. Natural selection constrains personality and brain gene expression differences in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove; Höglund, Erik; Winberg, Svante

    2015-01-01

    together, these results suggest that time of emergence, boldness and aggression are linked to each other, forming a behavioural syndrome in juvenile salmon. Differences in brain gene expression between early and late emerging salmon add further support to a relationship between stress coping style...

  13. Growth Parameter of Wild and Selected Strains of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) on Two Experimental Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic salmon parr from Penobscot (wild) and St. John’s River (selected) strains were cultured in 0.265m3 tanks filled with 2-3 ppt salinity well water and connected to a common bio-filter system. Salmon parr were stocked at 100 fish/tank and fed one of two experimental diets in a 2 x 2 factorial...

  14. 76 FR 35755 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: Threatened Status for the Oregon Coast Coho Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... lowland and estuary habitat that can be important coho salmon rearing habitat. The BRT concluded that fish... BRT's position on the importance of estuaries to juvenile OC coho salmon. The BRT revised its report's...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  15. 77 FR 19605 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... FMP are available for public review and comment. The salmon fisheries in the exclusive economic zone... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  16. 77 FR 75570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... vast majority of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off Alaska. The FMP establishes the Salmon... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 679 RIN 0648-BB77 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Salmon AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  17. 77 FR 58526 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting; Work Session To Review Proposed Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC233 Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public... public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pacific Fishery Management Council's Salmon Technical Team (STT), Scientific... discuss and review proposed changes to analytical methods used in salmon management. Potential topics...

  18. Dietary soyasaponin supplementation to pea protein concentrate reveals nutrigenomic interactions underlying enteropathy in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortner Trond M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of plant ingredients in aquaculture feeds is impeded by high contents of antinutritional factors such as saponins, which may cause various pharmacological and biological effects. In this study, transcriptome changes were analyzed using a 21 k oligonucleotide microarray and qPCR in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon fed diets based on five plant protein sources combined with soybean saponins. Results Diets with corn gluten, sunflower, rapeseed or horsebean produced minor effects while the combination of saponins with pea protein concentrate caused enteritis and major transcriptome changes. Acute inflammation was characterised by up-regulation of cytokines, NFkB and TNFalpha related genes and regulators of T-cell function, while the IFN-axis was suppressed. Induction of lectins, complement, metalloproteinases and the respiratory burst complex parallelled a down-regulation of genes for free radical scavengers and iron binding proteins. Marked down-regulation of xenobiotic metabolism was also observed, possibly increasing vulnerability of the intestinal tissue. A hallmark of metabolic changes was dramatic down-regulation of lipid, bile and steroid metabolism. Impairment of digestion was further suggested by expression changes of nutrient transporters and regulators of water balance (e.g. aquaporin, guanylin. On the other hand, microarray profiling revealed activation of multiple mucosal defence processes. Annexin-1, with important anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties, was markedly up-regulated. Furthermore, augmented synthesis of polyamines needed for cellular proliferation (up-regulation of arginase and ornithine decarboxylase and increased mucus production (down-regulation of glycan turnover and goblet cell hyperplasia could participate in mucosal healing and restoration of normal tissue function. Conclusion The current study promoted understanding of salmon intestinal pathology and establishment of a

  19. Effect of cadmium on glutathione S-transferase and metallothionein gene expression in coho salmon liver, gill and olfactory tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinoza, Herbert M.; Williams, Chase R. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States); Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@u.washington.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105-6099 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Developed qPCR assays to distinguish closely related GST isoforms in salmon. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Examined the effect of cadmium on GST and metallothionein genes in 3 tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modulation of GST varied among isoforms, tissues, and included a loss of expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallothionein outperformed, but generally complemented, GSTs as biomarkers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salmon olfactory genes were among the most responsive to cadmium. - Abstract: The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a multifunctional family of phase II enzymes that detoxify a variety of environmental chemicals, reactive intermediates, and secondary products of oxidative damage. GST mRNA expression and catalytic activity have been used as biomarkers of exposure to environmental chemicals. However, factors such as species differences in induction, partial analyses of multiple GST isoforms, and lack of understanding of fish GST gene regulation, have confounded the use of GSTs as markers of pollutant exposure. In the present study, we examined the effect of exposure to cadmium (Cd), a prototypical environmental contaminant and inducer of mammalian GST, on GST mRNA expression in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) liver, gill, and olfactory tissues. GST expression data were compared to those for metallothionein (MT), a prototypical biomarker of metal exposure. Data mining of genomic databases led to the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for salmon GST isoforms encompassing 9 subfamilies, including alpha, mu, pi, theta, omega, kappa, rho, zeta and microsomal GST. In vivo acute (8-48 h) exposures to low (3.7 ppb) and high (347 ppb) levels of Cd relevant to environmental scenarios elicited a variety of transient, albeit minor changes (<2.5-fold) in tissue GST profiles, including some reductions in GST mRNA expression. In general, olfactory GSTs were the earliest to respond to

  20. Institutions for Managing Resilient Salmon (Oncorhynchus Spp. Ecosystems: the Role of Incentives and Transaction Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S. Hanna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Institutions are the mechanisms that integrate the human and ecological spheres. This paper discusses the institutional challenge of integrating salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. ecosystems and human systems in ways that effectively promote resilience. Salmon recovery in the Columbia River Basin demonstrates the challenge. Despite the comprehensive scope of Basin salmon management, it has a number of problems that illustrate the difficulties of designing institutions for ecosystem and human system resilience. The critical elements of salmon ecosystem management are incentives and transaction costs, and these comprise a large piece of missing institutional infrastructure. Once the focus is placed on incentives and costs, a number of different management strategies emerge as options for salmon ecosystems, including refugia, property rights to ecosystem goods and services, co-management, and markets in ecosystem services.

  1. [Microbiologic study of low quality raw material obtained from Pacific salmon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'gin, Iu P; Galkina, L M; Shul'gina, L V; Pliusnin, V V

    1989-01-01

    The authors examined the microflora in the regions occupied with food fish and food manufacture from Pacific salmon in order to establish its interrelations with other characteristics of the quality. With this purpose in view sea and river water in the places of catching, freshly catched salmon and salted food were studied for the presence of putrefactive bacteria, potentially pathogenic for hydrobionts and man. The data obtained have demonstrated that the main causes of the deterioration of the quality of raw material and food manufactured from Pacific salmon are of bacterial nature. Salmon with micropunctate or large skin ulcerations induced by the causative agent Aeromonas hydrophila was discovered to contain substances with pronounced toxic properties. It is concluded that salmon affected with this microorganism cannot be used for nutrition of the population without thermal treatment. PMID:2660405

  2. Gene expression in five salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Krøyer 1837) tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Dalvin, Sussie; Furmanek, Tomasz; Malde, Ketil; Mæhle, Stig; Kvamme, Bjørn Olav; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L, is an important species both for traditional fishery and fish farming. Many Atlantic salmon stocks have been declining and a suspected main contributor to this decline is the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis); a parasitic copepod living off the salmonid hosts epidermal tissues and blood. Contributing to the growing body of knowledge on the molecular biology of the salmon louse we have utilized a microarray containing 11,100 salmon louse genes to study the gene expression patterns in selected tissues. This approach has yielded information about potential functions of the transcripts and tissues. Microarray analyses were preformed on subcuticular and frontal (neuronal and gland enriched tissue) tissues, as well as gut, ovary and testes of adult lice. Tissue specific transcriptomes were evident, allowing us to address main traits of functional partitioning between tissues and providing valuable insight into the biology of the louse. The results furthermore represent an important tool and resource for further experiments. PMID:24999079

  3. Fate of chlorinated fatty acids in migrating sockeye salmon and their transfer to arctic grayling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Ewald, G.; Nilsson, E.;

    2004-01-01

    organohalogen compounds in the salmon were halogenated fatty acids, predominantly chlorinated species that accounted for up to 35% of the extractable, organically bound chlorine (EOCl) in the fish tissues. The amount of chlorinated fatty acids in the salmon muscle decreased as a result of spawning migration....... The decrease was correlated with that of triacylglycerols in the salmon muscle, indicating the chlorinated fatty acids to be mobilized and metabolized to approximately the same extent as the other fatty acids. Chlorinated fatty acids were also transferred to the maturing roe in a manner similar...... to that of the unchlorinated fatty acids. Lipids of the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus), a fish resident to the spawning lake of the salmon, contained higher concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids than grayling in a lake without migratory salmon. This may reflect a food-chain transfer of the chlorinated fatty acids...

  4. Free polyunsaturated fatty acids cause taste deterioration of salmon during frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.M.B.; Jensen, Benny

    2000-01-01

    Increased intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste are the most pronounced sensory changes during frozen storage of salmon (Refsgaard, H. H. F.; Brockhoff, P. B.; Jensen, B. Sensory and Chemical Changes in Farmed Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) during Frozen Storage. J. Agric. Food...... the intensity of train oil taste, bitterness, and metal taste. The added level of each fatty acid (similar to 1 mg/g salmon meat) was equivalent to the concentration of the fatty acids determined in salmon stored as fillet at -10 degrees C for 6 months. The effect of addition of the fatty acids on the intensity...... of train oil taste, bitterness and metal taste was in the order: DHA > palmitoleic acid > linoleic acid > EPA. Formation of free fatty acids was inhibited by cooking the salmon meat before storage. Furthermore, no changes in phospholipid level were observed during frozen storage. The results suggest...

  5. Water quality issues as potential limiting factors affecting juvenile Atlantic salmon life stages in Maine rivers: A report to the Maine Atlantic Salmon Technical Advisory Committee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Signatories to the Maine Atlantic Salmon Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), in a letter to the TAC chair, requested guidance to resolve the issue whether water...

  6. National Status and Trends: Contaminant body burdens and histopathology of fish and shellfish from Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In response to the growing concerns among Chugach communities, contaminant body burden and histopathological condition of chum and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus keta...

  7. AFSC/ABL: Salmonid migrations at Auke Creek, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Auke Lake system has endemic populations of pink, chum, sockeye and coho salmon, and supports populations of Dolly Varden char and cutthroat and steelhead...

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2008 Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Andre E. [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; Griswold, Robert G. [Biolines Environmental Consulting; Taki, Doug [Shoshone-Bannock Tribes

    2009-07-31

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: the immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency Recovery effort. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2008 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee salmon spawning in Alturas Lake Creek; (4) monitor, enumerate, and evaluate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee salmon escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  9. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1985-1986 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-04-01

    This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, and 1984-brood replicates of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-brood replicates of fall chinook (tule stock salmon; and the 1985-brood of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. The 1985-brood year replicate of coho salmon is presently being reared and has been tagged for release in April 1987. The rearing of the 1986-brood replicate of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon has been initiated. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1984-brood coho and the 1985-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) level, gill Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase, osmoregulatory performance, immunocompetency and total hepatic/gill microsomal lipid content were monitored from early June to mid-October 1986 to assess the physiological condition of fall chinook salmon. Results indicated that on several sampling dates early in the 1986 rearing period fish supplied the control ration were physiologically different than fish receiving the salmon meal ration. Incomplete recovery of coded wire tags from 1982 and 1983-broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock) revealed an improved (P greater than or equal to .05) survival for fish supplied test rations.

  10. Neurosecretory neurons of the nucleus preopticus (NPO) express salmon GnRH mRNA and show reproduction phase-related variation in the female Indian major carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharkar, Amul J; Mazumdar, Minakshi; Singru, Praful S; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2008-10-01

    We studied the expression of sGnRH mRNA in the neurons of the nucleus preopticus (NPO) of the Indian major carp, Cirrhinus cirrhosus, and their correlation with the reproductive status of the fish. Non-radioisotopic in situ hybridization histochemistry protocol employing biotinylated-oligonucleotide probes complementary to salmon GnRH, cichlid GnRH I, catfish GnRH, chicken GnRH II (from cichlid and catfish), and mammalian GnRH, were applied to the sections through the POA of the female Indian major carp Cirrhinus cirrhosus. Incubation with the probe complimentary to salmon GnRH (sGnRH) mRNA from salmon, produced distinct hybridization signal in the cytosol of several neurosecretory neurons of the magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of the NPO of the fish collected during February-April (preparatory phase) and May-June (prespawning phase). However, no signal was detected in the NPO of fish collected during July-August (spawning phase). Application of other antisense probes, or sense probe for salmon GnRH mRNA, produced no signal. We suggest that NPO neurons in C. cirrhosus may express sGnRH mRNA, produce GnRH peptide, and play a role in regulation of pituitary-ovary axis. PMID:18664387

  11. Cloning of somatolactin alpha, beta forms and the somatolactin receptor in Atlantic salmon: Seasonal expression profile in pituitary and ovary of maturing female broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranger Geir

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatolactin (Sl is a fish specific adenohypophyseal peptide hormone related to growth hormone (Gh. Some species, including salmonids, possess two forms: Sl alpha and Sl beta. The somatolactin receptor (slr is closely related to the growth hormone receptor (ghr. Sl has been ascribed many physiological functions, including a role in sexual maturation. In order to clarify the role of Sl in the sexual maturation of female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, the full length cDNAs of slr, Sl alpha and Sl beta were cloned and their expression was studied throughout a seasonal reproductive cycle using real-time quantitative PCR (RTqPCR. Methods Atlantic salmon Sl alpha, Sl beta and slr cDNAs were cloned using a PCR approach. Gene expression of Sl alpha, SL beta and slr was studied using RTqPCR over a 17 month period encompassing pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis, ovulation and post ovulation in salmon females. Histological examination of ovarian samples allowed for the classification according to the degree of follicle maturation into oil drop, primary, secondary or tertiary yolk stage. Results The mature peptide sequences of Sl alpha, Sl beta and slr are highly similar to previously cloned salmonid forms and contained the typical motifs. Phylogenetic analysis of Atlantic salmon Sl alpha and Sl beta shows that these peptides group into the two Sl clades present in some fish species. The Atlantic salmon slr grouped with salmonid slr amongst so-called type I ghr. An increase in pituitary Sl alpha and Sl beta transcripts before and during spawning, with a decrease post-ovulation, and a constant expression level of ovarian slr were observed. There was also a transient increase in Sl alpha and Sl beta in May prior to transfer from seawater to fresh water and ensuing fasting. Conclusion The up-regulation of Sl alpha and Sl beta during vitellogenesis and spawning, with a subsequent decrease post-ovulation, supports a role for Sl during gonadal

  12. Genetic Variation in DNA of Coho Salmon from the Lower Columbia River : Final Report 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fobes, Stephen; Knudsen, Kathy; Allendorf, Fred

    1993-04-01

    The goal of this project was to develop techniques to provide the information needed to determine if Lower Columbia River coho salmon represent a 'species' under the Endangered Species Act. Our report features two new nuclear DNA approaches to the improved detection of genetic variation: (1) Studies of DNA-level genetic variation for two nuclear growth hormone genes; (2) Use of arbitrary DNA primers (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, or 'RAPD' primers) to detect variation at large numbers of nuclear genes. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify variable sections (introns) of two growth hormone genes (GH-I and G/f-Z) in several salmonid species. Coho salmon had three DNA length variants for G/-I intron C. Restriction analysis and sequencing provided valuable information about the mode of evolution of these DNA sequences. We tested segregation of the variants in captive broods of coho salmon, and demonstrated that they are alleles at a single Mendelian locus. Population studies using the GH-1 alleles showed highly significant frequency differences between Lower Columbia River and Oregon Coast coho salmon, and marginal differences among stocks within these regions. These new markers are adequately defined and tested to use in coho salmon population studies of any size. The nature of the variation at GH-1 (Variable Number Tandem Repeats, or 'VNTRs') suggests that more genetic variants will be found in coho salmon from other areas. GH-2 intron C also showed length variation in coho salmon, and this variation was found to be sex-linked. Because PCR methods require minute amounts of tissue, this discovery provides a technique to determine the gender of immature coho salmon without killing them. Chinook salmon had restriction patterns and sequence divergences similar to coho salmon. Thus, we expect that sex linkage of GH-2 alleles predates the evolutionary divergence of Pacific salmon species, and that gender testing with

  13. A modeled comparison of direct and food web-mediated impacts of common pesticides on Pacific salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate H Macneale

    Full Text Available In the western United States, pesticides used in agricultural and urban areas are often detected in streams and rivers that support threatened and endangered Pacific salmon. Although concentrations are rarely high enough to cause direct salmon mortality, they can reach levels sufficient to impair juvenile feeding behavior and limit macroinvertebrate prey abundance. This raises the possibility of direct adverse effects on juvenile salmon health in tandem with indirect effects on salmon growth as a consequence of reduced prey abundance. We modeled the growth of ocean-type Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha at the individual and population scales, investigating insecticides that differ in how long they impair salmon feeding behavior and in how toxic they are to salmon compared to macroinvertebrates. The relative importance of these direct vs. indirect effects depends both on how quickly salmon can recover and on the relative toxicity of an insecticide to salmon and their prey. Model simulations indicate that when exposed to a long-acting organophosphate insecticide that is highly toxic to salmon and invertebrates (e.g., chlorpyrifos, the long-lasting effect on salmon feeding behavior drives the reduction in salmon population growth with reductions in prey abundance having little additional impact. When exposed to short-acting carbamate insecticides at concentrations that salmon recover from quickly but are lethal to invertebrates (e.g., carbaryl, the impacts on salmon populations are due primarily to reductions in their prey. For pesticides like carbaryl, prey sensitivity and how quickly the prey community can recover are particularly important in determining the magnitude of impact on their predators. In considering both indirect and direct effects, we develop a better understanding of potential impacts of a chemical stressor on an endangered species and identify data gaps (e.g., prey recovery rates that contribute uncertainty to these

  14. Salmon calcitonin in prevention of osteoporosis in maintenance dialysis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-xiang; LI Han

    2008-01-01

    Background Renal osteodystrophy is one of the commonest complications of chronic renal failure. It may have a severe impact on the quality of life of patients on maintenance dialysis therapy. Besides post-menopausal women and elderly people, the dialysis patients are another high risk group. But at present, there is no research on how to prevent osteoporosis in maintenance dialysis patients. This study was conducted to observe the bone density of maintenance dialysis patients and to evaluate the clinical outcomes and safety of different administration dosage of salmon calcitonin to prevent osteoporosis in maintenance dialysis patients.Methods One hundred and forty-eight patients on maintenance dialysis were involved in the 12-month, randomized, controlled trial. Fifty patients (experiment Ⅰ group) received subcutaneous injection of salmon calcitonin (50 U) three times a week for 12 months. Fifty patients (experiment Ⅱ group) received subcutaneous injection of salmon calcitonin (100 U) three times a week for 12 months. At the same time, both of them received oral calcium carbonate 1500 mg tid and rocaltrol 0.25 μg qn for 12 months. The control group only received oral calcium carbonate 1500 mg tid and rocaltrol 0.25 μg qn for 12 months. The levels of bone mass density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck, serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), osteocatcin (OC), calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were assessed at baseline and then again after 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment.Results The values of BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck before the treatment were not significantly different from those 3, 6, and 12 months after the treatment in trial groups I and II (all P >0.05) and there were no significant differences in the BMD values at different time points between trial groups I and I1. In the control group, the BMD values at the lumbar spine and femoral neck 3, 6, and 12 months after the beginning of trial were significantly lower than

  15. Parasite burdens in experimental families of coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, W.T.; McIntyre, J.D.; Hemmingsen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    We examined the possibility that parasites affect survival rates of anadromous hatchery coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch during their period in the wild. Survival was estimated from the rates at which adults returned to the hatchery. The frequency of infection of heart tissue by metacercariae of Nanophyetus sp. was higher in individuals from families with relatively high survival. Various degrees of parasitic and bacterial infection were observed in all groups. We frequently saw extensive infection and tissue reaction to trophozoites of Ceratomyxa sp. (probably C. shasta) in the apparent absence of spores, suggesting that the clinical method now used to determine the presence of Ceratomyxa infection needs to be reassessed.

  16. Grande Ronde Basin endemic spring chinook salmon supplementation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) must mitigate the loss of fish, wildlife, and related spawning grounds and habitat attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The federal dams have been identified as a major source of mortality for the listed Snake River salmon stocks. BPA also has responsibilities under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 to operate in a way that does not jeopardize the continued existence of listed species and to use its agency resources to conserve listed species

  17. Landscape Ecotoxicology of Coho Salmon Spawner Mortality in Urban Streams

    OpenAIRE

    Blake E Feist; Buhle, Eric R.; Paul Arnold; Jay W Davis; Scholz, Nathaniel L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) returning from the ocean to spawn in urban basins of the Puget Sound region have been prematurely dying at high rates (up to 90% of the total runs) for more than a decade. The current weight of evidence indicates that coho deaths are caused by toxic chemical contaminants in land-based runoff to urban streams during the fall spawning season. Non-point source pollution in urban landscapes typically originate...

  18. Precursor cells from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar visceral fat holds the plasticity to differentiate into the osteogenic lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Ytteborg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the potential plasticity of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar precursor cells (aSPCs from the adipogenic mesenchyme cell lineage to differentiate to the osteogenic lineage, aSPCs were isolated and cultivated under either osteogenic or adipogenic promoting conditions. The results strengthen the hypothesis that aSPCs most likely are predestined to the adipogenic lineage, but they also hold the flexibility to turn into other lineages given the right stimuli. This assumption is supported by the fact that the transcription factor pparγ , important for regulation of adiopogenesis, was silent in aSPCs grown in osteogenic media, while runx2, important for osteogenic differentiation, was not expressed in aSPCs cultivated in adipogenic media. After 2 weeks in osteogenic promoting conditions the cells started to deposit extracellular matrix and after 4 weeks, the cells started mineralizing secreted matrix. Microarray analyses revealed large-scale transcriptome responses to osteogenic medium after 2 days, changes remained stable at day 15 and decreased by magnitude at day 30. Induction was observed in many genes involved in osteogenic differentiation, growth factors, regulators of development, transporters and production of extracellular matrix. Transcriptome profile in differentiating adipocytes was markedly different from differentiating osteoblasts with far fewer genes changing activity. The number of regulated genes slowly increased at the mature stage, when adipocytes increased in size and accumulated lipids. This is the first report on in vitro differentiation of aSPCs from Atlantic salmon to mineralizing osteogenic cells. This cell model system provides a new valuable tool for studying osteoblastogenesis in fish.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of continuous light inhibition of Atlantic salmon parr-smolt transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, S.O.; Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Wargelius, A.; Madsen, Steffen S.; Bjornsson, B. Th; McCormick, S.D.

    2007-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) rely on changes in photoperiod for the synchronization of the developmental events constituting the parr-smolt transformation. In the absence of photoperiod cues, parr-smolt transformation is incomplete, and such 'pseudo-smolts' normally fail to adapt to seawater. The present study addresses the endocrine and molecular mechanisms controlling the development of hypo-osmoregulatory ability and how artificial photoperiod can disrupt these changes. Juvenile Atlantic salmon reared under constant light (LL) from first feeding, were separated into two groups, and exposed to either LL or simulated natural photoperiod (LDN) from October, eight months prior to the expected completion of smoltification. Juveniles reared on LL grew well, but failed to show the smolt-related reduction in condition factor in spring. Gill mRNA levels of Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA) isoform ??1a decreased in LDN fish through completion of parr-smolt transformation, while levels remained unchanged in the LL group. In contrast, ??1b expression increased 6-fold in the LDN group between February and May, again with no change in the LL group. Further, Na+, K+, 2Cl- co-transporter (NKCC) showed a transient increase in expression in smolts on LDN between February and May, while no changes in mRNA levels were seen in juveniles under LL. Consequently, gill NKA activity and NKA ?? and NKCC protein abundance were significantly lower in juveniles on LL than in smolts on LDN. LL fish in spring had lower circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol. Gill GH-receptor mRNA levels, determined by quantitative PCR, were less than 50% of controls. In contrast, circulating levels of IGF-1 and gill IGF-1 receptor expression, were comparable to controls. Our findings show that continuous light prevents the completion of parr-smolt transformation at a very basic level, disrupting the natural up-regulation of key elements of the endocrine system involved in the

  20. Research on Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon, 1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, Penny; Pascho, Ronald; Hershberger, William K. (Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center, Coastal Zone and Estuarine Studies Division, Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes research on captive broodstock technologies conducted during 1995 under Bonneville Power Administration Project 93-56. Investigations were conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, University of Washington, and Northwest Biological Science Center (US Geological Survey). Studies encompassed several categories of research, including fish husbandry, reproductive physiology, immunology, pathology, nutrition, and genetics. Captive broodstock programs are being developed and implemented to aid recovery of endangered Pacific salmon stocks. Like salmon hatchery programs, however, captive broodstock programs are not without problems and risks to natural salmon populations. The research projects described in this report were developed in part based on a literature review, Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology for Pacific Salmon. The work was divided into three major research areas: (1) research on sockeye salmon; (2) research on spring chinook salmon; and (3) research on quantitative genetic problems associated with captive broodstock programs. Investigations of nutrition, reproductive physiology, fish husbandry, and fish health were integrated into the research on sockeye and spring chinook salmon. A description of each investigation and its major findings and conclusions is presented.

  1. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1996-03-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January to December 1994 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  2. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  3. Impact of Common Kingfisher on a salmon population during the nestling period in southern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilches A.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fish-eating birds on their fish-prey populations has been a matter of concern to conservationists, anglers and fishery interests, especially when both bird and fish species have conservation status and are afforded some protection by law. Understanding the predator-prey interactions will assist in managing these potential conflicts. This situation could arise with the Common Kingfisher (Alcedo atthis, whose range covers many important Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar rivers. In order to increase our knowledge on predator-prey interactions between these species, we collected data on the diet and feeding rates of a kingfisher population breeding in an Atlantic salmon river in southern England (River Frome. Results showed that, during nestling period, kingfishers provided a mean of 62 fish per day to the nest and that the mean salmon intake was 2.5% of the entire diet, which is equivalent to 86 salmon parr consumed by each kingfishers pair for the entire breeding period (assuming 2.2 broods/pair/year. The total 0-group salmon population in the River Frome was 63 900. The estimated loss of 0-group salmon parr to the kingfishers over one season was 0.8%, thus supporting the view that the kingfisher has a negligible biological impact over this salmon population.

  4. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1986-1987 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. Samuel

    1987-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, is subject to heat damage during drying and chemical interaction of fat oxidation products with proteins. Protein bioavailability is reduced and dietary stress may be introduced into hatchery feeds. This investigation tests the hypothesis that ration protein quality can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. Improved survival production would be better able to reestablish natural runs of salmon in the Columbia River system and maintain and improve the genetic integrity of specific stocks. The general approach being used involves a comparison of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and commercial rations relying on commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of replicate brood-years of coded wire tagged test and control fish are being used to determine the influence of ration on survival. Project rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985-broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984-broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986-broods of fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon. This report covers the rearing and release of the 1985-brood coho and the 1986-brood fall chinook (up-river-bright stock) salmon.

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research : Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaulding, Scott

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock.

  6. Effects of dietary plant meal and soya-saponin supplementation on intestinal and hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and lipoprotein and sterol metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Hansen, Anne Kristine; Krogdahl, Åshild

    2014-02-01

    Altered lipid metabolism has been shown in fish fed plant protein sources. The present study aimed to gain further insights into how intestinal and hepatic lipid absorption and metabolism are modulated by plant meal (PM) and soya-saponin (SA) inclusion in salmon feed. Post-smolt Atlantic salmon were fed for 10 weeks one of four diets based on fishmeal or PM, with or without 10 g/kg SA. PM inclusion resulted in decreased growth performance, excessive lipid droplet accumulation in the pyloric caeca and liver, and reduced plasma cholesterol levels. Intestinal and hepatic gene expression profiling revealed an up-regulation of the expression of genes involved in lipid absorption and lipoprotein (LP) synthesis (apo, fatty acid transporters, microsomal TAG transfer protein, acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase, choline kinase and choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A), cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) and associated transcription factors (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 and PPARγ). SA inclusion resulted in reduced body pools of cholesterol and bile salts. The hepatic gene expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis (cytochrome P450 7A1 (cyp7a1)) as well as the transcription factor liver X receptor and the bile acid transporter abcb11 (ATP-binding cassette B11) was down-regulated by SA inclusion. A significant interaction was observed between PM inclusion and SA inclusion for plasma cholesterol levels. In conclusion, gene expression profiling suggested that the capacity for LP assembly and cholesterol synthesis was up-regulated by PM exposure, probably as a compensatory mechanism for excessive lipid droplet accumulation and reduced plasma cholesterol levels. SA inclusion had hypocholesterolaemic effects on Atlantic salmon, accompanied by decreased bile salt metabolism.

  7. The impact of escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. on catch statistics in Scotland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Green

    Full Text Available In Scotland and elsewhere, there are concerns that escaped farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. may impact on wild salmon stocks. Potential detrimental effects could arise through disease spread, competition, or inter-breeding. We investigated whether there is evidence of a direct effect of recorded salmon escape events on wild stocks in Scotland using anglers' counts of caught salmon (classified as wild or farmed and sea trout (Salmo trutta L.. This tests specifically whether documented escape events can be associated with reduced or elevated escapes detected in the catch over a five-year time window, after accounting for overall variation between areas and years. Alternate model frameworks were somewhat inconsistent, however no robust association was found between documented escape events and higher proportion of farm-origin salmon in anglers' catch, nor with overall catch size. A weak positive correlation was found between local escapes and subsequent sea trout catch. This is in the opposite direction to what would be expected if salmon escapes negatively affected wild fish numbers. Our approach specifically investigated documented escape events, contrasting with earlier studies examining potentially wider effects of salmon farming on wild catch size. This approach is more conservative, but alleviates some potential sources of confounding, which are always of concern in observational studies. Successful analysis of anglers' reports of escaped farmed salmon requires high data quality, particularly since reports of farmed salmon are a relatively rare event in the Scottish data. Therefore, as part of our analysis, we reviewed studies of potential sensitivity and specificity of determination of farmed origin. Specificity estimates are generally high in the literature, making an analysis of the form we have performed feasible.

  8. Movement and habitat studies of chinook salmon and white sturgeon. [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Acipenser transmontanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    Swimming depths of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), in relation to hydroelectric dam created gas supersaturation levels in the Snake River, were evaluated using pressure-sensitive radiofrequency transmitters. Gas saturation levels in spring 1976 ranged from 120 to 130% and chinook salmon depth of travel averaged 6.4 m. In fall 1976 and spring 1977, when gas saturation levels were below 108%, average salmon depths of travel were 3.0 and 4.0 m, respectively. In all cases, average depth of travel was below the critical zone (110% effective saturation), but spring 1976 chinook salmon traveled significantly deeper than fall 1976 and spring 1977 salmon. Internal and external radio transmitter attachment techniques were compared and results indicated the methods are equally reliable given proper insertion and attachment procedures. Percent returning and travel times to upstream dams were compared between equal numbers of radiotagged and spaghetti-anchor tagged control salmon. There were no significant differences in percent return or travel times between control and externally tagged salmon, but procedural difficulties involving internally tagged salmon altered their behavior to preclude such comparisons. Presence and operation of hydroelectric dams delayed salmon passage through the river and appeared to alter upstream migratory behavior. Movements of radiotagged white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from 1975 through 1977 were highly seasonal, beginning in June and ending in October. River temperatures apparently influenced both seasonal and diurnal movement activities. Movements began in June after water temperatures passed 13/sup 0/C and ceased when temperatures reached 13/sup 0/C (again) in autumn each year. Information derived from sturgeon carrying temperature sensing transmitters, combined with position determinations, indicated apparent diurnal movement cycles for sturgeon.

  9. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring; Hydroacoustic Assessment of Chinook Salmon Escapement to the Secesh River, Idaho, 2002-2004 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; McKinstry, C.; Mueller, R.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate determination of adult salmon spawner abundance is key to the assessment of recovery actions for wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon (Onchorynchus tshawytscha), a species listed as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). As part of the Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Program, the Nez Perce Tribe operates an experimental project in the South Fork of the Salmon River subbasin. The project has involved noninvasive monitoring of Chinook salmon escapement on the Secesh River between 1997 and 2000 and on Lake Creek since 1998. The overall goal of this project is to accurately estimate adult Chinook salmon spawning escapement numbers to the Secesh River and Lake Creek. Using time-lapse underwater video technology in conjunction with their fish counting stations, Nez Perce researchers have successfully collected information on adult Chinook salmon spawner abundance, run timing, and fish-per-redd numbers on Lake Creek since 1998. However, the larger stream environment in the Secesh River prevented successful implementation of the underwater video technique to enumerate adult Chinook salmon abundance. High stream discharge and debris loads in the Secesh caused failure of the temporary fish counting station, preventing coverage of the early migrating portion of the spawning run. Accurate adult abundance information could not be obtained on the Secesh with the underwater video method. Consequently, the Nez Perce Tribe now is evaluating advanced technologies and methodologies for measuring adult Chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River. In 2003, the use of an acoustic camera for assessing spawner escapement was examined. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in a collaborative arrangement with the Nez Perce Tribe, provided the technical expertise to implement the acoustic camera component of the counting station on the Secesh River. This report documents the first year of a proposed three-year study to determine

  10. Differential expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPase alpha- and beta-subunits, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O. E.; Madsen, Steffen S.;

    2007-01-01

    This study examines changes in gill Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) alpha- and beta-subunit isoforms, Na(+),K(+),2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR I and II) in anadromous and landlocked strains of Atlantic salmon during parr-smolt transformation, and...... observed in landlocked salmon in May, increasing to peak levels in June. Gill CFTR I mRNA levels increased significantly from February to April in both strains, followed by a slight, though not significant increase in May and June. CFTR I mRNA levels were significantly lower in landlocked than anadromous...... salmon in April/June. Gill CFTR II mRNA levels did not change significantly in either strain. Our findings demonstrates that differential expression of gill NKA-alpha1a, -alpha1b and -alpha3 isoforms may be important for potential functional differences in NKA, both during preparatory development and...

  11. Circulating salmon 28- and 22-kDa insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are co-orthologs of IGFBP-1.

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Munetaka; Kishimoto, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Teppei; Nakano, Yusuke; Hara, Akihiko; Dickhoff, Walton W

    2011-01-01

    Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) play pivotal roles in stabilizing IGFs and regulating their availability to target tissues. In the teleost circulation, three major IGFBPs are typically detected by ligand blotting with molecular masses around 20-25, 28-32 and 40-45kDa. However, their identity is poorly established and often confused. We previously identified salmon 22- and 41-kDa forms as IGFBP-1 and -2b, respectively. In the present study, we cloned the cDNA o...

  12. Domestic cultivation of salmon in the Pacific Northwest and aquaculture of Malaysian prawns in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.A.; Sandifer, P.A.; Smith, T.I.J.

    1978-07-01

    Aquaculture of salmon and shrimp is discussed. Domsea Farms in the Pacific Northwest has facilities for spawning, hatching, and rearing of coho salmon for U.S. markets. Health management programs operate to keep salmon free from bacterial or viral diseases. Recent developments in technology for the intensive culture of a tropical prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) are considered. Commercial facilities in South Carolina consisting of hatchery, nursery, production, and brood stock phases are described. Designs for very intensive grow-out systems include small earthen pond units, modified Shigueno-type tanks, and aquacells. Major problem areas of commercial shrimp production are identified. (10 diagrams, 1 graph, 11 photos, numerous references)

  13. Susceptibility of progeny from crosses among three stocks of coho salmon to infection by Ceratomyxa shasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, A.R.; McIntyre, J.D.; Fryer, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Crossbred coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were produced from all possible crosses among three stocks. The relative susceptibility of the progeny to infection by the myxosporean parasite Ceratomyxa shasta was determined by exposure of juvenile fish to Willamette River water that contained the infective stage of the parasite. Susceptibility of coho salmon native to the Columbia River basin to the disease ceratomyxosis was relatively low whereas that of coho salmon from remote locations was relatively high. Susceptibility of crossbred progeny nearly always was intermediate between the susceptibilities of fish from the parental stocks.

  14. Lower Columbia River Salmon Business Plan for Terminal Fisheries : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon For All

    1996-07-01

    Salmon fishing in the Northwest requires a public-private partnership. The public through its decision-makers, agencies, and laws states it will do all that is necessary to protect and preserve the valuable salmon resource. Yet, the public side of the partnership is broken. The Columbia River salmon fishing industry, with over 140 years of documented history, is at a crossroads. This report explores a variety of issues, concerns, and ideas related to terminal fishery development. In some cases recommendations are made. In addition, options are explored with an understanding that those designated as decision-makers must make decisions following considerable discussion and reflection.

  15. Lower Columbia River salmon business plan for terminal fisheries. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon fishing in the Northwest requires a public-private partnership. The public through its decision-makers, agencies, and laws states it will do all that is necessary to protect and preserve the valuable salmon resource. Yet, the public side of the partnership is broken. The Columbia River salmon fishing industry, with over 140 years of documented history, is at a crossroads. This report explores a variety of issues, concerns, and ideas related to terminal fishery development. In some cases recommendations are made. In addition, options are explored with an understanding that those designated as decision-makers must make decisions following considerable discussion and reflection

  16. Nutritional properties of dried salmon silage for broiler feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Nick; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, energy and amino acid profile of dried salmon silage (DSS) for broilers. The DSS was obtained by acid digestion of salmon mortalities and subsequently co-dried with wheat bran in a 70:30 ratio (70 parts silage and 30 parts wheat bran). Samples of DSS were evaluated for chemical composition, gross energy, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn ), mineral content, total and digestible amino acids for broilers, and amino acid score. The chemical composition of DSS was (mean ± SD): moisture (12.3 ± 0.8%), crude protein (44.0 ± 1.1%), ether extract (5.0 ± 2.4%), crude fiber (3.3 ± 0.4%) and ash (9.4 ± 0.6%). The gross energy and TMEn for broilers were 4 069 kcal/kg and 2 613 kcal/kg, respectively. The DSS mineral composition showed a high content of calcium (1.01%) and phosphorus (1.08%). The DSS had high levels of digestible methionine (0.74%), lysine (2.27%), and threonine (1.16%), and did not present limiting amino acids for broilers. Nutritional composition of DSS showed high protein content with an amino acid profile considered to be suitable as a protein source for broiler feeding.

  17. Nutritional properties of dried salmon silage for broiler feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Nick; Valenzuela, Carolina

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, energy and amino acid profile of dried salmon silage (DSS) for broilers. The DSS was obtained by acid digestion of salmon mortalities and subsequently co-dried with wheat bran in a 70:30 ratio (70 parts silage and 30 parts wheat bran). Samples of DSS were evaluated for chemical composition, gross energy, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn ), mineral content, total and digestible amino acids for broilers, and amino acid score. The chemical composition of DSS was (mean ± SD): moisture (12.3 ± 0.8%), crude protein (44.0 ± 1.1%), ether extract (5.0 ± 2.4%), crude fiber (3.3 ± 0.4%) and ash (9.4 ± 0.6%). The gross energy and TMEn for broilers were 4 069 kcal/kg and 2 613 kcal/kg, respectively. The DSS mineral composition showed a high content of calcium (1.01%) and phosphorus (1.08%). The DSS had high levels of digestible methionine (0.74%), lysine (2.27%), and threonine (1.16%), and did not present limiting amino acids for broilers. Nutritional composition of DSS showed high protein content with an amino acid profile considered to be suitable as a protein source for broiler feeding. PMID:26259620

  18. Economics of endangered salmon in the Pacific northwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under mandate of the Endangered Species Act (ESA), Idaho, Oregon and Washington are developing recovery plans to preserve several threatened and endangered stocks of salmon. These fish, some migrating as much as 900 miles inland to spawn, have been decimated by man's modification of their habitat. Downstream migrating juveniles must navigate through or around eight slackwater pools and hydropower dams. Adult upstream migrants must negotiate fish ladders, and endure modified temperature regimes and severely reduced spawning area and habitat quality. While the ESA says little about economics, economic factors do play important roles in designating endangered species and the design of recovery plans. For species in severe trouble ESA pushes us to drastic strategies such as captive breeding, or cryogenic sperm and egg preservation without paying much attention to whether the cost is worth it. For species in less dire straights, one often faces a menu of possible recovery actions from which the least cost can be set. Economics is important irrespective of the role it plays in decisions to classify salmon as endangered, or decisions about recovery plans. Economic analysis can provide those affected with information about their future. For individuals, communities, and businesses faced with adjusting to ESA actions, more good information is better than less, and economic impact estimates can be a valuable part of this information

  19. Identification of Saprolegnia Spp. Pathogenic in Chinook Salmon : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisler, Howard C.

    1997-06-01

    This project has developed procedures to assess the role of the fungal parasite, Saprolegnia in the biology of salmon, particularly adult Chinook, in the Columbia River Basin. Both morphological and DNA ``fingerprinting`` surveys reveal that Saprolegnia parasitica (=S. diclina, Type I) is the most common pathogen of these fish. In the first phase of this study 92% of 620 isolates, from salmon lesions, conformed to this taxa of Saprolegnia. In the current phase, the authors have developed variants of DNA fingerprinting (RAPD and SWAPP analysis) that permit examination of the sub-structure of the parasite population. These results confirm the predominance of S. parasitica, and suggest that at least three different sub-groups of this fungus occur in the Pacific N.W., USA. The use of single and paired primers with PCR amplification permits identification of pathogenic types, and distinction from other species of the genus considered to be more saprophytic in character. A year`s survey of saprolegniaceous fungi from Lake Washington indicated that the fish-pathogen was not common in the water column. Where and how fish encounter this parasite can be approached with the molecular tags identified in this project.

  20. Factors influencing Saprolegnia spp. spore numbers in Norwegian salmon hatcheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoen, E; Evensen, Ø; Skaar, I

    2016-06-01

    A quantitative survey of Saprolegnia spp. in the water systems of Norwegian salmon hatcheries was performed. Water samples from 14 salmon hatcheries distributed along the Norwegian coastline were collected during final incubation in the hatcheries. Samples of inlet and effluent water were analyzed to estimate Saprolegnia propagule numbers. Saprolegnia spores were found in all samples at variable abundance. Number of spores retrieved varied from 50 to 3200 L(-1) in inlet water and from 30 to >5000 L(-1) in effluent water. A significant elevation of spore levels in effluent water compared to inlet water was detected. The estimated spore levels were related to recorded managerial and environmental parameters, and the number of spores in inlet water and temperature was the factor having most influence on the spore concentration in the incubation units (effluent water). Further, the relative impact of spore concentration on hatching rates was investigated by correlation analysis. From this was found that even high spore counts did not impact significantly on hatching success. PMID:26123005

  1. The Atlantic salmon genome provides insights into rediploidization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Sigbjørn; Koop, Ben F; Sandve, Simen R; Miller, Jason R; Kent, Matthew P; Nome, Torfinn; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Leong, Jong S; Minkley, David R; Zimin, Aleksey; Grammes, Fabian; Grove, Harald; Gjuvsland, Arne; Walenz, Brian; Hermansen, Russell A; von Schalburg, Kris; Rondeau, Eric B; Di Genova, Alex; Samy, Jeevan K A; Olav Vik, Jon; Vigeland, Magnus D; Caler, Lis; Grimholt, Unni; Jentoft, Sissel; Våge, Dag Inge; de Jong, Pieter; Moen, Thomas; Baranski, Matthew; Palti, Yniv; Smith, Douglas R; Yorke, James A; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Jiang, Xuanting; Fan, Dingding; Hu, Yan; Liberles, David A; Vidal, Rodrigo; Iturra, Patricia; Jones, Steven J M; Jonassen, Inge; Maass, Alejandro; Omholt, Stig W; Davidson, William S

    2016-04-18

    The whole-genome duplication 80 million years ago of the common ancestor of salmonids (salmonid-specific fourth vertebrate whole-genome duplication, Ss4R) provides unique opportunities to learn about the evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome in 70 extant lineages. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and show that large genomic reorganizations, coinciding with bursts of transposon-mediated repeat expansions, were crucial for the post-Ss4R rediploidization process. Comparisons of duplicate gene expression patterns across a wide range of tissues with orthologous genes from a pre-Ss4R outgroup unexpectedly demonstrate far more instances of neofunctionalization than subfunctionalization. Surprisingly, we find that genes that were retained as duplicates after the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication 320 million years ago were not more likely to be retained after the Ss4R, and that the duplicate retention was not influenced to a great extent by the nature of the predicted protein interactions of the gene products. Finally, we demonstrate that the Atlantic salmon assembly can serve as a reference sequence for the study of other salmonids for a range of purposes.

  2. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  3. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program Hatchery Element : Project Progress Report 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Dan J.; Heindel, Jeff A.; Green, Daniel G.; Kline, Paul A.

    2008-12-17

    Numbers of Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka have declined dramatically in recent years. In Idaho, only the lakes of the upper Salmon River (Sawtooth Valley) remain as potential sources of production (Figure 1). Historically, five Sawtooth Valley lakes (Redfish, Alturas, Pettit, Stanley, and Yellowbelly) supported sockeye salmon (Bjornn et al. 1968; Chapman et al. 1990). Currently, only Redfish Lake receives a remnant anadromous run. On April 2, 1990, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service (NOAA - formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) received a petition from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) to list Snake River sockeye salmon as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. On November 20, 1991, NOAA declared Snake River sockeye salmon endangered. In 1991, the SBT, along with the Idaho Department of Fish & Game (IDFG), initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project (Sawtooth Valley Project) with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The goal of this program is to conserve genetic resources and to rebuild Snake River sockeye salmon populations in Idaho. Coordination of this effort is carried out under the guidance of the Stanley Basin Sockeye Technical Oversight Committee (SBSTOC), a team of biologists representing the agencies involved in the recovery and management of Snake River sockeye salmon. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries Service ESA Permit Nos. 1120, 1124, and 1481 authorize IDFG to conduct scientific research on listed Snake River sockeye salmon. Initial steps to recover the species involved the establishment of captive broodstocks at the Eagle Fish Hatchery in Idaho and at NOAA facilities in Washington State (for a review, see Flagg 1993; Johnson 1993; Flagg and McAuley 1994; Kline 1994; Johnson and Pravecek 1995; Kline and Younk 1995; Flagg et al. 1996; Johnson and Pravecek 1996; Kline and Lamansky 1997; Pravecek and

  4. Congener Patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants Establish the Extent of Contaminant Biotransport by Pacific Salmon in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerig, Brandon S; Chaloner, Dominic T; Janetski, David J; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Moerke, Ashley H; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-01-19

    In the Great Lakes, introduced Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can transport persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), to new environments during their spawning migrations. To explore the nature and extent of POP biotransport by salmon, we compared 58 PCB and 6 PBDE congeners found in spawning salmon directly to those in resident stream fish. We hypothesized that stream fish exposed to salmon spawners would have congener patterns similar to those of salmon, the presumed contaminant source. Using permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), we found that POP congener patterns of Pacific salmon varied among regions in the Great Lakes basin (i.e., Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, or Lake Superior), tissue type (whole fish or eggs), and contaminant type (PCB or PBDE). For stream-resident fish, POP congener pattern was influenced by the presence of salmon, location (i.e., Great Lakes Basin), and species identity (i.e., brook trout [Salvelinus fontinalis] or mottled sculpin [Cottus bairdii]). Similarity in congener patterns indicated that salmon are a source of POPs to brook trout in stream reaches receiving salmon spawners from Lake Michigan and Lake Huron but not from Lake Superior. Congener patterns of mottled sculpin differed from those of brook trout and salmon, suggesting that brook trout and mottled sculpin either use salmon tissue to differing degrees, acquire POPs from different dietary sources, or bioaccumulate or metabolize POPs differently. Overall, our analyses identified the important role of salmon in contaminant biotransport but also demonstrated that the extent of salmon-mediated POP transfer and uptake in Great Lakes tributaries is location- and species-specific.

  5. Gene expression profiles in Atlantic salmon adipose-derived stromo-vascular fraction during differentiation into adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škugor Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive fat deposition is one of the largest problems faced by salmon aquaculture industries, leading to production losses due to high volume of adipose tissue offal. In addition, increased lipid accumulation may impose considerable stress on adipocytes leading to adipocyte activation and production and secretion of inflammatory mediators, as observed in mammals. Results Microarray and qPCR analyses were performed to follow transcriptome changes during adipogenesis in the primary culture of adipose stromo-vascular fraction (aSVF of Atlantic salmon. Cellular heterogeneity decreased by confluence as evidenced by the down-regulation of markers of osteo/chondrogenic, myogenic, immune and vasculature lineages. Transgelin (TAGLN, a marker of the multipotent pericyte, was prominently expressed around confluence while adipogenic PPARγ was up-regulated already in subconfluent cells. Proliferative activity and subsequent cell cycle arrest were reflected in the fluctuations of pro- and anti-mitotic regulators. Marked regulation of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism and pathways producing NADPH and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P was seen during the terminal differentiation, also characterised by diverse stress responses. Activation of the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems and changes in the iron metabolism suggested the need for protection against oxidative stress. Signs of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR occured in parallel with the increased lipid droplet (LD formation and production of secretory proteins (adipsin, visfatin. The UPR markers XBP1 and ATF6 were induced together with genes involved in ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal proteolysis. Concurrently, translation was suppressed as evidenced by the down-regulation of genes encoding elongation factors and components of the ribosomal machinery. Notably, expression changes of a panel of genes that belong to different

  6. Behavior, passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon from Detroit Reservoir to Portland, Oregon, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Beeman, John W.; Hansen, Amy C.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sholtis, Matthew D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted to estimate dam passage survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at Detroit Dam during a period of spill. To estimate dam passage survival, we used a paired-release recapture study design and released groups of tagged fish upstream (997 fish) and downstream (625 fish) of Detroit Dam. A total of 43 fish (6.8 percent) passed Detroit Dam from the upstream release group and passage occurred through regulating outlets (54.8 percent), spill bays (31.0 percent), and turbines (14.3 percent). We do not present dam passage survival estimates from 2014 because these estimates would have been highly uncertain due to the low number of fish that passed Detroit Dam during the study. Secondary objectives were addressed using data collected from tagged fish that were released at the downstream release site.

  7. Behavior, passage, and downstream migration of juvenile Chinook salmon from Detroit Reservoir to Portland, Oregon, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Beeman, John W.; Hansen, Amy C.; Hansel, Hal C.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Hatton, Tyson W.; Kofoot, Eric E.; Sholtis, Matthew D.; Sprando, Jamie M.

    2015-11-16

    An evaluation was conducted to estimate dam passage survival of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at Detroit Dam during a period of spill. To estimate dam passage survival, we used a paired-release recapture study design and released groups of tagged fish upstream (997 fish) and downstream (625 fish) of Detroit Dam. A total of 43 fish (6.8 percent) passed Detroit Dam from the upstream release group and passage occurred through regulating outlets (54.8 percent), spill bays (31.0 percent), and turbines (14.3 percent). We do not present dam passage survival estimates from 2014 because these estimates would have been highly uncertain due to the low number of fish that passed Detroit Dam during the study. Secondary objectives were addressed using data collected from tagged fish that were released at the downstream release site.

  8. Age-Specific Lipid and Fatty Acid Profiles of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles in the Varzuga River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Murzina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific lipid and fatty acid profiles of juvenile Atlantic salmon at different ages (0+, 1+, and 2+ years after hatching from nests located in the mainstream of a large Arctic River, the Varzuga River, and resettling to the favorable Sobachji shoal in autumn before overwinter are herein presented. The contemporary methods of the lipid analysis were used: thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The results show that the stability of the regulation of important functions in developing organisms is maintained through structural alterations in lipids. These alterations can be considered as a sequence of the modifications and changes in the ratios of certain lipid classes and fatty acids constituents. In general, changes in the lipids and fatty acids (FAs maintained the physiological limits and controls through the adaptive systems of the organism. The mechanisms of juvenile fish biochemical adaptation to the environmental conditions in the studied biotope include the modification of the energy metabolism and anabolism, and here belongs to the energy characteristics of metabolic processes.

  9. Salmon hatcheries for the 21st century: A model at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Salmon hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest continue to produce fish for harvest, largely to fulfill a mitigation function. Fisheries management struggles with the...

  10. Bear-salmon study, 1952, Brown's River, Uyak Bay, Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A relatively small number of unspawned salmon are taken by bear. Although the figures are not as exact as those of the Sulua Creek study, the number represents...

  11. Culture, canneries and contemporary dynamics of the Bristol Bay salmon fishery: Draft working paper

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The commercial salmon fishery, especially the harvesting sector, is today to major source of earnings and the economic foundation for residents of the Bristol Bay...

  12. Mirror Lake salmon growth rate - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex...

  13. Mirror Lake salmon prey and diets - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex...

  14. Stream life of spawning pink salmon and the method of escapement enumeration by aerial survey: Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aerial surveys are currently used as the method tor escapement enumeration of pink salmon throughout Alaska. Other escapement enumeration methods cannot be...

  15. Production Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Information on the number of smolts received into the program is...

  16. Broodyear Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Data is collected by broodyear on % survival to adult, % maturity as two...

  17. 2013 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  18. Fish Culture Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. Raw data on rearing density, loading density, water temperature, ration,...

  19. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  20. Growth Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. The fork length to the nearest mm and weight to the nearest gram of a...

  1. AFSC/ABL: Population structure of odd- and even-broodline Asian pink salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Electrophoretic analysis of Asian even brood-year pink salmon stocks has shown regional heterogeneity (Noll et al. in review). Hypothetical mixed fisheries were...

  2. 2012 Early Life History Experiment Data - Snake River sockeye salmon captive propagation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the early 1990s, Redfish Lake sockeye salmon from the Sawtooth Basin in Idaho were on the brink of extinction, and they were listed as endangered under the US...

  3. Salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers salmon racial sampling in the areas north of Bristol Bay during 1956. Study areas include Kuskokwim river, Yukon river, Unalakleet River, Nome,...

  4. Sensory and chemical changes in farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) during frozen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Brockhoff, P.B.; Jensen, Benny

    1998-01-01

    Farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were stored as fillets at -10 and -20 degrees C and whole at -30 degrees C. The most pronounced sensory changes were first recognized by the assessors, when the salmon samples were in the oral cavity, and were significant increases in train oil taste, metal...... during storage. The content of lipid hydroperoxides and free fatty acids also increased during storage, and the changes were fastest in salmon stored at -10 degrees C. A decrease in highly unsaturated fatty acids was observed in salmon stored at -10 and -20 degrees C. Peroxide values and the content of...... free fatty acids were shown by a partial least-squares analysis to be the best of the instrumental data in describing the sensory changes....

  5. Salmon habitat improvement reconnaissance, Prince William Sound, Cordova and Anchorage districts, September 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the salmon habitat improvement reconnaissance in the Prince William sound, Alaska. The purpose of the trip was to discover new habitat improvement...

  6. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (TSG-thermosalinigraph data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  7. Water Quality - Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon juveniles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an ongoing Bonneville Power Administration funded project to annually collect, PIT tag, and release wild Chinook salmon parr in up to 17 streams of the...

  8. PIT Tag data - Monitoring the migrations of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon juveniles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an ongoing Bonneville Power Administration funded project to annually collect, PIT tag, and release wild Chinook salmon parr in up to 17 streams of the...

  9. Growth, movement and survival - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  10. Experimental streams - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  11. Fish abundance, composition, distribution - Recolonization of the Cedar River, WA by Pacific salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this study is to quantify population, community, and ecosystem level changes as a result of salmon recolonization of the Cedar River, WA above...

  12. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon (Oceanography data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  13. Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme developed for farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Hyldig, Grethe; Martinsdóttir, E.;

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop 'Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme for raw, farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and to evaluate the scheme. in a shelf life study. QIM is based on the evaluation of key parameters in the deterioration of seafood's. Demerit points are assigned to selected...... parameters according to their importance and a Quality Index (QI) is established by cumulating the resulting scores. The maximum storage time in ice was determined with Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) of the salmon after cooking and found to be 20-21 days. This was used as a reference to enable...... prediction of the remaining storage time of raw salmon in ice with QIM. The calculated QI evolved linearly with storage time in ice (QI=0.82x (days in ice)+0.18, R-2=0.97). Individual salmon varied in QI within each storage day. However, the multivariate analysis (PLS1) demonstrated that storage time could...

  14. Evaluation of a Low-Cost Salmon Production Facility, 1984 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickerson, Andrew W.; Hill, James M.

    1984-12-01

    This fiscal year 1984 study sponsored by the Bonneville Power Administration evaluates the presently existing low-cost salmon production facility operated and maintained by the Clatsop Economic Development Committee's Fisheries Project.

  15. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    1994-11-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in cooperation with Idaho and BPA, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon. NMFS is currently maintaining four separate Redfish Lake sockeye Salmon captive broodstocks; all these broodstocks are being reared full-term to maturity in fresh (well) water. Experiments are also being conducted on nonendangered 1990 and 1991-brood Lake Wenatchee (WA) sockeye salmon to compare effects on survival and reproduction to maturity in fresh water and seawater; for both brood-years, fish reared in fresh water were larger than those reared in seawater. Data from captive rearing experiments suggest a ranking priority of circular tanks supplied with pathogen-free fresh water, circular tanks supplied with pumped/filtered/uv-sterilized seawater, and seawater net-pens for rearing sockeye salmon to maturity.

  16. Stream flow and temperature maps - Effect of Climate Change on Salmon Population Vulnerability

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and other Pacific salmon are threatened by unsustainable levels of harvest, genetic introgression from hatchery stocks and...

  17. AFSC/ABL: Pink salmon data collected at Sashin Creek Weir 1934-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A database describing a 67-year time series for Sashin Creek pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) data is presented. The database details the survival and other...

  18. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 91 Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2012 and forward for the Amendment 91 (A91) Chinook Salmon Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of...

  19. AFSC/ABL: Genetic stock identification of sockeye salmon captured near Unalaska Island - 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study is part of the Auke Bay Laboratoryb??s Ocean Carrying Capacity (OCC) which has extensively sampled salmon in the North Pacific since 1996 to obtain...

  20. AFSC/ABL: Stock composition, timing, and spawning distribution of Yukon River Chinook salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Radio telemetry was used to determine the distribution, locate spawning sites, and evaluate the tagging response of wild Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha...

  1. Water chemistry - Investigation of Methods to Improve Homing by Hatchery Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Investigate olfactory imprinting techniques that will improve homing by hatchery salmon to their hatchery of origin, and thereby reduce potential risks from these...

  2. Estuary fish data - Juvenile salmon in migratory corridors of lower Columbia River estuary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sampling juvenile salmon and associated fishes in open waters of the lower Columbia River estuary. Field work includes bi-weekly sampling during the spring...

  3. Salmon habitat use, tidal-fluvial estuary - Columbia River Estuary Tidal Habitats

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the tidal-fluvial estuary study is to determine the estuary's contribution to the spatial structure and life history diversity of Columbia River salmon...

  4. The Trail Inventory of Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery [Cycle 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Little White Salmon National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  5. AFSC/ABL: Eastern Bering Sea (BASIS) Coastal Research on Juvenile Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) runs in rivers that flow into the eastern Bering Sea have been inconsistent and at times very weak. Low returns of chinook (O....

  6. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers

  7. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry A. (National Marine Fisheries Service)

    2005-11-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. Accomplishments detailed in this report and those since the last project review period (FY 2003) are listed below by major objective. Objective 1: (i) Developed tools for monitoring the spawning success of captively reared Chinook salmon that can now be used for evaluating the reintroduction success of ESA-listed captive broodstocks in their natal habitats. (ii) Developed an automated temperature controlled rearing system to test the effects of seawater rearing temperature on reproductive success of Chinook salmon. Objective 2: (i) Determined that Columbia River sockeye salmon imprint at multiple developmental stages and the length of exposure to home water is important for successful imprinting. These results can be utilized for developing successful reintroduction strategies to minimize straying by ESA-listed sockeye salmon. (ii) Developed behavioral and physiological assays for imprinting in sockeye salmon. Objective 3: (i) Developed growth regime to reduce age-two male maturation in spring Chinook salmon, (ii) described reproductive cycle of returning hatchery Snake River spring Chinook salmon relative to captive broodstock, and (iii) found delays in egg development in captive broodstock prior to entry to fresh water. (iv) Determined that loss of Redfish Lake sockeye embryos prior to hatch is largely due to lack of egg fertilization rather than embryonic mortality. Objective 4 : (i) Demonstrated safety and efficacy limits against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) in fall Chinook of attenuated R. salmoninarum vaccine and commercial vaccine Renogen, (ii) improved prophylactic and therapeutic

  8. Freshwater Ecosystems and Resilience of Pacific Salmon: Habitat Management Based on Natural Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon H Reeves; Dunham, Jason B.; Bisson, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed process...

  9. Design considerations for community-based stream monitoring to detect changes in Pacific salmon habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Cory R. Lagasse; Wanli Ou; Leah D. Honka; Atlas, William I.; Claire N. Hutton; Jana Kotaska; Hocking, Morgan D.

    2014-01-01

    Communities in the Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia, Canada are highly dependent on Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and the watersheds that support them, yet current monitoring efforts are likely inadequate for detecting changes in stream habitats that may affect salmon populations. The Coastal First Nations Regional Monitoring System is attempting to address these information gaps through a new stream assessment program that collects baseline information and tracks changes in str...

  10. Warming Ocean Conditions Relate to Increased Trophic Requirements of Threatened and Endangered Salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Daly

    Full Text Available The trophic habits, size and condition of yearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha caught early in their marine residence were examined during 19 survey years (1981-1985; 1998-2011. Juvenile salmon consumed distinct highly piscivorous diets in cold and warm ocean regimes with major differences between ocean regimes driven by changes in consumption of juvenile rockfishes, followed by several other fish prey, adult euphausiids and decapod larvae. Notable, Chinook salmon consumed 30% more food in the warm versus cold ocean regime in both May and June. Additionally, there were about 30% fewer empty stomachs in the warm ocean regime in May, and 10% fewer in warm June periods. The total prey energy density consumed during the warmer ocean regime was also significantly higher than in cold. Chinook salmon had lower condition factor and were smaller in fork length during the warm ocean regime, and were longer and heavier for their size during the cold ocean regime. The significant increase in foraging during the warm ocean regime occurred concurrently with lower available prey biomass. Adult return rates of juvenile Chinook salmon that entered the ocean during a warm ocean regime were lower. Notably, our long term data set contradicts the long held assertion that juvenile salmon eat less in a warm ocean regime when low growth and survival is observed, and when available prey are reduced. Comparing diet changes between decades under variable ocean conditions may assist us in understanding the effects of projected warming ocean regimes on juvenile Chinook salmon and their survival in the ocean environment. Bioenergetically, the salmon appear to require more food resources during warm ocean regimes.

  11. Mechanisms and consequences of hybridisation between Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Sian

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little research has been done to investigate the way postcopulatory, prezygotic mechanisms act to isolate species at the level of the gamete. This thesis uses the naturallyhybridising, externally-fertilising system of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, and brown trout, S. trutta, to investigate mechanisms of hybridisation through sperm-egg interactions, much of which is poorly understood. Salmon and trout experience conspecific sperm precedence during in vitro sperm co...

  12. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E. (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID); Griswold, Robert G. (Biolines, Stanley, ID)

    2004-01-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition, the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 1991-071-00). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPCCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2003 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek; (3) monitor sockeye salmon smolt migration from the captive rearing program release of juveniles into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (6

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research : 2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki, Doug; Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Gilliland, Kim

    2006-07-14

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. Snake River sockeye salmon were officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Project was implemented. This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of Snake River sockeye salmon. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery. Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2005 calendar year. Project tasks include: (1) monitor limnological parameters of the Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity; (2) conduct lake fertilization in Pettit and Alturas lakes; (3) reduce the number of mature kokanee spawning in Fishhook and Alturas Lake creeks; (4) monitor and enumerate sockeye salmon smolt migration from Pettit and Alturas lakes; (5) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment in Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (6) conduct sockeye and kokanee salmon population surveys; (7) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile sockeye salmon and a variety of fish species in

  14. Nutritional and environmental impacts on skin and mucus condition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Linda Beate

    2015-01-01

    The skin and associated mucus layer of Atlantic salmon constitutes its first line of defence against the aqueous environment. Through intensive farming, a range of stressors including both mechanical and environmental factors are known to have an impact on the skin condition of fish. Damaged skin can serve as a portal of entry for primary pathogens and secondary infections. Two of the current main problems in the salmon farming industry are skin related: ectoparasitism with sea...

  15. Surveillance of the Sensitivity towards Antiparasitic Bath-Treatments in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis)

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Peder A; Randi N Grøntvedt; Attila Tarpai; Helgesen, Kari O.; Tor Einar Horsberg

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of drug resistant parasitic sea lice is of major concern to the salmon farming industry worldwide and challenges sustainable growth of this enterprise. To assess current status and development of L. salmonis sensitivity towards different pesticides used for parasite control in Norwegian salmon farming, a national surveillance programme was implemented in 2013. The programme aims to summarize data on the use of different pesticides applied to control L. salmonis and to test L. sa...

  16. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Darimont Chris T; Paquet Paul C; Reimchen Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus) predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resou...

  17. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  18. Differential Exploitation of Atlantic Salmon Populations by a Rod Fishery on the River Spey, Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Thorley, Joseph L.; Youngson, Alan F.; Laughton, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Due to heritable population differences in run-timing, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) enter Scottish rivers throughout the year. Maintenance of this diversity is vital for the continued commercial and recreational value of the associated rod fisheries, which extend on most rivers from February to September. However, as the data we present demonstrate, management of the rod fishery on the River Spey, Scotland, is complicated by differential exploitation of the Atlantic salmon from the various r...

  19. Dietary histidine supplementation prevents cataract development in adult Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Waagbø, Rune; Tröße, Christiane; Koppe, Wolfgang; Fontanillas, Ramon; Breck, Olav

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the cataract preventive effect of dietary histidine regimes in adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in seawater, both through manipulating the dietary histidine level and feeding period. Mean body weight of individually tagged Atlantic salmon at the start of the experiment was 1662 (SD 333) g. Low prevalence of mild cataracts were recorded in the beginning of June. Three fishmeal and fish oil-based extruded diets (crude protein: 375 g...

  20. Impact of the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) on salmon fisheries in Monterey Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Weise, Michael J; Harvey, James T.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the impact of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) on salmon fisheries in the Monterey Bay region of California, the percentages of hooked fish taken by sea lions in commercial and recreational salmon fisheries were estimated from 1997 to 1999. Onboard surveys of sea lion interactions with the commercial and recreational f isheries and dockside interviews with fishermen after their return to port were conducted in the ports of Santa Cruz, Moss Landing, and Monterey. Appr...

  1. Diel and seasonal variation in food habits of Atlantic salmon parr in a small stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grader, M.; Letcher, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    The diel and seasonal food habits of young-of-year (YOY) and post-young-of-year (PYOY) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr were assayed over the course of 11 months in the West Brook, Massachusetts USA. Gut fullness of YOY salmon did not vary significantly among months. PYOY salmon exhibited significant seasonal differences in gut fullness, with peak fullness occurring in the spring and late fall. Significant diel differences in PYOY gut fullness occurred in June and April, with peak fullness always occurring at dawn. Prey composition varied substantially among months. Dominant prey items of PYOY salmon were baetid mayflies in June, July, and August, limnephilid caddisflies in October and November, and ephemerellid mayflies in February and April. Few differences in prey composition between PYOY and YOY salmon were observed. Fish growth was unrelated to prey availability, but gut fullness explained up to 97% of growth variation across seasons. Results suggest that spring and fall are critical periods of feeding for PYOY salmon and that diel feeding intensity shifts seasonally.

  2. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  3. The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae life cycle has only two Chalimus stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars A Hamre

    Full Text Available Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838 causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt. Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite.

  4. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 2001 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, Deborah A.; McAuley, W. Carlin; Maynard, Desmond J.

    2002-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock and captive rearing programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from 1 September 2000 to 31 August 2001 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000 in both the captive broodstock and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  5. Identification of a sex-linked SNP marker in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis using RAD sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N Carmichael

    Full Text Available The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837 is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study's observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies.

  6. Evidence of salmon lice-induced mortality of anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta) in the Hardangerfjord, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Skaala, Øystein; Kålås, Steinar; Borgstrøm, Reidar

    2013-01-01

    The Hardangerfjord, western Norway, is an area with a high concentration of salmon farms, high levels of infection of salmon lice in anadromous brown trout, and declining trout populations. This study assessed the marine survival rate of anadromous trout from the River Guddalselva, in the central part of the fjord, and tested the hypothesis that trout populations in this area are depressed by salmon lice infection. From 2001 to 2011, all descending smolts and trout returning from the fjord we...

  7. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document.

  8. Bioactivities of fish protein hydrolysates from defatted salmon backbones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Slizyte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivities of bulk fish protein hydrolysates (FPH from defatted salmon backbones obtained with eight different commercial enzymes and their combinations were tested. All FPH showed antioxidative activity in vitro. DPPH scavenging activity increased, while iron chelating ability decreased with increasing time of hydrolysis. All FPH showed ACE inhibiting effect which depended on type of enzyme and increased with time of hydrolysis. The highest effect was found for FPH produced with Trypsin. Bromelain + Papain hydrolysates reduced the uptake of radiolabelled glucose into CaCo-2 cells, a model of human enterocytes, indicating a potential antidiabetic effect of FPH. FPH obtained by Trypsin, Bromelain + Papain and Protamex showed the highest ACE inhibitory, cellular glucose transporter (GLUT/SGLT inhibitory and in vitro antioxidative activities, respectively. Correlation was observed between the measured bioactivities, degree of hydrolysis and molecular weight profiles, supporting prolonged hydrolysis to obtain high bioactivities.

  9. Baseline ecological risk assessment Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salmon Site (SS), formerly the Tatum Dome Test Site, located in Mississippi was the site of two nuclear and two gas explosion tests conducted between 1964 and 1970. A consequence of these testing activities is that radionuclides were released into the salt dome, where they are presently contained. During reentry drilling and other site activities, incidental liquid and solid wastes that contained radioactivity were generated, resulting in some soil, ground water and equipment contamination. As part of the remedial investigation effort, a Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment was conducted at the SS. The purpose is to gauge ecological and other environmental impacts attributable to past activities at the former test facility. The results of this facility-specific baseline risk assessment are presented in this document

  10. Soya Saponins Induce Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogdahl, Åshild; Gajardo, Karina; Kortner, Trond M; Penn, Michael; Gu, Min; Berge, Gerd Marit; Bakke, Anne Marie

    2015-04-22

    Soybean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) is a well-described condition in the distal intestine of salmonids, and saponins have been implicated as the causal agent. However, the question remains whether saponins alone cause SBMIE. Moreover, the dose-response relationship has not been described. In a 10 week feeding trial with Atlantic salmon, a highly purified (95%) soya saponin preparation was supplemented (0, 2, 4, 6, or 10 g/kg) to two basal diets, one containing fishmeal as the major protein source (FM) and the other 25% lupin meal (LP). Saponins caused dose-dependent increases in the severity of inflammation independent of the basal diet, with concomitant alterations in digestive functions and immunological marker expression. Thus, saponins induced inflammation whether the diet contained other legume components or not. However, responses were often the same or stronger in fish fed the corresponding saponin-supplemented LP diets despite lower saponin exposure, suggesting potentiation by other legume component(s).

  11. Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave

    2002-12-01

    Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time- lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999 and 2001. The adult salmon spawner escapement estimate into Lake Creek in 2001 was 697 fish, the largest escapement since the project began. Jack salmon comprised 10% of the spring migration. Snow pack in the drainage was 38% of the average during the winter of 2000/2001. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 9, 19 days after installation of the fish counting station and two weeks earlier than previously reported. Peak net upstream movement of 52 adults occurred on June 22. Peak of total movement activity was July 3. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 6. Redd count expansion methods were compared to underwater video determined salmon spawner abundance in Lake Creek in 2001. Expanded index area redd count point estimates and intensive area redd counts in 2001, estimated from 1.3 percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers in Lake Creek have varied widely. In 2001 there were 2.07 fish per redd. In 1999, there were 3.58 fish per redd, and in 1998, with no jacks returning to spawn, there were 1.02 fish per redd. Migrating salmon in Lake Creek

  12. Spawning Habitat Studies of Hanford Reach Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Chien, Yi-Ju (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2009-03-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) with funding provided through the Northwest Power and Conservation Council(a) and the BPA Fish and Wildlife Program. The study was conducted in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. The goal of study was to determine the physical habitat factors necessary to define the redd capacity of fall Chinook salmon that spawn in large mainstem rivers like the Hanford Reach and Snake River. The study was originally commissioned in FY 1994 and then recommissioned in FY 2000 through the Fish and Wildlife Program rolling review of the Columbia River Basin projects. The work described in this report covers the period from 1994 through 2004; however, the majority of the information comes from the last four years of the study (2000 through 2004). Results from the work conducted from 1994 to 2000 were covered in an earlier report. More than any other stock of Pacific salmon, fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) have suffered severe impacts from the hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. Fall Chinook salmon rely heavily on mainstem habitats for all phases of their life cycle, and mainstem hydroelectric dams have inundated or blocked areas that were historically used for spawning and rearing. The natural flow pattern that existed in the historic period has been altered by the dams, which in turn have affected the physical and biological template upon which fall Chinook salmon depend upon for successful reproduction. Operation of the dams to produce power to meet short-term needs in electricity (termed power peaking) produces unnatural fluctuations in flow over a 24-hour cycle. These flow fluctuations alter the physical habitat and disrupt the cues that salmon use to select spawning sites, as well as strand fish in near-shore habitat that becomes dewatered. The quality of spawning gravels has been affected by dam construction, flood protection, and

  13. Implications of climate change on flow regime affecting Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The UKCIP02 climate change scenarios (2070–2100 suggest that the UK climate will become warmer (an overall increase of 2.5–3°C, with temperature increases being greater in the summer and autumn than in the spring and winter seasons. In terms of precipitation, winters are expected to become wetter and summers drier throughout the UK. The effect of changes in the future climate on flow regimes are investigated for the Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, in a case study in an upland UK river. Using a hydraulic modelling approach, flows simulated across the catchment are assessed in terms of hydraulic characteristics (discharge per metre width, flow depths, flow velocities and Froude number. These, compared with suitable characteristics published in the literature for various life stages of Atlantic salmon, enable assessment of habitat suitability. Climate change factors have been applied to meteorological observations in the Eden catchment (north-west England and effects on the flow regime have been investigated using the SHETRAN hydrological modelling system. High flows are predicted to increase by up to 1.5%; yet, a greater impact is predicted from decreasing low flows (e.g. a Q95 at the outlet of the study catchment may decrease to a Q85 flow. Reliability, Resilience and Vulnerability (RRV analysis provides a statistical indication of the extent and effect of such changes on flows. Results show that future climate will decrease the percentage time the ideal minimum physical habitat requirements will be met. In the case of suitable flow depth for spawning activity at the outlet of the catchment, the percentage time may decrease from 100% under current conditions to 94% in the future. Such changes will have implications for the species under the Habitats Directive and for catchment ecological flow management strategies.

  14. Identification of the Spawning, Rearing and Migratory Requirements of Fall Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River Basin, Annual Report 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondorf, Dennis W.; Miller, William H.

    1994-03-01

    This document is the 1992 annual progress report for selected studies of fall chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha conducted by the National Biological Survey (NBS) and the US Fish and Wildlife Service. The decline in abundance of fall chinook salmon in the Snake River basin has become a growing concern. Effective recovery efforts for fall chinook salmon cannot be developed until we increase our knowledge of the factors that are limiting the various life history stages. This study attempts to identify those physical and biological factors which influence spawning of fall chinook salmon in the free-flowing Snake River and their rearing and seaward migration through Columbia River basin reservoirs.

  15. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  16. Dose-dependent hepatic transcriptional responses in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to sublethal doses of gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, You, E-mail: you.song@niva.no [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway); Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian; Heier, Lene Sørlie [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Rosseland, Bjørn Olav [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut Erik [Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences (IMV), Centre for Environmental Radioactivity - CERAD, P.O. Box 5003, N-1432 Ås (Norway); Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadalléen 21, N-0349 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • First study on early stress responses in salmon exposed to low-dose gamma radiation. • Dramatic dose-dependent transcriptional responses characterized. • Multiple modes of action proposed for gamma radiation. - Abstract: Due to the production of free radicals, gamma radiation may pose a hazard to living organisms. The high-dose radiation effects have been extensively studied, whereas the ecotoxicity data on low-dose gamma radiation is still limited. The present study was therefore performed using Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to characterize effects of low-dose (15, 70 and 280 mGy) gamma radiation after short-term (48 h) exposure. Global transcriptional changes were studied using a combination of high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs; in this article the phrase gene expression is taken as a synonym of gene transcription, although it is acknowledged that gene expression can also be regulated, e.g., at protein stability and translational level) were determined and linked to their biological meanings predicted using both Gene Ontology (GO) and mammalian ortholog-based functional analyses. The plasma glucose level was also measured as a general stress biomarker at the organism level. Results from the microarray analysis revealed a dose-dependent pattern of global transcriptional responses, with 222, 495 and 909 DEGs regulated by 15, 70 and 280 mGy gamma radiation, respectively. Among these DEGs, only 34 were commonly regulated by all radiation doses, whereas the majority of differences were dose-specific. No GO functions were identified at low or medium doses, but repression of DEGs associated with GO functions such as DNA replication, cell cycle regulation and response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed after 280 mGy gamma exposure. Ortholog-based toxicity pathway analysis further showed that 15 mGy radiation

  17. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species.

  18. Estuarine environments as rearing habitats for juvenile Coho Salmon in contrasting south-central Alaska watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    For Pacific salmon, estuaries are typically considered transitional staging areas between freshwater and marine environments, but their potential as rearing habitat has only recently been recognized. The objectives of this study were two-fold: (1) to determine if Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were rearing in estuarine habitats, and (2) to characterize and compare the body length, age, condition, and duration and timing of estuarine occupancy of juvenile Coho Salmon between the two contrasting estuaries. We examined use of estuary habitats with analysis of microchemistry and microstructure of sagittal otoliths in two watersheds of south-central Alaska. Juvenile Coho Salmon were classified as estuary residents or nonresidents (recent estuary immigrants) based on otolith Sr : Ca ratios and counts of daily growth increments on otoliths. The estuaries differed in water source (glacial versus snowmelt hydrographs) and in relative estuarine and watershed area. Juvenile Coho Salmon with evidence of estuary rearing were greater in body length and condition than individuals lacking evidence of estuarine rearing. Coho Salmon captured in the glacial estuary had greater variability in body length and condition, and younger age-classes predominated the catch compared with the nearby snowmelt-fed, smaller estuary. Estuary-rearing fish in the glacial estuary arrived later and remained longer (39 versus 24 d of summer growth) during the summer than did fish using the snowmelt estuary. Finally, we observed definitive patterns of overwintering in estuarine and near shore environments in both estuaries. Evidence of estuary rearing and overwintering with differences in fish traits among contrasting estuary types refute the notion that estuaries function as only staging or transitional habitats in the early life history of Coho Salmon.

  19. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, D.L.; Moore, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  20. Global assessment of extinction risk to populations of Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Rand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern about the decline of wild salmon has attracted the attention of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN. The IUCN applies quantitative criteria to assess risk of extinction and publishes its results on the Red List of Threatened Species. However, the focus is on the species level and thus may fail to show the risk to populations. The IUCN has adapted their criteria to apply to populations but there exist few examples of this type of assessment. We assessed the status of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as a model for application of the IUCN population-level assessments and to provide the first global assessment of the status of an anadromous Pacific salmon. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found from demographic data that the sockeye salmon species is not presently at risk of extinction. We identified 98 independent populations with varying levels of risk within the species' range. Of these, 5 (5% are already extinct. We analyzed the risk for 62 out of 93 extant populations (67% and found that 17 of these (27% are at risk of extinction. The greatest number and concentration of extinct and threatened populations is in the southern part of the North American range, primarily due to overfishing, freshwater habitat loss, dams, hatcheries, and changing ocean conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although sockeye salmon are not at risk at the species-level, about one-third of the populations that we analyzed are at risk or already extinct. Without an understanding of risk to biodiversity at the level of populations, the biodiversity loss in salmon would be greatly underrepresented on the Red List. We urge government, conservation organizations, scientists and the public to recognize this limitation of the Red List. We also urge recognition that about one-third of sockeye salmon global population diversity is at risk of extinction or already extinct.

  1. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, 1995-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstocks to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock programs are a form of artificial propagation and are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations. However, they differ from standard hatchery techniques in one important respect: fish are cultured in captivity for the entire life cycle. The high fecundity of Pacific salmon, coupled with their potentially high survival in protective culture, affords an opportunity for captive broodstocks to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of this stock: sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS research from January 1995 to August 2000 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock program and summarizes results since the beginning of the study in 1991. Since initiating captive brood culture in 1991, NMFS has returned 742,000 eyed eggs, 181 pre-spawning adults, and over 90,000 smolts to Idaho for recovery efforts. The first adult returns to the Stanley Basin from the captive brood program began with 7 in 1999, and increased to about 250 in 2000. NMFS currently has broodstock in culture from year classes 1996, 1997, 1998, and 1999 in both the captive broodstock program, and an adult release program. Spawn from NMFS Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstocks is being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  2. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) dynamics evidence immunomodulation during ISAV-Infected Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Valenzuela-Miranda, Diego; Aguilar, Andrea; Mackenzie, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence for participation in the host response to infection, the roles of many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) remain unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify lncRNAs in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and evaluate their transcriptomic regulation during ISA virus (ISAV) infection, an Orthomyxoviridae virus associated with high mortalities in salmonid aquaculture. Using next-generation sequencing, whole-transcriptome analysis of the Salmo salar response to ISAV infection was performed, identifying 5,636 putative lncRNAs with a mean length of 695 base pairs. The transcriptional modulation evidenced a similar number of differentially expressed lncRNAs in the gills (3,294), head-kidney (3,275), and liver (3,325) over the course of the infection. Moreover, analysis of a subset of these lncRNAs showed the following: (i) Most were similarly regulated in response to ISA virus infection; (ii) The transcript subsets were uniquely modulated in each tissue (gills, liver, and head-kidney); and (iii) A subset of lncRNAs were upregulated for each tissue and time analysed, indicating potential markers for ISAV infection. These findings represent the first discovery of widespread differential expression of lncRNAs in response to virus infection in non-model species, suggesting that lncRNAs could be involved in regulating the host response during ISAV infection. PMID:26939752

  3. Replacement of dietary soy- with air classified faba bean protein concentrate alters the hepatic transcriptome in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Christian; Crampton, Viv O; Bicskei, Beatrix; Tocher, Douglas R

    2015-12-01

    The production of carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is dependent on the availability of high quality proteins for feed formulations. For a number of nutritional, strategic and economic reasons, the use of plant proteins has steadily increased over the years, however a major limitation is associated with the presence of anti-nutritional factors and the nutritional profile of the protein concentrate. Investigating novel raw materials involves understanding the physiological consequences associated with the dietary inclusion of protein concentrates. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the metabolic response of salmon to increasing inclusion of air-classified faba bean protein concentrate (BPC) in feeds as a replacement for soy protein concentrate (SPC). Specifically, we tested treatments with identical contents of fishmeal (222.4gkg(-1)) and progressively higher inclusion of BPC (0gkg(-1), 111.8gkg(-1), 223.6gkg(-1), 335.4gkg(-1), 447.2gkg(-1)) substituting SPC. This study demonstrated a dose-dependent metabolic response to a plant ingredient and was the first to compare the nutrigenomic transcriptional responses after substitution of terrestrial feed ingredients such as BPC and SPC without withdrawal of marine ingredients. It was found that after eight weeks a major physiological response in liver was only evident above 335.4gkg(-1) BPC and included decreased expression of metabolic pathways, and increased expression of genes regulating transcription and translation processes and the innate immune response. Furthermore, we showed that the nutritional stress caused by BPC resembled, at least at hepatic transcriptional level, that caused by soybean meal (included as a positive control in our experimental design). The outcomes of the present study suggested that Atlantic salmon parr might efficiently utilize moderate substitution of dietary SPC with BPC, with the optimum inclusion level being around 120gkg(-1)in the type of feeds

  4. Survival of Seaward-Migrating PIT and Acoustic-Tagged Juvenile Chinook Salmon in the Snake and Columbia Rivers: An Evaluation of Length-Specific Tagging Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Oldenburg, Eric W.; Seaburg, Adam; Cook, Katrina V.; Skalski, John R.; Eppard, M. B.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2013-06-12

    Studies examining the survival of juvenile salmon as they emigrate to the ocean provide important information regarding the management of regulated river systems. Acoustic telemetry is a widely used tool for evaluating the behavior and survival of juvenile salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Thus, it is important to understand how the surgical tagging process and the presence of a transmitter affect survival so any biases can be accounted for or eliminated. This study evaluated the effects of fish length and tag type on the survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon during their seaward migrations through the Snake and Columbia rivers during 2006, 2007, and 2008. Fish were collected at Lower Granite Dam on the Snake River (river kilometer 695) and implanted with either only a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag (PIT fish) or both a PIT tag and an acoustic transmitter (AT fish). Survival was estimated from release at Lower Granite Dam to multiple downstream locations (dams) using the Cormack–Jolly–Seber single release model, and analysis of variance was used to test for differences among length-classes and between tag types. No length-specific tag effect was detected between PIT and AT fish (i.e., length affected the survival of PIT fish in a manner similar to which it affected the survival of AT fish). Survival among the smallest length class (i.e., 80–89 mm) of both PIT and AT subyearling Chinook salmon was markedly low (i.e., 4%). Fish length was positively correlated with the survival of both PIT and AT fish. Significant differences in survival were detected between tag types; the survival of PIT fish was generally greater than that of AT fish. However, confounding variables warrant caution in making strong inferences regarding this factor. Further, results suggest that tag effects may be due to the process of surgically implanting the transmitter rather than the presence of the transmitter.

  5. Habitats of Weak Salmon Stocks of the Snake River Basin and Feasible Recovery Measures : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 1 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D.W.; Witty, Kenneth L.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes spawning aggregations of Snake River salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and numerical status of aggregations. It summarizes habitat quality and problems between the natal area and the open ocean. It reviews critical habitat designation, identifies mitigative measures and suggests monitoring and research.

  6. Evaluation of the Contribution of Fall Chinook Salmon Reared at Columbia River Hatcheries to the Pacific Salmon Fisheries, 1989 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vreeland, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    In 1979 this study was initiated to determine the distribution, contribution, and value of artificially propagated fall chinook salmon from the Columbia River. Coded wire tagging (CWT) of hatchery fall chinook salmon began in 1979 with the 1978 brood and was completed in 1982 with the 1981 brood of fish at rearing facilities on the Columbia River system. From 18 to 20 rearing facilities were involved in the study each brood year. Nearly 14 million tagged fish, about 4% of the production, were released as part of this study over the four years, 1979 through 1982. Sampling for recoveries of these tagged fish occurred from 1980 through 1986 in the sport and commercial marine fisheries from Alaska through California, Columbia River fisheries, and returns to hatcheries and adjacent streams. The National Marine Fisheries Service coordinated this study among three fishery agencies: US Fish and Wildfire Service, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution, fishery contribution, survival, and value of the production of fall chinook salmon from each rearing facility on the Columbia River system to Pacific coast salmon fisheries. To achieve these objectives fish from each hatchery were given a distinctive CWT. 81 refs., 20 figs., 68 tabs.

  7. Expression of the infectious salmon anemia virus receptor on atlantic salmon endothelial cells correlates with the cell tropism of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamelfot, Maria; Dale, Ole Bendik; Weli, Simon Chioma; Koppang, Erling Olaf; Falk, Knut

    2012-10-01

    Infectious salmon anemia (ISA) is a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)-listed disease of farmed Atlantic salmon, characterized by slowly developing anemia and circulatory disturbances. The disease is caused by ISA virus (ISAV) in the Orthomyxoviridae family; hence, it is related to influenza. Here we explore the pathogenesis of ISA by focusing on virus tropism, receptor tissue distribution, and pathological changes in experimentally and naturally infected Atlantic salmon. Using immunohistochemistry on ISAV-infected Atlantic salmon tissues with antibody to viral nucleoprotein, endotheliotropism was demonstrated. Endothelial cells lining the circulatory system were found to be infected, seemingly noncytolytic, and without vasculitis. No virus could be found in necrotic parenchymal cells. From endothelium, the virus budded apically and adsorbed to red blood cells (RBCs). No infection or replication within RBCs was detected, but hemophagocytosis was observed, possibly contributing to the severe anemia in fish with this disease. Similarly to what has been done in studies of influenza, we examined the pattern of virus attachment by using ISAV as a probe. Here we detected the preferred receptor of ISAV, 4-O-acetylated sialic acid (Neu4,5Ac(2)). To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the in situ distribution of this sialic acid derivate. The pattern of virus attachment mirrored closely the distribution of infection, showing that the virus receptor is important for cell tropism, as well as for adsorption to RBCs. PMID:22811536

  8. Chinook Salmon Adult Abundance Monitoring in Lake Creek, Idaho, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faurot, Dave; Kucera, Paul

    2003-11-01

    Underwater time- lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control stream under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has successfully demonstrated the application of underwater video monitoring to accurately quantify chinook salmon abundance in Lake Creek in 1998, 1999, 2001 and 2002. The adult salmon spawner escapement into Lake Creek in 2002 was 410 fish. Jack salmon comprised 7.1 percent of the run. Estimated hatchery composition was 6.1 percent of the spawning run. The first fish passage on Lake Creek was recorded on June 26, 15 days after installation of the fish counting station. Peak net upstream movement of 41 adults occurred on July 8. Peak of total movement activity was August 18. The last fish passed through the Lake Creek fish counting station on September 2. Snow pack in the drainage was 91% of the average during the winter of 2001/2002. Video determined salmon spawner abundance was compared to redd count expansion method point estimates in Lake Creek in 2002. Expanded index area redd count and extensive area redd count point estimates in 2002, estimated from one percent fewer to 56 percent greater number of spawners than underwater video determined spawner abundance. Redd count expansion methods varied from two percent fewer to 55 percent greater in 2001, 11 to 46 percent fewer in 1999 and 104 to 214 percent greater in 1998. Redd count expansion values had unknown variation associated with the point estimates. Fish per redd numbers determined by video abundance and multiple pass redd counts of the larger extensive survey

  9. Do beaver dams reduce habitat connectivity and salmon productivity in expansive river floodplains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malison, Rachel L; Kuzishchin, Kirill V; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have expanded in their native habitats throughout the northern hemisphere in recent decades following reductions in trapping and reintroduction efforts. Beaver have the potential to strongly influence salmon populations in the side channels of large alluvial rivers by building dams that create pond complexes. Pond habitat may improve salmon productivity or the presence of dams may reduce productivity if dams limit habitat connectivity and inhibit fish passage. Our intent in this paper is to contrast the habitat use and production of juvenile salmon on expansive floodplains of two geomorphically similar salmon rivers: the Kol River in Kamchatka, Russia (no beavers) and the Kwethluk River in Alaska (abundant beavers), and thereby provide a case study on how beavers may influence salmonids in large floodplain rivers. We examined important rearing habitats in each floodplain, including springbrooks, beaver ponds, beaver-influenced springbrooks, and shallow shorelines of the river channel. Juvenile coho salmon dominated fish assemblages in all habitats in both rivers but other species were present. Salmon density was similar in all habitat types in the Kol, but in the Kwethluk coho and Chinook densities were 3-12× lower in mid- and late-successional beaver ponds than in springbrook and main channel habitats. In the Kol, coho condition (length: weight ratios) was similar among habitats, but Chinook condition was highest in orthofluvial springbrooks. In the Kwethluk, Chinook condition was similar among habitats, but coho condition was lowest in main channel versus other habitats (0.89 vs. 0.99-1.10). Densities of juvenile salmon were extremely low in beaver ponds located behind numerous dams in the orthofluvial zone of the Kwethluk River floodplain, whereas juvenile salmon were abundant in habitats throughout the entire floodplain in the Kol River. If beavers were not present on the Kwethluk, floodplain habitats would be fully interconnected and theoretically

  10. Genomic organization of duplicated major histocompatibility complex class I regions in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ruth B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously identified associations between major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and resistance towards bacterial and viral pathogens in Atlantic salmon. To evaluate if only MHC or also closely linked genes contributed to the observed resistance we ventured into sequencing of the duplicated MHC class I regions of Atlantic salmon. Results Nine BACs covering more than 500 kb of the two duplicated MHC class I regions of Atlantic salmon were sequenced and the gene organizations characterized. Both regions contained the proteasome components PSMB8, PSMB9, PSMB9-like and PSMB10 in addition to the transporter for antigen processing TAP2, as well as genes for KIFC1, ZBTB22, DAXX, TAPBP, BRD2, COL11A2, RXRB and SLC39A7. The IA region contained the recently reported MHC class I Sasa-ULA locus residing approximately 50 kb upstream of the major Sasa-UBA locus. The duplicated class IB region contained an MHC class I locus resembling the rainbow trout UCA locus, but although transcribed it was a pseudogene. No other MHC class I-like genes were detected in the two duplicated regions. Two allelic BACs spanning the UBA locus had 99.2% identity over 125 kb, while the IA region showed 82.5% identity over 136 kb to the IB region. The Atlantic salmon IB region had an insert of 220 kb in comparison to the IA region containing three chitin synthase genes. Conclusion We have characterized the gene organization of more than 500 kb of the two duplicated MHC class I regions in Atlantic salmon. Although Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout are closely related, the gene organization of their IB region has undergone extensive gene rearrangements. The Atlantic salmon has only one class I UCA pseudogene in the IB region while trout contains the four MHC UCA, UDA, UEA and UFA class I loci. The large differences in gene content and most likely function of the salmon and trout class IB region clearly argues that sequencing of salmon will not

  11. Spawning salmon disrupt trophic coupling between wolves and ungulate prey in coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darimont Chris T

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cross-boundary resource subsidy, spawning salmon can strongly affect consumer and ecosystem ecology. Here we examine whether this marine resource can influence a terrestrial wolf-deer (Canis lupus-Odocoileus hemionus predator-prey system in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Data on resource availability and resource use among eight wolf groups for three seasons over four years allow us to evaluate competing hypotheses that describe salmon as either an alternate resource, consumed in areas where deer are scarce, or as a targeted resource, consumed as a positive function of its availability. Faecal (n = 2203 wolf scats and isotopic analyses (n = 60 wolf hair samples provide independent data sets, also allowing us to examine how consistent these common techniques are in estimating foraging behaviour. Results At the population level during spring and summer, deer remains occurred in roughly 90 and 95% of faeces respectively. When salmon become available in autumn, however, the population showed a pronounced dietary shift in which deer consumption among groups was negatively correlated (r = -0.77, P 13C isotopic signatures (r = 0.78; P = 0.008, which were calculated by intra-hair comparisons between segments grown during summer and fall. The magnitude of this seasonal isotopic shift, our proxy for salmon use, was related primarily to estimates of salmon availability, not deer availability, among wolf groups. Conclusion Concordance of faecal and isotopic data suggests our intra-hair isotopic methodology provides an accurate proxy for salmon consumption, and might reliably track seasonal dietary shifts in other consumer-resource systems. Use of salmon by wolves as a function of its abundance and the adaptive explanations we provide suggest a long-term and widespread association between wolves and salmon. Seasonally, this system departs from the common wolf-ungulate model. Broad ecological implications include the potential

  12. Baltic salmon activates immune relevant genes in fin tissue when responding to Gyrodactylus salaris infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kania, Per Walther; Larsen, Thomas Bjerre; Ingerslev, Hans C.;

    2007-01-01

    A series of immune relevant genes are expressed when the Baltic salmon responds on infections with the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris which leads to a decrease of the parasite infection......A series of immune relevant genes are expressed when the Baltic salmon responds on infections with the ectoparasite Gyrodactylus salaris which leads to a decrease of the parasite infection...

  13. The Effect of Salt, Smoke Compound, and Storage Temperature on the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Simulated Smoked Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoked salmon can be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. It is important to identify the factors that are capable of controlling the growth of L. monocytogenes in smoked salmon, so control measures can be developed. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of salt, a smoke com...

  14. Baltic Salmon, Salmo salar, from Swedish River Lule Älv Is More Resistant to Furunculosis Compared to Rainbow Trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Lars; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. Study Design: A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A. salmonicida in rainbow trout and Baltic salmon. The course of infection...

  15. Growth Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes and Native Microflora in Smoked Salmon Stored at Refrigerated and Abuse Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoked salmon contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne listeriosis. The objective of this study was to examine the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes and native microflora in smoked salmon stored at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. Smoked s...

  16. 75 FR 53025 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery... Part 679 RIN 0648-AX89 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch...: NMFS manages the groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the Bering Sea...

  17. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in farmed salmon and during subsequent slaughter: Comparison of listertest TM lift and the USDA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Enger, O.;

    1997-01-01

    Salmon and environmental samples from a fish farm and a salmon slaughterhouse were analysed for Listeria spp. using the USDA method and the rapid quantitative Listertest(TM). Listeria spp. were not detected in any of 119 samples analysed. However, Corynebacterium spp. gave disturbing false...

  18. 76 FR 45513 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Preliminary Results of Full Third Sunset Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 89 (January 3, 2011) (Sunset Initiation). On the basis of adequate... FR 20312 (April 12, 2011) (Salmon Extension Notice). The Department did not receive comments on the... salmon steaks are within the scope of the order. See Notice of Scope Rulings, 75 FR 14138 (March 24,...

  19. STABLE ISOTOPE STUDIES ON THE USE OF MARINE-DERIVED NUTRIENTS BY COHO SALMON JUVENILES IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatly reduced spawning runs of anadromous salmon in streams of the Pacific Northwest (USA) have led to concerns about the effects of reduced marine derived nutrients (MDN's) on sustaining over-wintering juvenile salmon in those streams. In response to these concerns, state a...

  20. Freshwater Ecosystems and Resilience of Pacific Salmon: Habitat Management Based on Natural Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H. Reeves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed processes generate highly variable environmental conditions and population responses, i.e., multiple life histories, that are often not considered in restoration. Examples from several locations underscore the importance of natural variability to the resilience of Pacific salmon. The implication is that habitat restoration efforts will be more likely to foster salmon resilience if they consider processes that generate and maintain natural variability in fresh water. We identify three specific criteria for management based on natural variability: the capacity of aquatic habitat to recover from disturbance, a range of habitats distributed across stream networks through time sufficient to fulfill the requirements of diverse salmon life histories, and ecological connectivity. In light of these considerations, we discuss current threats to habitat resilience and describe how regulatory and restoration approaches can be modified to better incorporate natural variability.

  1. Verification of SNPs Associated with Growth Traits in Two Populations of Farmed Atlantic Salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin Y. Tsai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between genetic variants and traits of economic importance in aquaculture species is pertinent to selective breeding programmes. High-throughput sequencing technologies have enabled the discovery of large numbers of SNPs in Atlantic salmon, and high density SNP arrays now exist. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS using a high density SNP array (132K SNPs has revealed the polygenic nature of early growth traits in salmon, but has also identified candidate SNPs showing suggestive associations with these traits. The aim of this study was to test the association of the candidate growth-associated SNPs in a separate population of farmed Atlantic salmon to verify their effects. Identifying SNP-trait associations in two populations provides evidence that the associations are true and robust. Using a large cohort (N = 1152, we successfully genotyped eight candidate SNPs from the previous GWAS, two of which were significantly associated with several growth and fillet traits measured at harvest. The genes proximal to these SNPs were identified by alignment to the salmon reference genome and are discussed in the context of their potential role in underpinning genetic variation in salmon growth.

  2. Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-Stock Program, 1981-1986 Final Report of Research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrell, Lee W.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of the Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Brood-stock Program was to hatch eggs from upriver stocks, rear the fish to spawning maturity, and use the resulting eggs for stock restoration in the Snake River. Approximately 15,000 eyed Snake River fall chinook salmon eggs were obtained each winter in 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1984 from various Columbia River hatcheries. Fish from these eggs were reared in dechlorinated City of Seattle water at the Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center or in constant 10.5/degree/C groundwater at the University of Washington's Big Beef Creek Research Station. Seawater tolerance trials of 0+ age (3--5 months) juveniles in all four brood stocks were strongly suggestive of the 1+ age smoltification pattern of spring chinook salmon. Attempts to transfer 0+ age fish to marine net-pens at the Manchester Marine Experimental Station were unsuccessful during the four brood years. The only Snake River fall chinook salmon that demonstrated acceptable survival after 4 months residence in seawater were fish that were transferred as 1+ age smolts. After smolts were successfully transferred to seawater, losses were minimal for several months. However, in all Snake River chinook salmon stocks, mortality due to bacterial kidney disease (BKD) and a previously undescribed ''rosette disease'' resulted in very few maturing fish at 4 or 5 years of age. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Assessment of Barotrauma from Rapid Decompression of Depth-Acclimated Juvenile Chinook Salmon Bearing Radiotelemetry Transmitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Welch, Abigail E.; Stephenson, John R.; Abernethy, Cary S.; Ebberts, Blaine D.; Langeslay, Mike; Ahmann, Martin L.; Feil, Daniel H.; Skalski, J. R.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the mortality of and injury to juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to simulated pressure changes associated with passage through a large Kaplan hydropower turbine. Mortality and injury varied depending on whether a fish was carrying a transmitter, the method of transmitter implantation, the depth of acclimation, and the size of the fish. Juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters were more likely than those without to die or sustain injuries during simulated turbine passage. Gastric transmitter implantation resulted in higher rates of injury and mortality than surgical implantation. Mortality and injury increased with increasing pressure of acclimation. Injuries were more common in subyearling fish than in yearling fish. Gas emboli in the gills and internal hemorrhaging were the major causes of mortality. Rupture of the swim bladder and emphysema in the fins were also common. This research makes clear that the exposure of juvenile Chinook salmon bearing radiotelemetry transmitters to simulated turbine pressures with a nadir of 8-19 kPa can result in barotrauma, leading to immediate or delayed mortality. The study also identified sublethal barotrauma injuries that may increase susceptibility to predation. These findings have significant implications for many studies that use telemetry devices to estimate the survival and behavior of juvenile salmon as they pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those within the Columbia River hydropower system. Our results indicate that estimates of turbine passage survival for juvenile Chinook salmon obtained with radiotelemetry devices may be negatively biased.

  4. Post-Closure Inspection, Sampling, and Maintenance Report for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    This report summarizes the 2012 annual inspection, sampling, measurement, and maintenance activities performed at the Salmon, Mississippi, Site (Salmon site). The draft Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the Salmon Site, Lamar County, Mississippi (DOE 2007) specifies the submittal of an annual report of site activities with the results of sample analyses. A revised plan is in preparation. The Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Salmon, Mississippi, Site is intended for release in 2013. The Salmon site consists of 1,470 acres. The site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 10 miles west of Purvis, Mississippi, and about 21 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi The State of Mississippi owns the surface real estate subject to certain restrictions related to subsurface penetration. The State is the surface operator; the Mississippi Forestry Commission is its agent. The federal government owns the subsurface real estate (including minerals and some surface features), shares right-of-entry easements with the State, and retains rights related to subsurface monitoring. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM), a successor agency to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, is responsible for the long-term surveillance of the subsurface real estate

  5. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1987-1988 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1988-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho and chinook salmon reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. Rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 broods of coho salmon; the 1983 and 1984 broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986 broods of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected through September 1988.

  6. The importance of genetic verification for determination of Atlantic salmon in north Pacific waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.L.; Williams, I.; Sage, G.K.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic analyses of two unknown but putative Atlantic salmon Salmo salar captured in the Copper River drainage, Alaska, demonstrated the need for validation of morphologically unusual fishes. Mitochondrial DNA sequences (control region and cytochrome b) and data from two nuclear genes [first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) sequence and growth hormone (GH1) amplification product] indicated that the fish caught in fresh water on the Martin River was a coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, while the other fish caught in the intertidal zone of the Copper River delta near Grass Island was an Atlantic salmon. Determination of unusual or cryptic fish based on limited physical characteristics and expected seasonal spawning run timing will add to the controversy over farmed Atlantic salmon and their potential effects on native Pacific species. It is clear that determination of all putative collections of Atlantic salmon found in Pacific waters requires validation. Due to uncertainty of fish identification in the field using plastic morphometric characters, it is recommended that genetic analyses be part of the validation process. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Freshwater ecosystems and resilience of Pacific salmon: Habitat Management based on natural variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, P.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Reeves, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed processes generate highly variable environmental conditions and population responses, i.e., multiple life histories, that are often not considered in restoration. Examples from several locations underscore the importance of natural variability to the resilience of Pacific salmon. The implication is that habitat restoration efforts will be more likely to foster salmon resilience if they consider processes that generate and maintain natural variability in fresh water. We identify three specific criteria for management based on natural variability: the capacity of aquatic habitat to recover from disturbance, a range of habitats distributed across stream networks through time sufficient to fulfill the requirements of diverse salmon life histories, and ecological connectivity. In light of these considerations, we discuss current threats to habitat resilience and describe how regulatory and restoration approaches can be modified to better incorporate natural variability. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  8. Enhanced transfection of cell lines from Atlantic salmon through nucoleofection and antibiotic selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mjaaland Siri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines from Atlantic salmon kidney have made it possible to culture and study infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV, an aquatic orthomyxovirus affecting farmed Atlantic salmon. However, transfection of these cells using calcium phosphate precipitation or lipid-based reagents shows very low transfection efficiency. The Amaxa Nucleofector technology™ is an electroporation technique that has been shown to be efficient for gene transfer into primary cells and hard to transfect cell lines. Findings Here we demonstrate, enhanced transfection of the head kidney cell line, TO, from Atlantic salmon using nucleofection and subsequent flow cytometry. Depending on the plasmid promoter, TO cells could be transfected transiently with an efficiency ranging from 11.6% to 90.8% with good viability, using Amaxa's cell line nucleofector solution T and program T-20. A kill curve was performed to investigate the most potent antibiotic for selection of transformed cells, and we found that blasticidin and puromycin were the most efficient for selection of TO cells. Conclusions The results show that nucleofection is an efficient way of gene transfer into Atlantic salmon cells and that stably transfected cells can be selected with blasticidin or puromycin.

  9. Quantitative detection of astaxanthin and cantaxanthin in Atlantic salmon by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Ermakova, Maia R.; Gellermann, Werner

    2006-02-01

    Two major carotenoids species found in salmonids muscle tissues are astaxanthin and cantaxanthin. They are taken up from fish food and are responsible for the attractive red-orange color of salmon filet. Since carotenoids are powerful antioxidants and biomarkers of nutrient consumption, they are thought to indicate fish health and resistance to diseases in fish farm environments. Therefore, a rapid, accurate, quantitative optical technique for measuring carotenoid content in salmon tissues is of economic interest. We demonstrate the possibility of using fast, selective, quantitative detection of astaxanthin and cantaxanthin in salmon muscle tissues, employing resonance Raman spectroscopy. Analyzing strong Raman signals originating from the carbon-carbon double bond stretch vibrations of the carotenoid molecules under blue laser excitation, we are able to characterize quantitatively the concentrations of carotenoids in salmon muscle tissue. To validate the technique, we compared Raman data with absorption measurements of carotenoid extracts in acetone. A close correspondence was observed in absorption spectra for tissue extract in acetone and a pure astaxanthin solution. Raman results show a linear dependence between Raman and absorption data. The proposed technique holds promise as a method of rapid screening of carotenoid levels in fish muscle tissues and may be attractive for the fish farm industry to assess the dietary status of salmon, risk for infective diseases, and product quality control.

  10. Development of Rations for the Enhanced Survival of Salmon, 1988-1989 Progress (Annual) Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Richard D.

    1990-03-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation test the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. Rearing and release of tagged fish to date include 1982, 1983, 1984 and 1985 broods of coho salmon (Sandy stock); the 1983 and 1984 broods of fall chinook (tule stock) salmon; and the 1985 and 1986 broods of fall chinook (upriver bright stock) salmon. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected through September 1989. 2 tabs.

  11. Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon (Salmo salar) stored under refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Garrido, M D; Bañón, S

    2011-02-01

    The spoilage of Sous Vide 'SV' cooked salmon stored under refrigeration was studied. Samples were packaged under vacuum in polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 80 (°)C/45 min, quickly chilled at 3 (°)C and stored at 2 (°)C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks for catering use. Microbial (aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L*a*b* color, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odor, flavor, texture and overall quality) parameters were determined. SV processing prevented the growth of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. There were no relevant changes in pH, water activity, TBARS, CIELab color associated with cooked salmon spoilage. Instrumental texture data were contradictory. Slight decrease in lactic acid levels was found. In contrast, the SV cooked salmon suffered considerable sensory deterioration during its refrigerated storage, consisting of severe losses of cooked salmon odor and flavor, slight rancidity, discoloration associated with white precipitation, and moderates softness, and loss of chewiness and juiciness. No acidification, putrefaction or relevant rancidity was detected. The sensory spoilage preceded microbiological and physical-chemical spoilage, suggesting that microbiological quality alone may overestimate the shelf life of SV cooked salmon.

  12. Nutrient additions to mitigate for loss of Pacific salmon: consequences for stream biofilm and nutrient dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M.; Baxter, Colden V.; Wipfli, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Mitigation activities designed to supplement nutrient and organic matter inputs to streams experiencing decline or loss of Pacific salmon typically presuppose that an important pathway by which salmon nutrients are moved to fish (anadromous and/or resident) is via nutrient incorporation by biofilms and subsequent bottom-up stimulation of biofilm production, which is nutrient-limited in many ecosystems where salmon returns have declined. Our objective was to quantify the magnitude of nutrient incorporation and biofilm dynamics that underpin this indirect pathway in response to experimental additions of salmon carcasses and pelletized fish meal (a.k.a., salmon carcass analogs) to 500-m reaches of central Idaho streams over three years. Biofilm standing crops increased 2–8-fold and incorporated marine-derived nutrients (measured using 15N and 13C) in the month following treatment, but these responses did not persist year-to-year. Biofilms were nitrogen (N) limited before treatments, and remained N limited in analog, but not carcass-treated reaches. Despite these biofilm responses, in the month following treatment total N load was equal to 33–47% of the N added to the treated reaches, and N spiraling measurements suggested that as much as 20%, but more likely 2–3% of added N was taken up by microbes. Design of biologically and cost-effective strategies for nutrient addition will require understanding the rates at which stream microbes take up nutrients and the downstream distance traveled by exported nutrients.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of reuterin produced by Lactobacillus reuteri on Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, R; Martín-Cabrejas, I; Langa, S; El Aouad, N; Arqués, J L; Reyes, F; Medina, M

    2014-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P579 was used for the production and purification of reuterin. The purity of reuterin was assessed by high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. After purification, reuterin concentration obtained was 1.3 M. The inhibitory activity using Escherichia coli K12 as indicator strain was estimated to be 510 AU/ml. Survival curves in tryptic soy broth revealed that reuterin required to inhibit the growth of three Listeria monocytogenes strains was in the range of 2-4 AU/ml. Purified reuterin (10 AU/g) significantly reduced the growth of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon kept under moderate or strong temperature abuse conditions. After 15 d at 8 °C, cold-smoked salmon with added reuterin exhibited L. monocytogenes counts 2.0 log CFU/g lower than control smoked salmon with no reuterin added. At 30 °C, reuterin also controlled the growth of the pathogen, with counts 1.4 and 0.9 log CFU/g lower than those observed in control smoked salmon after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The addition of purified reuterin might be used as a hurdle technology to improve the safety and extend the shelf-life of lightly preserved seafood products such as cold-smoked salmon.

  14. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  15. An Assessment of the Status of Captive Broodstock Technology of Pacific Salmon, 1995 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnaken, Conrad V.W.; Hard, Jeffrey J.

    1995-06-01

    This report provides guidance for the refinement and use of captive broodstock technology for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) by bringing together information on the husbandry techniques, genetic risks, physiology, nutrition, and pathology affecting captive broodstocks. Captive broodstock rearing of Pacific salmon is an evolving technology, as yet without well defined standards. At present, we regard captive rearing of Pacific salmon as problematic: high mortality rates and low egg viability were common in the programs we reviewed for this report. One of the most important elements in fish husbandry is the culture environment itself. Many captive broodstock programs for Pacific salmon have reared fish from smolt-to-adult in seawater net-pens, and most have shown success in providing gametes for recovery efforts. However, some programs have lost entire brood years to diseases that transmitted rapidly in this medium. Current programs for endangered species of Pacific salmon rear most fish full-term to maturity in fresh well-water, since ground water is low in pathogens and thus helps ensure survival to adulthood. Our review suggested that captive rearing of fish in either freshwater, well-water, or filtered and sterilized seawater supplied to land-based tanks should produce higher survival than culture in seawater net-pens.

  16. Spoilage of sous vide cooked salmon (Salmo salar) stored under refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Garrido, M D; Bañón, S

    2011-02-01

    The spoilage of Sous Vide 'SV' cooked salmon stored under refrigeration was studied. Samples were packaged under vacuum in polyamide-polypropylene pouches, cooked at an oven temperature/time of 80 (°)C/45 min, quickly chilled at 3 (°)C and stored at 2 (°)C for 0, 5 or 10 weeks for catering use. Microbial (aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae), physical-chemical (pH, water activity, TBARS, acidity, L*a*b* color, texture profile analysis and shear force) and sensory (appearance, odor, flavor, texture and overall quality) parameters were determined. SV processing prevented the growth of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts and Enterobacteriaceae. There were no relevant changes in pH, water activity, TBARS, CIELab color associated with cooked salmon spoilage. Instrumental texture data were contradictory. Slight decrease in lactic acid levels was found. In contrast, the SV cooked salmon suffered considerable sensory deterioration during its refrigerated storage, consisting of severe losses of cooked salmon odor and flavor, slight rancidity, discoloration associated with white precipitation, and moderates softness, and loss of chewiness and juiciness. No acidification, putrefaction or relevant rancidity was detected. The sensory spoilage preceded microbiological and physical-chemical spoilage, suggesting that microbiological quality alone may overestimate the shelf life of SV cooked salmon. PMID:21364043

  17. Predation by northern squawfish on live and dead juvenile chinook salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a major predator of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. migrating downstream through the Columbia River. High predation rates occur just below dams. If northern squawfish selectively consume salmonids killed or injured during dam passage, previous estimates of predation mortality may be too high. We conducted laboratory experiments that indicate northern squawfish prefer dead juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over live individuals. When equal numbers of dead and live chinook salmon were offered to northern squawfish maintained on a natural photoperiod (15 h light: 9 h darkness), significantly more (P < 0.05) dead than live fish were consumed, both in 1,400-L circular tanks and in an 11,300-L raceway (62% and 79% of prey consumed were dead, respectively). When dead and live juvenile chinook salmon were provided in proportions more similar to those below dams (20% dead, 80% live), northern squawfish still selected for dead prey (36% of fish consumed were dead). In additional experiments, northern squawfish were offered a proportion of 20% dead juvenile chinook salmon during 4-h periods of either light or darkness. The predators were much more selective for dead chinook salmon during bright light (88% of fish consumed were dead) than during darkness (31% were dead)

  18. Changes in habitat availability for outmigrating juvenile salmon (Oncorhychus spp.) following estuary restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellings, Christopher S.; Davis, Melanie; Grossman, Eric; Hodgson, Sayre; Turner, Kelley L.; Woo PR, Isa; Nakai, Glynnis; Takekawa, Jean E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    The restoration of the Nisqually River Delta (Washington, U.S.A.) represents one of the largest efforts toward reestablishing the ecosystem function and resilience of modified habitat in the Puget Sound, particularly for anadromous salmonid species. The opportunity for outmigrating salmon to access and benefit from the expansion of available tidal habitat can be quantified by several physical attributes, which are related to the ecological and physiological responses of juvenile salmon. We monitored a variety of physical parameters to measure changes in opportunity potential from historic, pre-restoration, and post-restoration habitat conditions at several sites across the delta. These parameters included channel morphology, water quality, tidal elevation, and landscape connectivity. We conducted fish catch surveys across the delta to determine if salmon was utilizing restored estuary habitat. Overall major channel area increased 42% and major channel length increased 131% from pre- to post-restoration conditions. Furthermore, the results of our tidal inundation model indicated that major channels were accessible up to 75% of the time, as opposed to 30% pre-restoration. Outmigrating salmon utilized this newly accessible habitat as quickly as 1 year post-restoration. The presence of salmon in restored tidal channels confirmed rapid post-restoration increases in opportunity potential on the delta despite habitat quality differences between restored and reference sites.

  19. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-01-01

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in

  20. Behavior patterns and fates of adult steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon released into the upper Cowlitz River Basin, 2005–09 and 2012, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Serl, John D.; Kohn, Mike

    2016-08-26

    A multiyear radiotelemetry evaluation was conducted to monitor adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and coho salmon (O. kisutch) behavior and movement patterns in the upper Cowlitz River Basin. Volitional passage to this area was eliminated by dam construction in the mid-1960s, and a reintroduction program began in the mid-1990s. Fish are transported around the dams using a trap-and-haul program, and adult release sites are located in Lake Scanewa, the uppermost reservoir in the system, and in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers. Our goal was to estimate the proportion of tagged fish that fell back downstream of Cowlitz Falls Dam before the spawning period and to determine the proportion that were present in the Cowlitz and Cispus Rivers during the spawning period. Fallback is important because Cowlitz Falls Dam does not have upstream fish passage, so fish that pass the dam are unable to move back upstream and spawn. A total of 2,051 steelhead and salmon were tagged for the study, which was conducted during 2005–09 and 2012, and 173 (8.4 percent) of these regurgitated their transmitter prior to, or shortly after release. Once these fish were removed from the dataset, the final number of fish that was monitored totaled 1,878 fish, including 647 steelhead, 770 Chinook salmon, and 461 coho salmon.Hatchery-origin (HOR) and natural-origin (NOR) steelhead, Chinook salmon, and coho salmon behaved differently following release into Lake Scanewa. Detection records showed that the percentage of HOR fish that moved upstream and entered the Cowlitz River or Cispus River after release was relatively low (steelhead = 38 percent; Chinook salmon = 67 percent; coho salmon = 41 percent) compared to NOR fish (steelhead = 84 percent; Chinook salmon = 82 percent; coho salmon = 76 percent). The elapsed time from release to river entry was significantly lower for NOR fish than for HOR fish for all three species. Tagged fish entered the Cowlitz River in