Cathy A. Willis
Field Surveys were conducted in 1996 to determine the current distribution of several animal species of concern on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). They included the chuckwall (Sauromalus obesus), western burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia), and six species of bats. Nineteen chuckwallas and 118 scat locations were found during the chuckwalla field study. Eighteen western burrowing owls were found at 12 sighting locations during the 1996 field study. Of the eleven bat species of concern which might occur on the NTS, five, and possibly six, were captured during this survey. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, takes certain management actions to protect and conserve the chuckwalla, western burrowing owl, and bats on the NTS. These actions are described and include: (1) conducting surveys at sites of proposed land-disturbing activities (2) altering projects whenever possible to avoid or minimize impacts to these species (3) maintaining a geospatial database of known habitat for species of concern (4) sharing sighting and trap location data gathered on the NTS with other local land and resource managers, and (5) conducting periodic field surveys to monitor these species distribution and relative abundance on the NTS.
Field Surveys were conducted in 1996 to determine the current distribution of several animal species of concern on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). They included the chuckwall (Sauromalus obesus), western burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia), and six species of bats. Nineteen chuckwallas and 118 scat locations were found during the chuckwalla field study. Eighteen western burrowing owls were found at 12 sighting locations during the 1996 field study. Of the eleven bat species of concern which might occur on the NTS, five, and possibly six, were captured during this survey. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, takes certain management actions to protect and conserve the chuckwalla, western burrowing owl, and bats on the NTS. These actions are described and include: (1) conducting surveys at sites of proposed land-disturbing activities (2) altering projects whenever possible to avoid or minimize impacts to these species (3) maintaining a geospatial database of known habitat for species of concern (4) sharing sighting and trap location data gathered on the NTS with other local land and resource managers, and (5) conducting periodic field surveys to monitor these species distribution and relative abundance on the NTS
Paul D. Greger and Derek B. Hall
Understanding long-term patterns of burrow occupancy for the Western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) is necessary for the conservation of this species, especially in arid, desert ecosystems where burrow occupancy data are lacking. Monthly burrow monitoring was conducted over a 4-year period (1997–2001) in southern Nevada to determine burrow occupancy patterns of Burrowing Owls and to evaluate the effects of burrow type and desert region on burrow occupancy. Burrow occupancy occurred year-round and was most consistent in the Transition region and tended to be lowest in the Mojave Desert region. Peak burrow occupancy occurred during March through May, followed by a gradual decline in occupancy through the summer and fall until January and February, when occupancy was lowest. Occupancy was significantly higher at sites with both culvert and pipe burrows than at sites with earthen burrows in disturbed habitat or earthen burrows in natural habitat. Breeding-season occupancy was not significantly higher in wetter, cooler portions (e.g., Great Basin desert region) of the study area. Results suggest that occupancy is influenced by habitat features—such as suitable burrows in open areas with low vegetation—and climatic regime.
Littles, C.J.; Williford, D.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.
Winter diets of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are little known. We determined the diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas by analyzing the contents of 182 pellets collected over four winters (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004) in three habitat types (agricultural, mainland grassland, and barrier island). Remains of a total of 7476 prey items were recovered, 98% of which were arthropods. Gryllidae (crickets) formed the largest component (50%) of the prey, followed by lepidopteran larvae (13%), beetles (8%), spiders (7%), and earwigs (6%). Although vertebrates, primarily small mammals and birds, represented only 2% of prey items by number, they represented most (71%) of the biomass. Northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori) and fulvous harvest mice (Reithrodontomys fulveccens) were the two most frequently consumed vertebrate species. In all habitats, arthropods, especially orthopterans, were the primary prey item by number, whereas vertebrates, primarily small mammals, were the most important by biomass. Greater consumption of arthropods by Burrowing Owls in agricultural areas may be a factor contributing to owl use of these highly altered environments. ?? 2007 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.
Faircloth, Brant C; Title, Alexandra; Tan, Kevin; Welty, Justin; Belthoff, James R.; Gowaty, Patricia Adair
Western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are ground-dwelling owls distributed throughout western North America. Because of population declines, this species is considered endangered in Canada, and burrowing owls are listed as a species of conservation concern in states of the western USA. Korfanta et al. (2002) previously presented primers for seven microsatellite loci in burrowing owls. Parentage and relatedness studies require a larger number of markers for accuracy and precisio...
Wiluford, D.L.; Woodin, M.C.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Hickman, G.C.
The northern pygmy mouse (Baiomys taylori), fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), and Merriam's pocket mouse (Pemgnathus merriami) are new to the diet of the western burrowing owl (Athene cuniculana hypugaed). All three species were identified from remains in regurgitated pellets collected from roost sites of burrowing owls in southern Texas over a period of 4 winters. Together, northern pygmy mice and fulvous harvest mice represented 58% of mammals identified in 182 pellets regurgitated by western burrowing owls. Merriam's pocket mouse accounted for only 4% of identified mammalian prey. Frequency of occurrence in pellets was 16% for northern pygmv mice, 11% for fulvous harvest mice, and 3% for Merriam's pocket mice. The primary reason for absence of these species in previous studies of foods of western burrowing owls is that most were conducted in latitudes north of these southern-distributed species of mammals.
Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary K.; Hickman, Graham C.
This study examines the winter ecology of the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in five Texas counties surrounding Corpus Christi, in southern Texas. There is a substantial gap in information on the owl's life cycle during migration and non-breeding winter months; almost all previous research on western burrowing owls has been conducted during the breeding season. The western burrowing owl currently is federally threatened in Mexico, federally endangered in Canada, and in the United States is considered a National Bird of Conservation Concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Topics investigated included status, effectiveness of public outreach, roost sites and use of culverts and artificial burrows, roost site fidelity, diet, contaminant burdens, body mass, and ectoparasites. Early ornithological reports and a museum egg set revealed that burrowing owls once bred in southern Texas and were common in winter; however, since the 1950's they have been reported in relatively low numbers and only during winter. In this study, public outreach increased western burrowing owl detections by 68 percent. Owls selected winter roost sites with small-diameter openings, including culverts less than or equal to 16 centimeters and artificial burrows of 15 centimeters, probably because the small diameters deterred mammalian predators. Owls showed strong roost site fidelity; 15 banded birds stayed at the same roost sites within a winter, and 8 returned to the same site the following winter. The winter diet was over 90 percent insects, with crickets the primary prey. Analyses of invertebrate prey and regurgitated pellets showed that residues of all but 3 of 28 carbamate and organophosphate pesticides were detected at least once, but all were below known lethal concentrations. Mean body mass of western burrowing owls was 168 grams and was highest in midwinter. Feather lice were detected in low numbers on a few owls, but no fleas or other ectoparasites were found.
Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier
We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.
Chipman, E.D.; McIntyre, N.E.; Ray, J.D.; Wallace, M.C.; Boal, C.W.
We studied the behavioral effects of necklace-style radiotransmitters on breeding male western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in 2 areas of northwestern Texas, USA, in 2004 and 2005. We tested the hypothesis that transmittered owls would spend time interacting with their necklaces and as a result spend less time in vigilance and resting activities than would nontransmittered owls. Nontransmittered owls (n = 6) spent significantly more time being vigilant (P = 0.007) than did transmittered owls (n = 3) in 2004, who spent significant amounts of time interacting with their necklaces. In 2005, behaviors of transmittered owls (n = 8) were significantly different (P owls spent a significant amount of time interacting with their necklaces, they appeared to habituate to the presence of the transmitters within a relatively short period (<1 week), and necklaces did not affect survivorship or fitness in the short-term.
Hall, Derek B. [NSTec; Greger, Paul D. [NSTec
We used motion-activated cameras to monitor the reproduction and patterns of activity of the Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) above ground at 45 burrows in south-central Nevada during the breeding seasons of 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2005. The 37 broods, encompassing 180 young, raised over the four years represented an average of 4.9 young per successful breeding pair. Young and adult owls were detected at the burrow entrance at all times of the day and night, but adults were detected more frequently during afternoon/early evening than were young. Motion-activated cameras require less effort to implement than other techniques. Limitations include photographing only a small percentage of owl activity at the burrow; not detecting the actual number of eggs, young, or number fledged; and not being able to track individual owls over time. Further work is also necessary to compare the accuracy of productivity estimates generated from motion-activated cameras with other techniques.
Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.
Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.
Dorgan, Kelly M; Jumars, Peter A; Johnson, Bruce; Boudreau, B P; Landis, Eric
Until now, the analysis of burrowing mechanics has neglected the mechanical properties of impeding, muddy, cohesive sediments, which behave like elastic solids. Here we show that burrowers can progress through such sediments by using a mechanically efficient, previously unsuspected mechanism--crack propagation--in which an alternating 'anchor' system of burrowing serves as a wedge to extend the crack-shaped burrow. The force required to propagate cracks through sediment in this way is relatively small: we find that the force exerted by the annelid worm Nereis virens in making and moving into such a burrow amounts to less than one-tenth of the force it needs to use against rigid aquarium walls. PMID:15690029
Belthoff, James R; Bernhardt, Scott A; Ball, Christopher L; Gregg, Michael; Johnson, David H; Ketterling, Rachel; Price, Emily; Tinker, Juliette K
Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls of western North America that frequent prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands. Because they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorial mammals, the owls often harbor fleas. We examined the potential role of fleas found on burrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of Yersinia pestis in fleas collected from burrowing owls and in owl blood. During 2012-2013, fleas and blood were collected from burrowing owls in portions of five states with endemic plague-Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, and South Dakota. Fleas were enumerated, taxonomically identified, pooled by nest, and assayed for Y. pestis using culturing and molecular (PCR) approaches. Owl blood underwent serological analysis for plague antibodies and nested PCR for detection of Y. pestis. Of more than 4750 fleas collected from owls, Pulex irritans, a known plague vector in portions of its range, comprised more than 99.4%. However, diagnostic tests for Y. pestis of flea pools (culturing and PCR) and owl blood (PCR and serology) were negative. Thus, even though fleas were prevalent on burrowing owls and the potential for a relationship with burrowing owls as a phoretic host of infected fleas exists, we found no evidence of Y. pestis in sampled fleas or in owls that harbored them. We suggest that studies similar to those reported here during plague epizootics will be especially useful for confirming these results. PMID:26367482
Belthoff, James R.; Bernhardt, Scott A; Ball, Christopher; Gregg, Michael; Johnson, David H.; Ketterling, Rachel; Price, Emily; Tinker, Juliette K.
Western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls ofwestern North America that frequent prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands.As they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorialmammals, the owls often harbor fleas. We examined the potential role of fleas found onburrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of Yersinia pestis in fleas and inowl blood. During 2012-2013 fleas and blood were ...
Engelman, Catherine A.; Grant, William E.; Mora, Miguel A.; Woodin, Marc
We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove
Graham, Christine B; Eisen, Rebecca J; Belthoff, James R
Pulex irritans L. is a cosmopolitan flea species that infests a wide variety of hosts. In North America it generally parasitizes large wild mammals, but in the Pacific Northwest an association has emerged between P. irritans and the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea). While investigators have recognized this association for decades, it has not been clear if P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls, or if the owls serve exclusively as phoretic hosts. Here we describe using a real-time assay that was originally developed to identify bloodmeals in Ugandan cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis Bouché) to detect burrowing owl DNA in P. irritans collected from burrowing owls in southern Idaho. Of 50 fleas tested, 12 had no detectable vertebrate bloodmeal. The remaining 38 (76%) contained burrowing owl DNA. The assay did not detect vertebrate DNA in unfed fleas exposed to owl or mouse pelts and is therefore unlikely to detect DNA in fleas from vertebrates that have served exclusively as phoretic hosts. We conclude that P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls. We discuss the potential implications of this finding for burrowing owl conservation and enzootic plague dynamics. PMID:26545716
Lantz, S.J.; Conway, C.J.; Anderson, S.H.
Some populations of western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) have declined in recent decades. To design and implement effective recovery efforts, we need a better understanding of how distribution and demographic traits are influenced by habitat quality. To this end, we measured spatial patterns of burrowing owl breeding habitat selection within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in northeastern Wyoming, USA. We compared burrow-, site-, colony-, and landscape-scale habitat parameters between burrowing owl nest burrows (n = 105) and unoccupied burrows (n = 85). We sampled 4 types of prairie dog colonies: 1) owl-occupied, active with prairie dogs (n = 16); 2) owl-occupied, inactive (n = 13); 3) owl-unoccupied, active (n = 14); and 4) owl-unoccupied, inactive (n = 14). We used an information-theoretic approach to examine a set of candidate models of burrowing owl nest-site selection. The model with the most support included variables at all 4 spatial scales, and results were consistent among the 4 types of prairie dog colonies. Nest burrows had longer tunnels, more available burrows within 30 m, and less shrub cover within 30 m, more prairie dog activity within 100 m, and were closer to water than unoccupied burrows. The model correctly classified 76% of cases, all model coefficients were stable, and the model had high predictive ability. Based on our results, we recommend actions to ensure persistence of the remaining prairie dog colonies as an important management strategy for burrowing owl conservation in the Great Plains of North America.
Hornung, M. N.
During a recent study of soil erosion in the Farne Islands, Northumberland puffin colony it became clear that any interpretation of the erosion process and its causes would require information on the size of nest burrows, their excavation and useful life. The following paper is an attempt to bring together published material on these topics with additional data obtained during the Farne Islands study
Skoruppa, M.K.; Pearce, B.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.
Fifteen Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) were captured over two winters (2001-2003) in southern Texas and examined for ectoparasites. Four of the 15 owls (27%) harbored feather lice, and the maximum number of lice found on any individual was ??? three. Two species of feather lice were found: Colpocephalum pectinatum occurred on three of the owls, and Strigiphilus speotyti was found on four owls. No fleas or other ectoparasites were found on any of the Burrowing Owls. The low diversity and numbers of ectoparasites suggest that ectoparasites are not threatening the health of wintering Burrowing Owls in southern Texas.
Shaffer, Jill A; Thiele, Jason P.
Western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) populations have declined across much of western North America, particularly at the northern and eastern edges of the species’ breeding range (Martell et al. 2001, Murphy et al. 2001, Shyry et al. 2001, Skeel et al. 2001, Klute et al. 2003). In South Dakota, the burrowing owl is a summer resident that historically was relatively common throughout the state, but its range has decreased in recent decades, especially in the eastern half of the state (Whitney et al. 1978, South Dakota Ornithologists’ Union [SDOU] 1991, Peterson 1995). Tallman et al. (2002) described the species as uncommon to locally common in western South Dakota, uncommon in the north-central part of the state, and casual (i.e., not within the species’ normal range, but with 3–10 records in the past 10 years) elsewhere in the eastern half. The burrowing owl is a Species of Greatest Conservation Need (South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and Parks [SDGFP] 2006) and a Level I Priority Species in South Dakota (Bakker 2005).
Triandafils, Dick; Maples, Art; Breininger, Dave
Video system designed for examining interiors of burrows of gopher tortoises, 5 in. (13 cm) in diameter or greater, to depth of 18 ft. (about 5.5 m), includes video camera, video cassette recorder (VCR), television monitor, control unit, and power supply, all carried in backpack. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) poles used to maneuver camera into (and out of) burrows, stiff enough to push camera into burrow, but flexible enough to bend around curves. Adult tortoises and other burrow inhabitants observable, young tortoises and such small animals as mice obscured by sand or debris.
Dorgan, Kelly M
Burrowers and borers are ecosystem engineers that alter their physical environments through bioturbation, bioirrigation and bioerosion. The mechanisms of moving through solid substrata by burrowing or boring depend on the mechanical properties of the medium and the size and morphology of the organism. For burrowing animals, mud differs mechanically from sand; in mud, sediment grains are suspended in an organic matrix that fails by fracture. Macrofauna extend burrows through this elastic mud by fracture. Sand is granular and non-cohesive, enabling grains to more easily move relative to each other, and macrofaunal burrowers use fluidization or plastic rearrangement of grains. In both sand and mud, peristaltic movements apply normal forces and reduce shear. Excavation and localized grain compaction are mechanisms that plastically deform sediments and are effective in both mud and sand, with bulk excavation being used by larger organisms and localized compaction by smaller organisms. Mechanical boring of hard substrata is an extreme form of excavation in which no compaction of burrow walls occurs and grains are abraded with rigid, hard structures. Chemical boring involves secretion to dissolve or soften generally carbonate substrata. Despite substantial differences in the mechanics of the media, similar burrowing behaviors are effective in mud and sand. PMID:25609781
Winter, Amos G; Deits, Robin L H; Hosoi, A E
Muscle measurements of Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam, indicate that the organism only has sufficient strength to burrow a few centimeters into the soil, yet razor clams burrow to over 70 cm. In this paper, we show that the animal uses the motions of its valves to locally fluidize the surrounding soil and reduce burrowing drag. Substrate deformations were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a novel visualization system that enabled us to see through the soil and watch E. directus burrow in situ. PIV data, supported by soil and fluid mechanics theory, show that contraction of the valves of E. directus locally fluidizes the surrounding soil. Particle and fluid mixtures can be modeled as a Newtonian fluid with an effective viscosity based on the local void fraction. Using these models, we demonstrate that E. directus is strong enough to reach full burrow depth in fluidized soil, but not in static soil. Furthermore, we show that the method of localized fluidization reduces the amount of energy required to reach burrow depth by an order of magnitude compared with penetrating static soil, and leads to a burrowing energy that scales linearly with depth rather than with depth squared. PMID:22623195
Murphy, Elizabeth A K; Dorgan, Kelly M
Burrowing marine infauna are morphologically diverse and ecologically important as ecosystem engineers. The polychaetes Nereis virens and Cirriformia moorei extend their burrows by crack propagation. Nereis virens does so by everting its pharynx and C. moorei, lacking an eversible pharynx or proboscis, uses its hydrostatic skeleton to expand its anterior. Both behaviors apply stress to the burrow wall that is amplified at the tip of the crack, which extends by fracture. That two species with such distinct morphologies and life histories both burrow by fracturing sediment suggests that this mechanism may be widespread among burrowers. We tested this hypothesis with the glycerid polychaete Hemipodus simplex, which has an eversible proboscis that is much longer and everts more rapidly than the pharynx of N. virens. When the proboscis is fully everted, the tip flares out wider than the rest of the proboscis, creating a shape and applying a stress distribution similar to that of N. virens and resulting in relatively large forces near the tip of the crack. These forces are larger than necessary to extend the crack by fracture and are surprisingly uncorrelated with the resulting stress amplification at the crack tip, which is also larger than necessary to extend the burrow by fracture. These large forces may plastically deform the mud, allowing the worm to build a semi-permanent burrow. Our results illustrate that similar mechanisms of burrowing are used by morphologically different burrowers. PMID:21346130
California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is...
Sawyer, Carol F.; Brinkman, Donald C.; Walker, Vincent D.; Covington, Tyler D.; Stienstraw, Elizabeth A.
Burrowing animals act like a geomorphic disturbance, changing the environment through soil excavation, landform creation and bioturbation. The potential zoogeomorphic effects of these actions include modification of surficial features, increased soil erosion, changes in the growth and distribution of vegetation, and modifications to soil fertility. The burrowing ninebanded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) migrated to North America prior to the 1850s and has since continued to expand its habitat to the American Southeast and parts of the Midwest. Little data are available on the zoogeomorphic impact of the burrowing nature of this species, making it difficult to predict future implications of this animal as it continues to migrate into new regions. On the University of South Alabama campus, in Mobile, Alabama, armadillos are present on a 35-hectare unprotected forested preserve used by the university community for outdoor activities and research. To understand the potential zoogeomorphic impact of armadillo burrows on the local environment, morphometric measurements were recorded on 187 burrows located in the study area. Using dimensions of burrow entrances and minimum lengths of tunnels in calculations, armadillos excavated approximately 0.029 m3 to 0.04 m3 of soil from each burrow. The entrances to burrows averaged 33.5° in slope and tended to be located in a microhabitat of a fallen tree, exposed tree roots, or a sideslope. Persistent fall of forest litter and anthropogenic modifications makes positive identification of spoil mounds possible in approximately half of the burrow sites. Surface modification by armadillos is ongoing in the study area with over half of the burrows classified as active during the four-month project. We concluded that, for southern Alabama, armadillos prefer to excavate burrows into sideslopes, and that given the lack of ground cover, sandy soil, and humid climate, armadillos are an important zoogeomorphic agent in the region.
Loughran, Caleb L.; Ennen, Joshua; Lovich, Jeffrey E.
In the deserts of the southwestern U.S., burrows are utilized by the Desert Tortoise to escape environmental extremes (reviewed by Ernst and Lovich 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada. 2nd ed. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 827 pp.). However, the potential for mortality through burrow collapse and entrapment is poorly documented. Nicholson and Humphreys (1981. Proceedings of the Desert Tortoise Council, pp. 163−194) suggested that collapse due to livestock trampling may cause mortality. In addition, Lovich et al. (2011. Chelon. Cons. Biol. 10:124–129) documented a Desert Tortoise that used a steel culvert as a burrow surrogate. The culvert filled completely with sediment following a significant rain event, entombing the animal and ultimately resulting in its death. We note that this mortality was associated with an anthropogenic structure; because tortoises are prodigious diggers, one might hypothesize that they have the ability to dig out of collapsed natural burrows in most situations. Circumstances described here presented us with an opportunity to test this hypothesis.
Williford, D.L.; Woodin, M.C.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Hickman, G.C.
The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) is threatened in Mexico, endangered in Canada, and declining in most of the western United States. Most previous research has focused on burrowing owl breeding biology, and little is known about its winter ecology. We determined characteristics of roost sites used by western burrowing owls in southern Texas during winter. Data on 46 winter roost sites were collected from 15 November 2001 to 15 February 2002. Of these roost sites, 87% were located on agricultural land, 80% were along roads, and 74% were concrete, steel, or cast-iron culverts. Mean diameter (??SE) of roost site openings was 22 ?? 1.5 cm. Most roost sites (70%) were located on inaccessible private lands. Bare ground comprised 61% of ground cover within a 10-m radius of roost sites. We recommend that landowners and public-land managers should be encouraged to use smaller-diameter culverts when building roads or replacing old or damaged culverts and to graze livestock or mow around these culverts during winter.
Conway, C.J.; Pardieck, K.L.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that burrowing owls have declined in Washington. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife is currently conducting a status review for burrowing owls which will help determine whether they should be listed as threatened or endangered in the state. To provide insights into the current status of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia), we analyzed data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey using two analytical approaches to determine their current population trajectory in eastern Washington. We used a one-sample t-test to examine whether trend estimates across all BBS routes in Washington differed from zero. We also used a mixed model analysis to estimate the rate of decline in number of burrowing owls detected between 1968 and 2005. The slope in number of burrowing owls detected was negative for 12 of the 16 BBS routes in Washington that have detected burrowing owls. Numbers of breeding burrowing owls detected in eastern Washington declined at a rate of 1.5% annually. We suggest that all BBS routes that have detected burrowing owls in past years in eastern Washington be surveyed annually and additional surveys conducted to track population trends of burrowing owls at finer spatial scales in eastern Washington. In the meantime, land management and regulatory agencies should ensure that publicly managed areas with breeding burrowing owls are not degraded and should implement education and outreach programs to promote protection of privately owned areas with breeding owls.
Wilde, Justin W.; Lindsey, Cole T.; Nugent, John J.
The monitoring during 2012 focused on documenting the status of known burrows. Newly identified burrows were documented while examining historical locations, during ecological resource reviews, or discovered during other monitoring efforts. The timing of the monitoring effort allowed staff to perform the surveys without disrupting any breeding or hatching, while also allowing for easy discernment of adults from juveniles, which helped in determining burrow-use type.
Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W
Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture. PMID:23446526
Koo, Bon Joo; Koh, Chul-Hwan
Macrofaunal burrows increase the surface area of the sediment-water interface, which has a great impact on the metabolism of aerobic microbes and the oscillation of reduced metabolites within the sediment. Given the importance of macrofauna in surficial sediments, the aim of this study is to examine the effects of burrow architectures on dissolved oxygen diffusion rates in comparison with unburrowed sediment, and thereby to evaluate the theoretical assumption used for modeling solute distribution in the burrow system using field samples. Employing microsensors, horizontal oxygen profiles were measured on a micrometer scale around burrows of seven invertebrates in tidal flats of the west coast of Korea. Oxygen diffusion distance through the burrow walls of seven invertebrates showed spatio-temporal variation with a range of 0.6 to 2.9 mm. Two groups of burrows were identified based on their oxygen diffusive properties relative to unburrowed sediments: 1) oxygen penetration similar to that of ambient sediments and 2) clearly enhanced oxygen penetration. Differences in the diffusive properties of the burrow wall were related to the burrow depth and diameter, existence of mucus lining on the wall, sediment grain size, and tidal phases. Also inhabitant activity was an important factor affecting oxygen penetration, which is discussed in the paper. These results further demonstrate that simplified assumptions (i.e. burrow structures are viewed as direct biogeochemical extensions of the sediment-water interface) may not be exact representation of the nature.
Dorgan, Kelly M; Lefebvre, Stephane; Stillman, Jonathon H; Koehl, M A R
Burrowing through marine sediments has been considered to be much more energetically expensive than other forms of locomotion, but previous studies were based solely on external work calculations and lacked an understanding of the mechanical responses of sediments to forces applied by burrowers. Muddy sediments are elastic solids through which worms extend crack-shaped burrows by fracture. Here we present data on energetics of burrowing by Cirriformia moorei. We calculated the external energy per distance traveled from the sum of the work to extend the burrow by fracture and the elastic work done to displace sediment as a worm moves into the newly formed burrow to be 9.7 J kg(-1) m(-1) in gelatin and 64 J kg(-1) m(-1) in sediment, much higher than for running or walking. However, because burrowing worms travel at slow speeds, the increase in metabolic rate due to burrowing is predicted to be small. We tested this prediction by measuring aerobic metabolism (oxygen consumption rates) and anaerobic metabolism (concentrations of the anaerobic metabolite tauropine and the energy-storage molecule phosphocreatine) of C. moorei. None of these components was significantly different between burrowing and resting worms, and the low increases in oxygen consumption rates or tauropine concentrations predicted from external work calculations were within the variability observed across individuals. This result suggests that the energy to burrow, which could come from aerobic or anaerobic sources, is not a substantial component of the total metabolic energy of a worm. Burrowing incurs a low cost per unit of time. PMID:21653814
Animal burrowing is critical to the formation of soils and contributes to the interface between geological materials and organic life. It also influences the management of hazardous materials at nuclear waste facilities and elsewhere. For example, residues and waste products from the production of nuclear weapons are released onto the ground surface and within engineered burial structures. Soil bioturbation has exposed radionuclides and other hazardous materials to wind and rain, thereby risking inhalation and injury to humans and wildlife on and off site. Soil bioturbation can expand soil depths and spatial distributions of the source term of hazardous waste, potentially increasing chronic exposures to wildlife and humans over the long term. Ample evidence indicates that some of the large quantities of hazardous materials around the world have been released from soil repositories, where they have also contaminated and harmed biota
Deacon, Robert M J
Virtually all rodents display burrowing behavior, yet measurement of this behavior has not yet been standardized or formalized. Previously, parameters such as the latency to burrow and the complexity of the burrow systems in substrate-filled boxes in the laboratory or naturalistic outdoor environments have been assessed. We describe here a simple protocol that can quantitatively measure burrowing in laboratory rodents, using a simple apparatus that can be placed in the home cage. The test is very cheap to run and requires minimal experimenter training, yet seems sensitive to a variety of treatments, such as the early stages of prion disease in mice, mouse strain differences, lesions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in mice, also effects of lipopolysaccharide and IL-1beta in rats. Other species such as hamsters, gerbils and Egyptian spiny mice also burrow in this apparatus, and with suitable size modification probably almost any burrowing animal could be tested in it. The simplicity, sensitivity and robustness of burrowing make it ideal for assessing genetically modified animals, which in most cases would be mice. The test is run from late afternoon until the next morning, but only two measurements need to be taken. PMID:17406222
Dorgan, Kelly M; Arwade, Sanjay R; Jumars, Peter A
The polychaete Nereis virens burrows through muddy sediments by exerting dorsoventral forces against the walls of its tongue-depressor-shaped burrow to extend an oblate hemispheroidal crack. Stress is concentrated at the crack tip, which extends when the stress intensity factor (KI) exceeds the critical stress intensity factor (KIc). Relevant forces were measured in gelatin, an analog for elastic muds, by photoelastic stress analysis, and were 0.015+/-0.001 N (mean +/- s.d.; N=5). Measured elastic moduli (E) for gelatin and sediment were used in finite element models to convert the forces in gelatin to those required in muds to maintain the same body shapes observed in gelatin. The force increases directly with increasing sediment stiffness, and is 0.16 N for measured sediment stiffness of E=2.7 x 10(4) Pa. This measurement of forces exerted by burrowers is the first that explicitly considers the mechanical behavior of the sediment. Calculated stress intensity factors fall within the range of critical values for gelatin and exceed those for sediment, showing that crack propagation is a mechanically feasible mechanism of burrowing. The pharynx extends anteriorly as it everts, extending the crack tip only as far as the anterior of the worm, consistent with wedge-driven fracture and drawing obvious parallels between soft-bodied burrowers and more rigid, wedge-shaped burrowers (i.e. clams). Our results raise questions about the reputed high energetic cost of burrowing and emphasize the need for better understanding of sediment mechanics to quantify external energy expenditure during burrowing. PMID:18025018
Alexander, Amanda K.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Duberstein, Corey A.
In 2003 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed an Emergency Vehicle Operations Course (EVOC) at the Hazardous Material Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) in the southern portion of the Hanford Site. Preliminary surveys during 2001 identified an active burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) burrow and three burrowing owls within the proposed development area. Burrowing owls were classified as a federal species of concern, a Washington State ?candidate? species, a Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife priority species, and a Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan Level III resource. Therefore, the mitigation action plan for the project included the installation of twenty artificial burrows around EVOC in the spring of 2003. The mitigation plan established a success criterion of five percent annual use of the burrows by owls. In July 2005, a field survey of the EVOC burrow complex was conducted to determine use and demography at each site. Burrow locations were mapped and signs of activity (feces, owl tracks, castings, feathers) were recorded. Out of the twenty burrows, twelve were found to be active. Of the eight inactive burrows three appeared to have been active earlier in the 2005 breeding season. A total of nineteen owls were counted but demography could not be determined. It appears that the EVOC mitigation exceeded burrow use goals during 2005. Continued site monitoring and maintenance, according to mitigation plan guidelines should be conducted as prescribed.
Che, James; Dorgan, Kelly M
The polychaete Cirriformia moorei burrows in muddy sediments by fracture, using its hydrostatic skeleton to expand its anterior region and exert force against its burrow wall to extend a crack. Burrowing occurs in four phases: stretching forward into the burrow, extending the crack anteriorly, thickening the burrowing end to amplify stress at the tip of the crack, and bringing the rest of the body forward as a peristaltic wave travels posteriorly. Here, we show that C. moorei is also able to burrow with its posterior end using a similar mechanism of crack propagation and exhibiting the same four phases of burrowing. Worms burrowed backwards with similar speeds and stress intensity factors as forward burrowing, but were thinner and less blunt and did not slip as far away from the crack tip between cycles of burrowing. The anterior end is more muscular and rigid, and differences in body shapes are consistent with having reduce musculature to dilate the posterior segments while burrowing. Backward burrowing provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of morphology on burrowing mechanics within the same species under identical conditions. PMID:21113009
Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.
Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) routinely collect and scatter dry manure of mammals around their nesting burrows. Recent studies have suggested this behavior attracts insect prey to the nesting burrow. However, some Burrowing Owls do not use manure, but instead, collect and scatter other materials (e.g., grass, moss, paper, plastic) around their nesting burrow in a similar fashion. Use of these materials seemingly contradicts the prey-attraction hypothesis. Using observational and experimental methods, we tested whether Burrowing Owls preferred manure to other materials commonly found at nesting burrows in eastern Washington. We found a wide variety of materials at nests, but grass and manure were the most common materials. The amount of manure present at nests was negatively correlated with the amount of other materials, and with the distance to the nearest source of manure. Burrowing Owls showed no preference between horse manure and grass divots at experimental supply stations that we placed near nesting burrows. They did prefer these two materials to carpet pieces and aluminum foil (both materials that are often found at Burrowing Owl nests). Our results did not support the premise that Burrowing Owls specifically seek out manure when lining their nesting burrows. The unusual behavior of collecting and scattering mammal manure and other debris at Burrowing Owl nests may serve functions other than (or in addition to) prey attraction and alternative hypotheses need further testing before the function of this behavior is certain. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An attempt to establish a breeding population of Atlantic puffin colony using artificial and modified burrows on Petit Manan Island resulted in 3 of 17 burrows...
Meysman, Filip J.R.; Galaktionov, O.S.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Middelburg, Jack J.
Diffusion is the dominant physical mechanism for the transfer of oxygen into fine-grained aquatic sediments. This diffusive uptake occurs at the sediment-water interface, but also at internal interfaces, such as along ventilated burrows or O2 releasing plant roots. Here, we present a systematic...... model analysis of the oxygen transfer at such biological interfaces. We list the equations for the O2 distribution, the flux, the oxygen penetration distance (OPD), the oxygenated sediment volume, and the irrigational oxygen uptake (IOU) as a function of biological parameters, such as burrow/root radius...
Adeyeye, O A; Butler, J F
Burrows of the gopher tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus Daudin, were sampled for Ornithodoros turicata (Dugès) infestation using carbon dioxide baits and vacuum extraction. Ticks were captured, marked, released, and recaptured, and population estimates were made using the Lincoln index. Estimated population ranged from 47 to 1,338 ticks per burrow. The tick population consisted predominantly of nymphs, with a significant increase in the larval population during the months of June and July. Adult sex ratio was slightly male-biased, but numbers of adults collected were consistently low. Ticks exhibited a low interburrow movement, but depth preferences fluctuated with season; more ticks occurred in the upper strata of the burrows during the hot, humid months. PMID:2769706
Francoeur, Alex A; Dorgan, Kelly M
Muddy and sandy sediments have different physical properties. Muds are cohesive elastic solids, whereas granular beach sands are non-cohesive porous media. Infaunal organisms such as worms that burrow through sediments therefore face different mechanical challenges that potentially lead to a variety of burrowing strategies and morphologies. In this study we compared three morphologically distinct polychaete species representing different clades in the family Orbiniidae and related differences in their burrowing behaviors and morphologies to their natural environments (mud or sand). Worms burrowed in transparent analogs for muds and sands, and kinematic analysis showed differences both among species and between materials. Leitoscoloplos pugettensis lives in mud and burrows by fracture, using its pointed head to concentrate stress at the tip of the burrow. Naineris dendritica lives in sand and uses its broader head that fluctuates in width over a burrowing cycle to decrease backward slipping in sand, potentially preventing burrow collapse. Orbinia johnsoni lives in sand and uses internal body expansions to pack sand grains, another mechanism to prevent burrow collapse. By combining data from species and materials to obtain a broad range of burrowing velocities, we show that burrowing worms control their velocity by increasing or decreasing their burrowing frequency rather than by altering cycle distance as shown previously for crawling earthworms. This study demonstrates how fairly small evolutionary divergences in morphologies and behaviors facilitate locomotion in environments with different physical constraints. PMID:24797095
Brand, Andreas; Lewandowski, JöRg; Hamann, Enrico; Nützmann, Gunnar
Advective transport in the porous matrix of sediments surrounding burrows formed by fauna such as Chironomus plumosus has been generally neglected. A positron emission tomography study recently revealed that the pumping activity of the midge larvae can indeed induce fluid flow in the sediment. We present a numerical model study which explores the conditions at which advective transport in the sediment becomes relevant. A 0.15 m deep U-shaped burrow with a diameter of 0.002 m within the sediment was represented in a 3-D domain. Fluid flow in the burrow was calculated using the Navier-Stokes equation for incompressible laminar flow in the burrow, and flow in the sediment was described by Darcy's law. Nonreactive and reactive transport scenarios were simulated considering diffusion and advection. The pumping activity of the model larva results in considerable advective flow in the sediment at reasonable high permeabilities with flow velocities of up to 7.0 × 10-6 m s-1 close to the larva for a permeability of 3 × 10-12 m2. At permeabilities below 7 × 10-13 m2 advection is negligible compared to diffusion. Reactive transport simulations using first-order kinetics for oxygen revealed that advective flux into the sediment downstream of the pumping larva enhances sedimentary uptake, while the advective flux into the burrow upstream of the larvae inhibits diffusive sedimentary uptake. Despite the fact that both effects cancel each other with respect to total solute uptake, the advection-induced asymmetry in concentration distribution can lead to a heterogeneous solute and redox distribution in the sediment relevant to complex reaction networks.
Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.
Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.
Thomas, H. G.; Scantlebury, M.; Swanepoel, D.; Bateman, P. W.; Bennett, N. C.
Sociality in mole rats has been suggested to have evolved as a response to the widely dispersed food resources and the limited burrowing opportunities that result from sporadic rainfall events. In the most arid regions, individual foraging efficiency is reduced, and energetic constraints increase. In this study, we investigate seasonal differences in burrow architecture of the social Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus in a mesic region. We describe burrow geometry in response to seasonal weather conditions for two seasons (wet and dry). Interactions occurred between seasons and colony size for the size of the burrow systems, but not the shape of the burrow systems. The fractal dimension values of the burrow systems did not differ between seasons. Thus, the burrow complexity was dependent upon the number of mole rats present in the social group.
Winter, Amos G
This fluid dynamics video demonstrates the capabilities of an experimental setup to visualize organisms burrowing in granular substrates. The setup consists of a tank filled with 1mm soda-lime glass beads, backlit by halogen lights. The walls can be moved such that the space bound by them can expand or contract to fit various organisms. A recirculation system oxygenates and cools the salt water that flows through the substrate. The video shows the burrowing behavior of a razor clam (Ensis directus) and a quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria). Both animals inflate their foot with blood, making the foot a terminal anchor against which they pull their shell downwards. Deformation of the granular substrate can be seen around the animals as they advance downwards.
Sooknanan, K.; Doyle, J.; Kokaram, A.; Corrigan, D.; Wilson, J.; Harte, N.
Harvesting the commercially significant lobster,Nephrops norvegicus, is a multimillion dollar industry in Europe. Stock assessment is essential for maintaining this activity but it is conducted by manually inspecting hours of underwater surveillance videos. To improve this tedious process, we propose the use of mosaics for the automated detection of burrows on the seabed. We present novel approaches for handling the difficult lighting conditions that cause poor video quality in this kin...
Lim, H.; Park, S.; Lee, J.; Lee, Y.
Rodent burrows are commonly found at many Paleolithic archaeological sites in Korea. They are nearly straight in horizontal view and gently inclined in lateral view. Burrow diameters are mostly 7 - 10cm, and burrow length may reach a few meters. Vertical penetration depths are generally about 1 m from the surface, and the thickness of the burrow-bearing layer is about 1-2 m. Although no remains (bones, teeth, claws, and coprolites) were found within burrows, they are interpreted to have been produced by rodent-like mammals (probably ground squirrels) based on the size and architecture. According to the previous study, the age of these burrows was constrained to be between ca. 40,000 and 25,000 yr BP by tephrochronology, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating results (Lim et al., 2007). However, little is known about the reason why these burrows have disappeared after late Pleistocene time. For this question, two explanations can be considered: extinction or migration. Since same kinds of burrows are still found in the high-latitude regions, such as Mongolia and North America, the possibility of extinction can be ruled out. Therefore, migration seems to be the most likely explanation. Our results show that the destruction of habitat caused by climate change during this period is the main reason for the northward migration of burrowing animals. This study suggests that rodent burrows found in the late Pleistocene paleosols can provide useful information on paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental changes.
Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email: email@example.com, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.
Crowe, D.E.; Longshore, K.M.
We estimated relative abundance and density of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at two sites in the Mojave Desert (200304). We made modifications to previously established Burrowing Owl survey techniques for use in desert shrublands and evaluated several factors that might influence the detection of owls. We tested the effectiveness of the call-broadcast technique for surveying this species, the efficiency of this technique at early and late breeding stages, and the effectiveness of various numbers of vocalization intervals during broadcasting sessions. Only 1 (3) of 31 initial (new) owl responses was detected during passive-listening sessions. We found that surveying early in the nesting season was more likely to produce new owl detections compared to surveying later in the nesting season. New owls detected during each of the three vocalization intervals (each consisting of 30 sec of vocalizations followed by 30 sec of silence) of our broadcasting session were similar (37, 40, and 23; n 30). We used a combination of detection trials (sighting probability) and double-observer method to estimate the components of detection probability, i.e., availability and perception. Availability for all sites and years, as determined by detection trials, ranged from 46.158.2. Relative abundance, measured as frequency of occurrence and defined as the proportion of surveys with at least one owl, ranged from 19.232.0 for both sites and years. Density at our eastern Mojave Desert site was estimated at 0.09 ?? 0.01 (SE) owl territories/km2 and 0.16 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km2 during 2003 and 2004, respectively. In our southern Mojave Desert site, density estimates were 0.09 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km2 and 0.08 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km 2 during 2004 and 2005, respectively. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.
Kaplan, D. T.; Opperman, C. H.
Burrowing nematodes from Central America, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were characterized for their ability to parasitize citrus, but citrus parasites were found only in Florida. Sequence tag sites originally amplified from a citrus-parasitic burrowing nematode were polymorphic among 37 burrowing nematode isolates and were not correlated with citrus parasitism, nematode isolate collection site, or amplification of a 2.4-kb sequence tag site (DK#1). Results ...
Shannon Sample; MarcAlbrecht
Objective: To determine the burrow morphology of Cardisoma guanhumi and to determine if a battery-powered fiber optic camera could be used to investigate these burrows. Methods: A portable fiber optic camera was used to investigate 116 active burrows. All burrows were categorized according to shape. The diameter of each burrow was also recorded and biomass calculations were completed at each study site. Results: Analysis showed that different study sites were more likely to have particular burrow shapes than expected. Three main types of burrows were classified as horizontal slide, short and shallow, and inverted-S. A Pearson Chi-square analysis revealed that burrow shape was not equally distributed across study sites (χ2 = 61.05, df = 18, P Conclusions: As the locations of juvenile individuals of this species are poorly known, and the species is both ecologically and economically important where it occurs, a greater understanding of burrow morphology and size segregation may help agencies be responsible for managing this natural resource to do so effectively.
Germann, D. P.; Schatz, W.; Hotz, Peter Eggenberger
dimensional (3D) objects, the first ever artificial evolution of a physical bivalve shell was performed. The result was a vertically flattened shell occupying only the top sediment layers. Insufficient control of the sediment was the major limitation of the setup and restricted the significance of the results......, there are almost no studies experimentally testing their dynamic properties. To investigate the functional morphology of the bivalve shell, we employed a synthetic methodology and built an experimental setup to simulate the burrowing process. Using an evolutionary algorithm and a printer that prints three...
Heron, S. F.; Ridd, P. V.
Animal burrows in mangrove swamps play an important role in the transport of various soluble materials, including salt. Flushing of burrows by inundating tides provides an efficient mechanism for the exchange of these materials. The density increase in the burrow, due to salt diffusion from pore water into the burrow, causes a greater resistance to the flushing. As the salinity difference between surface and burrow waters increases, the burrows no longer flush, and hydrostatic equilibrium exists between the different density waters. A flume experiment was conducted to compare burrow flushing characteristics with theoretical predictions. The results were consistent with a simple analytical theory in predicting whether burrows would flush. When equilibrium was attained, the difference between the interface depths was 10% greater than the theoretical prediction, which was within the experimental error. In addition, a comparison between a two-opening and a three-opening burrow showed that there was no benefit to the flushing capability due to additional openings. Computational fluid dynamic models were undertaken to compare with the experimental and theoretical flushing characteristics. These were also consistent with the flushing prediction theory. When equilibrium was attained, the difference between the interface depths in the model was 33% greater than the theoretical prediction. The computational study with an additional opening supported the experimental evidence that there is no advantage to the flushing. Insight into small-scale processes unable to be accurately observed could be obtained from the models, e.g. oscillations of density interfaces and turbulent scales at the burrow openings. The consistency in prediction of flushing between the theoretical, experimental and computational methods, now allows modelling of more complex burrow structures with great confidence.
Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...
Mokhtari, Mohammad; Abd Ghaffar, Mazlan; Usup, Gires; Che Cob, Zaidi
In mangrove ecosystems, litter fall accumulates as refractory organic carbon on the sediment surface and creates anoxic sediment layers. Fiddler crabs, through their burrowing activity, translocate oxygen into the anoxic layers and promote aerobic respiration, iron reduction and nitrification. In this study, the effects of four species of fiddler crabs (Uca triangularis, Uca rosea, Uca forcipata and Uca paradussumieri) on organic content, water content, porosity, redox potential and solid phase iron pools of mangrove sediments were investigated. In each crab's habitat, six cores down to 30 cm depth were taken from burrowed and non-burrowed sampling plots. Redox potential and oxidized iron pools were highest in surface sediment, while porosity, water and organic content were higher in deeper sediment. Reduced iron (Fe (II)) and redox potential were significantly different between burrowed and non-burrowed plots. Crab burrows extend the oxidized surface layer down to 4 cm depth and through the oxidation effect, reduce the organic content of sediments. The effects of burrows varied between the four species based on their shore location. The oxidation effect of burrows enhance the decomposition rate and stimulate iron reduction, which are processes that are expected to play an important role in biogeochemical properties of mangrove sediments. PMID:26797647
Full Text Available In mangrove ecosystems, litter fall accumulates as refractory organic carbon on the sediment surface and creates anoxic sediment layers. Fiddler crabs, through their burrowing activity, translocate oxygen into the anoxic layers and promote aerobic respiration, iron reduction and nitrification. In this study, the effects of four species of fiddler crabs (Uca triangularis, Uca rosea, Uca forcipata and Uca paradussumieri on organic content, water content, porosity, redox potential and solid phase iron pools of mangrove sediments were investigated. In each crab’s habitat, six cores down to 30 cm depth were taken from burrowed and non-burrowed sampling plots. Redox potential and oxidized iron pools were highest in surface sediment, while porosity, water and organic content were higher in deeper sediment. Reduced iron (Fe (II and redox potential were significantly different between burrowed and non-burrowed plots. Crab burrows extend the oxidized surface layer down to 4 cm depth and through the oxidation effect, reduce the organic content of sediments. The effects of burrows varied between the four species based on their shore location. The oxidation effect of burrows enhance the decomposition rate and stimulate iron reduction, which are processes that are expected to play an important role in biogeochemical properties of mangrove sediments.
Conway, Meaghan; Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.
Reviews of hatching asynchrony in birds recommended more studies on intraspecific variation in the extent of hatching asynchrony. We examined intraspecific variation in clutch size, laying chronology, onset of incubation, incubation period, and hatching asynchrony in burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in the Imperial Valley of California. Mean clutch size was 7.4 eggs and owls averaged 0.5 eggs laid per day. Females varied considerably in laying interval and onset of incubation (range = 1st to 9th egg in the clutch). The mean incubation period was 21.9 days. Hatching interval also varied greatly among females (x = 0.8, range 0.1-2.0 days between successively hatched eggs). Past burrowing owl studies have largely overlooked the substantial intraspecific variation in these traits or have reported estimates that differ from ours. Future studies designed to identify the environmental factors that explain the large intraspecific variation in these traits will likely provide insights into the constraints on local abundance.
Boggs, D F; Birchard, G F; Kilgore, D L
1. Measurements of certain hematological and morphological characteristics were made in burrowing owls and bobwhite in search of features that could be associated with the previously described ventilatory adaptations of the burrowing owl to hypoxia and hypercarbia. 2. Values for burrowing owls and bobwhite, respectively, were: P50 = 44.9, 46.0 torr; Hct = 36.6, 38.8 vol%, Hb = 12, 12.3 (g/100 ml); RBC = 2.72 X 10(6), 3.02 X 10(6); log P50/pH = -0.412, -0.485; delta log PCO2/delta pH = -1.39, -1.585. 3. The owls had greater heart weights and smaller tracheal volumes than the bobwhite or the predicted value. 4. No hematological characteristics of the burrowing bird distinguish it from the non-burrowing bird. PMID:6132713
Full Text Available Detection of persistent pain of a mild-to-moderate degree in laboratory mice is difficult because mice do not show unambiguous symptoms of pain or suffering using standard methods of short-term observational or clinical monitoring. This study investigated the potential use of burrowing performance — a spontaneous and highly motivated behavior — as a measure of post-operative pain in laboratory mice. The influence of minor surgery on burrowing was investigated in adult C57BL/6J mice of both genders in a modified rodent burrowing test (displacement of food pellets from a pellet-filled tube within the animal’s home cage. Almost all (98% healthy mice burrowed (mean latency 1.3 h, SEM 0.5 h. After surgery without pain treatment, latency of burrowing was significantly prolonged (mean ∆ latency 10 h. Analgesic treatment using the anti-inflammatory drug carprofen (5 mg/kg bodyweight decreased latency of burrowing after surgery (mean ∆ latency 5.5 h to the level found in mice that had been anaesthetised (mean ∆ latency 5.3 h or had received anaesthesia and analgesia (mean ∆ latency 4.6 h. Analgesia during surgery was associated with a significantly earlier onset of burrowing compared to surgery without pain treatment. A distinct gradation in burrowing performance was found ranging from the undisturbed pre-operative status to the intermediate level following anaesthesia/analgesia and surgery with analgesia, to the pronounced prolongation of latency to burrow after surgery without pain relief. In conclusion, post-surgical impairment of general condition, probably mainly attributable to pain, can be conveniently assessed in laboratory mice on the basis of the burrowing test.
Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.
A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary
Maginniss, L A; Kilgore, D L
Isocapnic O2 equilibrium curves (O2ECs) were generated for whole blood of 4 adult burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) using thin film techniques. At in vivo pHa (7.49 +/- 0.02; mean +/- 1 SEM) and 41 degrees C, the PO2 at half saturation (P50) was 42.3 +/- 0.8 Torr. CO2 and fixed acid (H+) Bohr slopes (delta log P50/delta pH) were -0.46 +/- 0.01 and -0.42 +/- 0.02, respectively, demonstrating a small specific CO2 effect. CO2 and H+ Bohr slopes were saturation-independent between 0.1 and 0.9 S. Hill plots for Athene blood were non-linear; the Hill coefficient (n) increased from 2.6 below 0.4 S to 3.4 above 0.6 S. Owl equilibrium data were accurately described by the equation: S = [(7.7 x 10(6]/(P4 + 44P3 - 108P2 + 3.5 x 10(4)P) + 1]-1. This complex O2EC shape may result from Hb heterogeneity; isoelectric focusing showed 4 isoHbs with a molar ratio of 9:1:1:1. This study revealed no apparent adaptations of Athene blood for hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. We conclude that the observed blood O2 binding properties promote tissue O2 delivery during periods of surface activity. While occupying its burrow, the owl compensates for moderate alterations in inspired gas composition partly through increased ventilation. PMID:2749025
Che, James; Dorgan, Kelly M
Burrowing marine infauna are morphologically diverse and range in size over several orders of magnitude. Whilst effects of ontogenetic and morphological differences on running, flying and swimming are relatively well understood, similar analyses of burrowing mechanics and kinematics are lacking. The polychaete Nereis virens Sars extends its burrow by fracture, using an eversible pharynx to exert force on the walls of the burrow. The resulting stress is amplified at the anterior tip of the burrow, which extends when the stress exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. Here we show that the polychaete Cirriformia moorei extends its burrow by a similar mechanism, but by using its hydrostatic skeleton rather than an eversible pharynx. Based on the dimensionless wedge number, which relates work of fracture to work to maintain body shape against the elasticity of sediment, we predicted that smaller worms would exhibit behaviors characteristic of tougher sediments and that scaling of kinematics would reflect decreasing difficulty in fracturing sediment with increasing body size. We found that smaller worms were relatively blunter and thicker, and had a greater variation of thickness than larger worms as they burrowed. Although these kinematic differences increase the stress amplification at the crack tip, smaller worms still generate lower stress intensity factors. The greater relative body thickness and shape changes of smaller worms are consistent with ontogenetic changes in forces exerted by earthworms, and are likely driven by the challenge of exerting enough stress to extend a crack with a small body size. PMID:20348335
Full Text Available Fossorialism is a beneficial adaptation for brooding, predator avoidance and protection from extreme climate. The abundance of fossilised burrow casts from the Early Triassic of southern Africa is viewed as a behavioural response by many tetrapods to the harsh conditions following the Permo-Triassic mass-extinction event. However, scarcity of vertebrate remains associated with these burrows leaves many ecological questions unanswered. Synchrotron scanning of a lithified burrow cast from the Early Triassic of the Karoo unveiled a unique mixed-species association: an injured temnospondyl amphibian (Broomistega that sheltered in a burrow occupied by an aestivating therapsid (Thrinaxodon. The discovery of this rare rhinesuchid represents the first occurrence in the fossil record of a temnospondyl in a burrow. The amphibian skeleton shows signs of a crushing trauma with partially healed fractures on several consecutive ribs. The presence of a relatively large intruder in what is interpreted to be a Thrinaxodon burrow implies that the therapsid tolerated the amphibian's presence. Among possible explanations for such unlikely cohabitation, Thrinaxodon aestivation is most plausible, an interpretation supported by the numerous Thrinaxodon specimens fossilised in curled-up postures. Recent advances in synchrotron imaging have enabled visualization of the contents of burrow casts, thus providing a novel tool to elucidate not only anatomy but also ecology and biology of ancient tetrapods.
The amount and rate at which water may penetrate a protective barrier and come into contact with buried radioactive waste is a major concern. Because burrowing animals eventually will reside on the surface of any protective barrier, the effect these burrow systems may have on the loss or retention of water needs to be determined. The first section of this document summarizes the known literature relative to small mammals and the effects that burrowing activities have on water distribution, infiltration, and the overall impact of burrows on the ecosystem. Topics that are summarized include burrow air pressures, airflow, burrow humidity, microtopography, mounding, infiltration, climate, soil evaporation, and discussions of large pores relative to water distribution. The second section of this document provides the results of the study that was conducted at the Hanford Site to determine what effect small mammal burrows have on water storage. This Biointrusion task is identified in the Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Plan in support of protective barriers. This particular animal intrusion task is one part of the overall animal intrusion task identified in Animal Intrusion Test Plan
Taylor, Joe D; Cunliffe, Michael
Previous studies have shown that the bioturbating polychaete Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor can affect the composition of bacterial communities in oil-contaminated sediments, but have not considered diversity specifically within bioturbator burrows or the impact on microbial eukaryotes. We tested the hypothesis that H. diversicolor burrows harbour different eukaryotic and bacterial communities compared with un-bioturbated sediment, and that bioturbation stimulates oil degradation. Oil-contaminated sediment was incubated with or without H. diversicolor for 30 days, after which sediment un-affected by H. diversicolor and burrow DNA/RNA samples were analysed using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and high-throughput sequencing. Fungi dominated both burrow and un-bioturbated sediment sequence libraries; however, there was significant enrichment of bacterivorous protists and nematodes in the burrows. There were also significant differences between the bacterial communities in burrows compared with un-bioturbated sediment. Increased activity and relative abundance of aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the burrows coincided with the significant reduction in hydrocarbon concentration in the bioturbated sediment. This study represents the first detailed assessment of the effect of bioturbation on total microbial communities in oil-contaminated sediments. In addition, it further shows that bioturbation is a significant factor in determining microbial diversity within polluted sediments and plays an important role in stimulating bioremediation. PMID:25858418
Adams, Amanda M; Marais, Eugene; Turner, J Scott; Prendini, Lorenzo; Pinshow, Berry
Many animals reside in burrows that may serve as refuges from predators and adverse environmental conditions. Burrow design varies widely among and within taxa, and these structures are adaptive, fulfilling physiological (and other) functions. We examined the burrow architecture of three scorpion species of the family Scorpionidae: Scorpio palmatus from the Negev desert, Israel; Opistophthalmus setifrons, from the Central Highlands, Namibia; and Opistophthalmus wahlbergii from the Kalahari desert, Namibia. We hypothesized that burrow structure maintains temperature and soil moisture conditions optimal for the behavior and physiology of the scorpion. Casts of burrows, poured in situ with molten aluminum, were scanned in 3D to quantify burrow structure. Three architectural features were common to the burrows of all species: (1) a horizontal platform near the ground surface, long enough to accommodate the scorpion, located just below the entrance, 2-5 cm under the surface, which may provide a safe place where the scorpion can monitor the presence of potential prey, predators, and mates and where the scorpion warms up before foraging; (2) at least two bends that might deter incursion by predators and may reduce convective ventilation, thereby maintaining relatively high humidity and low temperature; and (3) an enlarged terminal chamber to a depth at which temperatures are almost constant (±2-4 °C). These common features among the burrows of three different species suggest that they are important for regulating the physical environment of their inhabitants and that burrows are part of scorpions' "extended physiology" (sensu Turner, Physiol Biochem Zool 74:798-822, 2000). PMID:27312362
Adams, Amanda M.; Marais, Eugene; Turner, J. Scott; Prendini, Lorenzo; Pinshow, Berry
Many animals reside in burrows that may serve as refuges from predators and adverse environmental conditions. Burrow design varies widely among and within taxa, and these structures are adaptive, fulfilling physiological (and other) functions. We examined the burrow architecture of three scorpion species of the family Scorpionidae: Scorpio palmatus from the Negev desert, Israel; Opistophthalmus setifrons, from the Central Highlands, Namibia; and Opistophthalmus wahlbergii from the Kalahari desert, Namibia. We hypothesized that burrow structure maintains temperature and soil moisture conditions optimal for the behavior and physiology of the scorpion. Casts of burrows, poured in situ with molten aluminum, were scanned in 3D to quantify burrow structure. Three architectural features were common to the burrows of all species: (1) a horizontal platform near the ground surface, long enough to accommodate the scorpion, located just below the entrance, 2-5 cm under the surface, which may provide a safe place where the scorpion can monitor the presence of potential prey, predators, and mates and where the scorpion warms up before foraging; (2) at least two bends that might deter incursion by predators and may reduce convective ventilation, thereby maintaining relatively high humidity and low temperature; and (3) an enlarged terminal chamber to a depth at which temperatures are almost constant (±2-4 °C). These common features among the burrows of three different species suggest that they are important for regulating the physical environment of their inhabitants and that burrows are part of scorpions' "extended physiology" ( sensu Turner, Physiol Biochem Zool 74:798-822, 2000).
Faller, Matej; Harvey, Gemma L; Henshaw, Alexander J; Bertoldi, Walter; Bruno, Maria Cristina; England, Judy
Invasive species generate significant global environmental and economic costs and represent a particularly potent threat to freshwater systems. The biogeomorphic impacts of invasive aquatic and riparian species on river processes and landforms remain largely unquantified, but have the potential to generate significant sediment management issues within invaded catchments. Several species of invasive (non-native) crayfish are known to burrow into river banks and visual evidence of river bank damage is generating public concern and media attention. Despite this, there is a paucity of understanding of burrow distribution, biophysical controls and the potential significance of this problem beyond a small number of local studies at heavily impacted sites. This paper presents the first multi-catchment analysis of this phenomenon, combining existing data on biophysical river properties and invasive crayfish observations with purpose-designed field surveys across 103 river reaches to derive key trends. Crayfish burrows were observed on the majority of reaches, but burrowing tended to be patchy in spatial distribution, concentrated in a small proportion (bank biophysical properties than by reach-scale properties, and burrowed banks were more likely to be characterised by cohesive bank material, steeper bank profiles with large areas of bare bank face, often on outer bend locations. Burrow excavation alone has delivered a considerable amount of sediment to invaded river systems in the surveyed sites (3tkm(-1) impacted bank) and this represents a minimum contribution and certainly an underestimate of the absolute yield (submerged burrows were not recorded). Furthermore, burrowing was associated with bank profiles that were either actively eroding or exposed to fluvial action and/or mass failure processes, providing the first quantitative evidence that invasive crayfish may cause or accelerate river bank instability and erosion in invaded catchments beyond the scale of
Brust, Vera; Bastian, Hans-Valentin; Bastian, Anita; Schmoll, Tim
Re-occupation of existing nesting burrows in the European bee-eater Merops apiaster has only rarely - and if so mostly anecdotically - been documented in the literature record, although such behavior would substantially save time and energy. In this study, we quantify burrow re-occupation in a German colony over a period of eleven years and identify ecological variables determining reuse probability. Of 179 recorded broods, 54% took place in a reused burrow and the overall probability that one of 75 individually recognized burrows would be reused in a given subsequent year was estimated as 26.4%. This indicates that between-year burrow reuse is a common behavior in the study colony which contrasts with findings from studies in other colonies. Furthermore, burrow re-occupation probability declined highly significantly with increasing age of the breeding wall. Statistical separation of within- and between-burrow effects of the age of the breeding wall revealed that a decline in re-occupation probability with individual burrow age was responsible for this and not a selective disappearance of burrows with high re-occupation probability over time. Limited duty cycles of individual burrows may be caused by accumulating detritus or decreasing stability with increasing burrow age. Alternatively, burrow fidelity may presuppose pair fidelity which may also explain the observed restricted burrow reuse duty cycles. A consequent next step would be to extend our within-colony approach to other colonies and compare the ecological circumstances under which bee-eaters reuse breeding burrows. PMID:26355473
Full Text Available The nocturnal desert detritivore Parastiz.opus armaticeps shows differences in surface activity patterns and burrow fidelity depending on surface humidity. After rain approximately half of the beetle population, independent of sex, is highly vagile and disperses over long distances. During drought, beetles are more sedentary and show higher burrow fidelity. They also inhabit burrows that are longer and deeper than non-inhabited ones, such burrows being relatively scarce. Burrow fidelity and the adoption of a more sedentary habit during drought are considered strategies to avoid the risks of not locating a suitable burrow before sunrise and subsequent desiccation in shallow burrows.
Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross
One hundred twelve plots were established in coastal scrub and slash pine flatwoods habitats on the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to evaluate relationships between the number of burrows and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) density. All burrows were located within these plots and were classified according to tortoise activity. Depending on season, bucket trapping, a stick method, a gopher tortoise pulling device, and a camera system were used to estimate tortoise occupancy. Correction factors (% of burrows occupied) were calculated by season and habitat type. Our data suggest that less than 20% of the active and inactive burrows combined were occupied during seasons when gopher tortoises were active. Correction factors were higher in poorly-drained areas and lower in well-drained areas during the winter, when gopher tortoise activity was low. Correction factors differed from studies elsewhere, indicating that population estimates require correction factors specific to the site and season to accurately estimate population size.
Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of burrowing owl, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...
Baastrup, C. S.; Wegener, Gregers; Finnerup, N. B.
depressive flinders rats. Method: 10 flinders resistant (FRL) and 10 flinders sensitive (FSL) female rats were individually placed in a test cage with a hollow pipe (diameter: 10 cm, length: 25 cm) filled with approx. 2.5 kg of 4-7 mm grabble. The weight of displaced grabble in 1 hour served as primary...... order to have face-validity as an assay of 'rat quality of life' the method must also be sensitive in other types of disease models like anxiety and depression, where a decreased rQoL would also be expected. Aim of study: To investigate if decreased burrowing behavior is observed in the genetically...... of each drug. Results: The genetically depressive FSL rats did not burrow less than FRL control rats. Treatment with imipramin or citalopram-S did not change the burrowing behavior of the FSL rats. In contrast treatment with imipramin and citalopram-S unexpectedly decreased the burrowing behavior in...
We investigated the effects of mild hypoxia on the burrowing behavior of three marine species (the hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria, the polychaete worm Nereis virens, and the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus) and consequent effects on sediment redox profiles. Animals were introdu...
Mazumdar, A.; Joshi, R.K.; Peketi, A.; Kocherla, M.
) tubular burrow casts are also present. Filled tubes with speites are occasionally observed. (Fig. 2 j and k). Polished, transverse cross sections (Fig. 2 l) of the burrow casts show uniform pellets filling without any discernible inner burrow wall. 4...) Carbonate tubes showing spreites like structures (arrows), (l) Polished cross section of burrow cast showing homogenous pellet filling and absence of any inner burrow wall. Figure 3. Morphology and texture of the carbonate faecal pellets. (a) Faecal...
Troy I. Wellicome; Danielle Todd, L; Poulin, Ray G; Holroyd, Geoffrey L; Fisher, Ryan J
Abstract Food availability is an important limiting factor for avian reproduction. In altricial birds, food limitation is assumed to be more severe during the nestling stage than during laying or incubation, but this has yet to be adequately tested. Using food-supplementation experiments over a 5-year period, we determined the degree and timing of food limitation for burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in Canada. Burrowing owls are an endangered species and food limitation during the...
White, Craig R; Matthews, Philip G D; Seymour, Roger S
Semi-fossorial animals (burrowing surface foragers) need to balance the competing morphological requirements of terrestrial and burrowing locomotion. These species rarely show the same degree of claw, forelimb and pectoral girdle structural development that fully fossorial forms (burrowing subterranean foragers) do, but nevertheless invest considerable amounts of energy in burrow systems. The compromise between terrestrial and burrowing locomotion was investigated by measuring net costs of burrowing and pedestrian transport in the spinifex hopping mouse, Notomys alexis, a species that forages in open areas in arid environments and is adapted for saltatorial locomotion. The net cost of transport by burrowing of hopping mice was found to be more expensive than for specialised fossorial species, and burrows were estimated to represent an energy investment equivalent to the terrestrial locomotion expected to be incurred in 17-100 days. A phylogenetically independent-contrasts approach revealed that morphological specialisation for burrowing was associated with low maximum running speeds in fossorial mammals and, for non-fossorial rodents and marsupials, maximum running speed was positively correlated with an index of habitat structure that ranged from arboreal to open desert. The high terrestrial speeds attainable by this semi-fossorial species by saltatory locomotion apparently outweigh the energetic savings that would be associated with burrowing specialisation. PMID:16709912
Grill, Susann; Dorgan, Kelly M
Worms of different sizes extend burrows through muddy sediments by fracture, applying dorso-ventral forces that are amplified at the crack tip. Smaller worms displace sediments less than larger worms and therefore are limited in how much force they can apply to burrow walls. We hypothesized that small worms would exhibit a transition in burrowing mechanics, specifically a lower limit in body size for the ability to burrow by fracture, corresponding with an ontogenetic transition in muscle morphology. Kinematics of burrowing in a mud analog, external morphology and muscle arrangement were examined in juveniles and adults of the small polychaete Capitella sp. We found that it moves by peristalsis, and no obvious differences were observed among worms of different sizes; even very small juveniles were able to burrow through a clear mud analog by fracture. Interestingly, we found that in addition to longitudinal and circular muscles needed for peristaltic movements, left- and right-handed helical muscles wrap around the thorax of worms of all sizes. We suggest that in small worms helical muscles may function to supplement forces generated by longitudinal muscles and to maintain hydrostatic pressure, enabling higher forces to be exerted on the crack wall. Further research is needed, however, to determine whether surficial sediments inhabited by small worms fail by fracture or plastically deform under forces of the magnitudes applied by Capitella sp. PMID:25827841
Hale, Rachel; Boardman, Richard; Mavrogordato, Mark N; Sinclair, Ian; Tolhurst, Trevor J; Solan, Martin
The architecture of biogenic structures can be highly influential in determining species contributions to major soil and sediment processes, but detailed 3-D characterisations are rare and descriptors of form and complexity are lacking. Here we provide replicate high-resolution micro-focus computed tomography (μ-CT) data for the complete burrow systems of three co-occurring, but functionally contrasting, sediment-dwelling inter-tidal invertebrates assembled alone, and in combination, in representative model aquaria. These data (≤ 2,000 raw image slices aquarium(-1), isotropic voxel resolution, 81 μm) provide reference models that can be used for the development of novel structural analysis routines that will be of value within the fields of ecology, pedology, geomorphology, palaeobiology, ichnology and mechanical engineering. We also envisage opportunity for those investigating transport networks, vascular systems, plant rooting systems, neuron connectivity patterns, or those developing image analysis or statistics related to pattern or shape recognition. The dataset will allow investigators to develop or test novel methodology and ideas without the need to generate a complete three-dimensional computation of exemplar architecture. PMID:26396743
Šumbera, R.; Mazoch, V.; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Lövy, M.; Šklíba, J.; Bryja, Josef; Burda, H.
Roč. 57, č. 2 (2012), s. 121-130. ISSN 0001-7051 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Fukomys mechowii * subterranean rodent * burrow system * kin structure * Bathyergidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.949, year: 2012
Clarissa K. Noro
Full Text Available Parastacus defossus Faxon, 1898 is a fossorial crayfish species, which constructs its burrows in swampy areas in southeast Uruguay and in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The present field study was carried out in Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from May 2003 through August 2005. Environmental measurements (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and water-table depth of the water in the galleries were made monthly. Burrow morphology was analyzed by means of resin and gypsum casts. The spatial distribution and changes in the number and shape of the surface openings over time were observed in a 100 m² area. To estimate the spatial distribution of the openings, the observed distribution was compared with the expected distribution predicted by the Poisson and Negative Binomial frequency-distribution models. The adult population density was estimated by direct observation of burrows and counts in the study area. Inside the burrows of P. defossus, the water temperature ranged between 16.6°C (autumn 2004 and 23°C (spring 2003. The water was hypoxic and slightly acidic, and the dissolved oxygen content was very low (mean 1.43 mg/l (18.2% saturation. The soil with burrows had higher percentages of coarse sand, fine sand, and silt. The spatial distribution of the openings showed a significant fit to the Negative Binomial distribution, indicating that the distribution of the openings is aggregated, as confirmed from the burrow morphology. The galleries are always formed by a central tunnel with multiple branchings that connect the underground water to the soil surface by one or more openings, which can be recognized by the chimneys. From knowledge of the burrow morphology, the population density was estimated to be about 120 individuals/100 m².
Smith, M.D.; Conway, C.J.
Animals have evolved an impressive array of behavioural traits to avoid depredation. Olfactory camouflage of conspicuous odours is a strategy to avoid depredation that has been implicated only in a few species of birds. Burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia, routinely collect dried manure from mammals and scatter it in their nest chamber, in the tunnel leading to their nest and at the entrance to their nesting burrow. This unusual behaviour was thought to reduce nest depredation by concealing the scent of adults and juveniles, but a recent study suggests that manure functions to attract arthropod prey. However, burrowing owls routinely scatter other materials in the same way that they scatter manure, and this fact seems to be at odds with both of these hypotheses. Thus, we examined the function of this behaviour by testing four alternative hypotheses. We found no support for the widely cited olfactory-camouflage hypothesis (manure did not lower the probability of depredation), or for the mate-attraction hypothesis (males collected manure after, not before, pair formation). Predictions of the burrow-occupied hypothesis (manure indicates occupancy to conspecifics and thereby reduces agonistic interactions) were supported, but results were not statistically significant. Our results also supported several predictions of the prey-attraction hypothesis. Pitfall traps at sampling sites with manure collected more arthropod biomass (of taxa common in the diet of burrowing owls) than pitfall traps at sampling sites without manure. Scattering behaviour of burrowing owls appears to function to attract arthropod prey, but may also signal occupancy of a burrow to conspecifics. ?? 2006 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Lawrence, J.M.; Murdoch, J.
Chiridota rigida (Semper) burrows easily into well-sorted substrata, moving between particles in coarse substrata and pushing aside particles in fine substrata. Chiridota rigida does not burrow easily into poorly sorted substrata because spaces which can be penetrated are not available and because the particles cannot be moved as a result of increased stability of the substratum. In poorly sorted substrata, burrowing ability increases with increases in the proportion of fine particles. It would appear that the distribution and abundance of chiridota rigida and other chiridotids would be affected by the effect of the substratum on their ability to burrow.
Full Text Available Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard.
Christopher M. Schalk
Full Text Available Some species of anurans have been observed utilizing burrows of other animals, such as rodents and tarantulas. Here we report the observations of two anuran species, Leptodactylus bufonius and Rhinella major, utilizing the burrows of tarantulas (Acanthoscurria sp.; Family Theraphosidae in the dry Chaco ecoregion of Bolivia. Both species of anurans never co-occurred with tarantulas in the burrows and used burrows that were wider in diameter and closer to breeding ponds as compared to the total available tarantula burrows in the area. These burrows may serve as refuges from predators, especially for conspicuous, calling males.
Viola, Sloane M.; Hubbard, David M.; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Schooler, Nicholas K.
Beach nourishment is often considered the most environmentally sound method of maintaining eroding shorelines. However, the ecological consequences are poorly understood. Fill activities cause intense disturbance and high mortality and have the potential to alter the diversity, abundance, and distribution of intertidal macroinvertebrates for months to years. Ecological recovery following fill activities depends on successful recolonization and recruitment of the entire sandy intertidal community. The use of incompatible sediments as fill material can strongly affect ecosystem recovery. We hypothesized that burrowing inhibition of intertidal animals by incompatible fine fill sediments contributes to ecological impacts and limits recovery in beach ecosystems. We experimentally investigated the influence of intertidal zone and burrowing mode on responses of beach invertebrates to altered sediment texture (28-38% fines), and ultimately the potential for colonization and recovery of beaches disturbed by beach filling. Using experimental trials in fill material and natural beach sand, we found that the mismatched fine fill sediments significantly inhibited burrowing of characteristic species from all intertidal zones, including sand crabs, clams, polychaetes, isopods, and talitrid amphipods. Burrowing performance of all five species we tested was consistently reduced in the fill material and burrowing was completely inhibited for several species. The threshold for burrowing inhibition by fine sediment content in middle and lower beach macroinvertebrates varied by species, with highest sensitivity for the polychaete (4% fines, below the USA regulatory limit of 10% fines), followed by sand crabs and clams (20% fines). These results suggest broader investigation of thresholds for burrowing inhibition in fine fill material is needed for beach animals. Burrowing inhibition caused by mismatched fill sediments exposes beach macroinvertebrates to stresses, which could depress
Kinlaw, A.; Grasmueck, M.
Physical ecosystem engineers often make major, durable physical constructs that can provide living space for other species and can structure local animal communities over evolutionary time. In Florida, a medium sized chelonian, the Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) will excavate extensive subterranean chambers that can endure for long periods of time. The tortoise starts a 'burrowing cascade', by first excavating a larger burrow that may extend 10 m, which is then re-engineered by Florida Mice (Podomys floridanus) and other rodents that dig smaller side-burrows and pockets. This sequence is often followed by an invertebrate, the camel cricket (Ceuthophilus labibuli) which is reported to excavate even smaller chambers. Our first aim was to quantify the zoogeomorphic impact of this burrowing cascade by measuring the amount of soil excavated in a large sample of burrows in two communities. Secondly, we hypothesized that the high biodiversity reported for these structures might be related to the quasi-fractal nature of the geometry, following the work of Frontier (1987). To visualize this underground geometry, we used high-resolution 3D Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), which provided images and insights previously unobtainable using excavations or 2D GPR. Our images verified that the active tortoise burrow had a spiraling shape, but also showed splits in the larger burrow apparently dug by tortoises. For the first time, the smaller Florida Mouse burrows were imaged, showing side loops that exit and re-renter the tortoise burrow. This study also presents new information by making the discovery of numerous remnants of past tortoise burrows underground in the sampling grid surrounding the active burrow. Our third aim was to interpret our field results with previous ecological field studies to evaluate the strength of evidence that this species ranks as an ecosystem engineer.
Fisher, Joshua B.; Trulio, Lynne A.; Biging, Gregory S.; Chromczak, Debra
Analysis tools that combine large spatial and temporal scales are necessary for efficient management of wildlife species, such as the burrowing owl ( Athene cunicularia). We assessed the ability of Ripley’s K-function analysis integrated into a geographic information system (GIS) to determine changes in burrowing owl nest clustering over two years at NASA Ames Research Center. Specifically, we used these tools to detect changes in spatial and temporal nest clustering before, during, and after conducting management by mowing to maintain low vegetation height at nest burrows. We found that the scale and timing of owl nest clustering matched the scale and timing of our conservation management actions over a short time frame. While this study could not determine a causal link between mowing and nest clustering, we did find that Ripley’s K and GIS were effective in detecting owl nest clustering and show promise for future conservation uses.
Full Text Available Restrictions in technology have limited past habitat selection studies for many species to the home-range level, as a finer-scale understanding was often not possible. Consequently, these studies may not identify the true mechanism driving habitat selection patterns, which may influence how such results are applied in conservation. We used GPS dataloggers with digital video recorders to identify foraging modes and locations in which endangered Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia captured prey. We measured the coarse and fine-scale characteristics of vegetation at locations in which owls searched for, versus where they caught, vertebrate prey. Most prey items were caught using hover-hunting. Burrowing Owls searched for, and caught, vertebrate prey in all cover types, but were more likely to kill prey in areas with sparse and less dense vegetative cover. Management strategies designed to increase Burrowing Owl foraging success in the Canadian prairies should try to ensure a mosaic of vegetation heights across cover types.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature and summarize information on factors affecting habitat selection and maximum recorded burrowing depths for representative small mammals that we consider most likely to inhibit waste burial sites in arid and semi-arid regions of the West. The information is intended for waste management designers who need to know what to expect from small mammals that may be present at a particular site. Waste repositories oculd be designed to exclude the deep burrowing rodents of a region by creating an unattractive habitat over the waste. Summaries are given for habitat requirements of each group along with generalized modifications that could be employed to deter habitation. Representatives from the major groups considered to be deep burrowers are discussed. Further, detailed information about a particular species can be obtained from the references cited
Diet data from 20 Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) nests were collected in southwestern Dominican Republic in 1976, 1982, and 1996. Invertebrates (53.3%) comprised the most numerous prey items (N = 396) delivered to nests by adult owls, but vertebrates (46.7%) were much better represented than in other studies of Burrowing Owl diet. Among vertebrates, birds (28.3% of all items) and reptiles (14.9%) were most important, whereas mammals (1.0%) and amphibians (2.5%) were less commonly delivered to nests. Vertebrates, however, comprised more than twice (69.2%) of the total biomass as invertebrates (30.8%), with birds (50.4%) and reptiles (12.8%) the most important of the vertebrate prey classes. A positive relationship was observed between bird species abundance and number of individuals taken as prey by Burrowing Owls.
Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel
Burrowing animals maintain contact with the water above the sediment by pumping water through a tube system and therefore measurements of water pumping rate of burrowing animals is of crucial importance for the study of many processes both within and above the sea floor. This review deals......-feeding animals. In stagnant situations the near-bottom water may be depleted of food particles, depending on the population filtration rate and the intensity of the biomixing induced by the filtering activity. But moderate currents and the biomixing can presumably generate enough turbulence to facilitate mixing...... of water layers at the sea bed with the layers above where food particle concentrations are relatively higher. Following a brief summary of types of burrowing benthic animals, common methods for measuring pumping rates are described along with examples. For estimating the required pump pressure, biofluid...
Quintana, Cintia Organo; Hansen, Tanja; Delefosse, Matthieu;
presented muscular pumping in time averaged rates of 0.15 ml min−1. Oxygen needle electrodes positioned above the burrow openings revealed that muscular undulation of the worm body pumps anoxic water out of the burrow. On the other hand, microscope observations of the animal showed that ventilation of...... about 0.16 ml min−1. Since the cilia pumping into the burrow occurs in periods of 24±12 min and at 50–70% of the measured time, considerable amounts of water from deeper sediments may percolate upwards to the sediment surface. This water is rich in reduced compounds and nutrients and may have important...
Full Text Available Ucides cordatus is an abundant mangrove crab in Brazil constructing burrows of up to 2 m depth. Sediment around burrows may oxidize during low tides. This increase in sediment-air contact area may enhance carbon degradation processes. We hypothesized that 1 the sediment CO2 efflux rate is greater with burrows than without and 2 the reduction potential in radial profiles in the sediment surrounding the burrows decreases gradually, until approximating non-bioturbated conditions. Sampling was conducted during the North Brazilian wet season at neap tides. CO2 efflux rates of inhabited burrows and plain sediment were measured with a CO2/H2O gas analyzer connected to a respiration chamber. Sediment redox potential, pH and temperature were measured in the sediment surrounding the burrows at horizontal distances of 2, 5, 8 and 15 cm at four sediment depths (1, 10, 30 and 50 cm and rH values were calculated. Sediment cores (50 cm length were taken to measure the same parameters for plain sediment. CO2 efflux rates of plain sediment and individual crab burrows with entrance diameters of 7 cm were 0.7-1.3 µmol m(-2 s(-1 and 0.2-0.4 µmol burrows(-1 s(-1, respectively. CO2 released from a Rhizophora mangle dominated forest with an average of 1.7 U. cordatus burrows(-1 m(-2 yielded 1.0-1.7 µmol m(-2 s(-1, depending on the month and burrow entrance diameter. Laboratory experiments revealed that 20-60% of the CO2 released by burrows originated from crab respiration. Temporal changes in the reduction potential in the sediment surrounding the burrows did not influence the CO2 release from burrows. More oxidized conditions of plain sediment over time may explain the increase in CO2 release until the end of the wet season. CO2 released by U. cordatus and their burrows may be a significant pathway of CO2 export from mangrove sediments and should be considered in mangrove carbon budget estimates.
Pülmanns, Nathalie; Diele, Karen; Mehlig, Ulf; Nordhaus, Inga
Ucides cordatus is an abundant mangrove crab in Brazil constructing burrows of up to 2 m depth. Sediment around burrows may oxidize during low tides. This increase in sediment-air contact area may enhance carbon degradation processes. We hypothesized that 1) the sediment CO2 efflux rate is greater with burrows than without and 2) the reduction potential in radial profiles in the sediment surrounding the burrows decreases gradually, until approximating non-bioturbated conditions. Sampling was conducted during the North Brazilian wet season at neap tides. CO2 efflux rates of inhabited burrows and plain sediment were measured with a CO2/H2O gas analyzer connected to a respiration chamber. Sediment redox potential, pH and temperature were measured in the sediment surrounding the burrows at horizontal distances of 2, 5, 8 and 15 cm at four sediment depths (1, 10, 30 and 50 cm) and rH values were calculated. Sediment cores (50 cm length) were taken to measure the same parameters for plain sediment. CO2 efflux rates of plain sediment and individual crab burrows with entrance diameters of 7 cm were 0.7-1.3 µmol m(-2) s(-1) and 0.2-0.4 µmol burrows(-1) s(-1), respectively. CO2 released from a Rhizophora mangle dominated forest with an average of 1.7 U. cordatus burrows(-1) m(-2) yielded 1.0-1.7 µmol m(-2) s(-1), depending on the month and burrow entrance diameter. Laboratory experiments revealed that 20-60% of the CO2 released by burrows originated from crab respiration. Temporal changes in the reduction potential in the sediment surrounding the burrows did not influence the CO2 release from burrows. More oxidized conditions of plain sediment over time may explain the increase in CO2 release until the end of the wet season. CO2 released by U. cordatus and their burrows may be a significant pathway of CO2 export from mangrove sediments and should be considered in mangrove carbon budget estimates. PMID:25313661
Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.
Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).
Lovich, Jeffrey E.
I observed an adult Desert Tortoise and an adult Red Diamond Rattlesnake (sexes unknown) in a shallow tortoise burrow on 6 January 1997 at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California, USA (33.9599°N, 116.6613°W).
Lange, Simone; Burda, Hynek; Wegner, Regina E.; Dammann, Philip; Begall, Sabine; Kawalika, Mathias
Subterranean mammals rely to a great extent on audition for communication and to be alerted to danger. The only hitherto published report on burrow acoustics revealed that in tunnels of blind mole-rats ( Spalax ehrenbergi), airborne sounds of 440 Hz propagated best whereas lower and higher frequencies were effectively attenuated. Morpho-functional analyses classify the ear of subterranean mammals as a low-sensitivity and low-frequency device. Concordantly, hearing is characterized by low sensitivity and a restricted frequency range tuned to low frequencies (0.5-4 kHz). Some authors considered the restricted hearing in subterranean mammals vestigial and degenerate due to under-stimulation. In contrast to this view stand a rich (mostly low-frequency) vocal repertoire and progressive structural specializations of the middle and inner ear. Thus, other authors considered these hearing characteristics adaptive. To test the hypothesis that acoustical environment in burrows of different species of subterranean mammals is similar, we measured sound attenuation in burrows of Fukomys mole-rats (formerly known as Cryptomys, cf. Kock et al. 2006) of two differently sized species at different locations in Zambia. We show that in these burrows, low-frequency sounds (200-800 Hz) are not only least attenuated but also their amplitude may be amplified like in a stethoscope (up to two times over 1 m). We suggest that hearing sensitivity has decreased during evolution of subterranean mammals to avoid over-stimulation of the ear in their natural environment.
Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas
Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis dive...
Hartwig, Sven; Tsokos, Michael
When the situation at a death scene is unusual, this may suggest the involvement of another person. On the other hand, one also has to consider the possibility of a conscious or unconscious behavior in connection with extreme stress situations or suicidal acts. The forensic findings and criminalistic reconstruction of two cases of suicidal burrowing behavior are presented and discussed. PMID:18260568
Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.
Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use da
Prague : Czech Institute of Egyptology , 2010. s. 38-38. [Abusir and Saqqara in the year 2010. 31.05.2010-04.06.2010, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : palaeontology * insect burrows * ichnofabric * Abusir (Egypt) Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://egyptologie.ff.cuni.cz/pdf/AS_2010_Abstracts.pdf
Mikuláš, Radek; Cílek, Václav
Vol. 2. Prague : Czech Institute of Egyptology , Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague, 2011 - (Bárta, M.; Coppens, F.; Krejčí, J.), s. 635-650 ISBN 978-80-7308-385-4 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : insect burrows * Hymenoptera * ichnology * Abusir * bioerosion * bioturbation Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy
Thalassinid shrimp cause significant problems for oyster aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest (USA) where oysters succumb to the physical disruption of the sediment by the burrowing activity of these animals. While electrofishing is a commonly used technique to capture fish and some invertebrates i...
The effect of burrowing activities of ghost shrimp (Neocallichirus limosus and Biffarius arenosus) and heart urchin (Echinocardium cordatum) on the flux of dissolved substances across the water-sediment interface was examined by comparing the transport of the tracer deuterium oxide (D2O) between sediments and overlying water in experimental laboratory tanks with and without fauna. This experiment was complemented by measurements of the diffusive flux of naturally occurring isotopes of radium (224Ra and 223Ra) from the sediments into the water column. Despite different burrowing habits, all three species enhanced flux of D2O and the Ra isotopes by similar amounts. In sandy sediments, both shrimps and urchins enhanced flux of D2O across the water-sediment interface 2.5 fold. In muddy sediments, however, results were inconclusive. There was little difference in flux of 224Ra and 223Ra between muddy and sandy sediments; flux was 2.3-3.9 times higher in the presence of the burrowing species than in their absence. These findings emphasize (i) the important role of burrowing macrofauna in the transport of dissolved substances between the sediment and water bodies and (ii) the dependence of various biogeochemical processes, including nutrient release, on the benthic macrofauna of Port Phillip Bay. Copyright (1997) CSIRO Publishing
Pischedda, Laura; Militon, Cécile; Gilbert, Franck; Cuny, Philippe
Bioturbation is known to stimulate microbial communities, especially in macrofaunal burrows where the abundance and activities of bacteria are increased. Until now, these microbial communities have been poorly characterized and an important ecological question remains: do burrow walls harbor similar or specific communities compared with anoxic and surface sediments? The bacterial community structure of coastal sediments inhabited by the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor was investigated. Surface, burrow wall and anoxic sediments were collected at the Carteau beach (Gulf of Fos, Mediterranean Sea). Bacterial diversity was determined by analyzing small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequences from three clone libraries (168, 179 and 129 sequences for the surface, burrow wall and anoxic sediments, respectively). Libraries revealed 306 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to at least 15 bacterial phyla. Bioinformatic analyses and comparisons between the three clone libraries showed that the burrow walls harbored a specific bacterial community structure which differed from the surface and anoxic environments. More similarities were nevertheless found with the surface assemblage. Inside the burrow walls, the bacterial community was characterized by high biodiversity, which probably results from the biogeochemical heterogeneity of the burrow system. PMID:21946148
Abouessa, Ashour; Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Pelletier, Jonathan
The majority of decapod crustaceans are defined as marine organisms. Crayfish are one of the relatively few known exceptions. They are freshwater-environment adapted decapods that build characteristically large, simple and branched cylindrical morphotype traces in fluvial plains. Their burrows bear lots of special features that make them different from other burrows. Consequently, the identification of true crayfish burrows in the sedimentary record is crucial for the interpretation of depositional environment. The studied interval (45 m thick, exposed in the Dur At Talah escarpment southern Sirt Basin; Fig. 1) represents a case-study which is previously believed to be purely tidal. In this interval, the identification of the crayfish burrows provides a reliable tool for distinguishing terrestrial environments. The crayfish burrows of Dur At Talah are characterized by dimensional, morphological, and especially behavioral aspects that combined, cannot be ascribed to another burrow makers. Essential criteria used to attribute these burrows to the crayfish include: Their length (the depth of penetration into the sediments), their regularly circular cross-sectional area, the presence of mid-way enlargement chamber along the burrow vertical axis, as well as the subtle preservation of the burrow chimney. More importantly, these morphological features allow the recognition of some of the crayfish diagnostic behavioral habits. Most significant of these is the one deduced from the interaction of the burrow with the seasonal fluctuation of the paleo groundwater level. Supplementary indications that restrict the studied burrows to terrestrial organism include their occurrences within pedogenically altered strata that bear evident features of prolonged emersion. Of these features, mud cracks and burrows that are filled with continental fossil are the clearest. Few horizons with termite fungus comb are also distinguishable. Although other burrows of the classically known
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Holes in the ground are a very important feature of black-footed ferret habitat. The number, distribution, and activity level of prairie dog burrows is related to...
Biggins, Dean E.; Ramakrishnan, Shantini; Goldberg, Amanda R.; Eads, David A.
Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) plug burrows occupied by black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), and they also plug burrows to entomb dead prairie dogs. We further evaluated these phenomena by sampling connectivity and plugging of burrow openings on prairie dog colonies occupied by ferrets, colonies where recreational shooting was allowed, and colonies with neither shooting nor ferrets. We counted burrow openings on line surveys and within plots, classified surface plugging, and used an air blower to examine subsurface connectivity. Colonies with ferrets had lower densities of openings, fewer connected openings (suggesting increased subsurface plugging), and more surface plugs compared to colonies with no known ferrets. Colonies with recreational shooting had the lowest densities of burrow openings, and line-survey data suggested colonies with shooting had intermediate rates of surface plugging. The extent of surface and subsurface plugging could have consequences for the prairie dog community by changing air circulation and escape routes of burrow systems and by altering energetic relationships. Burrow plugging might reduce prairie dogs' risk of predation by ferrets while increasing risk of predation by American badgers (Taxidea taxus); however, the complexity of the trade-off is increased if plugging increases the risk of predation on ferrets by badgers. Prairie dogs expend more energy plugging and digging when ferrets or shooting are present, and ferrets increase their energy expenditures when they dig to remove those plugs. Microclimatic differences in plugged burrow systems may play a role in flea ecology and persistence of the flea-borne bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis).
Hargrove, John W.; Muzari, M. Odwell
Background The biology of adult tsetse (Glossina spp), vectors of trypanosomiasis in Africa, has been extensively studied – but little is known about larviposition in the field. Methodology/Principal Findings In September-November 1998, in the hot-dry season in Zimbabwe’s Zambezi Valley, we used artificial warthog burrows to capture adult females as they deposited larvae. Females were subjected to ovarian dissection and were defined as perinatal flies, assumed to have entered burrows to larvi...
Pischedda, Laura; Militon, Cécile; Gilbert, Franck; Cuny, Philippe
Bioturbation is known to stimulate microbial communities, especially in macrofaunal burrows where the abundance and activities of bacteria are increased. Until now, these microbial communities have been poorly characterized and an important ecological question remains: do burrow walls harbor similar or specific communities compared with anoxic and surface sediments? The bacterial community structure of coastal sediments inhabited by the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor was investigated. S...
COMMUNICATIONS CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 79, NO. 4, 25 AUGUST 2000 517 A documentation on burrows in hard substrates of ferromanganese crusts and associated soft sediments from the Central Indian Basin Ranadip Banerjee Geological Oceanography Division... (Figure 3 a?g). Among the ob- served relict burrow features, at least in one of the semiconsolidated claystone substrates, which appears to RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 79, NO. 4, 25 AUGUST 2000 Figure 1. Detailed bathymetry...
Mohlenberg, F.; Kiorboe, T.
Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis diversicolor and Scoloplos armiger was impaired in the contaminated sediment compared to control. The impairment was most pronounced in the laboratory tests, where almost no burrowing occured. In a very simple laboratory set-up, highly significant avoidance of the contaminated sediment was demonstrated for Crangon crangon and Solea solea, but not for Carcinus maenas and Pomatoschistus minutus. The validity of both behavioural tests was supported by in situ observations and investigations on the distribution of the species. It is concluded that both tests are useful tools in the assessment of the impact of contaminated sediments.
Geiszler, Philippine Camilla; Barron, Matthew Richard; Pardon, Marie-Christine
htau mice are deficient of murine tau but express all six human tau isoforms, leading to gradual tau misprocessing and aggregation in brain areas relevant to Alzheimer's disease. While histopathological changes in htau mice have been researched in the past, we focused here on functional consequences of human tau accumulation. htau mice and their background controls - murine tau knock-out (mtau(-/-)) and C57Bl/6J mice - underwent a comprehensive trial battery to investigate species-specific behavior, locomotor activity, emotional responses, exploratory traits, spatial and recognition memory as well as acquisition, retention and extinction of contextual fear at two, four, six, nine and twelve months of age. In htau mice, tau pathology was already present at two months of age, whereas deficits in food burrowing and spatial working memory were first noted at four months of age. At later stages the presence of human tau on a mtau(-/-) background appeared to guard cognitive performance; as mtau(-/-) but not htau mice differed from C57Bl/6J mice in the food burrowing, spontaneous alternation and object discrimination tasks. Aging mtau(-/-) mice also exhibited increased body mass and locomotor activity. These data highlight that reduced food-burrowing performance was the most robust aspect of the htau phenotype with aging. htau and mtau(-/-) deficits in food burrowing pointed at the necessity of intact tau systems for daily life activities. While some htau and mtau(-/-) deficits overlap, age differences between the two genotypes may reflect distinct functional effects and compared to C57Bl/6J mice, the htau phenotype appeared stronger than the mtau(-/-) phenotype at young ages but milder with aging. PMID:27167086
Very low levels of radionuclides exist on soil surfaces. Biological factors including vegetation and animal burrowing can influence the fate of these surface contaminants. Animal burrowing introduces variability in radionuclide migration that confounds estimation of nuclide migration pathways, risk assessment, and assessment of waste burial performance. A field study on the surface and subsurface erosional transport of surface-applied 133Cs as affected by pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) burrowing was conducted on simulated waste landfill caps at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in north central New Mexico. Surface loss of Cs, adhered to five soil particle size ranges, was measured several times over an 18-mo period while simulated rainfalls were in progress. Gophers reduced Cs surface loss by significant amounts, 43%. Cesium surface loss on plots with only gophers was 0.8 kg totalled for the study period. This compared with 1.4 kg for control plots, 0.5 kg for vegetated plots, and 0.2 kg for plots with both gophers and vegetation. The change in Cs surface loss over time was significant (P -1). Vegetation-bearing plots bad significant more total subsurface Cs (μ = 1.7 g kg-1) than plots without vegetation (μ = 0.8 g kg-1). An average of 97% of the subsurface Cs in plots with vegetation was located in the upper 15 cm of soil (SDR1 + SDR2) compared with 67% for plots without vegetation. Vegetation moderated the influence of gopher activity on the transport of Cs to soil subsurface, and stabilized subsurface Cs by concentrating it in the rhizosphere. Gopher activity may have caused Cs transport to depths below that sampled, 30 cm. The results provide distribution coefficients for models of contaminant migration where animal burrowing occurs. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs
Law, Chris J; Dorgan, Kelly M; Rouse, Greg W
Divergent morphologies among related species are often correlated with distinct behaviors and habitat uses. Considerable morphological and behavioral differences are found between two major clades within the polychaete family Opheliidae. For instance, Thoracophelia mucronata burrows by peristalsis, whereas Armandia brevis exhibits undulatory burrowing. We investigate the anatomical differences that allow for these distinct burrowing behaviors, then interpret these differences in an evolutionary context using broader phylogenetic (DNA-based) and morphological analyses of Opheliidae and taxa, such as Scalibregmatidae and Polygordiidae. Histological three-dimensional-reconstruction of A. brevis reveals bilateral longitudinal muscle bands as the prominent musculature of the body. Circular muscles are absent; instead oblique muscles act with unilateral contraction of longitudinal muscles to bend the body during undulation. The angle of helical fibers in the cuticle is consistent with the fibers supporting turgidity of the body rather than resisting radial expansion from longitudinal muscle contraction. Circular muscles are present in the anterior of T. mucronata, and they branch away from the body wall to form oblique muscles. Helical fibers in the cuticle are more axially oriented than those in undulatory burrowers, facilitating radial expansion during peristalsis. A transition in musculature accompanies the change in external morphology from the thorax to the abdomen, which has oblique muscles similar to A. brevis. Muscles in the muscular septum, which extends posteriorly to form the injector organ, act in synchrony with the body wall musculature during peristalsis: they contract to push fluid anteriorly and expand the head region following a direct peristaltic wave of the body wall muscles. The septum of A. brevis is much thinner and is presumably used for eversion of a nonmuscular pharynx. Mapping of morphological characters onto the molecular-based phylogeny shows
Levey, Douglas J; Duncan, R Scot; Levins, Carrie F
Reports of tool usage by birds tend to be anecdotal as only a few individuals may be involved and the behaviour observed can often be interpreted in other ways. Here we describe the widespread collection of mammalian dung by burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) and show that they use this dung as a bait to attract dung beetles, a major item of prey. Our controlled investigation provides an unambiguous estimate of the importance of tool use in a wild animal. PMID:15343324
Alan Marsh; Troy I. Wellicome; Erin Bayne
Restrictions in technology have limited past habitat selection studies for many species to the home-range level, as a finer-scale understanding was often not possible. Consequently, these studies may not identify the true mechanism driving habitat selection patterns, which may influence how such results are applied in conservation. We used GPS dataloggers with digital video recorders to identify foraging modes and locations in which endangered Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) captured prey...
Barclay, John H.; Korfanta, Nicole M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.
We analyzed the population dynamics of a burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) colony at Mineta San Jose International Airport in San Jose, California, USA from 1990-2007. This colony was managed by using artificial burrows to reduce the occurrence of nesting owls along runways and within major airport improvement projects during the study period. We estimated annual reproduction in natural and artificial burrows and age-specific survival rates with mark-recapture techniques, and we estimated the relative contribution of these vital rates to population dynamics using a life table response experiment. The breeding colony showed 2 distinct periods of change: high population growth from 7 nesting pairs in 1991 to 40 pairs in 2002 and population decline to 17 pairs in 2007. Reproduction was highly variable: annual nesting success (pairs that raised =1 young) averaged 79% and ranged from 36% to 100%, whereas fecundity averaged 3.36 juveniles/pair and ranged from 1.43 juveniles/pair to 4.54 juveniles/pair. We estimated annual adult survival at 0.710 during the period of colony increase from 1996 to 2001 and 0.465 during decline from 2002 to 2007, but there was no change in annual survival of juveniles between the 2 time periods. Long-term population growth rate (lambda) estimated from average vital rates was lambdaa=1.072 with lambdai=1.288 during colony increase and lambdad=0.921 (DELTA lambda=0.368) during decline. A life table response experiment showed that change in adult survival rate during increasing and declining phases explained more than twice the variation in growth rate than other vital rates. Our findings suggest that management and conservation of declining burrowing owl populations should address factors that influence adult survival.
Estimates based on the strength, size, and shape of the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) indicate that the animal's burrow depth should be physically limited to a few centimeters; yet razor clams can dig as deep as 70 cm. By measuring soil deformations around burrowing E. directus, we have found the animal reduces drag by contracting its valves to initially fail, and then fluidize, the surrounding substrate. The characteristic contraction time to achieve fluidization can be calculated directly from soil properties. The geometry of the fluidized zone is dictated by two commonly-measured geotechnical parameters: coefficient of lateral earth pressure and friction angle. Calculations using full ranges for both parameters indicate that the fluidized zone is a local effect, occurring between 1–5 body radii away from the animal. The energy associated with motion through fluidized substrate—characterized by a depth-independent density and viscosity—scales linearly with depth. In contrast, moving through static soil requires energy that scales with depth squared. For E. directus, this translates to a 10X reduction in the energy required to reach observed burrow depths. For engineers, localized fluidization offers a mechanically simple and purely kinematic method to dramatically reduce energy costs associated with digging. This concept is demonstrated with RoboClam, an E. directus-inspired robot. Using a genetic algorithm to find optimal digging kinematics, RoboClam has achieved localized fluidization burrowing performance comparable to that of the animal, with a linear energy-depth relationship, in both idealized granular glass beads and E. directus' native cohesive mudflat habitat. (paper)
Lo, Nathan; Tong, K Jun; Rose, Harley A; Ho, Simon Y W; Beninati, Tiziana; Low, David L T; Matsumoto, Tadao; Maekawa, Kiyoto
Parallel evolution is the independent appearance of similar derived phenotypes from similar ancestral forms. It is of key importance in the debate over whether evolution is stochastic and unpredictable, or subject to constraints that limit available phenotypic options. Nevertheless, its occurrence has rarely been demonstrated above the species level. Climate change on the Australian landmass over the last approximately 20 Myr has provided conditions conducive to parallel evolution, as taxa at the edges of shrinking mesic habitats adapted to drier biomes. Here, we investigate the phylogeny and evolution of Australian soil-burrowing and wood-feeding blaberid cockroaches. Soil burrowers (subfamily Geoscapheinae) are found in relatively dry sclerophyllous and scrubland habits, whereas wood feeders (subfamily Panesthiinae) are found in rainforest and wet sclerophyll. We sequenced and analysed mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 142 specimens, and estimated the evolutionary time scale of the two subfamilies. We found evidence for the parallel evolution of soil-burrowing taxa from wood-feeding ancestors on up to nine occasions. These transitions appear to have been driven by periods of aridification during the Miocene and Pliocene across eastern Australia. Our results provide an illuminating example of climate-driven parallel evolution among species. PMID:26888035
Archambault, Jennifer M.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.
Recent research has elucidated the acute lethal effects of elevated water temperatures to glochidia (larvae), juvenile, and adult life stages of freshwater mussels (Order Unionida), but few studies have focused on sublethal effects of thermal stress. We evaluated the sublethal effects of elevated temperature on burrowing behavior and byssus production in juveniles, and on enzymatic biomarkers of stress in adults in acute (96 h) laboratory experiments in sediment, with two acclimation temperatures (22 and 27 °C) and two experimental water levels (watered and dewatered) as proxies for flow regime. Increasing temperature significantly reduced burrowing in all five species tested, and the dewatered treatment (a proxy for drought conditions) reduced burrowing in all but Amblema plicata. Production of byssal threads was affected most drastically by flow regime, with the probability of byssus presence reduced by 93–99% in the dewatered treatment, compared to the watered treatment (a proxy for low flow conditions); increasing temperature alone reduced byssus by 18–35%. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly affected by treatment temperature in the 27 °C acclimation, watered test (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Our results are important in the context of climate change, because stream temperature and flow are expected to change with increasing air temperature and altered precipitation patterns.
Restani, M.; Davies, J.M.; Newton, W.E.
Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Tinoco-Orta, Gissel Dalila; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge
Burrowing worms that belong to Polydora spp. infest marine mollusks cultured worldwide, causing problems for production and marketing. The clam Chione fluctifraga is semi-cultured in Bahía Falsa, Baja California, NW Mexico, and some clams harbor burrowing worms. The present study was carried out to determine the identity of the worm species infesting the clam, the infesting process by cohabitation of infested and non-infested clams in aquaria with a variety of substrates (fine sand, gross sand, plastic bag used for clam culture, and aquarium without substrate) and turbulence conditions, and the occurrence of architomy phenomena in connection with infestation of the clam. The burrowing worm was considered as a nova species due to its singular limbate neurosetae and notosetae in the setiger 5, hooks in the setiger 6, eyes not present, and general pigmentation, among other characteristics. Infestation was similar in all substrates and turbulence conditions, but it was more abundant on clams previously infested than on those free of worms, showing a preferential settlement of worm infesting stages on pre-infested clams. Regeneration was observed in all segments of the worm: anterior (metastomium), medium, and posterior (prostomium); the complete regeneration time occurred in 40 days. This is the first record of architomy in a species of Polydora and this phenomenon could account for the increase of infestation intensity in pre-infested clams at the end of the study period. Infestation of clams by settling polichaete in the conditions studied, and the architomy process in this worm species, shows its great infesting capacity. PMID:12877826
Wellicome, Troy I; Danielle Todd, L; Poulin, Ray G; Holroyd, Geoffrey L; Fisher, Ryan J
Food availability is an important limiting factor for avian reproduction. In altricial birds, food limitation is assumed to be more severe during the nestling stage than during laying or incubation, but this has yet to be adequately tested. Using food-supplementation experiments over a 5-year period, we determined the degree and timing of food limitation for burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breeding in Canada. Burrowing owls are an endangered species and food limitation during the nestling stage could influence reproductive performance of this species at the northern extent of their range. Supplemented pairs fledged on average 47% more owlets than unfed pairs, except during a year when natural food was not limiting (i.e., a prey irruption year). The difference in fledgling production resulted from high nestling mortality in unfed broods, with 96% of all nestling deaths being attributed to food shortage. Supplemental feeding during the nestling period also increased fledgling structural size. Pairs fed from the start of laying produced the same number of hatchlings as pairs that received no supplemental food before hatch. Furthermore, pairs supplemented from egg laying to fledging and pairs supplemented during the nestling period alone had the same patterns of nestling survival, equal numbers of fledglings, and similar fledgling mass and structural size. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is the most food-limited phase of the breeding cycle. The experimental design we introduce here could be used with other altricial species to examine how the timing of food limitation differs among birds with a variety of life-history strategies. For burrowing owls, and other species with similar life histories, long-term, large-scale, and appropriately timed habitat management increasing prey abundance or availability is critical for conservation. Our results provide empirical support for the hypothesis that the nestling period is
Kinney, Matthew E; Hanley, Christopher S; Trupkiewicz, John G
A 12-year-old male burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) was presented for evaluation of a mass in the right cervical region. A thymoma was diagnosed after surgical resection and histopathologic evaluation. Extensive adherence of the thymoma to the esophagus and suspected invasion into the right jugular vein contributed to a poor postsurgical outcome. Diagnosis and treatment of thymomas in avian species is similar to that in mammals. Surgical removal of noninvasive thymomas is usually curative. Thymomas are rarely reported in avian species and this is the first report in a strigiform bird. PMID:22872980
Makowska, I. Joanna; Daniel M. Weary
Standard laboratory cages prevent rats (Rattus norvegicus) from performing many behaviours that they perform in the wild, but little is known about how this may affect their welfare. The aims of this study were (i) to record the propensity to burrow, climb and stand upright in 3-, 8- and 13-month old laboratory rats housed in semi-naturalistic environments and (ii) to compare the frequency of lateral stretching in semi-naturalistic versus standard-housed rats; we predicted standard-housed rat...
Smith, J.J.; Hasiotis, S.T.
This study documents the traces and burrowing behaviors of nymphs of the prairie cicada Cicadetta calliope (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), as observed in neoichnological experiments. Cicada nymphs were collected from the C horizons of sandy Fluvents along the Kansas River east of Lawrence, Kansas. The nymphs appeared to be fifth instars, 13-17 mm long and 6-7 mm wide. Nymphs were placed in plastic enclosures containing layers of colored, moist, very fine-grained sand. They burrowed immediately, excavating air-filled, sediment-enclosed cells between 20 mm and 40 mm long and averaging 9 mm wide. Burrowing was completed in three stages: (1) sediment in the forward portion of the cell was excavated and rolled into a ball with the forelimbs; (2) the nymph turned 180?? using a forward roll, and moved to the back of the cell; and (3) the sediment ball was pushed up against the back wall of the cell and kneaded with the forelimbs into a thin layer. Resulting burrow traces are sinuous and distinctly meniscate and demonstrate that insect larvae construct meniscate, backfilled burrows in well-drained terrestrial settings. Cicadetta calliope nymphs and their traces are excellent analogs for meniscate trace fossils commonly found in late Paleozoic-Cenozoic alluvial deposits and paleosols. Such meniscate trace fossils are useful for interpreting the paleoenvironment and paleohydrogeology of the units in which they are found. In addition, such backfilled burrows can be used to supplement the fossil record of cicada-like hemipterans, currently known only from the latest Permian to the Early Triassic. Copyright ?? 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).
Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Peterson, Charles H.; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Althaus, Franziska; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Maslo, Brooke; Gilby, Ben L.; Leon, Javier X.; Weston, Michael A.; Lastra, Mariano; Williams, Alan; Schoeman, David S.
Most ecological studies require knowledge of animal abundance, but it can be challenging and destructive of habitat to obtain accurate density estimates for cryptic species, such as crustaceans that tunnel deeply into the seafloor, beaches, or mudflats. Such fossorial species are, however, widely used in environmental impact assessments, requiring sampling techniques that are reliable, efficient, and environmentally benign for these species and environments. Counting and measuring the entrances of burrows made by cryptic species is commonly employed to index population and body sizes of individuals. The fundamental premise is that burrow metrics consistently predict density and size. Here we review the evidence for this premise. We also review criteria for selecting among sampling methods: burrow counts, visual censuses, and physical collections. A simple 1:1 correspondence between the number of holes and population size cannot be assumed. Occupancy rates, indexed by the slope of regression models, vary widely between species and among sites for the same species. Thus, 'average' or 'typical' occupancy rates should not be extrapolated from site- or species specific field validations and then be used as conversion factors in other situations. Predictions of organism density made from burrow counts often have large uncertainty, being double to half of the predicted mean value. Whether such prediction uncertainty is 'acceptable' depends on investigators' judgements regarding the desired detectable effect sizes. Regression models predicting body size from burrow entrance dimensions are more precise, but parameter estimates of most models are specific to species and subject to site-to-site variation within species. These results emphasise the need to undertake thorough field validations of indirect census techniques that include tests of how sensitive predictive models are to changes in habitat conditions or human impacts. In addition, new technologies (e.g. drones
Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...
Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...
Shao, Yong; Li, Jin-Xiu; Ge, Ri-Li; Zhong, Li; Irwin, David M; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Ya-Ping
The plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) spends its entire life underground in sealed burrows. Confronting limited oxygen and high carbon dioxide concentrations, and complete darkness, they epitomize a successful physiological adaptation. Here, we employ transcriptome sequencing to explore the genetic underpinnings of their adaptations to this unique habitat. Compared to Rattus norvegicus, genes belonging to GO categories related to energy metabolism (e.g. mitochondrion and fatty acid beta-oxidation) underwent accelerated evolution in the plateau zokor. Furthermore, the numbers of positively selected genes were significantly enriched in the gene categories involved in ATPase activity, blood vessel development and respiratory gaseous exchange, functional categories that are relevant to adaptation to high altitudes. Among the 787 genes with evidence of parallel evolution, and thus identified as candidate genes, several GO categories (e.g. response to hypoxia, oxygen homeostasis and erythrocyte homeostasis) are significantly enriched, are two genes, EPAS1 and AJUBA, involved in the response to hypoxia, where the parallel evolved sites are at positions that are highly conserved in sequence alignments from multiple species. Thus, accelerated evolution of GO categories, positive selection and parallel evolution at the molecular level provide evidences to parse the genetic adaptations of the plateau zokor for living in high-elevation burrows. PMID:26602147
Adeyeye, O A; Butler, J F
Field studies were conducted to assess the reliability of carbon dioxide baits in sampling Ornithodoros turicata Duges. Tick response to about 50 g of dry ice placed at various distances away from tick-infested burrows was monitored over a 2-h period. In addition, tick attraction to different flow rates of carbon dioxide was monitored. Tests were conducted over a 15-mo period, during which seasonal effects on O. turicata response to CO2 were assessed. The efficacy of the baits was evaluated at night and in daytime. Ticks responded to dry ice baits placed up to 8 m away from the burrows. There was no significant difference in the total number of ticks attracted in a 1-h period using 500 to 2,000 ml CO2/min. At night, ticks were attracted to CO2 bits throughout the year except in December and January. By contrast, ticks were attracted to CO2 baits during daytime only between May and mid-December. PMID:1903452
Gervais, Jennifer A; Hunter, Christine M; Anthony, Robert G
We used population models to explore the effects of the organochlorine contaminant p,p'-DDE and fluctuations in vole availability on the population dynamics of Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia). Previous work indicated an interaction between low biomass of voles in the diet and moderate levels of p,p'-DDE in Burrowing Owl eggs that led to reproductive impairment. We constructed periodic and stochastic matrix models that incorporated three vole population states observed in the field: average, peak, and crash years. We modeled varying frequencies of vole crash years and a range of impairment of owl demographic rates in vole crash years. Vole availability had a greater impact on owl population growth rate than did reproductive impairment if vole populations peaked and crashed frequently. However, this difference disappeared as the frequency of vole crash years declined to once per decade. Fecundity, the demographic rate most affected by p,p'-DDE, had less impact on population growth rate than adult or juvenile survival. A life table response experiment of time-invariant matrices for average, peak, and crash vole conditions showed that low population growth under vole crash conditions was due to low adult and juvenile survival rates, whereas the extremely high population growth under vole peak conditions was due to increased fecundity. Our results suggest that even simple models can provide useful insights into complex ecological interactions. This is particularly valuable when temporal or spatial scales preclude manipulative experimental work in the field or laboratory. PMID:16711053
Christopher M. Schalk; Marco Sezano
Some species of anurans have been observed utilizing burrows of other animals, such as rodents and tarantulas. Here we report the observations of two anuran species, Leptodactylus bufonius and Rhinella major, utilizing the burrows of tarantulas (Acanthoscurria sp.; Family Theraphosidae) in the dry Chaco ecoregion of Bolivia. Both species of anurans never co-occurred with tarantulas in the burrows and used burrows that were wider in diameter and closer to breeding ponds as compared to the tota...
Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold
Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....
Šklíba, J.; Mazoch, V.; Patzenhauerová, Hana; Hrouzková, E.; Lövy, M.; Kott, O.; Šumbera, R.
Roč. 77, č. 6 (2012), s. 420-427. ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410802 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Bathyergidae * Burrow system * Sociality * Habitat characteristics * Subterranean mammal * Fukomys anselli Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.246, year: 2012
We compared the hydrodynamics of replicate experimental mixed cell and replicate standard Burrows pond rearing systems at the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, ID, in an effort to identify methods for improved solids removal. We measured and compared the hydraulic residence time, particle removal eff...
Lipiec, Jerzy; Frąc, Magdalena; Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Turski, Marcin; Oszust, Karolina
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of earthworms (Lumbricidae) on the enzymatic activity and microbial functional diversity in the burrow system [burrow wall (BW) 0-3 mm, transitional zone (TZ) 3-7 mm, bulk soil (BS) > 20 mm from the BW] and cast aggregates of a loess soil under a pear orchard. The dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, protease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and acid phosphomonoesterase enzymes were assessed using standard methods. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using the Average Well Color Development and Richness Index following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog Eco Plates. All measurements were done using soil from each compartment immediately after in situ sampling in spring. The enzymatic activites including dehydrogenase, protease, β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase were appreciably greater in the BW or casts than in BS and TZ. Conversely, acid phosphomonoesterase had the largest value in the BS. Average Well Color Development in both the TZ and the BS (0.98-0.94 A590 nm) were more than eight times higher than in the BWs and casts. The lowest richness index in the BS (15 utilized substrates) increased by 86-113% in all the other compartments. The PC1 in principal component analysis mainly differentiated the BWs and the TZ. Utilization of all substrate categories was the lowest in the BS. The PC2 differentiated the casts from the other compartments. The enhanced activity of a majority of the enzymes and increased microbial functional diversity in most earthworm-influenced compartments make the soils less vulnerable to degradation and thus increases the stability of ecologically relevant processes in the orchard ecosystem. PMID:27625645
Full Text Available Population size assessments for nocturnal burrow-nesting seabirds are logistically challenging because these species are active in colonies only during darkness and often nest on remote islands where manual inspections of breeding burrows are not feasible. Many seabird species are highly vocal, and recent technological innovations now make it possible to record and quantify vocal activity in seabird colonies. Here we test the hypothesis that remotely recorded vocal activity in Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris borealis breeding colonies in the North Atlantic increases with nest density, and combined this relationship with cliff habitat mapping to estimate the population size of Cory’s shearwaters on the island of Corvo (Azores. We deployed acoustic recording devices in 9 Cory’s shearwater colonies of known size to establish a relationship between vocal activity and local nest density (slope = 1.07, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001. We used this relationship to predict the nest density in various cliff habitat types and produced a habitat map of breeding cliffs to extrapolate nest density around the island of Corvo. The mean predicted nest density on Corvo ranged from 6.6 (2.1–16.2 to 27.8 (19.5–36.4 nests/ha. Extrapolation of habitat-specific nest densities across the cliff area of Corvo resulted in an estimate of 6326 Cory’s shearwater nests (95% confidence interval: 3735–10,524. This population size estimate is similar to previous assessments, but is too imprecise to detect moderate changes in population size over time. While estimating absolute population size from acoustic recordings may not be sufficiently precise, the strong positive relationship that we found between local nest density and recorded calling rate indicates that passive acoustic monitoring may be useful to document relative changes in seabird populations over time.
This discussion of Western Samoa, which lies 2575 km northeast of Auckland, New Zealand, focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations the US. The population of Western Samoa, as of 1985, totals 163,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.9%. The infant mortality rate is 13/1000; life expectancy is 65 years. The main islands are formed ranges of extinct volcanoes. Volcanic activity last occurred in 1911. More than 2000 years age, waves of Polynesians migrated from Southeast Asia to the Samoan Islands. Samoans are the 2nd largest Polynesian group, after the Maoris of New Zealand, and speak a Polynesian dialect. Samoans have tended to retain their traditional ways despite exposure to European influence for more than 150 years. Most Samoans live within the traditional social system based on an extended family group, headed by a chief. Western Samoans are Christian. Education is free but not compulsory. In 1967, 95% of the children of primary school age attended school. From 1947 to 1961, a series of constitutional advances, assisted by visits from UN missions, brought Western Samoa from dependent status to self-government and finally to independence. The 1960 constitution is based on the British pattern of parliamentary democracy, modified to take Samoan customs into account. The present head of state holds his position for life. Future heads of state will be elected by the Legislative Assembly for 5-year terms. The Parliament consists of the Legislative Assembly and the head of state. The Supreme Court is the superior court of record and has full jurisdiction in civil, criminal, and constitutional matters. The "matai" of chief system still dominates the politics of Western Samoa, although several political parties have been formed and seem to be taking root. The "matai" system is a predominantly conservative force but does provide for change. Western Samoa is predominantly
Karen Chin; Dean Pearson; A A Ekdale
The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty s...
Albores-Barajas, Yuri V.; Cecilia Soldatini
During 2004, we followed 72 natural burrows to determine the effects of disturbance on breeding success of Cassin's auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus). We used distance from a human settlement or path in the analysis of disturbance. Birds whose burrows were closer to the path or the village had a higher rate of nest abandonment and lower breeding success compared to birds nesting further away from the path or the village. Also, older and more experienced individuals represented a larger propor...
Full Text Available The wildlife plague system in the Pre-Balkhash desert of Kazakhstan has been a subject of study for many years. Much progress has been made in generating a method of predicting outbreaks of the disease (infection by the gram negative bacterium Yersinia pestis but existing methods are not yet accurate enough to inform public health planning. The present study aimed to identify characteristics of individual mammalian host (Rhombomys opimus burrows related to and potentially predictive of the presence of R.opimus and the dominant flea vectors (Xenopsylla spp..Over four seasons, burrow characteristics, their current occupancy status, and flea and tick burden of the occupants were recorded in the field. A second data set was generated of long term occupancy trends by recording the occupancy status of specific burrows over multiple occasions. Generalised linear mixed models were constructed to identify potential burrow properties predictive of either occupancy or flea burden.At the burrow level, it was identified that a burrow being occupied by Rhombomys, and remaining occupied, were both related to the characteristics of the sediment in which the burrow was constructed. The flea burden of Rhombomys in a burrow was found to be related to the tick burden. Further larger scale properties were also identified as being related to both Rhombomys and flea presence, including latitudinal position and the season.Therefore, in advancing our current predictions of plague in Kazakhstan, we must consider the landscape at this local level to increase our accuracy in predicting the dynamics of gerbil and flea populations. Furthermore this demonstrates that in other zoonotic systems, it may be useful to consider the distribution and location of suitable habitat for both host and vector species at this fine scale to accurately predict future epizootics.
S, Yudha Prayogie
Image is one of the most popular media used in the exchange of information at the present time. The increased need of using image should also be supported by the available storage. However, usually the size of the resulting image from the camera of a device is relatively large. This problem could be overcome by performing compression on the image. This study would discuss the analysis and comparison of image compression using Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) and Burrows-...
REBOLLAR, EDUARDO; Andrade, Francisco; FERNANDEZ, ILDEFONSO; REYES, FILIBERTO
Sand flies were caught from December 1993 to November 1994 in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Campeche, Mexico. A total of 566 sand flies of seven species were collected using emergence funnel-traps, at openings of several mammal burrows. The main species collected were Lutzomyia deleoni and Brumptomyia hamata. Population abundance was found bimodal with the first and higher peak from January to March. A small second peak was found from May to October.
Gilbert, Franck; Rivet, Lucien; Bertrand, Jean-Claude
International audience The in vitro fate of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction (SF) of Arabian Light crude oil has been studied in PVC cores filled with a coastal marine sediment defaunated by sieving. Experiments were conducted in absence or presence of polychaetes Nereis diversicolor. The luminophore tracer technique was used to quantify the mixing of sediment by worms. Presence of crude oil reduced the building of burrows by polychaetes. This work demonstrates the ability of infaunal or...
Clark, J. F.; Stieglitz, T. C.; Hancock, G. J.
A common approach for quantifying rates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal ocean is to use geochemical tracers that are part of the U- and Th-decay chains such as Rn-222 and short lived radium isotopes. These radionuclides are naturally enriched in groundwater relative to seawater and have well understood chemistries within the marine environment. They occur in both fresh (continental) and saline (marine) groundwaters and thus the water source is often ambiguous. Stieglitz (2005, Marine Pollution Bulletin 51, 51-59) has shown that some coastal areas within the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) lagoon (Australia) are enriched in the SGD tracer, Rn-222; he attributed this to four possible processes including the tidal flushing of mangrove forest floors. Here, we present a detailed investigation into the tidal circulation of seawater through animal burrows using Rn-222 and isotopes of radium in the Coral Creek mangrove forest, Hinchinbrook Island, Queensland, Australia. The study was conducted at the end of the dry season in a creek with no freshwater inputs. Significant export of radionuclides and salt from the forest into the creek indicates continuous tidally driven circulation through the burrows. Results demonstrate that the forest sediment is efficiently flushed, with a water flux of about 30 L/m2/ day of forest floor, which is equivalent to flushing about 10% of the total burrow volume per tidal cycle. Annual average circulation flux through mangrove forest floors are of the same order as annual river discharge in the central GBR. However, unlike the river discharge, the tidal circulation should be relatively stable throughout the year. This work documents the importance of animal burrows in maintaining productive sediments in these systems, and illustrates the physical process that supports large exports of organic and inorganic matter from mangrove forests to the coastal zone. It also illustrates the importance of considering saline groundwater
Chin, Karen; Pearson, Dean; Ekdale, A A
The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms. PMID:23951041
Seabird burrows provide a soil environment for processing discards such as feathers and guano, hence constituting a primary interface between the sea and the land. This study involved collection and culturing of soil invertebrates from three blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) burrows, and examined their 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic composition in relation to potential burrow resources (terrestrial plant litter, burrow soil, guano, blue penguin feathers). Two taxa (cerylonid beetles and small tineid moth larvae) had a depleted 13C/12C indicative of a level of dependence on C from terrestrial soil. Tineid moth larvae (Monopis crocicapitella and (or) M. ethelella) substantially increased their 13C/12C enrichment during development, implying increasing dependence on marine C. Remaining taxa, both decomposers and predators, had 13C/12C intermediate between guano and feathers. Larval and emergent fleas had the most enriched 13C/12C , indicative of a greater dependence on feather C and the likelihood of co-processing with guano. Pseudoscorpions and histerid beetles had overlapping isotopic enrichments implying competition for prey, but were spatially separated in burrow soil. With their highly enriched 15N/14N and marine 13C/12C, larvae and protonymphs of the histiostomatid mite Myianoetus antipodus stood alone. Blue penguin burrows therefore support a diverse invertebrate fauna that incorporates terrestrial soil as well as varying proportions of the various blue penguin discards. (author). 45 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Full Text Available The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms.
Full Text Available We report the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles and their burrowing into silicon upon irradiation of a Pt–Si thin film with medium-energy neon ions at constant fluence (1.0 × 1017 ions/cm2. Several values of medium-energy neon ions were chosen in order to vary the ratio of the electronic energy loss to the nuclear energy loss (Se/Sn from 1 to 10. The irradiated films were characterized using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. A TEM image of a cross section of the film irradiated with Se/Sn = 1 shows ≈5 nm Pt NPs were buried up to ≈240 nm into the silicon. No silicide phase was detected in the XRD pattern of the film irradiated at the highest value of Se/Sn. The synergistic effect of the energy losses of the ion beam (molten zones are produced by Se, and sputtering and local defects are produced by Sn leading to the synthesis and burrowing of Pt NPs is evidenced. The Pt NP synthesis mechanism and their burrowing into the silicon is discussed in detail.
Ye, Lingtong; Tang, Bin; Wu, Kaichang; Su, Youlu; Wang, Ruixuan; Yu, Ziniu; Wang, Jiangyong
A new polydorin species, Polydora lingshuiensis sp. n., which is found not only in burrows of pearl oyster shells (shell-boring type) but also in mudtubes on the surface of pearl oyster cages (tube-dwelling type), is described with the use of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and molecular phylogeny. Morphological and molecular distinctions between P. lingshuiensis and other related species reveal that P. lingshuiensis is a valid new species. The reproduction characteristic that the eggs of P. lingshuiensis are gathered together in one hollow cylinder is another piece of evidence confirming that it is indeed a valid new species. Sequence comparisons based on nuclear 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and mitochondrial 16S rDNA show that strains of the shell-boring type possess as high as 99.9% to 100% sequence identity relative to those of the tube-dwelling type. This finding evidently indicates that these species types are conspecific. We also find that a comparison of mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences can provide a higher resolution of polydorin species than those of the nuclear 18S rDNA because the former has a higher interspecific/intraspecific difference ratio. Phylogenetic analyses based on 18S rDNA sequences indicate that all P. lingshuiensis samples group together to forming a sister clade to Polydora uncinata and thus fall within Polydora aura/P. uncinata clade. PMID:26250172
Cox, Anthony J; Jakobi, Tobias; Rosone, Giovanna
Motivation The Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) is the foundation of many algorithms for compression and indexing of text data, but the cost of computing the BWT of very large string collections has prevented these techniques from being widely applied to the large sets of sequences often encountered as the outcome of DNA sequencing experiments. In previous work, we presented a novel algorithm that allows the BWT of human genome scale data to be computed on very moderate hardware, thus enabling us to investigate the BWT as a tool for the compression of such datasets. Results We first used simulated reads to explore the relationship between the level of compression and the error rate, the length of the reads and the level of sampling of the underlying genome and compare choices of second-stage compression algorithm. We demonstrate that compression may be greatly improved by a particular reordering of the sequences in the collection and give a novel `implicit sorting' strategy that enables these benefits to be re...
Full Text Available Neohelice granulata inhabits estuarine and protected coastal areas in temperate regions and is the most dominant decapod crustacean in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. The population structure was studied during a year in a SW Atlantic salt marsh located in the Bahía Blanca Estuary. Crabs were sampled monthly from August 2010 to July 2011. The maximum observed density was 30 crabs m-2 in February and 70 burrows m-2 in May. The maximum carapace width (CW was 32 and 27.5 mm in males and females respectively. Medium size crabs were between 16 and 20 mm CW. Significantly smaller sized crabs were observed at the lower intertidal regions (P < 0.05. The sex ratio was favorable for males and was significantly different from the expected 1:1 (P < 0.05. The recruitment of unsexed juveniles crabs (CW <6.5 mm was observed throughout the year and the presence of ovigerous females from October to February indicated seasonal reproduction. The average size of ovigerous females was CW = 20.8 mm and the smallest ovigerous female measured was 16 mm CW. For the first time, the population structure of the most important macro-invertebrate is analyzed in the Bahía Blanca Estuary. This study may help to make decisions in the area, where anthropic action is progressing day by day.
Cavalli, Matilde; Baladrón, Alejandro V; Isacch, Juan Pablo; Biondi, Laura M; Bó, María Susana
Urban areas expose wildlife to an array of novel predators, amongst which, humans and dogs are highly frequent. Thus, wild animals living in urban areas are forced to invest more time and energy in defence behaviours, which depend on how the risk is perceived and assessed. We experimentally tested whether Burrowing owls coming from rural and urban habitats showed differences in behavioural responses when facing humans and domestic dogs. We measured flight initiation distances (FIDs), nest returning, and aggressiveness level when owls faced a human and a human with a dog walking towards them. Our results showed that urban owls recognise a human with a dog as a greater threat than a human alone, thus indicating that fear of domestic animals should be considered as affecting owls' settlement in cities and towns. On the other hand, rural owls perceived human and dogs as similar threats, but showed higher FIDs, less aggressiveness, and lower tendency to return to the nest than urban owls in both treatments. These findings emphasize the importance of modified habitats in modelling the response of urban and rural owls to predators and represent another step in the explanation of how wild animals assess and respond to threats associated with living in urbanized environments. PMID:26718884
Ray G. Poulin
Full Text Available Dispersal is a fundamental aspect of population dynamics, and can have direct implications on processes such as the colonization of habitat patches. Pre-migratory movements, landscape fragmentation, and body condition have all been hypothesized as key factors influencing dispersal in birds, but little direct evidence exists to support these ideas. We used radio-telemetry and supplementary feeding to test if body condition or landscape pattern influenced pre-migratory movements of juvenile Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia in a fragmented landscape. We categorized grassland patches as either large (≥95 ha or small and isolated (≤58 ha and ≥1.5 km to next nearest grassland patch, and young owls were either provided supplemental food as nestlings or not. Owlets receiving supplemental food and residing in large grassland patches moved a greater maximum distance from their nest than similarly fed owlets residing in small patches (large = 1605 ± 443 m; small = 373 ± 148 m. In contrast, non-supplemented owlets from large and small patches did not differ in their maximum distance moved from the nest (large = 745 ± 307 m; small 555 ± 286 m. Only two of 32 individuals from small patches moved >800 m, whereas ten of 23 owlets from large patches moved >800 m. In addition, owlets from large patches continued to move farther and farther from their nest before migration, whereas owlets in small, isolated patches ultimately moved
The White Oak floodplain was contaminated with several radionuclides, including 239Pu, during the Manhattan Project in 1944. Plutonium distribution in the soil is nonhomogeneous. An investigation was conducted to deterine Pu accumulation in a resident animal population. Crayfish were chosen because they complete their life-cycle within the contaminated environment, they directly contact contaminated muds, and they function in a food chain of significance to man. Two major conclusions of the research were that Pu concentrations in contaminated crayfish typically exceed those of control crayfish by two orders of magnitude and that if an incident were to occur in which a standard man ingested the soft tissues of ten crayfish from the floodplain, an insignificant whole body dose would accrue over the subsequent 50 years of life. The digestive tract of contaminated crayfish contained 21 to 33% of the Pu body burden, soft tissues contained 11 to 31% of the Pu body burden, and 48 to 62% of the Pu body burden of contaminated crayfish was associated with the carapace. Therefore, at a molt a large proportion of its accumulated Pu is deposited in the environment. A supplementary laboratory investigation using 237Pu included a chronic Pu uptake study by uncontaminated crayfish. In these crayfish, from 64 to 82% of the 237Pu was associated with the body tissues. Complementary data for 237Pu associated with the carapace ranged from 18 to 37% of the distribution. An inventory of 239Pu in crayfish at two sites on the floodplain was calculated by multiplying the estimated biomass of the crayfish by their average 239Pu concentration. This evaluation of Pu associated with the crayfish population was compared to an inventory of 239Pu in the soil in which they burrow and was found to be eight orders of magnitude less
Delaney, M.S.; Dahlman, R.C.; Craig, R.B.
The White Oak floodplain was contaminated with several radionuclides, including /sup 239/Pu, during the Manhattan Project in 1944. Plutonium distribution in the soil is nonhomogeneous. An investigation was conducted to deterine Pu accumulation in a resident animal population. Crayfish were chosen because they complete their life-cycle within the contaminated environment, they directly contact contaminated muds, and they function in a food chain of significance to man. Two major conclusions of the research were that Pu concentrations in contaminated crayfish typically exceed those of control crayfish by two orders of magnitude and that if an incident were to occur in which a standard man ingested the soft tissues of ten crayfish from the floodplain, an insignificant whole body dose would accrue over the subsequent 50 years of life. The digestive tract of contaminated crayfish contained 21 to 33% of the Pu body burden, soft tissues contained 11 to 31% of the Pu body burden, and 48 to 62% of the Pu body burden of contaminated crayfish was associated with the carapace. Therefore, at a molt a large proportion of its accumulated Pu is deposited in the environment. A supplementary laboratory investigation using /sup 237/Pu included a chronic Pu uptake study by uncontaminated crayfish. In these crayfish, from 64 to 82% of the /sup 237/Pu was associated with the body tissues. Complementary data for /sup 237/Pu associated with the carapace ranged from 18 to 37% of the distribution. An inventory of /sup 239/Pu in crayfish at two sites on the floodplain was calculated by multiplying the estimated biomass of the crayfish by their average /sup 239/Pu concentration. This evaluation of Pu associated with the crayfish population was compared to an inventory of /sup 239/Pu in the soil in which they burrow and was found to be eight orders of magnitude less.
Ventilatory and metabolic responses of burrowing owls, Athene cunicularia, to moderate and extreme hypoxia: analysis of the hypoxic ventilatory threshold vs. hemoglobin oxygen affinity relationship in birds.
Kilgore, Delbert L; Boggs, Dona F; Kilgore, Trevor J; Colby, Conrad; Williams, Burl R; Bavis, Ryan W
We measured ventilation, oxygen consumption and blood gases in burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) breathing moderate and extreme hypoxic gas mixtures to determine their hypoxic ventilatory threshold (HVT) and to assess if they, like other birds and mammals, exhibit a relationship between HVT and hemoglobin O2 affinity (P(50)) of their blood. An earlier report of an attenuated ventilatory responsiveness of this species to hypoxia was enigmatic given the low O2 affinity (high P(50)) of burrowing owl hemoglobin. In the current study, burrowing owls breathing 11% and 9% O2 showed a significantly elevated total ventilation. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) at which ventilation is elevated above normoxic values in burrowing owls was 58 mm Hg. This threshold value conforms well to expectations based on the high P(50) of their hemoglobin and the HVT vs. P(50) relationship for birds developed in this study. Correcting for phylogenetic relatedness in the multi-species analysis had no effect on the HVT vs. P(50) relationship. Also, because burrowing owls in this study did not show a hypometabolic response at any level of hypoxia (even at 9% O2); HVT described in terms of percent change in oxygen convection requirement is identical to that based on ventilation alone. PMID:17561426
Hipsley, Christy A; Rentinck, Marc-Nicolas; Rödel, Mark-Oliver; Müller, Johannes
Amphisbaenians are fossorial, predominantly limbless squamate reptiles with distinct cranial shapes corresponding to specific burrowing behaviors. Due to their cryptic lifestyles and the scarcity of museum specimens, little is known of their intraspecific variation, particularly regarding cranial osteology. This represents a critical lack of information, because the majority of morphological investigations of squamate relationships are based on cranial characters. We investigated cranial variation in the West African Coast Worm Lizard Cynisca leucura, a round-headed member of the Amphisbaenidae. Using geometric morphometric analyses of three-dimensional computed tomographic scans, we found that cranial osteology of C. leucura is highly conserved, with the majority of shape changes occurring during growth as the cranium becomes more slender and elongate, accompanied by increasing interdigitation among the dermal roofing bones. Elements of the ventral portion of the cranium remain loosely connected in adults, possibly as a protective mechanism against repeated compression and torsion during burrow excavation. Intraspecific variation was strongly correlated with size change from juveniles to adults, indicating a dominant role of ontogenetic allometry in determining cranial shape. We found no evidence of sexual dimorphism, either during growth or among adults. Given the fossorial habits of C. leucura, we hypothesize that cranial allometry is under strong stabilizing selection to maintain adequate proportions for head-first digging, thereby constraining the ability of individuals to respond to differing selection pressures, including sexual selection and variation in diet or microhabitat. For species in which digging imposes less mechanical stress (e.g., in softer sand), allometric associations during growth may be weakened, allowing changes to the ontogenetic trajectory and subsequent morphological traits. Such developmental dissociation between size and shape, known
Wellicome, Troy I
In most animals, siblings from a given reproductive event emerge over a very short period of time. In contrast, many species of birds hatch their young asynchronously over a period of days or weeks, handicapping last-hatched chicks with an age and size disadvantage. Numerous studies have examined the adaptive significance of this atypical hatching pattern, but few have attempted to explain the considerable intrapopulation variation that exists in hatching asynchrony. I explored proximate determinants of hatching asynchrony by monitoring 112 Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) nests in the grasslands of southern Saskatchewan, Canada, over 4 years. Age disparities between first- and last-hatched siblings (i.e., hatching spans) varied considerably, ranging between 1 and 7 days (mode = 4 days). These hatching spans increased with increased hatching success. Hatching spans also increased with larger clutches, but the increase was less than predicted given the increased time required to lay more eggs. Hatching span was unrelated to number of prey cached in the nest during egg laying (an index of food availability), and was unaltered by a year of super-abundant prey. Furthermore, pairs given extra food during laying had hatching spans equal to those of unsupplemented control pairs. These results were inconsistent with both the energy constraint and facultative manipulation hypotheses, which predict that hatching asynchrony should vary with the level of food during laying, when incubation onset is determined. Burrowing Owls were apparently free of food limitation early in breeding, yet may not have been able to optimize hatching spans because food conditions during laying were largely unrelated to food conditions during brooding. Thus, one of the premises for facultative manipulation of hatching asynchrony-that laying females are able to forecast post-hatch food conditions-may not have been met for this population of Burrowing Owls. PMID:15480800
Moffitt, Christine M.
We compared the hydrodynamics of replicate experimental mixed cell and replicate standard Burrows pond rearing systems at the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, ID, in an effort to identify methods for improved solids removal. We measured and compared the hydraulic residence time, particle removal efficiency, and measures of velocity using several tools. Computational fluid dynamics was used first to characterize hydraulics in the proposed retrofit that included removal of the traditional Burrows pond dividing wall and establishment of four counter rotating cells with appropriate drains and inlet water jets. Hydraulic residence time was subsequently established in the four full scale test tanks using measures of conductivity of a salt tracer introduced into the systems both with and without fish present. Vertical and horizontal velocities were also measured with acoustic Doppler velocimetry in transects across each of the rearing systems. Finally, we introduced ABS sinking beads that simulated fish solids then followed the kinetics of their removal via the drains to establish relative purge rates. The mixed cell raceway provided higher mean velocities and a more uniform velocity distribution than did the Burrows pond. Vectors revealed well-defined, counter-rotating cells in the mixed cell raceway, and were likely contributing factors in achieving a relatively high particle removal efficiency-88.6% versus 8.0% during the test period. We speculate retrofits of rearing ponds to mixed cell systems will improve both the rearing environments for the fish and solids removal, improving the efficiency and bio-security of fish culture. We recommend further testing in hatchery production trials to evaluate fish physiology and growth.
Sanap, Rajesh V; Mirza, Zeeshan A
A distinctive new species of ground burrowing tarantula from Western Ghats endemic genus Thrigmopoeus is described from Kerala State, India. Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. differs from putative species of the genus in the adults being black overall with a metallic blue lustre on the carapace and abdomen. Females of Thrigmopoeus psychedelicus sp. nov. exhibit polychromatism. Juveniles and sub-adults are paler with vibrant maroon colouration on its abdomen whereas adult females are much darker and lack vibrant colouration as sub-adults. PMID:25103834
Plischke, Andreas; Quillfeldt, Petra; Lubjuhn, Thomas; Merino, Santiago; Masello, Juan F.
Abstract Wild birds exposed to stressors may modulate their investment in immunity. We studied the leucocytes of breeding burrowing parrots (Cyanoliseus patagonus) in Patagonia during five breeding seasons, during which global climate events such as a strong La Ni?a and a weak El Ni?o occurred. We observed strong inter-annual variation in the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes (H/L), with higher H/L during the adverse conditions of La Ni?a compared with the favourable conditions o...
Rafael A. Gregati; Maria L. Negreiros-Fransozo
The population biology of the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851) from a mangrove in Jabaquara Beach, Paraty, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23º13'04"S and 44º42'47"W), was studied with respect to the following traits: size-frequency distribution, recruitment, reproductive period, fecundity, and sex ratio. Specimens were sampled monthly from April, 2003 to March, 2004, at the river margins during low tide periods. Size, sex, presence of eggs, and stage of the female gonad were r...
de Gibert, Jordi M.; Goldring, Roland
The foraminiferal-rich pelagic Bateig Limestone forms several varieties of the important building stones quarried at Bateig Hill in southeastern Spain. Three principal ichnofabrics ( Bichordites, mottled- Palaeophycus and mottled- Ophiomorpha) are recognized, which are present in at least two (possibly up to four) repeated successions (cycles). Each succession begins with an erosional event. The Bichordites ichnofabric represents a new type of facies, formed as thin turbidity/grain flow, stratiform units derived from sediment slips off a fault into deep water. Each slipped unit became almost completely bioturbated by infaunal echinoids, colonizing by lateral migration. Because of the thinness of the units, successive colonizations tended to truncate the underlying burrows giving rise to a pseudo-stratification. As the Bichordites ichnofabric accumulated on the fault apron, thus reducing the effective height of the fault scarp, the substrate gradually came under the influence of currents traversing the shelf. This led to a change in hydraulic regime, and to the mottled- Palaeophycus and mottled- Ophiomorpha ichnofabrics in sediment deposited under bed load transport, and associated with laminar and cross-stratified beds and local muddy intervals. Reactivation of the fault triggered erosion and channeling and a return to grain flow sedimentation, and to the Bichordites ichnofabric of the succeeding cycle. The highest unit of the Bateig Limestone is formed entirely of cross-stratified calcarenites with occasional Ophiomorpha ( Ophiomorpha-primary lamination ichnofabric) and is similar to many shallow marine facies but they still bear a significant content of pelagic foraminifera. The sedimentary setting bears resemblance with that described for the Pleistocene Monte Torre Paleostrait and the modern Strait of Messina (Italy), where the narrow morphology of the depositional area enhanced tidal currents and allowed for high-energy sandy deposition in relatively deep
Weber, Roy E.; Bonaventura, J.; Sullivan, B.;
Oxygen equilibria, ligand-binding kinetics and some other physicochemical properties are reported for erythrocruorins of two intertidal polychaetes:Marphysa sanguinea, which inhabits simple, relatively stagnant burrows, andDiopatra cuprea, which inhabits impermeable, parchment-like tubes that are...
Full Text Available The burrowing-cricket genus Velarifictorus Randell, 1964 is reviewed in Korea, comparing with morphologically resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 for the first time. First, Velarifictorus aspersus borealis Gorochov, 1985 is confirmed from only restricted area of southern regions in Gyeongsangnam- do and Jeollanam-do. Second, Velarifictorus micado (Saussure, 1877 is confirmed from nearly all around the Korean peninsula including North Korea. Third, the previously not recorded Velarifictorus ornatus (Shiraki, 1911 is newly recognized from South Korea. Relating to the genus Velarifictorus, the resembled genus Lepidogryllus Otte and Alexander, 1983 and its species Lepidogryllus siamensis (Chopard, 1961 com. & stat. nov. is studied and compared with Velarifictorus members. A key, descriptions, tables, photographs, figures, oscillograms and spectrograms of calling sounds are provided to aid identification between the four similar species.
Lopatina, D. A.; Zanina, O. G.
The comparative analysis of palynomorphs and plant megafossils (fruits, seeds, twigs, leaves) in the Upper Pleistocene host sediments and materials filling in fossil burrows of gophers, their coprolites included, at the Duvannyi Yar, Stanchikovskii Yar and Zelenyi Mys sites of the Kolyma Lowland is carried out. Genera Salix, Lychnis, Silene, Draba, Potentilla, Larix, and families Poaceae, Polygonaceae, Cyperaceae, Compositae, and Leguminosae are determined among palynological remains and megafossils. Factors responsible for qualitative and quantitative differences in taxonomic compositions of palynological and megafossil assemblages are biological peculiarities of plants, different character of fossilization of palynomorphs and large plant remains, geographic conditions, different genesis of assemblages (allochthonous for microfossils and autochthonous for megafossils), and inadequately known morphology of certain spore and pollen taxa. The comprehensive paleobotanical analysis leads to the conclusion that the study region was occupied in the Late Pleistocene by plant communities of humid to somewhat dryer tundra with separate areas of pioneering and steppe vegetation.
Ascidia subterranea sp. nov. (Phlebobranchia: Ascidiidae), a new tunicate belonging to the A. sydneiensis Stimpson, 1855 group, found as burrow associate of Axiopsis serratifrons A. Milne-Edwards, 1873 (Decapoda: Axiidae) on Derawan Island, Indonesia.
Kneer, Dominik; Monniot, Francoise; Stach, Thomas; Christianen, Marjolijn J A
A new tunicate, Ascidia subterranea sp. nov., was found in burrows of the axiid crustacean Axiopsis serratifrons on Derawan Island, Indonesia. It differs from other ascidians in its habitat as well as numerous morphological peculiarities which are described in detail. The shrimp Rostronia stylirostris Holthuis, 1952 was found inside A. subterranea sp. nov., and 4 species of bivalves, 3 species of polychaetes, 1 gastropod, 1 polyplacophoran and 1 sponge species were found as burrow associates besides the ascidian. PMID:24758824
Owings, Donald H; Rowe, Matthew P; Rundus, Aaron S
Animal communication involves very dynamic processes that can generate new uses and functions for established communicative activities. In this article, the authors describe how an aposematic signal, the rattling sound of rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis), has been exploited by 2 ecological associates of rattlesnakes: (a) California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) use incidental acoustic cues in rattling sounds to assess the danger posed by the rattling snake, and (b) burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) defend themselves against mammalian predators by mimicking the sound of rattling. The remarkable similarity between the burrowing owl's defensive hiss and the rattlesnake's rattling reflects both exaptation and adaptation. Such exploitation of the rattling sound has favored alternations in both the structure and the deployment of rattling by rattlesnakes. PMID:12083617
Widdicombe, S; Beesley, A; Berge, J A; Dashfield, S L; McNeill, C L; Needham, H R; Øxnevad, S
A mesocosm experiment was conducted to quantify the relationships between the presence and body size of two burrowing heart urchins (Brissopsis lyrifera and Echinocardium cordatum) and rates of sediment nutrient flux. Furthermore, the impact of seawater acidification on these relationships was determined during this 40-day exposure experiment. Using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, seawater was acidified to pHNBS 7.6, 7.2 or 6.8. Control treatments were maintained in natural seawater (pH≈8.0). Under normocapnic conditions, burrowing urchins were seen to reduce the sediment uptake of nitrite or nitrate whilst enhancing the release of silicate and phosphate. In acidified (hypercapnic) treatments, the biological control of biogeochemical cycles by urchins was significantly affected, probably through the combined impacts of high CO2 on nitrifying bacteria, benthic algae and urchin behaviour. This study highlights the importance of considering biological interactions when predicting the consequences of seawater acidification on ecosystem function. PMID:23218873
P. Nunes, C.D.A.; Jangoux, M.
Recruitment in most marine invertebrates depends on the larval supply and the success of metamorphosis as well as on the growth and survival of the early juveniles. These two aspects of the early-life history of the burrowing echinoid Echinocardium cordatum have been investigated in the laboratory. Seven natural substrata were tested with competent larvae to assess their metamorphosis inducing capacity. Sediment (the natural substratum inhabited by the echinoids) - har-bouring or not conspeci...
JUAN CARLOS CASTILLA
This bibliographic review revisits circumstances in which the wharf, shell burrowing barnacle, Cryptophialus minutus, was first collected by Charles Darwin in southern Chile, in 1836. Further, explores how its collection marked Darwin's taxonomical interest in Cirripedia. A short review analyzes the initial number of extant species of Cirripedia, as described by Darwin and the present situation, with emphasis on recent collections of C. minutus in the southern tip of South America.Esta revisi...
Fick, Linda G; Kucio, Tomasz A; Fuller, Andrea; Matthee, André; Mitchell, Duncan
As small arid-zone mammals, Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) are unusual in being diurnally active. It is postulated that they remain active during the day by using their parasol-like tails to shade their bodies whilst foraging. However, no studies have continuously measured body temperature to determine the effect of using the tail as a parasol, relative to other thermoregulatory behaviours, such as burrow retreat. We caught four free-ranging Cape ground squirrels (673+/-36 g) and surgically implanted miniature temperature-sensitive data loggers into their abdomens, to record body temperature every 5 min to an accuracy of 0.04 degrees C, before they were released back into their home range and observed for two weeks. Mean daily peak black globe temperature was 41 degrees C, and daily peak body temperature reached 40 degrees C. Ground squirrels raised their tails significantly more often at globe temperatures above 30 degrees C, but raising the tail did not decrease body temperature, nor prevent body temperature rising. Ground squirrels retreated to burrows, at 18 degrees C, significantly more often at high body temperatures and body temperature dropped 1-2 degrees C before re-emergence. We believe that the tail was raised to provide thermal comfort during high solar radiation exposure, and that burrow retreat was employed to dissipate a heat load and remain active diurnally. PMID:19041951
Podolak, Agnieszka; Piotrowska, Elzbieta; Klimek, Malgorzata; Klimek, Beata Anna; Kruk, Jerzy; Plytycz, Barbara
We have shown previously that stubby worms Allolobophora chlorotica are sensitive to environmental stress, including metal-polluted soil. In order to discern the mechanisms of this sensitivity, adult (clitellate) Al. chlorotica were exposed in the laboratory to soil samples soaked with water (control) or Ni (1 and 2 mg/kg), Zn (1.25 and 2.5 g/kg) or Pb (5 and 10 g/kg) chlorides. Worms avoided contact with metal contaminants by prolonging burrowing time in metal-soaked samples, especially in the case of lead. Higher concentrations of the investigated metals were lethal for worms. During a 3 week exposure to lower metal concentrations, nickel and lead readily accumulated in the bodies of worms while zinc was efficiently regulated. However, body weights and numbers of non-invasively retrieved free coelomocytes (consisting of amoebocytes and riboflavin-loaded eleocytes) were significantly lower only in zinc-exposed worms. We assume that zinc regulation in worm bodies is more energy-demanding than nickel or lead bioaccumulation, thus this might be responsible for inhibition of the body gain and diminution of immunocompetent cells in zinc-exposed earthworms. Alternatively, missing free coelomocytes may actually be involved in Zn trafficking and removal through nephridia and/or in the formation of multicellular brown bodies, since metal can unbalance host/bacteria relationships. PMID:22195460
Pichon, Aurélien; Voituron, Nicolas; Bai, Zhenzhong; Jeton, Florine; Tana, Wuren; Marchant, Dominique; Jin, Guoen; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Ge, Ri-Li
The objective of this study was to compare the different ventilatory strategies that help in coping with hypoxic-hypercapnia environment among two species: use acclimated rats and plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) that live in Tibetan plateaus, and have been well adjusted to high altitude. Arterial blood samples taken at 4100 m of elevation in acclimatized rats and adapted pikas revealed inter-species differences with lower hemoglobin and hematocrit and higher blood pH in pikas. A linear and significant increase in minute ventilation was observed in pikas, which help them to cope with hypoxic-hypercapnia. Pikas also displayed a high inspiratory drive and an invariant respiratory timing regardless of the conditions. Biochemical analysis revealed that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) receptor gene and nNOS gene are highly conserved between rats and pikas, however pikas have higher expression of NMDA receptors and nNOS compared to rats at the brainstem level. Taken together, these results suggest that pikas have developed a specific ventilatory pattern supported by a modification of the NMDA/NO ventilatory central pathways to survive in extreme conditions imposed on the Tibetan plateaus. These physiological adaptive strategies help in maintaining a better blood oxygenation despite high CO2 concentration in burrows at high altitude. PMID:25988712
Denise M Nogueira
Full Text Available Leucism is an inherited disorder, characterized by the lack of pigments in part or all of the body, normal coloration of the eyes and, in birds, in naked parts such as the bill and legs. This kind of disorder is sometimes erroneously designated as albinism or partial albinism. In this study, we present a case of leucism in a wild owl. The studied individual presented completely white plumage, light-yellow coloration of legs and bill and normal coloration of eyes. According to morphological features, this owl is a specimen of burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782. To confirm the species identity, we used cytogenetic analyses for karyotypic determination, comparing it to the previously described one in the literature. We also studied a captive female of A. cunicularia to complement the species karyotype, which was described in the literature based only on a single male. The karyotype of the leucistic owl individual was compatible with the previously published one for A. cunicularia, confirming the bird was a male specimen. Cytogenetic analysis of the captive female showed that the W sex chromosome is metacentric and comparable to the seventh pair in size. This is the first description of a case of leucism in A. cunicularia for South America. Long-term studies are needed in the Neotropical region to evaluate survival and breeding success in leucistic birds.
Liu, Yongchao; Hankeln, Thomas; Schmidt, Bertil
Next-generation sequencing technologies have led to the sequencing of more and more genomes, propelling related research into the era of big data. In this paper, we present ParaBWT, a parallelized Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) and suffix array construction algorithm for big genome data. In ParaBWT, we have investigated a progressive construction approach to constructing the BWT of single genome sequences in linear space complexity, but with a small constant factor. This approach has been further parallelized using multi-threading based on a master-slave coprocessing model. After gaining the BWT, the suffix array is constructed in a memory-efficient manner. The performance of ParaBWT has been evaluated using two sequences generated from two human genome assemblies: the Ensembl Homo sapiens assembly and the human reference genome. Our performance comparison to FMD-index and Bwt-disk reveals that on 12 CPU cores, ParaBWT runs up to 2.2× faster than FMD-index and up to 99.0× faster than Bwt-disk. BWT construction algorithms for very long genomic sequences are time consuming and (due to their incremental nature) inherently difficult to parallelize. Thus, their parallelization is challenging and even relatively small speedups like the ones of our method over FMD-index are of high importance to research. ParaBWT is written in C++, and is freely available at http://parabwt.sourceforge.net. PMID:27295644
Scorpion speciation in the Holy Land: Multilocus phylogeography corroborates diagnostic differences in morphology and burrowing behavior among Scorpio subspecies and justifies recognition as phylogenetic, ecological and biological species.
Talal, Stav; Tesler, Itay; Sivan, Jaim; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel; Muhammad Tahir, H; Prendini, Lorenzo; Snir, Sagi; Gefen, Eran
Scorpio Linnaeus, 1758 (family Scorpionidae Latreille, 1802) was considered monotypic for over a century, and comprised a single species, Scorpio maurus Linnaeus, 1758, with 19 subspecies, distributed from West Africa, throughout the Maghreb and the Middle East, to Iran. Two parapatric subspecies, Scorpio maurus fuscus (Ehrenberg, 1829) and Scorpio maurus palmatus (Ehrenberg, 1828), have long been recognized in the eastern Mediterranean region. We examined morphological variation, burrow architecture and genetic divergence among 39 populations across the distribution of the two subspecies to assess whether they are conspecific and, if not, how many species might be involved. Cuticle coloration, pedipalp chela digital carina condition, and selected measurements were recorded. Sixty burrows were excavated and examined for burrow structure and depth. A multilocus dataset comprising concatenated fragments of one nuclear (28S rDNA) and three mitochondrial (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I) loci, totaling ca. 2400 base-pairs, was produced for 41 individuals, and a single-locus dataset comprising 658 base-pairs of the COI locus for 156 individuals. Despite overlapping ranges in morphometric characters of pedipalp chela shape, the putative subspecies were easily distinguished by cuticle coloration and condition of the pedipalp chela digital carina, and were also found to differ significantly in burrow architecture and depth. Phylogeographical analyses of the COI and multilocus datasets recovered seven distinct clades. Separate analyses of mitochondrial sequences, and combined analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear sequences support most clades. The two major clades corresponded with the geographical distributions of S. m. fuscus and S. m. palmatus in the region. Specimens from these clades were genetically distinct, and exhibited different burrow structure in geographically-proximate localities, suggesting reproductive isolation. The palmatus clade
Discusses opposing tendencies in the interpretation of Western Civilization. Describes the expanded definition that includes Byzantine and Islamic cultures as heirs of the Greco-Roman cultures. Suggests that a limited definition of Western culture will facilitate a problems approach, emphasize diversity among cultures, and integrate the classical…
Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E
Invasive transformer species change the character, condition, form, or nature of ecosystems and deserve considerable attention from conservation scientists. We applied the transformer species concept to the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis in western North America, where the pathogen was introduced around 1900. Y. pestis transforms grassland ecosystems by severely depleting the abundance of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) and thereby causing declines in native species abundance and diversity, including threatened and endangered species; altering food web connections; altering the import and export of nutrients; causing a loss of ecosystem resilience to encroaching invasive plants; and modifying prairie dog burrows. Y. pestis poses an important challenge to conservation biologists because it causes trophic-level perturbations that affect the stability of ecosystems. Unfortunately, understanding of the effects of Y. pestis on ecosystems is rudimentary, highlighting an acute need for continued research. PMID:25817984
Carol, Eleonora S.; Kruse, Eduardo E.; Pousa, Jorge L.
SummaryThe interrelation between surface water and groundwater in intertidal flats is often studied through mathematical models. In many cases these models need to be supported by an integral analysis of the geologic, geomorphologic, hydrologic and biological characteristics of the environment that are to be obtained from field surveys. The marshy environment of the River Ajo in the Samborombon Bay wetland, Argentina, is a typical example of an estuarine coastal zone. Geologic and geomorphologic surveys were carried out, as well as measurements of surface water and groundwater level changes as a response of the aquifer to tidal forcing. The banks of the River Ajo are either scarped with storm flats, or mildly sloped with intertidal flats and numerous crab burrows. Sediments are mainly silty-clayey with low permeability, and lie over silty-sandy layers. At the erosion scarps the tidal wave enters the aquifer as a sub-horizontal flow through the pore space of the sediments. The tidal range in the aquifer depends on the lithological characteristics of the sediments and on the side changes of their hydraulic conductivity. The rise of the water table at high water and its subsequent fall are nearly sinusoidal, with a period similar to that of the tide at the river. At the intertidal flats, instead, the tidal wave enters the aquifer mainly as a sub-vertical flow through the crab burrows. As the crab burrows are not interconnected, they are not distinct pathways for preferential flow. Therefore, the groundwater flux into the river is very slow during low water, and the recovery of the water table takes a long time. The tidal influence upon the water table on both kinds of banks affects only a narrow strip of the aquifer. Not only are the characteristics of the marshy environment of the River Ajo representative of most of the Samborombon Bay wetland; they can also be extended to other similar coastal wetlands to help preserve these invaluable environments.
EVELYN L. BULL
Full Text Available Several species of toads (family Bufonidae, including the Western Toad (Bufo boreas have declined in thewestern United States. Information on toad ecology and habitat use is essential to determine potential causes for populationdeclines, as is the potential relationship between this information and disturbance events. Aspects of western toad survival,mortality, movements, habitat selection, and diet were investigated at five study areas in northeastern Oregon duringsummers of 2002-2005. Of 100 radio-tagged toads monitored for one summer during these years, 32% survived untilSeptember, 29% were killed by predators, 10% died of other causes, and 29% were missing or had lost transmitters. Atfour study areas sampled in 2005, 24% of 37 males and 44% of 32 females sampled during the breeding season, and threedead male toads found after the breeding season tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Females traveledsignificantly farther than males, and the maximum distances traveled by female and male toads were 6230 m and 3870 m,respectively. Toads with transmitters selected habitats: (1 with little or no canopy; (2 on south-facing slopes; (3 nearwater; and (4 with high densities of potential refugia (e.g., burrows, rocks, logs. Males were more closely associated withwater than females. Twenty-six toads overwintered in rodent burrows (38%, under large rocks (27%, under logs or rootwads (19%, and under banks adjacent to streams or a lake (15%. Diet consisted of 82% ants (Formicidae, 13% beetles(Coleoptera, and <1% in 8 additional orders of insects with no differences detected between male and female toads.Disturbance events, such as wildfire, can influence refugia and prey of toads, and climatic conditions may influence a toad’ssusceptibility to B. dendrobatidis.
Yuri V. Albores-Barajas
Full Text Available During 2004, we followed 72 natural burrows to determine the effects of disturbance on breeding success of Cassin's auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus. We used distance from a human settlement or path in the analysis of disturbance. Birds whose burrows were closer to the path or the village had a higher rate of nest abandonment and lower breeding success compared to birds nesting further away from the path or the village. Also, older and more experienced individuals represented a larger proportion of the breeding population on less disturbed areas than on highly disturbed ones, probably as older individuals tend to arrive earlier at the breeding grounds, and failed breeders may change burrow sites to move away from disturbance. P. aleuticus are adversely affected by human activity at colonies even if birds are not handled and burrows are not opened, and this has implications for conservation, and planning of ecotourism. On the long term, this can have negative consequences for this species and others with similar characteristics.Durante el 2004 seguimos 72 nidos de la alcuela (Ptychoramphus aleuticus para determinar los efectos de disturbio en el éxito reproductivo. Utilizamos la distancia del nido a áreas asentamientos humanos o al camino como medidas de disturbio. Los nidos que estaban más cerca de los asentamientos o del camino tuvieron una tasa de abandono mayor y un éxito reproductivo menor en comparación con los nidos que estaban más alejados de las fuentes de disturbio. También observamos que en las zonas menos expuestas la proporción de adultos, con mayor experiencia, era más alta, posiblemente porque los individuos con mayor experiencia llegan antes a la zona de anidación. Las alcuelas son afectadas negativamente por la presencia de los humanos y sus actividades, aunque las aves no entren en contacto directo con los humanos. A largo plazo, esto puede acarrear consecuencias graves para esta especie y otras con caracter
The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)
Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences
The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)
Computer Simulation Western is a unit within the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. Its purpose is the development of computational and mathematical methods for practical problems in industry and engineering and the application and marketing of such methods. We describe the unit and our efforts at obtaining research and development grants. Some representative projects will be presented and future plans discussed. (author)
Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.
The development of the Ranger uranium mine in the Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory, Australia is discussed. Problems faced by the Ranger managers since the early 70s include environmental protection, Aboriginal land rights, union opposition and changes in government policies. Ranger has only recently completed its first full financial year of production in which it met its target of 3000 t of uranium oxide. Ore from the open-cut mine is processed using conventional acid leach solvent extraction methods. The mines environmental department employs about 30 people involved in physical rehabilitation or monitoring of the workforce and the environment
Von Laue, Theodore H.
Discusses the history of westernization from a global perspective. Analyzes the reasons for perceived Western "superiority," how these reasons contributed to the buildup of western power, and its attractiveness to non-Western cultures. Indicates the necessity for a trans-national, culturally non-specific view of history to meet this age of global…
Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez
Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.
@@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.
Full Text Available Tarantulas are large spiders with adhesive setae on their legs, which enable them to climb on smooth vertical surfaces. The mechanism proposed to explain adhesion in tarantulas is anisotropic friction, where friction is higher when the leg pushes than when it pulls. However, previous studies and measurements of adhesion in theraphosids were performed using dead specimens. To test their ability to climb, we studied static friction of live theraphosid spiders on different surfaces and at different inclines. We compared burrower with arboreal species to test the hypothesis of higher friction in arboreal tarantulas. We found a complementary participation of claw tufts and scopula of anterior and posterior legs when the tarantula climbs. The mechanics of climbing in association with the biological characteristics of the species are discussed.
Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.
What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.
Hartig, J H; Zarull, M A; Ciborowski, J J H; Gannon, J E; Wilke, E; Norwood, G; Vincent, A N
Over 35 years of US and Canadian pollution prevention and control efforts have led to substantial improvements in environmental quality of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie. However, the available information also shows that much remains to be done. Improvements in environmental quality have resulted in significant ecological recovery, including increasing populations of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcons (Falco columbarius), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), walleye (Sander vitreus), and burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia spp.). Although this recovery is remarkable, many challenges remain, including population growth, transportation expansion, and land use changes; nonpoint source pollution; toxic substances contamination; habitat loss and degradation; introduction of exotic species; and greenhouse gases and global warming. Research/monitoring must be sustained for effective management. Priority research and monitoring needs include: demonstrating and quantifying cause-effect relationships; establishing quantitative endpoints and desired future states; determining cumulative impacts and how indicators relate; improving modeling and prediction; prioritizing geographic areas for protection and restoration; and fostering long-term monitoring for adaptive management. Key management agencies, universities, and environmental and conservation organizations should pool resources and undertake comprehensive and integrative assessments of the health of the Detroit River and western Lake Erie at least every 5 years to practice adaptive management for long-term sustainability. PMID:18850284
Brown, John J; Kittelson, Neal T; Hannon, Eugene R; Walsh, Douglas B
Western poplar clearwing, Paranthrene robiniae (Hy. Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is endemic in Pacific Northwest riparian habitats at low population densities. These moths have colonized commercial hybrid poplar (Populus spp.) plantings. Moth populations increased rapidly and became a major pest. Trap catches of male moths in mid-season surveys increased 190-fold from 95 in 2001 to >18,500 in 2002 across 6597 ha of poplars monitored. The outbreak of western poplar clearwings was widespread in 2002. Pheromone-baited traps placed one trap per 81.75 ha over 13,274 ha of commercial poplars captured >108,000 male moths in 2002. Damage to commercial poplars included girdling of saplings and burrows in limbs and trunks of trees. Repeated applications of chlorpyrifos failed to reduce the abundance of moths in 2002. Two management strategies over two separate plantations of approximately 6500 ha each were contrasted. Future control strategies recommend a halt to the use of contact insecticides that target adult moths. Short-term (3-5 yr) control should involve a pheromone-based mating disruption strategy followed eventually by selection of a clone that is less susceptible to P. robiniae attack. PMID:16813311
A treasure trove of pictures and history, The Last Western Flyer chronicles one of the most successful small town franchise operations in 20th Century America, Western Auto. It grew from humble beginnings as a penny mailer sent from the kitchen of a Kansas City home to over 5,000 retail outlets under its Circle Arrow signs. Western Auto brought everything from tires, spark plugs, socks, vitamin pills, fishing lures, radios and more, including its famous Western Flyer bikes to America’s major ...
Bonding： Western fathers are keen to take an equal role in parenting. They recognise their responsibility as a new dad, and are committed early to sharing every family task with the mother. It is common to see a proud western father walking outside, on their own, with their tiny baby. Western dad＇s know that this time is special, and the mother needs to relax and feel confident to trust the dad with the baby.
The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U3O8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)
Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Marinho, Carmen H; Malanga, Gabriela
The Natural Protected Area San Antonio bay is of particular importance for its congregation of migratory shorebirds and it has been declared one of the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network International site (WHSRN). Present study represents the first assessment of variation on oxidative stress biomarkers in male crab Neohelice granulata from San Antonio bay (Río Negro, Argentina) under field conditions, associated mainly to metal contamination coming from passive mining wastes. Three sites were sampled once every three months from November 2012 to August 2013 within this sea inlet (Pile, Fishery and Port) and a control site at the southeast of the bay (Punta Perdices). Accumulation of Ni, Zn, Cr and Al varied only with seasons although without a constant trend, meanwhile Cd, Cu and Pb also varied among sites being highest in Pile and Port. Biochemical results indicated that variations in catalase activity was only site specific being maximum in Pile; meanwhile lipid radical, α-tocopherol and metallothioneins were only seasonal specific being higher in autumn and winter. Seasonal variation was also found for total thioles, being the content higher in summer and autumn than in winter. Correlation analysis revealed that malondialdehyde and α-tocopherol have a positive association with Al and negative with Ni, meanwhile GST has a positive association with Fe. Crabs from the closest area to the waste pile did not exhibit a differentiated oxidative pressure despite the higher accumulation of metals. It is possible that crabs from contaminated areas have developed a tolerance to metals, indicating a strong ecotoxicological selective pressure. More studies are needed to assess whether there is a transfer of metals through the food chain. PMID:27266655
Encarnación-Luévano, Alondra; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R.; Sigala-Rodríguez, J. Jesús
The importance of climatic conditions in shaping the geographic distribution of amphibian species is mainly associated to their high sensitivity to environmental conditions. How they cope with climate gradients through behavioral adaptations throughout their distribution is an important issue due to the ecological and evolutionary implications for population viability. Given their low dispersal abilities, the response to seasonal climate changes may not be migration, but behavioral and physiological adaptations. Here we tested whether shifts in climatic seasonality can predict the temporal variation of surface activity of the fossorial Lowland Burrowing Treefrog (Smilisca fodiens) across its geographical distribution. We employed Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to perform a monthly analysis of spatial variation of suitable climatic conditions (defined by the July conditions, the month of greatest activity), and then evaluated the geographical correspondence of monthly projections with the occurrence data per month. We found that the species activity, based on the species' occurrence data, corresponds with the latitudinal variation of suitable climatic conditions. Due to the behavioral response of this fossorial frog to seasonal climate variation, we suggest that precipitation and temperature have played a major role in the definition of geographical and temporal distribution patterns, as well as in shaping behavioral adaptations to local climatic conditions. This highlights the influence of macroclimate on shaping activity patterns and the important role of fossorials habits to meet the environmental requirements necessary for survival. PMID:24244301
JUAN CARLOS CASTILLA
Full Text Available This bibliographic review revisits circumstances in which the wharf, shell burrowing barnacle, Cryptophialus minutus, was first collected by Charles Darwin in southern Chile, in 1836. Further, explores how its collection marked Darwin's taxonomical interest in Cirripedia. A short review analyzes the initial number of extant species of Cirripedia, as described by Darwin and the present situation, with emphasis on recent collections of C. minutus in the southern tip of South America.Esta revisión bibliográfica describe las circunstancias en el que el cirrípedo enano, Crypophialus minutus, perforador de conchas, fue recolectado por Charles Darwin en el sur de Chile, en 1836. Además, cómo esta recolección marcó el interés taxonómico de Darwin en Cirripedia. Se presenta una revisión resumida sobre el número inicial de especies vivas de Cirripedia, como fueron descritas por Darwin, y la situación actual, con énfasis en recolecciones recientes de C. minutus en el cono sur de Suramérica.
Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Shemesh, Eli; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly; Coleman, Dwight F.; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Tchernov, Dan
Biogenic calcium carbonate crusts represent a cryptic habitat that is often associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Most biological observations of these crusts concern the external surfaces and the fauna inhabiting their inner cavities are generally neglected. Exposed carbonates in areas of active seepage at the 1100-m-deep base of the Palmachim slumping feature in the Levantine basin are intensively burrowed by metazoans, especially by sipunculans (peanut worms), identified by genetic and morphological markers as a potentially novel Phascolosoma sp., closely related to Phascolosoma turnerae (Rice, 1985) and named here P. aff. turnerae. Bacterial 16S-based tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) was utilized to analyze the bacterial community associated with P. aff. turnerae. We compared the bacterial community structure in P. aff. turnerae to the bacterial community structure associated with the sediment-water interface in adjacent gas seeps and in biofilm covering the carbonate crust hosting the sipunculan. A distinctive microbiota, capable of chemosynthesis and sulfide detoxification, was found in association with P. aff. turnerae.
L David Mech
Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.
Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.
Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.
This paper expresses views on the competitive advantages of one of the nation's most remarkable energy resources--Western coal. It covers utilization of Western coal, and its advantages. The Arkansas Power and Light Company and its demand for coal are also covered
The Western Nuclear Science Alliance (WNSA) was formed at Oregon State University (OSU) under the DOE Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program in 2002. The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program. WNSA has been very effective in meeting these goals. The infrastructure at several of the WNSA university nuclear reactors has been upgraded significantly, as have classroom and laboratory facilities for Nuclear Engineering, Health Physics, and Radiochemistry students and faculty. Major nuclear-related education programs have been inaugurated, including considerable assistance by WNSA universities to other university nuclear programs. Research has also been enhanced under WNSA, as has outreach to pre-college and college students and faculty. The INIE program under WNSA has been an exceptional boost to the nuclear programs at the eight funded WNSA universities. In subsequent years under INIE these programs have expanded even further in terms of new research facilities, research reactor renovations, expanded educational opportunities, and extended cooperation and collaboration between universities, national laboratories, and nuclear utilities.
Uranium has been in use in Europe since the Middle Ages, and working of uraniferous minerals on an industrial scale for the production of radium began in Portugal and Czechoslovakai in 1904. Mining began soon after World War II for the production of fissile material. Western Europe's uranium resources represent about a tenth of the world's resources, of 486 950 tonnes recoverable at $130 per kg or less. Production in 1978 was 2 513 tonnes of uranium. The principal producing countries were the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, France, and Portugal. Uraniferous vein deposits occur in the Moldanubian granites, the Iberian Meseta, the Armorican massif, the Massif Central, and the Black Forest. Deposits associated with sedimentary rocks occur in the Cambrian shales of Ranstad, the Permian lutites and silts of Lodeve, and in grits and sandstones elsewhere. Volcanic deposits are present in Alpine areas. The current rate of exploration must be maintained if the energy needs of Europe predicted for the year 2000 are to be met. (L.L.)
Dimri, A. P.; Niyogi, D.; Barros, A. P.; Ridley, J.; Mohanty, U. C.; Yasunari, T.; Sikka, D. R.
Cyclonic storms associated with the midlatitude Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), referred to as Western Disturbances (WDs), play a critical role in the meteorology of the Indian subcontinent. WDs embedded in the southward propagating SWJ produce extreme precipitation over northern India and are further enhanced over the Himalayas due to orographic land-atmosphere interactions. During December, January, and February, WD snowfall is the dominant precipitation input to establish and sustain regional snowpack, replenishing regional water resources. Spring melt is the major source of runoff to northern Indian rivers and can be linked to important hydrologic processes from aquifer recharge to flashfloods. Understanding the dynamical structure, evolution-decay, and interaction of WDs with the Himalayas is therefore necessary to improve knowledge which has wide ranging socioeconomic implications beyond short-term disaster response including cold season agricultural activities, management of water resources, and development of vulnerability-adaptive measures. In addition, WD wintertime precipitation provides critical mass input to existing glaciers and modulates the albedo characteristics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, affecting large-scale circulation and the onset of the succeeding Indian Summer Monsoon. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Indian subcontinent requires fundamental understanding of the dynamics of WDs. In particular, projected changes in the structure of the SWJ will influence evolution-decay processes of the WDs and impact Himalayan regional water availability. This review synthesizes past research on WDs with a perspective to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of knowledge to assist both researchers and policymakers, and context for future research.
Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich
along the oil transportation route that connected three Salym oil fields in Western Siberia.
This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe and waterproof conditions for a longer period of
Young, Julie K; Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.
Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically ...
Use of genetic markers for ecological risk assessment at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory: Microsatellite mutation rate of burrowing mammals. Genetic markers for ecorisk assessment
Full text: Radiological and hazardous waste have been disposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory since 1952. Escape of radionuclides and hazardous constituents from uncontained wastes, and from deterioration of waste containers and waste disposal practices has resulted in contamination of the subsurface soils in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) and at other facilities. To assess the risks to human and ecological health, the potential impacts of contaminant exposure on identified receptors must be determined. Burrowing and excavation of the soil by small mammals, including deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), is responsible for some radionuclide transport through the SDA environment; however, the genomic effects of exposure to contaminants are not known. This research will evaluate if molecular genetics can be used to determine whether exposure to contaminants affects organisms at the genomic level. The ratio of microsatellite mutant alleles vs. the non-mutant alleles (m/nm) was used as a direct assessment of mutation, using parent/offspring comparison of allele differences. Preliminary allele scoring was performed with 10 microsatellite markers for females and offspring from two uncontaminated control locations (Burn and Atomic City), and two contaminated test locations (SL-1 and RWMC). Fetal genotypes that gave a single inconsistent genotype with the mother were scored as mutations. The proportion of mutant alleles from each population was compared and tested for significant differences using the Fisher's exact test. Preliminary data suggest that the contaminated SL-1 site may have higher mutation rates in comparison to at least one of the control sites (Atomic City). The rather small sample size for Burn (N = 6) makes a quantitative estimate of the difference in mutation rate between contaminated and uncontaminated locations approximate at this time. Finally, the mutation rate obtained by combining the
M.A. Pérez Fernández
Full Text Available Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Australia y el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental (DEC, en la que participaron miembros de la comunidad Ngaanyatjarra, conocedores y cuidadores del territorio. El resultado científico se tradujo en la identificación de dos nuevas especies, así como numerosas nuevas citas de plantas y animales para el territorio. La minería es una de las actividades más impactantes en Australia, pero la concienciación social ha llevado a que las compañías desarrollen importantes campañas de protección de especies. El mulgara (Dasycercus cristicaula ocupaba zonas que hoy en día se dedican a la minería, y de las que prácticamente ha desaparecido. Un programa de investigación financiado por la empresa Resolute Resources y dirigido por el Departamento de Conservación y Manejo del Territorio (CALM ha permitido identificar poblaciones de este marsupial carnívoro y diseñar un programa de manejo cuyo objetivo es evitar actuaciones incompatibles con su actividad biológica. El resultado más relevante en ambas iniciativas ha sido la colaboración entre diferentes agentes implicados, con intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias. Especialmente importante ha sido la posibilidad de diseñar planes de manejo y actuación sobre el territorio, orientados a la preservación de valores naturales y culturales antiguos.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...
The paper explores Buddhist economics as a major alternative to the Western economic mindset. Buddhism is centred on want negation and purification of the human character. Buddhist economics, developed by Schumacher, Payutto, Welford and others, challenges the basic principles of modern Western economics: (1) profit-maximisation, (2) cultivating desires, (3) introducing markets, (4) instrumental use of the world, and (5) self-interest-based ethics. Buddhist economics proposes alternative prin...
Interactions of juvenile Lumbricus terrestris with adults and their burrow systems in a two-dimensional microcosm Interações de juvenis de Lumbricus terrestris com adultos e seus sistemas de galerias em um microcosmo bidimensional
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate interactions of Lumbricus terrestris juveniles with adults and with inherited burrow systems. An experiment was set up using a two dimensional Evans' boxes microcosm. Adult L. terrestris were added to 16 boxes (one individual per box and kept in darkness at 17ºC along with eight unoccupied boxes for two months. The adult L. terrestris were removed from eight randomly selected boxes, and L. terrestris juveniles were added (one juvenile per box, composing three treatments with eight replicates: 1, with an adult in an inherited burrow (ABJ; 2, alone in an inherited burrow (BJ; and 3, alone in a previously uninhabited box (J. The proportion of juveniles occupying adult burrows observed was significantly different in treatments ABJ (48% and BJ (75%. The mean mass of juveniles at experimental termination differed significantly among treatments and was greater in treatment J (4.04±0.39 g in comparison to the BJ (3.09±0.93 g and ABJ treatments (2.13±0.64 g. Results suggest a negative influence of both the presence of an adult and its burrow system on juvenile growth. Intraspecific competition partially explained this, but further investigation is required to examine how an inherited environment (i.e. burrow could negatively affect the growth of juveniles.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as interações de juvenis de Lumbricus terrestris com indivíduos adultos e com sistemas de galerias herdados. O experimento foi realizado usando microcosmos bidimensionais de Evans como unidades experimentais. Adultos de L. terrestris foram colocados em 16 unidades experimentais (um indivíduo por unidade e mantidos no escuro a 17ºC juntamente com oito unidades experimentais inabitadas, por dois meses. Os adultos foram removidos de oito unidades selecionadas aleatoriamente e juvenis foram adicionados a todas as unidades experimentais (um indivíduo por unidade, em três tratamentos, com oito repetições: 1, com um
Malone, T. F.
, and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.
Neuroethological validation of an experimental apparatus to evaluate oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours: Comparison between the polygonal arena with a burrow and the circular enclosure of an open-field test.
Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Fisher, Isaac René; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne
Inhibition of GABAergic neural inputs to dorsal columns of the periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG), posterior (PH) and dorsomedial (DMH) hypothalamic nuclei elicits distinct types of escape behavioural reactions. To differentiate between the variety and intensity of panic-related behaviours, the pattern of defensive behaviours evoked by blockade of GABAA receptors in the DMH, PH and dPAG were compared in a circular open-field test and in a recently designed polygonal arena. In the circular open-field, the defensive behaviours induced by microinjection of bicuculline into DMH and PH were characterised by defensive alertness behaviour and vertical jumps preceded by rearing exploratory behaviour. On the other hand, explosive escape responses interspersed with horizontal jumps and freezing were observed after the blockade of GABAA receptors on dPAG neurons. In the polygonal arena apparatus, the escape response produced by GABAergic inhibition of DMH and PH neurons was directed towards the burrow. In contrast, the blockade of GABAA receptors in dPAG evoked non-oriented escape behaviour characterised by vigorous running and horizontal jumps in the arena. Our findings support the hypothesis that the hypothalamic nuclei organise oriented escape behavioural responses whereas non-oriented escape is elaborated by dPAG neurons. Additionally, the polygonal arena with a burrow made it easy to discriminate and characterise these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses. In this sense, the polygonal arena with a burrow can be considered a good methodological tool to discriminate between these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses and is very useful as a new experimental animal model of panic attacks. PMID:26545831
Holm, Anne; Absalon, Lucas; Jørgensen, Michael; Charalambous, Nayia
Copper nanoparticles are being used more and more frequently in our everyday life; this leads to the question of what the effects on the environment and organisms living in the contaminated ecosystems are. This report seeks to help answering this question, by researching if the sedimentassociated copper (two forms, CuO NPs or Cu-ions) exposure has a delayed effects on the mortality and burrowing behaviour of the annelid Tubifex tubifex after an exposure period of four days. This is done by ex...
Planas, Enric; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; Ribera, Carles
In this study, we present the first molecular phylogeny of the wolf spider genus Lycosa Latreille, 1804 in the Western Mediterranean Basin. With a wide geographic sampling comprising 90 localities and including more than 180 individuals, we conducted species delimitation analyses with a Maximum Likelihood approach that uses a mixed Yule-coalescent model to detect species boundaries. We estimated molecular phylogenetic relationships employing Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods using mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. We conducted divergence time analyses using a relaxed clock model implemented in BEAST. Our results recovered 12 species that form four groups: Lycosa tarantula group comprising L. tarantula the type species of the genus, L. hispanica and L. bedeli; Lycosa oculata group composed of L.oculata, L. suboculata and three putative new species; Lycosa baulnyi group formed by the maghrebian L. baulnyi and L. vachoni and Lycosa fasciiventris group that includes two widespread species, L. fasciiventris and L. munieri. We found that each group of species shows a characteristic burrowing behavior and molecular and morphological diagnostic characters. Molecular clock analyses support the hypothesis of a relatively recent evolutionary origin of diversification of the group (4.96 Mya (3.53-6.45 Mya)). The establishment of the Mediterranean-like climate and the Pleistocenic glacial cycles seem to have been the main factors that promoted the diversification within the group. Finally, the results obtained in this study together with the revision of museum specimens, descriptions, redescriptions and illustrations, lead us to propose 18 nomenclatural changes (synonymies, generic transfers and nomina dubia) concerning the genera Lycosa, Allocosa and Hogna in the Western Mediterranean. PMID:23416758
Troiano, Alexandra T; Grue, Christian E
Willapa Bay (Washington State, USA) has been 1 of the rare intertidal locations where large-scale pesticide applications occur. Until recently, carbaryl was applied to control burrowing shrimp that decrease commercial oyster productivity. The bay is a critical habitat for green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. However, the hazard that carbaryl poses is unknown. Surrogate seawater-acclimated white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) were exposed to 0 μg L(-1) , 30 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 300 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h, and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured. Enzyme recovery was measured in an additional cohort exposed to 1000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h. Activity of AChE was reduced (p ≤ 0.001) at concentrations ≥ 100 μg L(-1) with recovery in the 1000 μg L(-1) cohort by 72 h. Surprisingly, BChE activity was greater than controls at concentrations ≥ 300 μg L(-1) (p > 0.05), a finding confirmed in additional fish exposed to 3000 μg L(-1) for 6 h (+30%, p recovery by 48 h. Plasma samples were collected from free-living green sturgeon before and 4 d to 5 d after application of carbaryl in Willapa Bay. Activity of BChE after application was reduced 28% (p < 0.001), indicating exposure to the pesticide. However, the lack of congruence between BChE and AChE activity in captive white sturgeon exposed to carbaryl indicates that further studies are needed to better understand the risk carbaryl exposure poses to green sturgeon. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2003-2015. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26678014
Recent dramatic expansion of the natural gas industry in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin provided ample proof of the potential of this area for further development of natural gas supply. However, the inherent competitive advantages provided by the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin were said to have been offset by low netback prices resulting in poor producer economics when competitiveness is measured by availability of opportunities to find and develop gas supply at costs low enough to ensure attractive returns. Technology was identified as one of the key elements in improving basin competitiveness, but the greatest potential lies in reduced transportation costs and increased access to North American market centres. 8 figs
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were held were held under natural light conditions before experiments. Experiments...
Nielsen, Jakob Isak
The article is written for an issue on the Western genre. By means of a comparative analysis of Winchester '73 (Anthony Mann, 1950) and The Man from Laramie (Anthony Mann, 1955) the article accounts for stylistic, narrative, generic and theoretical implications of the transition from Academy ratio...
Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik
It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democratic...
The bachelor thesis deals with the development of tourist's accommodation in Prague with the focus on the competition of the hotel Best Western Kampa. The thesis also analyses currently used components of the marketing mix of selected hotel and proceeds its SWOT-analyse. On the basis of synthesis of ascertained information it suggests the conceivable recommendations.
The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...
Siim, Birte; Lister, Ruth; Williams, Fiona;
The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee...
The major object of this panel was to obtain information on the state of art of Iodine-123 production in Western Europe. Technical, medical and organizational problems were discussed extensively during the one-day meeting and a stimulating exchange of information between the various 123I-producers and users has been initiated. Some specific examples of medical application were also included in order to get a feeling of the degree of acceptance by the medical community and the demand for this isotope. The meeting clearly demonstrated the great demand for this isotope but it also showed that the present rate of production is well below the demand. In order to fill this gap, not only further technical development is needed but also the organizational question of distribution has to be solved, perhaps within a network of collaborating cyclotrons, a task which is considerably more difficult in Western Europe than in the USA. (orig./HP)
González Ruibal, Alfredo
The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agricult...
Arno, Stephen F
Major forest types that are characterized by nonlethal understory fire regimes include those where ponderosa pine or Jeffrey pine has been a major component either as a fire-maintained seral type or as the self-perpetuating climax (table 5-1). This includes extensive areas throughout the Western United States from northern Mexico to southern British Columbia, Canada (Little 1971). Also, sizeable areas of open woodlands dominated by Oregon white oak, California black oak, blue oak, or Digger p...
Wardrop, Nicola A.
Landcover classifications were produced for an area of western Kenya based on ASTER (15m spatial resolution) and Landsat (30m spatial resolution) imagery from 2010 and 2011. The land cover classification was carried out in a hierarchical manner, resulting in two overarching classes (a) vegetated land (versus built up and bare ground) and (b) flooding land (versus non-flooding land); and five lower level classes (c) agricultural land and grassland, (d) swamp, (e) trees and shrubs, (f) rice and...
Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology
The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.
Aich, Tapas Kumar
Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced! PMID:23858249
Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans Henrik;
BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...
Effects of change in primary forest cover on armadillo (Cingulata, Mammalia burrow use in the Central Amazon Efectos del cambio en la cobertura de bosque primario sobre el uso de las madrigueras por los armadillos (Cingulata, Mammalia en la Amazonia Central
María Clara Arteaga
Full Text Available Transformation of primary forest to other vegetation types alters the availability and distribution of resources, and thus affects their use by species that inhabit the forest. Although armadillos are important earthmover mammals in the Amazon forest, and their burrows play an important physical and ecological role in the ecosystem, the impact of loss of primary forest cover on these organisms has been poorly understood. In order to evaluate the effects of change in the primary forest cover on burrow use by armadillos, we performed 2 censuses in 33 plots within 12 sites of different vegetation cover characteristics, and recorded burrow density and current use. A total of 109 armadillo burrows were found; the sites with higher percentages of primary forest cover showed a larger number of active burrows, although burrow density and the probability of establishing new burrows remained unaffected by this variable. Our results show that areas with higher quantities of primary forest habitat show more intense use by armadillos, probably due to the permanence time of individuals. These findings suggest that the viability of armadillo populations, as well as the role that these animals play within the ecosystem, may be affected in disturbed areas.La transformación del bosque primario a otro tipo de vegetación cambia la disponibilidad y distribución de los recursos, afectando su uso por especies que habitan el bosque. Los armadillos son el principal grupo de mamíferos escavadores del Amazonas y sus madrigueras cumplen un papel físico y ecológico en el ecosistema. Sin embargo, no se conoce el impacto de la pérdida del bosque sobre estos organismos. Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de los cambios en la cobertura de bosque primario sobre el uso de sus madrigueras, realizamos 2 censos en 33 parcelas dentro de 12 localidades con diferentes coberturas vegetales y reportamos la densidad y el estado de uso de las madrigueras. Encontramos 109 madrigueras y
The forecasts contained in this report are based on a review of the drilling activity through the first eight months of 1998 in twelve geographic areas of Western Canada. The forecasts incorporate current operator activity and trends into an estimate of well counts and meters drilled for the entire year of 1998. The estimates produced in this manner serve as the basis for the activity forecast for 1999. This projection, and cost data developed for the Association's 1998 Well Cost Study released in September 1998, provide the foundation for calculating the anticipated expenditure for various products and services in each of the specified geographical areas. Major operators in each area, and the type of drilling activities conducted by them, are also included. For Western Canada as a whole, a total of 9,885 wells are predicted to be drilled in 1999, at a total expenditure of $3.939 billion. The predicted average well depth will be 1,171 m, at an average cost of $ 219/m
Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pam; Villepique, Jeffrey T; Clifford, Deana L; Nyaoke, Akinyi; De la Mora, Alfonso; Moore, Janet; Foley, Janet
Notoedric mange, caused by the contagious, burrowing mite Notoedres centrifera, has been associated with several large-scale population declines of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) and has been a significant obstacle to population recovery in Washington State where the species is listed as threatened. In 2009, residents and wildlife rehabilitators in the isolated San Bernardino Mountains of southern California reported a dramatic die-off of western gray squirrels, in what had been a previously dense and robust population. Individuals were observed suffering from abnormal neurologic behaviors (ataxia and obtundation) and severe skin disease. Full necropsy of five squirrels from the epidemic showed that all had moderate to severe infestation with mange mites and severe dermatitis characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, intralesional mites, intracorneal pustules and superficial bacteria. Mites from affected squirrels were evaluated by light and electron microscopy and identified as N. centrifera based on morphologic criteria. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of the mite was cloned, sequenced and accessioned in GenBank. The cause for the abnormal neurologic behavior was not confirmed on post-mortem examination. However, we hypothesize that mange can cause incoordination and obtundation as a result of malnutrition and dehydration, and intense pruritis may induce abnormal or erratic behavior that could be mistaken for neurologic signs. While we have characterized the severe impact this disease can have on individual animals, more work is needed to understand the impact on squirrel populations, particularly in view of the anecdotal reports of dramatic population declines that may take decades to recover. PMID:24533345
Bonding Western fathers are keen to take an equal role in parenting.They recognise their responsibility as a new dad,and are committed early to sharing every family task with the mother.It is common to see a proud western father walking outside,on their own,with their tiny baby.Western dad's know that this time is special,and the mother needs to relax and feel confident to trust the dad with the baby.
Kaiser, Christoph; Rubaale, Tom; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Kipp, Walter; Asaba, George
Nodding syndrome (NS) is a poorly understood condition, which was delineated in 2008 as a new epilepsy syndrome. So far, confirmed cases of NS have been observed in three circumscribed African areas: southern Tanzania, southern Sudan, and northern Uganda. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an association between NS and infection with Onchocerca volvulus, but the causation of NS is still not fully clarified. We report a case of a 15-year old boy with head nodding seizures and other characteristic features of NS from an onchocerciasis endemic area in western Uganda, with no contiguity to the hitherto known areas. We suggest that the existence of NS should be systematically investigated in other areas. PMID:25918208
Oil and gas drilling activity for the final quarter of 1998 and the first quarter of 1999 for 12 specific geographical areas in Western Canada is reviewed. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Current operator activity and trends are incorporated into an estimate of well counts for 1999. Average drilling costs for each area are also calculated. Drilling of about 8920 wells is projected for 1999. The anticipated drilling and completion expenditures will be about $3.2 (Cdn) billion. While horizontal drilling activity appears to have decreased slightly in 1998, an increase to over 1200 horizontal and directionally drilled wells is projected for 1999. A list of the major operators in each geographical area is also provided. 8 tabs., 3 figs
Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray
It has become increasingly evident that the lunar pyroclastic volcanism played an important role in the formation and resurfacing of many areas of the Moon. On-going analysis of lunar Orbiter and Apollo photographs continues to locate and identify pyroclastic deposits and suggests that they just may be more ubiquitous than once thought. Located near mare/highland boundaries, many of these deposits formed contemporaneously with effusive mare volcanism. The mantling deposits formed as products of fire-fountaining. Probable source vents for these deposits include irregular depressions at the head of associated sinuous rilles and/or along irregular fractures in the floors of ancient craters. Here, researchers provide a brief synopsis of the nature of the dark mantling deposits and briefly discuss several newly identified deposits on the western limb.
Jones, S F; Kessel, A S
Biomedicine is a global enterprise constructed upon the belief in the universality of scientific truths. However, despite huge scientific advances over recent decades it has not been able to formulate a specific and universal definition of death: In fact, in its attempt to redefine death, the concept of death appears to have become immersed in ever increasing vagueness and ambiguity. Even more worrisome is that bioethics, in the form of principlism, is also endeavouring to become a global enterprise by claiming neutrality. It appears that the discourse within both disciplines have similarly manipulated the boundaries of death to include the "dying". This paper argues that the redefinition of death debate in biomedicine reveals a concept of personhood which is profoundly western in origin and which is in accordance to the concept adhered to within principlism. Biomedicine and bioethics do not appear to acknowledge the limitations of their own world view and hence lack an understanding of their applicability and appropriateness in diverse social and cultural contexts; a situation which adds credence to claims as to the hegemonic and imperialistic nature of all such global enterprises. PMID:11214385
Never before has China been more prominent on the international scene or had such close interaction with the Western world than now. But neither has it experienced such an onslaught of Western culture, particularly its younger generation, who unreservedly espouse the exotic hairstyles, anarchistic pop music and diverse leisure pursuits that are to them the West's most influential exports.
In 1997, in an unprecedented effort to resolve a cluster of practical problems that each of them faced, the governors of 19 western states formally launched the university that bears their name. The governors intended their new university to be student-centered but market-oriented; independent but serving needs across the western region through…
This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of
Tamaki, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Ikebe, K.; Muramatsu, K.; Taka, M.; Tanaka, M.
-Tamaki and Ingole, 1993; Callichirus islagrande-Fielder and Griffis, 1994; Callianassa subterranea-Rowden and Jones, 19941. This is, in part, due to difficulties in regularly obtaining samples from the entire sediment columns inhabited by the animals. Scarcity... japonica in the study area, a necessary prerequisite for the present study, are summarized below. Animals live in Y-shaped burrows occupying the entire sediment column, under which lies an accumulation of large-shell remains. Each adult burrow has two...
All wells drilled in Western Canada during the first nine months of 1999 are listed and sorted into 12 geographical areas used in the Petroleum Services Association of Canada (PSAC) well cost study. Each area represents wells of common drilling, production and depth characteristics. Area totals for well counts and meters drilled were determined from the sorting process. Previous years' activities are reviewed and various operators and PSAC members contacted to review upcoming programs. In addition, trends and other projections were consulted to develop an estimate of drilling activity for the rest of 1999 as well as a projection of drilling activity for 2000. The historical and projected drilling activities were tabulated and plotted for each area. Average drilling costs for each area were determined, and the total expenditures were calculated for each area by multiplying the the projected meterage by the adjusted drilling costs. All costs were allocated to various services and products utilizing percentages determined in the Well Cost Study. During the sorting process, a list was developed of the major operators in each area, which list is included in the report along with average depths and types of wells drilled by the various operators in each area. The costs included in the report include only drilling and completion operations, starting with the building of the location prior to drilling, and ending with the installation of the wellhead after construction. 5 tabs
González Ruibal, Alfredo
Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.
Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.
Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.
The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.
Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Agate, Francesca
The study of the evolution of the beaches plays a fundamental role in every territorial politics regarding the coastal band. More than half the world population lives in coastal regions which support a florid touristic activity in many countries. The beach constitutes, in terms of economic value, the most important element of the coastal system, but also the more fragile and morphologically variable. Thus, studying its evolutions is fundamental in order to adopt the best management of this complex, densely populated and economically interesting zone. In this regard, the western coast of Sicily (Italy) is an effective example. It took its origin from variation of the sea middle level (Quaternary), with the consequent formation of marine terraces. Morphologically, the shore is made up by low and rock coast alternating beaches. The historical evolution of the coast has been performed through the use of aerial images identifying, despite several uncertainties, the position of the shoreline. Indeed the shoreline position extracted from an aerial image is a wet/dry line that describes the instantaneous land-water boundary at the time of imaging rather than a "normal" or "average" condition. Each wave instantaneously influences the shoreline position and hence, to take into account shoreline oscillations due to wave motion. Even if from a conceptual point of view the shore line is defined as a border between the emerged earth and the sea, its perennial variability makes it difficult to determine. In order to start a correct management, a cognitive geomorphological study has been carried on, as well as a study of high strategic value and environmental sustainability. It was based on a continuous decisional process based on objectives defined by the UE, in order to classify the beaches and to define the characteristic which are necessary for a correct coastal management. This study has been fundamental to start a monitoring of the coast; moreover, it has shown
Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris
The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northern-most West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent. In this context, four iconic river basins offer glimpses into specific challenges that climate change may bring to the West. The Colorado River is a system in which overuse and growing demands are projected to be even more challenging than climate-change-induced flow reductions. The Rio Grande offers the best example of how climate-change-induced flow declines might sink a major system into permanent drought. The Klamath is currently projected to face the more benign precipitation future, but fisheries and irrigation management may face dire straits due to warming air temperatures, rising irrigation demands, and warming waters in a basin already hobbled by tensions between endangered fisheries
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...
Festivals are precious cultural heritage of different countries,so differentfestivals can reflect different cultures. This article discusses cultural differences in Chinese and western festivals, aiming to promote cross-culture communication.
US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent species occurrences...
Presents the assumptions, generalizations, data, and methods central to the development of the History of Women (Women and Western Civilization) course at Des Moines Community College. Provides a course outline and a bibliography of primary and secondary sources. (TP)
Kleinbaum, Abby Wettan
Compares basic themes in women's history and the Western civilization survey course and concludes that women's studies do not assimilate comfortably because women are not a part of the heroic epics upon which European history is based. (CK)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for nesting birds in Western Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent locations of nesting birds....
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1998. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...
Oak Ridge National Laboratory — This data set is an ArcInfo point coverage depicting barriers to fish migration in headwater basins in western Oregon. Data were compiled from reports by fisheries...
In the NRPB's At a Glance Series', natural radiation maps are presented for Western Europe showing the level of exposure from gamma-rays indoors, gamma-rays outdoors and radon indoors for each country. (UK)
Chattopadhyay, Subrata; De Vries, Raymond
Modern bioethics was born in the West and thus reflects, not surprisingly, the traditions of Western moral philosophy and political and social theory. When the work of bioethics was confined to the West, this background of socio-political theory and moral tradition posed few problems, but as bioethics has moved into other cultures - inside and outside of the Western world - it has become an agent of moral imperialism. We describe the moral imperialism of bioethics, discuss its dangers, and su...
Andriessen, Daan; Boom, Marien van den
The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept of knowledge and IC is used to identify common Western conceptualizations of knowledge in IC literature. A review of philosophical and religious literature was done to identify knowledge conceptuali...
Dmitriy Kovtun; Alexis Mayer Cirkel; Zuzana Murgasova; Dustin Smith; Suchanan Tambunlertchai
Labor markets in the Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia) are characterized by some of the highest unemployment and low employment rates in Europe. We analyze the poor labor market outcomes in these countries by comparison with the New Member States of the European Union and advanced European economies. Our findings suggest that long-lasting labor market weaknesses in the Western Balkans have structural roots: the institutional ...
As China is believed to be the market of the twenty-first century, entering China is not an option but a strategic requirement for many organizations. However, numerous Western managers who are well equipped with technical background know almost nothing about the pioneers who are reshaping the world's second largest economy. Consequently, this cross-sectional analysis explores the managerial implication of the Chinese dialectic logic vs. Western formal logic, particularistic Chinese culture v...
Wine plays a big role in people’s social life both in China and in the West. Based on the perspective of cross culture, the paper gives a detailed analysis of the disparities of Chinese and western wine culture, and points out the factors for the forming of Chinese and western wine culture. It can be concluded that culture is the key to the understanding of wine phenomenon.
Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang
The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences. PMID:26371449
Smith, J.J.; Platt, B.F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Thomasson, J.R.
Two new ant-nest trace fossils are described from calcic sandy paleosols of the Neogene Ogallala Formation in western Kansas. The ichnofossils are preserved within and below calcrete beds weathering in positive relief as carbonate-filled casts or as cavities in negative relief. Daimoniobarax ichnogenus nov. is established for burrow systems composed of vertically tiered, horizontally oriented pancake-shaped chambers connected by predominantly vertical and cylindrical shafts ~. 0.8. cm in diameter. Ichnospecies of Daimoniobarax are differentiated based on differences in the plan view outline of chambers, shaft orientation, and junctions between chambers and shafts.Daimoniobarax nephroides ichnospecies nov. is composed of an ~. 24-76. cm long vertical sequence of distinctly lobed chambers (~. 2-20. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) arranged along sinuous to helical shafts. Chamber shape in plan view ranges from small teardrops to larger kidney- and U-shaped forms. Shafts intersect at chamber edges such that chambers appear to bud from the central shafts. Daimoniobarax nephroides is most similar to the nests of extant seed-harvester ants of the New World genus Pogonomyrmex. Such ants are specialized granivores and prefer sandy soils in arid to semi-arid grassland and desert regions.Daimoniobarax tschinkeli ichnospecies nov. is ~. 30-80. cm in vertical extent. Chambers (~. 2-30. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) are circular to elongate or pseudopodial in plan view. Vertical shafts are straight to slightly sinuous and intersect most often toward the center of the chambers. The generalized architecture of D. tschinkeli is similar to that of the nests or nest portions of several extant ant genera, though it does not closely resemble any known modern nest.Ant ichnofossils provide valuable information on hidden biodiversity, paleohydrologic regimes, paleopedogenic processes, and paleoclimate during the time of nest occupation. Depth-related changes in chamber size and vertical spacing
Saebi, Tina; Dong, Qinqin
This paper compares the key drivers of Sino-foreign alliance formation from the perspective of both Chinese and Western alliance partners. Our results indicate that Chinese companies enter into alliances with Western companies mainly to get accesses to international markets and to develop their technological and managerial competences further, while Western partners aim to gain access to the local customer and supplier bases of their Chinese counterpart as well as to the complex distribution ...
Babaniyi, Olusegun A; Peter Mwaba; David Mulenga; Mwaka Monze; Peter Songolo; Mazyanga L Mazaba-Liwewe; Idah Mweene-Ndumba; Freddie Masaninga; Elizabeth Chizema; Messeret Eshetu-Shibeshi; Costantine Malama; Emmanuel Rudatsikira; Seter Siziya
Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF). However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation...
Afify, A. M.; Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Calvo, J. P.; Wanas, H. A.
In this paper, a new interpretation of the ironstone crusts of the Bahariya Formation as late diagenetic products is provided. The siliciclastic Lower Cenomanian Bahariya Formation outcropping in the northern part of the Bahariya Depression (Western Desert, Egypt) is subdivided into three informal units that are mainly composed of thinly laminated siltstone, cross-bedded and massive sandstone, fossiliferous sandstone/sandy limestone and variegated shale. Abundant ironstone crusts occur preferentially within its lower and upper units but are absent in the middle unit. The ironstone crusts show selective replacement of carbonate components, including calcretes, by iron oxyhydroxides. More permeable parts of the terrigenous beds such as burrow traces, subaerial exposure surfaces, concretionary features and soft-sediment deformation structures led to heterogeneous distribution of the iron oxyhydroxides. A variety of diagenetic minerals, where goethite and hematite are the main end-products, were characterized by mineralogical analysis (XRD), petrography and SEM observation, and geochemical determinations (EMPA). Other diagenetic minerals include Fe-dolomite/ankerite, siderite, manganese minerals, barite, silica, illite/smectite mixed-layer, and bitumen. These minerals are interpreted to be formed in different diagenetic stages. Some minerals, especially those formed during eodiagenesis, show features indicative of biogenic activity. During burial, dolomite and ankerite replaced preferentially the depositional carbonates and infilled secondary porosity as well. Also during mesodiagenesis, the decomposition of organic matter resulted in the formation of bitumen and created reducing conditions favorable for the mobilization of iron-rich fluids in divalent stage. Telodiagenesis of the Cenomanian Bahariya deposits took place during the Turonian-Santonian uplift of the region. This resulted in partial or total dissolution of Fe-dolomite and ankerite which was concomitant to
The accident at Chernobyl in April 1986 spread radioactive contamination throughout Europe. Using measurements of activity concentrations in the air, on the ground and in a range of foods, estimates of the doses received by the populations of western Europe have been made. For the European Community (EC) countries, the average individual effective doses accruing from the first year following the accident are estimated to range from less than a microsievert in Portugal to a few hundred microsieverts in the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy and Greece. Elsewhere in western Europe, similar average individual effective doses have been estimated, up to a value of about 700 μSv for Austria. These values can be compared with the average effective dose of about 2000 μSv which the populations of western Europe receive each year from natural radiation. The restrictions placed on consumption of some foods are estimated to have been effective in reducing doses to the most exposed individuals by a factor of two in some countries. Throughout the EC, however, countermeasures are estimated to have reduced the collective effective dose by about 5%. The health impact on western Europe from the accident at Chernobyl can be assessed from the collective effective doses and the collective thyroid doses estimated together with the appropriate risk factors. For the EC the collective effective dose estimate is about 80,000 man Sv; considering western Europe as a whole the collective dose would be a few tens of percent higher. Using the risk factor recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the theoretical number of extra cancers predicted in western Europe due to the Chernobyl accident is of the order of 1000. This can be compared with the number of fatalities which would be expected over the next fifty years in western Europe as a result of radiation from natural sources, which is over half a million. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs
Crecimiento del camarón excavador Parastacus pugnax (Poeppig, 1835 determinado mediante técnica de marcaje Growth of burrowing crayfish Parastacus pugnax (Poeppig, 1835 determined by marking technique
Full Text Available Para determinar el crecimiento en el camarón excavador (Parastacus pugnax en la zona centro sur de Chile se utilizó un marbete tipo cinturón. Los parámetros longitud cefalotorácica asintótica (Lc m y la velocidad de incremento en longitud y peso (K, se establecieron mediante el método de Gulland & Holt (1959. El parámetro t0 se determinó mediante la ecuación inversa del modelo de von Bertalanffy, estableciéndose que las curvas de crecimiento en longitud y peso fueron definidas por los parámetros K = 0,35 mm año-1, t0 = -0,38 años, Lc∞ = 55, 9 mm y W∞ = 83,8 g, valores similares a los de Samastacus spinifrons, especie chilena de alto potencial de cultivo, y de otros parastácidos sudamericanos, tales como P. brasiliensis y P. deffosus.A modified tag belt type was used in the burrowing crayfish (Parastacus pugnax, in the central-south of Chile. The parameters asymptotic carapace length (Lc0 and rate of increase (K were determined through the Gulland & Holt (1959 method. The parameter t0 was determined by the inverse equation of von Bertalanffy model, which allowed to establish that the growth curves in length and weight are defined by the parameters K = 0.35 mm yr-1, t0 = -0.38 years, Lc∞ = 55. 9 mm and W∞= 83.8 g. These values were similar to those of Samastacus spinifrons, Chilean species with high potential for aquaculture, and similar to those of other South American parastacids such as P. brasiliensis and P. deffosus.
Keller, Heidi; And Others
Analyzes the early communication structure in adult-child interactions with two- to six-month old babies in Western (West Germany, Greece) and non-Western (Yanomami, Trobriand) societies. Discusses universal international verbal and non-verbal structures reflecting intuitive parenting programs. (FMW)
Full Text Available In this issue we introduce a new article type – the outbreak investigation report – with our theme Outbreak investigations in the Western Pacific Region. This new article type allows for concise reports on outbreak investigations and expands the role of the Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal (WPSAR as a regional information-sharing platform, as per the Asia Pacific Strategy for Emerging Diseases (APSED 2010 in line with the International Health Regulation (2005. Timely sharing of outbreak investigations may be useful in informing public health action across the Region. We received 11 outbreak investigation report submissions and one original research of an outbreak investigation from six countries and areas within the World Health Organization’s Western Pacific Region.
Fiscal Year 2012 brought some tumultuous and uncertain times to Western. The utility industry and technology continued to evolve, and the demand for constant flow of power and transmission system reliability continued to increase. Western kept pace by continuing to deliver reliable, cost-based hydropower while reviewing and updating business practices that took into account how the energy industry is evolving. During this time of exponential change, Western tackled many challenges, including: Reviewing the Transmission Infrastructure Program processes and procedures; Responding to Secretary of Energy Steven Chu’s memorandum to create a modern, efficient and reliable transmission grid; Weathering record-breaking natural disasters in our service territory; Completing our role in TIP’s flagship project—the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line; Incorporating new, far-reaching regulations and industry trends.
Sandahl, L.J.; Lee, A.D.; Wright, G.A.; Durfee, D.L.
This report describes a comprehensive customer database compiled by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to assist with analyses conducted as part of the Western Area Power Administration Energy Planning and Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The database was used by PNL as a tool to help select a sample of Western customers for potential participation in the Organizational Impacts Analysis case studies, and was used as part of the Utility Impact Analysis to identify sources and costs of auxiliary power. Secondary information sources were used predominantly to compile one year of system related information on the Western customers (over 600) included in the database. This information was useful for its intended purposes; however, year-to-year information may not be consistent across utilities and not all information was available for each utility.
Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)
The author explains why western light water reactors are intrinsically more dangerous than the RBMK, Chernobyl design. It is also argued that for the fast breeder reactors (such as the PFR at Dounreay and the Super Phenix at Creys Melville) are more dangerous and could actually explode like an atomic bomb. This is contrary to official assurances that the Western reactors are of a safer design and more safely operated than the Chernobyl reactor, and so a similar accident could not happen here. The PWRs and BWRs are compared with the RBMK as to pressure vessels/no pressure vessel, fuel rods, reactor containment and containment building. The superiority of Western engineering and reactor operation is also disputed, with the Three Mile Island accident used as evidence. (U.K.)
Wilson, Sandra L.
Current theory in clinical psychology holds that eating disorders (EDs) arise from theWestern ideal of bodily thinness (Keith, 2011, p. 214). If this is true, the growing prevalence ofEDs in non-Western countries likely follows from the expansion of Westernization and theWestern thinness ideal. However, if incorrect, this theory might adversely influence thediagnosis and treatment of non-Western patients with EDs who seek treatment from Westerndoctors. If culture influences the perception or ...
Hever, Pennylouise; Alamri, Alexander; Tolias, Christos
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic cerebrovascular disease involving progressive bilateral stenosis of the intracranial segments of the internal carotid arteries. It results in the development of a rich, but friable collateral supply, prone to rupture. The disease is well described in Japanese literature and was originally thought to be a predozminantly Eastern disease. However, the recent literature describes a Western phenotype that may present with a different clinical course. This review aims to describe the variations in the epidemiology of the MMD between Eastern and Western populations, the possible reasons for them and highlight their implications for clinical practise and future research. PMID:26473792
Full Text Available This study aims to shed light on the most significant aspect of the modern man’s inner struggle in Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes. Joseph Conrad is one of the authors of the twentieth century who was influenced by the psychological philosophy and he makes use of this influence in his works deeply. He who synthesizes the inner nature of the modern man, having conflicts himself with the deeper analysis field of the psychology aims to point out the incomprehensible and unsettled inner nature of the modern man in Under Western Eyes.
This paper reports that in Western Europe, the competition between oil and gas began on a large scale during the 1960s. Indeed, natural gas accounted for only 2 percent of Western Europe's energy consumption in 1960 and for already 7 percent in 1970. It now accounts for about 17 percent. Almost all of this increase took place at the detriment of oil products. The competition between those two energy sources has resulted in the development of natural gas supply on one hand, and in several political and economic factors on the other
Mao Lin; Chunguang Wang; Yanguo Wang; Peng Xiang; Yu Wang; Guangshan Lian; Ruixiang Chen; Xiaoyin Chen; Youyin Ye; Yanyu Dai; Jinghong Lin; Zhenzu Xu; Jiaqi Huang; Donghui Guo
The western Pacific region has been operating as a centre for the origin of marine biodiversity: the richest diversity of many marine taxa was found in these waters. Therefore, biodiversity research and con-servation efforts in this area are necessary in order to promote the integrative and international management of this resource. The present work is a compilation of numbers of all the families, genera and species of ma-jor taxa of zooplankton known in the western Pacific Ocean(106°–150°E, ...
E.R. te Velde (Egbert); A. Burdorf (Alex); E. Nieschlag (Eberhard); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.A.M. Kremer; N. Roeleveld (Nel); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)
textabstractSince Carlsen and co-workers reported in 1992 that sperm counts have decreased during the second half of the last century in Western societies, there has been widespread anxiety about the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on human fecundity. The Carlsen report was followed by s
Velde, E. te; Burdorf, A.; Nieschlag, E.; Eijkemans, R.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Roeleveld, N.; Habbema, D.
Since Carlsen and co-workers reported in 1992 that sperm counts have decreased during the second half of the last century in Western societies, there has been widespread anxiety about the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on human fecundity. The Carlsen report was followed by several re-an
A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methodsused to estimate surface wind speeds from...
Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Rich-Edwards, Janet
To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population. Resu...
Booth, Margaret Zoller
This research project is part of a larger study that will culminate in a book entitled "Culture and Education: The Social Consequences of Westernization in Contemporary Swaziland." While the major focus of that book is concerned with present day Swaziland, this historical research was needed in order to place the present day study of children,…
This dissertation investigates the prosodic and intonational characteristics of Western Cham (three letter code for International Organization for Standardization's ISO 639-3 code: [iso=cja]), an Austronesian language in the Chamic sub-group. I examine acoustic variables of prominence at word and postlexical levels: syllable duration, pitch…
McNeill, William H.; And Others
Seven college professors give personal views about why courses in Western civilization and national history are declining in popularity. Because students seem to be oriented toward the present and away from foreign affairs, history courses must be relevant to students' lives in order to be of interest. (AV)
S.M. Murshed (Syed); S. Pavan (Sara)
textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the
The Western Option concept describes an approach to the conversion of weapon-grade plutonium from Russian nuclear warheads under the special aspects of meeting the criteria of irreversible utilization. Putting this concept of plutonium conversion into non-weapon-grade material into effect would make a major contribution to improving security worldwide. This study is based on an agreement between the Russian Federation and the United States of America concluded in September 2000. It provides for the conversion of 34 t of weapon-grade plutonium in each of the two states. This goal is also supported by other G8 countries. While the United States performs its part of the agreement under its sole national responsibility, the Russian program needs financial support by Western states. Expert groups have pointed out several options as a so-called basic scenario. The funds of approx. US Dollar 2 billion required to put them into effect have not so far been raised. The Western Option approach described in this contribution combines results of the basic scenario with other existing experience and with technical solutions available for plutonium conversion. One of the attractions of the Western Option lies in its financial advantages, which are estimated to amount to approx. US Dollar 1 billion. (orig.)
Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan
the retailers' buying behavior for pork, fish and cheese products. By conducting a conjoint analysis in sixteen Western European countries (15 'old' EU Countries (except Luxemburg), and Norway, and Austria), it is demonstrated that the traditional four Ps are losing ground to some previously neglected...
Vision: Western Canada will become an international centre for stationary power generation technology using high temperature fuel cells that use a wide variety of fossil and biomass fuels. Current research areas of investigation: 1. Clean efficient use of hydrocarbons 2. Large-scale electricity generation 3. CO2 sequestration 4. Direct alcohol fuel cells 5. Solid oxide fuel cells. (author)
First- and second-wave Western European feminists struggled to realize full access to civil rights for women and the creation of a participatory democracy that ensured social solidarity. They consequently stressed the fact that in addition to the struggle for civil rights, women needed to contest th
Braun, Carlos Rodriguez
The economic and institutional analysis of capitalism can be illustrated through John Ford's Westerns. This article focuses on six classics by Ford that show the move toward modern order, the creation of a new society, and the rule of law. Economic features are pervading, from property rights and contracts to markets, money, and trade. Ford has…
King, Lindsay M.; Clement, Russell T.
Western European art foundations create invaluable opportunities for research and exhibition by artists, curators, and scholars. These activities are often documented and disseminated via high-quality publications. This article highlights an important but under-recognized collecting resource for academic and museum libraries by profiling several…
While thinking about the notion of the "global" in the history of the history of science, this essay examines a related but equally basic concept: the idea of "Western science." Tracing its rise in the nineteenth century, it shows how it developed as much outside the Western world as within it. Ironically, while the idea itself was crucial for the disciplinary formation of the history of science, the global history behind this story has not been much attended to. Drawing on examples from nineteenth-century Egypt and China, the essay begins by looking at how international vectors of knowledge production (viz., missionaries and technocrats) created new global histories of science through the construction of novel genealogies and through a process of conceptual syncretism. Turning next to the work of early professional historians of science, it shows how Arabic and Chinese knowledge traditions were similarly reinterpreted in light of the modern sciences, now viewed as part of a diachronic and universalist teleology ending in "Western science." It concludes by arguing that examining the global emergence of the idea of Western science in this way highlights key questions pertaining to the relation of the history of science to knowledge traditions across the world and the continuing search for global histories of science. PMID:20575492
Pryde, Philip R.
Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)
Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D
HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people l...
Family education is elementary and important for children.Because of different culture,China and other western countries have different family education.This paper mainly analyzes these differences in three aspects:values of family education,ways of family education and influences of family education.In the end,it provides some suggestions for improving Chinese family education.
226Ra profiles have been measured in the western Indian Ocean as part of the 1977-1978 Indian Ocean GEOSECS program. These profiles show a general increase in deep and bottom water Ra concentration from the Circumpolar region to the Arabian Sea. A deep Ra maximum which originates in the Arabian Sea and in the Somali basin at about 3000 m depth spreads southward into the Mascarene basin and remains discernible in the Madagascar and Crozet basins. In the western Indian Ocean, the cold Antarctic Bottom Water spreads northward under the possibly southward-flowing deep water, forming a clear benthic front along the Crozet basin across the Southwest Indian Ridge into the Madagascar and Mascarene basins. The Antarctic Bottom Water continues to spread farther north to the Somali basin through the Amirante Passage at 10°S as a western boundary current. The benthic front and other characteristic features in the western Indian Ocean are quite similar to those observed in the western Pacific where the benthic front as a distinctive feature was first described by Craig et al. . Across the Mid-Indian Ridge toward the Ceylon abyssal plain near the triple junction, Ra profiles display a layered structure, reflecting the topographic effect of the mid-ocean ridge system on the mixing and circulation of the deep and bottom waters. Both Ra and Si show a deep maximum north of the Madagascar basin. Linear relationships between these two elements are observed in the deep and bottom water with slopes increasing northward. This suggests a preferential input of Ra over Si from the bottom sediments of the Arabian Sea and also from the flank sediments of the Somali basin.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides information on the western spotted frog Rana pretiosa which occurs in Tule Valley, Utah. The following topics are discussed; general...
Domingues, Bennett K.
This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have
Krishna P Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen
Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass equations was fitted simultaneously with a constrained seemingly unrelated regression. Additionally, a linear model that predicts total aboveground biomass as a function of DB...
The mission of the Western Area Power Administration is to market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based hydroelectric power and related services. This guide provides an overview of Western’s history and how Western carries out that mission and provides electrical, transmission and ancillary services. It also discusses how we develop plans for marketing our most valuable resources—long-term firm capacity and energy.
As it is known,there exist many distinctions between Chinese and Western marriage customs.This paper is to discover the different customs between Chinese and Western marriage and analyze the reasons for the distinctions.
Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L.; Potter, E. D.; Vives I Batlle, J.; Barlow, T.S.; Copplestone, D.
Estimates of absorbed dose rates as a consequence of exposure of wildlife to natural background radionuclides are required to put results of assessments conducted for releases of radionuclides from licensed sites into context. There have been recent review papers in which estimated dose rates to marine, freshwater and terrestrial wildlife (specifically the ICRP Reference Animals and Plants (ICRP 2008)) from 40K and radionuclides in the 238U and 232Th series have been presented (Beresford et a...
Katsoulis, B.D.; Metaxas, D.A. (Univ. of Ioannina (Greece))
In this study wind data were used to determine the monthly and annual variations of the wind at 13 meterological stations in western Greece. An analysis of the available wind data for the Ionian Sea islands and the western coasts of Greece is carried out to ascertain its potential for wind energy development. The effect of the limited number of daily observations available on the accuracy of the mean wind speed and annual wind energy estimates is ascertained. The wind speed and direction distributions are represented with Weibull functions. Besides, a mass-consistent numerical mesoscale model was used to give an overview of the wind prospecting and siting problem, and an example of its use for Corfu (Kerkira), an island in the Ionian Sea, is given. The comparison of the accuracy of the stimulation results versus measured wind at an available site is quite encouraging even though it cannot be conclusive since only one station is available.
Veluchamy, V.K. [Power Grid Corp. (India)
The Indian power system is divided into five regions in order to ensure optimum use of the resources available in each region. The Western region comprises the States of Maharashstra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarath and Goa. The major load centres are in the western part of the region where high employment potential has concentrated the population. Coal-fired plants located near the coal deposits in the east of the region, far from the load centres, provide the bulk of the power generated. Stepped up high voltage supplies are carried by overhead transmission lines over extremely difficult terrain to the load centres. The details of the system are outlined. Interconnections between state grid systems within the region provide economic advantages but there are technical and commercial problems which require the constant mutual cooperation of all parties. (UK)
Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza; Hjarup, Søren
The aim of the paper is to analyse the development of the structure in the Western European mobile services market, based primarily on technological and economic parameters. The focus of the analysis is on the market consolidation process, taking place horizontally, i.e. among the mobile network...... operators, and on the new companies entering the mobile field vertically, delivering, e.g., content and portal services, as convergence with Internet develops....
Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)
This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)
Colorfully coiffured Chinese youth dressed in up-to-the-minute grunge listening to rock music as they walk,or sitting in a group discussing last night's NBA league match are common sights in Chind's large cities,Western,particularly stateside,youth culture is rapidly incorporating itself into everyday urban Chinese life,What does the country's youth and society in general think about this cultural omslaught?
Trujillo, Ernesto; Molotch, Noah P.
Snow accumulation and melt patterns play a significant role in the water, energy, carbon, and nutrient cycles in the montane environments of the Western United States. Recent studies have illustrated that changes in the snow/rainfall apportionments and snow accumulation and melt patterns may occur as a consequence of changes in climate in the region. In order to understand how these changes may affect the snow regimes of the region, the current characteristics of the snow accumulation and mel...
Mohd Hairi Jalis; Mohd Salehuddin Mohd Zahari; Muhammad Izzat; Zulhan Othman
Continual efforts have been made by international organizations to discover new tourism products and activities that have the opportunity of being marketed and promoted. Gastronomy has been identified as one of the new tourism product which is directly relevant to the Malaysian context. At present gastronomy is a valuable source of attracting tourists from all over the world and this has led to the empirical investigation on western tourists perception of Malaysian gastronomic products (food,...
Gruen, Karen Davis
Maximum and minimum temperature for 14 stations in Western Virginia were used to develop a temperature estimation model. Locational data such as the UTM coordinates, elevation, aspect, distance from West Virginia and the distance to the coast and certain transformations of these variables were used as the independent variables. A variable was developed, called the distance-weighting variable, using the inverse distance to each of the 5 closest weather stations. The dependent va...
Nakagawa, F.; Phillips, A N; Lundgren, J. D.
HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. Th...
Economic theories in history state that land rental market plays a very important role in allocating resources efficiently among rural households. A well-functioned land rental market gives aid to the poverty reduction in rural areas. Since 1978's economic reform,eastern provinces in China benefited a lot from the dramatic economic development. The land rental market there has developed quite fast. But how about the western China where most of the agriculture land and farmers belong to? ...
In western Greece, the Ionian and pre-Apulian zones represent, respectively, the basin and the transitional zone (slope) to the Apulian platform. The Apulian platform constitutes the weakly deformed foreland of the external Hellenides. The pre-Apulian zone appears in the Ionian Islands and the eastern Ionian Sea, whereas the Apulian platform is exclusively found in the Ionian Sea. The Ionian zone consists of Triassic evaporites, Jurassic– upper Eocene (mostly pelagic carb...
Wine, as a distinguished and traditional drink, has long been liked by people all over the world, and has developed a unique culture both in Chi- na and abroad. This essay will make a comparison between Chinese and western wine culture from three aspects, and especially focus on the differences between the two cultures. And fi nally a conclusion about the differences will be drawn
Ober, W B
Taking into account that marriage, the family as a social unit, and concepts of legitimacy developed to ensure the devolution of property and that, when these concepts apply in a society based on hierarchically organized monarchies, they also involve the devolution of power, this essay furnishes examples of dislocations in such devolutions, in terms of familiar incidents in western European history. That Jane Seymour died in childbirth but her son Edward VI survived long enough to ensure the ...
ノギ, ヨシフミ; エグチ, ヨシアキ; セアマ, ノブカズ; イセザキ, ノブヒロ; Yoshifumi, NOGI; Yoshiaki, EGUCHI; Nobukazu, SEAMA; Nobuhiro, ISEZAKI
Vector data of the geomagnetic anomaly field were obtained during the 32nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-32) off Western Australia. The strikes of the magnetic boundaries at their position were derived from vector data of the geomagnetic anomaly field. These strikes were interpreted as the directions of magnetic anomaly lineations originated either by seafloor spreading (seafloor spreading anomaly) or by morphological structures (structural magnetic anomaly). Some strikes of st...
Jin, Shi; Furtaw, Michael D; Chen, Huaxian; Lamb, Don T; Ferguson, Stephen A; Arvin, Natalie E; Dawod, Mohamed; Kennedy, Robert T
Western blotting is a commonly used protein assay that combines the selectivity of electrophoretic separation and immunoassay. The technique is limited by long time, manual operation with mediocre reproducibility, and large sample consumption, typically 10-20 μg per assay. Western blots are also usually used to measure only one protein per assay with an additional housekeeping protein for normalization. Measurement of multiple proteins is possible; however, it requires stripping membranes of antibody and then reprobing with a second antibody. Miniaturized alternatives to Western blot based on microfluidic or capillary electrophoresis have been developed that enable higher-throughput, automation, and greater mass sensitivity. In one approach, proteins are separated by electrophoresis on a microchip that is dragged along a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane so that as proteins exit the chip they are captured on the membrane for immunoassay. In this work, we improve this method to allow multiplexed protein detection. Multiple injections made from the same sample can be deposited in separate tracks so that each is probed with a different antibody. To further enhance multiplexing capability, the electrophoresis channel dimensions were optimized for resolution while keeping separation and blotting times to less than 8 min. Using a 15 μm deep × 50 μm wide × 8.6 cm long channel, it is possible to achieve baseline resolution of proteins that differ by 5% in molecular weight, e.g., ERK1 (44 kDa) from ERK2 (42 kDa). This resolution allows similar proteins detected by cross-reactive antibodies in a single track. We demonstrate detection of 11 proteins from 9 injections from a single Jurkat cell lysate sample consisting of 400 ng of total protein using this procedure. Thus, multiplexed Western blots are possible without cumbersome stripping and reprobing steps. PMID:27270033
HUANG Song; YU Yu-he
Natural law is an important concept of the Westem political culture. The author makes a simple investigation into the various definitions of natural law, based on which he comes to the conclusion that natural law is a key concept of Western political culture; that it is a moral norm of politics as well as a product of rational thinking; and that its meaning has varied over time.
Hariharan, Divya; Vellanki, Kavitha; Kramer, Holly
Characteristics of the Western diet that fueled the obesity epidemic may also impact kidney disease incidence and progression. Enlarging portion sizes over the past half century has been accompanied by increased intake of protein, sodium, and processed foods while consumption of fruits and vegetables has declined. Overall dietary patterns play a strong role for chronic disease risk including chronic kidney disease. While dietary patterns high in fresh fruits and vegetables and low in red meats, such as the Mediterranean diet, decrease the risk of chronic diseases, the Western diet, characterized by high intake of red meat, animal fat, sweets, and desserts and low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products, increases risk of chronic diseases. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms whereby several key characteristics of the typical Western diet may impact kidney disease incidence and progression. We also discuss a public health policy initiative to improve dietary choices. Reducing protein intake to the recommended daily allowance of 0.8 g/kg/day and increasing intake of fruit and vegetables and fiber may mitigate kidney disease progression and reduce risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. PMID:25754321
Progress of the major government sponsored projects undertaken to increase gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States during February, 1978 is summarized. The Western Gas Sands Project files, which contain raw data and published reports from each Western Gas Sands Project participant have been established. A log file containing logs from pertinent wells in the four study areas has also been established. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is continuing geological and geophysical studies in the four study areas for resource assessment. A number of papers giving results of recent investigations were presented at meetings during the month. The Bartlesville Energy Research Center (BERC) and participating National Laboratories are continuing their work in research and development. Field tests and demonstrations continue in the Uinta and Piceance Basins at the following locations: Uinta Basin, Gas Producing Enterprises, Inc. (GPE) Natural Buttes Unit Wells No. 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22; Piceance Basin, Mobil Research and Development Corporation Well No. F-31-13G, Rio Blanco Natural Gas Company Well No. 498-4-1.
From the 1830s the colonial government in India became the agency for the promotion of "Western education", that is, education that sought to disseminate modern, Western, rational knowledge through modern institutions and pedagogic processes. This paper examines a historical episode in which certain key categories of modern Western thought were…
Page, Richard C.; Berkow, Daniel N.
Presents cross-cultural comparison of the Buddhist perspective with the Western perspective to reveal culturally based assumptions about the nature of the self. Suggests that alternative definitions of the self from outside of Western culture may assist in the ongoing development of future models of the person within Western psychology. (NB)
The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.
This paper discisses the cultural diffefences on politeness between western and Chinese by means of contrast.in-dicating that due to different culmral background,historic background,traditional customs and so on.there are many differ-ences on politeness in daily communication Today.etiquette becomes the reflection and manifestation of one country's poll-tics,economy,culture in people's social contact.And it includes the principal and moral that people should obey in daily life.So it is important for us to legrn western culture.This paper also will discuss how to leam wcsrtem culture.There are many ways for learning western culture.Therefore.It is practically useful to know and study the differences.thus promoting the cultural communication.
This study focus on the western culture embodied in cartoon movies.The main object is to help readers to know the characteristics of western culture through cartoon movies.With the enjoyment to the western cartoon movies,I discuss the definition of western culture.American culture is a representation of western culture,and there are many western culture elements in American culture,so I will mainly talk about American culture.And then,this thesis discusses some good cartoon movies,the incarnation of the western culture through them.The language,activities,and architectural style in cartoon movies show the American cultures well.People could have a better understand about their characteristics while enjoying the interesting,colorful,winning cartoons.
Mahmoud M. Galander
Full Text Available Abstract: Global communication is widely perceived as an instrument to disseminate Western values in the developing world. The “Wheel of Fortune” and “Who Wants to be a Millionnaire” licensed to Malaysian Television stations, though the language and the word puzzles were localised, carried the same format of the original (American show. They promote consumerism, gambling and the images of usury, the style of wealth accumulation forbidden in Islam. For the Malaysian audience whose priorities are those of contentment, modesty and humility, such emphasis on material desires breeds internal contradictions that may lead the audience to succumb to the new Western values.
Days of record heat made the western United States tinder dry in early July 2007. Numerous wildfires raced across the dry terrain during the weekend of July 7. From Washington to Arizona, firefighters were battling fast-moving wildfires that threatened residences, businesses, gas wells, coal mines, communications equipment, and municipal watersheds. This image of the West was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on Sunday, July 8. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red. Some of the largest blazes are labeled. Utah's Milford Flat was the largest; according to the July 9 morning report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the blaze was more than 280,000 acres, having grown more than 124,000 acres in the previous 24 hours. The fires have destroyed homes, forced evacuations, shut down trains and highways, and killed several people. Weather conditions were not expected to improve significantly across much of the area for several days, with hot temperatures and dry thunderstorms (lightning and winds, but little rain) likely in many places. Nearly the entire western United States was experiencing some level of drought as of July 3, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. The drought had reached the 'extreme' category in southern California and western Arizona, and ranged from moderate to severe across most of the rest of the Southwest and Great Basin. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 500 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions and formats, including an infrared-enhanced version that makes burned terrain appear brick red. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center
Malcolm Tull; Fred Affleck
<正>The aim of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the performance of Western Australia’s port authorities.The context for this research is the report released in February 2006 by Access Economics (A scorecard of the design of economic regulation of infrastructure) for the Australian Council for Infrastructure Development.This report was critical of the regime for economic regulation of Western Australia’s ports,and by implication of the potential quality and efficiency of service delivery to their principal stakeholders.However,a reading of the Access Economics report and supporting data suggests that its analysis takes no account of the regulatory frameworks for port authorities in Western Austral ia(WA) contained in the Port Authorities Act 1999(WA) and elsewhere,or of the actual economic and physical performance of WA port authorities.In the light of this apparently flawed analysis of the effectiveness of port regulation in WA,it is timely to review the performance of ports under the current governance structures,and to place the Access Economics report in a broader empirical performance-based context. While there is no regime for direct regulation of access to WA’s port infrastructure,it is argued that provisions in WA’s legislation governing the management of ports provide much of the focus,transparency and accountability required of an adequate regulatory framework.The current dominant Australian model of public ownership,with ports acting as strategic managers subject to statutory and governmental oversight,offers a viable alternative to complete privatisation and specialised regulatory controls.Efficient ports arguably can emerge from a variety of institutional frameworks-there is no single ownership or administrative structure that fits all circumstances.
Zhang, Junfeng; Jonathan M. Samet
Air pollution in many Chinese cities has been so severe in recent years that a special terminology, the “Chinese haze”, was created to describe China’s air quality problem. Historically, the problem of Chinese haze has developed several decades after Western high-income countries have significantly improved their air quality from the smog-laden days in the early- and mid-20th century. Hence it is important to provide a global and historical perspective to help China combat the current air pol...
Dangol, D. R.; Shivakoti, G. P.
This paper identifies and documents the plant biodiversity of western Chitwan, Nepal. Specifically, our attention was focussed on the plants of forests, grasslands and common lands based on our “Reciprocal Relation of Population and Environment Study Project” conducted during January-April 1996. This species-diversity of trees, shrubs and herbaceous flora was recorded from 117, 117, and 1049 sampling quadrats of 10×10, 3×3 and 1×1 m2, respectively. The flora of our study plots contains 236 sp...
Peck, R.E.; Forester, R.M.
The systematics of four species belonging to the genus Platychara (Charophyta) from the Western Hemisphere is discussed. Three of the species, as defined herein, occur in Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks from Mexico through South America. The type species, P. compressa (Peck and Reker) Grambast, also of Cretaceous and Paleocene age, is herein restricted to deposits north of Mexico. These latter restrictions geographically separate P. compressa and P. perlata as presently defined but the relationship between these two species is still uncertain. A new species, P. grambastii, is proposed for specimens from Maestrichtian sediments in Jamaica. ?? 1979.
Invasive species are one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity, being particularly serious in regions with high number of endemic and endangered fishes. Portugal has currently one of the highest numbers of non-native fishes per area in western Europe and the rate of species arrival is increasing. In this review, an updated status of non-native fishes is provided with recent trends of leading vectors and routes. Non-native fish component represents 31% of the freshwater fish diversity ex...
Algarra, Patricia; Estrada, Marta; Niell, F. Xavier
A modified method is presented to determine phycobiliprotein distribution across the western Mediterranean divergence. A deep C-phycoerythrin maximum is detected between 60 and 80 m, but when irradiance in the water column decreases this maximum is shallower and occurs at around the 1% light level. Even though other factors cannot be discarded, the relationships between C-phycoerythrin (associated to Synechococcus cyanobacteria), chlorophyll a and light intensity distributions suggest that this last factor plays an important role in the maintenance of the deep pigment maxima detected.
Tässä opinnäytetyössä tehtiin Joutsenmerkkihakemus Best Western Hotel Raumanlinnalle. Kehittämistyö oli lähtöisin toimeksiantajan omista tarpeesta ja toiveista. Tässä työssä suunniteltiin, miten ympäristömerkki saavutetaan. Työhön liittyi kiinteästi henkilöstökoulutuksen järjestäminen, jossa kerrottiin Raumanlinnan henkilökunnalle Joutsenmerkistä sekä perehdytettiin heidät toimimaan merkin velvoittamalla tavalla. Koulutuksessa henkilökunta perehdytettiin myös siihen, mitä merkki tarkoittaa...
This paper reports that the main characteristics of Western Hemisphere energy markets are well known to those in the energy industry. The United States sits in the northern half of the hemisphere, importing more and more oil from the rest of the world. Brazil, with a market one-tenth of the size of the United Sates, sits in the southern half of the hemisphere, importing less and less oil from the rest of the world. Venezuela sits in the center with an eye to the future as a long-term player in the world petroleum industry. Venezuela has 6 or 7 percent of the world's known conventional petroleum reserves, plus an uncountable bitumen resource which is now being commercialized as Orimulsion, a low-emission substitute for coal. The United States is circled by major producing countries with smaller exports, such as Mexico and Canada, and there are smaller producing or consuming countries of which Colombia is the largest exporter and Argentian the largest importer. The United States dominates the numbers. Half of British Petroleum's (BP) investments have been in the energy industry of the Western Hemisphere. We are maintaining that proportion, but opportunities are becoming more difficult to find
Catalano, R.; Sulli, A. [Universita di Palermo, Dip. di Geologia e Geodesia, Palermo (Italy); Merlini, S. [ENI-Divisione AGIP, San Donato Milanese (Italy)
Western Sicily is part of the Sicilian chain, a sector of the SE-verging Alpine orogenic belt in the central Mediterranean. Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, boreholes and recent inland geological data, have enabled us to assess the deep structural grain. A wedge of flat-lying Mesozoic-Miocene carbonate and terrigenous rocks (pre-Panormide nappes) is superimposed on NW-trending, 7-8 km thick, Mesozoic-Paleogene carbonate thrust ramps (Trapanese units), arranged in two structural levels extending from the Tyrrhenian coast to western offshore Sicily. Upper Miocene to Pleistocene terrigenous strata, often deformed, fill syntectonic basins above the thrust pile. The main tectonic transport of the thrust pile, developing from Early Miocene to Early-Middle Pleistocene times, was towards the east and southeast. Initial stacking and deformation of the pre-Panormide allochthon is bracketed between Early and Late Miocene. The Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene underthrusting of the Trapanese-Saccense units, that acted through more recent deep-seated thrusts in the carbonate platform layer, induced late stage refolding and further shortening in the early emplaced pre-Panormide nappe. Previously formed structures appear to have been dissected or reactivated by a right oblique transpression during the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene. The geometry of the carbonate bodies opens new potential perspectives on the existence of structural traps, but the uncertainties of source rock occurrence remain. (Author)
This viewgraph presentation describes the Western states Fire Missions (WSFM) that occurred in 2007. The objectives of this mission are: (1) Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on widespread fires throughout Western US. (1) Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20-hours+). (2) Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. (3) Demonstrate new UAV-compatible, autonomous sensor for improved thermal characterization of fires. (4) Provide automated, on-board, terrain and geo-rectified sensor imagery over OTH satcom links to national fire personnel and Incident commanders. (5) Deliver real-time imagery to (within 10-minutes of acquisition). (6) Demonstrate capabilities of OTS technologies (GoogleEarth) to serve and display mission-critical sensor data, coincident with other pertinent data elements to facilitate information processing (WX data, ground asset data, other satellite data, R/T video, flight track info, etc).
Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico. PMID:25525144
Aréchiga-Ceballos, N; Aguilar-Setién, A
Summary Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe neurological disease and fatalities in horses and humans in the Americas. Consequently, the equine alphaviruses (Eastern, Western and Venezuelan) are of considerable concern worldwide and are notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. In addition, these diseases are considered a potent potential biological weapon, emphasising the need to develop an effective vaccine. Alphaviral equine encephalomyelitis is caused by Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV), Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV), which are related members of the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae family. Although related, the three viruses are genetically and antigenically distinct. The disease is characterised by fever, anorexia, depression and clinical signs of encephalomyelitis, and may be fatal in up to 90% of cases, for both humans and horses, particularly in the case of EEE. Surviving horses develop lifelong immunity but may have permanent neuropathology. The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific information available on the evolution of EEE, WEE and VEE, and any potential vaccines. PMID:26601451
The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) locale is the second of the five primary Cloud and Radiation Testbeds (CART) to be established. Phase implementation is currently planned to begin in 1994. The TWP locale encompasses an immense region of the tropical western Pacific bounded roughly by 10 degrees N to 10 degrees S extending eastward from Indonesia to somewhat east of the international dateline. Climatogically, it is characterized by warm sea surface temperatures, deep and frequent atmospheric convection, high rain rates, strong coupling between the atmosphere and ocean, and substantial variability associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Any number of diagnostic studies can be cited that show the relationship between climatic variability in this region, particularly ENSO, and variability in other parts of the planet. Geographically, this locale is characterized by the maritime continent area in the southwest portion and essentially open ocean in the northeast portion. Details on the locale and the scientific challenges are presented in the proceedings of the second ARM Science Team meeting held in Denver in October 1991 (Clements et al. 1992). The purpose of this paper is to report on activities since the 1991 Science Team meeting and discusses future plans
A study investigated the portrayal of mothers and fathers in Japanese and non-Japanese children's literature and how stereotypically they are depicted as role models. Japanese public libraries contain many translated foreign books, mostly Western in origin. For this study's purposes, 25 Japanese books, 25 translated books from English-speaking…
De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio
The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar
Full Text Available This paper shows the encounter between an object found among the Luba of Zaire and the art historical treatment of it by western scholars. In this encounter certain tendencies are pointed out which on one hand point to a greatly unackowledged bias of western scholars in their regarding of foreign objects as art, and on the other hand may work to refigure those ways of seeing to form a richer understanding of memory, beauty and history in western scholarly practice.
Mulalic, Muhidin; Karic, Mirsad
The Energy politics is today at the center of the Russian and the Western Balkans relations. It is widely known that Russia has been playing significant role in world energy supply. Therefore, Russian energy companies have taken a leading role in the promotion of their businesses in the Western Balkans. The Western Balkans region has become geostrategic partner as a transit route for the integration of Russia into the global energy world market. With regards to the transportation of gas Weste...
N. Chusseau; M. Dumont; Hellier, J; G. RAYP; Willemé, P.
We analyse the immigration flows to Western Europe in the sixties. We develop a theoretical model tailored to account for some of the key features of this period, i.e., trade in manufacturing that essentially involved advanced countries, the growing administration of labour markets in Western Europe and the huge inflow of low skilled immigrants from the South (less advanced countries) into Western Europe. Two propositions are subsequently derived from this model. First, the immigration flow i...
Contemporary Western political culture is characterized by three achievements and ideas: (1) the limitation of government or the rule of law; (2) some institutional separation of the economy and of science from government and religion; and (3) popular participation or democracy. The first two components of Western political culture are prerequisites of the European miracle. In contrast to the great Asian civilizations, Western civilization alone succeeded in overcoming mass poverty. The third...
Curtis, Kynda R.; McCluskey, Jill J.; Wahl, Thomas I.
Keywords: China, potatoes, westernization, food demand, convenience foods Abstract: The demand for convenience foods is growing around the world, especially in China. However, the contributing factors of this change in food preferences are still largely unknown. To measure this westernization trend, data from a survey of Chinese consumers in Beijing is evaluated using a multinomial ordered logit model to determine which consumer attributes influence the probability of consuming western foods ...
Le Gouar, Pascaline; Vallet, Dominique; David, Laetitia; Bermejo, Magdalena; Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Petit, Eric; Ménard, Nelly
Background: Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland go...
This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.
This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.
Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood
The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.
Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D
René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda. PMID:26333032
Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato
Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum
In order to determine the seismicity of western Anatolia limited with the coordinates of 36degree-40degreeN, 26degree-32degreeE, Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-frequency relation, seismic risk and recurrence period have been computed. The data belonging to both the historical period before 1900 (I03 6.0 corresponding to MS3 5.0) and the instrumental period until 2005 (MS3 4.0) have been used in the analysis. The study area has been divided into 13 sub-regions due to certain seismotectonic characteristics, plate tectonic models and geology of the region. Computations from a and b parameters and seismic risk and recurrence period for each sub-regions have showed that subregions 1 and 8 (Balikesir and Izmir-Sakiz Island), where have the lowest b values, have the highest risks and the shortest recurrence periods
This paper reports on the evolution of western nuclear capabilities. Presidents Truman and Eisenhower largely cast the die that determined the role, size, and organization of today's nuclear forces. The milestones were Truman's vast expansion of the nuclear weapons stockpile, followed by a series of seminal decisions by Eisenhower: transfer of peacetime civilian custody of nuclear weapons to the military; creation of a streamlined chain of command and a centrally coordinated war plan for all U.S. strategic forces; and the commitment to develop and deploy land- and submarine-based missiles of intercontinental range. The current U.S. strategic forces have some 11,000 widely dispersed nuclear warheads, of which more than 6,000 are ready for launch within minutes, can be traced back to these initiatives. Naturally, they were not taken in a geopolitical vacuum. Truman and Eisenhower had to contend with the Berlin Blockade in 1948, followed shortly thereafter by the Korean War
This special issue of OSCAR introduced the newly created Western Canadian Spill Services Ltd. (WCSS). The organizations known as PROSCARAC and the oil spill co-ops WCOC have been dissolved and their operations have merged into the WCSS. The history of PROSCARAC and the WCOC, the process leading to their merger, and the new organization's plans to increase the petroleum industry's spill response capabilities were described. WCSS is run by a board of directors representing the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, the Small Explorers and Producers Association of Canada, the Canadian Petroleum Products Association, Trans Mountain Pipe Line Company Ltd., and Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. Organizations with similar objectives in Manitoba and Saskatchewan have been invited to join
Oil-well and gas-well drilling activities to the end of the third quarter of 1996 were reviewed in twelve specific geographical areas in Western Canada. Major operators for each area were determined and the information was tabulated showing the number, the type, and the depth of wells drilled in each area for the top 50 operators. An estimate of well counts for twelve months of 1996 was used to forecast activity for 1997 (12,300 wells). The projections include anticipated expenditure for various products and services in each of the geographical areas. Total expenditures in 1997 were estimated at $5.85 billion ($6.5 billion in 1996).5 tabs., 3 figs
吴忠良; 黄静; 林碧苍
Distribution of apparent stress in Chinese mainland and its surrounding regions was presented using the NEIC broadband radiated energy catalogue and the Harvard CMT catalogue from January 1987 to December 1998. Due to the limitation on the number of samples, reliable results are only for the western China. It is observed that the average apparent stress in Chinese mainland is 0.8 MPa; The maximum apparent stress to the east of the Tibetan plateau is 2.6 MPa; And the average apparent stress in the north-south seismic belt is more than one time higher than its adjacent regions. Distribution pattern of apparent stress seems to have a large-scale correlation with the cumulative energy release level in the 20th century.
Full Text Available Ateleutina is a small subtribe of Cryptinae (Ichneumonidae composed of two genera: Ateleute Förster and Tamaulipeca Kasparyan. Neither of the genera includes species described from South America. In this article five new species of Ateleute (A. ashaninka sp. n. and A. amarakaeri from Peru, A. shuar sp. n. from Ecuador and Peru, and A. huaorani sp. n. and A. kichua sp. n. from Ecuador and three new species of Tamaulipeca (T. bora sp. n. from Ecuador and Peru, T. candoshi sp. n. from Ecuador and T. matses sp. n. from Peru are described and illustrated from Western Amazonia. Identification keys to the known South American species of the genera are provided.
Groundwater radon data were recorded at monthly intervals from two selected monitoring sites of the northern extension of the Dead Sea Fault System in western Syria during 1993 and 1994. This set of data was utilized to estimate the basic radon background content and the range of its normal variations in groundwater along the fault zone. The results suggest that the establishment of such range is important when attempting to separate the usual groundwater radon fluctuations from other anomalous or earthquake related values. In addition, the seismic activity in the study region was statistically analyzed, and the completeness of the earthquake catalogue during the given time-window was estimated to be at magnitude M ≥3.5. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis
trade publications and other media, the chapter reveals how answers to these questions differs from country to country, how the forms of argument are combined in distinctive ways, and how different kinds of evidence are mobilized. Particular constructions of the crisis range from economically and...... journalists, media executives, and media policymakers in six different Western democracies (Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the UK, and the US) employ three distinctive frameworks to interpret the state of professional journalism in their country. The first is an economic frame that defines the crisis of...... journalists, media executives, and media policymakers. The economic question is “Will journalism survive?” The professional question is “What is journalism?” The symbolic question is “What is the status of journalism in society?” On the basis of almost one hundred interviews, as well as secondary sources from...
Western countries are the place where the international film culture originated. The western film has a far-reaching influence on the development of film and television industry all over the world. As China's film and television industry is in the era of reform, it is an essential part to use the experience in development of western films which can provide Chinese film culture with guidance in various fields. The present thesis firstly gives an analysis into characteristics of the western film culture and summarizes its influences on Chinese film culture, and then provides film art reform with some feasible suggestions.
The Chinese conception of "oneness with man and heaven" and the Western tradition of man's separation from nature accompanied by a subject-object dichotomy are the cores of each culture, which largely decides the discrepancy in various aspects of the Chinese and Western ways. To have an embedded and penetrating idea about the differences between the two cultures, it is necessary to gain sufficient knowledge of man-nature relation in dominant Chinese and Western conceptions. This paper aims to explore this issue from the perspective of Taoism and Confucianism in Chinese context, and ancient Greek and Hebraic heritage and modern mechanical view in Western tradition.
The current situation in Western Europe with respect to global uranium and enrichment supply and demand is described. Future prospects are presented, based upon the aggregated results of annual surveys jointly conducted by OPEN and UNIPEDE among their member companies. Electric utilities in different European countries have selected widely differing policies to cover the fuel cycle requirements of their nuclear plants. Why so different? The paper addressed the rationale for such various routes being followed by utilities in various environments, especially with respect to uranium and enrichment procurement and to spent fuel management. For the past five years, spot uranium prices have been lower than the cost of production of most uranium mines in the Western world, leading to closure of many mines and mills. This situation which has first resulted from excess inventories in the West is now reinforced by new supplies from the CIS republics and the prospect of military material coming onto the commercial market as a result of disarmament. The future of the uranium industry and possible price instabilities are today a matter of worry. Time might be right for utilities to conclude new cooperation agreements with uranium producers in order to alleviate the long term consequences of the present situation. Concerning spent fuel management, the paper indicates that the safety and industrial feasibility of both the 'closed' and 'open' cycles (i.e. with or without reprocessing) and the disposal of their corresponding waste will be completely demonstrated by the turn of the century. The final selection between the two solutions will then be made primarily on the basis of strategic and economic criteria. The authors suggest that responsible policy makers should oppose the present nationalistic tendencies in the field of radioactive waste final disposal, which may well prove counterproductive from the viewpoints of safety and economy. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M, trnG-psbK (G and psbK-psbI (P, and trnH-psbA (H and rbcL (R; the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I, and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in
Pataki, D. E.
Cities in the western U.S. are heavily irrigated and have increasingly been the focus of water conservation measures. Even cities that previously relied only on voluntary reductions in outdoor water use have been employing stricter mandates to limit irrigation. These cities are in a period of transition and the outcomes are far from certain. There are many tradeoffs in the environmental and social consequences of different urban water management strategies. Here we review recent work studying these tradeoffs in cities of southern California and Utah. We have measured the water use of different types of landscapes ranging from turfgrass to urban trees to xeriscapes. Unshaded turfgrass shows evapotranspiration (ET) rates close to potential ET; however, shaded turfgrass uses substantially less water. On the other hand, plants used in xeriscapes may have surprisingly high transpiration rates if they are heavily watered. In addition, unshaded xeriscapes may substantially alter surface energy balance and have unintended consequences for urban climate. Through whole tree sap flux measurements and scaling of ET estimates, we have found that urban trees generally use less water than turfgrass, and provide additional cooling benefits through interception of radiation. Current measures to reduce outdoor water use through irrigation restrictions and turfgrass removal programs do not include safeguards to ensure that urban trees receive adequate irrigation, and the future of urban tree canopies in western cities is highly uncertain. Although trees and other deep-rooted vegetation may require less irrigation than turfgrass and better withstand periods of drought, this vegetation must still be appropriate managed with water inputs informed by an understanding of plant water relations and urban subsurface hydrology. On the current trajectory, cities may see a substantial loss of vegetative cover and leaf area unless an understanding of ecohydrology is better integrated into
A summary is presented of the progress of government sponsored projects undertaken to increase gas production from low permeability gas sands of the western United States during May, 1978. Background information is given in the September 1977 Status Report, NVO/0655-100. The Department of Energy's (DOE) Nevada Operations Office (NVO), is finalizing a Request for Proposal (RFP) covering Technical and Administrative Support for the Project Manager for FY79. C. H. Atkinson, the Western Gas Sands Project (WGSP) Manager, was an observer of the third MHF treatment of Mobil Research and Development Corporation's well No. F-31-136. The fracture was performed on May 10, 1978. R. L. Mann of CER Corporation, met with Dr. Steve Holditch of Texas A and M University to discuss the utilization of the PDP 11/10 computer to be installed in the Mobile Well Test Facility. The USGS is continuing geological and geophysical studies in the four primary study areas. Two flights were made in preparation for low-level olique photography. The Bartlesville Energy Research Center (BERC) and participating National Laboratories, funded by DOE, are continuing their work in the area of research and development. The emphasis is on the development of new tools and instrumentation systems, rock mechanics, mathematical modeling, and data analysis. Mitchell Energy Corporation, Houston, Texas was awarded DOE Contract EF-78-C-08-1547 on March 15, 1978. Field work under this contract is scheduled to begin in July, 1978, with the drilling of a new well.
Allam, M.; Tafraoui, A. [Faculty of sciences and technology, University of Bechar (Algeria)], email: email@example.com
Silica is gaining increasing importance as it is the base for the production of pure silicon, for which several applications are under development in the electronic and solar energy sectors. The aim of this study is to characterize the sand taken from the Western Erg of Algeria to determine the percentage of silicon it contains. Characterization was done through physical analysis to determine the granulometry of the sand. A chemical analysis was next performed, using diffraction of X-rays and a scanning electron microscope to determine the chemical composition of the sand. Results showed that the sand is mainly made of quartz in the form of rounded and subbarrondis grains and that silicon is prevalent, accounting for 98% of the composition. This study demonstrated that sand from the Western Erg of Algeria is rich in silicon and could be used for silicon production.
Olusegun A Babaniyi
Full Text Available Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF. However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0% samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1% for Dengue, 370 (10.2% for West Nile and 217 (6.0% for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.
Krishna P. Poudel
Full Text Available Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg. and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong. trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass equations was fitted simultaneously with a constrained seemingly unrelated regression. Additionally, a linear model that predicts total aboveground biomass as a function of DBH and height was also fitted. The predicted total biomass was then apportioned to different components according to the predicted proportions from beta, Dirichlet, and multinomial log-linear regressions. Accuracy of these methods differed between species with higher root mean squared error (RMSE being produced in red alder trees. Within species, the accuracy of the equation for bole biomass was better than the equations for other components. None of these methods stood out as a clear winner, but the multinomial log-linear regression produced marginally better results compared to other methods in terms of RMSE, except for Western hemlock bark biomass and red alder bole and branch biomass. The equations based on a seemingly unrelated regression provided lower RMSEs for those species-component combinations.
Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio
INTRODUCTION The Swan Coastal plain of Western Australia is dominated by fire-prone banksia woodland (Burrows and McCaw, 1990). In these areas, prescription burning is often used to reduce the risk of wildfires, by reducing available fuels (Boer et al., 2009). Little research has been conducted on the effects of prescription burning on Banksia woodlands, and, in particular, information on the impacts on soil properties and soil water repellency (SWR) is scarce. Here, we have studied the impact of fire on SWR in a Banksia woodland and monitored its evolution in the medium-term. It is expected that results are useful for management and restoration of fire-affected Banksia woodlands. METHODS An experimental fire was conducted on May 7th 2015 in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. The fire affected an area of 6 ha of mixed Banksia/Allocasuarina woodland under moderate fire intensity. At the time of ignition, the wind speed below the canopy was 1.2 km/h. During the prescribed burning, air temperatures were on average 20 ± 1 °C and relative humidity ranged between 45 and 55% (measured using a Kestrel portable weather station). Fuel moisture averaged 11.8% (measured using Wiltronics moisture meter) and soil moisture at 1 cm deep ranged from 0.1% to 8.6% (measured with a PR2 soil profile probe attached to a HH2 data logger). Temperatures greater than 120 °C were measured 1 cm below the soil surface using iButton temperature sensors. SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Soil microbial activity was determined with the 1-day CO2 test that is based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SWR was severe in the control (mean WDPT = 2608 s) and pre-burned areas (2722 s). One week after the prescribed fire, persistence of soil water repellency remained stable in the burned area (2402 s). In
Full Text Available The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the extensive publicity its activity gains in public, through electronic and printed media. In terrorism, a blow to the “soft stomach” of the state (civilians is performed, with the purpose of causing the state to give in to the demands of terrorism operators. In the basis of terrorism is also an objection to the basis of legitimacy of the ruling government, in that it is not capable of guarantying the safety of its citizens and maintain public order. This article presents the attitudes and ways of operation of terrorist organizations and how Western intelligence attempts to thwart, foil and prevent these organizations from casing for destruction and victims in human lives and state.COMBATEREA TERORISMULUI ISLAMIC PRIN WESTERN INTELLIGENCE Chiar de la înfiinţare, statul Israel s-a confruntat, în viaţa de zi cu zi, cu organizaţiile teroriste, care urmăresc să-l distrugă. Actele de terorism, aşa cum reiese din sensul originar al cuvântului – frică, anxietate, teroare, sunt menite să implanteze frica în rândul populaţiei, s-o demoralizeze şi să perturbeze viaţa cotidiană. Uneori teroarea se dovedeşte a fi un act de răzbunare. Prin acte de terorism se dă o lovitură la „stomacul moale” al statului, adică civililor. Actele de terorism sunt comise, de asemenea, pentru a „demonstra” lipsa de legitimitate a statului, incapacitatea lui de a asigura securitatea cetăţenilor săi. În articol sunt specificate modalităţile de func
In this passage, love in Chinese culture and in western culture is compared. It briefly introduces the difference love view in western culture and in Chinese culture on a specific matter. Then it discusses the origin of this phenomenon. At last it tries to conclude the characters of these two different love views.
This paper reports on a study of the content of the lyrics of 100 country-western songs. It presents findings concerning the primary subject matter of the songs, female and male roles portrayed, and the value system implicit in the song lyrics. Among the findings were that the single most-valued subject in country-western music is romantic love;…
Oral, Gunseli; Kaufman, James C.; Agars, Mark D.
Different cultures have unique perspective on creativity, yet it is usually the American/Western perspective represented in the psychological literature. Here the authors test previous, Western research findings in creativity on Turkish participants. Study One looks at gender and age differences in creativity. Study Two explores the relationship…
Technical fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 19, 2010. Take notice that on September 30, 2010, Western Area Power Administration submitted a tariff filing...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 7, 2011, the Western Area Power Administration submitted its Rate Order No. WAPA-156,...
Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros
The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…
This paper explores features that are common to both modern Western scientific thought and traditional African thought. The differences between the two are enumerated. In the Western scheme of knowledge, there is a continuous quest for explanatory theory for every phenomenon investigated. The paper notes that atoms, molecules, gods, and spirits…
Al-Abed, Fawwaz; And Others
A questionnaire was distributed to Saudi Arabian undergraduates in order to investigate their attitudes toward Westernization, national identity, and religious commitment. Results revealed that learning English did not "Westernize" students nor weaken national identity. Implications and recommendations for establishing a rigid language policy in…
Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Yip, Cheng-Har; Hartman, Mikael; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Devi, Beena C. R.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Taib, Nur Aishah; van Gils, Carla H.; Verkooijen, Helena M.
The incidence and mortality of breast cancer continues to rise rapidly in Asian countries. However, most of our current knowledge on breast cancer has been generated in Western populations. As the socio-economic profile, life style and culture of Asian and Western women are substantially different,
There currently is considerable confusion as to the correct application of the name Choristoneura occidentalis. This name has historically been applied to the western spruce budworm, a serious forest pest in western North America. However, Razowski (2008) transferred Archips occidentalis into Choris...
English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong
In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…
Examines the dissonant and "camp" effect inherent in describing "Johnny Guitar" as a Joan Crawford western. Argues that the film's camp effect depends on its crossing of a female star vehicle with the western, a stereotypically masculine genre. Summarizes Crawford's childhood and rise to fame. Concludes by exploring the lesbian and "butch-femme"…
Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan
The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…
Fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.
J. G. Tanner
Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions
The western pond turtle is known from many areas of Oregon. The majority of sightings and other records occur in the major drainages of the Klamath, Rogue, Umpqua, Willamette and Columbia River systems. A brief overview is presented of the evolution of the Willamette-Puget Sound hydrographic basin. A synopsis is also presented of the natural history of the western pond turtle, as well as, the status of this turtle in the Willamette drainage basin. The reproductive ecology and molecular genetics of the western pond turtle are discussed. Aquatic movements and overwintering of the western pond turtle are evaluated. The effect of introduced turtle species on the status of the western pond turtle was investigated in a central California Pond. Experiments were performed to determine if this turtle could be translocated as a mitigation strategy
Diet is absolutely necessary in the life of mankind, and even in the existence or development It is also the one of the basic form of social life. However under the difference cultural background, having different diet idea and diet custom, then finally form the different dietary culture, Certainly, the Chinese and western dietary have a large number of difference, This paper analyzed the specific characteristic on the difference between Chinese and western dietary culture. From this paper the Chinese and western dietary culture is difference in concepts, contents, patterns, dining eti-quette, and tableware. It is still significant to study the dietary cultures of Chinese and western dietary. By the analysis of the difference between Chi-nese and western dietary cultures, we can comprehend the respective cultural tradition of Chinese and west. And we can also improve and create the culture of china.
Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. R.
A geologic characterization is presented of 17 newly identified localized pyroclastic deposits on the western limb of the moon. The results show that lunar pyroclastic deposits are more pervasive on the western limb of the moon than once thought. The western limb dark-mantle deposits in the proximal zone are probably related to faults and fractures associated with the Cordillera ring of Orientale Basin. All the localized pyroclastic deposits on the western limb for which near-infrared reflectance spectra have been obtained exhibit parameter that allowed them to be assigned to the three spectral groups described elsewhere. Western limb pyroclastic deposits appear to represent various stages in a formational sequence in which an initial explosive phase is followed by varying amounts of mare flooding. In view of their sequential formation, both the pyroclastic and mare materials associated with individual volcanic complexes may be the products of the same parent magmas and have very similar compositions.
te Velde, Egbert; Burdorf, Alex; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Eijkemans, René; Kremer, Jan A M; Roeleveld, Nel; Habbema, Dik
Since Carlsen and co-workers reported in 1992 that sperm counts have decreased during the second half of the last century in Western societies, there has been widespread anxiety about the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on human fecundity. The Carlsen report was followed by several re-analyses of their data set and by many studies on time trends in sperm quality and on secular trends in fecundity. However, the results of these studies were diverse, complex, difficult to interpret and, therefore, less straightforward than the Carlsen report suggested. The claims that population fecundity is declining and that environmental pollutants are involved, can neither be confirmed nor rejected, in our opinion. However, it is of great importance to find out because the possible influence of widespread environmental pollution, which would adversely affect human reproduction, should be a matter of great concern triggering large-scale studies into its causes and possibilities for prevention. The fundamental reason we still do not know whether population fecundity is declining is the lack of an appropriate surveillance system. Is such a system possible? In our opinion, determining total sperm counts (as a measure of male reproductive health) in combination with time to pregnancy (as a measure of couple fecundity) in carefully selected populations is a feasible option for such a monitoring system. If we want to find out whether or not population fecundity will be declining within the following 20-30 years, we must start monitoring now. PMID:20395222
The implications of the Chernobyl accident are outlined. For the USSR, 135,000 people had to be moved. Farming in these regions will cause difficult problems in the future. The contamination of 131I caused great problems in Western Europe the first month after the accident. The excess dose the first year after the accident was generally below 2 mSv. Over a 50-year period an increase over background of less than 1% is predicted. It is not possible to state if this irradiation has any health impact. Great problems were caused for the population in northern Scandinavia because of the reliance on reindeer breeding, hunting and fishing. Very few Lapps will, however, reach an effective dose equivalent of 5 mSv during 1986/1987. This is less than the natural background effective dose equivalent during a year for the average Swede. Therefore, the greatest problem seems to be the difficulty for the Lapps to sell their reindeer meat and lake fish. 40 refs.; 2 figs.; 11 tabs
Dalimi, A; Motamedi, Gh; Hosseini, M; Mohammadian, B; Malaki, H; Ghamari, Z; Ghaffari Far, F
In the present study, 115 stray dogs (56 males and 59 females, mixed breed), 86 golden jackal (Canis aureus, 42 males and 44 females), 60 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes, 33 males and 27 females), and three female wolves (Canis lupus) were examined for Echinococcus granulosus infection, as well as, 32,898 sheep, 10,691 goats, 15,779 cattle and 659 buffaloes for hydatid infection from five provinces in western Iran during 3 years (1997-2000). Meanwhile fertility rates of different types and forms of cysts isolated from infected animals and the viability of protoscolices were also determined. Results indicated that 19.1% of the dogs, 2.3% of the golden jackals and 5% of the red foxes were infected with Echinococcus granulosus. 11.1% of the sheep, 6.3% of the goats, 16.4% of the cattle and 12.4% of the buffaloes were also found to be infected with hydatid cyst. The cysts isolated from liver and lungs of the sheep show higher fertility rate than the cysts of liver and lungs of goats, cattle and buffaloes. PMID:11900930
The Dominion Reef Group, disconformably overlain by the Witwatersrand Supergroup, outcrops in four separate areas in the Western Transvaal, Republic of South Africa. It consists essentially of a basal sedimentary formation as much as 90 m thick, which contains two important uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates known as the Upper Reef and the Lower Reef; an intermediate formation of altered andesitic lava flows as much as 650 m thick with some intercalated beds of tuff; and an upper formation of altered cherty rhyolites and dacites with a thickness of at least 1500 m. The basal sedimentary formation of the Dominion Reef Group represents the earliest sedimentation in the region (>2800 million years) predating that of the Lower Witwatersrand Group (>2700 million years). This paper is devoted mainly to a description of the auriferous reefs, their depositional environment, pay streaks that are a feature of these reefs, their mineralogy, and the highly mineralized, pebbly, silicified sandstone known as the Pay Band present near the top of the Upper Reef. The relation of ore deposits to structures, and the possible source of the uranium, are discussed. Reasons are given why a hydrothermal origin for the presence of uranium in the reefs is thought to be untenable
Full Text Available The seismicity and the earthquake risk in Western Sicily are here
evaluated on the basis of the experimental data referring to the historical
and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in this area (from 1248
up to 1968, which have been thoroughly collected, analyzed, tested and
normalized in order to assure the quasi-stationarity of the series of
The approximated magnitude values — obtained by means of a compared
analysis of the magnitude and epicentral intensity values of the
latest events — have allowed to study the parameters of the frequency-
magnitude relation with both the classical exponential model and
the truncated exponential one previously proposed by the author.
So, the basic parameters, including the maximum possible regional
magnitude, have been estimated by means of different procedures, and
their behaviours have been studied as functions of the threshold magnitude.
Full text: Recently, 15% of elderly Japanese-American women have been shown to have marked heterogeneity of bone mineral density (BMD) between measured sites. The purposes of this study were to determine (1 ) the prevalence of this finding in an Australian population; and (2) potential association with clinical factors such as age, years since menopause (YSM), alcohol, smoking, family history, exercise, and body mass index. One hundred and fourteen peri-or post- menopausal Caucasian women (mean age 55 + 8.8 years) were referred for osteoporotic (OP) fracture risk assessment. Patients (pts) had no disorders or drugs known to affect BMD and no evidence of scoliosis or arthritic change. Bone densitometry of the lumbar spine (PA), hip and distal radius were measured using a Norland XR-26. According to WHO criteria, 30 pts (26%) were normal (T score > -1) at all sites; no pts (0%) had generalised OP (T score < -2.5); 29 (25%) had OP in one or two sites only (hip = 25, spine = 13, wrist = 1); the remaining 55 pts (48%) were osteogenic (-2.5 < T score < -1) in at least one site. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, only YSM predicted regional OP (odds ratio = 1.14; p< O.001) Thus, clinically important heterogeneity of BMD occurs in about 25% of Western Sydney women; of clinical factors only YSM is independently associated with regional OP. Fracture risk classification may be improved by BMD measurement of multiple sites
James C. Russell
Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.
Full Text Available The current global economic crisis has affected the development of banking system in Western Balkan Countries, including Italy and Greece. These effects are expressed with the contraction of lending, fallen of foreign direct investments, fallen of the volume of remittances and fallen of international trade. The banking system continually faces new challenges in a dynamically changing financial system, and this makes difficult theimplementation of bank regulation and supervision.All the countries have improved their banking regulation in order to avoid the contagion effect among banks and banking system in general, effects that get increased especially when banks are engaged in international banking. The standardization of regulatory requirements provides potential solution to the problems of regulating international banking. So, there is a moving through agreements like Basel Accords.For all these countries will be a comparison of regulatory capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and of capital to assets ratio in order to find out how well is capitalized their bankingsystem. The sources of data are the reports of International Monetary Fund for a time series of 2008-2013. In the end there are some conclusions for the main problems that theimplementation of supervision and bank regulation faces.Keywords: Basel Accords, Capital Ratio, Banking Regulation
Walsh, Peter D; Abernethy, Kate A; Bermejo, Magdalena; Beyers, Rene; De Wachter, Pauwel; Akou, Marc Ella; Huijbregts, Bas; Mambounga, Daniel Idiata; Toham, Andre Kamdem; Kilbourn, Annelisa M; Lahm, Sally A; Latour, Stefanie; Maisels, Fiona; Mbina, Christian; Mihindou, Yves; Obiang, Sosthène Ndong; Effa, Ernestine Ntsame; Starkey, Malcolm P; Telfer, Paul; Thibault, Marc; Tutin, Caroline E G; White, Lee J T; Wilkie, David S
Because rapidly expanding human populations have devastated gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) and common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) habitats in East and West Africa, the relatively intact forests of western equatorial Africa have been viewed as the last stronghold of African apes. Gabon and the Republic of Congo alone are thought to hold roughly 80% of the world's gorillas and most of the common chimpanzees. Here we present survey results conservatively indicating that ape populations in Gabon declined by more than half between 1983 and 2000. The primary cause of the decline in ape numbers during this period was commercial hunting, facilitated by the rapid expansion of mechanized logging. Furthermore, Ebola haemorrhagic fever is currently spreading through ape populations in Gabon and Congo and now rivals hunting as a threat to apes. Gorillas and common chimpanzees should be elevated immediately to 'critically endangered' status. Without aggressive investments in law enforcement, protected area management and Ebola prevention, the next decade will see our closest relatives pushed to the brink of extinction. PMID:12679788
West, John B
Galen (129-c. 216 AD) was a key figure in the early development of Western physiology. His teachings incorporated much of the ancient Greek traditions including the work of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Galen himself was a well-educated Greco-Roman physician and physiologist who at one time was a physician to the gladiators in Pergamon. Later he moved to Rome, where he was associated with the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. The Galenical school was responsible for voluminous writings, many of which are still extant. One emphasis was on the humors of the body, which were believed to be important in disease. Another was the cardiopulmonary system, including the belief that part of the blood from the right ventricle could enter the left through the interventricular septum. An extraordinary feature of these teachings is that they dominated thinking for some 1,300 years and became accepted as dogma by both the State and Church. One of the first anatomists to challenge the Galenical teachings was Andreas Vesalius, who produced a magnificent atlas of human anatomy in 1543. At about the same time Michael Servetus described the pulmonary transit of blood, but he was burned at the stake for heresy. Finally, with William Harvey and others in the first part of the 17th century, the beginnings of modern physiology emerged with an emphasis on hypotheses and experimental data. Nevertheless, vestiges of Galen's teaching survived into the 19th century. PMID:24879053
The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.
Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.
Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.
In accordance with an agreement of December 1990 between the Danish Ministry of Energy and the Danish electricity utilities, ELSAM, a power pool serving western Denmark, is expected by the end of 1990 to be running 55 MW of wind power capacity within its service area. The situation now is: 39.4 MW wind power capacity is installed (stand-alone windmills included); 7.0 MW wind power capacity is under construction or ordered and is sure to be installed by the end of 1990; for the remaining 8.6 MW, the final approval by the authorities of two windfarm sites is still missing and installation on time therefore uncertain. The experience is gathered from seven windfarms which have been in service from six months to nearly 3 years. By the end of 1989, a total of 256 MW windpower was installed in Denmark. Of this, 197 MW was within ELSAM's service area. The wind power, of which the major part is privately owned, covered in 1989 1.5% of the power consumption in Denmark and 2% of the consumption within ELSAM's service area. (Author)
Frost, Peter; Harpending, Henry C
Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence. PMID:25748943
Bagas, Leon; Huston, David L.; Anderson, James; Mernagh, Terrence P.
Significant gold deposits in the western Tanami region of Western Australia include deposits in the Bald Hill and Coyote areas. The ca. 1,864 Ma Bald Hill sequence of turbiditic and mafic volcanic rocks hosts the Kookaburra and Sandpiper deposits and a number of smaller prospects. The ca. 1,835 Ma turbiditic Killi Killi Formation hosts the Coyote deposit and several nearby prospects. The Kookaburra deposit forms as a saddle reef within a syncline, and the Sandpiper deposit is localized within graphitic metasedimentary rocks along a limb of an anticline. Gold in these deposits is hosted by anastomosing quartz-(-pyrite-arsenopyrite) veins within quartz-sericite schist with disseminated arsenopyrite, pyrite, and marcasite (after pyrrhotite). Based on relative timing relationships with structural elements, the auriferous veins are interpreted to have been emplaced before or during the ca. 1,835-1,825 Ma Tanami Orogeny (regional D1). Gold deposition is thought to have been caused by pressure drops associated with saddle reef formation (Kookaburra) and chemical reactions with graphitic rocks (Sandpiper). The Coyote deposit, the largest in the western Tanami region, consists of a number of ore lenses localized along the limbs of the Coyote Anticline, which formed during the Tanami Orogeny. The largest lenses are associated with the Gonzalez Fault, which is located along the steeply dipping southern limb of this fold. Gold was introduced at ca. 1,790 Ma into dilatant zones that formed in local perturbations along this fault during later reactivation (regional D5) towards the end of a period of granite emplacement. Gold is associated with quartz-chlorite-pyrite-(arsenopyrite-galena-sphalerite) veins with narrow (Coyote deposit are associated with the granite-related metamorphic-metasomatic assemblage. Gold deposition is thought to have been caused by pressure drops within dilatant zones.
Conforti, Alessandro; Budillon, Francesca; Tonielli, Renato; De Falco, Giovanni
A previously unknown submerged volcanic field offshore western Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea), has been identified based on swath bathymetric data collected in 2009, 2010 and 2013, and high-resolution seismic profiles collected in 2011 and 2013. About 40 conical-shaped volcanic edifices (maximum width of about 1600 m and maximum height of about 180 m) and several lava outcrops (up to 1,200 m wide) were recognized at 20 to 150 m water depth over an area of 800 km2. The volcanic edifices are mainly eruptive monogenic vents, mostly isolated with a rather distinct shape, or grouped to form a coalescent volcanic body in which single elements are often still recognizable. High-resolution seismics enabled identifying relationships between the volcanic bodies and continental margin successions. The edifices overlie a major erosional surface related to the margin exposure following the Messinian salinity crisis, and are overlain by or interbedded with an early Pliocene marine unit. This seismo-stratigraphic pattern dates the volcanic activity to the early Pliocene, in agreement with the radiometric age of the Catalano island lavas (4.7 Ma) reported in earlier studies. The morphometry of the volcanic bodies suggests that cone erosion was higher at shallow water depths. Indeed, most of the shallow edifices are strongly eroded and flattened at 125 to 130 m water depth, plausibly explained by recurrent sub-aerial exposure during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, whereas cones in deeper water are much better preserved. Volcanic vents and lava deposits, hereafter named the Catalano volcanic field (CVF), are emplaced along lineaments corresponding to the main directions of the normal fault system, which lowered the Sinis Basin and the western Sardinia continental margin. The CVF represents a volumetrically relevant phase of the late Miocene - Quaternary anorogenic volcanic cycle of Sardinia, which is related to the first stage of the extensional tectonics affecting the island
This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.
Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.
The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765
Full Text Available Invasive species are one of the main threats to aquatic biodiversity, being particularly serious in regions with high number of endemic and endangered fishes. Portugal has currently one of the highest numbers of non-native fishes per area in western Europe and the rate of species arrival is increasing. In this review, an updated status of non-native fishes is provided with recent trends of leading vectors and routes. Non-native fish component represents 31% of the freshwater fish diversity existing in the country, totaling 20 established species out of 28 introduced species. In the last decade, the non-native fish detection rate (a proxy of introduction rate has been one new species in every two years. Most of the non-native fishes in Portugal are mainly from Central Europe and North America and were illegally introduced for sports fisheries. However, some recent records are also linked with the ornamental trade, from Asia, indicating an increase of this vector in fish introductions. The international drainages exhibit the highest number of non-native fishes due to prevalent invasion routes from Spain, although direct introductions to national drainages in spatially limited areas suggest new invasion routes caused by higher propagule pressure of leading vectors (fisheries and ornamental trade. Management options are presented in order to tackle this growing threat, namely risk assessment, enforcement and environmental education. Only a comprehensive and integrated approach at an Iberian level could reduce the current rate of non-native species arrival to this region and help us to preserve the Iberian freshwater fishes for future generations.
Wilcox, J. D.
Western North Carolina is mountainous, and groundwater flows from hillslope recharge zones to valley stream and spring discharge zones. Depending on surface topography and geologic conditions, the water table may approach or intersect the ground surface to form seepage wetlands, or fens. Fen ecosystems can be very sensitive to changes in land use, groundwater pumping, and upslope development. This presentation will focus on two sites where historical land use and human activity played important roles in creating or preserving fen ecosystems. Both sites now support—and are being managed to protect—federally endangered flora and fauna. The first site is home to Sarracenia oreophilia, an endangered pitcher plant that thrives on saturated soils with low nutrient content. The site's early history includes tree clearing, drain tile installation, and cattle grazing, while more recent management activities have included drain tile excavation, manual invasive removal, and prescribed burns. A 15-year water-level record indicates seasonal artesian conditions wet a 3m clay unit (K=2E-5 cm/sec) beneath the site, which is able to retain moisture during drier periods. Shorter "clay wetting periods" during drought years (1999-2000; 2007-2008) correspond to reduced clump counts in pitcher-plant surveys. The second site is a former aggregate quarry that now supports over 60 bog turtles (Clemmys muhlenbergii). The biggest threat to this site is encroachment of non-native and invasive multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) and other large woody species. Management activities include manual removal and prescribed goat herbivory. Current efforts to characterize the springs, water-table, and surface-water flows will be used to detect changes in the future to the hydrologic regime in the fen.
Febriyani, Caroline; Prijatna, Kosasih; Meilano, Irwan
This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.
Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail: email@example.com; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.
Gallegos, A. C.; Ranasinghe, N. R.; Ni, J.; Sandvol, E. A.
Lg waveforms recorded by EarthScope's Transportable Array (TA) are used to estimate Lg Q in the Western United States (WUS). Attenuation is calculated based on Lg spectral amplitudes filtered at a narrow band from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz with a central frequency of 1 Hz. The two-station and reverse two-station techniques were used to calculate Qo values. 398 events occurring from 2005 to 2009 and ranging from magnitude 3 to magnitude 6 were used in this study. The geometric spreading term can be determined by using a three-dimensional linear fit of the amplitude ratios versus epicentral distances to two stations. The slope of this line provides the geometric spreading term we use to calculate Lg Qo values of WUS. The results show high Q regions (low attenuation) corresponding to the Colorado Plateau (CP), the Rocky Mountains (RM), the Columbia Plateau (COP), and the Sierra Nevada Mountains (SNM). Regions of low Q (high attenuation) are seen along the Snake River Plain (SRP), the Rio Grande Rift (RGR), the Cascade Mountains (CM), and in east and west of the Basin and Range (BR) where tectonic activity is more active than the central part of the BR. A positive correlation between high heat flow, recent tectonic activity and Q was observed. Areas with low heat flow, thin sediment cover, and no recent tectonic activity were observed to have consistently high Q. These new models use two-station and reversed two-station methods and provide a comparison with previous studies and better constrain regions with high attenuation. This increase in detail can improve high frequency ground motion predictions of future large earthquakes for more accurate hazard assessment and improve overall understanding of the structure and assemblage of the WUS.
This paper reviews the status and acceptance of food irradiation worldwide, focusing on Europe and the United States. Today no less than 38 countries including the USA and 14 European countries, have approved the irradiation of food. Across Europe there is a very wide variation, with a variety of foods being irradiated and eaten in Belgium and France but a total ban on food irradiation in Germany. Progress towards a directive harmonising the position across all countries in the European Union is slow. In the USA there is a growing awareness of the advantages of using food irradiation to combat the increasing risk of the food-borne diseases, and media coverage and consumer attitudes are considerably more favourable than previously. The use of irradiation instead of pesticides for spice treatment is gaining acceptance within the North American spice industry and the NA meat industry is recognising the potential of food irradiation as one way of meeting its obligations under the new HACCP regulations. Food irradiation is also being seriously considered as an alternative to the use of methyl bromide for quarantine treatment of fruit and vegetables. The establishment of the World Trade Organisation in 1995 to enforce various agreements concluded during the GATT Uruguay Round is expected to impact trade liberalisation. In particular the agreements pertaining to the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) have particular reference to track in irradiated food. In this respect, it is particularly important for potential training partners (food producing countries) to ensure that they have domestic approvals in place for any irradiated foods they provide to western countries. (author). countries. (author)
This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate
Full Text Available The paper is focusing on the tides and on the strong tidal current generated in the western fjords of Svalbard. Numerical model is chosen as a tool to study the barotropic tides. Model results are compared against measured sea level and drifters. Numerical modeling and observation of tides point that the tidal amplitude does not change strongly in these fjords but the tidal currents are enhanced in several locations, namely at the entrance to the Dickson Fjord, in the narrow passages in proximity to Svea, and in the central part of Van Keulenfjorden. As the strongest currents have been found at the passages at Akseløya Island we have focused our research on this location. The narrow northern channel (Akselsundet at Akseløya is the main waterway to Svea coal mines. Tidal currents computed and observed at the northern tip of Akseløya Island can reach amplitude from 2 to 3 m s−1. Observation of the deployed drifters and calculation of the seeded particles in the passage at Akseløya depicted a complicated pattern of eddies. The jet-like currents and eddies are quite different at the ebb and flood tide phases. As the Akseløya Island orientation relative to the shore is different for the flood and ebb waters the flow through Akselsundet is differently constrained by this geometry. The observations show that the oscillating tidal motion causes large excursions of the water particle. The drifters released in the passage during flood ended up trapped in the eddy on the eastern side of the island.
Lundqvist, K. [Castor arbetslivskonsulter AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe
By the research of the Chinese and Western custom, culture and traditional wedding background, we can understand the west more and more. This text sets about from the aspects such as culture background of the wedding, wedding dress, custom, wedding characteristic. We can see the difference during Chinese and Western trend of young people’s wedding in the future. The background of the traditional wedding mainly comes from the difference of Chinese and Western culture, custom, Review the west;the bride wears the white uniform which is also a rich and powerful symbol.
Baron, Jill S.; Peterson, David L.; Wilson, J.T.
Mountain ecosystems of the western United States provide irreplaceable goods and services such as water, timber, biodiversity, and recreational opportunities, but their responses to climatic changes are complex and not well understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI), a collaboration between USGS and U.S. Forest Service scientists, catalyzes assessment and synthesis of the effects of disturbance and climate change across western mountain areas, focusing on national parks and surrounding national forests. The WMI takes an ecosystem approach to science, integrating research across science disciplines at scales ranging from field studies to global trends.
Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;
Abstract We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm...... villagers, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords Local knowledge...... - Palms - Western Amazon - Ethno-botany - Socioeconomic factors...
Iversen, Svein A.; Skagen, Dankert W.
The latest years, it is evident that most of the mackerel present in the North Sea belongs to the Western stock, since the yearly catches by far exceed the presumed size of the North Sea stock. The Norwegian tagging data have been revised to obtain estimates of the percentage of Western mackerel in the catches in the North Sea. By combining these data with the distribution of catches, a reasonable estimate of the migration of the Western mackerel to the North Sea may be o...
The development of socialist market economy needs the power support provided by western business ethics. To build the culture ofmodern business ethics in our country, we need absorb the useful spirit of business ethics from western business culture and use for reference. Basedon the analysis of the main spirit of Western business ethics, this paper puts forward that we must stress the role of business, establish an appropriateattitude towards profits, and mold a 'rational spirit of modem business in the process of building modem business culture in our country.
Nine Western States have engaged the US DOE to prepare for shipments of nuclear weapons waste. These are shipments of transuranic (TRU) wastes from nuclear weapons production facilities to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Western governors convinced the US Secretary of Energy that federal, state, and local governments must work together for safety and public acceptance of these shipments. The Secretary agreed to fund state preparedness. Through the Western Governors Association, seven states and USDOE are developing complementary safety programs. This project will identify lessons learned for eventual shipments of high level radioactive waste
This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.
A statistical model for extreme winds in the western North Pacific is developed, the region on the Planet where tropical cyclones are most common. The model is based on best track data derived mostly from satellite images of tropical cyclones. The methods used to estimate surface wind speeds from satellite images is discussed with emphasis on the empirical basis, which, unfortunately, is not very strong. This is stressed by the fact that Japanese and US agencies arrive at markedly different estimates. On the other hand, best track data records cover a long period of time and if not perfect they are at least coherent over time in their imperfections. Applying the the Holland model to the best track data, wind profiles can be assigned along the tracks. From this annual wind speed maxima at any particular point in the region can be derived. The annual maxima, in turn, are fitted to a Gumbel distribution using a generalization Abild's method that allows for data wind collected from multiple positions. The choice of this method is justified by a Monte Carlo simulation comparing it to two other methods. The principle output is a map showing fifty year winds in the region. The method is tested against observed winds from Philippine synoptic stations and fair agreement is found for observed and predicted 48 year maxima. However, the almost biasfree performance of the model could be fortuitous, since precise definitions of 'windspeed' in terms averaging time, height above ground and assumed surface roughness are not available, neither for best tracks nor for the synoptic data. The work has been carried out under Danish Research Agency grant 2104-04-0005 'Offshore wind power' and it also covers the findings and analysis carried out in connection with task 1.6 of the project 'Feasibility Assessment and Capacity Building for Wind Energy Development in Cambodia, The Philippines and Vietnam' during 2005-06 under contract 125-2004 with EU
Berdnikova, Alina; Matskovsky, Vladimir; Kurbanov, Redzhep
Turkmenistan is a very special region in Central Asia where the desert covers 80% of the territory. Water supply is a subject of state importance in Turkmenistan. To understand the mechanisms that affect the amount of precipitation in the region on decadal and centennial time scales long records of atmospheric precipitation are necessary. Unfortunately such records are sparse and short in the region. Tree rings are natural archive that store information about environmental conditions of the past. Previously tree rings have been successfully used for hydroclimate reconstructions covering the last millennium. Such reconstructions uncovered possible climatic causes of many social cataclysms in human history. In arid regions tree rings are especially useful for hydroclimate reconstructions, explaining around 60-80% of variability of instrumental records. Paleogeographic reconstructions for the Late Holocene based on dendroclimatology can reveal the climatic characteristics of periods when Aral Sea basin was connected with the Caspian sea. The other possible perspective of our research is revealing the paleoclimate characteristics for Western Turkmenistan describing evaporation and precipitation - the basic indicators for understanding Caspian sea-level change. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of dendroclimatological method in Turkmenistan for the purpose of hydroclimatological reconstructions. These reconstructions may significantly extend the existing instrumental records of atmospheric precipitation in the region. Study region is situated along the southwestern border of the Turkmenistan, in northern piedmont of the Kopetdag range. We sampled several species: turkman juniper (Juniperus turcomanica), black pine (Pinus nigra), oriental plane (Platanus orientalis), paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) and osage orange (Maclura pomifera), but only juniper chronology has been constructed and analyzed so far. Although old trees are rare in Turkmenistan
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To better understand the distribution of key breeding areas for the declining western population of monarch butterflies, the USFWS, in collaboration with the Xerces...
California Department of Resources — This dataset was developed in an effort to compile Western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata) observations in CDFG Region 1. Steve Burton (CDFG Staff Environmental...
Попков, В. В.; Одеський національний університет імені І.І. Мечникова
Different peculiarities of Berdyaev’s approach to the history and the intellectual content of conflict of westerners and Slavophiles are studied in the article. Especially notable is M. Berdyaev’s analysis of power problem.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...
Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.
This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.
... issues in the Western Pacific Region. DATES: The meetings will be held from Wednesday, October 24th... Recommendations. 6. Insular Fisheries. A. Action Items. 1. Options for Acceptable Biological Catch. a....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Precipitation Frequency of the Western United States publication is an eleven volume set held in the archives. It was the culmination of many years of...
Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.
The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...
U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily statistically downscaled climate projections and simulated land surface water and energy fluxes for the western United States and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, dolphins, walruses, and Steller sea lions in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...
There are many reasons why conflicts occur during the interaction between Chinese and Western people. This paper is to ex-pound on the reasons from historical perspective- - historical origins of cultural development between China and the West.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...
Saadia Izzeldin Malik
Full Text Available This study discusses the compatibility of Islamic theories of ethics with Western theories of ethics regarding the ethics of global journalism. The study examines Western and Islamic approaches and perspectives on ethics and applied ethics in the field of journalism. Central to the discussion are global journalism values of freedom of expression, individual right for privacy, public right to know, and the global clashing values of media ownership vs. freedom, and consumerism values vs. media values of social responsibility. These clashing media values are part of the broader practices of newsgathering and news reporting that encompass many ethical dilemmas in the field of media and journalism. The study concludes by discussing Western perspectives on character education. It also provides an Islamic moral perspective based on character education as an approach compatible with the Western perspective on moral education. This perspective will help reconcile global clashing media values.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines representing inland linear hydrography features used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western...
Peters, Michael A.
This paper argues that the bias in Western philosophy is tied to its humanist ideology that pictures itself as central to the natural history of humanity and is historically linked to the emergence of humanism as pedagogy.
...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Western Pacific Fishery... Fishery Ecosystem Plan amendment actions 6. Value of marker (>100 pounds) bigeye tuna in relation...
Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.
Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western immigrant workers in absolute terms more than unemployment rates of native workers. However, in relative terms there is not much of a difference. We also find that the sensitivity of ...
ABSTRACT Sudip Joshi. Community Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal. Language: English. Jarvenpaa, Autumn 2011, 79 p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree Programme in Social Services. The study specifically intends to assess the situation of community ownership of sanitation and hygiene in rural communities of Western Nepal through a community development perspective. The present study provides an overview of the Rural Wate...
Arima, Yuzo; Matsui, Tamano
Dengue is an emerging vectorborne infectious disease that is a major public health concern in the Asia Pacific region. Official dengue surveillance data for 2010 provided by ministries of health were summarized as part of routine activities of the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. Based on reported data, dengue has continued to show an increasing trend in the Western Pacific Region. In 2010, countries and areas reported a total of 353 907 dengue cases, of whic...
Bittarello, Maria Beatrice
In her paper, "The 'Teucer Paradigm' and the Eastern Other in Western Literature," Maria Beatrice Bittarello argues that modern representations of characters with mixed-blood heritage (Western and Eastern) are rooted in classical representations of the Middle East and that such representations are thematically re-cast from a literary thematic archetype elaborated on in the ancient Greek and Roman cultures. Bittarello examines how Greek and Roman authors portray the Greek mythological hero Teu...
P. T. Nastos; Matsangouras, I. T.
Tornadoes have been reported in Greece during the last few decades and recent studies have given evidence that western Greece is an area vulnerable to tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds In this study, the composite means and anomalies of synoptic conditions for tornadic events (tornadoes, waterspouts and funnel clouds) over western Greece are analyzed and discussed. The daily composite means of synoptic conditions were based on the National Centers for Environme...
Multi-Level Party Politics in Western Europe is a study of territorial dynamics within party systems and party organizations in Western European multi-layered systems. It argues that processes of state restructuring and party crisis have forced parties to adapt their competitive strategies and internal structures. With the logic of territorial party competition becoming more complex, parties in Europe have developed quite different responses to deal with the challenges of multi-level politics...
K. Schroeder; J. Chiggiato; H. L. Bryden; Borghini, M.; Ben Ismail, S.
One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser w...
R. N. Harris
Grey seal diet was last comprehensively studied in western Scotland in 1985. Since then, the grey seal population has increased by approximately 30% and relative abundance of fish stocks in the area has changed markedly. The aim of this study was to provide a current assessment of diet to inform policy issues related to the impact of the still increasing grey seal population on commercial fish populations. During 2002, nine sampling trips totalling 56 days were completed around western Scotla...
Language and culture are interacting. Learning a language must understand the culture. The lack of cultural knowledge will lead to students’mistakes in daily English,therefore,in English teaching,the cultural differences between Chinese and Western as an important question is put forward. Then,from the cultural differences between Chinese and western,I discuss the reasons for mistakes in daily English and then how to teaching.
Larrouy, Pauline; Magis, David; Nowak, Marion; Morsomme, Dominique
Objective: One can easily recognize the musical style of a singer by listening to his/her sung performance. Several acoustical parameters of the Western operatic singing technique have been studied. However, the number of parameters could be extended and the effect of melody on these parameters remains unclear. By observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study aims at further characterizing the Western operatic singing techn...
The paper intends to analyze the impact of global economic crisis on the economies of Western Balkan Region. Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia (FYROM), Montenegro, Serbia, and Kosovo are part of this Region. The purpose of the paper is not to analyze the global crisis impact on specific sectors of the economies of the Western Balkan Countries, indeed, it focuses mainly on the macroeconomic level, identifying and analyzing fluctuations of major macroeconomic indicators of the e...
This article is about the development of politic mechanisms in sustainable energy in western countries (primarily EC, USA). The development of sustainable energy in western countries should be greatly based on government and business support and common ways of such help are described below. Also shown the significance of development of sustainable energy, its importance for environmental protection and perspectives Key words: sustainable energy, government regulation, wind energy, EC, USA, biofuel
Peter King; Zhang Wei
Purpose: This study sought to examine how models of Western and Chinese leadership are changing and perhaps converging toward a notionally similar and possibly holistic concept of leadership.Methodology: We reviewed and analyzed research on Western and Chinese leadership published over the past sixty years to develop a different perspective from which to consider the future development of leadership concepts.Findings: We suggest that (1) since the middle of the twentieth century, paradigms of...
The purpose of this project was to manage the Western Resources Project, which included a comprehensive, basin-wide set of experiments investigating the impacts of coal bed methane (CBM; a.k.a. coal bed natural gas, CBNG) production on surface and groundwater in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This project included a number of participants including Apache Corporation, Conoco Phillips, Marathon, the Ucross Foundation, Stanford University, the University of Wyoming, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, and Western Research Institute.
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric
This review focuses on carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Western Palearctic and their potential use in forensic entomology as bioindicators. Few studies have looked at Silphidae in forensic context and investigations. However, some Silphidae present the desirable characteristics of some Diptera used in postmortem estimates and thus may extend the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). We review here the taxonomy and distribution of Western Palearctic Silphidae. The anatomical and...
Dekeirsschieter, J.; Verheggen, F.; Lognay, G.; Haubruge, E.
This review focuses on carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Western Palearctic and their potential use in forensic entomology as bioindicators. Few studies have looked at Silphidae in forensic context and investigations. However, some Silphidae present the desirable characteristics of some Diptera used in postmortem estimates and thus may extend the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). We review here the taxonomy and distribution of Western Palearctic Silphidae. The anatomical and ...
Doan, Darcie; Paddock, Brian; Dyer, Jan
This paper provides an overview of grain transportation policy in Canada over the last 100 years, including the inception of the Crow Rate, the replacement of the Crow Rate with the Western Grain Transportation Act(WGTA), and finally, the repeal of the WGTA. Particular emphasis is placed on the structural change to the western agricultural economy that occurred following repeal of the WGTA in 1995. When grain transportation subsidies were removed, industry responded quickly to market signals ...
Saadia Izzeldin Malik
This study discusses the compatibility of Islamic theories of ethics with Western theories of ethics regarding the ethics of global journalism. The study examines Western and Islamic approaches and perspectives on ethics and applied ethics in the field of journalism. Central to the discussion are global journalism values of freedom of expression, individual right for privacy, public right to know, and the global clashing values of media ownership vs. freedom, and consumerism values vs. media ...
When in April, 2007, western Balkan countries started the facilitation of the visa agreement that will allow them extremely simplified procedures for visa application in order to enter EU countries, many of the citizens of this region that historically has been isolated were skeptical this will really happen. This article analyses in detail the process of visa liberalization for the western Balkan countries and argues that visa facilitation is shown to be very useful despite the fact that onl...
Syed Iqbal; Balakrishnan P; Solomon Sunil; Murugavel K; Kumarasamy N; Vidya S; Martin S; Thyagarajan S; Mayer Kenneth; Solomon S
Background: The Western blot assay is the gold standard for the detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type1 (HIV-1). However, indeterminate Western blot reactivity to HIV-1 proteins may occur in individuals, who may not be infected with HIV. Aim: This retrospective study was aimed to determine the diagnostic value of the interpretation criteria in relation to commercial kits for HIV -1 diagnosis. Methods and Materials: A total of 556 serum/plasma specimens collected from h...
Barjolle, Dominique; Brecic, Ruzica; Cerjak, Marija; Giraud, Georges
Te aim of this paper is to explore consumers' perceptions and habits regarding traditional food in the Western Balkan Countries. In each Western Balkan country, two focus groups were carried-out (total twelve focus groups; eight to ten participants per each – total sample of 104 participants). Results of this study show that consumer motives for the choice of traditional products pertain to higher health, safety, sensory and increasingly also sustainability beliefs and expectation. Results of...
Sean C. Taylor
Full Text Available Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013 and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.
Full Text Available A new species of Salmoneus collected in Turkish waters is described. It appears to live in burrows associated with gobiid fish or thalassinidean decapods, as do other species in the genus. Previously, twenty Salmoneus species have been recognised worldwide, two of which are known from the Mediterranean. Some morphological features are discussed in order to determine their taxonomic value. A table summarises the geographical distribution of the 21 species currently recognised.
, suggesting that direct temperature stress might be a factor in some species. Since warm growing seasons are also typically dry growing seasons, direct temperature stress and moisture stress could occur simultaneously. For example, 2004 was the warmest summer in over 200 years in boreal Alaska (Barber et al 2004) but it was also during a drought with less than 50 mm of summer precipitation recorded in Fairbanks. In Fairbanks, the length of the growing season, as defined as the period above freezing, has increased by 45 per cent over the past 100 years, with no significant increase in precipitation (Wendler and Shulski 2009). Regional winter runoff has increased, likely associated with permafrost thawing (Brabets and Walvoord 2009), while surface water has decreased, likely associated with increased evapotranspiration (Riordan et al 2006, Anderson et al 2007, Berg et al 2009). The mean annual air temperature in boreal Alaska has increased by over 1.5 °C during the past 50 years (Stafford et al 2000), and is projected to increase by 3-7 °C by end of this century (Walsh et al 2008). Thus, it would be surprising if a declining NDVI trend was not occurring in the western boreal region of North America as the climate continues to warm. Insects and disease in the North American boreal forest may also affect the NDVI browning trends (Malmström and Raffa 2000), as the life histories of damaging insects may be linked to a warming boreal climate. For example, warmer temperatures contributed to the spruce beetle outbreaks in Alaska with a reduction in the beetle life cycle from two years to one year (Berg et al 2006). Thus, as the boreal climate continues to warm, tree growth reduction and mortality from insects and diseases may become more substantial. In boreal Alaska, recent alder dieback and mortality is likely to be related to alder's susceptibility to a canker-causing fungus in drought years (Ruess et al 2009). Recent widespread and prolonged outbreaks of aspen leaf miner and a
Shinoda, Toshiaki; Lukas, Roger
Processes that control the upper ocean thermohaline structure in the western equatorial Pacific are examined using a Lagrangian mixed layer model. The one-dimensional bulk mixed layer model of Garwood (1977) is integrated along the trajectories derived from a nonlinear 1 1/2 layer reduced gravity model forced with actual wind fields. The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data are used to estimate surface freshwater fluxes for the mixed layer model. The wind stress data which forced the 1 1/2 layer model are used for the mixed layer model. The model was run for the period 1987-1988. This simple model is able to simulate the isothermal layer below the mixed layer in the western Pacific warm pool and its variation. The subduction mechanism hypothesized by Lukas and Lindstrom (1991) is evident in the model results. During periods of strong South Equatorial Current, the warm and salty mixed layer waters in the central Pacific are subducted below the fresh shallow mixed layer in the western Pacific. However, this subduction mechanism is not evident when upwelling Rossby waves reach the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific or when a prominent deepening of the mixed layer occurs in the western equatorial Pacific due to episodes of strong wind and light precipitation associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Comparison of the results between the Lagrangian mixed layer model and a locally forced Eulerian mixed layer model indicated that horizontal advection of salty waters from the central Pacific strongly affects the upper ocean salinity variation in the western Pacific, and that this advection is necessary to maintain the upper ocean thermohaline structure in this region.
Western North Pacific Subtropical High is a very important atmospheric circulation system influencing the summer climate over eastern China. Its interdecadal change is analyzed in this study.There is a significant decadal shift in about 1979/1980. Since 1980, the Western North Pacific Subtropical High has enlarged, intensified, and shifted southwestward. This change gives rise to an anti-cyclonic circulation anomaly over the region from the South China Sea to western Pacific and thus causes wet anomalies over the Yangtze River valley. During the summers of 1980-1999, the precipitation is 63.9 mm above normal, while during 1958-1979 it is 27.3 mm below normal. The difference is significant at the 99% confidence level as a t-test shown. The southwestward expanding of the Western North Pacific Subtropical High also leads to a significant warming in southern China,during 1980-1999 the summer mean temperature is 0.37C warmer than that of the period 1958-1979.The strong warming is primarily due to the clearer skies associated with the stronger downward air motion as the Western North Pacific Subtropical High expanding to the west and controlling southern China. It is also found that the relative percentage of tropical cyclones in the regions south of 20°N is decreasing since the 1980s, but in the regions north of 20°N that is increasing at the same time. The Western North Pacific Subtropical High responds significantly to sea surface temperature of the tropical eastern Pacific with a lag of one-two seasons and simultaneously to sea surface temperature of the tropical Indian Ocean. The changes in the sea surface temperatures are mainly responsible for the interdecadal variability of the Western North Pacific Subtropical High.
OrtizBevia, M.J.; Alvarez-Garcia, F.J.; Ruiz de Elvira, A.M.; Liguori, G.; Carretero, J.H. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Fisica, Madrid (Spain)
The anomalous climatic variability of the Western Mediterranean in summer, its relationships with the large scale climatic teleconnection modes and its feedbacks from some of these modes are the targets of this study. The most important trait of this variability is the recurrence of warm and cold episodes, that take place at 2-4 year intervals, and which are monitored in the Western Mediterranean Index. We find that the Western Mediterranean events are part of a basin scale mode, and are related to the previous spring atmospheric anomalies. These anomalies are related mainly to the Pacific North America teleconnection pattern and the North Atlantic Oscillation, but also to a number of other climatic modes, connected with the previous two, as the Southern Oscillation, the Indian Core Monsoon and the Scandinavian teleconnection pattern. We identify the main spatial and temporal traits of the Western Mediterranean summer variability, the physical mechanisms at play in the generation of the events and their impacts. Considering the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean events influence the sea surface temperature in the southeastern part of the North Atlantic Gyre. Additionally, they are significantly related to summer precipitation anomalies of the opposite sign in the Baltic basin (Central Germany and Poland) and near the Black Sea. We then estimate the mutual influence that the anomalous previous state of the Western Mediterranean, of the Pacific North America teleconnection pattern and of the North Atlantic Oscillation have on their summer conditions using a simple stochastic model. As the summer Western Mediterranean events have an influence on a part of the Baltic basin, we propose a second stochastic model in order to investigate if thereafter the Baltic basin variability will feedback on the Western Mediterranean sea surface temperature anomalies. Among the variables included in the second model are, in addition to the Western Mediterranean previous state, that of
Pletka, R.; Finn, J.
This report describes the Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ) Initiative Phase 1 Qualified Resource Area identification process, including the identification and economic analysis of Qualified Resource Areas (QRAs) and 'non-REZ' resources. These data and analyses will assist the Western US in its renewable energy transmission planning goals. The economic analysis in this report produced the input data for the WREZ Generation and Transmission model, which is a screening-level model to determine the optimal routing for and cost of delivering renewable energy from QRAs to load centers throughout the Western Interconnection. In June 2009, the Western Governors' Association accepted the Western Governors' Association WREZ Phase 1 Report in which the QRAs were mapped and the entire WREZ Phase 1 process was explained in general. That same month the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released the WREZ Generation and Transmission Model (GTM), which was also developed by Black & Veatch. This report details the assumptions and methodologies that were used to produce the maps and resource analyses in the WGA report as well as the economic data used by the WREZ GTM. This report also provides the results of the non-REZ resource analysis for the first time in the WREZ initiative.
Guan Tao (Guan Yadu, Kuan A - To) is the first western style doctor and the first military western style doctor in the medical history of China. He was from the generations of the business painter in Shi San Hang (Thirteen Factories) of Guangzhou, in which the culture environment exerted a great influence on him. His uncle Guan Qiaochang (Lam Qua) and Guan Lianchang (Tin Qua) were famous business painters of Guangdong in 19th century. Guan Qiaochang set up a workshop in Shi San Hang and had extensive contact with various foreigners from Europe and North America. He followed the western style of the paintings from George Chinney who was a famous painter of England, settled down in Macao for the rest of his life during this period. Under the guidance of Guan Qiaochang, Guan Tao studied western medicine under the instruction of Peter Parker, the first American medical missionary in China, at the Ophthalmic Hospital in Shi San Hang in 1837, Guan Tao became a western style doctor with excellent character, skill and devotion. Chinese people remember his name forever. PMID:11624648
Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr
The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.
Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.
tectonism, climate and climate change. Western Scandinavia, the northern British Isles and the Faeroe-Shetland Platform were significant sediment sources during the Paleocene, which is well founded in tectonic causes related to the opening of the North Atlantic. From the Eocene and onward, variations in the...... sediment flux from western Scandinavia correlate better with climate and climate change. During the Eocene, sediment production was low. From the late Eocene onward, increased seasonality may have contributed to stimulating the sediment flux. Significant climatic cooling episodes correlate with Oligocene......The significance of variations in the sediment flux from western Scandinavia during the Cenozoic has been a matter of debate for decades. Here we compile the sediment flux using seismic data, boreholes and results from other publications and discuss the relative importance of causal agents such as...
While more and more teachers from Western culture teach in China, research on the different cultures of learning in China's teaching context and Western teachers’views on the Chinese culture of learning and teaching have been rarely conduct-ed. This essay discusses the implications of cultural differences of learning between China and the West, particularly Western teachers’viewpoint on Chinese culture of learning. The conclusion suggests that it is of great importance to be aware that culture is just one of many factors that determine individual learning, and teachers are supposed to avoid stereotyping and simplistic views with regard to culture of learning, though general trends and patterns may exist among a certain type of culture.
Full Text Available 31 patients of multiple sclerosis (MS diagnosed in the last six years in a large teaching hospital were reviewed. The hospital incidence of 0.85% of total admissions in neurology unit in western India is comparable to the series from other parts of India. The mean age at onset was slightly lower compared to other series. The female preponderence was noted in addition to higher incidence of Devic′s syndrome. Visual loss (47% and motor weakness (27% were the commonest presenting symptoms. The clinical pattern was more similar to Asian series of MS than the western series. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan. 24 out of 25 MRI of Brain and 15 out of 16 MRI of spine were abnormal. CSF immuno-globulins were raised in 80% of patients who underwent CSF study. The data has been compared with other Indian, Asian and Western series.
This paper reports that puny participation in the federal lease sale for the western Gulf of Mexico reflected a lack of open acreage on attractive prospects and the crisis sweeping the U.S. offshore oil and gas industry. Thirty-eight companies participating in the Minerals Management Service's Outer Continental Shelf Sale 141 offered 81 bids for 61 tracts in the western gulf planning area. That was the fewest bids offered in a western gulf sale since operators offered 52 bids for 41 tracts at Sale 105 in August 1986. The only Gulf of Mexico minerals sale to attract less bonus money was the MMS sulfur and salt sale in the central gulf in February 1988 in which $20.8 million was exposed
Eymar, Patrick; Bertschi, Markus
exclusively upon Western European elements indigenously produced. Yet some private initiatives took place successfully in the second half of the nineties (Eurockot and Starsem) bringing together companies from Western and Eastern Europe. Evolution of these JV's are already envisioned. But these ventures relied mostly on already existing vehicles. broadening the bases in order to enlarge the reachable world market appears attractive, even if structural difficulties are complicating the process. had recently started to analyze, with KSRC counterparts how mixing Russian and Western European based elements would provide potential competitive edges. and RKA in the frame of the new ESA's Future Launch Preparatory Programme (FLPP). main technical which have been considered as the most promising (reusable LOx/Hydrocarbon engine, experimental reentry vehicles or demonstrators and reusable launch vehicle first stage or booster. international approach. 1 email@example.com 2
Western juniper trees can cause late term abortions in cattle, similar to ponderosa pine trees. Analyses of western juniper trees from 35 locations across the state of Oregon suggest that western juniper trees in all areas present an abortion risk in pregnant cattle. Results from this study demonstr...
Full Text Available Russia plunged into a deep leadership crisis after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The attempt to implement western leadership models only deepened the crisis. With the take over of power by Vladimir Putin a new leadership theory evolved, which looked critically at western models. Totalitarianism, contextuality, cultural sensibility and pragmatism are issues being investigated with respect to leadership. This article includes these themes whilst reflecting on the critical dialogue between the American leadership expert Stephen R. Covey and his Russian critic Vladimir Tarassenko.
Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Skels, Peteris
Thick deposits of fine-grained marine sediments exist in large areas of western Greenland. Many places these sediments are located above sea-level, and now complicate construction projects in urban areas. The mineralogy of the fine-grained sediments is very different from European sediments, mainly...... due to the cold climate, and it is therefore of great interest to study possible methods to improve the stability and strength properties. This project includes laboratory studies of lime stabilization on fine-grained marine sediments from Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland. The results have included...
Kawthanla; K. Raveendran
The highest ideal of the western traditional has been the concern to restructure our societies so that they are more socially just.The most important goal for Buddhism is to awaken and realize one’s true nature, which puts an end to dukkha- especially that associated with the delusion of a separate self. To the Buddhism and Western, Paticcasamuppada, which I will discuss in this article, are not only the foundation but also the highest state.Today it has been come more ...