Sample records for chuckwalla western burrowing

  1. Distribution of the Chuckwalla, Western Burrowing Owl, and Six Bat Species on the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Willis


    Field Surveys were conducted in 1996 to determine the current distribution of several animal species of concern on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). They included the chuckwall (Sauromalus obesus), western burrowing owl (Speotyto cunicularia), and six species of bats. Nineteen chuckwallas and 118 scat locations were found during the chuckwalla field study. Eighteen western burrowing owls were found at 12 sighting locations during the 1996 field study. Of the eleven bat species of concern which might occur on the NTS, five, and possibly six, were captured during this survey. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, takes certain management actions to protect and conserve the chuckwalla, western burrowing owl, and bats on the NTS. These actions are described and include: (1) conducting surveys at sites of proposed land-disturbing activities (2) altering projects whenever possible to avoid or minimize impacts to these species (3) maintaining a geospatial database of known habitat for species of concern (4) sharing sighting and trap location data gathered on the NTS with other local land and resource managers, and (5) conducting periodic field surveys to monitor these species distribution and relative abundance on the NTS.

  2. Diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas (United States)

    Littles, C.J.; Williford, D.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Woodin, M.C.; Hickman, G.C.


    Winter diets of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are little known. We determined the diet of western Burrowing Owls wintering in southern Texas by analyzing the contents of 182 pellets collected over four winters (1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004) in three habitat types (agricultural, mainland grassland, and barrier island). Remains of a total of 7476 prey items were recovered, 98% of which were arthropods. Gryllidae (crickets) formed the largest component (50%) of the prey, followed by lepidopteran larvae (13%), beetles (8%), spiders (7%), and earwigs (6%). Although vertebrates, primarily small mammals and birds, represented only 2% of prey items by number, they represented most (71%) of the biomass. Northern pygmy mice (Baiomys taylori) and fulvous harvest mice (Reithrodontomys fulveccens) were the two most frequently consumed vertebrate species. In all habitats, arthropods, especially orthopterans, were the primary prey item by number, whereas vertebrates, primarily small mammals, were the most important by biomass. Greater consumption of arthropods by Burrowing Owls in agricultural areas may be a factor contributing to owl use of these highly altered environments. ?? 2007 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  3. Nest site characteristics and nesting success of the Western Burrowing Owl in the eastern Mojave Desert (United States)

    Longshore, Kathleen M.; Crowe, Dorothy E.


    We evaluated nest site selection at two spatial scales (microsite, territory) and reproductive success of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at three spatial scales (microsite, territory, landscape) in the eastern Mojave Desert. We used binary logistic regression within an information-theoretic approach to assess factors influencing nest site choice and nesting success. Microsite-scale variables favored by owls included burrows excavated by desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), burrows with a large mound of excavated soil at the entrance, and a greater number of satellite burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. At the territory scale, owls preferred patches with greater cover of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) within 50 m of the nest burrow. An interaction between the presence or absence of a calcic soil horizon layer over the top of the burrow (microsite) and the number of burrows within 50 m (territory) influenced nest site choice. Nesting success was influenced by a greater number of burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. Total cool season precipitation was a predictor of nesting success at the landscape scale. Conservation strategies can rely on management of habitat for favored and productive nesting sites for this declining species.

  4. Status assessment and conservation plan for the western burrowing owl in the United States (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) is a grassland specialist distributed throughout w. North America, primarily in open areas with short...

  5. Rodents new to the diet of the western burrowing owl(athene CUNICULARIA HYPUGAEA ) (United States)

    Wiluford, D.L.; Woodin, M.C.; Skoruppa, M.K.; Hickman, G.C.


    The northern pygmy mouse (Baiomys taylori), fulvous harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys fulvescens), and Merriam's pocket mouse (Pemgnathus merriami) are new to the diet of the western burrowing owl (Athene cuniculana hypugaed). All three species were identified from remains in regurgitated pellets collected from roost sites of burrowing owls in southern Texas over a period of 4 winters. Together, northern pygmy mice and fulvous harvest mice represented 58% of mammals identified in 182 pellets regurgitated by western burrowing owls. Merriam's pocket mouse accounted for only 4% of identified mammalian prey. Frequency of occurrence in pellets was 16% for northern pygmv mice, 11% for fulvous harvest mice, and 3% for Merriam's pocket mice. The primary reason for absence of these species in previous studies of foods of western burrowing owls is that most were conducted in latitudes north of these southern-distributed species of mammals.

  6. Landform and surface attributes for prediction of rodent burrows in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. (United States)

    Meliyo, Joel L; Massawe, Boniface H J; Msanya, Balthazar M; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Mulungu, Loth S; Kihupi, Nganga I; Deckers, Jozef A; Gulinck, Hubert; Leirs, Herwig


    Previous studies suggest that rodent burrows, a proxy for rodent population are important for predicting plague risk areas. However, studies that link landform, surface attributes and rodent burrows in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania are scanty. Therefore, this study was conducted in plague endemic area of the Western Usambara Mountains in northern, Tanzania, to explore the relationship between rodent burrows, and landform and surface attributes. The study was carried out in three areas corresponding to high (Lokome), medium (Lukozi) and low.(Mwangoi) frequency of reported plague cases. Data were collected from 117, 200 and 170 observation sites for Lokome, Lukozi and Mwangoi, respectively using 100 m x 200 m quadrats. Remote sensing and field surveys were used to collect data on landform and surface attributes. Rodent burrows were surveyed and quantified by counting the number of burrows in 20m x 20m grids demarcated on the main 100m x 200m quadrats. The collected data were analysed in R software using boosted regression trees (BRT) technique. Rodent burrows were found at an elevation of above 1600m in the high and medium plague frequency landscapes. No burrows were found in the low plague frequency landscape situated below 1500m. BRT analysis shows a significant relationship between landform characteristics and rodent burrows in both high and medium plague frequency landscapes. Overall, elevation and hillshade are the most important determinants of rodent burrow distribution in the studied landscapes. It is concluded that in high altitudes, specific landform attributes (hill-shade, slope, elevation) and vegetation cover- favour rodent burrowing.

  7. The effect of mayfly (Hexagenia spp.) burrowing activity on sediment oxygen demand in western Lake Erie (United States)

    Edwards, William J.; Soster, Frederick M.; Matisoff, Gerald; Schloesser, Donald W.


    Previous studies support the hypothesis that large numbers of infaunal burrow-irrigating organisms in the western basin of Lake Erie may increase significantly the sediment oxygen demand, thus enhancing the rate of hypolimnetic oxygen depletion. We conducted laboratory experiments to quantify burrow oxygen dynamics and increased oxygen demand resulting from burrow irrigation using two different year classes of Hexagenia spp. nymphs from western Lake Erie during summer, 2006. Using oxygen microelectrodes and hot film anemometry, we simultaneously determined oxygen concentrations and burrow water flow velocities. Burrow oxygen depletion rates ranged from 21.7 mg/nymph/mo for 15 mm nymphs at 23 °C to 240.7 mg/nymph/mo for 23 mm nymphs at 13 °C. Sealed microcosm experiments demonstrated that mayflies increase the rate of oxygen depletion by 2-5 times that of controls, depending on size of nymph and water temperature, with colder waters having greater impact. At natural population densities, nymph pumping activity increased total sediment oxygen demand 0.3-2.5 times compared to sediments with no mayflies and accounted for 22-71% of the total sediment oxygen demand. Extrapolating laboratory results to the natural system suggest that Hexagenia spp. populations may exert a significant control on oxygen depletion during intermittent stratification. This finding may help explain some of the fluctuations in Hexagenia spp. population densities in western Lake Erie and suggests that mayflies, by causing their own population collapse irrespective of other environmental conditions, may need longer term averages when used as a bio-indicator of the success of pollution-abatement programs in western Lake Erie and possibly throughout the Great Lakes.

  8. Distributional changes in the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) in North America from 1967 to 2008 (United States)

    Macias-Duarte, Alberto; Conway, Courtney J.


    The quantification of shifts in bird distributions in response to climate change provides an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the processes that influence species persistence. We used data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) to document changes in the distributional limits of the western Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) from 1967 to 2008. We used logistic regression to model presence probability (p) as a function of longitude, latitude, and year. We modeled a linear trend in logit(p) through time with slope and intercept modeled as a double Fourier series of longitude and latitude. We found that the western Burrowing Owl has experienced an intriguing southward shift in the northern half of its breeding range, contrary to what is predicted by most species niche models and what has been observed for many other species in North America. The breeding range of the Burrowing Owl has been shrinking near its northern, western, and eastern edges. Our model detected the population declines that were observed in California and eastern Washington, in locations where maps based on route-specific estimating equations had predicted significant population increases. We suggest that the northern boundary of the breeding distribution of the western Burrowing Owl has contracted southward and the southern boundary of the species' breeding distribution has expanded southward into areas of northern Mexico that were formerly used only by wintering migrants.

  9. Relationships between yolk androgens and nest density, laying date, and laying order in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) (United States)

    Welty, J.L.; Belthoff, J.R.; Egbert, J.; Schwabl, H.


    Increases in yolk androgens within and among avian clutches have been correlated with decreased incubation time, increased aggression within a nest, increased begging behaviour, decreased immune response, and decreased life span. Although the mechanisms that lead to variability in yolk androgens within and between clutches are not completely known, yolk androgens can be a function of both social and environmental conditions. We were interested in if and how nesting density, laying date, and laying order influenced yolk androgens in Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea (Bonaparte, 1825)) in which nest density varies considerably. In 2006 and 2007, we used radioimmunoassay to quantify the concentrations of testosterone, 5a-dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione in the egg yolks from one early and one latelaid egg in 47 nests of Burrowing Owls located in the Morley Nelson Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southern Idaho. Nesting density had no detectable effect on yolk androgens. Yolk androgens varied temporally and peaked in the middle of the laying season while being low before and after this time period. Within nests, late-laid eggs had higher testosterone and dihydrotestosterone than early-laid eggs; adrostendione exhibited a similar pattern in one but not both years of our study. It is possible that the seasonal pattern in yolk androgens that we observed is related to aspects of mate quality for females or declining chances of fledging success for later nesting females, whereas rises in egg androgens between early and late eggs within clutches could reflect a mechanism to assist nestlings from late-laid eggs that hatch one to several days after their siblings to better compete for resources within the nest or promote survival in the presence of larger siblings.

  10. Application of morphologic burrow architects: lungfish or crayfish? (United States)

    Hasiotis, Stephen T.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Dubiel, Russell R.


    A methodology for trace fossil identification using burrowing signatures is tested by evaluating ancient and modern lungfish and crayfish burrows and comparing them to previously undescribed burrows in a stratigraphic interval thought to contain both lungfish and crayfish burrows. Permian burrows that bear skeletal remains of the lungfish Gnathorhiza, from museum collections, were evaluated to identify unique burrow morphologies that could be used to distinguish lungfish from crayfish burrows when fossil remains are absent. The lungfish burrows were evaluated for details of the burrowing mechanism preserved in the burrow morphologies together forming burrowing signatures and were compared to new burrows in the Chinle Formation of western Colorado to test the methodology of using burrow signatures to identify unknown burrows. Permian lungfish aestivation burrows show simple, nearly vertical, unbranched architectures and relatively smooth surficial morphologies with characteristic quasi‐horizontal striae on the burrow walls and vertical striae on the bulbous terminus. Burrow lengths do not exceed 0.5 m. In contrast, modern and ancient crayfish burrows exhibit simple to highly complex architectures with highly textured surficial morphologies. Burrow lengths may reach 4 to 5 m. Burrow morphologies unlike those identified in Gnathorhiza aestivation burrows were found in four burrow groups from museum collections. Two of these groups exhibit simple architectures and horizontal striae that were greater in sinuosity and magnitude, respectively. One of these burrows contains the remains of Lysorophus, but the burrow surface reveals no reliable surficial characteristics. It is not clear whether Lysorophus truly burrowed or merely occupied a pre‐existing structure. The other two groups exhibit surficial morphologies similar to those found on modern and ancient crayfish burrows and may provide evidence of freshwater crayfish in the Permian. Burrows from the Upper Triassic

  11. Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study (United States)

    Engelman, Catherine A.; Grant, William E.; Mora, Miguel A.; Woodin, Marc


    We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove

  12. Modelling effects of chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes: The western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) as a case study (United States)

    Engelman, C.A.; Grant, W.E.; Mora, M.A.; Woodin, M.


    We describe an ecotoxicological model that simulates the sublethal and lethal effects of chronic, low-level, chemical exposure on birds wintering in agricultural landscapes. Previous models estimating the impact on wildlife of chemicals used in agro-ecosystems typically have not included the variety of pathways, including both dermal and oral, by which individuals are exposed. The present model contains four submodels simulating (1) foraging behavior of individual birds, (2) chemical applications to crops, (3) transfers of chemicals among soil, insects, and small mammals, and (4) transfers of chemicals to birds via ingestion and dermal exposure. We demonstrate use of the model by simulating the impacts of a variety of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, growth regulators, and defoliants on western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) that winter in agricultural landscapes in southern Texas, United States. The model generated reasonable movement patterns for each chemical through soil, water, insects, and rodents, as well as into the owl via consumption and dermal absorption. Sensitivity analysis suggested model predictions were sensitive to uncertainty associated with estimates of chemical half-lives in birds, soil, and prey, sensitive to parameters associated with estimating dermal exposure, and relatively insensitive to uncertainty associated with details of chemical application procedures (timing of application, amount of drift). Nonetheless, the general trends in chemical accumulations and the relative impacts of the various chemicals were robust to these parameter changes. Simulation results suggested that insecticides posed a greater potential risk to owls of both sublethal and lethal effects than do herbicides, defoliants, and growth regulators under crop scenarios typical of southern Texas, and that use of multiple indicators, or endpoints provided a more accurate assessment of risk due to agricultural chemical exposure. The model should prove

  13. Crustacean parasites associated with hermit crabs from the western Mediterranean Sea, with first documentation of egg predation by the burrowing barnacle Trypetesa lampas (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica: Trypetesidae). (United States)

    Williams, Jason D; Gallardo, Alejandra; Murphy, Angela E


    Parasitic isopods (family Bopyridae) and burrowing barnacles (family Trypetesidae) infesting hermit crabs were investigated from shallow subtidal collections made along the southeastern coast of Spain in 2009. A total of 713 specimens of Clibanarius erythropus (Latreille, 1818) and 82 Calcinus tubularis (L., 1767) were examined. Gastropod shells and worm tubes inhabited by hermit crabs were collected by hand while snorkeling and were cracked to determine host species, size, sex and presence of eggs. Two species of bopyrid isopods were found on C. erythropus: the branchial parasite Bopyrissa fraiseii (Carayon, 1943) and the abdominal parasite Parathelges cardonae Codreanu and Codreanu in Codreanu, 1968. Among all C. erythropus examined, Bopyrissa fraiseii was found on 0.6% of hermit crabs and P. cardonae was found on 0.3%. A redescription of P. cardonae is provided and the species is documented with light and scanning electron microscopy for the first time. No Calcinus tubularis harbored parasitic isopods, but one specimen was parasitized by an unidentified rhizocephalan barnacle of the genus Septosaccus (1.2%). The burrowing barnacle Trypetesa lampas (Hancock, 1849) was found associated with both hermit crab species and evidence of predation on host eggs by this barnacle is shown for the first time. Trypetesa lampas was found in 4.2% of the shells collected. The present study expands our knowledge of the parasite fauna of hermit crabs from the Mediterranean Sea and indicates that additional research is needed to determine the impact of trypetesid egg predators on hermit crab populations.

  14. Detecting Burrowing Owl Bloodmeals in Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae). (United States)

    Graham, Christine B; Eisen, Rebecca J; Belthoff, James R


    Pulex irritans L. is a cosmopolitan flea species that infests a wide variety of hosts. In North America it generally parasitizes large wild mammals, but in the Pacific Northwest an association has emerged between P. irritans and the western burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia hypugaea). While investigators have recognized this association for decades, it has not been clear if P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls, or if the owls serve exclusively as phoretic hosts. Here we describe using a real-time assay that was originally developed to identify bloodmeals in Ugandan cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis Bouché) to detect burrowing owl DNA in P. irritans collected from burrowing owls in southern Idaho. Of 50 fleas tested, 12 had no detectable vertebrate bloodmeal. The remaining 38 (76%) contained burrowing owl DNA. The assay did not detect vertebrate DNA in unfed fleas exposed to owl or mouse pelts and is therefore unlikely to detect DNA in fleas from vertebrates that have served exclusively as phoretic hosts. We conclude that P. irritans feeds on burrowing owls. We discuss the potential implications of this finding for burrowing owl conservation and enzootic plague dynamics.

  15. Burrowing owl survey : 1994 report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Report of burrowing owl nesting activity in the Central Region of Colorado in 1994, produced by the Colorado Division of Wildlife. There is little long term data on...

  16. Depth of artificial Burrowing Owl burrows affects thermal suitability and occupancy (United States)

    Nadeau, Christopher P.; Conway, Courtney J.; Rathbun, Nathan


    Many organizations have installed artificial burrows to help bolster local Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) populations. However, occupancy probability and reproductive success in artificial burrows varies within and among burrow installations. We evaluated the possibility that depth below ground might explain differences in occupancy probability and reproductive success by affecting the temperature of artificial burrows. We measured burrow temperatures from March to July 2010 in 27 artificial burrows in southern California that were buried 15–76 cm below the surface (measured between the surface and the top of the burrow chamber). Burrow depth was one of several characteristics that affected burrow temperature. Burrow temperature decreased by 0.03°C per cm of soil on top of the burrow. The percentage of time that artificial burrows provided a thermal refuge from above-ground temperature decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 50% and 58% among burrows. The percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for incubating females also decreased with burrow depth and ranged between 27% and 100% among burrows. However, the percentage of time that burrow temperature was optimal for unattended eggs increased with burrow depth and ranged between 11% and 95% among burrows. We found no effect of burrow depth on reproductive success across 21 nesting attempts. However, occupancy probability had a non-linear relationship with burrow depth. The shallowest burrows (15 cm) had a moderate probability of being occupied (0.46), burrows between 28 and 40 cm had the highest probability of being occupied (>0.80), and burrows >53 cm had the lowest probability of being occupied (Owls may prefer burrows at moderate depths because these burrows provide a thermal refuge from above-ground temperatures, and are often cool enough to allow females to leave eggs unattended before the onset of full-time incubation, but not too cool for incubating females that spend most of

  17. The biomechanics of burrowing and boring. (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly M


    Burrowers and borers are ecosystem engineers that alter their physical environments through bioturbation, bioirrigation and bioerosion. The mechanisms of moving through solid substrata by burrowing or boring depend on the mechanical properties of the medium and the size and morphology of the organism. For burrowing animals, mud differs mechanically from sand; in mud, sediment grains are suspended in an organic matrix that fails by fracture. Macrofauna extend burrows through this elastic mud by fracture. Sand is granular and non-cohesive, enabling grains to more easily move relative to each other, and macrofaunal burrowers use fluidization or plastic rearrangement of grains. In both sand and mud, peristaltic movements apply normal forces and reduce shear. Excavation and localized grain compaction are mechanisms that plastically deform sediments and are effective in both mud and sand, with bulk excavation being used by larger organisms and localized compaction by smaller organisms. Mechanical boring of hard substrata is an extreme form of excavation in which no compaction of burrow walls occurs and grains are abraded with rigid, hard structures. Chemical boring involves secretion to dissolve or soften generally carbonate substrata. Despite substantial differences in the mechanics of the media, similar burrowing behaviors are effective in mud and sand.

  18. Localized fluidization burrowing mechanics of Ensis directus. (United States)

    Winter, Amos G; Deits, Robin L H; Hosoi, A E


    Muscle measurements of Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam, indicate that the organism only has sufficient strength to burrow a few centimeters into the soil, yet razor clams burrow to over 70 cm. In this paper, we show that the animal uses the motions of its valves to locally fluidize the surrounding soil and reduce burrowing drag. Substrate deformations were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a novel visualization system that enabled us to see through the soil and watch E. directus burrow in situ. PIV data, supported by soil and fluid mechanics theory, show that contraction of the valves of E. directus locally fluidizes the surrounding soil. Particle and fluid mixtures can be modeled as a Newtonian fluid with an effective viscosity based on the local void fraction. Using these models, we demonstrate that E. directus is strong enough to reach full burrow depth in fluidized soil, but not in static soil. Furthermore, we show that the method of localized fluidization reduces the amount of energy required to reach burrow depth by an order of magnitude compared with penetrating static soil, and leads to a burrowing energy that scales linearly with depth rather than with depth squared.

  19. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  20. The burrowing origin of modern snakes (United States)

    Yi, Hongyu; Norell, Mark A.


    Modern snakes probably originated as habitat specialists, but it controversial unclear whether they were ancestrally terrestrial burrowers or marine swimmers. We used x-ray virtual models of the inner ear to predict the habit of Dinilysia patagonica, a stem snake closely related to the origin of modern snakes. Previous work has shown that modern snakes perceive substrate vibrations via their inner ear. Our data show that D. patagonica and modern burrowing squamates share a unique spherical vestibule in the inner ear, as compared with swimmers and habitat generalists. We built predictive models for snake habit based on their vestibular shape, which estimated D. patagonica and the hypothetical ancestor of crown snakes as burrowers with high probabilities. This study provides an extensive comparative data set to test fossoriality quantitatively in stem snakes, and it shows that burrowing was predominant in the lineages leading to modern crown snakes. PMID:26702436

  1. The burrowing origin of modern snakes. (United States)

    Yi, Hongyu; Norell, Mark A


    Modern snakes probably originated as habitat specialists, but it controversial unclear whether they were ancestrally terrestrial burrowers or marine swimmers. We used x-ray virtual models of the inner ear to predict the habit of Dinilysia patagonica, a stem snake closely related to the origin of modern snakes. Previous work has shown that modern snakes perceive substrate vibrations via their inner ear. Our data show that D. patagonica and modern burrowing squamates share a unique spherical vestibule in the inner ear, as compared with swimmers and habitat generalists. We built predictive models for snake habit based on their vestibular shape, which estimated D. patagonica and the hypothetical ancestor of crown snakes as burrowers with high probabilities. This study provides an extensive comparative data set to test fossoriality quantitatively in stem snakes, and it shows that burrowing was predominant in the lineages leading to modern crown snakes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Kumar Dubey


    Full Text Available A study on burrow architecture and burrow morphology of the red ghost crab (Ocypode macrocera was carried out at the southern proximity of the Sagar island (21°37.973' N, to E 88° 04.195', western sector of Indian Sundarbans that faces the regular tidal influences of Bay of Bengal. Ocypode macrocera constructs burrows that are highly species specific and used by single individual. Four types of burrow patterns were observed like ‘I’, ‘J’ ‘U’ and ‘semi-U’ type with different sizes as revealed by POP casting. Important physic-chemical parameters like air temperature, temperature and salinity of the water were significantly varied (P < 0.05 throughout seasons in the Ocypode zone. Burrow sand column temperature were also significantly varied from ambient air temperature thus exhibiting preference for cooler subterranean residential compartment. The digging behaviour of Ocypodes enhances oxygenation in the ground soil and facilitates decomposition of organic materials, nutrient recycling, entrapping the sediments and mangrove seedlings and helps the process of bioturbation. As per the preliminary observations it was suggested that burrow shape is directly related to tidal action and metabolic activities of the crab are strongly correlated with burrow microenvironment. They are adapted to the different sediment conditions, tidal fluctuations, varying salinity gradients, air and water temperatures and other environmental fluctuations.

  3. Biogeochemical consequences of macrofauna burrow ventilation†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furukawa Yoko


    Full Text Available The burrow walls created by macrofauna in aquatic sediments are sites of intense chemical mass transfer. Quantitative measurement of their significance is, however, difficult because chemistry in the immediate vicinity of burrow walls is temporally dynamic due to periodic ventilation of burrows by macrofauna. A temporally dynamic, 2D multicomponent diffusion-reaction model was utilized to depict the magnitude and time dependency of chemical mass transfer in the immediate vicinity of burrow walls as well as at the water/sediment interface. The simulation results illustrate that sediment particles, pore water, and microorganisms within a few millimeters of burrow walls experience significant oscillation in pH (as much as two pH units and dissolved oxygen concentration (between saturation and near anoxia whereas such oscillation is absent at the water/ sediment interface. The geochemical oscillation is expected to affect the net stability of mineral phases, activities and community structures of microorganisms, and rates and magnitudes of microbial diagenetic reactions.

  4. Burrowing Owl Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Justin W.; Lindsey, Cole T.; Nugent, John J.


    The monitoring during 2012 focused on documenting the status of known burrows. Newly identified burrows were documented while examining historical locations, during ecological resource reviews, or discovered during other monitoring efforts. The timing of the monitoring effort allowed staff to perform the surveys without disrupting any breeding or hatching, while also allowing for easy discernment of adults from juveniles, which helped in determining burrow-use type.

  5. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris. (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette


    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that was transported and deposited in L. terrestris burrows. Worms were exposed to soil surface litter treatments containing microplastics (Low Density Polyethylene) for 2 weeks at concentrations of 0%, 7%, 28%, 45% and 60%. The latter representing environmentally realistic concentrations found in hot spot soil locations. There were significantly more burrows found when soil was exposed to the surface treatment composed of 7% microplastics than in all other treatments. The highest amount of organic matter in the walls of the burrows was observed after using the treatments containing 28 and 45% microplastics. The highest microplastic bioturbation efficiency ratio (total microplastics (mg) in burrow walls/initial total surface litter microplastics (mg)) was found using the concentration of 7% microplastics, where L. terrestris introduced 73.5% of the surface microplastics into the burrow walls. The highest burrow wall microplastic content per unit weight of soil (11.8 ± 4.8 g kg-(1)) was found using a concentration of 60% microplastics. L. terrestris was responsible for size-selective downward transport when exposed to concentrations of 7, 28 and 45% microplastics in the surface litter, as the fraction ≤50 μm microplastics in burrow walls increased by 65% compared to this fraction in the original surface litter plastic. We conclude that the high biogenic incorporation rate of the small-fraction microplastics from surface litter into burrow walls causes a risk of leaching through preferential flow into groundwater bodies. Furthermore, this leaching may have implications for the subsequent availability of microplastics to terrestrial organisms or for the transport

  6. Origin of tropical American burrowing reptiles by transatlantic rafting


    Vidal, Nicolas; Azvolinsky, Anna; Cruaud, Corinne; Hedges, S Blair


    Populations of terrestrial or freshwater taxa that are separated by oceans can be explained by either oceanic dispersal or fragmentation of a previously contiguous land mass. Amphisbaenians, the worm lizards (approx. 165 species), are small squamate reptiles that are uniquely adapted to a burrowing lifestyle and inhabit Africa, South America, Caribbean Islands, North America, Europe and the Middle East. All but a few species are limbless and they rarely leave their subterranean burrows. Given...

  7. Function of Hexagenia (Mayfly) Burrows: Fluid Model Suggests Bacterial Gardening (United States)

    Traynham, B.; Furbish, D.; Miller, M.; White, D.


    Lake and stream bottoms experience an array of physical, chemical, and biological processes that create spatial variations both in the fluid column and in the sediment that provide a physical template for distinct niches. Burrowing insects are major ecological engineers of communities where they structure large areas of the benthic habitat through bioturbation and other activities including respiration, feeding, and defecation. The burrowing mayfly Hexagenia, when present in high densities, has a large impact on food-web dynamics and provides essential ecosystem services within the fluid column and benthic substrate, including sediment mixing, nutrient cycling, and ultimately, energy flow through the freshwater food web. It has long been recognized that particular benthic species are important in linking detrital energy resources to higher trophic levels and for determining how organic matter is processed in freshwater ecosystems; however, the unique contributions made by individual benthic species is largely absent from the literature. Here we present a model that describes the structure and function of a Hexagenia burrow. If testing supports this hypothesis, the model suggests that when high food concentration is available to Hexagenia, there exists a favorable tube length for harvesting bacteria that grow on the burrow walls. The burrow microhabitat created by Hexagenia serves as a case-study in understanding the influence of benthic burrowers on both energy flow through freshwater food webs and nutrient cycling.

  8. The Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics in Predicting the Tidal Flushing of Animal Burrows (United States)

    Heron, S. F.; Ridd, P. V.


    Numerical hydrodynamic modelling has been used extensively over the last few decades to simulate flow in the ocean, bays and estuaries; however, modelling of much smaller scale phenomena is less common. In this work a commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics package (FIDAP), normally used for industrial applications, was used to simulate tidally-induced flow in multi-opening animal burrows. U-shaped burrows of varying complexities were modelled to determine the effect of different surface characteristics and burrow geometries on surface water velocities, burrow velocities and burrow flushing times. The turbulent 2D model showed the slope of the surface water was proportional to the square of both the surface and burrow velocities. The effect of placing a root in the surface flow was to reduce the surface water velocity; however, the burrow flow depended upon the root position. For the root location either upstream or downstream of the burrow, the burrow velocity was reduced by 50%. With the root located between the burrow openings the burrow velocity increased by 200%, due to the increase in pressure difference across the burrow openings. A buttress root placed in the flow immediately downstream of the upstream burrow, caused the burrow flushing rate to increase significantly with increasing buttress height. Flushing times for burrows of varying depth were determined computationally by use of a tracer for the burrow water. For a burrow of depth 1·2 m, the flushing times were 5 and 28 min for root location between the burrow openings and downstream of the burrow, respectively. Animal burrows often consist of multiply-connected loops. A second burrow was added to the primary burrow and flushing times were found to be 15 and 38 min, respectively. A burrow system of four connected burrows was modelled which had corresponding flushing times up to 24 and 47 min, respectively. The calculated times are consistent with the hypothesis that a significant flushing

  9. Burrowing criteria and burrowing mode adjustment in bivalves to varying geoenvironmental conditions in intertidal flats and beaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sassa

    Full Text Available The response of bivalves to their abiotic environment has been widely studied in relation to hydroenvironmental conditions, sediment types and sediment grain sizes. However, the possible role of varying geoenvironmental conditions in their habitats remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the hardness of the surficial intertidal sediments varies by a factor of 20-50 due to suction development and suction-induced void state changes in the essentially saturated states of intertidal flats and beaches. We investigated the response of two species of bivalves, Ruditapes philippinarum and Donax semigranosus, in the laboratory by simulating such prevailing geoenvironmental conditions in the field. The experimental results demonstrate that the bivalve responses depended strongly on the varying geoenvironmental conditions. Notably, both bivalves consistently shifted their burrowing modes, reducing the burrowing angle and burial depth, in response to increasing hardness, to compensate for the excessive energy required for burrowing, as explained by a proposed conceptual model. This burrowing mode adjustment was accompanied by two burrowing criteria below or above which the bivalves accomplished vertical burrowing or failed to burrow, respectively. The suitable and fatal conditions differed markedly with species and shell lengths. The acute sensitivities of the observed bivalve responses to geoenvironmental changes revealed two distinctive mechanisms accounting for the adult-juvenile spatial distributions of Ruditapes philippinarum and the behavioral adaptation to a rapidly changing geoenvironment of Donax semigranosus. The present results may provide a rational basis by which to understand the ensuing, and to predict future, bivalve responses to geoenvironmental changes in intertidal zones.

  10. Use of Artificial Burrows by Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) at the HAMMER Facility on the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Amanda K.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Duberstein, Corey A.


    In 2003 the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) constructed an Emergency Vehicle Operations Course (EVOC) at the Hazardous Material Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) in the southern portion of the Hanford Site. Preliminary surveys during 2001 identified an active burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) burrow and three burrowing owls within the proposed development area. Burrowing owls were classified as a federal species of concern, a Washington State ?candidate? species, a Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife priority species, and a Hanford Site Biological Resources Management Plan Level III resource. Therefore, the mitigation action plan for the project included the installation of twenty artificial burrows around EVOC in the spring of 2003. The mitigation plan established a success criterion of five percent annual use of the burrows by owls. In July 2005, a field survey of the EVOC burrow complex was conducted to determine use and demography at each site. Burrow locations were mapped and signs of activity (feces, owl tracks, castings, feathers) were recorded. Out of the twenty burrows, twelve were found to be active. Of the eight inactive burrows three appeared to have been active earlier in the 2005 breeding season. A total of nineteen owls were counted but demography could not be determined. It appears that the EVOC mitigation exceeded burrow use goals during 2005. Continued site monitoring and maintenance, according to mitigation plan guidelines should be conducted as prescribed.

  11. Plant cover effect on Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus Legler 1959, Testudinidae burrow use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Becerra-López


    Full Text Available The Bolson tortoise, Gopherus flavomarginatus, occurs within a restricted geographical area in the Mexican Chihuahuan Desert. We analyzed the variation in surface microhabitat with relation to the burrow occupancy for this tortoise at the Mapimí Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. In summer 2010, we monitored burrow activity (active, inactive, or abandoned and measured environmental factors that might influence the burrow’s occupancy by tortoises (air temperature, relative humidity and substrate temperature, both inside and outside the burrow, and the plant cover around it. Discriminant analysis was used to identify the importance of these variables influencing burrow occupancy. Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to quantify the relation between environmental factors in the sampled burrows. Results. Sixty-one burrows were identified at the Tortugas locality. The first function’s auto-value analysis indicates that this function explains 97.9% of the variation in burrow activity status; high occupancy scores were associated with low substrate temperature inside the burrow. Plant cover was inversely proportional to substrate temperature inside the burrow. These results suggest the importance the density of plants surrounding the tortoise’s burrow as a key factor influencing the burrow microclimate and occupancy by the tortoises. Conclusions. Gopherus flavomarginatus inhabits burrows, in part, based on microhabitat structure, with plant cover being a main factor influencing burrow occupancy. Our findings indicate that human land use and vegetation management are important for conserving Bolson tortoises, and for understanding habitat conditions necessary for the successful establishment of populations elsewhere.

  12. Mechanics and kinematics of backward burrowing by the polychaete Cirriformia moorei. (United States)

    Che, James; Dorgan, Kelly M


    The polychaete Cirriformia moorei burrows in muddy sediments by fracture, using its hydrostatic skeleton to expand its anterior region and exert force against its burrow wall to extend a crack. Burrowing occurs in four phases: stretching forward into the burrow, extending the crack anteriorly, thickening the burrowing end to amplify stress at the tip of the crack, and bringing the rest of the body forward as a peristaltic wave travels posteriorly. Here, we show that C. moorei is also able to burrow with its posterior end using a similar mechanism of crack propagation and exhibiting the same four phases of burrowing. Worms burrowed backwards with similar speeds and stress intensity factors as forward burrowing, but were thinner and less blunt and did not slip as far away from the crack tip between cycles of burrowing. The anterior end is more muscular and rigid, and differences in body shapes are consistent with having reduce musculature to dilate the posterior segments while burrowing. Backward burrowing provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of morphology on burrowing mechanics within the same species under identical conditions.

  13. Artificial and Modified Burrows Establishment for the Atlantic Puffin on Petit Manan Island, Maine (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An attempt to establish a breeding population of Atlantic puffin colony using artificial and modified burrows on Petit Manan Island resulted in 3 of 17 burrows being...

  14. Oxygen penetration around burrows and roots in aquatic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meysman, Filip J.R.; Galaktionov, O.S.; Glud, Ronnie N.


    Diffusion is the dominant physical mechanism for the transfer of oxygen into fine-grained aquatic sediments. This diffusive uptake occurs at the sediment-water interface, but also at internal interfaces, such as along ventilated burrows or O2 releasing plant roots. Here, we present a systematic...

  15. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.


    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that

  16. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys (United States)

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.


    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  17. No sign of decreased burrowing behavior in the genetically depressive flinders rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, C. S.; Wegener, Gregers; Finnerup, N. B.


    Background: Burrowing is a natural behavior in rats and has been observed in several different strains. Furthermore decreased burrowing behavior has been shown in different rodent disease models like Multiple sclerosis, peripheral nerve injury and knee inflammation when compared with control...... of each drug. Results: The genetically depressive FSL rats did not burrow less than FRL control rats. Treatment with imipramin or citalopram-S did not change the burrowing behavior of the FSL rats. In contrast treatment with imipramin and citalopram-S unexpectedly decreased the burrowing behavior...

  18. Seasonal changes in burrow geometry of the common mole rat (Rodentia: Bathyergidae) (United States)

    Thomas, H. G.; Scantlebury, M.; Swanepoel, D.; Bateman, P. W.; Bennett, N. C.


    Sociality in mole rats has been suggested to have evolved as a response to the widely dispersed food resources and the limited burrowing opportunities that result from sporadic rainfall events. In the most arid regions, individual foraging efficiency is reduced, and energetic constraints increase. In this study, we investigate seasonal differences in burrow architecture of the social Cryptomys hottentotus hottentotus in a mesic region. We describe burrow geometry in response to seasonal weather conditions for two seasons (wet and dry). Interactions occurred between seasons and colony size for the size of the burrow systems, but not the shape of the burrow systems. The fractal dimension values of the burrow systems did not differ between seasons. Thus, the burrow complexity was dependent upon the number of mole rats present in the social group.

  19. Does petroleum development affect burrowing owl nocturnal space-use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobie, Corey; Wellicome, Troy; Bayne, Erin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta (Canada)], email:, email:, email:


    Decline all over Canada in the population of burrowing owls, a federally listed endangered species, has raised concerns about the possible influence of petroleum infrastructure development on owl nocturnal space-use while foraging. Roads, wells, pipelines and sound-producing facilities related to petroleum development change the landscape and can influence the owls' mortality risk. For 3 years, 27 breeding adult male burrowing owls with nests close to different petroleum infrastructures were captured and fitted with a miniature GPS datalogger in order to track their nocturnal foraging. Data from these GPS devices were fed into a geographical information system and showed that pipelines and wells did not alter the foraging habits of the owls. Dirt and gravel roads, with little traffic, were preferentially selected by the owls, conceivably because of higher owl mortality risk along paved roads. Sound-producing facilities did not change owls' foraging behaviour, implying that sound may not affect their nocturnal space-use. Traffic data and sound power measurements will be used in further studies in an effort to better understand burrowing owls' nocturnal foraging habits.

  20. Origin of tropical American burrowing reptiles by transatlantic rafting. (United States)

    Vidal, Nicolas; Azvolinsky, Anna; Cruaud, Corinne; Hedges, S Blair


    Populations of terrestrial or freshwater taxa that are separated by oceans can be explained by either oceanic dispersal or fragmentation of a previously contiguous land mass. Amphisbaenians, the worm lizards (approx. 165 species), are small squamate reptiles that are uniquely adapted to a burrowing lifestyle and inhabit Africa, South America, Caribbean Islands, North America, Europe and the Middle East. All but a few species are limbless and they rarely leave their subterranean burrows. Given their peculiar habits, the distribution of amphisbaenians has been assumed to be primarily the result of two land-mass fragmentation events: the split of the supercontinent Pangaea starting 200 Myr ago, separating species on the northern land mass (Laurasia) from those on the southern land mass (Gondwana), and the split of South America from Africa 100 Myr ago. Here we show with molecular evidence that oceanic dispersal-on floating islands-played a more prominent role, and that amphisbaenians crossed the Atlantic Ocean in the Eocene (40 Myr ago) resulting in a tropical American radiation representing one-half of all known amphisbaenian species. Until now, only four or five transatlantic dispersal events were known in terrestrial vertebrates. Significantly, this is the first such dispersal event to involve a group that burrows, an unexpected lifestyle for an oceanic disperser.

  1. Rodent burrows in late Pleistocene paleosols at Korean Palaeolithic sites and their implications for paleoclimate changes (United States)

    Lim, H.; Park, S.; Lee, J.; Lee, Y.


    Rodent burrows are commonly found at many Paleolithic archaeological sites in Korea. They are nearly straight in horizontal view and gently inclined in lateral view. Burrow diameters are mostly 7 - 10cm, and burrow length may reach a few meters. Vertical penetration depths are generally about 1 m from the surface, and the thickness of the burrow-bearing layer is about 1-2 m. Although no remains (bones, teeth, claws, and coprolites) were found within burrows, they are interpreted to have been produced by rodent-like mammals (probably ground squirrels) based on the size and architecture. According to the previous study, the age of these burrows was constrained to be between ca. 40,000 and 25,000 yr BP by tephrochronology, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating results (Lim et al., 2007). However, little is known about the reason why these burrows have disappeared after late Pleistocene time. For this question, two explanations can be considered: extinction or migration. Since same kinds of burrows are still found in the high-latitude regions, such as Mongolia and North America, the possibility of extinction can be ruled out. Therefore, migration seems to be the most likely explanation. Our results show that the destruction of habitat caused by climate change during this period is the main reason for the northward migration of burrowing animals. This study suggests that rodent burrows found in the late Pleistocene paleosols can provide useful information on paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental changes.

  2. Determination of the burrow shapes of Cardisoma guanhumi on Vieques, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Sample


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the burrow morphology of Cardisoma guanhumi and to determine if a battery-powered fiber optic camera could be used to investigate these burrows. Methods: A portable fiber optic camera was used to investigate 116 active burrows. All burrows were categorized according to shape. The diameter of each burrow was also recorded and biomass calculations were completed at each study site. Results: Analysis showed that different study sites were more likely to have particular burrow shapes than expected. Three main types of burrows were classified as horizontal slide, short and shallow, and inverted-S. A Pearson Chi-square analysis revealed that burrow shape was not equally distributed across study sites (χ2 = 61.05, df = 18, P < 0.000 1. Biomass calculations showed that different sized animals inhabited different study sites (ANOVA; df = 7, MS = 158.3, F = 13.9, P < 0.000 1. The fiber optic camera was useful in determining burrow morphology and occupancy non-destructively. Conclusions: As the locations of juvenile individuals of this species are poorly known, and the species is both ecologically and economically important where it occurs, a greater understanding of burrow morphology and size segregation may help agencies be responsible for managing this natural resource to do so effectively.

  3. Variation of Sediment Properties among the Radial Profiles of Fiddler Crab Burrows in Mangrove Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mokhtari


    Full Text Available Fiddler crabs burrow creates oxic-anoxic interfaces on the burrow walls. Accordingly burrow walls represent the transitions site between oxic and anoxic condition where the sediment properties varied significantly across it. In this study the burrows of three species of fiddler crabs including Uca rosea, Uca forcipata and Uca pardussumieri were sampled at three depth layers. Sediment properties of burrow walls including; temperature, redox potential, pH, density, porosity, water content, organic content, chlorophyll content and solid phase iron pools were measured to determine the magnitude of burrow effects on mangrove sediments. The results indicated that U. paradussumieri effectively reduced the sediment porosity of surrounding sediments down to 45%. Oxidized layer was more extended around U. paradussumieri burrows. Burrow walls of U. forcipata and U. paradussumieri contain higher water content than ambient sediment and burrows of U. rosea efficiently decreased the organic content of sediment. The PCA biplots indicated that the burrow walls of the all three species of fiddler crabs at 3 and 8 cm depth were correlated with oxidized iron. Ambient sediments of U. forcipata habitat were correlated with reduced iron and organic content. At 20 cm depth, burrow walls of U. paradussumieri were highly correlated with water content, while ambient sediment was correlated with reduced iron. The results of this study revealed that the thickness of oxidized layer varied according to sediment depth and burrow volume. Consequently the burrow effect varied significantly among different species of fiddler crabs as results of different habitat characteristics, sediment types and crab size.

  4. Burrow casts from the Lystrosaurus-Procolophon Assemblage-zone, Karoo Sequence, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Groenewald


    Full Text Available Five types of burrow casts from the Lystrosaurus- Procolophon Assemblage-zone (Palingkloof Member and Katberg Formation, Triassic, Karoo sequence. South Africa are associated with casts of desiccation cracks and red mudstone. Vertebrate remains of Lystrosaurus sp. and Procolophon sp. indicate that these animals probably made the burrows during the Triassic. It is possible that burrowing was an adaptive advantage during periods of severe and unfavourable climatic conditions. Similar burrow casts were found in the Dicynodon-Theriognathus Assemblage-zone, suggesting a burrowing habit for fauna represented in this zone. In structure, the burrow casts resemble those of Scoyenia, Thalassinoides, Histioderma, Gyrolithes and Planolites reported from Germany, France, Asia, Ireland, Spain and the United States of America.

  5. Water pumping and analysis of flow in burrowing zoobenthos - a short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel


    Burrowing animals maintain contact with the water above the sediment by pumping water through a tube system and therefore measurements of water pumping rate of burrowing animals is of crucial importance for the study of many processes both within and above the sea floor. This review deals...... with the measuring of water pumping and the analysis of flow generated by burrowing deposit- and filter-feeding zoobenthos in order to determine the type of pump and mechanisms involved, flow rate, pump pressure, and pumping power. The practical use of fluid mechanical principles is examined, and it is stressed...... that not only the pump pressure that a burrowing animal can apply is of interest for assessing the energy cost of pumping, but also the distribution of excess pressure along its burrow is of importance for assessing the seepage flow of oxygen-rich water into the sediment surrounding the burrow because...

  6. Burrowing by Sailfin Catfish (Pterygoplichthys sp.): A Potential Cause of Erosion in Disturbed Environments (United States)


    great variation in burrow densities, both within habitats and among different habitats. Burrow density is highly correlated to the amount of silt in...which may have constrained variation in fish abundance. Lastly, sailfin catfish may be predisposed to burrow in areas already prone to moderate...Size structure, reproductive phenology , and sex ratio of an exotic armored catfish (liposarcus multiradiatus) in the Kaoping River of southern

  7. Determinants of between-year burrow re-occupation in a colony of the European bee-eater Merops apiaster. (United States)

    Brust, Vera; Bastian, Hans-Valentin; Bastian, Anita; Schmoll, Tim


    Re-occupation of existing nesting burrows in the European bee-eater Merops apiaster has only rarely - and if so mostly anecdotically - been documented in the literature record, although such behavior would substantially save time and energy. In this study, we quantify burrow re-occupation in a German colony over a period of eleven years and identify ecological variables determining reuse probability. Of 179 recorded broods, 54% took place in a reused burrow and the overall probability that one of 75 individually recognized burrows would be reused in a given subsequent year was estimated as 26.4%. This indicates that between-year burrow reuse is a common behavior in the study colony which contrasts with findings from studies in other colonies. Furthermore, burrow re-occupation probability declined highly significantly with increasing age of the breeding wall. Statistical separation of within- and between-burrow effects of the age of the breeding wall revealed that a decline in re-occupation probability with individual burrow age was responsible for this and not a selective disappearance of burrows with high re-occupation probability over time. Limited duty cycles of individual burrows may be caused by accumulating detritus or decreasing stability with increasing burrow age. Alternatively, burrow fidelity may presuppose pair fidelity which may also explain the observed restricted burrow reuse duty cycles. A consequent next step would be to extend our within-colony approach to other colonies and compare the ecological circumstances under which bee-eaters reuse breeding burrows.

  8. Determination of the burrow shapes of Cardisoma guanhumi on Vieques, Puerto Rico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shannon Sample; MarcAlbrecht


    Objective: To determine the burrow morphology of Cardisoma guanhumi and to determine if a battery-powered fiber optic camera could be used to investigate these burrows. Methods: A portable fiber optic camera was used to investigate 116 active burrows. All burrows were categorized according to shape. The diameter of each burrow was also recorded and biomass calculations were completed at each study site. Results: Analysis showed that different study sites were more likely to have particular burrow shapes than expected. Three main types of burrows were classified as horizontal slide, short and shallow, and inverted-S. A Pearson Chi-square analysis revealed that burrow shape was not equally distributed across study sites (χ2 = 61.05, df = 18, P Conclusions: As the locations of juvenile individuals of this species are poorly known, and the species is both ecologically and economically important where it occurs, a greater understanding of burrow morphology and size segregation may help agencies be responsible for managing this natural resource to do so effectively.

  9. Burrow ventilation and associated porewater irrigation by the polychaete Marenzelleria viridis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Cintia Organo; Hansen, Tanja; Delefosse, Matthieu;


    Burrow ventilation of benthic infauna generates water currents that irrigate the interstices of the sediments surrounding the burrow walls. Such activities have associated effects on biogeochemical processes affecting ultimately important ecosystem processes. In this study, the ventilation and ir...

  10. The vibrational signals that male fiddler crabs ( Uca lactea) use to attract females into their burrows (United States)

    Takeshita, Fumio; Murai, Minoru


    In some fiddler crab species, males emit vibrations from their burrows to mate-searching females after they have attracted a female to the burrow entrance using a waving display. Although the vibrations are considered acoustic signals to induce mating, it has not been demonstrated whether the vibrations attract the females into the burrow and, consequently, influence females' mating decisions. We investigated the structures and patterns of the vibrations using a dummy female and demonstrated experimentally a female preference for male vibrations in Uca lactea in the field. The acoustic signals consisted of repetitions of pulses. The dominant frequency of the pulses decreased with male carapace width. The pulse length decreased slightly with an increasing number of vibrational repetitions, and the pulse interval increased with increasing repetitions. These factors imply that the vibrations convey information on male characteristics, such as body size and stamina. In the experiment on female mate choice, the females significantly preferred males with higher pulse repetition rates when they were positioned at the entrance of the burrow, indicating that the females use the male vibrational signals to decide whether to enter the burrow. However, females showed no preference for the vibrations once they were inside a burrow, i.e., whether they decided to copulate, suggesting that the vibrations do not independently affect a female's final decision of mate choice. The vibrations inside the burrow might influence a female's decision by interaction with other male traits such as the burrow structure.

  11. Development of earthworm burrow systems and the influence of earthworms on soil hydrology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, T.N.


    Inoculation of earthworms can help to restore or ameliorate land qualities. Earthworms create burrows and alter the structure of the soil matrix, which influence the water infiltration, drainage, water retention and the aeration of the soil. The way and rate of the development of earthworm burrow sy

  12. Irrigation patterns in permeable sediments induced by burrow ventilation: a case study of Arenicola marina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Galaktionov, O.; Middelburg, J.J.


    In sandy sediments, a strong connection exists between the physics of flow and the ecology of burrow-ventilating macrofauna. We developed a general modelling procedure that quantifies this link involving 3 steps. (1) Burrow-ventilating organisms can be described as mechanical pumps. (2) The pumping

  13. Water pumping and analysis of flow in burrowing zoobenthos - a short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Larsen, Poul Scheel


    Measurement of water pumping rates of burrowing animals is of crucial importance for the study of many processes both within and above the sea floor. This short review deals with water pumping and analysis of flow, including available techniques and bio-fluid mechanical theory, in burrowing deposit...

  14. River bank burrowing by invasive crayfish: Spatial distribution, biophysical controls and biogeomorphic significance. (United States)

    Faller, Matej; Harvey, Gemma L; Henshaw, Alexander J; Bertoldi, Walter; Bruno, Maria Cristina; England, Judy


    Invasive species generate significant global environmental and economic costs and represent a particularly potent threat to freshwater systems. The biogeomorphic impacts of invasive aquatic and riparian species on river processes and landforms remain largely unquantified, but have the potential to generate significant sediment management issues within invaded catchments. Several species of invasive (non-native) crayfish are known to burrow into river banks and visual evidence of river bank damage is generating public concern and media attention. Despite this, there is a paucity of understanding of burrow distribution, biophysical controls and the potential significance of this problem beyond a small number of local studies at heavily impacted sites. This paper presents the first multi-catchment analysis of this phenomenon, combining existing data on biophysical river properties and invasive crayfish observations with purpose-designed field surveys across 103 river reaches to derive key trends. Crayfish burrows were observed on the majority of reaches, but burrowing tended to be patchy in spatial distribution, concentrated in a small proportion (<10%) of the length of rivers surveyed. Burrow distribution was better explained by local bank biophysical properties than by reach-scale properties, and burrowed banks were more likely to be characterised by cohesive bank material, steeper bank profiles with large areas of bare bank face, often on outer bend locations. Burrow excavation alone has delivered a considerable amount of sediment to invaded river systems in the surveyed sites (3tkm(-1) impacted bank) and this represents a minimum contribution and certainly an underestimate of the absolute yield (submerged burrows were not recorded). Furthermore, burrowing was associated with bank profiles that were either actively eroding or exposed to fluvial action and/or mass failure processes, providing the first quantitative evidence that invasive crayfish may cause or

  15. Spilled oil and infaunal activity - Modification of burrowing behavior and redistribution of oil (United States)

    Clifton, H.E.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Rapp, J.B.


    A series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, indicates the degree to which the presence of spilled oil modifies the burrowing behavior of infauna and the extent to which the animals redistribute oil into intertidal sediment. Small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings (mostly made by the crustacean Callianassa) resulted in a limited and temporary reduction in the number of burrow openings. In contrast, a layer of oil-saturated sand 1 cm thick buried about 5 cm below the sediment surface sharply reduced the number of burrow openings. After a year, the few new burrows penetrated only the margins of the experimental plot, and bioturbation below the buried oil-saturated sand layer declined dramatically. The experiments suggest that small amounts of oil temporarily stranded by tides in themselves have no long-range effect on burrowing behavior. The fauna, however, are capable of introducing measurable amounts of oil into the subsurface, where it is retained long after the rest of the stranded oil had washed away. A buried layer of oil-saturated sand greatly reduces infaunal activity; the oil presents an effective barrier that can persist for years. The oil incorporated into the sediment from burrow openings showed evidence of degradation after 7 months. In contrast the layer of buried oil remained essentially undergraded after a period of two years, even though oil in lower concentrations above the layer was degraded after a period of one year. This variation in degree of degradation of the buried oil, as well as the heterogeneity of oil distribution wherever the oil has been incorporated from the surface, emphasises the importance of careful sampling in any attempt to locate or monitor the presence of spilled oil in the substrate.In a series of experiments in Willapa Bay, Washington, small amounts of North Slope crude oil introduced at low tide directly into burrow openings resulted in a limited and temporary

  16. Self-burrowing seeds: drag reduction in granular media (United States)

    Jung, Wonjong; Choi, Sung Mok; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young


    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of drag reduction of self-burrowing seeds in granular media. In response to environmental changes in humidity, the awn (a tail-like appendage of seed) of Pelargonium carnosum exhibits coiling-uncoiling deformation which induces the thrust and rotary motions of the head of the seed against the surface of the soil. Using various sizes of glass beads that mimic the granular soil, we measure the thrust forces required for the seed of Pelargonium carnosum to penetrate into granular media with and without rotation. Our quantitative measurements show that the rotation of the seed remarkably reduces the granular drag as compared to the drag against the non-spinning seed. This leads us to conclude that the hygroscopically active awns of Pelargonium carnosum enables its seed to dig into the relatively coarse granular soils.

  17. On Bijective Variants of the Burrows-Wheeler Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Kufleitner, Manfred


    The sort transform (ST) is a modification of the Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT). Both transformations map an arbitrary word of length n to a pair consisting of a word of length n and an index between 1 and n. The BWT sorts all rotation conjugates of the input word, whereas the ST of order k only uses the first k letters for sorting all such conjugates. If two conjugates start with the same prefix of length k, then the indices of the rotations are used for tie-breaking. Both transforms output the sequence of the last letters of the sorted list and the index of the input within the sorted list. In this paper, we discuss a bijective variant of the BWT (due to Scott), proving its correctness and relations to other results due to Gessel and Reutenauer (1993) and Crochemore, Desarmenien, and Perrin (2005). Further, we present a novel bijective variant of the ST.

  18. An assessment of Hyalella azteca burrowing activity under laboratory sediment toxicity testing conditions. (United States)

    Doig, Lorne E; Liber, Karsten


    Burrowing of the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca was evaluated under laboratory conditions similar to those recommended for standard sediment toxicity testing in Canada (EPS 1/RM/33; Environment Canada, 1997) and the United States (EPA/600/R-99/064; US EPA, 2000). Sediment type, time of day (light versus dark), size of animal, and the presence or absence of food were varied to assess their effects on burrowing activity. Hyalella azteca were found to burrow rapidly in fine, organic-rich sediments, but were slower to burrow in a sandy sediment. There was no increase in the number of animals occupying the sediment surface of a fine, organic-rich sediment after 4h of darkness compared to the previous 4h of light. Over a 9- to 10-d duration, a higher percentage of animals occupied the surface of the sandy sediment. The addition of food promoted burrowing in sandy sediment, as did using smaller animals. Overall, longer-duration tests involving older animals and coarse sediments may require formal observation to confirm burrowing and ensure adequate sediment exposure. The addition of food during a test may promote the burrowing of larger animals in coarse sediments, but may not be necessary in field-collected sediments that are not excessively sandy.

  19. Spatial and social organization in a burrow-dwelling lizard (Phrynocephalus vlangalii) from China. (United States)

    Qi, Yin; Noble, Daniel W A; Fu, Jinzhong; Whiting, Martin J


    Shared ecological resources such as burrow complexes can set the stage for social groupings and the evolution of more complex social behavior such as parental care. Paternity testing is increasingly revealing cases of kin-based groupings, and lizards may be a good system to inform on the early evolution of sociality. We examined spatial and social organization in the lizard Phrynocephalus vlangalii from China and tested genetic relatedness (based on eight microsatellite DNA loci) between offspring and parents that shared burrow complexes. Adult males and females had similar spatial patterns: they overlapped most with members of the opposite sex and least with their own sex. Males in better body condition overlapped with more females, and both sexes showed high site fidelity. Most lizards used a single burrow, but some individuals used two or three burrows. While high site fidelity is consistent with sociality in lizards, juveniles did not preferentially share burrows with parents, and we documented only a few cases of parent-offspring associations through burrow sharing. We suggest that P. vlangalii conforms to a classical polygynous mating system in which the burrow forms the core of the male's territory and may be offered as an important resource for females, but this remains to be determined.

  20. Large-diameter burrows of the Triassic Ischigualasto Basin, NW Argentina: paleoecological and paleoenvironmental implications.

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    Carina E Colombi

    Full Text Available Large-diameter ichnofossils comprising three morphotypes have been identified in the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto and Los Colorados formations of northwestern Argentina. These burrows add to the global record of the early appearance of fossorial behavior during early Mesozoic time. Morphotypes 1 and 2 are characterized by a network of tunnels and shafts that can be assigned to tetrapod burrows given similarities with previously described forms. However, differences in diameter, overall morphology, and stratigraphic occurrence allow their independent classification. Morphotype 3 forms a complex network of straight branches that intersect at oblique angles. Their calcareous composition and surface morphology indicate these structures have a composite biogenic origin likely developed due to combined plant/animal interactions. The association of Morphotypes 1 and 2 with fluvial overbank lithologies deposited under an extremely seasonal arid climate confirms interpretations that the early appearance of burrowing behavior was employed by vertebrates in response to both temperature and moisture-stress associated with seasonally or perpetually dry Pangean paleoclimates. Comparisons of burrow morphology and biomechanical attributes of the abundant paleovertebrate fauna preserved in both formations permit interpretations regarding the possible burrow architects for Morphotypes 1 and 2. In the case of the Morphotype 1, the burrow constructor could be one of the small carnivorous cynodonts, Ecteninion or Probelesodon. Assigning an architect for Morphotype 2 is more problematic due to mismatches between the observed burrow morphology and the size of the known Los Colorados vertebrates.

  1. Spatial and social organization in a burrow-dwelling lizard (Phrynocephalus vlangalii from China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Qi

    Full Text Available Shared ecological resources such as burrow complexes can set the stage for social groupings and the evolution of more complex social behavior such as parental care. Paternity testing is increasingly revealing cases of kin-based groupings, and lizards may be a good system to inform on the early evolution of sociality. We examined spatial and social organization in the lizard Phrynocephalus vlangalii from China and tested genetic relatedness (based on eight microsatellite DNA loci between offspring and parents that shared burrow complexes. Adult males and females had similar spatial patterns: they overlapped most with members of the opposite sex and least with their own sex. Males in better body condition overlapped with more females, and both sexes showed high site fidelity. Most lizards used a single burrow, but some individuals used two or three burrows. While high site fidelity is consistent with sociality in lizards, juveniles did not preferentially share burrows with parents, and we documented only a few cases of parent-offspring associations through burrow sharing. We suggest that P. vlangalii conforms to a classical polygynous mating system in which the burrow forms the core of the male's territory and may be offered as an important resource for females, but this remains to be determined.

  2. Synchrotron Reveals Early Triassic Odd Couple: Injured Amphibian and Aestivating Therapsid Share Burrow.

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    Vincent Fernandez

    Full Text Available Fossorialism is a beneficial adaptation for brooding, predator avoidance and protection from extreme climate. The abundance of fossilised burrow casts from the Early Triassic of southern Africa is viewed as a behavioural response by many tetrapods to the harsh conditions following the Permo-Triassic mass-extinction event. However, scarcity of vertebrate remains associated with these burrows leaves many ecological questions unanswered. Synchrotron scanning of a lithified burrow cast from the Early Triassic of the Karoo unveiled a unique mixed-species association: an injured temnospondyl amphibian (Broomistega that sheltered in a burrow occupied by an aestivating therapsid (Thrinaxodon. The discovery of this rare rhinesuchid represents the first occurrence in the fossil record of a temnospondyl in a burrow. The amphibian skeleton shows signs of a crushing trauma with partially healed fractures on several consecutive ribs. The presence of a relatively large intruder in what is interpreted to be a Thrinaxodon burrow implies that the therapsid tolerated the amphibian's presence. Among possible explanations for such unlikely cohabitation, Thrinaxodon aestivation is most plausible, an interpretation supported by the numerous Thrinaxodon specimens fossilised in curled-up postures. Recent advances in synchrotron imaging have enabled visualization of the contents of burrow casts, thus providing a novel tool to elucidate not only anatomy but also ecology and biology of ancient tetrapods.

  3. Chemically mediated burrow recognition in the Mexican tarantula Brachypelma vagans female (United States)

    Dor, Ariane; Machkour-M'rabet, Salima; Legal, Luc; Williams, Trevor; Hénaut, Yann


    Chemically mediated communication is common in spiders but has been poorly studied in burrowing tarantulas. This study aimed to determine whether chemical cues influence the behaviour of females of Brachypelma vagans, a Mexican species of tarantula, during encounters with previously inhabited burrows or with extracts from the silk of conspecific females. In laboratory choice tests, female tarantulas entered a burrow that had previously been inhabited by a conspecific female significantly more frequently than a burrow that had never been inhabited. The identity of the previous inhabitant also affected the number of spiders that chose to enter a burrow. Spiders were quicker to choose and enter a burrow previously inhabited by themselves than a burrow previously inhabited by a conspecific or a burrow that had not been previously inhabited. Hexane, methanol and dichloromethane extracts of conspecific silk elicited different responses from female tarantulas when extracts were placed on filter paper disks at one end of an experimental arena with a control filter paper disk, on to which the corresponding solvent alone had been pipetted, placed on the other end of the arena. Spiders showed the strongest responses to hexane extracts of silk, with a significant preference to move towards the hexane extract and a significantly greater period of time spent in proximity to the hexane extract compared to the control disk. Overall and in contrast to expectations, tarantulas were most strongly attracted to the cues left by other conspecific females. As encounters between B. vagans females usually lead to aggression and mortality of one of the participants, we conclude that chemical cues are not signals that are deliberately released by burrow-inhabiting females but may inadvertently escape and cannot be easily suppressed.

  4. Similar burrow architecture of three arid-zone scorpion species implies similar ecological function (United States)

    Adams, Amanda M.; Marais, Eugene; Turner, J. Scott; Prendini, Lorenzo; Pinshow, Berry


    Many animals reside in burrows that may serve as refuges from predators and adverse environmental conditions. Burrow design varies widely among and within taxa, and these structures are adaptive, fulfilling physiological (and other) functions. We examined the burrow architecture of three scorpion species of the family Scorpionidae: Scorpio palmatus from the Negev desert, Israel; Opistophthalmus setifrons, from the Central Highlands, Namibia; and Opistophthalmus wahlbergii from the Kalahari desert, Namibia. We hypothesized that burrow structure maintains temperature and soil moisture conditions optimal for the behavior and physiology of the scorpion. Casts of burrows, poured in situ with molten aluminum, were scanned in 3D to quantify burrow structure. Three architectural features were common to the burrows of all species: (1) a horizontal platform near the ground surface, long enough to accommodate the scorpion, located just below the entrance, 2-5 cm under the surface, which may provide a safe place where the scorpion can monitor the presence of potential prey, predators, and mates and where the scorpion warms up before foraging; (2) at least two bends that might deter incursion by predators and may reduce convective ventilation, thereby maintaining relatively high humidity and low temperature; and (3) an enlarged terminal chamber to a depth at which temperatures are almost constant (±2-4 °C). These common features among the burrows of three different species suggest that they are important for regulating the physical environment of their inhabitants and that burrows are part of scorpions' "extended physiology" ( sensu Turner, Physiol Biochem Zool 74:798-822, 2000).

  5. Behavioural adaptations to moisture as an environmental constraint in a nocturnal burrow-inhabiting Kalahari detritivore Parastizopus armaticeps Peringuey (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    O.A.E. Rasa


    Full Text Available The nocturnal desert detritivore Parastiz.opus armaticeps shows differences in surface activity patterns and burrow fidelity depending on surface humidity. After rain approximately half of the beetle population, independent of sex, is highly vagile and disperses over long distances. During drought, beetles are more sedentary and show higher burrow fidelity. They also inhabit burrows that are longer and deeper than non-inhabited ones, such burrows being relatively scarce. Burrow fidelity and the adoption of a more sedentary habit during drought are considered strategies to avoid the risks of not locating a suitable burrow before sunrise and subsequent desiccation in shallow burrows.

  6. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Conservation Elements - Terrestrial Species: Burrowing Owl (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential current distribution of burrowing owl, in the context of current and near-term terrestrial intactness and long-term potential for...

  7. Crab burrows as conduits for groundwater-surface water exchange in Bangladesh (United States)

    Stahl, Mason O.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, Darren C. J.; Badruzzaman, A. B. M.; Harvey, Charles F.


    Groundwater recharge affects water budgets and groundwater quality on the deltas and floodplains of South and Southeast Asia. Rain and flooding rivers recharge groundwater during the monsoon; irrigated rice fields and surface water bodies recharge aquifers during the dry season. Groundwater throughout the region is severely contaminated by arsenic, and recent research suggests that quantifying and characterizing recharge is important to understand whether recharge flushes or mobilizes arsenic from aquifers. At a field site in Bangladesh, we found that burrows of terrestrial crabs short-circuit low-permeability surface sediments, providing the primary conduit for recharge. We combine field observations along with a model that couples isotope and water balances to quantify the effect of crab burrows on aquifer recharge. Given the wide distribution of burrowing crabs and the surficial geology, we suggest that crab burrows provide widespread conduits for groundwater recharge.

  8. EPA Removes Burrows Sanitation Site in Michigan from National List of Most Contaminated Sites (United States)

    For Immediate Release No. 15-OPA142 CHICAGO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced that the Burrows Sanitation Superfund site in Hartford Township, Van Buren County, Michigan, has been officially removed from the Agency's l

  9. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Neher


    Full Text Available Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds secondarily. Burrowing owls selected burrow sites lower on slopes and on smaller, shallower slopes than represented by the average 10 × 10 m2 grid cell among 187,908 grid cells sampled from 2,281,169 grid cells comprising a digital elevation model (DEM of the study area. Fuzzy logic and discriminant function analysis produced likelihood surfaces encompassing most burrowing owl burrows within a fraction of the study area, and the former corresponded with burrowing owl fatalities and the latter with other raptor fatalities. Our ratings of wind turbine hazard were more predictive of burrowing owl fatalities, but would be more difficult to implement. Careful repowering to modern wind turbines would most reduce fatalities of burrowing owls and other birds while adding about 1,000 GWh annually toward California’s 33% Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  10. Effect of particle size frequency distribution of the substratum on the burrowing ability of Chiridota rigida (semper) (Echinodermata: holothuroidea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.M.; Murdoch, J.


    Chiridota rigida (Semper) burrows easily into well-sorted substrata, moving between particles in coarse substrata and pushing aside particles in fine substrata. Chiridota rigida does not burrow easily into poorly sorted substrata because spaces which can be penetrated are not available and because the particles cannot be moved as a result of increased stability of the substratum. In poorly sorted substrata, burrowing ability increases with increases in the proportion of fine particles. It would appear that the distribution and abundance of chiridota rigida and other chiridotids would be affected by the effect of the substratum on their ability to burrow.

  11. An Integrated Experimental and Modeling Approach to Predict Sediment Mixing from Benthic Burrowing Behavior. (United States)

    Roche, Kevin R; Aubeneau, Antoine F; Xie, Minwei; Aquino, Tomás; Bolster, Diogo; Packman, Aaron I


    Bioturbation is the dominant mode of sediment transport in many aquatic environments and strongly influences both sediment biogeochemistry and contaminant fate. Available bioturbation models rely on highly simplified biodiffusion formulations that inadequately capture the behavior of many benthic organisms. We present a novel experimental and modeling approach that uses time-lapse imagery to directly relate burrow formation to resulting sediment mixing. We paired white-light imaging of burrow formation with fluorescence imaging of tracer particle redistribution by the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. We used the observed burrow formation statistics and organism density to parametrize a parsimonious model for sediment mixing based on fundamental random walk theory. Worms burrowed over a range of times and depths, resulting in homogenization of sediments near the sediment-water interface, rapid nonlocal transport of tracer particles to deep sediments, and large areas of unperturbed sediments. Our fundamental, parsimonious random walk model captures the central features of this highly heterogeneous sediment bioturbation, including evolution of the sediment-water interface coupled with rapid near-surface mixing and anomalous late-time mixing resulting from infrequent, deep burrowing events. This approach provides a general, transferable framework for explicitly linking sediment transport to governing biophysical processes.

  12. Influence of vegetation on the nocturnal foraging behaviors and vertebrate prey capture by endangered Burrowing Owls

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    Alan Marsh


    Full Text Available Restrictions in technology have limited past habitat selection studies for many species to the home-range level, as a finer-scale understanding was often not possible. Consequently, these studies may not identify the true mechanism driving habitat selection patterns, which may influence how such results are applied in conservation. We used GPS dataloggers with digital video recorders to identify foraging modes and locations in which endangered Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia captured prey. We measured the coarse and fine-scale characteristics of vegetation at locations in which owls searched for, versus where they caught, vertebrate prey. Most prey items were caught using hover-hunting. Burrowing Owls searched for, and caught, vertebrate prey in all cover types, but were more likely to kill prey in areas with sparse and less dense vegetative cover. Management strategies designed to increase Burrowing Owl foraging success in the Canadian prairies should try to ensure a mosaic of vegetation heights across cover types.

  13. Habitat requirements and burrowing depths of rodents in relation to shallow waste burial sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gano, K.A.; States, J.B.


    The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature and summarize information on factors affecting habitat selection and maximum recorded burrowing depths for representative small mammals that we consider most likely to inhibit waste burial sites in arid and semi-arid regions of the West. The information is intended for waste management designers who need to know what to expect from small mammals that may be present at a particular site. Waste repositories oculd be designed to exclude the deep burrowing rodents of a region by creating an unattractive habitat over the waste. Summaries are given for habitat requirements of each group along with generalized modifications that could be employed to deter habitation. Representatives from the major groups considered to be deep burrowers are discussed. Further, detailed information about a particular species can be obtained from the references cited.

  14. Linking microbial enzymatic activities and functional diversity of soil around earthworm burrows and casts

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    Jerzy Lipiec


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of earthworms (Lumbricidae on the enzymatic activity and microbial functional diversity in the burrow system (burrow wall 0–3 mm, transitional zone 3–7 mm, bulk soil >20 mm from the burrow wall and cast aggregates of a loess soil under a pear orchard. The dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, protease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and acid phosphomonoesterase enzymes were assessed using standard methods. The functional diversity (catabolic potential was assessed using the Average Well Color Development and Richness Index following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog Eco Plates. All measurements were done using soil from each compartment immediately after in situ sampling in spring. The enzymatic activites including dehydrogenase, protease, β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase were appreciably greater in the burrow wall or casts than in bulk soil and transitional zone. Conversely, acid phosphomonoesterase had the largest value in the bulk soil. Average Well Color Development in both the transitional zone and the bulk soil (0.98-0.94 A590nm were more than eight times higher than in the burrow walls and casts. The lowest richness index in the bulk soil (15 utilized substrates increased by 86-113% in all the other compartments. The PC1 in principal component analysis (PCA mainly differentiated the burrow walls and the transitional zone. Utilization of all substrate categories was the lowest in the bulk soil. The PC2 differentiated the casts from the other compartments. The enhanced activity of a majority of the enzymes and increased microbial functional diversity in most earthworm-influenced compartments make the soils less vulnerable to degradation and thus increases the stability of ecologically relevant processes in the orchard ecosystem.

  15. Behavioural and Physiological Implications of a Burrow-dwelling Lifestyle for Two Species of Upogebiid Mud-shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea) (United States)

    Astall, C. M.; Taylor, A. C.; Atkinson, R. J. A.


    Upogebia stellataand U. deltaura(Crustacea: Thalassinidea) construct burrows in nearshore sediments in U.K. waters. Burrow structure is similar in both species; the basic burrow consisting of a two-opening, U-shaped section with a vertical shaft descending from the mid-point of the U. This structure may be variously elaborated. Burrow cross-section is circular, dilations allow turning by somersaulting and surface openings are often constricted. Conditions within the burrows are usually hypoxic and hypercapnic. Burrow water PO 2in the parts normally occupied by the mud-shrimp was between 80-110 Torr, but was much lower (10-45 Torr) in the deepest, poorly-irrigated parts. Both species irrigate their burrows by episodes of pleopod beating of variable duration (mean=8·5±3·5 min and 2·8±0·5 min for U. deltauraand U. stellata, respectively), which draws oxygenated water into the burrow and also particulate food for suspension feeding. When exposed to hypoxia, U. deltauraand U. stellatawere able to maintain their rates of oxygen consumption approximately constant over a wide range of PO 2( Pc=30-50 Torr). Under these conditions, there was a pronounced increase in scaphognathite beat rate but heart rate remained relatively constant. Below the Pc, however, both rates declined.

  16. Variations in the Foraging Behaviour and Burrow Structures of the Damara Molerat Cryptomys damarensis in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

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    B.G. Lovegrove


    Full Text Available Aspects of two habitat-specific foraging behaviours of the social subterranean rodent Cryptomys damarensis, are discussed in terms of burrow structure, resource dispersion patterns, sand moisture content, burrow temperature regimes, and predatory pressures, in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park, South Africa.


    Burrowing thalassinid shrimp are major ecosystem engineering species of Pacific estuaries and can structure the physical, chemical, and biotic properties of sediments. Feeding and burrow irrigation by benthic organisms can increase the remineralization rates of organic material (...

  18. Association of the "IUCN vulnerable" spiny rat Clyomys bishopi (Rodentia: Echimyidae) with palm trees and armadillo burrows in southeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Bueno, Adriana A; Lapenta, Marina J; Oliveira, Fátima; Motta-Junior, José C


    The globally vulnerable Clyomys bishopi, a semi-fossorial and colonial rodent, is apparently limited to cerrado (savannah-like vegetation) physiognomies in São Paulo State, Brazil. The aim of the study was to verify whether the presence of C. bishopi is associated to the occurrence of palm trees (Attalea gearensis, Syagrus loefgrenii) and armadillo burrows. Thirty six quadrats were placed in different physiognomies of cerrado vegetation at Itirapina Ecological Station, southeastern Brazil to survey the number of C. bishopi burrows of individuals of palm trees and burrows of armadillos. There was a strong dependence and association between the number of C. bishopi burrows and all measured variables (Contingency tables and Spearman rank correlations). It is suggested that this rodent can be found in great numbers where palm trees are abundant. The use of armadillo burrows possibly makes the movement of the rodents easier inside their own galleries.

  19. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.


    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  20. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) (United States)

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...


    The seasonal use of terrestrially burrowing crayfish as a food item by channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was studied in channelized and non-channelized sections of the Yockanookany River (Mississippi, USA). During seasonal inundation of the floodplains, the crayfish occupied o...

  2. Burrowing Behavior of a Deposit Feeding Bivalve Predicts Change in Intertidal Ecosystem State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, T.J.; Bodnar, W.; Koolhaas, A.; Dekinga, A.; Holthuijsen, S.; Ten Horn, J.; McSweeney, N.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T,


    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  3. Burrowing behavior of a deposit feeding bivalve predicts change in intertidal ecosystem state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compton, Tanya J.; Bodnar, Wanda; Koolhaas, Anita; Dekinga, Anne; Holthuijsen, Sander; ten Horn, Job; McSweeney, Niamh; van Gils, Jan; Piersma, Theunis


    Behavior has a predictive power that is often underutilized as a tool for signaling ecological change. The burrowing behavior of the deposit feeding bivalve Macoma balthica reflects a typical food-safety trade-off. The choice to live close to the sediment surface comes at a risk of predation and is

  4. Gopherus agassizii (desert tortoise) and Crotalus ruber (red diamond rattlesnake). Burrow co-occupancy (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.


    I observed an adult Desert Tortoise and an adult Red Diamond Rattlesnake (sexes unknown) in a shallow tortoise burrow on 6 January 1997 at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, Riverside Co., California, USA (33.9599°N, 116.6613°W).

  5. The Potential Use of Electricity to Control Burrowing Shrimp in Oyster Aquaculture Beds (United States)

    Thalassinid shrimp cause significant problems for oyster aquaculture in the Pacific Northwest (USA) where oysters succumb to the physical disruption of the sediment by the burrowing activity of these animals. While electrofishing is a commonly used technique to capture fish and some invertebrates i...

  6. Behaviour and time allocation of the burrowing shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Decapoda, Thalassinidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, E.J; Reede-Dekker, T; van Etten, Y; de Wiljes, J.J.; Videler, J.J


    The behaviour and allocation of time of the endobenthic shrimp Callianassa subterranea from the central North Sea was studied in the laboratory. Animals were allowed to construct a two-dimensional burrow in large transparent sediment filled cuvettes tailored to their body width. The behaviour of the

  7. Lizard burrows provide thermal refugia for larks in the Arabian desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Tieleman, BI; Shobrak, M


    A common perception is that desert birds experience greater extremes of heat and aridity than their mammalian counterparts, in part, because birds do not use burrows as a refuge from the desert environment. We report observations of Dunn's Larks (Eremalauda dunni), Bar-tailed Desert Larks (Ammomanes

  8. Burrowing and foraging activity of marsh crabs under different inundation regimes (United States)

    New England salt marshes are susceptible to degradation and habitat loss as a result of increased periods of inundation as sea levels rise. Increased inundation may exacerbate marsh degradation that can result from crab burrowing and foraging. Most studies to date have focused on...

  9. First implementation of burrowing motions in dual-reciprocating drilling using an integrated actuation mechanism (United States)

    Pitcher, Craig; Gao, Yang


    The dual-reciprocating drill (DRD) is a biologically-inspired low-mass alternative to traditional drilling techniques, using backwards-facing teethed halves to grip the surrounding substrate, generating a traction force that reduces the required overhead penetration force. Previous experiments using a proof-of-concept test bench have provided evidence as to the significant role of sideways movements and lateral forces in improving drilling performance. The system is also progressing to a first system prototype concept, in which an actuation mechanism is integrated within the drill heads. To experimentally determine the effect of lateral motions, a new internal actuation mechanism was developed to allow the inclusion of controlled sideways movements, resulting in the creation of the circular and diagonal burrowing motions. This paper presents an investigation into the performance of the reciprocation and burrowing motions by testing them in a planetary regolith simulant. Analysis of force sensor measurements has shown a relationship between the penetration and traction forces and the internal friction of the mechanism and depth achieved. These tests have also experimentally demonstrated the benefit of lateral motions in drilling performance, with both the burrowing mechanisms and drilling tests performed at an angle able to penetrate further than traditional vertical reciprocation, leading to the proposition of new burrowing and diagonal drilling mechanics. From this, a new fully integrated system prototype can be developed which incorporates lateral motions that can optimise the drilling performance.

  10. Simultaneous collection of body temperature and activity data in burrowing mammals : a new technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Ryan A.; Hut, Roelof A.; Barnes, Brian M.


    Integrating physiological and behavioral observations into ecological field studies of animals can provide novel insights into relationships among animal behavior, physiology, and ecology. We describe and evaluate a new technique for simultaneously collecting body temperature (T-b) and burrow use da

  11. Rabbits, refuges and resources : how foraging of herbivores is affected by living in burrows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.A.


    Small herbivores such as rabbits, pika and marmots create spatial patterns in vegetation around their burrows by grazing. This PhD thesis focuses on these refuge-living herbivores.By performing experiments with rabbits, he showed that looking for predators causes the spatial patter

  12. Burrowing dragonfly larvae as biosentinels of methylmercury in freshwater food webs. (United States)

    Haro, Roger J; Bailey, Sean W; Northwick, Reid M; Rolfhus, Kristofer R; Sandheinrich, Mark B; Wiener, James G


    We assessed the utility of larval burrowing dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera: Gomphidae) as biosentinels of methylmercury (MeHg) contamination. Gomphids were the most abundant family of dragonflies sampled during 2008-2010 from 17 lakes in four national parks of the northwestern Laurentian Great Lakes region. Ten species of burrowing gomphids were sampled; 13 lakes contained 3 or more species, and 2 species of Gomphus co-occurred in 12 lakes. Most of the total Hg (THg) in whole, late-instar larvae was MeHg, with mean percent MeHg exceeding 60% in 16 lakes. Mean MeHg in larvae of a given species varied greatly among lakes, ranging from 4 to 109 ng g(-1) dry weight. Methylmercury levels in larvae, however, were much less variable within a given lake and species. The mean concentration of MeHg in burrowing gomphids was positively correlated with mean MeHg concentration in unfiltered lake water. Mean concentrations of THg and MeHg in multispecies assemblages of Gomphus were also positively correlated with mean THg in coexisting prey fish and game fishes. We recommend-and provide guidance on-the application of burrowing gomphids as biosentinels of MeHg contamination, which can extend the bioassessment of MeHg to fishless fresh waters.

  13. Effect of mangrove restoration on crab burrow density in Luoyangjiang Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li


    Full Text Available Background Mangrove restoration seeks to restore or rebuild degraded mangrove systems. The methods of mangrove restoration include ecological projects and restoration-oriented technologies, the latter of which are designed to restore the structure, processes as well as related physical, chemical and biological characteristics of wetlands and to ensure the provision of ecosystem services. As important components of mangrove ecosystem, benthic organisms and crabs play a key role in nutrient cycling. In addition, mangrove restoration, such as vegetation restoration measures, can lead to changes in the benthic faunal communities. This study investigates whether the presence of different mangrove species, age and canopy cover of mangrove communities affect the density of crab burrows. Methods The Luoyangjiang Estuary, in the southeast of Fujian Province, was selected as our research area. A survey, covering 14 sites, was conducted to investigate the impacts of mangrove restoration on the density of crab burrows in four rehabilitated forests with different stand ages and canopy. Results It was found that differences in vegetation types had a large impact on crab density and that the density of crab burrows was lower on exposed beaches (non-mangrove than under mature Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina communities. In general, the amount of leaf litter and debris on mangrove mudflats was greater than on the beaches as food sources for crabs. Two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA shows that changes in mangrove species and age since restoration had different effects on crab burrow density. The effect of canopy cover was highly significant on crab burrow density. Conclusions The results suggest that in the process of mangrove restoration the combined effects of mangrove stand age, canopy cover and other factors should be taken into account. This study further supports the findings of the future scientific research and practice on

  14. Evaluation of insecticide impregnated baits for control of mosquito larvae in land crab burrows on French Polynesian atolls. (United States)

    Lardeux, Frederic; Sechan, Yves; Faaruia, Marc


    Land crab burrows are larval mosquito habitats of major significance in the Pacific region. They are constituted by a sinuous tunnel leading to a chamber in contact with the water table, where mosquito larvae proliferate. Controlling larvae in these sites is difficult, because the configuration of burrows prevents the use of standard techniques. An experiment was carried out in French Polynesia to control Aedes polynesiensis Marks and Culex spp. breeding in burrows of the land crab Cardisoma carnifex (Herbst). The technique was based on the crab's behavior, which involves the crab carrying food into its burrow. It was shown that appetizing baits impregnated with an insecticide were carried by crabs into the flooded chamber of their burrows. A field treatment of burrows was carried out by sowing insecticide impregnated baits on the ground. The treatment coverage was almost perfect and the easy implementation of the technique enabled large areas to be treated in a short time. The bait was developed by compacting various flours, which easily incorporate a large variety of insecticide formulations. Although the baits can be easily stocked, a reliable insecticide is still to be found. The results indicate that our technique could be a method of choice for treating crab burrows.

  15. Treatment of black-tailed prairie dog burrows with deltamethrin to control fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) and plague. (United States)

    Seery, David B; Biggins, Dean E; Montenieri, John A; Enscore, Russell E; Tanda, Dale T; Gage, Kenneth L


    Burrows within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were dusted with deltamethrin insecticide to reduce flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera) abundance. Flea populations were monitored pre- and posttreatment by combing prairie dogs and collecting fleas from burrows. A single application of deltamethrin significantly reduced populations of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta, and other flea species on prairie dogs and in prairie dog burrows for at least 84 d. A plague epizootic on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge caused high mortality of prairie dogs on some untreated colonies, but did not appear to affect nearby colonies dusted with deltamethrin.

  16. 1994 prairie dog burrow mapping with Global Positioning Systems, UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Phillips County, Montana (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Holes in the ground are a very important feature of black-footed ferret habitat. The number, distribution, and activity level of prairie dog burrows is related to...

  17. Burrowing nematodes from Colombia and their relationship with Radopholus similis populations,R. arabocoffeae and R. duriophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Múnera Uribe, G.E.; Bert, W.; Vierstraete, A.R.; Peña, de la E.; Moens, M.; Decraemer, W.


    Two burrowing nematode populations from Colombia were characterised using morphological, morphometric and molecular criteria. The morphological and morphometric characters of the two populations did not differ from those of Radopholus similis. The phylogenetic analysis based on sequence comparison o

  18. First field record of mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ucididae recruits co-inhabiting burrows of conspecific crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Jensen Schmidt


    Full Text Available Recruits of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763, rarely encountered in the field were found co-inhabiting burrows of larger male and female conspecifics in the mangrove forest. They were located in the sediment of the inner walls and burrow plugs. Average carapace width (CW of the hosting and co-inhabiting crabs was 3.8 ± 0.20 and 0.9 ± 0.03, respectively. As shown by the size-frequency distribution, while most recruits leave the conspecific burrows after reaching 1.0 cm CW, some stay until they reach a size of 2.5 cm CW. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of recruitment patterns in this ecologically and economically important mangrove crab species. Follow-up studies are however needed to fully determine the role of conspecific burrows for juvenile habitat choice and survivorship in U. cordatus.

  19. Black-footed ferrets and recreational shooting influence the attributes of black-tailed prairie dog burrows (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Ramakrishnan, Shantini; Goldberg, Amanda R.; Eads, David A.


    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) plug burrows occupied by black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes), and they also plug burrows to entomb dead prairie dogs. We further evaluated these phenomena by sampling connectivity and plugging of burrow openings on prairie dog colonies occupied by ferrets, colonies where recreational shooting was allowed, and colonies with neither shooting nor ferrets. We counted burrow openings on line surveys and within plots, classified surface plugging, and used an air blower to examine subsurface connectivity. Colonies with ferrets had lower densities of openings, fewer connected openings (suggesting increased subsurface plugging), and more surface plugs compared to colonies with no known ferrets. Colonies with recreational shooting had the lowest densities of burrow openings, and line-survey data suggested colonies with shooting had intermediate rates of surface plugging. The extent of surface and subsurface plugging could have consequences for the prairie dog community by changing air circulation and escape routes of burrow systems and by altering energetic relationships. Burrow plugging might reduce prairie dogs' risk of predation by ferrets while increasing risk of predation by American badgers (Taxidea taxus); however, the complexity of the trade-off is increased if plugging increases the risk of predation on ferrets by badgers. Prairie dogs expend more energy plugging and digging when ferrets or shooting are present, and ferrets increase their energy expenditures when they dig to remove those plugs. Microclimatic differences in plugged burrow systems may play a role in flea ecology and persistence of the flea-borne bacterium that causes plague (Yersinia pestis).

  20. Map-Based Repowering and Reorganization of a Wind Resource Area to Minimize Burrowing Owl and Other Bird Fatalities


    Lee Neher; K. Shawn Smallwood; Bell, Douglas A.


    Wind turbines in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (Alameda/Contra Costa Counties, California, USA) generate about 730 GWh of electricity annually, but have been killing thousands of birds each year, including >2,000 raptors and hundreds of burrowing owls. We have developed collision hazard maps and hazard ratings of wind turbines to guide relocation of existing wind turbines and careful repowering to modern turbines to reduce burrowing owl fatalities principally, and other birds second...

  1. Standardized Monitoring Strategies for Burrowing Owls on DoD Installations (United States)


    whether each owl was detected visually, vocally , or both. Each adult owl detected at a survey point gets its own line, juveniles associated with one...measurements (tail length, meta-tarsus, wing chord ) are made on adult birds that allow comparison of body size between sexes and sites. Age...Burrowing Owls will have a brood patch. Adult Left Wing 180 Use the method shown in Appendix II to measure the owl’s left wing chord length. Record

  2. Long-term population dynamics of a managed burrowing owl colony (United States)

    Barclay, John H.; Korfanta, Nicole M.; Kauffman, Matthew J.


    We analyzed the population dynamics of a burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) colony at Mineta San Jose International Airport in San Jose, California, USA from 1990-2007. This colony was managed by using artificial burrows to reduce the occurrence of nesting owls along runways and within major airport improvement projects during the study period. We estimated annual reproduction in natural and artificial burrows and age-specific survival rates with mark-recapture techniques, and we estimated the relative contribution of these vital rates to population dynamics using a life table response experiment. The breeding colony showed 2 distinct periods of change: high population growth from 7 nesting pairs in 1991 to 40 pairs in 2002 and population decline to 17 pairs in 2007. Reproduction was highly variable: annual nesting success (pairs that raised =1 young) averaged 79% and ranged from 36% to 100%, whereas fecundity averaged 3.36 juveniles/pair and ranged from 1.43 juveniles/pair to 4.54 juveniles/pair. We estimated annual adult survival at 0.710 during the period of colony increase from 1996 to 2001 and 0.465 during decline from 2002 to 2007, but there was no change in annual survival of juveniles between the 2 time periods. Long-term population growth rate (lambda) estimated from average vital rates was lambdaa=1.072 with lambdai=1.288 during colony increase and lambdad=0.921 (DELTA lambda=0.368) during decline. A life table response experiment showed that change in adult survival rate during increasing and declining phases explained more than twice the variation in growth rate than other vital rates. Our findings suggest that management and conservation of declining burrowing owl populations should address factors that influence adult survival.

  3. Razor clam to RoboClam: burrowing drag reduction mechanisms and their robotic adaptation. (United States)

    Winter, A G; V; Deits, R L H; Dorsch, D S; Slocum, A H; Hosoi, A E


    Estimates based on the strength, size, and shape of the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) indicate that the animal's burrow depth should be physically limited to a few centimeters; yet razor clams can dig as deep as 70 cm. By measuring soil deformations around burrowing E. directus, we have found the animal reduces drag by contracting its valves to initially fail, and then fluidize, the surrounding substrate. The characteristic contraction time to achieve fluidization can be calculated directly from soil properties. The geometry of the fluidized zone is dictated by two commonly-measured geotechnical parameters: coefficient of lateral earth pressure and friction angle. Calculations using full ranges for both parameters indicate that the fluidized zone is a local effect, occurring between 1-5 body radii away from the animal. The energy associated with motion through fluidized substrate-characterized by a depth-independent density and viscosity-scales linearly with depth. In contrast, moving through static soil requires energy that scales with depth squared. For E. directus, this translates to a 10X reduction in the energy required to reach observed burrow depths. For engineers, localized fluidization offers a mechanically simple and purely kinematic method to dramatically reduce energy costs associated with digging. This concept is demonstrated with RoboClam, an E. directus-inspired robot. Using a genetic algorithm to find optimal digging kinematics, RoboClam has achieved localized fluidization burrowing performance comparable to that of the animal, with a linear energy-depth relationship, in both idealized granular glass beads and E. directus' native cohesive mudflat habitat.

  4. Trophic eggs compensate for poor offspring feeding capacity in a subsocial burrower bug


    Baba, Narumi; Hironaka, Mantaro; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Mukai, Hiromi; Nomakuchi, Shintaro; Ueno, Takatoshi


    Various animals produce inviable eggs or egg-like structures called trophic eggs, which are presumed to be an extended maternal investment for the offspring. However, there is little knowledge about the ecological or physiological constraints associated with their evolutionary origin. Trophic eggs of the seminivorous subsocial burrower bug (Canthophorus niveimarginatus) have some unique characteristics. Trophic eggs are obligate for nymphal survival, and first-instar nymphs die without them. ...

  5. Burrowing, byssus, and biomarkers: behavioral and physiological indicators of sublethal thermal stress in freshwater mussels (Unionidae) (United States)

    Archambault, Jennifer M.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J.


    Recent research has elucidated the acute lethal effects of elevated water temperatures to glochidia (larvae), juvenile, and adult life stages of freshwater mussels (Order Unionida), but few studies have focused on sublethal effects of thermal stress. We evaluated the sublethal effects of elevated temperature on burrowing behavior and byssus production in juveniles, and on enzymatic biomarkers of stress in adults in acute (96 h) laboratory experiments in sediment, with two acclimation temperatures (22 and 27 °C) and two experimental water levels (watered and dewatered) as proxies for flow regime. Increasing temperature significantly reduced burrowing in all five species tested, and the dewatered treatment (a proxy for drought conditions) reduced burrowing in all but Amblema plicata. Production of byssal threads was affected most drastically by flow regime, with the probability of byssus presence reduced by 93–99% in the dewatered treatment, compared to the watered treatment (a proxy for low flow conditions); increasing temperature alone reduced byssus by 18–35%. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly affected by treatment temperature in the 27 °C acclimation, watered test (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Our results are important in the context of climate change, because stream temperature and flow are expected to change with increasing air temperature and altered precipitation patterns.

  6. Effects of invasive rats and burrowing seabirds on seeds and seedlings on New Zealand islands. (United States)

    Grant-Hoffman, Madeline N; Mulder, Christa P H; Bellingham, Peter J


    Rats (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus, Rattus exulans) are important invaders on islands. They alter vegetation indirectly by preying on burrowing seabirds. These seabirds affect vegetation through nutrient inputs from sea to land and physical disturbance through trampling and burrowing. Rats also directly affect vegetation though consumption of seeds and seedlings. Seedling communities on northern New Zealand islands differ in composition and densities among islands which have never been invaded by rats, are currently invaded by rats, or from which rats have been eradicated. We conducted experimental investigations to determine the mechanisms driving these patterns. When the physical disturbance of seabirds was removed, in soils collected from islands and inside exclosures, seedling densities increased with seabird burrow density. For example, seedling densities inside exclosures were 10 times greater than those outside. Thus the negative effects of seabirds on seedlings, by trampling and uprooting, overwhelm the potentially beneficial effects of high levels of seed germination, seedling emergence, and possibly seed production, which result from seed burial and nutrient additions. Potential seedling density was reduced on an island where rats were present, germination of seeds from soils of this island was approximately half that found on other islands, but on this island seedling density inside exclosures was 7 times the density outside. Although the total negative effects of seabirds and rats on seedling densities are similar (reduced seedling density), the differences in mechanisms and life stages affected result in very different filters on the plant community.

  7. Bioassessment of contaminant transport and distribution in aquatic ecosystems by chemical analysis of burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia) (United States)

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Wiener, J.G.


    Burrowing mayfly nymphs (Ephemeroptera) inhabit and ingest fine-grained sediments and detritus that may be enriched with metals and persistent organic compounds. The burrowing nymphs can externally adsorb and internally assimilate these contaminants, providing a link for the food chain transfer of potentially toxic substances from sediments to organisms in higher trophic levels. The emergent adults are short-lived and do not feed, thus their gut contents do not contribute greatly to their total contaminant burden. These characteristics make Hexagenia spp. And certain other burrowing mayflies useful for assessing ecosystem contamination. General protocols are presented for the collection, processing and analysis of emergent mayflies to assess the spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Two essential components of this bioassessment approach are a network of on-site volunteers with the materials and instructions needed to correctly collect and store samples and quality assurance procedures to estimate the accuracy of chemical analyses. The utility of this approach is demonstrated with an example of its application to the Upper Mississippi River (USA). Determination of cadmium, mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in emergent Hexagenia bilineata from a 1250 km reach of this river revealed (1) several source areas of contaminants and (2) distinct patterns in the bioaccumulation (and apparent sediment-associated transport) of each residue on both small and large spatial scales.

  8. Importance of agricultural landscapes to nesting burrowing owls in the Northern Great Plains, USA (United States)

    Restani, M.; Davies, J.M.; Newton, W.E.


    Anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are the principle factors causing declines of grassland birds. Declines in burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) populations have been extensive and have been linked to habitat loss, primarily the decline of black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. Development of habitat use models is a research priority and will aid conservation of owls inhabiting human-altered landscapes. From 2001 to 2004 we located 160 burrowing owl nests on prairie dog colonies on the Little Missouri National Grassland in North Dakota. We used multiple linear regression and Akaike's Information Criterion to estimate the relationship between cover type characteristics surrounding prairie dog colonies and (1) number of owl pairs per colony and (2) reproductive success. Models were developed for two spatial scales, within 600 m and 2,000 m radii of nests for cropland, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum), grassland, and prairie dog colonies. We also included number of patches as a metric of landscape fragmentation. Annually, fewer than 30% of prairie dog colonies were occupied by owls. None of the models at the 600 m scale explained variation in number of owl pairs or reproductive success. However, models at the 2,000 m scale did explain number of owl pairs and reproductive success. Models included cropland, crested wheatgrass, and prairie dog colonies. Grasslands were not included in any of the models and had low importance values, although percentage grassland surrounding colonies was high. Management that protects prairie dog colonies bordering cropland and crested wheatgrass should be implemented to maintain nesting habitat of burrowing owls. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas


    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis...... for Crangon crangon and Solea solea, but not for Carcinus meanas and Pomatoschistus minutus. The validity of both behavioural tests was supported by in situ observations and investigations on the distribution of the species. It is concluded that both tests are useful tools in the assessment of the impact...

  10. Avian Influenza Virus for Phylogenetic Tree Reconstrction Based on Extension Burrows-Wheeler%基于扩展Burrows-Wheeler算法重构禽流感病毒的进化树

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏阳; 白凤兰; 刘立伟



  11. Estimating animal populations and body sizes from burrows: Marine ecologists have their heads buried in the sand (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Lucrezi, Serena; Peterson, Charles H.; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Althaus, Franziska; Hyndes, Glenn A.; Maslo, Brooke; Gilby, Ben L.; Leon, Javier X.; Weston, Michael A.; Lastra, Mariano; Williams, Alan; Schoeman, David S.


    Most ecological studies require knowledge of animal abundance, but it can be challenging and destructive of habitat to obtain accurate density estimates for cryptic species, such as crustaceans that tunnel deeply into the seafloor, beaches, or mudflats. Such fossorial species are, however, widely used in environmental impact assessments, requiring sampling techniques that are reliable, efficient, and environmentally benign for these species and environments. Counting and measuring the entrances of burrows made by cryptic species is commonly employed to index population and body sizes of individuals. The fundamental premise is that burrow metrics consistently predict density and size. Here we review the evidence for this premise. We also review criteria for selecting among sampling methods: burrow counts, visual censuses, and physical collections. A simple 1:1 correspondence between the number of holes and population size cannot be assumed. Occupancy rates, indexed by the slope of regression models, vary widely between species and among sites for the same species. Thus, 'average' or 'typical' occupancy rates should not be extrapolated from site- or species specific field validations and then be used as conversion factors in other situations. Predictions of organism density made from burrow counts often have large uncertainty, being double to half of the predicted mean value. Whether such prediction uncertainty is 'acceptable' depends on investigators' judgements regarding the desired detectable effect sizes. Regression models predicting body size from burrow entrance dimensions are more precise, but parameter estimates of most models are specific to species and subject to site-to-site variation within species. These results emphasise the need to undertake thorough field validations of indirect census techniques that include tests of how sensitive predictive models are to changes in habitat conditions or human impacts. In addition, new technologies (e.g. drones

  12. Do leucocytes reflect condition in nestling burrowing parrots Cyanoliseus patagonus in the wild? (United States)

    Masello, Juan F; Choconi, R Gustavo; Helmer, Matthias; Kremberg, Thomas; Lubjuhn, Thomas; Quillfeldt, Petra


    The different leucocyte types are an important part of the immune system. Thus, they have been used in ecological studies to assess immune function and physiological stress in wild birds. It is generally assumed that increased stress and decreased condition are associated with an increase in the ratio of heterophils to lymphocytes, the H/L ratio. We studied leucocyte profiles in relation to body condition in nestling Burrowing Parrots (Cyanoliseus patagonus) in North-eastern Patagonia, Argentina. As in other wild parrots, heterophils were the most numerous leucocyte type, suggesting strong investment into innate immunity. Leucocyte profiles did not change with the age, while nestlings in better body condition increased the number of heterophils. Because the number of lymphocytes was independent of body condition, as a result we observed a positive correlation between body condition and the H/L ratio. The total number of leucocytes relative to erythrocytes increased in nestlings in better body condition, indicating a larger overall investment into immune function in well-nourished nestlings. The observed heterophilic profiles of nestling Burrowing Parrots together with the positive relationship between H/L ratio and body condition may indicate a favoured investment in a robust innate immunity that reduces the risk of infection taking hold in these long-lived birds.

  13. Real estate ads in Emei music frog vocalizations: female preference for calls emanating from burrows. (United States)

    Cui, Jianguo; Tang, Yezhong; Narins, Peter M


    During female mate choice, both the male's phenotype and resources (e.g. his nest) contribute to the chooser's fitness. Animals other than humans are not known to advertise resource characteristics to potential mates through vocal communication; although in some species of anurans and birds, females do evaluate male qualities through vocal communication. Here, we demonstrate that calls of the male Emei music frog (Babina dauchina), vocalizing from male-built nests, reflect nest structure information that can be recognized by females. Inside-nest calls consisted of notes with energy concentrated at lower frequency ranges and longer note durations when compared with outside-nest calls. Centre frequencies and note durations of the inside calls positively correlate with the area of the burrow entrance and the depth of the burrow, respectively. When given a choice between outside and inside calls played back alternately, more than 70 per cent of the females (33/47) chose inside calls. These results demonstrate that males of this species faithfully advertise whether or not they possess a nest to potential mates by vocal communication, which probably facilitates optimal mate selection by females. These results revealed a novel function of advertisement calls, which is consistent with the wide variation in both call complexity and social behaviour within amphibians.

  14. The antenna of a burrowing dragonfly larva, Onychogomphus forcipatus (Anisoptera, Gomphidae). (United States)

    Rebora, Manuela; Piersanti, Silvana; Salerno, Gianandrea; Gorb, Stanislav


    The larva of the dragonfly Onychogomphus forcipatus (Anisoptera, Gomphidae) has a burrowing lifestyle and antennae composed of four short and broad segments (scape, pedicel and a two-segmented flagellum). The present ultrastructural investigation revealed that different sensilla and one gland are located on the antenna. There is a great diversity of mechanoreceptors of different kinds. In particular club-shaped sensilla, sensilla chaetica, and tree-like sensilla show the typical structure of bristles, the most common type of mechanoreceptors, usually responding to direct touch, while numerous long thin thorny trichoid sensilla show a morphology recalling the structure of filiform hair mechanoreceptors. The latter ones are presumably important in larval Odonata for current detection and rheotactic orientation, especially in a burrowing species. On the smooth apical cuticle of the second flagellar segment, three structures are visible: (1) a small ellipsoidal pit hosting a convoluted peg, the morphology of which resembles that of a typical chemoreceptor (even if pores are lacking), (2) a couple of small pits (not investigated under TEM), and (3) one wide depression with spherical structures, the internal morphology of which lets us assume that it is a gland with unknown function. This is the first report of an antennal gland in palaeopteran insects.

  15. [The supra-occipital bone in cetaceans and burrowing rodents. morphological convergence induced by the post-cephalic pole?]. (United States)

    Courant, F; Marchand, D


    A comparative study of the cranial morphologies of cetaceans and of rodents that use their incisors for burrowing brings out morphological convergences concerning the supra-occipital bone. These phyletically very remote groups are both subject to the same mechanical constraint, viz. the need for the spinal column to be aligned with the anteroposterior axis of the skull. This constraint, which is related to swimming in cetaceans and burrowing in rodents, entails three major points of convergence: 1) a clearly backward facing foramen magnum; 2) a shortened or even greatly shortened neck, sometimes with cervical vertebrae fused together; and 3) an uprighted or even forward tilted supra-occipital bone.

  16. Artificial warthog burrows used to sample adult and immature tsetse (Glossina spp in the Zambezi Valley of Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Hargrove


    Full Text Available The biology of adult tsetse (Glossina spp, vectors of trypanosomiasis in Africa, has been extensively studied - but little is known about larviposition in the field.In September-November 1998, in the hot-dry season in Zimbabwe's Zambezi Valley, we used artificial warthog burrows to capture adult females as they deposited larvae. Females were subjected to ovarian dissection and were defined as perinatal flies, assumed to have entered burrows to larviposit, if oocyte sizes indicated >95% pregnancy completion. Perinatal flies were defined as full-term pregnant if there was a late third instar larva in utero, or postpartum if the uterus was empty. All other females were defined as pre-full-term pregnant (pre-FT. Of 845 G. m. morsitans captured, 91% (765 were female and 295/724 (41% of females dissected were perinatal flies. By contrast, of 2805 G. pallidipes captured only 71% (2003 were female and only 33% (596/1825 of females were perinatal. Among all perinatal females 67% (596/891 were G. pallidipes. Conversely, in burrows not fitted with traps - such that flies were free to come and go - 1834 (59% of pupae deposited were G. m. morsitans and only 1297 (41% were G. pallidipes. Thus, while more full-term pregnant G. pallidipes enter burrows, greater proportions of G. m. morsitans larviposit in them, reflecting a greater discrimination among G. pallidipes in choosing larviposition sites. Catches of males and pre-FT females increased strongly with temperatures above 32°C, indicating that these flies used burrows as refuges from high ambient temperatures. Conversely, catches of perinatal females changed little with maximum temperature but declined from late September through November: females may anticipate that burrows will be inundated during the forthcoming wet season. Ovarian age distributions of perinatal and pre-FT females were similar, consistent with all ages of females larvipositing in burrows with similar probability.Artificial warthog

  17. Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon - April 2009 (United States)

    Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

  18. Measuring the contribution of benthic ecosystem engineering species to the ecosystem services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (United States)

    Burrowing shrimps are regarded as ecosystem engineering species in many coastal ecosystems worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja California to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...

  19. A documentation on burrows in hard substrates of ferromanganese crusts and associated soft sediments from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R.

    sediments on the sea floor also show numerous records of recent bioturbation activity. Thus presence of the ancient and modern burrows from tha same locality on the ocean floor indicates a prolonged bioturbation activity in this part of the CIB and this may...

  20. The Effect of Sand Particle Size on the Burrowing Ability of the Beach Mysid Gastrosaccus psammodytes Tattersall (United States)

    Nel, R.; McLachlan, A.; Winter, D.


    Laboratory studies on the burrowing rates of the mysid shrimp, Gastrosaccus psammodytes , in a series of well-sorted sediments, determined whether (1) burial times were dependent on grain size and (2) if natural population distribution may be influenced by grain size on beaches. Burial times were tested in nine well-sorted sediments with grain size ranging from 90 to 2000μm. Large individuals (i.e. gravid females) were used. G. psammodytes burrowed fastest in 125-1000μm sand with mean burial times less than 1·6s. Burial time increased to approximately 2s in 90-125μm sand. G. psammodytes could not burrow in grain sizes coarser than 1000μm. G. psammodytes has been reported to occur on beaches with grain sizes ranging from 90 to 500μm but are uncommon on beaches with coarser sand. It appears that population distribution may be influenced by grain size that is probably not related to the animals' burial time ability, but rather their inability to burrow completely into coarse sand. Indirectly, grain size may also influence the morphodynamic state of a beach and therefore food availability since coarse-grained beaches tend to be reflective with little surf production.

  1. Population dynamics and damage potential of the burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis, on Anthurium andreanum grown in soil-less medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsing, J.J.; Schrama, P.M.M.; Stapel, L.H.M.


    In a 14 month pot experiment with Anthurium andreanum cv. Sonate, grown in soil-less medium in glasshouse conditions, burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis) population development and crop damage were investigated. At 9 days after transplanting, plants were inoculated with R. similis at four initia

  2. Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bagagli, Eduardo; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes


    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of man and animals caused by traumatic implantation of propagules into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pathogenic species includes S. brasiliensis, S. schenckii, S. globosa and S. luriei. The disease is remarkable for its occurrence as sapronoses and/or zoonosis outbreaks in tropical and subtropical areas; although, the ecology of the clinical clade is still puzzling. Here, we describe an anamorphic Sporothrix strain isolated from soil in an armadillo's burrow, which was located in a hyper endemic area of Paracoccidioidomycosis in Brazil. This isolate was identified as S. schenckii sensu stricto (Clade IIa) based on morphological and physiological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of calmodulin sequences. We then discuss the role of the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus as a natural carrier of Sporothrix propagules to better understand Sporothrix sources in nature and reveal essential aspects about the pathogen's eco-epidemiology.

  3. Lossless compression of medical images using Burrows-Wheeler Transformation with Inversion Coder. (United States)

    Preston, Collin; Arnavut, Ziya; Koc, Basar


    Medical imaging is a quickly growing industry where the need for highly efficient lossless compression algorithms is necessary in order to reduce storage space and transmission rates for the large, high resolution, medical images. Due to the fact that medical imagining cannot utilize lossy compression, in the event that vital information may be lost, it is imperative that lossless compression be used. While several authors have investigated lossless compression of medical images, the Burrows-Wheeler Transformation with an Inversion Coder (BWIC) has not been examined. Our investigation shows that BWIC runs in linear time and yields better compression rates than well-known image coders, such as JPEG-LS and JPEG-2000.

  4. Creeping hair: an isolated hair burrowing in the uppermost dermis resembling larva migrans. (United States)

    Sakai, Rie; Higashi, Kushio; Ohta, Miyuki; Sugimoto, Yasushi; Ikoma, Yukiko; Horiguchi, Yuji


    A 55-year-old Japanese male presented with a slowly moving linear erythema that looked like an eruption of creeping disease, or cutaneous larva migrans. The eruption extended linearly along Langer's line of the lateral side of the abdomen to the lower back, leaving wave-like erythema. In the top third of the erythematous eruption, close examination demonstrated a black thin line, which was revealed to be a hair shaft by a shallow incision of the skin. After removal of the hair, the eruption diminished immediately, leaving a slight pigmentation. An ingrown pubic hair seemed to have migrated with the lower end forward along Langer's line, because of the arrangement of hair cuticle and the force of body motion. Linearly moving erythematous eruptions that look like that of larva migrans should be differentiated from creeping hair by close examination detecting burrowing hair.

  5. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Biggins, D.E.


    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pests).

  6. Patterns of surface burrow plugging in a colony of black-tailed prairie dogs occupied by black-footed ferrets (United States)

    Eads, David E.; Biggins, Dean E.


    Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) can surface-plug openings to a burrow occupied by a black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). At a coarse scale, surface plugs are more common in colonies of prairie dogs occupied by ferrets than in colonies without ferrets. However, little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of surface plugging in a colony occupied by ferrets. In a 452-ha colony of black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota, we sampled burrow openings for surface plugs and related those data to locations of ferrets observed during spotlight surveys. Of 67,574 burrow openings in the colony between June and September 2007, 3.7% were plugged. In a colony-wide grid of 80 m × 80 m cells, the occurrence of surface plugging (≥1 opening plugged) was greater in cells used by ferrets (93.3% of cells) than in cells not observably used by ferrets (70.6%). Rates of surface plugging (percentages of openings plugged) were significantly higher in cells used by ferrets (median = 3.7%) than in cells without known ferret use (median = 3.2%). Also, numbers of ferret locations in cells correlated positively with numbers of mapped surface plugs in the cells. To investigate surface plugging at finer temporal and spatial scales, we compared rates of surface plugging in 20-m-radius circle-plots centered on ferret locations and in random plots 1–4 days after observing a ferret (Jun–Oct 2007 and 2008). Rates of surface plugging were greater in ferret-plots (median = 12.0%) than in random plots (median = 0%). For prairie dogs and their associates, the implications of surface plugging could be numerous. For instance, ferrets must dig to exit or enter plugged burrows (suggesting energetic costs), and surface plugs might influence microclimates in burrows and consequently influence species that cannot excavate soil (e.g., fleas that transmit the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis).

  7. Linking Microbial Enzymatic Activities and Functional Diversity of Soil around Earthworm Burrows and Casts. (United States)

    Lipiec, Jerzy; Frąc, Magdalena; Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Turski, Marcin; Oszust, Karolina


    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of earthworms (Lumbricidae) on the enzymatic activity and microbial functional diversity in the burrow system [burrow wall (BW) 0-3 mm, transitional zone (TZ) 3-7 mm, bulk soil (BS) > 20 mm from the BW] and cast aggregates of a loess soil under a pear orchard. The dehydrogenase, β-glucosidase, protease, alkaline phosphomonoesterase, and acid phosphomonoesterase enzymes were assessed using standard methods. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using the Average Well Color Development and Richness Index following the community level physiological profiling from Biolog Eco Plates. All measurements were done using soil from each compartment immediately after in situ sampling in spring. The enzymatic activites including dehydrogenase, protease, β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphomonoesterase were appreciably greater in the BW or casts than in BS and TZ. Conversely, acid phosphomonoesterase had the largest value in the BS. Average Well Color Development in both the TZ and the BS (0.98-0.94 A590 nm) were more than eight times higher than in the BWs and casts. The lowest richness index in the BS (15 utilized substrates) increased by 86-113% in all the other compartments. The PC1 in principal component analysis mainly differentiated the BWs and the TZ. Utilization of all substrate categories was the lowest in the BS. The PC2 differentiated the casts from the other compartments. The enhanced activity of a majority of the enzymes and increased microbial functional diversity in most earthworm-influenced compartments make the soils less vulnerable to degradation and thus increases the stability of ecologically relevant processes in the orchard ecosystem.

  8. Cross-centre replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour as an ethologically relevant pain outcome measure in the rat: a prospective multicentre study (United States)

    Wodarski, Rachel; Delaney, Ada; Ultenius, Camilla; Morland, Rosie; Andrews, Nick; Baastrup, Catherine; Bryden, Luke A.; Caspani, Ombretta; Christoph, Thomas; Gardiner, Natalie J.; Huang, Wenlong; Kennedy, Jeffrey D.; Koyama, Suguru; Li, Dominic; Ligocki, Marcin; Lindsten, Annika; Machin, Ian; Pekcec, Anton; Robens, Angela; Rotariu, Sanziana M.; Voß, Sabrina; Segerdahl, Marta; Stenfors, Carina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Uto, Katsuhiro; Yamamoto, Kazumi; Rutten, Kris; Rice, Andrew S.C.


    Abstract Burrowing, an ethologically relevant rodent behaviour, has been proposed as a novel outcome measure to assess the global impact of pain in rats. In a prospective multicentre study using male rats (Wistar, Sprague-Dawley), replication of suppressed burrowing behaviour in the complete Freund adjuvant (CFA)-induced model of inflammatory pain (unilateral, 1 mg/mL in 100 µL) was evaluated in 11 studies across 8 centres. Following a standard protocol, data from participating centres were collected centrally and analysed with a restricted maximum likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. The total population (TP—all animals allocated to treatment; n = 249) and a selected population (SP—TP animals burrowing over 500 g at baseline; n = 200) were analysed separately, assessing the effect of excluding “poor” burrowers. Mean baseline burrowing across studies was 1113 g (95% confidence interval: 1041-1185 g) for TP and 1329 g (1271-1387 g) for SP. Burrowing was significantly suppressed in the majority of studies 24 hours (7 studies/population) and 48 hours (7 TP, 6 SP) after CFA injections. Across all centres, significantly suppressed burrowing peaked 24 hours after CFA injections, with a burrowing deficit of −374 g (−479 to −269 g) for TP and −498 g (−609 to −386 g) for SP. This unique multicentre approach first provided high-quality evidence evaluating suppressed burrowing as robust and reproducible, supporting its use as tool to infer the global effect of pain on rodents. Second, our approach provided important informative value for the use of multicentre studies in the future. PMID:27643836

  9. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, of thought both familiar and less familiar: Neoplatonic emanationism, perennialism, pantheism, universalism, and esotericism. Western Sufism, then, is the product not of the new age but of Islam, the ancient world, and centuries of Western religious and intellectual history. Drawing on sources from antiquity...... origins in repeated intercultural transfers from the Muslim world to the West, in the thought of the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, and in the intellectual and religious ferment of the nineteenth century. He then follows the development of organized Sufism in the West from 1915 until 1968...

  10. Occurrence of faecal pellet-filled simple and composite burrows in cold seep carbonates: A glimpse of a complex benthic ecosystem

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A; Joshi, R.K.; Peketi, A; Kocherla, M.

    indicates methane expulsion that resulted in the development of a cold seep ecosystem. Although cold seep communities are extensively reported from the rock record and modern seep sites, hardly any information is available on burrowing activity of the seep...

  11. Prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis). (United States)

    Salkeld, Dan J; Stapp, Paul


    Plague, the disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on North American wildlife. Epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (Siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of Y. pestis between epizootics. We monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in northern Colorado. Oropsylla hirsuta was the most commonly found flea, and it increased in abundance with temperature. In contrast, Oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris declined with rising temperature. During plague epizootics, flea abundance in burrows increased and then subsequently declined after the extirpation of their prairie dog hosts.

  12. Hidden dichromatism in the Burrowing Parrot (Cyanoliseus patagonus) as revealed by spectrometric colour analysis


    Masello, Juan F; Lubjuhn, Thomas; Quillfeldt, Petra


    Bird colour perception differs fundamentally from that of humans. Birds have more cone types in the retina, including UV or violet cones, which enable them to perceive a wider spectral range. Thus, human colour perception can be deceiving when assessing functional aspects of bird plumage coloration, such as the intensity of sexual selection. In this study we measured reflectance spectra of different plumage regions of male and female Burrowing Parrot (Cyanoliseus patagonus) individuals. Altho...

  13. Burrowing seabird effects on invertebrate communities in soil and litter are dominated by ecosystem engineering rather than nutrient addition. (United States)

    Orwin, Kate H; Wardle, David A; Towns, David R; St John, Mark G; Bellingham, Peter J; Jones, Chris; Fitzgerald, Brian M; Parrish, Richard G; Lyver, Phil O'B


    Vertebrate consumers can be important drivers of the structure and functioning of ecosystems, including the soil and litter invertebrate communities that drive many ecosystem processes. Burrowing seabirds, as prevalent vertebrate consumers, have the potential to impact consumptive effects via adding marine nutrients to soil (i.e. resource subsidies) and non-consumptive effects via soil disturbance associated with excavating burrows (i.e. ecosystem engineering). However, the exact mechanisms by which they influence invertebrates are poorly understood. We examined how soil chemistry and plant and invertebrate communities changed across a gradient of seabird burrow density on two islands in northern New Zealand. Increasing seabird burrow density was associated with increased soil nutrient availability and changes in plant community structure and the abundance of nearly all the measured invertebrate groups. Increasing seabird densities had a negative effect on invertebrates that were strongly influenced by soil-surface litter, a positive effect on fungal-feeding invertebrates, and variable effects on invertebrate groups with diverse feeding strategies. Gastropoda and Araneae species richness and composition were also influenced by seabird activity. Generalized multilevel path analysis revealed that invertebrate responses were strongly driven by seabird engineering effects, via increased soil disturbance, reduced soil-surface litter, and changes in trophic interactions. Almost no significant effects of resource subsidies were detected. Our results show that seabirds, and in particular their non-consumptive effects, were significant drivers of invertebrate food web structure. Reductions in seabird populations, due to predation and human activity, may therefore have far-reaching consequences for the functioning of these ecosystems.

  14. Fossil worm burrows reveal very early terrestrial animal activity and shed light on trophic resources after the end-cretaceous mass extinction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Chin

    Full Text Available The widespread mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous caused world-wide disruption of ecosystems, and faunal responses to the one-two punch of severe environmental perturbation and ecosystem collapse are still unclear. Here we report the discovery of in situ terrestrial fossil burrows from just above the impact-defined Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg boundary in southwestern North Dakota. The crisscrossing networks of horizontal burrows occur at the interface of a lignitic coal and silty sandstone, and reveal intense faunal activity within centimeters of the boundary clay. Estimated rates of sedimentation and coal formation suggest that the burrows were made less than ten thousand years after the end-Cretaceous impact. The burrow characteristics are most consistent with burrows of extant earthworms. Moreover, the burrowing and detritivorous habits of these annelids fit models that predict the trophic and sheltering lifestyles of terrestrial animals that survived the K/Pg extinction event. In turn, such detritus-eaters would have played a critical role in supporting secondary consumers. Thus, some of the carnivorous vertebrates that radiated after the K/Pg extinction may owe their evolutionary success to thriving populations of earthworms.

  15. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand. (United States)

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J


    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution.

  16. Synthesis of Pt nanoparticles and their burrowing into Si due to synergistic effects of ion beam energy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar


    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of Pt nanoparticles and their burrowing into silicon upon irradiation of a Pt–Si thin film with medium-energy neon ions at constant fluence (1.0 × 1017 ions/cm2. Several values of medium-energy neon ions were chosen in order to vary the ratio of the electronic energy loss to the nuclear energy loss (Se/Sn from 1 to 10. The irradiated films were characterized using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. A TEM image of a cross section of the film irradiated with Se/Sn = 1 shows ≈5 nm Pt NPs were buried up to ≈240 nm into the silicon. No silicide phase was detected in the XRD pattern of the film irradiated at the highest value of Se/Sn. The synergistic effect of the energy losses of the ion beam (molten zones are produced by Se, and sputtering and local defects are produced by Sn leading to the synthesis and burrowing of Pt NPs is evidenced. The Pt NP synthesis mechanism and their burrowing into the silicon is discussed in detail.

  17. Large-scale compression of genomic sequence databases with the Burrows-Wheeler transform

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Anthony J; Jakobi, Tobias; Rosone, Giovanna


    Motivation The Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) is the foundation of many algorithms for compression and indexing of text data, but the cost of computing the BWT of very large string collections has prevented these techniques from being widely applied to the large sets of sequences often encountered as the outcome of DNA sequencing experiments. In previous work, we presented a novel algorithm that allows the BWT of human genome scale data to be computed on very moderate hardware, thus enabling us to investigate the BWT as a tool for the compression of such datasets. Results We first used simulated reads to explore the relationship between the level of compression and the error rate, the length of the reads and the level of sampling of the underlying genome and compare choices of second-stage compression algorithm. We demonstrate that compression may be greatly improved by a particular reordering of the sequences in the collection and give a novel `implicit sorting' strategy that enables these benefits to be re...

  18. Natural AD-Like Neuropathology in Octodon degus: Impaired Burrowing and Neuroinflammation. (United States)

    Deacon, Robert M J; Altimiras, Francisco J; Bazan-Leon, Enrique A; Pyarasani, Rhada D; Nachtigall, Fabiane M; Santos, Leonardo S; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Pednekar, Lina; Kishore, Uday; Biekofsky, Rodolfo R; Vasquez, Rodrigo A; Cogram, Patricia


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, affecting more than 36 million people worldwide. Octodon degus, a South American rodent, has been found to spontaneously develop neuropathological signs of AD, including amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau deposits, as well as a decline in cognition with age. Firstly, the present work introduces a novel behavioral assessment for O. degus - the burrowing test - which appears to be a useful tool for detecting neurodegeneration in the O. degus model for AD. Such characterization has potentially wide-ranging implications, because many of these changes in species-typical behaviors are reminiscent of the impairments in activities of daily living (ADL), so characteristic of human AD. Furthermore, the present work characterizes the AD-like neuropathology in O. degus from a gene expression point of view, revealing a number of previously unreported AD biomarkers, which are found in human AD: amyloid precursor protein (APP), apolipoprotein E (ApoE), oxidative stress-related genes from the NFE2L2 and PPAR pathway, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines and complement proteins, in agreement with the known link between neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. In summary, the present results confirm a natural neuropathology in O. degus with similar characteristics to AD at behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. These characteristics put O. degus in a singular position as a natural rodent model for research into AD pathogenesis and therapeutics against AD.

  19. Enzyme activity in the aestivating green-striped burrowing frog (Cyclorana alboguttata). (United States)

    Mantle, Beth L; Guderley, Helga; Hudson, Nicholas J; Franklin, Craig E


    Green-striped burrowing frogs (Cyclorana alboguttata) can depress their resting metabolism by more than 80% during aestivation. Previous studies have shown that this species is able to withstand long periods of immobilisation during aestivation while apparently maintaining whole muscle mass and contractile performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prolonged aestivation on the levels of metabolic enzymes (CCO, LDH and CS) in functionally distinct skeletal muscles (cruralis, gastrocnemius, sartorius, iliofibularis and rectus abdominus) and liver of C. alboguttata. CS activity was significantly reduced in all tissues except for the cruralis, gastrocnemius and the liver. LDH activity was significantly reduced in the sartorius and rectus abdominus, but remained at control (active) levels in the other tissues. CCO activity was significantly reduced in the gastrocnemius and rectus abdominus, and unchanged in the remaining tissues. Muscle protein was significantly reduced in the sartorius and iliofibularis during aestivation, and unchanged in the remaining muscles. The results suggest that the energy pathways involved in the production and consumption of ATP are remodelled during prolonged aestivation but selective. Remodelling and subsequent down-regulation of metabolic activity seem to target the smaller non-jumping muscles, while the jumping muscles retain enzyme activities at control levels during aestivation. These results suggest a mechanism by which aestivating C. alboguttata are able to maintain metabolic depression while ensuring that the functional capacity of critical muscles is not compromised upon emergence from aestivation.

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of Darwin's "Mr. Arthrobalanus": The burrowing barnacles (Cirripedia: Acrothoracica). (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Chin; Kobasov, Gregory A; Chan, Benny K K


    The barnacles of the superorder Acrothoracica are small, burrowing, epibiotic, and dioecious (large female with dwarf male) crustaceans largely found in the carbonate sediments and skeletons of marine invertebrates. The acrothoracicans represent the Cirripedia with the most plesiomorphic characters and have prominently featured in phylogenetic speculations concerning these crustaceans. Traditionally, Acrothoracica was divided into two main orders, Pygophora and Apygophora. The Apygophora had uniramus cirri and no anus. The Pygophora had biramus terminal cirri and an anus and was further divided into two families, Lithoglyptidae and Cryptophialidae. Kolbasov (2009) revised the superorder Acrothoracica on the basis of morphological examinations of females, dwarf males, and cyprids and rearranged the acrothoracican species into two new orders, Lithoglyptida and Cryptophialida. The present study is the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of acrothoracican barnacles by sequencing two mitochondrial (cytochrome C oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and two nuclear (18S ribosomal DNA and histone H3) markers of 8 of the 11 genera comprising 23 acrothoracican species. All monophylies of the eight acrothoracican genera sampled in this study were strongly supported. The deep interfamilial relationship constructed is consistent with the recent morphological phylogenetic relationship proposed by Kolbasov, Newman, and Høeg (Kolbasov, 2009) that Cryptophialidae (order Cryptophialida) is the sister group to all other acrothoracicans (order Lithoglyptida). According to an ancestral character state reconstruction analysis, the posterior lobes of females; armament of opercular bars, attachment stalk, lateral projections of the body, and aperture slits in dwarf males; and habitat use appear to have phylogenetic importance.

  1. Lossless compression of 3D hyperspectral sounder data using the wavelet and Burrows-Wheeler transforms (United States)

    Wei, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Bormin


    Hyperspectral sounder data is used for retrieval of useful geophysical parameters which promise better weather prediction. It features two characteristics. First it is huge in size with 2D spatial coverage and high spectral resolution in the infrared region. Second it allows low tolerance of noise and error in retrieving the geophysical parameters where a mathematically ill-posed problem is involved. Therefore compression is better to be lossless or near lossless for data transfer and archive. Meanwhile medical data from X-ray computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques also possesses similar characteristics. It provides motivation to apply lossless compression schemes for medical data to the hyperspectral sounder data. In this paper, we explore the use of a wavelet-based lossless data compression scheme for the 3D hyperspectral data which uses in sequence a forward difference scheme, an integer wavelet transform, a Burrows-Wheeler transform and an arithmetic coder. Compared to previous work, our approach is shown to outperform the CALIC and 3D EZW schemes.

  2. Pre-Migratory Movements by Juvenile Burrowing Owls in a Patchy Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Danielle. Todd


    Full Text Available Dispersal is a fundamental aspect of population dynamics, and can have direct implications on processes such as the colonization of habitat patches. Pre-migratory movements, landscape fragmentation, and body condition have all been hypothesized as key factors influencing dispersal in birds, but little direct evidence exists to support these ideas. We used radio-telemetry and supplementary feeding to test if body condition or landscape pattern influenced pre-migratory movements of juvenile Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia in a fragmented landscape. We categorized grassland patches as either large (≥95 ha or small and isolated (≤58 ha and ≥1.5 km to next nearest grassland patch, and young owls were either provided supplemental food as nestlings or not. Owlets receiving supplemental food and residing in large grassland patches moved a greater maximum distance from their nest than similarly fed owlets residing in small patches (large = 1605 ± 443 m; small = 373 ± 148 m. In contrast, non-supplemented owlets from large and small patches did not differ in their maximum distance moved from the nest (large = 745 ± 307 m; small 555 ± 286 m. Only two of 32 individuals from small patches moved >800 m, whereas ten of 23 owlets from large patches moved >800 m. In addition, owlets from large patches continued to move farther and farther from their nest before migration, whereas owlets in small, isolated patches ultimately moved

  3. Population structure of the burrowing crab Neohelice granulata (Brachyura, Varunidae in a southwestern Atlantic salt marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Angeletti


    Full Text Available Neohelice granulata inhabits estuarine and protected coastal areas in temperate regions and is the most dominant decapod crustacean in the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. The population structure was studied during a year in a SW Atlantic salt marsh located in the Bahía Blanca Estuary. Crabs were sampled monthly from August 2010 to July 2011. The maximum observed density was 30 crabs m-2 in February and 70 burrows m-2 in May. The maximum carapace width (CW was 32 and 27.5 mm in males and females respectively. Medium size crabs were between 16 and 20 mm CW. Significantly smaller sized crabs were observed at the lower intertidal regions (P < 0.05. The sex ratio was favorable for males and was significantly different from the expected 1:1 (P < 0.05. The recruitment of unsexed juveniles crabs (CW <6.5 mm was observed throughout the year and the presence of ovigerous females from October to February indicated seasonal reproduction. The average size of ovigerous females was CW = 20.8 mm and the smallest ovigerous female measured was 16 mm CW. For the first time, the population structure of the most important macro-invertebrate is analyzed in the Bahía Blanca Estuary. This study may help to make decisions in the area, where anthropic action is progressing day by day.

  4. Investigation of plutonium concentration and distribution in burrowing crayfish from the White Oak Creek floodplain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, M.S.; Dahlman, R.C.; Craig, R.B.


    The White Oak floodplain was contaminated with several radionuclides, including /sup 239/Pu, during the Manhattan Project in 1944. Plutonium distribution in the soil is nonhomogeneous. An investigation was conducted to deterine Pu accumulation in a resident animal population. Crayfish were chosen because they complete their life-cycle within the contaminated environment, they directly contact contaminated muds, and they function in a food chain of significance to man. Two major conclusions of the research were that Pu concentrations in contaminated crayfish typically exceed those of control crayfish by two orders of magnitude and that if an incident were to occur in which a standard man ingested the soft tissues of ten crayfish from the floodplain, an insignificant whole body dose would accrue over the subsequent 50 years of life. The digestive tract of contaminated crayfish contained 21 to 33% of the Pu body burden, soft tissues contained 11 to 31% of the Pu body burden, and 48 to 62% of the Pu body burden of contaminated crayfish was associated with the carapace. Therefore, at a molt a large proportion of its accumulated Pu is deposited in the environment. A supplementary laboratory investigation using /sup 237/Pu included a chronic Pu uptake study by uncontaminated crayfish. In these crayfish, from 64 to 82% of the /sup 237/Pu was associated with the body tissues. Complementary data for /sup 237/Pu associated with the carapace ranged from 18 to 37% of the distribution. An inventory of /sup 239/Pu in crayfish at two sites on the floodplain was calculated by multiplying the estimated biomass of the crayfish by their average /sup 239/Pu concentration. This evaluation of Pu associated with the crayfish population was compared to an inventory of /sup 239/Pu in the soil in which they burrow and was found to be eight orders of magnitude less.

  5. Comparison of hydraulics and particle removal efficiencies in a mixed cell raceway and Burrows pond rearing system (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.


    We compared the hydrodynamics of replicate experimental mixed cell and replicate standard Burrows pond rearing systems at the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, ID, in an effort to identify methods for improved solids removal. We measured and compared the hydraulic residence time, particle removal efficiency, and measures of velocity using several tools. Computational fluid dynamics was used first to characterize hydraulics in the proposed retrofit that included removal of the traditional Burrows pond dividing wall and establishment of four counter rotating cells with appropriate drains and inlet water jets. Hydraulic residence time was subsequently established in the four full scale test tanks using measures of conductivity of a salt tracer introduced into the systems both with and without fish present. Vertical and horizontal velocities were also measured with acoustic Doppler velocimetry in transects across each of the rearing systems. Finally, we introduced ABS sinking beads that simulated fish solids then followed the kinetics of their removal via the drains to establish relative purge rates. The mixed cell raceway provided higher mean velocities and a more uniform velocity distribution than did the Burrows pond. Vectors revealed well-defined, counter-rotating cells in the mixed cell raceway, and were likely contributing factors in achieving a relatively high particle removal efficiency-88.6% versus 8.0% during the test period. We speculate retrofits of rearing ponds to mixed cell systems will improve both the rearing environments for the fish and solids removal, improving the efficiency and bio-security of fish culture. We recommend further testing in hatchery production trials to evaluate fish physiology and growth.

  6. The assessment of general well-being using spontaneous burrowing behaviour in a short-term model of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in the rat. (United States)

    Whittaker, A L; Lymn, K A; Nicholson, A; Howarth, G S


    Mucositis is a common and serious side-effect experienced by cancer patients during treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Consequently, programmes of research focus on the elucidation of novel therapeutics for alleviation of mucositis symptoms, and these frequently use animal models. However, although these models are assumed to be painful and distressing to the animal, endpoints are difficult to determine. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a change in burrowing behaviour could provide an indication of disease onset and potentially be applied as a humane endpoint. Baseline burrowing behaviour was measured in healthy animals on three occasions by determining the weight of gravel displaced from a hollow tube. Mucositis was then induced in the same animals by intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) and burrowing behaviour recorded over three consecutive days. Standard measures of disease progression, including body weight loss and clinical score, were also made. The presence of mucositis was confirmed at necropsy by findings of decreased duodenal and colon lengths, and reduced liver, spleen and thymus weights in comparison with non-treated control animals. Histological score of the jejunum and ileum was also significantly increased. Mucositis onset coincided with a decrease in mean burrowing behaviour which was progressive, however this result did not achieve statistical significance (P = 0.66).We conclude that burrowing may be a useful indicator of inflammation in the mucositis model, although this requires further characterization. Pre-selection of animals into treatment groups based on their prior burrowing performance should be pursued in further studies.

  7. Comparison of burrowing and stimuli-evoked pain behaviors as end-points in rat models of inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun eMuralidharan


    Full Text Available Establishment and validation of ethologically-relevant, non-evoked behavioral end-points as surrogate measures of spontaneous pain in rodent pain models has been proposed as a means to improve preclinical to clinical research translation in the pain field. Here, we compared the utility of burrowing behavior with hypersensitivity to applied mechanical stimuli for pain assessment in rat models of chronic inflammatory and peripheral neuropathic pain. Briefly, groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to the burrowing environment and trained over a 5-day period. Rats that burrowed ≤450g of gravel on any two days of the individual training phase were excluded from the study. The remaining rats received either a unilateral intraplantar injection of Freund’s complete adjuvant (FCA or saline, or underwent unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI of the sciatic nerve- or sham-surgery. Baseline burrowing behavior and evoked pain behaviors were assessed prior to model induction, and twice-weekly until study completion on day 14. For FCA- and CCI-rats, but not the corresponding groups of sham-rats, evoked mechanical hypersensitivity developed in a temporal manner in the ipsilateral hindpaws. Although burrowing behavior also decreased in a temporal manner for both FCA- and CCI-rats, there was considerable inter-animal variability. By contrast, mechanical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral hindpaws of FCA- and CCI-rats respectively, exhibited minimal inter-animal variability. Our data collectively show that burrowing behavior is altered in rodent models of chronic inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathic pain. However, large group sizes are needed to ensure studies are adequately powered due to considerable inter-animal variability.

  8. A Fast Algorithm for Burrows-Wheeler Transform Using Suffix Sorting%一种基于后缀排序快速实现Burrows-Wheeler变换的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰; 龙冰洁; 刘勇


    近年来,Bzip2压缩算法凭借其在压缩率方面的优势,得到了越来越多的应用,Bzip2的核心算法是Burrows-Wheeler变换(BWT), BWT能有效的将数据中相同的字符聚集到一起,为进一步压缩创造条件。在硬件实现 BWT 时,常用的基于后缀排序的算法能有效克服 BWT 消耗存储资源大的问题,该文对基于后缀排序实现BWT的方法进行了详细分析,并且在此基础上提出了一种快速实现BWT的方法后缀段算法。仿真结果表明后缀段算法在处理速度上比传统的基于后缀排序的算法有很大的提高。%Bzip2, a lossless compression algorithm, is widely used in recent years because of its high compression ratio. Burrows-Wheeler Transform (BWT) is the key factor in Bzip2. This method can gather the same symbols together. The traditional methods which are based on suffix sorting used in implement of BWT in hardware can solve the problem of memory consumption effectively. Detail analysis of BWT algorithm based on suffix sorting is given and a new methodSuffix segment method is presented in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed method can much decrease BWT time consumption without increasing memory consumption much.

  9. Oxygen equilibria and ligand binding kinetics of erythrocruorins from two burrowing polychaetes of different modes of life, Marphysa sanguinea and Diopatra cuprea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Bonaventura, J.; Sullivan, B.;


    Oxygen equilibria, ligand-binding kinetics and some other physicochemical properties are reported for erythrocruorins of two intertidal polychaetes:Marphysa sanguinea, which inhabits simple, relatively stagnant burrows, andDiopatra cuprea, which inhabits impermeable, parchment-like tubes that are...

  10. Locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of Nematostella vectensis (Anthozoa: Actiniaria: Edwardsiidae): a contribution to a comparative study of burrowing behaviour in athenarian sea anemones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.B.


    The locomotory behaviour and functional morphology of English populations of a small (<2 cm long), burrowing athenarian sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis Stephenson, 1935 (= N. pellucida Crowell, 1946), which lives in soft mud in salt marshes and creeks, are described. Objectives were to ascertain

  11. Effect of prolonged inactivity on skeletal motor nerve terminals during aestivation in the burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata. (United States)

    Hudson, Nicholas J; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Choy, Peng T; Franklin, Craig E


    This study examined the effect of prolonged inactivity, associated with aestivation, on neuromuscular transmission in the green-striped burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata. We compared the structure and function of the neuromuscular junctions on the iliofibularis muscle from active C. alboguttata and from C. alboguttata that had been aestivating for 6 months. Despite the prolonged period of immobility, there was no significant difference in the shape of the terminals (primary, secondary or tertiary branches) or the length of primary terminal branches between aestivators and non-aestivators. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the membrane potentials of muscle fibres or in miniature end plate potential (EPP) frequency and amplitude. However, there was a significant decrease in evoked transmitter release characterised by a 56% decrease in mean EPP amplitude, and a 29% increase in the failure rate of nerve terminal action potentials to evoke transmitter release. The impact of this suite of neuromuscular characteristics on the locomotor performance of emergent frogs is discussed.

  12. The feeding habits of Austrolethops wardi, a gobiid fish inhabiting burrows of the thalassinidean shrimp Neaxius acanthus (United States)

    Hung Liu, Ha Trieu; Kneer, Dominik; Asmus, Harald; Ahnelt, Harald


    The feeding habit of Austrolethops wardi (Gobiidae) in the seagrass beds of Barrang Lompo and Bone Batang Island in the Spermonde Archipelago, South West Sulawesi, Indonesia, was investigated through gut content analysis. The feeding preferences of this species are very similar on both islands: A. wardi, a burrow associate of Neaxius acanthus, was found to feed almost exclusively on seagrass (which was found in 100% of the investigated stomachs and made up >94% of food items). However, seagrass epiphytes (<5% of food items) and animal food (<1% of food items) occurred in the guts as well, the latter predominantly in terms of copepods and to a lesser degree in other small invertebrates. These results indicate that animal food is of little importance for A. wardi. Some specimens even contained no parts of animal food.

  13. Critiques of the seismic hypothesis and the vegetation stabilization hypothesis for the formation of Mima mounds along the western coast of the U.S. (United States)

    Gabet, Emmanuel J.; Burnham, Jennifer L. Horwath; Perron, J. Taylor


    A recent paper published in Geomorphology by Gabet et al. (2014) presents the results of a numerical model supporting the hypothesis that burrowing mammals build Mima mounds - small, densely packed hillocks found primarily in the western United States. The model is based on field observations and produces realistic-looking mounds with spatial distributions similar to real moundfields. Alternative explanations have been proposed for these Mima mounds, including formation by seismic shaking and vegetation-controlled erosion and deposition. In this short communication, we present observations from moundfields in the coastal states of the western U.S. that are incompatible with these alternative theories.

  14. Composite Phymatoderma from Neogene deep-marine deposits in Japan: Implications for Phanerozoic benthic interactions between burrows and the trace-makers of Chondrites and Phycosiphon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Izumi


    Full Text Available Among composite trace fossils, one of the most common structures throughout the Phanerozoic are structures (e.g., dwelling trace, feeding trace reworked by Chondrites and/or Phycosiphon. However, differences in the nature of the reworking behaviors of these two ichnogenera remain unknown. Thus, in this study, composite Phymatoderma specimens from the Neogene deep-marine Shiramazu Formation in Japan, particularly those reworked by Chondrites and Phycosiphon, were analyzed to reveal the specific conditions that might control the activities of these trace-makers. Phymatoderma reworked by Phycosiphon is significantly larger than non-reworked Phymatoderma, whereas Phymatoderma reworked by Chondrites shows no significant difference in burrow diameter compared with non-reworked Phymatoderma. The recognized size selectivity (i.e., preference for larger burrows by the Phycosiphon trace-maker can be explained by considering the different feeding strategies of these two ichnogenera; namely deposit-feeding Phycosiphon-makers, which must have processed a significant mass of sediment to obtain sufficient organic matter, whereas chemosymbiotic Chondrites-producers did not require a lot of sediment to obtain nutrients. In order to test these interpretations, a dataset of Phanerozoic trace fossils reworked by Chondrites/Phycosiphon were compiled. Consequently, the Phycosiphon-producers’ preference toward relatively larger burrows was recognized, quantitatively supporting the results of this study. The compilation also indicates that the burrow size might have become one of the important limiting factors for the Phycosiphon-producers that tried to rework the sediments within previous subsurface burrows, at least for 80 million years.

  15. Macroscopic anatomy of the lower respiratory system in a nocturnal burrowing rodent: African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse 1840). (United States)

    Ibe, C S; Salami, S O; Onyeanusi, B I


    Cricetomys gambianus is a rat that lives principally in burrows, coming out at night in search of food. The design and structure of the lower respiratory system reflects its oxygen and metabolic demand which can be attributed to its habitat. A morphological and morphometric investigation of its lower respiratory system was undertaken to document the normal anatomical features and assess its morpho-functional paradigm. Specifically, an anatomical detail of the lungs and conductive airway was described, the structures being elucidated by dissection and radiography. Evaluation of dissected specimens showed that tracheal cartilages ranged from 21 to 33 rings with an average of 25.5. They exhibited a random pattern of anastomoses between adjacent rings. Transverse diameters of the principal bronchus in the male and female rats were 3.767 and 3.759 mm respectively. The right lung consisted of four lobes while the left lung was not lobed. Bronchogram revealed that lung lobation corresponded with bronchial tree division. Inter-lobar fissures were absent on the right lung except for the ventral boarder separating the cranial lobe from the caudal lobe. The entire lungs provided stability to the heart in situ, through the cardiac notch. This study also included correlation analysis of the dimensions, weights and volumes of the lower respiratory organs with the nose-rump length and body weight of 18 African giant pouched rats of both sexes. The relationship of the anatomy of the lower respiratory system of the rodent to the oxygen tension in their burrow and to their energy utilization is discussed.

  16. Urban pollution of sediments: Impact on the physiology and burrowing activity of tubificid worms and consequences on biogeochemical processes. (United States)

    Pigneret, M; Mermillod-Blondin, F; Volatier, L; Romestaing, C; Maire, E; Adrien, J; Guillard, L; Roussel, D; Hervant, F


    In urban areas, infiltration basins are designed to manage stormwater runoff from impervious surfaces and allow the settling of associated pollutants. The sedimentary layer deposited at the surface of these structures is highly organic and multicontaminated (mainly heavy metals and hydrocarbons). Only few aquatic species are able to maintain permanent populations in such an extreme environment, including the oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri. Nevertheless, the impact of urban pollutants on these organisms and the resulting influence on infiltration basin functioning remain poorly studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine how polluted sediments could impact the survival, the physiology and the bioturbation activity of L. hoffmeisteri and thereby modify biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface. To this end, we conducted laboratory incubations of worms, in polluted sediments from infiltration basins or slightly polluted sediments from a stream. Analyses were performed to evaluate physiological state and burrowing activity (X-ray micro-tomography) of worms and their influences on biogeochemical processes (nutrient fluxes, CO2 and CH4 degassing rates) during 30-day long experiments. Our results showed that worms exhibited physiological responses to cope with high pollution levels, including a strong ability to withstand the oxidative stress linked to contamination with heavy metals. We also showed that the presence of urban pollutants significantly increased the burrowing activity of L. hoffmeisteri, demonstrating the sensitivity and the relevance of such a behavioural response as biomarker of sediment toxicity. In addition, we showed that X-ray micro-tomography was an adequate technique for accurate and non-invasive three-dimensional investigations of biogenic structures formed by bioturbators. The presence of worms induced stimulations of nutrient fluxes and organic matter recycling (between +100% and 200% of CO2 degassing rate

  17. 论小说中的空间叙事——以《地洞》为例%On Spatial Narrative in Fiction as Exemplified in"The Burrow"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    在西方叙事理论"空间转向"的影响下,国内于20世纪末开始出现"空间叙事"这个概念,不同著述中所讨论的空间叙事,所指往往不同,有的指作品中空间的功能,有的指空间的意义,有的指叙事的空间形式,文章以卡夫卡的《地洞》为例,将"空间叙事"视为一种叙事模式来展开讨论.认为,小说中的空间叙事主要表现在3个方面:第一,以空间为叙事"前景";第二,以空间组织叙事;第三,以空间为意义主体.《地洞》通过空间叙事模式,叙说着现代人的空间体验、空间焦虑、空间危机和空间矛盾,体现了存在与空间之间前所未有的密切联系.%Under the influence of the"Spatial Turn" of narrative theoretical research in the Western Countries, the term of"Spatial Narrative" was put forward in China in the end of last century, and the problem of a spatial turn in narratology was raised in the beginning of this century. However, the same term in different papers can refer to different things, some referring to the functions of space in literary works, some to the significance of space, some to the spatial form of the narrative. Then, what are the features of spatial narrative? The present paper will view spatial narrative as a narrative model, and attempts to analyze its characteristics in the scope of fictional narrative, on the basis of a case study on Kafka's short storyThe Burrow. The author holds that the spatial narrative in fictions is mainly characterized by the following three aspects: firstly, space is set as the"foreground" of narrative; secondly, the narration is organized by space; and thirdly, space is the main source of the fictional theme. In terms of these aspects, the paper discovers that"The Burrow" employs the model of spatial narrative, through which it narrates the spatial experiences, anxieties, crises and conflicts of the modern men, thus revealing the close relation between human existence and space.

  18. Darwin taxonomist: Barnacles and shell burrowing barnacles Darwin taxónomo: cirrípedos y cirrípedos perforadores de conchas



    This bibliographic review revisits circumstances in which the wharf, shell burrowing barnacle, Cryptophialus minutus, was first collected by Charles Darwin in southern Chile, in 1836. Further, explores how its collection marked Darwin's taxonomical interest in Cirripedia. A short review analyzes the initial number of extant species of Cirripedia, as described by Darwin and the present situation, with emphasis on recent collections of C. minutus in the southern tip of South America.Esta revisi...

  19. Chemotaxis of Caenorhabditis elegans in complex media: crawling, burrowing, 2D and 3D swimming, and controlled fluctuations hypothesis (United States)

    Patel, Amar; Bilbao, Alejandro; Rahman, Mizanur; Vanapalli, Siva; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy

    Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful genetic model, essential for studies in diverse areas ranging from behavior to neuroscience to aging, and locomotion and chemotaxis are the two key observables used. We combine our recently developed theory of nematode locomotion and turning maneuvers [Phys. Fluids 25, 081902 (2013)] with simple models of chemosensation to analyze nematode chemotaxis strategies in 2D and 3D environments. We show that the sharp-turn (pirouette) chemotaxis mechanism is efficient in diverse media; in particular, the nematode does not need to adjust the sensing or motion-control parameters to efficiently chemotax in 2D crawling, 3D burrowing, and 2D or 3D swimming. In contrast, the graduate-turn mechanism becomes inefficient in swimming, unless a phase-shift is introduced between the sensing signal and modulation of body wave to generate the gradual turn. We hypothesize that there exists a new ``controlled fluctuations'' chemotaxis mechanism, in which the nematode changes the intensity of undulation fluctuations to adjust the persistence length of the trajectory in response to a variation in chemoattractant concentration. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET 1059745.

  20. The geometry and fluid dynamics of two- and three-dimensional maneuvers of burrowing and swimming C. elegans (United States)

    Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; Bilbao, Alejandro; Patel, Amar; Rahman, Mizanur; Vanapalli, Siva A.


    In its natural environment, which is decomposing organic matter and water, C. elegans swims and burrows in 3D complex media. Yet quantitative investigations of C. elegans locomotion have been limited to 2D motion. Recently we have provided a quantitative analysis of turning maneuvers of crawling and swimming nematodes on flat surfaces and in 2D fluid layers. Here, we follow with the first full 3D description of how C. elegans moves in complex 3D environments. We show that the nematode can explore 3D space by combining 2D turns with roll maneuvers that result in rotation of the undulation plane around the direction of motion. Roll motion is achieved by superposing a 2D curvature wave with nonzero body torsion; 2D turns (within the current undulation plane) are attained by variation of undulation wave parameters. Our results indicate that while hydrodynamic interactions reduce angles of 2D turns, the roll efficiency is significantly enhanced. This hydrodynamic effect explains the rapid nematode reorientation observed in 3D swimming.

  1. A case of leucism in the burrowing owl Athene cunicularia (Aves: Strigiformes with confirmation of species identity using cytogenetic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M Nogueira


    Full Text Available Leucism is an inherited disorder, characterized by the lack of pigments in part or all of the body, normal coloration of the eyes and, in birds, in naked parts such as the bill and legs. This kind of disorder is sometimes erroneously designated as albinism or partial albinism. In this study, we present a case of leucism in a wild owl. The studied individual presented completely white plumage, light-yellow coloration of legs and bill and normal coloration of eyes. According to morphological features, this owl is a specimen of burrowing owl, Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782. To confirm the species identity, we used cytogenetic analyses for karyotypic determination, comparing it to the previously described one in the literature. We also studied a captive female of A. cunicularia to complement the species karyotype, which was described in the literature based only on a single male. The karyotype of the leucistic owl individual was compatible with the previously published one for A. cunicularia, confirming the bird was a male specimen. Cytogenetic analysis of the captive female showed that the W sex chromosome is metacentric and comparable to the seventh pair in size. This is the first description of a case of leucism in A. cunicularia for South America. Long-term studies are needed in the Neotropical region to evaluate survival and breeding success in leucistic birds.

  2. Western Retrospections and Outlook

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This year marks the 10-year anniversary of the strategy on development of China’s western region. With a land area of 6.85 million square km, accounting for 71.4 percent of the country’s total, the western region has been an indispensable part in achieving China’s overall prosperity and

  3. Effects of human disturbance on a burrow nesting seabird Efectos de la presencia de humanos en aves marinas que anidan en madrigueras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Albores-Barajas


    Full Text Available During 2004, we followed 72 natural burrows to determine the effects of disturbance on breeding success of Cassin's auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus. We used distance from a human settlement or path in the analysis of disturbance. Birds whose burrows were closer to the path or the village had a higher rate of nest abandonment and lower breeding success compared to birds nesting further away from the path or the village. Also, older and more experienced individuals represented a larger proportion of the breeding population on less disturbed areas than on highly disturbed ones, probably as older individuals tend to arrive earlier at the breeding grounds, and failed breeders may change burrow sites to move away from disturbance. P. aleuticus are adversely affected by human activity at colonies even if birds are not handled and burrows are not opened, and this has implications for conservation, and planning of ecotourism. On the long term, this can have negative consequences for this species and others with similar characteristics.Durante el 2004 seguimos 72 nidos de la alcuela (Ptychoramphus aleuticus para determinar los efectos de disturbio en el éxito reproductivo. Utilizamos la distancia del nido a áreas asentamientos humanos o al camino como medidas de disturbio. Los nidos que estaban más cerca de los asentamientos o del camino tuvieron una tasa de abandono mayor y un éxito reproductivo menor en comparación con los nidos que estaban más alejados de las fuentes de disturbio. También observamos que en las zonas menos expuestas la proporción de adultos, con mayor experiencia, era más alta, posiblemente porque los individuos con mayor experiencia llegan antes a la zona de anidación. Las alcuelas son afectadas negativamente por la presencia de los humanos y sus actividades, aunque las aves no entren en contacto directo con los humanos. A largo plazo, esto puede acarrear consecuencias graves para esta especie y otras con caracter

  4. Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A. [Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Heteren (Netherlands). Dept. of Terrestrial Ecology; Hamilton, James G.C.; Ward, Richard D. [University of Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom). Centre for Applied Entomology and Parasitology. Dept. of Biological Sciences


    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L. longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies. (author)

  5. Annual production of burrowing mayfly nymphs (Hexagenia spp.) in U.S. waters of Lake St. Clair (United States)

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Haas, Robert C.; Adams, Jean V.


    Burrowing mayfly nymphs (Hexagenia spp.) were sampled monthly, September through October 1995 and April through August 1996, with a standard Ponar grab (538 cm2 jaw opening) at 16 stations in U.S. waters of Lake St. Clair. Annual production (production, P) was 0 to 477 mg dry weight/m2 at three stations where pollution and sediment grain-size distribution limited the population, and was 738 to 5,255 mg dry weight/m2 at the other 13 stations. The highest production value measured for Hexagenia in Lake St. Clair was about three times higher than the highest value reported for other areas in the northern United States and Canada (39° to 53° North latitude). The production-mean annual biomass (biomass, B) ratio (P/B) for Hexagenia in Lake St. Clair in 1995–96 was described by the straight line P = 2.4 B (R2 = 0.94). Adding published P/B data for other North American populations changed the relation only slightly to P = 2.5B (R2 = 0.96). A P/B ratio of 2.5 is consistent with the expected value for an aquatic insect with a 2-year life cycle and overlapping cohorts, and these data suggest this relation has general applicability for estimating production of Hexagenia in the northern United States and Canada. Size-class and seasonal partitioning of Hexagenia biomass and production were evident in the data. Both biomass and production were highest among nymphs 16.0 mm and larger, and biomass was highest in October and again in June, immediately before the annual emergence of subimagos. The large size of the mature nymphs and the concentration of biomass and production among the larger nymphs in the population is consistent with their importance in the diets of many fishes in the northern United States and Canada.

  6. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.


    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  7. Western Food in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AS the Chinese saying goes, "Ask for local custom when you enter a foreign country." Western food’s first introduction to China in the 17th century was accompanied with its adoption to Chinese dining habits. Western food was introduced into China in large scale during the mid-19th and early 20th centuries. However, as early as the 17th century Western missionaries and envoys were introducing food from their homeland to upper-class Chinese as a means of paying tribute or

  8. Violence the Western way. (United States)

    Roth, B E


    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  9. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington--Part II: controlled exposure studies. (United States)

    Frew, John A; Grue, Christian E


    The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp have a negative impact on the growth and survival of oysters reared on intertidal mudflats in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington (USA). To maintain viable harvests, oyster growers proposed the application of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds for the control of burrowing shrimp. In test applications, water column concentrations of imidacloprid were relatively low and dissipated rapidly. The foraging activities of the green sturgeon (listed in the US Endangered Species Act) could result in exposure to higher, more sustained imidacloprid concentrations within sediment porewater and from the consumption of contaminated shrimp. Controlled experiments were conducted using surrogate white sturgeon to determine acute and chronic effect concentrations, to examine overt effects at more environmentally realistic concentrations and durations of exposure, and to assess chemical depuration. The 96-h median lethal concentration was 124 mg L(-1) , and the predicted 35-d no-observed-adverse-effect concentration was 0.7 mg L(-1) . No overt effects were observed following environmentally relevant exposures. Imidacloprid half-life in plasma was greater than 32 h. Measured concentrations of imidacloprid in porewater were significantly lower than the derived acute and chronic effect concentrations for white sturgeon. Exposure risk quotients were calculated using the effect concentrations and estimated environmental exposure. The resulting values were considerably below the level of concern for direct effects from either acute or chronic exposure to an endangered species.

  10. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington-Part I: exposure characterization. (United States)

    Frew, John A; Sadilek, Martin; Grue, Christian E


    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor (WA, USA) comprise the largest region of commercial oyster cultivation on the Pacific Coast. The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp impair growth and survival of oysters reared on the intertidal mudflats. To maintain viable harvests, the oyster growers have proposed controlling the shrimp by applying the insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds. Green sturgeon (listed in the Endangered Species Act) forage on burrowing shrimp and could be exposed to imidacloprid in the sediment porewater and through consumed prey. Studies were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that green sturgeon would be exposed to imidacloprid and to characterize the subsequent environmental exposure. Comparisons between treated and untreated control beds following test application of the insecticide suggested that green sturgeon fed opportunistically on imidacloprid-impaired shrimp. The highest interpolated imidacloprid residue concentrations in field samples following chemical application were 27.8 µg kg(-1) and 31.4 µg kg(-1) in porewater and shrimp, respectively. Results from modeled branchial and dietary uptake, based on conservative assumptions, indicated that the porewater exposure route had the greatest contribution to systemic absorption of imidacloprid. The highest average daily uptake from porewater (177.9 µg kg(-1) body wt) was 9.5-fold greater than total dietary uptake (18.8 µg kg(-1) body wt). Concentrations and durations of exposure would be lower than the levels expected to elicit direct acute or chronic toxic effects.

  11. Ichnofabrics of the Capdevila Formation (early Eocene) in the Los Palacios Basin (western Cuba): Paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications (United States)

    Villegas-Martín, Jorge; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Lavina, Ernesto Luis Correa; Rojas-Consuegra, Reinaldo


    The ichnofabrics present in the early Eocene siliciclastic deposits of the Capdevila Formation exposed in the Pinar del Rio area (Los Palacios Basin, western Cuba) are analyzed in this paper and their paleoecological and paleoenvironmental significance are discussed. Nine ichnofabrics were recognized in the dominantly sandy sedimentary succession: Ophiomorpha, Asterosoma, Thalassinoides, Palaeophycus, Scolicia, Bichordites-Thalassinoides, Rhizocorallium, Scolicia-Thalassinoides and rhizobioturbation. Diversity of ichnofauna is low and burrows made by detritus-feeding organisms in well oxygenated and stenohaline waters predominate. Suites of the Cruziana and Skolithos Ichnofacies lacking their archetypical characteristics were recognized, being impoverished in diversity and presenting dominance of echinoderm and decapods crustacean burrows as a response to the environmental stress caused by the high frequency of deposition. The ichnofabric distribution in the studied succession, its recurrence in the sandstone beds and the presence of a Glossifungites Ichnofacies suite with rhizobioturbation associated reflect a shoaling-upward event with subaerial exposure of the substrate. The integrated analysis of the ichnology and the sedimentary facies suggests deposition in a shallow slope frequently impacted by gravitational flows and high-energy events. The evidence of substrate exposure indicates the occurrence of a forced regression and suggests the existence of a sequence boundary at the top of the Capdevila Formation.

  12. Rings dominate western Gulf (United States)

    Vidal L., Francisco V.; Vidal L., Victor M. V.; Molero, José María Pérez

    Surface and deep circulation of the central and western Gulf of Mexico is controlled by interactions of rings of water pinched from the gulf's Loop Current. The discovery was made by Mexican oceanographers who are preparing a full-color, 8-volume oceanographic atlas of the gulf.Anticyclonic warm-core rings pinch off the Loop Current at a rate of about one to two per year, the scientists of the Grupo de Estudios Oceanográficos of the Instituto de Investigaciones Eléctricas (GEO-IIE) found. The rings migrate west until they collide with the continental shelf break of the western gulf, almost always between 22° and 23°N latitude. On their westward travel they transfer angular momentum and vorticity to the surrounding water, generating cyclonic circulations and vortex pairs that completely dominate the entire surface and deep circulation of the central and western gulf.

  13. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the giant soil-burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros saussure (Blattodea: Blaberidae: Geoscapheinae): analysis with respect to age, sex and location. (United States)

    Brown, W V; Rose, H A; Lacey, M J; Wright, K


    The cuticular hydrocarbons of a widespread species of soil-burrowing cockroach, Macropanesthia rhinoceros, have been sampled from most of its known geographical locations. Analysis of extracts from individual insects has enabled a study of differences within a population as well as among geographical locations. In the case of M. rhinoceros, except for newly hatched first-instar nymphs, variations in hydrocarbon composition among individuals of different cohorts of M. rhinoceros, based on age and sex, are no greater than those among individuals of a single cohort. Geographical populations of this species are variable in hydrocarbon composition unless they occur within a few kilometres of each other. A few populations showed very different hydrocarbon patterns but, in the absence of any correlating biological differences, it is uncertain whether this signifies the presence of otherwise unrecognizable sibling species or just extreme examples of the geographical variation characteristic of this group of insects.

  14. China's Western Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ "Western Development" has become a buzzword in China over the past decade. It has appeared almost everywhere: in government docu-ments, media reports and even ordinary people's conversations. It has become a national campaign in the new century, with a wide variety of resources--human, financial and material-- flowing to the westem part of the country.

  15. Communicating with Westerners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah; Callicott


    <正>The majority response from my students when asked "what do you want to learn from my class?" is "How do I communicate better with westerners?" My students also have other questions such as "How do I improve my oral English?" and "How is America different from China?" These questions can be answered in many different ways, but hopefully I will give you a couple of ideas to get you started.

  16. Uptake of dissolved Ag, Cd, and Co by the clam, Macoma balthica: relative importance of overlying water, oxic pore water, and burrow water. (United States)

    Griscom, Sarah B; Fisher, Nicholas S


    The facultative deposit-feeding clam Macoma balthica is used as a bioindicator organism for assessing coastal metal contamination. Previous work has evaluated the assimilation of metals from different possible food sources for this clam, but no studies have measured the uptake rates of metals from different dissolved sources. This study specifically compares three different dissolved sources: overlying water (SW), oxic pore water (OPW) from a depth of deposit feeding), and burrow water (BW) (a mixture of anoxic pore water and overlying water). Uptake rates of dissolved Ag, Cd, and Co in M. balthica were measured in short-term laboratory experiments using radiotracers. Clams were exposed to metals in water only for SW and surface OPW treatments. In the BW treatment, metal uptake was compared in clams placed in radiolabeled organic-poor or organic-rich sediment under conditions in which feeding was inhibited. Uptake rate constantsfrom SW for Ag, Cd, and Co were 0.35, 0.033, and 0.035 L g(-1) day(-1), respectively. Lower uptake of dissolved metals from OPW was noted but was only significant for Co. Metal uptake from BW and SW were also comparable; however, the trend showed lower Ag and higher Co uptake from BW. Metal distributions and concentrations in the two radiolabeled sediments were affected by active irrigation of SW into the burrows; dissolved metal concentrations in BW were approximately 30% lower than that in the bulk pore water concentrations. In the organic-rich sediment, Cd and Ag partitioned more in the dissolved phase (sensitivity analysis using measured rate constants for uptake and a range of metal concentrations from field studies suggested that, under most conditions, uptake of dissolved Ag is primarily from OPW, Co is mostly from BW, and Cd uptake varies depending on its concentration in each compartment. Little Co or Ag is likely to be taken up from SW, whereas 20-50% of Cd may be accumulated from this source. Thus, SW, OPW, and BW are all

  17. Western Opera in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    “ALTHOUGH the road islong and leads far,I’llsearch hard for truth.″Ithink these lines by Qu Yuan(c.340-278 B.C.)are most appropriatein describing Western opera inChina.Opera originated from musicaldrama in Italy.From Dafne by Flo-rentine composer Jacopo Peri in1597,opera has a history of nearly400 years,if we do not count folk,church or court music and danceor song dramas in Europe.Afterspreading from Italy to Austria,France,Germany,Britain,northernEuropean countries and Russia,op-era has developed many national

  18. Metals from mine waste as potential cause of oxidative stress in burrowing crab Neohelice granulata from San Antonio bay. (United States)

    Giarratano, Erica; Gil, Mónica N; Marinho, Carmen H; Malanga, Gabriela


    The Natural Protected Area San Antonio bay is of particular importance for its congregation of migratory shorebirds and it has been declared one of the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network International site (WHSRN). Present study represents the first assessment of variation on oxidative stress biomarkers in male crab Neohelice granulata from San Antonio bay (Río Negro, Argentina) under field conditions, associated mainly to metal contamination coming from passive mining wastes. Three sites were sampled once every three months from November 2012 to August 2013 within this sea inlet (Pile, Fishery and Port) and a control site at the southeast of the bay (Punta Perdices). Accumulation of Ni, Zn, Cr and Al varied only with seasons although without a constant trend, meanwhile Cd, Cu and Pb also varied among sites being highest in Pile and Port. Biochemical results indicated that variations in catalase activity was only site specific being maximum in Pile; meanwhile lipid radical, α-tocopherol and metallothioneins were only seasonal specific being higher in autumn and winter. Seasonal variation was also found for total thioles, being the content higher in summer and autumn than in winter. Correlation analysis revealed that malondialdehyde and α-tocopherol have a positive association with Al and negative with Ni, meanwhile GST has a positive association with Fe. Crabs from the closest area to the waste pile did not exhibit a differentiated oxidative pressure despite the higher accumulation of metals. It is possible that crabs from contaminated areas have developed a tolerance to metals, indicating a strong ecotoxicological selective pressure. More studies are needed to assess whether there is a transfer of metals through the food chain.

  19. Darwin taxonomist: Barnacles and shell burrowing barnacles Darwin taxónomo: cirrípedos y cirrípedos perforadores de conchas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This bibliographic review revisits circumstances in which the wharf, shell burrowing barnacle, Cryptophialus minutus, was first collected by Charles Darwin in southern Chile, in 1836. Further, explores how its collection marked Darwin's taxonomical interest in Cirripedia. A short review analyzes the initial number of extant species of Cirripedia, as described by Darwin and the present situation, with emphasis on recent collections of C. minutus in the southern tip of South America.Esta revisión bibliográfica describe las circunstancias en el que el cirrípedo enano, Crypophialus minutus, perforador de conchas, fue recolectado por Charles Darwin en el sur de Chile, en 1836. Además, cómo esta recolección marcó el interés taxonómico de Darwin en Cirripedia. Se presenta una revisión resumida sobre el número inicial de especies vivas de Cirripedia, como fueron descritas por Darwin, y la situación actual, con énfasis en recolecciones recientes de C. minutus en el cono sur de Suramérica.

  20. Cold seep biogenic carbonate crust in the Levantine basin is inhabited by burrowing Phascolosoma aff. turnerae, a sipunculan worm hosting a distinctive microbiota (United States)

    Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Shemesh, Eli; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly; Coleman, Dwight F.; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Tchernov, Dan


    Biogenic calcium carbonate crusts represent a cryptic habitat that is often associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Most biological observations of these crusts concern the external surfaces and the fauna inhabiting their inner cavities are generally neglected. Exposed carbonates in areas of active seepage at the 1100-m-deep base of the Palmachim slumping feature in the Levantine basin are intensively burrowed by metazoans, especially by sipunculans (peanut worms), identified by genetic and morphological markers as a potentially novel Phascolosoma sp., closely related to Phascolosoma turnerae (Rice, 1985) and named here P. aff. turnerae. Bacterial 16S-based tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) was utilized to analyze the bacterial community associated with P. aff. turnerae. We compared the bacterial community structure in P. aff. turnerae to the bacterial community structure associated with the sediment-water interface in adjacent gas seeps and in biofilm covering the carbonate crust hosting the sipunculan. A distinctive microbiota, capable of chemosynthesis and sulfide detoxification, was found in association with P. aff. turnerae.

  1. Activity response to climate seasonality in species with fossorial habits: a niche modeling approach using the lowland burrowing treefrog (Smilisca fodiens). (United States)

    Encarnación-Luévano, Alondra; Rojas-Soto, Octavio R; Sigala-Rodríguez, J Jesús


    The importance of climatic conditions in shaping the geographic distribution of amphibian species is mainly associated to their high sensitivity to environmental conditions. How they cope with climate gradients through behavioral adaptations throughout their distribution is an important issue due to the ecological and evolutionary implications for population viability. Given their low dispersal abilities, the response to seasonal climate changes may not be migration, but behavioral and physiological adaptations. Here we tested whether shifts in climatic seasonality can predict the temporal variation of surface activity of the fossorial Lowland Burrowing Treefrog (Smilisca fodiens) across its geographical distribution. We employed Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to perform a monthly analysis of spatial variation of suitable climatic conditions (defined by the July conditions, the month of greatest activity), and then evaluated the geographical correspondence of monthly projections with the occurrence data per month. We found that the species activity, based on the species' occurrence data, corresponds with the latitudinal variation of suitable climatic conditions. Due to the behavioral response of this fossorial frog to seasonal climate variation, we suggest that precipitation and temperature have played a major role in the definition of geographical and temporal distribution patterns, as well as in shaping behavioral adaptations to local climatic conditions. This highlights the influence of macroclimate on shaping activity patterns and the important role of fossorials habits to meet the environmental requirements necessary for survival.

  2. Activity response to climate seasonality in species with fossorial habits: a niche modeling approach using the lowland burrowing treefrog (Smilisca fodiens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alondra Encarnación-Luévano

    Full Text Available The importance of climatic conditions in shaping the geographic distribution of amphibian species is mainly associated to their high sensitivity to environmental conditions. How they cope with climate gradients through behavioral adaptations throughout their distribution is an important issue due to the ecological and evolutionary implications for population viability. Given their low dispersal abilities, the response to seasonal climate changes may not be migration, but behavioral and physiological adaptations. Here we tested whether shifts in climatic seasonality can predict the temporal variation of surface activity of the fossorial Lowland Burrowing Treefrog (Smilisca fodiens across its geographical distribution. We employed Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM to perform a monthly analysis of spatial variation of suitable climatic conditions (defined by the July conditions, the month of greatest activity, and then evaluated the geographical correspondence of monthly projections with the occurrence data per month. We found that the species activity, based on the species' occurrence data, corresponds with the latitudinal variation of suitable climatic conditions. Due to the behavioral response of this fossorial frog to seasonal climate variation, we suggest that precipitation and temperature have played a major role in the definition of geographical and temporal distribution patterns, as well as in shaping behavioral adaptations to local climatic conditions. This highlights the influence of macroclimate on shaping activity patterns and the important role of fossorials habits to meet the environmental requirements necessary for survival.

  3. Western Parenting: A Personal Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paul Ward


    Bonding: Western fathers are keen to take an equal role in parenting. They recognise their responsibility as a new dad, and are committed early to sharing every family task with the mother. It is common to see a proud western father walking outside, on their own, with their tiny baby. Western dad's know that this time is special, and the mother needs to relax and feel confident to trust the dad with the baby.

  4. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.


    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  5. Globalisation and western music historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanou Katy


    Full Text Available Globalisation of musicology and music history aims to fuse the divisions created during Western music’s acme, and is referred to as “post-European historical thinking”. Therefore, “post” and “pre” European historical thinking have much in common. One aspect of this process of fragmentation was that music history was separated from theory and that Western Music Histories succeeded General Music Histories (a development described in some detail in the article. Connecting global music history with “post-European” historical thinking is one among numerous indications of Western awareness that European culture has reached some sort of a terminal phase. Concurrently, countries that have been developing by following Western Europe as a prototype, are leading today some past phase of Western development, which, with the ideas of cultural relativism prevailing, are not considered inferior.

  6. Plasma cholinesterase activity as a biomarker for quantifying exposure of green sturgeon to carbaryl following applications to control burrowing shrimp in Washington State. (United States)

    Troiano, Alexandra T; Grue, Christian E


    Willapa Bay (Washington State, USA) has been 1 of the rare intertidal locations where large-scale pesticide applications occur. Until recently, carbaryl was applied to control burrowing shrimp that decrease commercial oyster productivity. The bay is a critical habitat for green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. However, the hazard that carbaryl poses is unknown. Surrogate seawater-acclimated white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) were exposed to 0 μg L(-1) , 30 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 300 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h, and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured. Enzyme recovery was measured in an additional cohort exposed to 1000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h. Activity of AChE was reduced (p ≤ 0.001) at concentrations ≥ 100 μg L(-1) with recovery in the 1000 μg L(-1) cohort by 72 h. Surprisingly, BChE activity was greater than controls at concentrations ≥ 300 μg L(-1) (p > 0.05), a finding confirmed in additional fish exposed to 3000 μg L(-1) for 6 h (+30%, p sturgeon before and 4 d to 5 d after application of carbaryl in Willapa Bay. Activity of BChE after application was reduced 28% (p white sturgeon exposed to carbaryl indicates that further studies are needed to better understand the risk carbaryl exposure poses to green sturgeon. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2003-2015. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. 论卡夫卡《地洞》的恐惧感%On the Sense of Fear in Burrow by Kafka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Kafka′s works always show us the shocking absurdity feeling with a unique way and form a unique “kafkaesque”charac-teristic.Burrow deduces us the consciousness of fear of modern person incisively and vividly,which describes the feeling of fear of the small animal in great detail by means of anthropomorphic.Because of fear,the small animal unwarrantedly speculates the“alien”power in its heart.Due to the existence of the “enemy”,the small animal feels fear.On the surface,the small animal seems to fall into the predicament of worrying about troubles of its own imagining,but in fact it is the real survival,the stance of the modern people.%卡夫卡总是会以其别致的方式为我们展现出一种惊世骇俗的生存体验,形成了独有的“卡夫卡式”特征。《地洞》淋漓尽致地演绎了现代人的恐惧意识。小说通过拟人化的手法,并结合主人公的心理活动和心理体验描述了小动物的恐惧感受。由于恐惧,小动物在心中臆测了莫须有的“异己”力量;由于“假想敌”的存在,小动物更感恐惧。从表面看,小动物看似陷入了一种庸人自扰的困境,但实际上这却是现代人真实的生存姿态。

  8. Decreased hydrogen peroxide production and mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle but not cardiac muscle of the green-striped burrowing frog, a natural model of muscle disuse. (United States)

    Reilly, Beau D; Hickey, Anthony J R; Cramp, Rebecca L; Franklin, Craig E


    Suppression of disuse-induced muscle atrophy has been associated with altered mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mammals. However, despite extended hindlimb immobility, aestivating animals exhibit little skeletal muscle atrophy compared with artificially immobilised mammalian models. Therefore, we studied mitochondrial respiration and ROS (H2O2) production in permeabilised muscle fibres of the green-striped burrowing frog, Cyclorana alboguttata. Mitochondrial respiration within saponin-permeabilised skeletal and cardiac muscle fibres was measured concurrently with ROS production using high-resolution respirometry coupled to custom-made fluorometers. After 4 months of aestivation, C. alboguttata had significantly depressed whole-body metabolism by ~70% relative to control (active) frogs, and mitochondrial respiration in saponin-permeabilised skeletal muscle fibres decreased by almost 50% both in the absence of ADP and during oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial ROS production showed up to an 88% depression in aestivating skeletal muscle when malate, succinate and pyruvate were present at concentrations likely to reflect those in vivo. The percentage ROS released per O2 molecule consumed was also ~94% less at these concentrations, indicating an intrinsic difference in ROS production capacities during aestivation. We also examined mitochondrial respiration and ROS production in permeabilised cardiac muscle fibres and found that aestivating frogs maintained respiratory flux and ROS production at control levels. These results show that aestivating C. alboguttata has the capacity to independently regulate mitochondrial function in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Furthermore, this work indicates that ROS production can be suppressed in the disused skeletal muscle of aestivating frogs, which may in turn protect against potential oxidative damage and preserve skeletal muscle structure during aestivation and following arousal.

  9. Is Western Australia. (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom


    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  10. Western Disturbances: A review (United States)

    Dimri, A. P.; Niyogi, D.; Barros, A. P.; Ridley, J.; Mohanty, U. C.; Yasunari, T.; Sikka, D. R.


    Cyclonic storms associated with the midlatitude Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), referred to as Western Disturbances (WDs), play a critical role in the meteorology of the Indian subcontinent. WDs embedded in the southward propagating SWJ produce extreme precipitation over northern India and are further enhanced over the Himalayas due to orographic land-atmosphere interactions. During December, January, and February, WD snowfall is the dominant precipitation input to establish and sustain regional snowpack, replenishing regional water resources. Spring melt is the major source of runoff to northern Indian rivers and can be linked to important hydrologic processes from aquifer recharge to flashfloods. Understanding the dynamical structure, evolution-decay, and interaction of WDs with the Himalayas is therefore necessary to improve knowledge which has wide ranging socioeconomic implications beyond short-term disaster response including cold season agricultural activities, management of water resources, and development of vulnerability-adaptive measures. In addition, WD wintertime precipitation provides critical mass input to existing glaciers and modulates the albedo characteristics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, affecting large-scale circulation and the onset of the succeeding Indian Summer Monsoon. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Indian subcontinent requires fundamental understanding of the dynamics of WDs. In particular, projected changes in the structure of the SWJ will influence evolution-decay processes of the WDs and impact Himalayan regional water availability. This review synthesizes past research on WDs with a perspective to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of knowledge to assist both researchers and policymakers, and context for future research.

  11. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.;

    surveys of seabird colonies are needed, due to a lack of information or because the present information probably is outdated. The most immediate threats to the colonial seabirds in western Greenland during the breeding time is hunting and egging. Oil pollution is a minor threat to-day, but will increase...... if offshore areas with oil potential are explored and developed. Tab. 6 gives an overview of each species sensitivity to oil spills and the capacity to recover, as well as a comparison of the western Greenland population numbers to the North Atlantic population numbers. The most significant western Greenland...

  12. Interactions of juvenile Lumbricus terrestris with adults and their burrow systems in a two-dimensional microcosm Interações de juvenis de Lumbricus terrestris com adultos e seus sistemas de galerias em um microcosmo bidimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Grigoropoulou


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate interactions of Lumbricus terrestris juveniles with adults and with inherited burrow systems. An experiment was set up using a two dimensional Evans' boxes microcosm. Adult L. terrestris were added to 16 boxes (one individual per box and kept in darkness at 17ºC along with eight unoccupied boxes for two months. The adult L. terrestris were removed from eight randomly selected boxes, and L. terrestris juveniles were added (one juvenile per box, composing three treatments with eight replicates: 1, with an adult in an inherited burrow (ABJ; 2, alone in an inherited burrow (BJ; and 3, alone in a previously uninhabited box (J. The proportion of juveniles occupying adult burrows observed was significantly different in treatments ABJ (48% and BJ (75%. The mean mass of juveniles at experimental termination differed significantly among treatments and was greater in treatment J (4.04±0.39 g in comparison to the BJ (3.09±0.93 g and ABJ treatments (2.13±0.64 g. Results suggest a negative influence of both the presence of an adult and its burrow system on juvenile growth. Intraspecific competition partially explained this, but further investigation is required to examine how an inherited environment (i.e. burrow could negatively affect the growth of juveniles.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as interações de juvenis de Lumbricus terrestris com indivíduos adultos e com sistemas de galerias herdados. O experimento foi realizado usando microcosmos bidimensionais de Evans como unidades experimentais. Adultos de L. terrestris foram colocados em 16 unidades experimentais (um indivíduo por unidade e mantidos no escuro a 17ºC juntamente com oito unidades experimentais inabitadas, por dois meses. Os adultos foram removidos de oito unidades selecionadas aleatoriamente e juvenis foram adicionados a todas as unidades experimentais (um indivíduo por unidade, em três tratamentos, com oito repetições: 1, com um

  13. Neuroethological validation of an experimental apparatus to evaluate oriented and non-oriented escape behaviours: Comparison between the polygonal arena with a burrow and the circular enclosure of an open-field test. (United States)

    Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Ullah, Farhad; Fisher, Isaac René; Falconi-Sobrinho, Luiz Luciano; de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Felippotti, Tatiana Tocchini; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne


    Inhibition of GABAergic neural inputs to dorsal columns of the periaqueductal grey matter (dPAG), posterior (PH) and dorsomedial (DMH) hypothalamic nuclei elicits distinct types of escape behavioural reactions. To differentiate between the variety and intensity of panic-related behaviours, the pattern of defensive behaviours evoked by blockade of GABAA receptors in the DMH, PH and dPAG were compared in a circular open-field test and in a recently designed polygonal arena. In the circular open-field, the defensive behaviours induced by microinjection of bicuculline into DMH and PH were characterised by defensive alertness behaviour and vertical jumps preceded by rearing exploratory behaviour. On the other hand, explosive escape responses interspersed with horizontal jumps and freezing were observed after the blockade of GABAA receptors on dPAG neurons. In the polygonal arena apparatus, the escape response produced by GABAergic inhibition of DMH and PH neurons was directed towards the burrow. In contrast, the blockade of GABAA receptors in dPAG evoked non-oriented escape behaviour characterised by vigorous running and horizontal jumps in the arena. Our findings support the hypothesis that the hypothalamic nuclei organise oriented escape behavioural responses whereas non-oriented escape is elaborated by dPAG neurons. Additionally, the polygonal arena with a burrow made it easy to discriminate and characterise these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses. In this sense, the polygonal arena with a burrow can be considered a good methodological tool to discriminate between these two different patterns of escape behavioural responses and is very useful as a new experimental animal model of panic attacks.

  14. Ritmos de actividad locomotora y uso de las cuevas en condiciones seminaturales en Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia, Octodontidae Rhythms of locomotor activity and burrow use under seminatural conditions in Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia, Octodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Ctenomys es un género de roedores subterráneos que vive en sistemas de galerías cerrados a la superficie del suelo y por lo tanto lleva a cabo la mayoría de sus actividades en ausencia de luz. Sin embargo a diferencia de otros roedores subterráneos sus salidas a la superficie son frecuentes. En este trabajo fueron evaluadas, en Ctenomys talarum (Thomas, 1898 la existencia y las características de los ritmos locomotores de actividad para distintas condiciones experimentales. Además, fueron analizadas la permanencia y preferencia por distintos sectores del sistema de galerías. El 25 % de los individuos de C. talarum analizados, para las distintas condiciones de fotoperiodo y temperatura ambiente evaluadas, mostraron actividad rítmica. Por otra parte, los individuos no presentaron un patrón generalizado de permanencia y preferencia por sectores definidos en el sistema de galeríasCtenomys are subterranean rodents that perform most of their daily activities in dark, thermally stable burrow systems. In this paper the dependence of Ctenomys talarum (Thomas, 1898 activity rhythms on either photoperiod and ambient temperature was analyzed, as well as permanency and preference for different sectors of a burrow system. 25 % of the individuals showed rhythmicity in their activities. Thus, luminous stimuli and ambient temperature did not affect activity pattern in this species. Furthermore, individuals of C. talarum did not show any generalized pattern of preference and permanency on defined sectors of the artificial burrow system

  15. Experiencias en Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Pérez Fernández


    Full Text Available Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Australia y el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental (DEC, en la que participaron miembros de la comunidad Ngaanyatjarra, conocedores y cuidadores del territorio. El resultado científico se tradujo en la identificación de dos nuevas especies, así como numerosas nuevas citas de plantas y animales para el territorio. La minería es una de las actividades más impactantes en Australia, pero la concienciación social ha llevado a que las compañías desarrollen importantes campañas de protección de especies. El mulgara (Dasycercus cristicaula ocupaba zonas que hoy en día se dedican a la minería, y de las que prácticamente ha desaparecido. Un programa de investigación financiado por la empresa Resolute Resources y dirigido por el Departamento de Conservación y Manejo del Territorio (CALM ha permitido identificar poblaciones de este marsupial carnívoro y diseñar un programa de manejo cuyo objetivo es evitar actuaciones incompatibles con su actividad biológica. El resultado más relevante en ambas iniciativas ha sido la colaboración entre diferentes agentes implicados, con intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias. Especialmente importante ha sido la posibilidad de diseñar planes de manejo y actuación sobre el territorio, orientados a la preservación de valores naturales y culturales antiguos.

  16. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  17. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (United States)

    Malone, T. F.


    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  18. Burrowing behavior of penaeid shrimps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus aztecus, and white shrimp, Litopenaeus setiferus, were held were held under natural light conditions before experiments. Experiments...

  19. Productivity of malaria vectors from different habitat types in the western Kenya highlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson A Ndenga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mosquito Larval Source Management (LSM could be a valuable additional tool for integrated malaria vector control especially in areas with focal transmission like the highlands of western Kenya if it were not for the need to target all potential habitats at frequent intervals. The ability to determine the productivity of malaria vectors from identified habitats might be used to target LSM only at productive ones. METHODS: Each aquatic habitat within three highland sites in western Kenya was classified as natural swamp, cultivated swamp, river fringe, puddle, open drain or burrow pit. Three habitats of each type were selected in each site in order to study the weekly productivity of adult malaria vectors from February to May 2009 using a sweep-net and their habitat characteristics recorded. RESULTS: All surveyed habitat types produced adult malaria vectors. Mean adult productivity of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato in puddles (1.8/m(2 was 11-900 times higher than in the other habitat types. However, puddles were the most unstable habitats having water at 43% of all sampling occasions and accounted for 5% of all habitats mapped in the study areas whereas open drains accounted for 72%. Densities of anopheline late instars larvae significantly increased with the presence of a biofilm but decreased with increasing surface area or when water was flowing. Taking stability and frequency of the habitat into account, puddles were still the most productive habitat types for malaria vectors but closely followed by open drains. CONCLUSION: Even though productivity of An. gambiae s.l. was greatest in small and unstable habitats, estimation of their overall productivity in an area needs to consider the more stable habitats over time and their surface extension. Therefore, targeting only the highly productive habitats is unlikely to provide sufficient reduction in malaria vector densities.

  20. Morphological and molecular identification of the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis from Anthurium andraeanum%危害红掌的穿孔线虫形态和分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高月荣; 陈昌龙; 杨光穗; 简恒; 牛俊海


    对一批引进后隔离培养中患病的红掌种苗,进行了根系线虫检测,通过病症分析、线虫形态测量、rDNA-ITS区序列分析等鉴定,结果表明:检测的线虫形态和香蕉穿孔线虫基本一致,rDNA-ITS区测序结果序列一致性为98%~100%.本报道再次证明香蕉穿孔线虫在红掌上的分布和危害,应该对种苗的跨区引进和种植过程进行严格的检疫.%Diagnosis of root parasitic nematodes was carried out on a group of imported and isolated growing Anthurium andraeanum seedlings with nematode-suspected disease symptoms by symptom diagnosis,morphological measure and rDNA-ITS sequence analysis.The isolated nematode was identified to be burrowing nematode Radopholus similis.The results revealed that the burrowing nematode could exist and damage on A.andraeanum.Take into account its wide host range and gigantic harmfulness,a strict inspection and quarantine should be applied in the importation and cultivation of A.andraeanum.

  1. On some Western European Aphids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille Ris Lambers, D.


    1. The genus Atheroides Haliday Of this genus 3 Western European species are known : A. serrulatus Hal. (syn. festucae Mordv.?), A. hirtellus Hal. (syn. A. junci Laing) and A. brevicornis Laing. a) A. serrulatus Hal. is quite common. It lives on Poa annua often, but prefers species of grass with nar

  2. Gendering Citizenship in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Lister, Ruth; Williams, Fiona

    The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee p...

  3. Remaking Education in Western Europe (United States)

    Jones, Ken


    This article makes a contribution to discussion on the neo-liberal reshaping of education in Western Europe. It argues for a greater attentiveness on the part of education researchers to collective social actors such as trade unions and social movements. Making use of concepts from Gramsci and from Poulantzas, it suggests that such actors had a…

  4. The Shape of a Western

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak


    The article is written for an issue on the Western genre. By means of a comparative analysis of Winchester '73 (Anthony Mann, 1950) and The Man from Laramie (Anthony Mann, 1955) the article accounts for stylistic, narrative, generic and theoretical implications of the transition from Academy ratio...


    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  6. Spatial variation in biofouling of a unionid mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) across the western basin of Lake Erie (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Evans, Mary; Richardson, William B.; Schaeffer, Jeff; Nelson, John


    Invasion of North American waters by nonnative Dreissena polymorpha and D. rostriformis bugensishas resulted in declines of the Unionidae family of native North American mussels. Dreissenid mussels biofoul unionid mussels in large numbers and interfere with unionid movement, their acquisition of food, and the native mussels' ability to open and close their shells. Initial expectations for the Great Lakes included extirpation of unionids where they co-occurred with dreissenids, but recently adult and juvenile unionids have been found alive in several apparent refugia. These unionid populations may persist due to reduced dreissenid biofouling in these areas, and/or due to processes that remove biofoulers. For example locations inaccessible to dreissenid veligers may reduce biofouling and habitats with soft substrates may allow unionids to burrow and thus remove dreissenids. We deployed caged unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) at 36 sites across the western basin of Lake Erie to assess spatial variation in biofouling and to identify other areas that might promote the persistence or recovery of native unionid mussels. Biofouling ranged from 0.03 – 26.33 g per mussel, reached a maximum in the immediate vicinity of the mouth of the Maumee River, and appeared to primarily consist of dreissenid mussels. A known mussel refugium in the vicinity of a power plant near the mouth of the Maumee actually exhibited very high biofouling rates, suggesting that low dreissenid colonization did not adequately explain unionid survival in this refugium. In contrast, the southern nearshore area of Lake Erie, near another refugium, had very low biofouling. A large stretch of the western basin appeared to have low biofouling rates and muddy substrates, raising the possibility that these open water areas could support remnant and returning populations of unionid mussels. Previous observations of unionid refugia and the occurrence of low biofouling rates in large areas of the western

  7. Effects of change in primary forest cover on armadillo (Cingulata, Mammalia burrow use in the Central Amazon Efectos del cambio en la cobertura de bosque primario sobre el uso de las madrigueras por los armadillos (Cingulata, Mammalia en la Amazonia Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Clara Arteaga


    Full Text Available Transformation of primary forest to other vegetation types alters the availability and distribution of resources, and thus affects their use by species that inhabit the forest. Although armadillos are important earthmover mammals in the Amazon forest, and their burrows play an important physical and ecological role in the ecosystem, the impact of loss of primary forest cover on these organisms has been poorly understood. In order to evaluate the effects of change in the primary forest cover on burrow use by armadillos, we performed 2 censuses in 33 plots within 12 sites of different vegetation cover characteristics, and recorded burrow density and current use. A total of 109 armadillo burrows were found; the sites with higher percentages of primary forest cover showed a larger number of active burrows, although burrow density and the probability of establishing new burrows remained unaffected by this variable. Our results show that areas with higher quantities of primary forest habitat show more intense use by armadillos, probably due to the permanence time of individuals. These findings suggest that the viability of armadillo populations, as well as the role that these animals play within the ecosystem, may be affected in disturbed areas.La transformación del bosque primario a otro tipo de vegetación cambia la disponibilidad y distribución de los recursos, afectando su uso por especies que habitan el bosque. Los armadillos son el principal grupo de mamíferos escavadores del Amazonas y sus madrigueras cumplen un papel físico y ecológico en el ecosistema. Sin embargo, no se conoce el impacto de la pérdida del bosque sobre estos organismos. Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de los cambios en la cobertura de bosque primario sobre el uso de sus madrigueras, realizamos 2 censos en 33 parcelas dentro de 12 localidades con diferentes coberturas vegetales y reportamos la densidad y el estado de uso de las madrigueras. Encontramos 109 madrigueras y

  8. Effects of Burrow Space of Plateau Zokor on Vegetation Characters on Alpine Meadows%高原鼢鼠洞道空间对高寒草甸植被性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘锦上; 张卫国; 江小雷; 卫万荣; 葛庆征


    In order to further explore ecological functions of plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) in grassland ecological system, the relationship between different tunnel space and vegetation characteristics above burrows was studied by the "grid-puncture" method. Results indicated that there was a negative relationship between tunnel space and zokor density. Burrow space of 35%-45% was the required threshold of zokor density to provide relative stability. The proper burrow space(35%-45%)had no effects on vegetation coverage but had significantly positive effects on plant species diversity, height and biomass(Pburrows was significantly higher, plant diversity was significantly lower(P<0. 05). Vegetation coverage has no change. The dominant grasses and forbs were significantly higher than that of control(P<0. 05). While noxious weeds and sedges were significantly lower than control(P<0. 05). These results suggested that plateau zokor had an important role on vegetation dynamics and restoration, and a positive influence on grassland economics.%为了探明高原鼢鼠(Myospalax baileyi)在草地生态系统中的生态学地位,采用网格穿刺法对高原鼢鼠不同洞道空间与植被性状的对应关系以及对洞道上方植被特征的影响进行了研究.结果表明:洞道空间与鼠群密度成负相关,35%~45%的洞道空间是鼠群密度升降的临界区间,也是种群密度相对稳定的区间;适度的洞道空间(35%~45%)对草地植被盖度无显著性影响,但对物种多样性、高度和地上生物量则存在显著促进作用(P<0.05),并可显著提高禾草的优势度(P<0.05),弱化毒害草和根茎型莎草的竞争力;洞道上方植被物种多样性显著低于对照(P<0.05),植被高度和地上生物量均显著高于对照(P<0.05),而

  9. A Comparison between Chinese and Western Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ting-ting


    Different countries have different cultures. Understanding the differences between Chinese and western culture will help us to communicate with each other better. From three aspects, this paper mainly compares the differences between Chinese and western culture.

  10. The western Veil nebula (Image) (United States)

    Glenny, M.


    The western Veil nebula in Cygnus. 15-part mosaic by Mike Glenny, Gloucestershire, taken over several months mostly in the autumn of 2008. 200mm LX90/f10 autoguided, Meade UHC filter, 0.3xFR/FF, Canon 20Da DSLR. Exposures each typically 10x360 secs at ISO1600, processed in Registax4, PixInsight (for flat field correction) & Photoshop CS.

  11. Buddha philosophy and western psychology. (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar


    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  12. Hydrocarbon prospectivity in Western Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maravelis, Angelos; Makrodimitras, George; Zelilidis, Avraam [Patras Univ. (Greece). Lab. of Sedimentology


    The geology of Western Greece is dominated by the most external zones of the Hellenide fold-and-thrust belt, namely the Pre-Apulian (or Paxoi) and Ionian zones. With Western Greece and Albania having undergone, in broad terms, similar geological histories, also the hydrocarbon potentials of both areas may be compared. Likewise, the hydrocarbon potential of Italy's Apulian Platform, adjoining in the westerly offshore, may serve as an analogue. Three basin types within Western Greece that deserve hydrocarbon exploration have been examined and are grouped, correlated to major tectonic features, namely foreland (Ionian thrusts' foreland basin), piggy-back (Ionian thrusts' back-arc basin) and strike-slip basins. Additionally, strike-slip basins are further subdivided into the basin north of the Borsh-Khardhiqit strike-slip fault and the Preveza basin, north of Cephalonia transfer fault. Their filling histories suggest the occurrence of Mesozoic carbonate plays and Oligocene/Miocene sandstone plays both for oil and gas.

  13. Western Transitology and Chinese Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democrat...... and will the communist party become obsolete and disappear, just as has happened in many other former communist countries. There seems to be a general consensus that Chinese political system is bound to change, but there is no agreement as to the direction and form of change...

  14. [Western diet and Alzheimer's disease]. (United States)

    Berrino, Franco


    Alzheimer Disease, characterised by a global impairment of cognitive functions, is more and more common in Western societies, both because of longer life expectancy and, probably, because of increasing incidence. Several hints suggest that this degenerative disease is linked to western diet, characterised by excessive dietary intake of sugar, refined carbohydrates (with high glycaemic index), and animal product (with high content of saturated fats), and decreased intake of unrefined seeds--cereals, legumes, and oleaginous seeds--and other vegetables (with high content of fibres, vitamins, polyphenols and other antioxidant substances, phytoestrogens) and, in several populations, of sea food (rich in n-3 fatty acids). It has been hypothesised, in fact, that AD, may be promoted by insulin resistance, decreased endothelial production of nitric oxide, free radical excess, inflammatory metabolites, homocysteine, and oestrogen deficiency. AD, therefore, could theoretically be prevented (or delayed) by relatively simple dietary measures aimed at increasing insulin sensitivity (trough reduction of refined sugars and saturated fats from meat and dairy products), the ratio between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids (e.g. from fish and respectively seed oils), antioxidant vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B6, phytoestrogens (vegetables, whole cereals, and legumes, including soy products), vitamin B12 (bivalve molluscs, liver), and Cr, K, Mg, and Si salts. This comprehensive improvement of diet would fit with all the mechanistic hypotheses cited above. Several studies, on the contrary, are presently exploring monofactorial preventive strategies with specific vitamin supplementation or hormonal drugs, without, however, appreciable results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A "mid-Carnian" transgressive succession, developed between the Breno carbonate platform and the semiarid coastal carbonates-sabkhas facies of the S. Giovanni Bianco Fm., is recorded in the northern Bergamasc Alps. This episode is characterized by the presence of two stratigraphic markers:  a Dark grey shales and siltstones ("Black Pelites", considered previously as the northern closure of the Gorno-Lower S. Giovanni Bianco Fms., but re-interpreted as the western pinch-out of the Lozio Shale depositional system. The Early Carnian Lozio Shale was deposited first in the Valle di Scalve-Lozio trough and later covered the carbonate platform (Breno Fm..b Fossiliferous, open subtidal limestones, marls and burrowed marly limestones ("Bioclastic Horizon" of the northern Bergamasc Alps. The spreading of shales and siltstones represents the first transgressive stage of the last Carnian sequence in Lombardy, after the "mid- Carnian" (Julian substage regional carbonate platform crisis (top of the Valcamonica Breno Fm.. The "Bioclastic Horizon" records the mfs represented by normal, open marine facies, identified and correlated throughout the Bergamasc Alps. Different petrographic and chemical characters between the Lozio Shale - "Black Pelites" and the Gorno-San Giovanni Bianco Fms. suggest different source areas: the former units are characterized by clasts derived from a metamorphic-intrusive area (placed northward and westward, whereas the latter units are characterized by prevailing volcaniclastic material. A climatic change (from arid to relatively humid conditions may be invoked to explain the crisis of the "mid-Carnian" carbonate platforms in the western Southern Alps and the regional spreading of fine-grained terrigenous material. 

  16. Species specific molecular diagnosis of burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis)%香蕉穿孔线虫(Radopholus similis)特异性分子检测技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼; 耿丽凤; 张东升; 彭德良


    香蕉穿孔线虫(Radopholus similis)是一种国际公认的极具毁灭性的有害线虫,也是我国重要的进境检疫性有害生物.利用线虫通用引物对香蕉穿孔线虫7个不同群体的ITS进行PCR扩增、克隆及测序,获得ITS片段序列长度为7060bp.经与国外香蕉穿孔线虫种群及近缘种的ITS序列进行比对及同源性分析,构建设计了1对香蕉穿孔线虫的特异性引物RsFl/RsRl,特异性扩增片段长度为271bp;同时引入D2A/D3B作内标,研究出特异性检测香蕉穿孔线虫的一步双重PCR分子技术和方法,该项检测技术特异性好,耗时较短、操作简便、可靠.%The burrowing nematode, Radopholus similis is a quarantine nematode pest in the world. Using the universal primer pairs, the ITS region were amplified and sequenced, the ITS length were 706 bp, after analysis and alignment with known ITS sequences of R. similis. One species specific primer pairs, named RsFl/RsRl, was designed to diagnosis of burrowing nematode, the specific fragment was 271 bp. Combined the primer pairs D2A/D3B, the duplex PCR diagnosis for R. similis were developed to distinguish populations of R. similis from other plant parasitic nematode species, only R. similis populations could yield specie specific 271 bp fragment, the other plant parasitic nematodes could not yield species specific fragment.

  17. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  18. Eastern and Western Culture Gets Closer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Never before has China been more prominent on the international scene or had such close interaction with the Western world than now. But neither has it experienced such an onslaught of Western culture, particularly its younger generation, who unreservedly espouse the exotic hairstyles, anarchistic pop music and diverse leisure pursuits that are to them the West's most influential exports.

  19. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.


    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  20. Western boundary currents and climate change (United States)

    Seager, Richard; Simpson, Isla R.


    A recent paper in Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans connects recent changes in atmospheric circulation to poleward movement and intensification of western boundary currents. Causes and characteristics of past and future trends in surface wind stress and western boundary currents are discussed here.

  1. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Ruibal, Alfredo


    Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.

    Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

  2. Western water and climate change (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris P.


    The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northernmost West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent.

  3. Western water and climate change. (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris


    The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northern-most West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent. In this context, four iconic river basins offer glimpses into specific challenges that climate change may bring to the West. The Colorado River is a system in which overuse and growing demands are projected to be even more challenging than climate-change-induced flow reductions. The Rio Grande offers the best example of how climate-change-induced flow declines might sink a major system into permanent drought. The Klamath is currently projected to face the more benign precipitation future, but fisheries and irrigation management may face dire straits due to warming air temperatures, rising irrigation demands, and warming waters in a basin already hobbled by tensions between endangered fisheries

  4. Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Festivals are precious cultural heritage of different countries,so differentfestivals can reflect different cultures. This article discusses cultural differences in Chinese and western festivals, aiming to promote cross-culture communication.

  5. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  6. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1986 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1986. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  7. Western Lake Erie Restoration Assessment Degree Flowlines (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This represents the flowline network in Western Lale Erie Restoration Assessment (WLERA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections between the reach and...

  8. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  9. Agricultural Land in the Western United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  10. Landfills in the Western United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  11. Headwater Stream Barriers in Western Oregon (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — This data set is an ArcInfo point coverage depicting barriers to fish migration in headwater basins in western Oregon. Data were compiled from reports by fisheries...

  12. Western Alaska ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  13. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1989 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1989. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  14. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1995 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1995. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  15. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1993 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1993. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  16. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1994 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1994. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1996 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1996. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  18. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1987 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1987. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  19. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1992 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1992. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  20. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1990 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1990. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  1. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1997 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1997. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  2. Western Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 1988 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for western Ontario during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  3. On Chinese and Western Wine Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying-han


    Wine plays a big role in people’s social life both in China and in the West. Based on the perspective of cross culture, the paper gives a detailed analysis of the disparities of Chinese and western wine culture, and points out the factors for the forming of Chinese and western wine culture. It can be concluded that culture is the key to the understanding of wine phenomenon.

  4. Communication and relationship satisfaction in Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples. (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang


    The current study compared Chinese, Western, and intercultural Chinese-Western couples' communication and examined how culture moderates the association of communication with relationship satisfaction. We coded the communication of 33 Western couples, 36 Chinese couples, and 54 intercultural Chinese-Western couples when discussing a relationship problem and when reminiscing about positive relationship events. Couples with Chinese female partners showed fewer positive behaviors and more negative behaviors (as classified in existing Western coding systems) than couples with Western female partners. The male partner's culture had few associations with couples' rates of communication behavior. Relationship satisfaction was associated with low rates of negative behaviors and high rates of most of the positive behaviors across cultural groups, and these associations were more evident in problem discussions than positive reminiscences.

  5. Ant-nest ichnofossils in honeycomb calcretes, Neogene Ogallala Formation, High Plains region of western Kansas, U.S.A. (United States)

    Smith, J.J.; Platt, B.F.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Thomasson, J.R.


    Two new ant-nest trace fossils are described from calcic sandy paleosols of the Neogene Ogallala Formation in western Kansas. The ichnofossils are preserved within and below calcrete beds weathering in positive relief as carbonate-filled casts or as cavities in negative relief. Daimoniobarax ichnogenus nov. is established for burrow systems composed of vertically tiered, horizontally oriented pancake-shaped chambers connected by predominantly vertical and cylindrical shafts ~. 0.8. cm in diameter. Ichnospecies of Daimoniobarax are differentiated based on differences in the plan view outline of chambers, shaft orientation, and junctions between chambers and shafts.Daimoniobarax nephroides ichnospecies nov. is composed of an ~. 24-76. cm long vertical sequence of distinctly lobed chambers (~. 2-20. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) arranged along sinuous to helical shafts. Chamber shape in plan view ranges from small teardrops to larger kidney- and U-shaped forms. Shafts intersect at chamber edges such that chambers appear to bud from the central shafts. Daimoniobarax nephroides is most similar to the nests of extant seed-harvester ants of the New World genus Pogonomyrmex. Such ants are specialized granivores and prefer sandy soils in arid to semi-arid grassland and desert regions.Daimoniobarax tschinkeli ichnospecies nov. is ~. 30-80. cm in vertical extent. Chambers (~. 2-30. cm wide and ~. 1. cm high) are circular to elongate or pseudopodial in plan view. Vertical shafts are straight to slightly sinuous and intersect most often toward the center of the chambers. The generalized architecture of D. tschinkeli is similar to that of the nests or nest portions of several extant ant genera, though it does not closely resemble any known modern nest.Ant ichnofossils provide valuable information on hidden biodiversity, paleohydrologic regimes, paleopedogenic processes, and paleoclimate during the time of nest occupation. Depth-related changes in chamber size and vertical spacing

  6. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’Brien


    Full Text Available The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  7. Communication Patterns in Adult-Infant Interactions in Western and Non-Western Cultures. (United States)

    Keller, Heidi; And Others


    Analyzes the early communication structure in adult-child interactions with two- to six-month old babies in Western (West Germany, Greece) and non-Western (Yanomami, Trobriand) societies. Discusses universal international verbal and non-verbal structures reflecting intuitive parenting programs. (FMW)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Fiscal Year 2012 brought some tumultuous and uncertain times to Western. The utility industry and technology continued to evolve, and the demand for constant flow of power and transmission system reliability continued to increase. Western kept pace by continuing to deliver reliable, cost-based hydropower while reviewing and updating business practices that took into account how the energy industry is evolving. During this time of exponential change, Western tackled many challenges, including: Reviewing the Transmission Infrastructure Program processes and procedures; Responding to Secretary of Energy Steven Chu’s memorandum to create a modern, efficient and reliable transmission grid; Weathering record-breaking natural disasters in our service territory; Completing our role in TIP’s flagship project—the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line; Incorporating new, far-reaching regulations and industry trends.

  9. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans Henrik;


    -CCTR, showed that coronary CT angiographies accounted for only 23% of all nonregistered cardiac CTs, indicating >90% completeness of coronary CT angiographies in the WDHR-CCTR. The completeness of individual variables varied substantially (range: 0%-100%), but was >85% for more than 70% of all variables. Using......BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...... expected numbers; and 4) positive predictive values as well as negative predictive values of 19 main patient and procedure variables. RESULTS: By December 31, 2012, almost 22,000 cardiac CTs with up to 40 variables for each procedure have been registered. Of these, 87% were coronary CT angiography...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Yağlıdere


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to shed light on the most significant aspect of the modern man’s inner struggle in Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes. Joseph Conrad is one of the authors of the twentieth century who was influenced by the psychological philosophy and he makes use of this influence in his works deeply. He who synthesizes the inner nature of the modern man, having conflicts himself with the deeper analysis field of the psychology aims to point out the incomprehensible and unsettled inner nature of the modern man in Under Western Eyes. Key Words: Alienation, psychology, unconscious, betrayal.

  11. Geological history of the Western north pacific. (United States)

    Fischer, A G; Heezen, B C; Boyce, R E; Bury, D; Douglas, R G; Garrison, R E; Kling, S A; Krasheninnikov, V; Lisitzin, A P; Pimm, A C


    A considerable portion of the abyssal floor of the western North Pacific was already receiving pelagic sediment in late Jurassic time. Carbonate sediments were later replaced by abyssal clays as the basin deepened and bottom waters became more aggressive. The resulting facies boundary, which can be recognized on seismic profiles, is broadly transgressive; it ranges in age from mid-Cretaceous in the western Pacific to Oligocene in the central Pacific. Cherts are encountered at and below the major facies boundary and appear to have been formed by postdepositional processes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hale Yağlıdere


    Full Text Available This study aims to shed light on the most significant aspect of the modern man’s inner struggle in Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes. Joseph Conrad is one of the authors of the twentieth century who was influenced by the psychological philosophy and he makes use of this influence in his works deeply. He who synthesizes the inner nature of the modern man, having conflicts himself with the deeper analysis field of the psychology aims to point out the incomprehensible and unsettled inner nature of the modern man in Under Western Eyes.

  13. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); Spearman, C.W. (C Wendy)


    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Childr

  14. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.


    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  15. Capitalism in Six Westerns by John Ford (United States)

    Braun, Carlos Rodriguez


    The economic and institutional analysis of capitalism can be illustrated through John Ford's Westerns. This article focuses on six classics by Ford that show the move toward modern order, the creation of a new society, and the rule of law. Economic features are pervading, from property rights and contracts to markets, money, and trade. Ford has…

  16. Differences between Chinese and Western Family Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Family education is elementary and important for children.Because of different culture,China and other western countries have different family education.This paper mainly analyzes these differences in three aspects:values of family education,ways of family education and influences of family education.In the end,it provides some suggestions for improving Chinese family education.

  17. The Western European Mobile Service Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza; Hjarup, Søren

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the development of the structure in the Western European mobile services market, based primarily on technological and economic parameters. The focus of the analysis is on the market consolidation process, taking place horizontally, i.e. among the mobile network...

  18. Asian and western Intellectual Capital in encounter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Daan; Boom, Marien van den


    The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept o

  19. Teaching Near and Far - Broome, Western Australia. (United States)

    Herceg, Christina; Renouf, Tia


    Broome is a remote coastal town in Western Australia. As a general practitioner working in Broome, I have been involved in the education of general practice trainee registrars both locally and remotely, as a supervisor with two different training programs.

  20. Are western juniper seeds dispersed through diplochory? (United States)

    Seed dispersal of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) appears to be convergent on a strategy utilized by fruit-bearing trees in that this conifer produces fleshy female cones (a.k.a., juniper “berries”) that are consumed by frugivorous birds, which then disperse the seeds through endozoochory b...

  1. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.


    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  2. Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); S. Pavan (Sara)


    textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the

  3. Migrant Farmworkers in Western New York, 1978. (United States)

    Young, Ruth C.; And Others

    To provide current demographic and needs assessment information for public and private agencies serving migrants, a survey was conducted among farmers and the migrant workers they employed. Of 228 migrant labor camps in western and central New York, 57 were selected for study by a stratified random sampling procedure which assured adequate…

  4. Service offshoring and productivity in Western Europe


    Rosario Crinò


    Using comparable data for nine Western European countries, this paper finds that service offshoring exerts positive and economically large effects on domestic productivity. A one percentage point increase in service offshoring is found to raise Total Factor Productivity by 0.5-0.6 percent.

  5. Women's and Feminist Activism in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buikema, R.L.


    First- and second-wave Western European feminists struggled to realize full access to civil rights for women and the creation of a participatory democracy that ensured social solidarity. They consequently stressed the fact that in addition to the struggle for civil rights, women needed to contest th

  6. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China (United States)

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao


    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  7. TCM and western psychiatry: An integrative proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Werkstetter, L.; Kirchberg, I.; Gladen, L.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den


    The LVR Klinik Bedburg Hau cooperated with the Radboud University Nijmegen in an integrative medicine project that added weekly acupuncture treatments to the usual western psychiatric treatment in outpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Acupuncture treatment was performed in groups. The amount of dr

  8. Western spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) distribution in the Bonneville Basin of western Utah: Research in progress (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides information on the western spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) which occurs in Tule Valley, Utah. The following topics are discussed; general...

  9. Western values and the Russian energy weapon (United States)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  10. How Western Does Business: An Explanation of Western's Products and Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The mission of the Western Area Power Administration is to market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based hydroelectric power and related services. This guide provides an overview of Western’s history and how Western carries out that mission and provides electrical, transmission and ancillary services. It also discusses how we develop plans for marketing our most valuable resources—long-term firm capacity and energy.

  11. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia) (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio


    INTRODUCTION The Swan Coastal plain of Western Australia is dominated by fire-prone banksia woodland (Burrows and McCaw, 1990). In these areas, prescription burning is often used to reduce the risk of wildfires, by reducing available fuels (Boer et al., 2009). Little research has been conducted on the effects of prescription burning on Banksia woodlands, and, in particular, information on the impacts on soil properties and soil water repellency (SWR) is scarce. Here, we have studied the impact of fire on SWR in a Banksia woodland and monitored its evolution in the medium-term. It is expected that results are useful for management and restoration of fire-affected Banksia woodlands. METHODS An experimental fire was conducted on May 7th 2015 in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. The fire affected an area of 6 ha of mixed Banksia/Allocasuarina woodland under moderate fire intensity. At the time of ignition, the wind speed below the canopy was 1.2 km/h. During the prescribed burning, air temperatures were on average 20 ± 1 °C and relative humidity ranged between 45 and 55% (measured using a Kestrel portable weather station). Fuel moisture averaged 11.8% (measured using Wiltronics moisture meter) and soil moisture at 1 cm deep ranged from 0.1% to 8.6% (measured with a PR2 soil profile probe attached to a HH2 data logger). Temperatures greater than 120 °C were measured 1 cm below the soil surface using iButton temperature sensors. SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Soil microbial activity was determined with the 1-day CO2 test that is based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SWR was severe in the control (mean WDPT = 2608 s) and pre-burned areas (2722 s). One week after the prescribed fire, persistence of soil water repellency remained stable in the burned area (2402 s). In

  12. Clown doctors: shaman healers of Western medicine. (United States)

    Van Blerkom, L M


    The Big Apple Circus Clown Care Unit, which entertains children in New York City hospitals, is compared with non-Western healers, especially shamans. There is not only superficial resemblance--weird costumes, music, sleight of hand, puppet/spirit helpers, and ventriloquism--but also similarity in the meanings and functions of their performances. Both clown and shaman violate natural and cultural rules in their performances. Both help patient and family deal with illness. Both use suggestion and manipulation of medical symbols in attempting to alleviate their patients' distress. Just as traditional ethnomedical systems have been integrated with Western medicine in other societies, clown doctors can provide complementary therapy that may enhance the efficacy of medical treatment in developed nations, particularly for children.

  13. Eghindi among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara. (United States)

    Volpato, Gabriele; Waldstein, Anna


    Eghindi is an illness built around a set of pathological states experienced by Sahrawi in the desert environment of Western Sahara. Its core symptoms are caused by osmotic imbalances related to salt consumption. In 1975, many Sahrawi were exiled into refugee camps, and they have since experienced radical sociocultural changes, which are reflected in changing explanatory models of eghindi. Older and conservative refugees, attached to traditional Sahrawi culture, have expanded its conceptualization to include new pathogenic factors, while younger and progressive refugees, acculturated with Western culture, began challenging its existence. Eghindi became embodied within a broader process of negotiation of Sahrawi cultural identity. Our findings provide a framework for thinking about the evolution of illness in response to displacement, and highlight that when explanatory models evolve, intracultural tensions can arise within a population.

  14. Maternal Mortality Among Migrants in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Grete Skøtt; Grøntved, Anders; Mortensen, Laust Hvas;


    To examine whether an excess risk of maternal mortality exists among migrant women in Western Europe. We searched electronic databases for studies published 1970 through 2013 for all observational studies comparing maternal mortality between the host country and a defined migrant population....... Compared with indigenous born women, the pooled risk estimate (RR) was 2.00 with 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 1.72, 2.33. Migrant women had a non-significantly higher risk of dying from direct than indirect death causes; pooled RRs of 2.65 CI 1.88, 3.74 and 1.83 CI 1.37, 2.45. This meta......-analysis provides evidence that migrant women in Western European countries have an excess risk of maternal mortality....

  15. HP metamorphic belt of the western Alps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The understanding of the subduction-related processes benefited by the studies of the high-pressure (HP) meta-morphic rocks from the western Alps. The most stimu-lating information was obtained from the inner part of the western Alpine belt, where most tectonic units show an early Alpine eclogite-facies recrystallisation. This is especially true for the Austroalpine Sesia Zone and the Penninic Dora-Maira massif. From the Sesia zone,which consists of a wide spectrum of continental crust lithologies recrystallised to quartz-eclogite-facies min-eral assemblages, the first finding of a jadeite-bearingmeta-granitoid has been described, supporting evidencethat even continental crust may subduct into the mantle.From the Dora-Maira massif the first occurrence of regional metamorphic coesite has been reported, open-ing the new fertile field of the ultrahigh-pressure meta-morphism (UHPM), which is now becoming the rule in the collisional orogenic belts.

  16. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)


    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  17. On Differences between Chinese and Western Marriage Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As it is known,there exist many distinctions between Chinese and Western marriage customs.This paper is to discover the different customs between Chinese and Western marriage and analyze the reasons for the distinctions.

  18. "Soft Technology" and Criticism of the Western Model of Development (United States)

    Harper, Peter


    Alternatives to the capitalistic Western model of develoment are suggested. Three problems afflicting Western society--alienation, resource exploitation, and eviornmental stability--are discussed and a model which advocates both political and technological change is proposed. (SM)

  19. Analyses of Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Automobile Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Di; Wang Haiyan


    This paper compares and analyzes auto advertisings between China and western countries, so as to explore the cultural differences of value orientations and thinking patterns behind them and help readers know better about auto culture in China and western countries.

  20. International experience of green development in Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhen, Lin; Hu, Jie; Du, Bingzhen; Liu, Jiyuan; Sun, Chuanzhun; Wu, Ruizi; Long, Xin; Zhang, Qiang


    Green development emphasizes co-development between economic and environmental dimensions, and is a peoplecentered sustainable development approach. Western China demands green development, and international experience could provide necessary, unique and important help and support for Western Chi

  1. Unearthed Artifacts of Western Mythological Figures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Although wars and shifts of power happened constantly during the Southern and Northern dynasties (420-589), the exchange with foreign countries in culture and economy never stopped. Some art works unearthed from the tomb of General Li Xian of the Northern Zhou (died in 569) and his wife in the western suburb of Guyuan County, Ningxia in 1983 are the affirmation of that. These art works include a glass bowl with raised floral design, a

  2. Embracing Western Ways While Cleaving to Tradition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Colorfully coiffured Chinese youth dressed in up-to-the-minute grunge listening to rock music as they walk,or sitting in a group discussing last night's NBA league match are common sights in Chind's large cities,Western,particularly stateside,youth culture is rapidly incorporating itself into everyday urban Chinese life,What does the country's youth and society in general think about this cultural omslaught?

  3. Geothermal overviews of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)


    This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)

  4. On the Western Conception of Natural Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Song; YU Yu-he


    Natural law is an important concept of the Westem political culture. The author makes a simple investigation into the various definitions of natural law, based on which he comes to the conclusion that natural law is a key concept of Western political culture; that it is a moral norm of politics as well as a product of rational thinking; and that its meaning has varied over time.

  5. Taxation and life expectancy in Western Europe. (United States)

    Bagger, P J


    With the exception of Denmark, life expectancy in Western Europe has shown a significant increase over the last decades. During that period of time overall taxation has increased in most of the countries, especially in Denmark. We, therefore, examined whether taxation could influence life expectancy in Western Europe. We used information on the sum of income tax and employees' social contribution in percentage of gross wage earnings from the OECD database and data on disability adjusted life expectancy at birth from the World Health Organization database. We arbitrarily only included countries with populations in excess of 4 millions and thereby excluded smaller countries where tax exemption is part of the national monetary policy. We found that disability adjusted life expectancy at birth was inversely correlated to the total tax burden in Western Europe. We speculate whether a threshold exists where high taxes exert a negative influence on life expectancy despite increased welfare spending. The study suggests that tax burden should be considered among the multiple factors influencing life expectancy.

  6. Studying Summer Season Drought in Western Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Lupo


    Full Text Available During the 2010 summer, a severe drought impacted Western Russia, including regions surrounding Moscow and Belgorod (about 700 km south of Moscow. The drought was accompanied by high temperatures. Moscow recorded 37.8°C (100°F for the first time in over 130 years of record keeping. The record heat, high humidity, dry weather, and smoke from forest fires caused increased human mortality rates in the Moscow region during the summer. The excessive heat and humidity in Western Russia were the result of atmospheric blocking from June through mid-August. The NCAR-NCEP reanalyses were used to examine blocking in the Eastern European and Western Russia sector during the spring and summer seasons from 1970 to 2012. We found that drier years were correlated with stronger and more persistent blocking during the spring and summer seasons. During these years, the Moscow region was drier in the summer and Belgorod during the spring seasons. In the Moscow region, the drier summers were correlated with transitions from El Niño to La Niña, but the opposite was true in the Belgorod region. Synoptic flow regimes were then analyzed and support the contention that dry years are associated with more blocking and El Niño transitions.

  7. RTG resource book for western states and provinces: Final proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Western Interstate Energy Board held a workshop and liaison activities among western states, provinces, and utilities on the formation of Regional Transmission Groups (RTGs). Purpose of the activities was to examine the policy implications for western states and provinces in the formation of RTGs in the West, the implications for western ratepayers and utilities of the RTG formation and potential impacts of RTGs on the western electricity system. The workshop contributed to fulfilling the transmission access and competition objectives of Title VII of the Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  8. Western armament and tactics in the writings of Anna Komnene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drašković Marko


    Full Text Available In this work, first we reconstructed and commented the western horseman's armament witch Anna Komnene had known (long spear, cross-bow, chain mail "Norman" shield, solarets. Afterwards, we established that Anne knew four types of western horseman's attack (attack in full gallop, attack from back slow march, attack from flank and three types of their battle formation (strewn formation, congested formation, formation of two columns. Also, we commented Anna's knowledge of western siege engines (battering-ram, tortoise catapult, siege tower; we established that Anne knew five types of western siege tower. In the end, we commented several fragments witch show Anna Komnene's knowledge of the western siege tactics.

  9. The Exploration of Differences on Politeness Between Western and Western and Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper discisses the cultural diffefences on politeness between western and Chinese by means of that due to different culmral background,historic background,traditional customs and so on.there are many differ-ences on politeness in daily communication Today.etiquette becomes the reflection and manifestation of one country's poll-tics,economy,culture in people's social contact.And it includes the principal and moral that people should obey in daily life.So it is important for us to legrn western culture.This paper also will discuss how to leam wcsrtem culture.There are many ways for learning western culture.Therefore.It is practically useful to know and study the differences.thus promoting the cultural communication.

  10. On the Embodiment of Cultural Specification of Western Cartoon Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This study focus on the western culture embodied in cartoon movies.The main object is to help readers to know the characteristics of western culture through cartoon movies.With the enjoyment to the western cartoon movies,I discuss the definition of western culture.American culture is a representation of western culture,and there are many western culture elements in American culture,so I will mainly talk about American culture.And then,this thesis discusses some good cartoon movies,the incarnation of the western culture through them.The language,activities,and architectural style in cartoon movies show the American cultures well.People could have a better understand about their characteristics while enjoying the interesting,colorful,winning cartoons.

  11. Reconnaissance paleomagnetic results from western Cuba (United States)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Pszczolkowski, Andrzej; Shipunov, Stanislav V.


    A paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic rocks from the Sierra de Los Organos and Sierra del Rosario fold belts of western Cuba revealed postfolding magnetisation in diabases of the Late Jurassic El Sábalo Formation and carbonates of the middle Cretaceous Pons and the Late Cretaceous Carmita and Moreno formations. Steep components with inclinations of about 70° were isolated from all three formations; at the same time, postfolding shallow components were also found in a few samples of the Pons limestones. We rule out a possibility to account for these results by either horizontal movements or non-dipole field anomaly. Neither very appealing is a hypothesis of a post-remagnetization tilt of the entire region. All the components appear to be confined to a plane perpendicular to the main structural trends; we hypothesize that the remanences might have been distorted or re-aligned during deformation; this assumption, however, is far from being proven. In contrast, well-defined characteristic components were isolated from basalts of the Aptian-Albian Encrucijada ( {D}/{I} = {247°}/{23°}, K = 14, a95 = 9.0°) and the Late Cretaceous Orozco ( {D}/{I} = {228°}/{22°}, K = 110, a95 = 4.7) formations from the Bahia Honda zone in the north of western Cuba; the remanence in the Encrucijada Formation is shown to predate deformation. Mean inclinations in both formations match those in Cretaceous volcanics from central Cuba, and all the results show lower latitudes than expected from the reference data for the North American plate thus implying that volcanic domains of Cuba were displaced northward by about 1000 km prior to the Middle Eocene. Cretaceous declinations in western and central Cuba differ by about the same amount as the major structural trends of these two areas suggesting oroclinal bending of Cuba. At the same time, both areas are rotated counterclockwise with respect to North America thus implying movements on a broader scale.

  12. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.


    The status of government sponsored projects undertaken to increase gas production from low-permeability gas sands of the western United States during August 1978 is summarized. Background information is given in the September 1977 Status Report, NVO/0655-100. One of the largest massive Hydraulic Fracture (MHF) treatment to date was performed on Gas Producing Enterprises Well No. CIGE 2-29. C.H. Atkinson, Western Gas Sands Project (WGSP) Manager and D.C. Bleakly, CER Corporation were observers. Oriented coring operations on the Mitchell Energy well, Muse-Duke No. 1 were observed by Atkinson and Bleakly near Mexia, Texas. The Fourth Annual Department of Energy Symposium on Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery and Improved Drilling Methods was held on August 29-31, 1978 in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The USGS continued geological and geophysical studies in the four primary study areas. Low-level oblique photography of Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks exposed in the Rock Springs Uplift area was completed, and core from the J.C. Paine well in Montana was sampled for petrograhic analysis. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on the improved pressure coring system and anticipates completion of the project by September 30, 1978. Preliminary work began on the Parametric Analysis of MHF Test Data, an Engineering Study of Western Gas Sands, by Intercomp. The National Laboratories, funded by DOE are continuing their work in the area of research and development. The emphasis is on instrumentation systems, rock mechanics, mathematical modeling, and data analysis. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1, has reached total depth and was logged on August 31, 1978. The DOE well test facility was moved from the RB-MHF 3 well in Colorado to Vernal, Utah for trailer modifications and checkout.

  13. The Tropical Western Hemisphere Warm Pool (United States)

    Wang, C.; Enfield, D. B.


    The paper describes and examines variability of the tropical Western Hemisphere warm pool (WHWP) of water warmer than 28.5oC. The WHWP is the second-largest tropical warm pool on Earth. Unlike the Eastern Hemisphere warm pool in the western Pacific, which straddles the equator, the WHWP is entirely north of the equator. At various stages of development the WHWP extends over parts of the eastern North Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the western tropical North Atlantic. It has a large seasonal cycle and its interannual fluctuations of area and intensity are significant. Surface heat fluxes warm the WHWP through the boreal spring to an annual maximum of SST and WHWP area in the late summer/early fall, associated with eastern North Pacific and Atlantic hurricane activities and rainfall from northern South America to the southern tier of the United States. Observations suggest that a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback operating through longwave radiation and associated cloudiness seems to operate in the WHWP. During winter preceding large warm pool, there is an alteration of the Walker and Hadley circulation cells that serves as a "tropospheric bridge" for transferring Pacific ENSO effects to the Atlantic sector and inducing initial warming of warm pool. Associated with the warm SST anomalies is a decrease in sea level pressure anomalies and an anomalous increase in atmospheric convection and cloudiness. The increase in convective activity and cloudiness results in less net longwave radiation loss from the sea surface, which then reinforces SST anomalies.

  14. The Performance of Western Australian Ports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm Tull; Fred Affleck


    <正>The aim of this paper is to undertake an analysis of the performance of Western Australia’s port authorities.The context for this research is the report released in February 2006 by Access Economics (A scorecard of the design of economic regulation of infrastructure) for the Australian Council for Infrastructure Development.This report was critical of the regime for economic regulation of Western Australia’s ports,and by implication of the potential quality and efficiency of service delivery to their principal stakeholders.However,a reading of the Access Economics report and supporting data suggests that its analysis takes no account of the regulatory frameworks for port authorities in Western Austral ia(WA) contained in the Port Authorities Act 1999(WA) and elsewhere,or of the actual economic and physical performance of WA port authorities.In the light of this apparently flawed analysis of the effectiveness of port regulation in WA,it is timely to review the performance of ports under the current governance structures,and to place the Access Economics report in a broader empirical performance-based context. While there is no regime for direct regulation of access to WA’s port infrastructure,it is argued that provisions in WA’s legislation governing the management of ports provide much of the focus,transparency and accountability required of an adequate regulatory framework.The current dominant Australian model of public ownership,with ports acting as strategic managers subject to statutory and governmental oversight,offers a viable alternative to complete privatisation and specialised regulatory controls.Efficient ports arguably can emerge from a variety of institutional frameworks-there is no single ownership or administrative structure that fits all circumstances.

  15. A western boundary current eddy characterisation study (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel


    The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.

  16. Single cell-resolution western blotting. (United States)

    Kang, Chi-Chih; Yamauchi, Kevin A; Vlassakis, Julea; Sinkala, Elly; Duncombe, Todd A; Herr, Amy E


    This protocol describes how to perform western blotting on individual cells to measure cell-to-cell variation in protein expression levels and protein state. Like conventional western blotting, single-cell western blotting (scWB) is particularly useful for protein targets that lack selective antibodies (e.g., isoforms) and in cases in which background signal from intact cells is confounding. scWB is performed on a microdevice that comprises an array of microwells molded in a thin layer of a polyacrylamide gel (PAG). The gel layer functions as both a molecular sieving matrix during PAGE and a blotting scaffold during immunoprobing. scWB involves five main stages: (i) gravity settling of cells into microwells; (ii) chemical lysis of cells in each microwell; (iii) PAGE of each single-cell lysate; (iv) exposure of the gel to UV light to blot (immobilize) proteins to the gel matrix; and (v) in-gel immunoprobing of immobilized proteins. Multiplexing can be achieved by probing with antibody cocktails and using antibody stripping/reprobing techniques, enabling detection of 10+ proteins in each cell. We also describe microdevice fabrication for both uniform and pore-gradient microgels. To extend in-gel immunoprobing to gels of small pore size, we describe an optional gel de-cross-linking protocol for more effective introduction of antibodies into the gel layer. Once the microdevice has been fabricated, the assay can be completed in 4-6 h by microfluidic novices and it generates high-selectivity, multiplexed data from single cells. The technique is relevant when direct measurement of proteins in single cells is needed, with applications spanning the fundamental biosciences to applied biomedicine.

  17. Global Communication and Cultural Desensitisation: Repackaging Western Values for Non-Western Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Galander


    Full Text Available Abstract: Global communication is widely perceived as an instrument to disseminate Western values in the developing world. The “Wheel of Fortune” and “Who Wants to be a Millionnaire” licensed to Malaysian Television stations, though the language and the word puzzles were localised, carried the same format of the original (American show. They promote consumerism, gambling and the images of usury, the style of wealth accumulation forbidden in Islam. For the Malaysian audience whose priorities are those of contentment, modesty and humility, such emphasis on material desires breeds internal contradictions that may lead the audience to succumb to the new Western values.

  18. Western Fast Food Comes to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IT’S common knowledge that the Chinese have opened many restaurants outside their own country. Now fast food from the West can be had in the big cities of China. Western fast-food restaurants dot the streets of Beijing. And the food is not the only thing that attracts people. "They are clean and well-lighted and decorated in bright colors," said one scholar in Beijing. "They are not like Chinese restaurants that are often decorated in heavy and solemn colors or use old furnishings." The American fast food giant McDonald’s is one of the most visible

  19. Reinventing an industry at Western Canadian Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.


    Western Canadian Coal is applying lessons learned from past disruptions to coal production operations in British Columbia in order to build a low cost, long term production operation. Northeast British Columbia has huge coal deposits and an established infrastructure that includes the town of Tumbler Ridge, rail facilities, and access to Port Rupert. The company is developing 50,000 hectares of coal-bearing property. Production commenced in 2004, and it is planned to produce four million tonnes of coal per year by the end of 2007, increasing to 10 million tonnes by 2012. Equipment, staffing, and activities at the Dillon, Wolverine, and Brule mines are described. 2 photos.

  20. Genotyping of Canine parvovirus in western Mexico. (United States)

    Pedroza-Roldán, César; Páez-Magallan, Varinia; Charles-Niño, Claudia; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; De Cervantes-Mireles, Raúl Leonel; López-Amezcua, Mario Alberto


    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most common infectious agents related to high morbidity rates in dogs. In addition, the virus is associated with severe gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and vomiting, resulting in high death rates, especially in puppies and nonvaccinated dogs. To date, there are 3 variants of the virus (CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and CPV-2c) circulating worldwide. In Mexico, reports describing the viral variants circulating in dog populations are lacking. In response to this deficiency, a total of 41 fecal samples of suspected dogs were collected from October 2013 through April 2014 in the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Guadalajara in western Mexico. From these, 24 samples resulted positive by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral variant was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five positive diagnosed samples were selected for partial sequencing of the vp2 gene and codon analysis. The results demonstrated that the current dominant viral variant in Mexico is CPV-2c. The current study describes the genotyping of CPV strains, providing valuable evidence of the dominant frequency of this virus in a dog population from western Mexico.

  1. Kurban (sacrifice tradition in Western Thracian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun Aşkar


    Full Text Available This article is prepared within 04-DPT-007 the Project of Preparing Museum and Archive on Folk Music Instruments, Folk Dances, Traditional Clothes and Folk Music in Anatolia and the Balkans started with the research of Ege University State Turkish Music Conservatory, Turkish Folk Dance Department in Macedonia on 18 April 2004.In the Greece trip within the project, on-site monitoring works have been conducted in the villages where Western Thracian Turks that are taken under research live in Komotini and Xanthi and as a result of these works it is seen that traditions that can be expressed as the facts of cultural remnants from past to present that have still maintained through cultural sanctions have maintained even with different applications.One of the traditions of Western Thracian Turks, Kurban (Sacrifice Tradition attracts attention as a tradition reflects acting collectively and union of forces and a tradition based on cooperation. In this article, this tradition that has still continued to maintain is going to be handled.

  2. Kurban (sacrifice tradition in Western Thracian Turks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Füsun Aşkar


    Full Text Available This article is prepared within 04-DPT-007 the Project of Preparing Museum and Archive on Folk Music Instruments, Folk Dances, Traditional Clothes and Folk Music in Anatolia and the Balkans started with the research of Ege University State Turkish Music Conservatory, Turkish Folk Dance Department in Macedonia on 18 April 2004. In the Greece trip within the project, on-site monitoring works have been conducted in the villages where Western Thracian Turks that are taken under research live in Komotini and Xanthi and as a result of these works it is seen that traditions that can be expressed as the facts of cultural remnants from past to present that have still maintained through cultural sanctions have maintained even with different applications. One of the traditions of Western Thracian Turks, Kurban (Sacrifice Tradition attracts attention as a tradition reflects acting collectively and union of forces and a tradition based on cooperation. In this article, this tradition that has still continued to maintain is going to be handled.

  3. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.


    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  4. The structure of western Sicily, central Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, R.; Sulli, A. [Universita di Palermo, Dip. di Geologia e Geodesia, Palermo (Italy); Merlini, S. [ENI-Divisione AGIP, San Donato Milanese (Italy)


    Western Sicily is part of the Sicilian chain, a sector of the SE-verging Alpine orogenic belt in the central Mediterranean. Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, boreholes and recent inland geological data, have enabled us to assess the deep structural grain. A wedge of flat-lying Mesozoic-Miocene carbonate and terrigenous rocks (pre-Panormide nappes) is superimposed on NW-trending, 7-8 km thick, Mesozoic-Paleogene carbonate thrust ramps (Trapanese units), arranged in two structural levels extending from the Tyrrhenian coast to western offshore Sicily. Upper Miocene to Pleistocene terrigenous strata, often deformed, fill syntectonic basins above the thrust pile. The main tectonic transport of the thrust pile, developing from Early Miocene to Early-Middle Pleistocene times, was towards the east and southeast. Initial stacking and deformation of the pre-Panormide allochthon is bracketed between Early and Late Miocene. The Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene underthrusting of the Trapanese-Saccense units, that acted through more recent deep-seated thrusts in the carbonate platform layer, induced late stage refolding and further shortening in the early emplaced pre-Panormide nappe. Previously formed structures appear to have been dissected or reactivated by a right oblique transpression during the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene. The geometry of the carbonate bodies opens new potential perspectives on the existence of structural traps, but the uncertainties of source rock occurrence remain. (Author)

  5. Providing Western Regional Climate Services - Perspectives from the Western Regional Climate Center (United States)

    Brown, T. J.; Redmond, K. T.


    The western United States faces distinct challenges such as persistent drought, dwindling water resources amidst an expanding population, and climate-sensitive alpine environments. The complex terrain of the region compounds these challenges. The Western Regional Climate Center (WRCC), one of six National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) university-based regional climate centers, has been providing climate services since 1986 that support the unique needs of stakeholders in the mountainous region of the western U.S. This includes meteorological data, tools, and products for thousands of stations across the West, and gridded data products, such as based on PRISM for example, that are used for drought assessment among other needs. WRCC and partners have developed numerous web-based tools and products to support decision-making and research pertinent to the West. Changing climate and variability along with the diverse physical and human geographies of the western U.S. require continuous advancements in climate knowledge and applications development. Examples include the need for tools and model downscaling that support and inform adaptation, mitigation and resiliency planning; web-based analytics that would allow users to interact and explore temporal and spatial data and relationships, and products from new satellite sensors that can provide higher resolution information on soil moisture and vegetation health given the sparseness of in-situ observations for the vastness of the West. This presentation provides an overview of some insights, opportunities and challenges of providing current and future climate services in the West.

  6. Alcoholism in the Western Genre: The Portrayal of Alcohol and Alcoholism in the Western Genre. (United States)

    Wedding, Danny


    Examines the way alcohol use has been portrayed in films with particular emphasis on the western genre. Saloons, bar fights, and town drunks are all staple features of the genre, a genre that has contributed significantly to the prevailing image of masculinity. This paper argues that these images influence and shape contemporary attitudes about…

  7. Solar Energy and the Western Asian Countries (United States)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio


    The Western Asian countries receive the most abundant solar radiation of the world. They also have enormous reserves of oil and natural gas. But the world reserves of those fuels will certainly diminish greatly as the worldwide demand for energy will increase steadily in the coming decades. And the suppliers of energy will have to contend with public concerns about the polluting effects of those fuels and the possible dangers of nuclear energy. Clearly a power source based on an non exhaustible and non-polluting fuel could be expected to find a role. It now appears that such a source is at hand in the solar energy. Here in this paper, under the principles in the United Nations' Agenda 21, we suggest to Western Asian countries, the study and own development of the following technologies based on solar energy; and comment about them: *photo-voltaic solar cell power plants - in the future, its cost per kilowatt-hour will probably be competitive as to other sources of electrical energy. A new technique, the solar non-imaging concentrator, with amorphous silicon-based thin films solar cells at the focus of the concentrators, can collect and intensify solar radiation far better than conventional concentrators do, thus reducing much more the cost; *bio-gas - using biological gas to produce energy and for heating/cooling purposes; *wind generation of electricity - it's nowadays, a non-expensive technique; *water pump for irrigation and human consuming, driving their power from photovoltaic cells; *and the study and own development of solar lasers for peaceful scientific studies. In this new kind of laser, the external necessary pumping energy comes from the high intensity of sunlight, produced with non-imaging concentrators. Solar lasers can give unexpected new great uses for mankind. Those achievements will require international cooperation and transfer of information, sustained research and development work, and some initial subsides by independent governments. Solar

  8. Hydrogeologic framework of western Cape Cod, Massachusetts (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Stone, Byron D.; Walter, Donald A.; Savoie, Jennifer G.


    The aquifer of western Cape Cod consists of several hydrogeologic units composed of sand, gravel, silt, and clay (fig. 1) that were deposited during the late Wisconsinan glaciation of New England. The aquifer is a shallow, unconfined hydrologic system in which ground-water flows radially outward from the apex of the ground-water mound near the center of the peninsula toward the coast (fig.2). The aquifer is the sole source of water supply for the towns of Bourne, Sandwich, Falmouth, and Mashpee, and the Massachusetts Military Reservation (MMR).Previous geologic studies summarized the characteristics and relative ages of the glacial moraines and meltwater deposits and the relation of these sediments to the extent of the ice-sheet lobes during the last glaciation of southern New England (Oldale and Barlow, 1986; Hartshorn and others, 1991). Hydrogeologic studies in western Cape Cod characterized the shallow regional ground-water-flow system (LeBlanc and others, 1986) and analyzed simulated responses of the aquifer to changes in hydrologic stresses (Guswa and LeBlanc, 1985; Barlow and Hess, 1993; Masterson and Barlow, 1994; and Masterson and others, 1996). Recent concerns about widespread ground-water contamination, especially from sources on the MMR, have resulted in extensive investigations to characterize the local hydrogeology of the aquifer near the MMR (ABB Environmental Services, 1992). Masterson and others (1996) illustrated the strong influence of geology on ground-water flow and the importance of characterizing the hydrogeology to predict the migration of the contaminant plumes beneath the MMR.This report, a product of a cooperative study between the National Guard Bureau and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), characterizes the regional hydrogeology of the western Cape Cod aquifer on the basis of surficial glacial geology previously described by Mather and others (1940) and Oldale and Barlow (1986), and presents a new analysis of the subsurface hydrogeology

  9. Vitamin D insufficiency in Greenlanders on a westernized fare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Jorgensen, M.E.; Pedersen, M.B.;


    fare (group A), 45 Greenlanders living in Nuuk on a westernized fare (group B), 54 Greenlanders (group C), and 43 Danes (Group D) living in Denmark (55 degrees N) on a westernized fare. Blood specimens were drawn both summer and winter. Vitamin D insufficiency (plasma 25 OHD ... of vitamin D status. Changes from a traditional to a westernized fare are associated with a reduced vitamin D status in Greenlanders. Vitamin D supplementation should be considered....

  10. Bronze Inscription Calendar and Western Zhou Kings' Reigns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长寿; 莫润先


    In the inscriptions of Western Zhou bronzes there are quantities of calendrical data recording years, months and days. Of them are those completely indicating the year of king's reign, the moon, the lunar phase, and the day designated by the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches system. These records are of great significance to studying the Western Zhou calendar, establishing the bronze inscription calendar, and identifying the reigning years of the Western Zhou kings.

  11. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu; Jing


    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators’ style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in this field.

  12. A Stylistic Study of Translator Based on Western Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jing


    This paper focuses on the historic development of the stylistic study of translator in light of western translation theory,and analyzes its features on each phase and current emphasis of research,by which knowledge of the development of western theory and translators' style can be shown.After that,we can research its problems existing in the stylistic study of translator based on western theory so than we can provide a panoramic analysis in thisfield.

  13. Development of the Peace Process in the Western Sahara Conflict (United States)


    DEVELOPMENT OF THE PEACE PROCESS IN THE WESTERN SAHARA CONFLICT A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command...AND SUBTITLE Development of the Peace Process in the Western Sahara Conflict 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PRO GRAM ELEMENT...Spain in 1884, The Western Sahara has been a theater of dispute between different actors in different times. Spain relinquished the administration of

  14. Buying behaviour of Western European food retailers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan


    The aim of this study has been to analyze important aspects of buying behavior of food retailers, i.e., trade buyers' evaluation of product and vendor attributes, based on a number of background variables, when choosing a new supplier of an already well-known product category. The study encompassed...... the retailers' buying behavior for pork, fish and cheese products. By conducting a conjoint analysis in sixteen Western European countries (15 'old' EU Countries (except Luxemburg), and Norway, and Austria), it is demonstrated that the traditional four Ps are losing ground to some previously neglected...... attributes, and that it is possible to generalise retailers' buying behavior for different food products across countries, retail organizations, and buyers....

  15. Shallow magma targets in the western US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardee, H.C.


    Within the next few years a hole will be drilled into a shallow magma body in the western US for the purpose of evaluating the engineering feasibility of magma energy. This paper examines potential drilling sites for these engineering feasibility experiments. Target sites high on the list are ones that currently exhibit good geophysical and geological data for shallow magma and also have reasonable operational requirements. Top ranked sites for the first magma energy well are Long Valley, CA, and Coso/Indian Wells, CA. Kilauea, HI, also in the top group, is an attractive site for some limited field experiments. A number of additional sites offer promise as eventual magma energy sites, but sparsity of geophysical data presently prevents these sites from being considered for the first magma energy well.

  16. Update on HIV in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D


    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people...... living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present...... to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidee Coste


    Full Text Available The research aimed to identify the generic work competences in the staff of the Vice Presidency of Compensation and Development of the Western Bank Discount. Authors were consulted such as Alles (2008, Tobon (2006 and Hay Group (2004, among others. The research is descriptive, non-experimental, transactional and field design. The population consisted of twelve (12 subjects belonging to the vice presidency. It was applied a questionnaire of thirty (30 items, validated by the trial of three (3 experts, with 0.92 reliability by Cronbach alpha coefficient.  It is concluded the employees of the vice presidency have a high level of the generic work competences customer focus, teamwork, effective communication, innovation, emotional intelligence and making decisions. It is strength for the institution, because staff with those competences contributes doing the best for the development of the institution.

  18. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato


    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  19. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry. (United States)

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D


    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda.

  20. Western Energy Corridor -- Energy Resource Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie Roberts; Michael Hagood


    The world is facing significant growth in energy demand over the next several decades. Strategic in meeting this demand are the world-class energy resources concentrated along the Rocky Mountains and northern plains in Canada and the U.S., informally referred to as the Western Energy Corridor (WEC). The fossil energy resources in this region are rivaled only in a very few places in the world, and the proven uranium reserves are among the world's largest. Also concentrated in this region are renewable resources contributing to wind power, hydro power, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and solar energy. Substantial existing and planned energy infrastructure, including refineries, pipelines, electrical transmission lines, and rail lines provide access to these resources.

  1. The Many Crises of Western Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    of professional journalism in existential terms; the second focuses on the weaknesses of the professional model itself; the third defines the crisis in symbolic terms, as a morally problematic relation among journalists, citizens, and power holders. These three crisis frameworks raise different questions...... and professionally relatively robust countries like Finland and Germany, where symbolic issues loom large; to countries like the US, where economic, professional, and symbolic crises seem to coincide -- and are interpreted in large part through the lens of technology; to countries like France, Italy, and the UK......, where crises are seen to coincide but where the roots of crises are seen as predating the rise of the internet and the erosion of existing business models for journalism. Each interpretation of the crisis in Western journalism points to different solutions, from appeals to state intervention in several...

  2. Fertility and family size in Western Europe. (United States)

    Prioux, F


    "It is known that the fertility decline in Western Europe started almost everywhere in the mid-1960s, that the national trends have run in parallel, and that the reason was essentially the decrease in the numbers of large families, or even their complete disappearance. However, for want of comparable data, international comparisons are often limited to annual fertility indices, and do not distinguish changes due to reduced family size from those which are the result of changes in fertility timing....[The author presents,] for a broad range of countries, an analysis by cohort and birth order. This makes it possible to measure the fertility decline in more detail, to compare its amplitude in the various parts of Europe, and to study its mechanisms."

  3. Invest in Textile in Western China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The thirteenth Investment & Trade Forum for co-operation between East & West China was held in Xi'an,Shaanxi Province in April,2009.Under the upsurge of Western China Development,Shaanxi enjoys countless business opportunities and broad investment space. To better provide convenience for home & abroad investors,260 projects with a total investment of RMB 131.1 billion were brought to the forum,involving 10 categories.These projects,meeting national industrial policy and closely linked with advantages of resource and industry of Shaanxi province,promise a bright market prospects.China's Foreign Trade this issue will release those investment projects in light & textile sector in Shaanxi province.

  4. Moist temperate forest butterflies of western Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh


    Full Text Available Random surveys were carried out in moist temperate forests (1,860–3,116 m around Bunakha Village and Dochula Pass, near Thimphu in western Bhutan, recording 65 species of butterflies.  Of these, 11 species, viz., Straightwing Blue Orthomiella pontis pontis Elwes, Slate Royal Maneca bhotea bhotea Moore, Dull Green Hairstreak Esakiozephyrus icana Moore, Yellow Woodbrown Lethe nicetas Hewitson, Small Silverfork Zophoessa jalaurida elwesi Moore, Scarce Labyrinth, Neope pulahina (Evans, Chumbi Wall Chonala masoni Elwes, Pale Hockeystick Sailer Neptis manasa manasa Moore and White Commodore Parasarpa dudu dudu Westwood, are restricted to the eastern Himalaya, northeastern India and Myanmar.  Two other species, Tawny Mime Chiasa agestor agestor (Gray and Himalayan Spotted Flat Celaenorrhinus munda Moore have been only rarely recorded from Bhutan and a few individuals of the rare Bhutan Glory Bhutanitis lidderdalei Atkinson were also recorded near Bunakha.  

  5. Distribution of apparent stress in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠良; 黄静; 林碧苍


    Distribution of apparent stress in Chinese mainland and its surrounding regions was presented using the NEIC broadband radiated energy catalogue and the Harvard CMT catalogue from January 1987 to December 1998. Due to the limitation on the number of samples, reliable results are only for the western China. It is observed that the average apparent stress in Chinese mainland is 0.8 MPa; The maximum apparent stress to the east of the Tibetan plateau is 2.6 MPa; And the average apparent stress in the north-south seismic belt is more than one time higher than its adjacent regions. Distribution pattern of apparent stress seems to have a large-scale correlation with the cumulative energy release level in the 20th century.

  6. Groundwater quality in western New York, 2011 (United States)

    Reddy, James E.


    Water samples collected from 16 production wells and 15 private residential wells in western New York from July through November 2011 were analyzed to characterize the groundwater quality. Fifteen of the wells were finished in sand and gravel aquifers, and 16 were finished in bedrock aquifers. Six of the 31 wells were sampled in a previous western New York study, which was conducted in 2006. Water samples from the 2011 study were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents that included major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and indicator bacteria. Results of the water-quality analyses are presented in tabular form for individual wells, and summary statistics for specific constituents are presented by aquifer type. The results are compared with Federal and New York State drinking-water standards, which typically are identical. The results indicate that groundwater generally is of acceptable quality, although at 30 of the 31 wells sampled, at least one of the following constituents was detected at a concentration that exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards: pH (two samples), sodium (eight samples), sulfate (three samples), total dissolved solids (nine samples), aluminum (two samples), arsenic (one sample), iron (ten samples), manganese (twelve samples), radon-222 (sixteen samples), benzene (one sample), and total coliform bacteria (nine samples). Existing drinking-water standards for color, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, gross alpha radioactivity, uranium, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic bacteria were not exceeded in any of the samples collected. None of the pesticides analyzed exceeded existing drinking-water standards.

  7. Barcoding poplars (Populus L. from western China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianju Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Populus is an ecologically and economically important genus of trees, but distinguishing between wild species is relatively difficult due to extensive interspecific hybridization and introgression, and the high level of intraspecific morphological variation. The DNA barcoding approach is a potential solution to this problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we tested the discrimination power of five chloroplast barcodes and one nuclear barcode (ITS among 95 trees that represent 21 Populus species from western China. Among all single barcode candidates, the discrimination power is highest for the nuclear ITS, progressively lower for chloroplast barcodes matK (M, trnG-psbK (G and psbK-psbI (P, and trnH-psbA (H and rbcL (R; the discrimination efficiency of the nuclear ITS (I is also higher than any two-, three-, or even the five-locus combination of chloroplast barcodes. Among the five combinations of a single chloroplast barcode plus the nuclear ITS, H+I and P+I differentiated the highest and lowest portion of species, respectively. The highest discrimination rate for the barcodes or barcode combinations examined here is 55.0% (H+I, and usually discrimination failures occurred among species from sympatric or parapatric areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this case study, we showed that when discriminating Populus species from western China, the nuclear ITS region represents a more promising barcode than any maternally inherited chloroplast region or combination of chloroplast regions. Meanwhile, combining the ITS region with chloroplast regions may improve the barcoding success rate and assist in detecting recent interspecific hybridizations. Failure to discriminate among several groups of Populus species from sympatric or parapatric areas may have been the result of incomplete lineage sorting, frequent interspecific hybridizations and introgressions. We agree with a previous proposal for constructing a tiered barcoding system in

  8. Urban landscapes and the western drought (United States)

    Pataki, D. E.


    Cities in the western U.S. are heavily irrigated and have increasingly been the focus of water conservation measures. Even cities that previously relied only on voluntary reductions in outdoor water use have been employing stricter mandates to limit irrigation. These cities are in a period of transition and the outcomes are far from certain. There are many tradeoffs in the environmental and social consequences of different urban water management strategies. Here we review recent work studying these tradeoffs in cities of southern California and Utah. We have measured the water use of different types of landscapes ranging from turfgrass to urban trees to xeriscapes. Unshaded turfgrass shows evapotranspiration (ET) rates close to potential ET; however, shaded turfgrass uses substantially less water. On the other hand, plants used in xeriscapes may have surprisingly high transpiration rates if they are heavily watered. In addition, unshaded xeriscapes may substantially alter surface energy balance and have unintended consequences for urban climate. Through whole tree sap flux measurements and scaling of ET estimates, we have found that urban trees generally use less water than turfgrass, and provide additional cooling benefits through interception of radiation. Current measures to reduce outdoor water use through irrigation restrictions and turfgrass removal programs do not include safeguards to ensure that urban trees receive adequate irrigation, and the future of urban tree canopies in western cities is highly uncertain. Although trees and other deep-rooted vegetation may require less irrigation than turfgrass and better withstand periods of drought, this vegetation must still be appropriate managed with water inputs informed by an understanding of plant water relations and urban subsurface hydrology. On the current trajectory, cities may see a substantial loss of vegetative cover and leaf area unless an understanding of ecohydrology is better integrated into

  9. Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM) frente a Western Blot


    Heredia Ponce, Zahira Maria; Urbano Gámez, Jose Alberto


    We propose the SRM technology as a complementary method to the Western Blot for the detection and quantification of proteins in a sample. The technique Western Blot has its own limitations: i) only a protein-of-choice is detected, ignoring any non-relevant proteins, ii) the sensitivity of the technique depends on the specificity of the antibody and iii) Western Blot is expensive and time-consuming. The advantages of SRM with respect Western Blot are remarkable: i) you can detect up to h...

  10. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States. (United States)

    Cook, Edward R; Woodhouse, Connie A; Eakin, C Mark; Meko, David M; Stahle, David W


    The western United States is experiencing a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in some hydroclimatic records. Using gridded drought reconstructions that cover most of the western United States over the past 1200 years, we show that this drought pales in comparison to an earlier period of elevated aridity and epic drought in AD 900 to 1300, an interval broadly consistent with the Medieval Warm Period. If elevated aridity in the western United States is a natural response to climate warming, then any trend toward warmer temperatures in the future could lead to a serious long-term increase in aridity over western North America.

  11. Man and Nature in Chinese and Western Traditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Chinese conception of "oneness with man and heaven" and the Western tradition of man's separation from nature accompanied by a subject-object dichotomy are the cores of each culture, which largely decides the discrepancy in various aspects of the Chinese and Western ways. To have an embedded and penetrating idea about the differences between the two cultures, it is necessary to gain sufficient knowledge of man-nature relation in dominant Chinese and Western conceptions. This paper aims to explore this issue from the perspective of Taoism and Confucianism in Chinese context, and ancient Greek and Hebraic heritage and modern mechanical view in Western tradition.

  12. Analysis of Western Film' influence on Chinese Film Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Western countries are the place where the international film culture originated. The western film has a far-reaching influence on the development of film and television industry all over the world. As China's film and television industry is in the era of reform, it is an essential part to use the experience in development of western films which can provide Chinese film culture with guidance in various fields. The present thesis firstly gives an analysis into characteristics of the western film culture and summarizes its influences on Chinese film culture, and then provides film art reform with some feasible suggestions.

  13. Study physico-chemical of the sand of the western ERG (Western South Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allam, M.; Tafraoui, A. [Faculty of sciences and technology, University of Bechar (Algeria)], email:


    Silica is gaining increasing importance as it is the base for the production of pure silicon, for which several applications are under development in the electronic and solar energy sectors. The aim of this study is to characterize the sand taken from the Western Erg of Algeria to determine the percentage of silicon it contains. Characterization was done through physical analysis to determine the granulometry of the sand. A chemical analysis was next performed, using diffraction of X-rays and a scanning electron microscope to determine the chemical composition of the sand. Results showed that the sand is mainly made of quartz in the form of rounded and subbarrondis grains and that silicon is prevalent, accounting for 98% of the composition. This study demonstrated that sand from the Western Erg of Algeria is rich in silicon and could be used for silicon production.

  14. Risk assessment for yellow fever in western and North-Western provinces of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun A Babaniyi


    Full Text Available Background: North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia were reclassified as low-risk areas for yellow fever (YF. However, the current potential for YF transmission in these areas is unclear. Aims: To determine the current potential risk of YF infection. Setting and Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in North-Western and Western provinces of Zambia. Materials and Methods: Samples were tested for both YF virus-specific IgG and IgM antibodies by the ELISA and YF virus confirmation was done using Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. The samples were also tested for IgG and IgM antibodies against other flaviviruses. Results: Out of the 3625 respondents who participated in the survey, 46.7% were males and 9.4% were aged less than 5 years. Overall, 58.1% of the participants slept under an impregnated insecticide-treated net and 20.6% reported indoor residual spraying of insecticides. A total of 616 (17.0% samples were presumptive YF positive. The prevalence for YF was 0.3% for long-term infection and 0.2% for recent YF infection. None of the YF confirmed cases had received YF vaccine. Prevalence rates for other flaviviruses were 149 (4.1% for Dengue, 370 (10.2% for West Nile and 217 (6.0% for Zika. Conclusion: There is evidence of past and recent infection of YF in both provinces. Hence, they are at a low risk for YF infection. Yellow fever vaccination should be included in the EPI program in the two provinces and strengthen surveillance with laboratory confirmation.

  15. Aggradation of gravels in tidally influenced fluvial systems: Upper Albian (Lower Cretaceous) on the cratonic margin of the North American Western Interior foreland basin (United States)

    Brenner, Richard L.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Witzke, B.L.; Phillips, P.L.; White, T.S.; Ufnar, David F.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Joeckel, R.M.; Goettemoeller, A.; Shirk, B.R.


    humid climatic conditions in large catchment areas. An overall rising sea level during the late Albian created accommodation space for the gravelly lithofacies equivalent to the Kiowa-Skull Creek rocks. As Western Interior sea level rose, regional stream gradients were reduced, resulting in regional fluvial aggradation. The conglomeratic lower parts of the Nishnabotna Member of the Dakota Formation formed the transgressive systems tract within an upper Albian sequence that is defined by two unconformities that can be traced from marine Kiowa strata in western Kansas northeastward into western Iowa (Brenner et al., 2000). Mud-draped cross-bedded sandstone bodies, laminated mudstone intervals, and vertical burrows in the lower strata of the Nishnabotna Member indicate that estuarine conditions existed at the mouths of the river system, and tidal effects were transmitted at least 200 km inland from the interpreted late Albian coast. These observations suggest that estuarine conditions stepped up the incised valleys as fluvial sediments aggraded in response to regional transgression that continued through the Late Albian. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi NEJMAH


    Full Text Available The state of Israel even prior to its establishment, faces, in daily life, terrorist organizations that want to destroy it. Terrorism and terrorist acts as implied from the original meaning of the word – fear, anxiety, terror, are meant to plant fear amongst the attacked public and bring about its demoralization and confusion, and disruption of routine life. Occasionally it is performed also as an act of revenge in a blood circle of violence. A substantial part of terrorism weapons is the extensive publicity its activity gains in public, through electronic and printed media. In terrorism, a blow to the “soft stomach” of the state (civilians is performed, with the purpose of causing the state to give in to the demands of terrorism operators. In the basis of terrorism is also an objection to the basis of legitimacy of the ruling government, in that it is not capable of guarantying the safety of its citizens and maintain public order. This article presents the attitudes and ways of operation of terrorist organizations and how Western intelligence attempts to thwart, foil and prevent these organizations from casing for destruction and victims in human lives and state.COMBATEREA TERORISMULUI ISLAMIC PRIN WESTERN INTELLIGENCE Chiar de la înfiinţare, statul Israel s-a confruntat, în viaţa de zi cu zi, cu organizaţiile teroriste, care urmăresc să-l distrugă. Actele de terorism, aşa cum reiese din sensul originar al cuvântului – frică, anxietate, teroare, sunt menite să implanteze frica în rândul populaţiei, s-o demoralizeze şi să perturbeze viaţa cotidiană. Uneori teroarea se dovedeşte a fi un act de răzbunare. Prin acte de terorism se dă o lovitură la „stomacul moale” al statului, adică civililor. Actele de terorism sunt comise, de asemenea, pentru a „demonstra” lipsa de legitimitate a statului, incapacitatea lui de a asigura securitatea cetăţenilor săi. În articol sunt specificate modalităţile de func

  17. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere (United States)

    Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.


    Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

  18. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Tanner


    Full Text Available Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.. Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA ($ 6 billion, 1994 Northridge, CA ($ 25 billion, and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> $ 100 billion earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes, emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions

  19. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky


    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (βCanning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture

  20. Understanding Western Students: Motivations and Benefits for Studying in China (United States)

    English, Alexander S.; Allison, Jessica; Ma, Jian Hong


    In the recent years, there has been a rise in the number of Western students who are studying in China. Governments in China, and in other Western nations are expanding relations because China is currently developing world-class higher education institutions (Hennock, 2012). The present study explores motivations, deterrents and benefits of…

  1. Mathematics in middle schools in Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrum, W.J.


    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement has conducted a number of cross-national studies in which Western European countries participated. Results from the Second International Mathematics Study regarding the content and outcomes of this study in some Western Euro

  2. Analyses of Cultural Differences in Chinese and Western Automobile Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Di; Wang; Haiyan


    This paper compares and analyzes auto advertisings between China and western countries,so as to explore the cultural differences of value orientations and thinking patterns behind them and help readers know better about auto culture in China and western countries.

  3. Attitudes of International Students toward the Western News Model. (United States)

    Harbor, Kingsley O.

    A study employed Q-methodology to determine the attitudinal structure of international (Third World) students in regard to the western news model (defined as the criteria for news evaluation and selection adopted by the western democracies). Thirty-two respondents were purposively selected, eight each from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the…


    Quaking aspen woodlands are important plant communities in the interior mountains of the western United States, providing essential habitat for many wildlife species and contain a high diversity of understory plants. Western juniper woodlands are rapidly replacing lower elevation (<6800 ft) quaking...

  5. Western Grid Can Handle High Renewables in Challenging Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Fact sheet outlining the key findings of Phase 3 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-3). NREL and GE find that with good system planning, sound engineering practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western grid can maintain reliability and stability during the crucial first minute after grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar power.

  6. Comparison of love in Chinese culture and in western culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this passage, love in Chinese culture and in western culture is compared. It briefly introduces the difference love view in western culture and in Chinese culture on a specific matter. Then it discusses the origin of this phenomenon. At last it tries to conclude the characters of these two different love views.

  7. Breast cancer research in Asia : Adopt or adapt Western knowledge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Yip, Cheng-Har; Hartman, Mikael; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Devi, Beena C. R.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Taib, Nur Aishah; van Gils, Carla H.; Verkooijen, Helena M.


    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer continues to rise rapidly in Asian countries. However, most of our current knowledge on breast cancer has been generated in Western populations. As the socio-economic profile, life style and culture of Asian and Western women are substantially different,

  8. Philosophy of Education: Becoming Less Western, More African? (United States)

    Enslin, Penny; Horsthemke, Kai


    Posing the question "How diverse is philosophy of education in the West?" this paper responds to two recent defences of African philosophy of education which endorse its communitarianism and oppose individualism in Western philosophy of education. After outlining Thaddeus Metz's argument that Western philosophy of education should become…

  9. Philosophy and Ethics in Western Australian Secondary Schools (United States)

    Millett, Stephan; Tapper, Alan


    The introduction of Philosophy and Ethics to the Western Australian Certificate of Education courses in 2008 brought philosophy into the Western Australian secondary school curriculum for the first time. How philosophy came to be included is part of a larger story about the commitment and perseverance of a relatively small number of Australian…

  10. On Differences Between Chinese and Western Dietary Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Diet is absolutely necessary in the life of mankind, and even in the existence or development It is also the one of the basic form of social life. However under the difference cultural background, having different diet idea and diet custom, then finally form the different dietary culture, Certainly, the Chinese and western dietary have a large number of difference, This paper analyzed the specific characteristic on the difference between Chinese and western dietary culture. From this paper the Chinese and western dietary culture is difference in concepts, contents, patterns, dining eti-quette, and tableware. It is still significant to study the dietary cultures of Chinese and western dietary. By the analysis of the difference between Chi-nese and western dietary cultures, we can comprehend the respective cultural tradition of Chinese and west. And we can also improve and create the culture of china.

  11. Fornax A's Western Radio Lobe Composition (United States)

    Kong, Jason J.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Kraft, R. P.


    We present an analysis of the western radio lobe of Fornax A based on an XMM-Newton observation. We find little evidence for the inverse-Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background as reported previously. The spectra in the energy range of 0.5-5 keV are well fitted by a thermal plus power law model for every spectral region we extracted. With a fixed photon index of 1.68, the X-ray flux density at 1 keV from the power law fit was measured to be cool gas extends from the central galaxy in the direction of the radio lobe of Fornax A. Spectral fits give a temperature of kT=0.76 keV over the radio lobe and kT=0.32 keV for the cool filament. The thermal emission from the radio lobe region is best explained as emission from a thin shell of shocked gas swept up by the rapidly expanding lobe. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  12. Regional osteoporosis in western Sydney women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larcos, G.; Lawson-Smith, R. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound


    Full text: Recently, 15% of elderly Japanese-American women have been shown to have marked heterogeneity of bone mineral density (BMD) between measured sites. The purposes of this study were to determine (1 ) the prevalence of this finding in an Australian population; and (2) potential association with clinical factors such as age, years since menopause (YSM), alcohol, smoking, family history, exercise, and body mass index. One hundred and fourteen peri-or post- menopausal Caucasian women (mean age 55 + 8.8 years) were referred for osteoporotic (OP) fracture risk assessment. Patients (pts) had no disorders or drugs known to affect BMD and no evidence of scoliosis or arthritic change. Bone densitometry of the lumbar spine (PA), hip and distal radius were measured using a Norland XR-26. According to WHO criteria, 30 pts (26%) were normal (T score > -1) at all sites; no pts (0%) had generalised OP (T score < -2.5); 29 (25%) had OP in one or two sites only (hip = 25, spine = 13, wrist = 1); the remaining 55 pts (48%) were osteogenic (-2.5 < T score < -1) in at least one site. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, only YSM predicted regional OP (odds ratio = 1.14; pWestern Sydney women; of clinical factors only YSM is independently associated with regional OP. Fracture risk classification may be improved by BMD measurement of multiple sites.

  13. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell


    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  14. Reproductive health issues in rural Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouma Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe reproductive health issues among pregnant women in a rural area of Kenya with a high coverage of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and high prevalence of HIV (15%. Methods We conducted a community-based cross-sectional survey among rural pregnant women in western Kenya. A medical, obstetric and reproductive history was obtained. Blood was obtained for a malaria smear and haemoglobin level, and stool was examined for geohelminths. Height and weight were measured. Results Of 673 participants, 87% were multigravidae and 50% were in their third trimester; 41% had started antenatal clinic visits at the time of interview and 69% reported ITN-use. Malaria parasitemia and anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusion In this rural area with a high HIV prevalence, the reported use of condoms before pregnancy was extremely low. Pregnancy health was not optimal with a high prevalence of malaria, geohelminth infections, anaemia and underweight. Chances of losing a child after birth were high. Multiple interventions are needed to improve reproductive health in this area.

  15. Ocean acidification in the Western Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Cai, W.; Chen, B.; Chen, L.


    We report carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification status in the western Arctic Ocean from 65-88οN based on data collected in summer 2008 and 2010. In the marginal seas, surface waters have high pH and high carbonate saturation state (Ω) due to intensive biological uptake of CO2. In the southern Canada Basin, surface waters have low pH and low Ω due to the uptake of atmospheric CO2 and sea-ice melt. In the northern Arctic Ocean basin, there is no serious ocean acidification in surface water due to heavy ice-coverage but pH and Ω in the subsurface waters at the oxygen minimum and nutrient maximum zone (at 100-150 m) are low due mostly to respiration-derived CO2 and an increased biological production and export in surface waters. Such multitude responses of ocean carbonate chemistry (northern vs. southern basin, basins vs. margins, and surface vs. subsurface) to climate changes are unique to the Arctic Ocean system. We will explore biogeochemical control mechanisms on carbonate chemistry and ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean environments in the context of recent warming and sea-ice retreat.

  16. Seismicity and earthquake risk in western Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The seismicity and the earthquake risk in Western Sicily are here
    evaluated on the basis of the experimental data referring to the historical
    and instrumentally recorded earthquakes in this area (from 1248
    up to 1968, which have been thoroughly collected, analyzed, tested and
    normalized in order to assure the quasi-stationarity of the series of
    The approximated magnitude values — obtained by means of a compared
    analysis of the magnitude and epicentral intensity values of the
    latest events — have allowed to study the parameters of the frequency-
    magnitude relation with both the classical exponential model and
    the truncated exponential one previously proposed by the author.
    So, the basic parameters, including the maximum possible regional
    magnitude, have been estimated by means of different procedures, and
    their behaviours have been studied as functions of the threshold magnitude.

  17. [Income of family physicians in Western Europe]. (United States)

    van der Zee, J; Groenewegen, P P; van Haaften, R


    Although doctors tend to belong to the best paid categories of professionals, considerable differences between countries in average remuneration can be found. This study is focused on incomes (1985) of general practitioners (GP) in II Western European countries (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, West Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden). Beside a description of the incomes (before taxation) as such, an attempt is made to correlate the income figures with some characteristics of the general practitioner's position in each country. The average GP income per country (before taxes) was ECU 43,600. The German (ECU 67,000), Austrian (ECU 56,000) and Danish (ECU 55,000) form the top, the Italian (ECU 14,000), Belgian (ECU 31,000) and Swedish (ECU 34,500) doctors the bottom-three. Correcting for OECD purchasing power parities does not change the rank order of the GP income in the different countries essentially. The more doctors per inhabitant, the lower the income, and the more different tasks the GP has to perform, the higher the income. Direct access of specialist care has no relationship with GP incomes.

  18. Epidemiology of asthma in western Europe. (United States)

    Charpin, D; Vervloet, D; Charpin, J


    Asthma deaths are uncommon, but have recently increased in some countries due to problems in the management of the disease. Morbidity rates show large variations, which can be attributed to differences in defining the disease, but also to genuine variations, with a trend towards less asthma in northern Europe. It has been suggested that allergic diseases as a whole, and asthma in particular, may exhibit an upward secular trend. Risk factors include a genetic background and environmental triggering factors. The importance of genetic factors is illustrated by family studies and by extreme prevalence rates observed in some communities. Environmental factors include rapid air pollution variations which act as a trigger for asthma attacks. However, at levels currently prevailing in western Europe, air pollutants do not induce a higher incidence of asthma. Altitude generates a gradual decrease in Dermatophagoides, thus explaining both the clinical improvement in asthmatics living in altitude and a lower prevalence of asthma in populations born and living there. Among the other aero-allergens, grass pollens plays a major role in spring, elicitating asthma attacks. Some natural allergens transformed by man (castor bean, soja) can be responsible for asthma epidemics.

  19. Western Europe, State Formation, and Genetic Pacification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Frost


    Full Text Available Through its monopoly on violence, the State tends to pacify social relations. Such pacification proceeded slowly in Western Europe between the 5th and 11th centuries, being hindered by the rudimentary nature of law enforcement, the belief in a man's right to settle personal disputes as he saw fit, and the Church's opposition to the death penalty. These hindrances began to dissolve in the 11th century with a consensus by Church and State that the wicked should be punished so that the good may live in peace. Courts imposed the death penalty more and more often and, by the late Middle Ages, were condemning to death between 0.5 and 1.0% of all men of each generation, with perhaps just as many offenders dying at the scene of the crime or in prison while awaiting trial. Meanwhile, the homicide rate plummeted from the 14th century to the 20th. The pool of violent men dried up until most murders occurred under conditions of jealousy, intoxication, or extreme stress. The decline in personal violence is usually attributed to harsher punishment and the longer-term effects of cultural conditioning. It may also be, however, that this new cultural environment selected against propensities for violence.

  20. The rams horn in western history (United States)

    Lubman, David


    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  1. Western Gas Sands Project: status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Progress of the major government sponsored projects undertaken to increase gas production from low permeability gas sands of the western United States during March 1978 is summarized. The Bartlesville Energy Research Center (BERC) and participating National Laboratories, funded by DOE, are continuing their work in the area of research and development. The emphasis is on the development of new tools and instrumentation systems, rock mechanics, mathematical modeling and data analysis. Field Tests and demonstrations active in the Uinta and Piceance Basins include: Gas Producing Enterprises (GPE) Natural Buttes Unit Wells No. 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22, Mobil Research and Development Corporation, Well No. F-31-13G, and Rio Blanco Natural Gas Company, Well No. 498-4-1. Gas Producing Enterprises Natural Buttes Unit Well No. 9 was fractured on March 27, 1978. The treatment consisted of 554,000 pounds of sand and 349,000 gallons of gel. Mitchell Energy Corporation of Houston, Texas was awarded Department of Energy Contract EF-78-C-08-1547 on March 15, 1978. Field work under this contract is scheduled to begin on June 15, 1978, with the drilling of a new well.

  2. Transgenic approaches to western corn rootworm control. (United States)

    Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D; Storer, Nicholas P


    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a significant corn pest throughout the United States corn belt. Rootworm larvae feed on corn roots causing yield losses and control expenditures that are estimated to exceed US$1 billion annually. Traditional management practices to control rootworms such as chemical insecticides or crop rotation have suffered reduced effectiveness due to the development of physiological and behavioral resistance. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal proteins are very successful in protecting against rootworm damage and preserving corn yield potential. However, the high rate of grower adoption and early reliance on hybrids expressing a single mode of action and low-dose traits threatens the durability of commercialized transgenic rootworm technology for rootworm control. A summary of current transgenic approaches for rootworm control and the corresponding insect resistance management practices is included. An overview of potential new modes of action based on insecticidal proteins, and especially RNAi targeting mRNA coding for essential insect proteins is provided.

  3. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia (United States)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.


    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  4. Zooplankton Distribution in Four Western Norwegian Fjords (United States)

    Gorsky, G.; Flood, P. R.; Youngbluth, M.; Picheral, M.; Grisoni, J.-M.


    A multi-instrumental array constructed in the Laboratoire d'Ecologie du Plancton Marin in Villefranche sur mer, France, named the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP), was used to investigate the vertical distribution of zooplankton in four western Norwegian fjords in the summer 1996. Six distinct zoological groups were monitored. The fauna included: (a) small crustaceans (mainly copepods), (b) ctenophores (mainly lobates), (c) siphonophores (mainly physonects), (d) a scyphomedusa Periphylla periphylla, (e) chaetognaths and (f) appendicularians. The use of the non-disturbing video technique demonstrated that the distribution of large zooplankton is heterogeneous vertically and geographically. Furthermore, the abundance of non-migrating filter feeders in the deep basins of the fjords indicates that there is enough food (living and non-living particulate organic matter) to support their dietary needs. This adaptation may be considered as a strategy for survival in fjords. Specifically, living in dark, deep water reduces visual predation and population loss encountered in the upper layer due to advective processes.

  5. Banking Regulation Of Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denada Hafizi


    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis has affected the development of banking system in Western Balkan Countries, including Italy and Greece. These effects are expressed with the contraction of lending, fallen of foreign direct investments, fallen of the volume of remittances and fallen of international trade. The banking system continually faces new challenges in a dynamically changing financial system, and this makes difficult theimplementation of bank regulation and supervision.All the countries have improved their banking regulation in order to avoid the contagion effect among banks and banking system in general, effects that get increased especially when banks are engaged in international banking. The standardization of regulatory requirements provides potential solution to the problems of regulating international banking. So, there is a moving through agreements like Basel Accords.For all these countries will be a comparison of regulatory capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and of capital to assets ratio in order to find out how well is capitalized their bankingsystem. The sources of data are the reports of International Monetary Fund for a time series of 2008-2013. In the end there are some conclusions for the main problems that theimplementation of supervision and bank regulation faces.Keywords: Basel Accords, Capital Ratio, Banking Regulation

  6. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Manniën, J.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.


    Background: Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a

  7. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Wiegers, T.A.; Manniën, J.; Francke, A.L.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.


    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a s

  8. Pn anisotropy in Mesozoic western Pacific lithosphere (United States)

    Shintaku, Natsumi; Forsyth, Donald W.; Hajewski, Christina J.; Weeraratne, Dayanthie S.


    Pn is the high-frequency, scattered P phase guided for great distances within the old oceanic lithosphere. Two arrays of ocean bottom seismometers were deployed on old (150-160 Ma) seafloor in the northwestern Pacific south of Shatsky Rise for the Pacific Lithosphere Anisotropy and Thickness Experiment. We use Pn phases from 403 earthquakes during the 1 year of deployment to measure apparent velocities across the arrays. Each array was deployed on a separate limb of a magnetic bight, formed near a fast-spreading, ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction. Using high-frequency waves (5-10 Hz), we look at variations of Pn velocities as a function of azimuth. In the western array, we find Pn anisotropy with velocities ranging from ~8.7 km/s in the back azimuth (θ) direction of 310° to ~7.7 km/s at ~350°. In the eastern array, the velocity ranges from ~8.5 km/s in back azimuth direction of ~210° to ~7.7 km/s at 260° and ~310°. We observe rapid velocity changes with azimuth in the both arrays requiring sinusoidal variations of roughly equal amplitude as a function of both 2θ and 4θ, which is not expected for the orthorhombic symmetry of olivine or orthopyroxene. The fastest directions on the two limbs are roughly orthogonal to each other suggesting the dominance of fossil anisotropy, but the fast directions of the 2θ components are skewed counterclockwise from the spreading directions. We speculate that the rapid azimuthal variations may be caused by vertical stratification with changing anisotropy with depth in the oceanic lithosphere.

  9. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.


    Progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. A Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) meeting was held at the CER office in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 16--19 to initiate the implementation phase of the Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) working group activities. A WGSP Logging Program meeting was conducted on October 24, 1978, at CER offices to define the problems associated with logs in tight gas sands. CER personnel and the project manager attended a two-day course on the fundamentals of core and reservoir analysis in Denver, Colorado, and met with USGS personnel to discuss USGS work on the WGSP. A meeting was held to discuss a contract for coring a Twin Arrow well on the Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado. CER Corporation personnel attended the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting held in Toronto, Canada, October 23--27 and a Gas Stimulation Workshop at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11 and 12 to discuss recent mineback experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site. Fiscal year 1979 projects initiated by USGS and the Energy Technology Centers and National Laboratories are progressing as scheduled. Mobil Research and Development Corporation fractured zone 8 of the F-31-13G well in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Colorado Interstate Gas Company poured the concrete pad for the compresser expected to be delivered in December and were laying pipeline between the wells at month end. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1 was flowing on test at a rate of 2,100 Mcfd and preparations proceeded to fracture the well on November 15 with approximately 1,000,000 gal of fluid and 3,000,000 lb of sand. Terra Tek completed laboratory analyses of cores taken from the Mitchell Energy well.

  10. Episodic Volcanism and Geochemistry in Western Nicaragua (United States)

    Saginor, I.; Carr, M. J.; Gazel, E.; Swisher, C.; Turrin, B.


    The active volcanic arc in western Nicaragua is separated from the Miocene arc by a temporal gap in the volcanic record, during which little volcanic material was erupted. Previous work suggested that this gap lasted from 7 to 1.6 Ma, during which volcanic production in Nicaragua was limited or nonexistent. Because the precise timing and duration of this gap has been poorly constrained, recent fieldwork has focused on locating samples that may have erupted close to or even during this apparent hiatus in activity. Recent 40Ar/39Ar dates reveal pulses of low- level episodic volcanism at 7 Ma and 1 Ma between the active and Miocene arcs with current volcanism beginning ~350 ka. In addition, sampling from an inactive area between Coseguina and San Cristobal yielded two distinct groupings of ages; one of Tamarindo age (13 Ma) and the other around 3.5 Ma-the only samples of that age collected on-strike with the active arc. This raises the possibility the bases of the other active volcanoes contain lavas that are older than expected, but have been covered by subsequent eruptions. The Miocene arc differs from the active arc in Central America in several ways, with the latter having higher Ba/La and U/Th values due to increased slab input and changes in subducted sediment composition. Analysis of sample C-51 and others taken from the same area may shed light on the timing of this shift from high to low Ba/La and U/Th values. More importantly, it may help explain why the arc experienced such a dramatic downturn in volcanic production during this time. We also report 25 new major and trace element analyses that shed some light on the origins of these minor episodes of Nicaraguan volcanism. These samples are currently awaiting Sr and Nd isotopic analyses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available  Here we describe 41 brachiopod species belonging to the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida, Spiriferinida, and Terebratulida coming from the Guadalupian lower-middle part of the Pamuçak Formation at Çürük Dað, Antalya (Western Taurus, Turkey. Associated conodonts are also reported and illustrated. The brachiopod taxa are either pedicle attached genera, with one genus also stabilized by penetration of its elongate umbo, or free living concavo-convex semi-infaunal genera; this indicates that the energy of the environment was never very high, as in settings just below the fair weather wave-base or in a back-reef, more protected inner platform. The brachiopods from the Pamuçak Formation are very similar to the Wordian fauna of southeastern Oman, and they are similar to the Guadalupian assemblages of Chios, North Iran, South Thailand, and Salt Range. In comparison they share only a few taxa with the Guadalupian faunas of Central Afghanistan and Karakorum. Therefore the biotic affinity of the Guadalupian brachiopods of the Pamuçak Formation is clearly peri-Gondwanan. The brachiopod record at Çürük Dað has implications for understanding the pattern of the end-Guadalupian (pre-Lopingian biotic crisis. The pre-Lopingian crisis assemblages are quite diverse and nearly totally consist of Guadalupian genera and species except for a single Lopingian incomer. Their stratigraphic range terminates rather abruptly and the following 120 metres of shallow water limestones are barren of brachiopods, after which there is the first occurrence of Lopingian brachiopod taxa, which show a much lower biodiversity.  This pattern is different from that observed in South China and it shows that the end-Guadalupian crisis is not only characterized by taxonomic selectivity, but also by a strong local control on the extinction/recovery pattern of some groups. 

  12. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music (United States)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.


    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  13. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febriyani, Caroline, E-mail:; Prijatna, Kosasih, E-mail:; Meilano, Irwan, E-mail:


    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  14. Decommissioning in western Europe; Kaernkraftsavveckling i Vaesteuropa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Castor arbetslivskonsulter AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    This report gives an overview of the situation in Western Europe. The original aim was to focus on organisational and human issues with regard to nuclear reactor decommissioning, but very few articles were found. This is in sharp contrast to the substantial literature on technical issues. While most of the reports on decommissioning have a technical focus, several provide information on regulatory issues, strategies and 'state of the art'. The importance of the human and organizational perspective is however discovered, when reading between the lines of the technical publications, and especially when project managers summarize lessons learned. The results are to a large extent based on studies of articles and reports, mainly collected from the INIS database. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities started already in the sixties, but then mainly research and experimental facilities were concerned. Until now about 70 reactors have been shutdown world-wide. Over the years there have been plenty of conferences for exchanging experiences mostly about technical matters. Waste Management is a big issue. In the 2000s there will be a wave of decommissioning when an increasing amount of reactors will reach the end of their calculated lifetime (40 years, a figure now being challenged by both life-extension and pre-shutdown projects). Several reactors have been shut-down for economical reasons. Shutdown and decommissioning is however not identical. A long period of time can sometimes pass before an owner decides to decommission and dismantle a facility. The conditions will also differ depending on the strategy, 'immediate dismantling' or 'safe enclosure'. If immediate dismantling is chosen the site can reach 'green-field status' in less than ten years. 'Safe enclosure', however, seems to be the most common strategy. There are several pathways, but in general a safe store is constructed, enabling the active parts to remain in safe

  15. Integrated ecosystem assessment for western development of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The objectives of Integrated Ecosystem Assessment for Western Development of China includes: (1) providing scientific basis for ecosystem protection, ecosystem management and ecological construction in the western development; (2) developing complete database and analytical tools and strengthening decision-making support capacity; and (3) improving ecosystem management in China, spreading ecological knowledge to the public, serving decision-making of local and central governments, and promoting socio-economic sustainable development. The design and implementation of the project are of significance under the macro background of western development of China. By the integrated assessment of western China, we can get the first-hand data covering all the environmental factors as well as disclose the situations and their changing trends of ecosystem in the western part of China, which will benefit the decision-making for the central and local governments in the implementation of the western development strategy. In other words, the implementation of the project, to a certain extent, can guarantee the regional sustainable development of western China.

  16. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  17. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;


    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  18. The Spirit of Western Business Ethics and Its Revelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi wei


    The development of socialist market economy needs the power support provided by western business ethics. To build the culture ofmodern business ethics in our country, we need absorb the useful spirit of business ethics from western business culture and use for reference. Basedon the analysis of the main spirit of Western business ethics, this paper puts forward that we must stress the role of business, establish an appropriateattitude towards profits, and mold a 'rational spirit of modem business in the process of building modem business culture in our country.

  19. On the Difference with Traditional Wedding between Chinese and Western

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    By the research of the Chinese and Western custom, culture and traditional wedding background, we can understand the west more and more. This text sets about from the aspects such as culture background of the wedding, wedding dress, custom, wedding characteristic. We can see the difference during Chinese and Western trend of young people’s wedding in the future. The background of the traditional wedding mainly comes from the difference of Chinese and Western culture, custom, Review the west;the bride wears the white uniform which is also a rich and powerful symbol.

  20. Approach to valuing visual pollution from Western Electricity Production. [For Western Systems Coordinating Council area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.


    This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.

  1. Influence of the Western Pacific teleconnection pattern on Western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Moon, Il-Ju


    This study analyzes the characteristics of Western North Pacific (WNP) tropical cyclone (TC) activity and large-scale environments according to the Western Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern in summer. In the positive WP phase, an anomalous cyclone and an anomalous anticyclone develop in the low and middle latitudes of the East Asia area, respectively. As a result, southeasterlies are reinforced in the northeast area of East Asia (including Korea and Japan), which facilitates the movement of TC to this area, whereas northwesterlies are reinforced in the southwest area of East Asia (including southern China and the Indochina Peninsula) which blocks the movement of TC to that area. Due to the spatial distribution of this reinforced pressure system, TCs that develop during the positive WP phase move and turn more to the northeast of the WNP than TCs which develop during the negative WP phase. The characteristics of this TC activity during the positive WP phase are associated with the upper tropospheric jet being located farther to the northeast. TCs during the negative WP phase mainly move to the west from the Philippines toward southern China and the Indochina Peninsula. Due to the terrain effect caused by the passage of TCs in mainland China, the intensity of TCs during the negative WP phase is weaker than those during the positive WP phase.

  2. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Birds of Meghamalai Landscape, southern Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babu


    Full Text Available Species composition of birds in the Meghamalai landscape with respect to threat status, foraging guild and biome-restricted assemblage were assessed based on data collected opportunistically during two research projects: first one spanned 36 months (2006-2009 the other for 18 months (June 2011-December 2012 and from literature published during mid 1940s. A total of 254 species belonging to 55 families and 18 orders were recorded, which include 11% (18 of 159 species of globally threatened birds reported from India, 88% (14 of 16 species of endemic birds of the Western Ghats and a higher proportion of biome-restricted species (56% of Indo-Malayan tropical dry zone and 80% of Indian Peninsula inhabited by tropical moist forest birds. Among the foraging guilds, insectivorous birds (51% dominated the bird composition followed by frugivores and carnivores. The present data shows that Meghamalai deserves to be recognized as an Important Bird Area of International Bird Conservation Network. This would enhance the conservation prospects of the landscape in a long run. The present study also highlights the importance of the area for conserving the birds of the Western Ghats.

  3. CEPF Western Ghats Special Series: Birds of lower Palni Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramesh


    Full Text Available The current altitudinal distribution and breeding observations on birds of lower Palni Hills, Western Ghats were documented by conducting road transects, opportunistic surveys including trail walks and mist netting. A total of 196 species belonging to 63 families were recorded during the study. The Accipitridae family was foremost in species richness, followed by Cuculidae and Muscicapidae, Picidae, Timaliidae and other families. Altitudinal distribution of birds was higher between 600 and 900 m. The general patterns of the decreasing species richness with increasing altitude were observed in mid and upper Palnis. This could be probably because the lower Palnis have more deciduous and scrub forest which can support high food availability. Resident and migrant species made up to 87.76% and 12.24% of the community, respectively. We recorded a species that was threatened, three nearly threatened, and five endemic to the Western Ghats. Most of the endemics were confined to the higher altitudes due to the presence of moist evergreen and high altitude montane forests and grasslands. In total, 51 breeding bird observations were recorded. Interestingly, the variation in the breeding season of some birds was noticed with respect to earlier studies. Overall, our study illustrated useful information on bird community in this region which serves as a baseline for future monitoring programs.

  4. 76 FR 10403 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Coporate Headquaters/Hard Drive Development Division, Lake... (United States)


    ... Drive Development Division, Lake Forest, California (Western Digital Technologies). The Department's... former workers of Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Corporate Headquarters/Hard Drive Development... Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Coporate Headquaters/Hard...

  5. 77 FR 8284 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at... (United States)


    ... workers of Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Lake Forest... Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Irvine (formerly at Lake... Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development...

  6. 76 FR 61746 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at... (United States)


    ... Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Lake Forest, California... workers and former workers of Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group... Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development...

  7. Seagrass ecosystems in the Western Indian Ocean. (United States)

    Gullström, Martin; de la Torre Castro, Maricela; Bandeira, Salomão; Björk, Mats; Dahlberg, Mattis; Kautsky, Nils; Rönnbäck, Patrik; Ohman, Marcus C


    Seagrasses are marine angiosperms widely distributed in both tropical and temperate coastal waters creating one of the most productive aquatic ecosystems on earth. In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, with its 13 reported seagrass species, these ecosystems cover wide areas of near-shore soft bottoms through the 12 000 km coastline. Seagrass beds are found intertidally as well as subtidally, sometimes down to about 40 m, and do often occur in close connection to coral reefs and mangroves. Due to the high primary production and a complex habitat structure, seagrass beds support a variety of benthic, demersal and pelagic organisms. Many fish and shellfish species, including those of commercial interest, are attracted to seagrass habitats for foraging and shelter, especially during their juvenile life stages. Examples of abundant and widespread fish species associated to seagrass beds in the WIO belong to the families Apogonidae, Blenniidae, Centriscidae, Gerreidae, Gobiidae, Labridae, Lethrinidae Lutjanidae, Monacanthidae, Scaridae, Scorpaenidae, Siganidae, Syngnathidae and Teraponidae. Consequently, seagrass ecosystems in the WIO are valuable resources for fisheries at both local and regional scales. Still, seagrass research in the WIO is scarce compared to other regions and it is mainly focusing on botanic diversity and ecology. This article reviews the research status of seagrass beds in the WIO with particular emphasis on fish and fisheries. Most research on this topic has been conducted along the East African coast, i.e. in Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and eastern South Africa, while less research was carried out in Somalia and the Island States of the WIO (Seychelles, Comoros, Reunion (France), Mauritius and Madagascar). Published papers on seagrass fish ecology in the region are few and mainly descriptive. Hence, there is a need of more scientific knowledge in the form of describing patterns and processes through both field and experimental work

  8. Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents (United States)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin


    Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real

  9. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, 30 September 1995 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1995 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  10. A new species of Dalbergia (Leguminosae, Dalbergieae) from Western Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, C.C.H.


    Dalbergia hepperi from Western Africa is described and illustrated. The combination of glabrous ovaries, flat and glabrous fruits and ovate to obovate leaflets with a conspicuous acuminate apex is not known from any other Dalbergia species from this region.

  11. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  12. Western Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, dolphins, walruses, and Steller sea lions in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this...

  13. Six Measures to Support Development in Western Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On August 20, 2009, the State Council adopted the Guidelines on Maintaining the Steady and Relatively Fast Economic Development of Western Regions in Coping With the International Financial Crisis (the Guidelines).

  14. Western Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, mining sites, area boundaries, and scenic rivers in Western Alaska. Vector points and lines in this...

  15. Soil Moisture for Western Russia and The Ukraine (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset, DSI-6411 is comprised of soil moisture data and the accompanying information for the agricultural regions of Western Russia (west of ~ 60E) and The...

  16. Chinese Anti-Western Nationalism, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangqiu XU


    Full Text Available Anti-Western sentiments among the Chinese in the first years of the 21st century, not the first global surge in recent years, reached a high in 2008. One could ask how and why those sentiments developed when the Western states claimed to present no threat to China at the turn of the 21st century. The subject of Chinese nationalism have aroused increasing academic interest, and many books and articles have been published, but Chinese anti-Western nationalism in the first years of the new century has not yet become the object of adequate scholarly scrutiny. This article will trace the source of Chinese nationalism and examine the formation of such anti-Western sentiments among the Chinese people from 2000 to 2010.

  17. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  18. Western Kentucky University. Facing the No-Growth Era (United States)

    Egerton, John


    Western Kentucky University, once a small teachers college, is adjusting to the no growth philosophy. However, the legislators and taxpayers will also have to appreciate the "quality not quantity" brand of education. (Author/PG)

  19. Western Red-tailed Skink Distribution in Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D. B. and Gergor, P. D.


    This slide show reports a study to: determine Western Red-tailed Skink (WRTS) distribution on Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); identify habitat where WRTS occur; learn more about WRTS natural history; and document distribution of other species.

  20. Western Italian Alps Monthly Snowfall and Snow Cover Duration (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of snow observations for 18 stations in the western Italian Alps. Two types of data are included: monthly snowfall amounts and monthly snow...

  1. National Elevation Dataset for the Western United States (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital elevation model used for the conservation assessment of Greater Sage-grouse and sagebrush habitat conducted by the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife...

  2. Human Population in the Western United States (1900 - 2000) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...

  3. Western Indian Ocean - A glimpse of the tectonic scenario

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A

    The Western Indian Ocean is a veritable storehouse of diverse and complex tectonic features. Most of the knowledge about the major tectonic features of this area has emanated from the studies carried out with the geophysical data acquired...

  4. Islamic and Western perspectives on applied media ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadia Izzeldin Malik


    Full Text Available This study discusses the compatibility of Islamic theories of ethics with Western theories of ethics regarding the ethics of global journalism. The study examines Western and Islamic approaches and perspectives on ethics and applied ethics in the field of journalism. Central to the discussion are global journalism values of freedom of expression, individual right for privacy, public right to know, and the global clashing values of media ownership vs. freedom, and consumerism values vs. media values of social responsibility. These clashing media values are part of the broader practices of newsgathering and news reporting that encompass many ethical dilemmas in the field of media and journalism. The study concludes by discussing Western perspectives on character education. It also provides an Islamic moral perspective based on character education as an approach compatible with the Western perspective on moral education. This perspective will help reconcile global clashing media values.

  5. Western Monarch and Milkweed Habitat Suitability Modeling Project- Final Presentation (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To better understand the distribution of key breeding areas for the declining western population of monarch butterflies, the USFWS, in collaboration with the Xerces...

  6. Elevation in the Western United States (180 meter DEM) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  7. Western Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  8. Elevation in the Western United States (90 meter DEM) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  9. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  10. Western Pond Turtle Observations - Region 1 [ds313 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset was developed in an effort to compile Western Pond Turtle (Clemmys marmorata) observations in CDFG Region 1. Steve Burton (CDFG Staff Environmental...

  11. Oil and Natural Gas Wells, Western U.S. (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A complete set of wells associated with oil, natural gas, and coal bed natural gas development in the western states as of June 2004. This is a static dataset even...

  12. Differences in Privacy Between Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Privacy means different in both cultures.In modern information society,it deverses more attention from us.Privacy in oriental culture is quite distinctive from that in western culture. And the reasons are also not the same.

  13. Differences in Privacy Between Chinese and Western Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Privacy means different in both cultures.In modern information society,it deverses more attention from us.Privacy in oriental culture is quite distinctive from that in western culture.And the reasons are also not the same.

  14. The Humanist Bias in Western Philosophy and Education (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.


    This paper argues that the bias in Western philosophy is tied to its humanist ideology that pictures itself as central to the natural history of humanity and is historically linked to the emergence of humanism as pedagogy.

  15. Western US Hydroclimate Scenarios Project Observations and Statistically Downscaled Data (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains daily statistically downscaled climate projections and simulated land surface water and energy fluxes for the western United States and...

  16. Precipitation Frequency Atlas of the Western United States (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Precipitation Frequency of the Western United States publication is an eleven volume set held in the archives. It was the culmination of many years of...

  17. Interpersonal Communication in High Tech Culture: Eastern or Western? (United States)

    Isenhart, Myra W.


    Investigates interpersonal communication in a high tech organization to test the association between high tech organizations and Western styles of symbolic interaction. Takes a diagnostic, rather than prescriptive, approach to organizational change. (MM)

  18. Western and Central Ontario: Waterfowl breeding population survey: 2000 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for Western and Central Ontario during 2000. The primary purpose of the survey is to...

  19. Intercultural communication: Differences between Western and Asian perspective


    Dang, Linh


    The thesis focused differences in intercultural communication from Western and Asian perspective. The goal of this thesis was to find the differences and similarities in business communication between Western and Asian culture. The theoretical part of this thesis was titled as intercultural communication. Definition of intercultural communication, culture’s influence on perception, obstacles in intercultural communication and inter-cultural communication competences were covered in this...

  20. Mechanisms of crustal deformation in the western US (United States)

    Turcotte, Donald L.


    The deformation processes in the western United States were studied, considering both deterministic models and random or statistical models. The role of the intracrustal delamination and mechanisms of crustal thinning were also examined. The application of fractal techniques to understand how the crust is deforming was studied in complex regions. Work continued on the development of a fractal based model for deformation in the western United States. Fractal studies were also extended to the study of topography and the geoid.

  1. Review of western Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin


    by the prevailing winds and currents. Drift is almost exclusively to the east, but the magnitude and its impact on the structure of the affected stocks (Kattegat, western Baltic, and eastern Baltic) remains unresolved. Salinity limits the east–west exchange of eggs as a consequence of the stocks' differential...... for spawning by both western and eastern stocks, the advection of early life stages from the west and immigration/emigration from the east....

  2. The cultural differences in teaching between Chinese and western

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Language and culture are interacting. Learning a language must understand the culture. The lack of cultural knowledge will lead to students’mistakes in daily English,therefore,in English teaching,the cultural differences between Chinese and Western as an important question is put forward. Then,from the cultural differences between Chinese and western,I discuss the reasons for mistakes in daily English and then how to teaching.

  3. Management and Development of the Western Resources Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown


    The purpose of this project was to manage the Western Resources Project, which included a comprehensive, basin-wide set of experiments investigating the impacts of coal bed methane (CBM; a.k.a. coal bed natural gas, CBNG) production on surface and groundwater in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming. This project included a number of participants including Apache Corporation, Conoco Phillips, Marathon, the Ucross Foundation, Stanford University, the University of Wyoming, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, and Western Research Institute.

  4. The Design of a Quantitative Western Blot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Taylor


    Full Text Available Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013 and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.

  5. Browning boreal forests of western North America (United States)

    Verbyla, David


    , suggesting that direct temperature stress might be a factor in some species. Since warm growing seasons are also typically dry growing seasons, direct temperature stress and moisture stress could occur simultaneously. For example, 2004 was the warmest summer in over 200 years in boreal Alaska (Barber et al 2004) but it was also during a drought with less than 50 mm of summer precipitation recorded in Fairbanks. In Fairbanks, the length of the growing season, as defined as the period above freezing, has increased by 45 per cent over the past 100 years, with no significant increase in precipitation (Wendler and Shulski 2009). Regional winter runoff has increased, likely associated with permafrost thawing (Brabets and Walvoord 2009), while surface water has decreased, likely associated with increased evapotranspiration (Riordan et al 2006, Anderson et al 2007, Berg et al 2009). The mean annual air temperature in boreal Alaska has increased by over 1.5 °C during the past 50 years (Stafford et al 2000), and is projected to increase by 3-7 °C by end of this century (Walsh et al 2008). Thus, it would be surprising if a declining NDVI trend was not occurring in the western boreal region of North America as the climate continues to warm. Insects and disease in the North American boreal forest may also affect the NDVI browning trends (Malmström and Raffa 2000), as the life histories of damaging insects may be linked to a warming boreal climate. For example, warmer temperatures contributed to the spruce beetle outbreaks in Alaska with a reduction in the beetle life cycle from two years to one year (Berg et al 2006). Thus, as the boreal climate continues to warm, tree growth reduction and mortality from insects and diseases may become more substantial. In boreal Alaska, recent alder dieback and mortality is likely to be related to alder's susceptibility to a canker-causing fungus in drought years (Ruess et al 2009). Recent widespread and prolonged outbreaks of aspen leaf miner and a

  6. 76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate... (United States)


    ... Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region--Western Area Lower Colorado... the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Desert Southwest Customer Service Region (DSWR... Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration,...

  7. Western Renewable Energy Zones, Phase 1: QRA Identification Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pletka, R.; Finn, J.


    This report describes the Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ) Initiative Phase 1 Qualified Resource Area identification process, including the identification and economic analysis of Qualified Resource Areas (QRAs) and 'non-REZ' resources. These data and analyses will assist the Western US in its renewable energy transmission planning goals. The economic analysis in this report produced the input data for the WREZ Generation and Transmission model, which is a screening-level model to determine the optimal routing for and cost of delivering renewable energy from QRAs to load centers throughout the Western Interconnection. In June 2009, the Western Governors' Association accepted the Western Governors' Association WREZ Phase 1 Report in which the QRAs were mapped and the entire WREZ Phase 1 process was explained in general. That same month the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory released the WREZ Generation and Transmission Model (GTM), which was also developed by Black & Veatch. This report details the assumptions and methodologies that were used to produce the maps and resource analyses in the WGA report as well as the economic data used by the WREZ GTM. This report also provides the results of the non-REZ resource analysis for the first time in the WREZ initiative.

  8. Mantle structure beneath the western edge of the Colorado Plateau (United States)

    Sine, C.R.; Wilson, D.; Gao, W.; Grand, S.P.; Aster, R.; Ni, J.; Baldridge, W.S.


    Teleseismic traveltime data are inverted for mantle Vp and Vs variations beneath a 1400 km long line of broadband seismometers extending from eastern New Mexico to western Utah. The model spans 600 km beneath the moho with resolution of ???50 km. Inversions show a sharp, large-magnitude velocity contrast across the Colorado Plateau-Great Basin transition extending ???200 km below the crust. Also imaged is a fast anomaly 300 to 600 km beneath the NW portion of the array. Very slow velocities beneath the Great Basin imply partial melting and/or anomalously wet mantle. We propose that the sharp contrast in mantle velocities across the western edge of the Plateau corresponds to differential lithospheric modification, during and following Farallon subduction, across a boundary defining the western extent of unmodified Proterozoic mantle lithosphere. The deep fast anomaly corresponds to thickened Farallon plate or detached continental lithosphere at transition zone depths. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr


    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  10. Chinese Culture of Learning from Western Teachers’Viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    While more and more teachers from Western culture teach in China, research on the different cultures of learning in China's teaching context and Western teachers’views on the Chinese culture of learning and teaching have been rarely conduct-ed. This essay discusses the implications of cultural differences of learning between China and the West, particularly Western teachers’viewpoint on Chinese culture of learning. The conclusion suggests that it is of great importance to be aware that culture is just one of many factors that determine individual learning, and teachers are supposed to avoid stereotyping and simplistic views with regard to culture of learning, though general trends and patterns may exist among a certain type of culture.

  11. Adapting Western research methods to indigenous ways of knowing. (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Christopher, Suzanne


    Indigenous communities have long experienced exploitation by researchers and increasingly require participatory and decolonizing research processes. We present a case study of an intervention research project to exemplify a clash between Western research methodologies and Indigenous methodologies and how we attempted reconciliation. We then provide implications for future research based on lessons learned from Native American community partners who voiced concern over methods of Western deductive qualitative analysis. Decolonizing research requires constant reflective attention and action, and there is an absence of published guidance for this process. Continued exploration is needed for implementing Indigenous methods alone or in conjunction with appropriate Western methods when conducting research in Indigenous communities. Currently, examples of Indigenous methods and theories are not widely available in academic texts or published articles, and are often not perceived as valid.

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation on Agricultural Environment in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TU Jianjun; DENG Yulin


    Taking provinces as study cases, 15 comprehensive factors, involving natural geography,agricultural production, economic and social information, were formulated to evaluate the agricultural environment in western China by factor analysis method. The results showed that comprehensive scores were distinct among different cases. The score of Sichuan was the highest, that of Chongqing second and that of Guangxi the third.Qinghai got the lowest score, ranking the twelfth. The general environment quality was better in moist southern regions than that in frigid northern regions in the provinces of western China. Therefore, the appropriate eco-environmental construction measures at provincial level should be proposed to increase vegetation coverage, control water and soil loss, and prevent desertification and wind erosion. To develop eco-agriculture is an inevitable selection for environment construction and improvement in western China.

  13. Tracks for Eastern/Western European Future Launch Vehicles Cooperation (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Bertschi, Markus


    exclusively upon Western European elements indigenously produced. Yet some private initiatives took place successfully in the second half of the nineties (Eurockot and Starsem) bringing together companies from Western and Eastern Europe. Evolution of these JV's are already envisioned. But these ventures relied mostly on already existing vehicles. broadening the bases in order to enlarge the reachable world market appears attractive, even if structural difficulties are complicating the process. had recently started to analyze, with KSRC counterparts how mixing Russian and Western European based elements would provide potential competitive edges. and RKA in the frame of the new ESA's Future Launch Preparatory Programme (FLPP). main technical which have been considered as the most promising (reusable LOx/Hydrocarbon engine, experimental reentry vehicles or demonstrators and reusable launch vehicle first stage or booster. international approach. 1 2

  14. Diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia from the western North Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stonik, Inna V; Orlova, Tatiana Yu; Lundholm, Nina


    Asurvey focusing on species belonging to the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia was conducted in the western North Pacific (the northwestern Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk). Light and electron microscopic examination of 314 phytoplankton field samples collected from 1995 to 2006 revealed...... are provided for all 11 Pseudo-nitzschia taxa. The study presents a taxonomical baseline investigation of Pseudo-nitzschia from the western North Pacific and provides distributional data from an area otherwise not thoroughly examined earlier. Morphological deviation from the current description of P. cf...... to the northern hemisphere where it occurs in the North Atlantic Ocean exclusively. The current study, however, documents that P. seriata is found in the North Pacific and hence is widespread in the northern hemisphere. One species, P. cf. caciantha, is a new record for the western North Pacific, whereas two...

  15. Comparative Study on Chinese and Western Traditional Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This essay compares and analysis the main traditional festivals in Chinese and Western countries and discusses the cultural meaning,similarities and differences.The traditional festivals are the outstanding cultural heritage of a nation,and the precious spiritual wealth of mankind,so different festivals can reflect different cultures.As we all know,Chinese and Western traditional festivals are two different cultural forms evolved from comparatively independent cultural systems,which possess peculiar characteristics and varied manifestation.The comparison of festival cultures between China and western countries can not only help us learn English,but also make us know more about our cultures and promote the cultural communication of China and the West.

  16. Multiple sclerosis : experience in neuroimaging era from western India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani J


    Full Text Available 31 patients of multiple sclerosis (MS diagnosed in the last six years in a large teaching hospital were reviewed. The hospital incidence of 0.85% of total admissions in neurology unit in western India is comparable to the series from other parts of India. The mean age at onset was slightly lower compared to other series. The female preponderence was noted in addition to higher incidence of Devic′s syndrome. Visual loss (47% and motor weakness (27% were the commonest presenting symptoms. The clinical pattern was more similar to Asian series of MS than the western series. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan. 24 out of 25 MRI of Brain and 15 out of 16 MRI of spine were abnormal. CSF immuno-globulins were raised in 80% of patients who underwent CSF study. The data has been compared with other Indian, Asian and Western series.

  17. Preliminary strategic environmental assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: safeguarding ecological security for a new western China. (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-ju; Yang, Zhifeng


    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  18. Preliminary Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Great Western Development Strategy: Safeguarding Ecological Security for a New Western China (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liu, Yan-Ju; Yang, Zhifeng


    The Great Western Development Strategy (GWDS) is a long term national campaign aimed at boosting development of the western area of China and narrowing the economic gap between the western and the eastern parts of China. The Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedure was employed to assess the environmental challenges brought about by the western development plans. These plans include five key developmental domains (KDDs): water resource exploitation and use, land utilization, energy generation, tourism development, and ecological restoration and conservation. A combination of methods involving matrix assessment, incorporation of expert judgment and trend analysis was employed to analyze and predict the environmental impacts upon eight selected environmental indicators: water resource availability, soil erosion, soil salinization, forest destruction, land desertification, biological diversity, water quality and air quality. Based on the overall results of the assessment, countermeasures for environmental challenges that emerged were raised as key recommendations to ensure ecological security during the implementation of the GWDS. This paper is intended to introduce a consensus-based process for evaluating the complex, long term pressures on the ecological security of large areas, such as western China, that focuses on the use of combined methods applied at the strategic level.

  19. For Western girls only? Postfeminism as transnational culture


    Dosekun, Simidele


    Much of the literature on post-feminism concerns the “Western” world and variously conceptualizes post-feminism as “Western culture.” This article argues that, as a result, feminist cultural scholars have not sufficiently imagined, theorized or empirically researched the possibility of post-feminism in non-Western cultural contexts. By briefly reviewing what has been said in the literature about post-feminism and the non-West, and by putting this in dialogue with transnational feminist cultur...

  20. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)


    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  1. When western leadership models become a mixed blessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Reimer


    Full Text Available Russia plunged into a deep leadership crisis after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The attempt to implement western leadership models only deepened the crisis. With the take over of power by Vladimir Putin a new leadership theory evolved, which looked critically at western models. Totalitarianism, contextuality, cultural sensibility and pragmatism are issues being investigated with respect to leadership. This article includes these themes whilst reflecting on the critical dialogue between the American leadership expert Stephen R. Covey and his Russian critic Vladimir Tarassenko.

  2. Satellite spectral data and archaeological reconnaissance in western Greece (United States)

    Cooper, Frederick A.; Bauer, M. E.; Cullen, Brenda C.


    A Macro-geographical reconnaissance of the Western Peloponnesos adopts spectral signatures taken by Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper as a new instrument of archaeological survey in Greece. Ancient records indicate that indigenous resources contributed to the prosperity of the region. Natural resources and Ancient, Medieval, and Pre-modern Folklife in the Western Peloponnesos describes the principal lines of research. For a supervised classification of attested ancient resources, a variety of biophysical surface features were pinpointed: stone quarries, coal mines, forests of oak and silver fir, terracotta-producing clay beds, crops, and various wild but exploited shrubs such as flax.

  3. The Culture of Western alcoholic drink——French wine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    1.Introduction The wine,which plays an important role in the daily life,is familiar to human beings.There are varied types of wine with different raw materials,such as Gin,Whisky,Vodka,Rum,and Brandy.All the alcoholic drink is divided into three categories by western people.They are liquor,beer and wine.Liquor includes brandy,whiskey,vodka,tequila and so on.The followings are the introduction of the French wine and the German beer,they both play a key role in the western countries.

  4. Cultural Differences in the Traditional Chinese and Western Festivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The culture of world is colorful.On the soil of colorful culture,there grows different traditional festivals.They are distinctly different in their origins.Chinese festivals mainly stem from seasons and solar periods,while western festivals are mostly influenced with religious features.Another aspect is apparent different in their customs.When celebrating the festivals,the Chinese tend to focus more attention on eating and drinking,while the westerners tend to the seeking of pleasure.In the era of globaliza...

  5. Brief Probein to Differences Between Chinese and Western Food Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青岛大学音乐学院,山东 青岛 266000


    Because of the differences in environment and products, different cultures may be formed in east and west, the social characteristics of material and spiritual life integrated embodiment through Chinese and west food cultures. The author focuses on analysis and comparison in cross-cultural differences of diet idea, diet object and way of eating in China and western countries, the deep-seated causation which induces the differences in food cultures is revealed. Under the background of western economic and cultural integration, communication in food cultures increased, which will certain accelerate Chinese food cultures developed and spread al over the world.

  6. Factors affecting the use of prenatal and postnatal care by women of non-western immigrant origin in industrialized western countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerleider, A.W.; Devillé, W.L.J.M.; Francke, A.L.; Wiegers, T.A.


    Background: In many industrialized western countries immigrants constitute a substantial part of the population, which is also seen in the prenatal and postnatal care client population. Research in several industrialized western countries has shown that women of non-western immigrant origin make ina

  7. Evaluation of the seasonal and annual abortifacient risk of western juniper trees on Oregon rangelands: Abortion risk of western juniper trees (United States)

    Western juniper trees can cause late term abortions in cattle, similar to ponderosa pine trees. Analyses of western juniper trees from 35 locations across the state of Oregon suggest that western juniper trees in all areas present an abortion risk in pregnant cattle. Results from this study demonstr...

  8. The Outline of Selected Marital Satisfaction Factors in the Intercultural Couples based on the Westerner and non-Westerner relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skowroński Dariusz P.


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the various factors from a socio-cultural perspective that have a bearing on the intercultural couple’s marital satisfaction in Westerner and non-Westerner relationships, and how cultural differences may potentially amplify the difficulties, which non-intercultural couples themselves are already likely to face. These factors include acculturation, language and communication, attitudes toward marriage, individual traits and behaviours, support of the family, societal views, gender roles, managing of the household finances and child rearing. Certain theories are also highlighted in an attempt to explain why these cultural differences have such a profound effect on the marital satisfaction of intercultural couples.

  9. Western teachers of science or teachers of Western science: On the influence of Western modern science in a post-colonial context (United States)

    Burke, Lydia E. Carol-Ann

    An expanding body of research explores the social, political, cultural and personal challenges presented by the Western emphasis of curricula around the world. The aim of my study is to advance this field of inquiry by gaining insight into perceptions of Western modern science presented by students, teachers and administrators in a given Caribbean setting. Through this study I asked how my research participants described the nature of scientific knowledge, how they related scientific knowledge to other culturally-valued knowledges and the meanings they attached to the geographic origins of science teachers. Situating this work firmly within the practice of Foucauldian critical discourse analysis, I have utilised a conceptual framework defined by the power/knowledge and complicity/resistance themes of post-colonial theory to support my interpretation of participant commentary in an overall quest that is concerned about the ways in which Western modern science might be exerting a colonising influence. Fourteen students, nine teachers (both expatriate and local) and three administrators participated in the study. I combined a semi-structured question and answer interview format with a card sort activity. I used a procedure based on my own adaptation of Stephenson's Q methodology, where the respondents placed 24 statements hierarchically along a continuum of increasing strength of agreement, presenting their rationalisations, personal stories and illustrations as they sorted. I used an inverse factor analysis, in combination with the interview transcripts, to assist me in the identification of three discourse positions described by my research participants: The truth value of scientific knowledge, The pragmatic use of science to promote progress, and The priority of cultural preservation. The interview transcripts were also analysed for emergent themes, providing an additional layer of data interpretation. The research findings raise concerns regarding the hegemonic

  10. Western Governmental Assistance to Eastern Europe: The First Steps (United States)


    most enlightened dictatorship. The best support for an emerging democratic system is a wealth-generating local economy. Early Western efforts toward...even more effectively than will the most enlightened dictatorship. The best support for an emerging democratic system is a productive, wealth

  11. Targeting China's Newly Rich Western Luxury Brands to Expand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Western fashion brands have been considering China as a market for cheap raw materials and labor for several centuries.However,in recent months,China's booming economy has attracted the fashion industry.Many high-profit fashion brands said they intend to expand business in China.

  12. Liberation or Oppression?--Western TESOL Pedagogies in China (United States)

    Lu, Shaofei; Ares, Nancy


    In this article, we examine power relations in College English teaching in China, focusing on the "symbolic capital" of English as a global language. Framing our discussion with Bourdieu's concept of symbolic capital and a review of literature, we problematize the importation of pedagogies from Western countries to China and argue that…

  13. The rise of homogamy in 19th century Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, F.W.A.; Vanassche, S.; Sanchez, M.; Jidkova, S.; Eeckhaut, M.; Oris, M.; Matthijs, K.


    In many parts of Western Europe the age at first marriage and the level of celibacy declined in the second half of the 19th century. This weakening of the European marriage pattern (EMP) can be interpreted as a ‘‘classic’’ response to the increase of the standard of living, but a more far-reaching i

  14. Adult Education and Training in Western European Countries. (United States)

    Reubens, Beatrice G.

    No single system or model of adult education and training describes the actual situation in the countries of Western Europe. Considerable variability exists from nation to nation in regard to scope, characteristics, organization, and financing. The countries, however, share an interest in the deliberate expansion of all phases of adult education.…

  15. The Development of Green Care in Western European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haubenhofer, D.K.; Elings, M.; Hassink, J.; Hine, R.E.


    This article represents a review of green care across Western European countries. The following questions are addressed: What is green care, and what are its basic goals? What are the most commonly known types of green care interventions, and how are they connected to each other? There are different

  16. Characterization of western X-disease mycoplasma-like organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, B.C.


    The causal agent of western X-disease, an important disease of cherry (Prunus avium) and peach (Prunus persica) in the western United States, was shown to be a non-culturable, mycoplasma-like organism (WX-MLO). Procedures were developed to purify WX-MLOs from celery and leafhoppers infected with a greenhouse-maintained isolate of the peach yellow leaf roll (ghPYLR) strain of western X-disease. WX-MLOs, purified from ghPYLR-infected leafhoppers, elicited the production of specific antisera (WX antisera) when injected into rabbits. When used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), WX antisera quantitatively detected WX-MLOs in celery, periwinkle, and leafhoppers experimentally infected with either ghPYLR or the Green Valley (GVX) strain of western X-disease. Recombinant clones were screened by colony, dot and southern hybridizations using /sup 32/P-nick translated DNA extracted from healthy and ghPYLR-infected celery and leafhoppers. Twenty-four clones were identified which hybridized with DNA from diseased but not healthy hosts. DNA hybridization assays, using radiolabeled, cloned WX-MLO DNA, readily detected WX-MLOs in celery, periwinkle, and leafhoppers infected with either GVX or ghPYLR and in cherry and peach with symptoms of GVX.

  17. Motives underlying food consumption in the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mardon, Julie; Thiel, Elise; Laniau, Martine; Sijtsema, Siet; Zimmermann, Karin; Barjolle, Dominique


    Objectives: This study aims to identify subgroups of consumers based on the health motives underlying their food choice in Western Balkan Countries. Methods: The survey (n = 2943) was based on the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and elicited information on socio-demographic characteristics, consu

  18. Retroperitoneal abscesses in two western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). (United States)

    Hahn, Alicia; D'Agostino, Jennifer; Cole, Gretchen A; Raines, Jan


    This report describes two cases of retroperitoneal abscesses in female western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Clinical symptoms included perivulvar discharge, lameness, hindlimb paresis, and general malaise. Retroperitoneal abscesses should be considered as part of a complete differential list in female gorillas with similar clinical signs.

  19. How Ebola impacts genetics of Western lowland gorilla populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline J Le Gouar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are major threats for both human health and biodiversity conservation. Infectious diseases can have serious consequences for the genetic diversity of populations, which could enhance the species' extinction probability. The Ebola epizootic in western and central Africa induced more than 90% mortality in Western lowland gorilla population. Although mortality rates are very high, the impacts of Ebola on genetic diversity of Western lowland gorilla have never been assessed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out long term studies of three populations of Western lowland gorilla in the Republic of the Congo (Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Lossi gorilla sanctuary both affected by Ebola and Lossi's periphery not affected. Using 17 microsatellite loci, we compared genetic diversity and structure of the populations and estimate their effective size before and after Ebola outbreaks. Despite the effective size decline in both populations, we did not detect loss in genetic diversity after the epizootic. We revealed temporal changes in allele frequencies in the smallest population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Immigration and short time elapsed since outbreaks could explain the conservation of genetic diversity after the demographic crash. Temporal changes in allele frequencies could not be explained by genetic drift or random sampling. Immigration from genetically differentiated populations and a non random mortality induced by Ebola, i.e., selective pressure and cost of sociality, are alternative hypotheses. Understanding the influence of Ebola on gorilla genetic dynamics is of paramount importance for human health, primate evolution and conservation biology.

  20. 77 FR 65546 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing (United States)


    ... for the Western Rate Schedules database, to be effective July 14, 2011. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest this filing must file in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (18 CFR 385.211, 385.214). Protests will be considered by the Commission...

  1. Annual variations of frost table in Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) has been used to study the annual variations of the frost table beneath the southern parking area at Kangerlussuaq Airport, western Greenland. In autumn 2000, three test areas were painted white in order to reduce further development of depressions in the asphalt...

  2. An analysis of Western European food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...

  3. The rise of the populist radical right in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooduijn, M.


    Populist radical right (PRR) parties are on the rise in Western Europe. Where do the electoral successes of these parties come from? First, it has been shown that the opening of borders has fuelled the divide between the ‘losers’ and ‘winners’ of globalisation. The ‘losers’ are individuals who feel

  4. Changing the Western Alliance in the South Pacific. (United States)


    Furthermore all the steps are reverslble.[131 And what of the consequences of economic protectionism ? While the trade war continues, major improvements to...product of New Zealand isolationism is the withdrawal of its forces from Singapore and the resultant loss of a Western voice in the Five Power

  5. Conflicts of interest between eastern and western scientific systems. (United States)

    Klestova, Zinayida; Makarenko, Alexander


    The article discusses issues of interaction between the scientific systems of Eastern and Western Europe in the context of current global and local conflicts. Also, ethical issues are considered in connection with solving such problems in science, as well as examining similarities and differences of the scientific systems and their possible modelling. Some practical recommendations are included, based on the suggested academic speculations.

  6. Engaging the Refugee Community of Greater Western Sydney (United States)

    Naidoo, Loshini


    This paper discusses the community engagement program, "Refugee Action Support" (RAS) at the University of Western Sydney. RAS is a partnership program between the Australian Literacy and Numeracy Foundation, The NSW Department of Education and Training and the university. The Refugee Action Support program prepares pre-service teachers to teach…

  7. The Maritime and Border Regions of Western Europe. (United States)

    Corner, Trevor


    Discusses the diversity of languages in Western Europe and the peripheralization of maritime and border languages through isolation, domination by other languages, and fragmentation of the culture. Discusses minority rights issues, suggesting rise in bilingual education implies border-language revival. 5 tables, 27 references. (TES)

  8. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.


    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  9. Crisis and Survival in Western European Oil Refining. (United States)

    Pinder, David A.


    In recent years, oil refining in Western Europe has experienced a period of intense contraction. Discussed are the nature of the crisis, defensive strategies that have been adopted, the spatial consequences of the strategies, and how effective they have been in combatting the root causes of crises. (RM)

  10. Periglacial and glacial landforms in western part of Pohorje Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Obu


    Full Text Available Recent geomorphological research in eastern part of Pohorje Mountains has revealed new information about periglacial and glacial landforms of that area. Based on these findings, similar landforms in western part of Pohorje were studied, especially cryoplanation terraces and nivation hollows. Field research has also revealed the existence of ploughing rocks, blockstreams, blockfields and one cirque.

  11. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd


    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  12. "From Plato to Pareto": The Western Civilization Course Reconsidered. (United States)

    Mullaney, Marie Marmo


    Discusses the importance of historical study within general education. Reviews the rise and fall of the Western Civilization course as the core of general education in the humanities. Suggests ways a revised version of this course can be restored to a central place in the curriculum. (AYC)

  13. Soviet Acquisition of Militarily Significant Western Technology: An Update (United States)


    report defines the scope of the without allowing the technological gap to widen. The Soviet effort. It outlines how the Soviets go about main reasons for...they acquired, more than the Soviets to narrow the microelectronics technological gap with 2,500 pieces of major Western controlled and uncontrolled

  14. Routine Western blot to check autophagic flux : Cautions and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Ruben; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M. S.; Rodriguez-Arribas, Mario; Bravo-San Pedro, Jose M.; Fuentes, Jose M.; Gonzalez-Polo, Rosa A.


    At present, the analysis of autophagic flux by Western blotting (WB), which measures two of the most important markers of autophagy, i.e., microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and p62, is widely accepted in the scientific community. In this study, we addressed the possible disadvanta

  15. Commuting behavior of western U.S. residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caviglia, J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Estimation and interpretation of commutes to work has been studied extensively with respect to gender, race, and income. While the literature is extensive in these areas, there has been little research on regional differences between US states and territories. Since data which reports the commute to work is in average minutes, the distance traveled is estimated using estimates of the distance between home and work county centroids. The models differ in estimation of in-county commutes. The first assumes that the commute is equal to the radius of the county and the second estimates the commute as a weighted distance based on place location. Two data sets are compared, US National Guard data and US census data. Goal of this paper is to make conclusions about the commuting behavior of western residents through the use of these estimates, and therefore to provide a estimation method for distance commutes which can be used in further research. It is concluded that the radius method of estimation may be an over estimation, in particular in the western states. Since the non-western states are generally more homogeneously populated, this overestimation is not observed. It is recommended that the place location method be used for similar research, in particular studies dealing with western states. Suggestions are made for further research and recommendations are made for the US Army National Guard in regards to recruiting.

  16. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David


    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  17. Western Science and Islamic Learners: When Disciplines and Culture Intersect (United States)

    Robottom, Ian; Norhaidah, Sharifah


    This article reports on two research projects (one in Malaysia and one in Australia) that studied the experiences of Islamic background learners studying western science. Conceptually, this research program is conducted within a socially constructivist discourse and employs both quantitative and qualitative forms of data collection. The article…

  18. Developing Students' Intercultural Communication Competences in Western Etiquette Teaching (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochi


    How to develop students' intercultural communication competences is a controversial issue in foreign language education in China. In this article, the author attempts to offer an answer to this issue by putting forward a proposition for developing students' intercultural communication competences in western etiquette teaching. First of all, the…


    The Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, between George's Bank and Cape Cod, is the primary spring feeding ground for the western North Atlantic population of the I northern right whale, E. glacialis .Since this whale is so endangered, it is critical to i...

  20. 78 FR 32624 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings (United States)


    ... Limits (ACLs) 2. Modified Catch-Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) Approach to Specify ABCs 3. Options for... A. Age-Structured Model of False Killer Whales B. Papahanaumokuakea Associated Cetacean Ecology... Western Pacific D. Community Projects, Activities and Issues 1. Community Development Project (CDP)...

  1. "Vraisemblance" and the Western Setting in Contemporary Science Fiction Film. (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    Analyzing the setting of six recent "blockbuster" films, this study outlines numerous instances of the Western's influence on several contemporary science fiction films, "Star Wars,""Battlestar Galactica,""Star Trek: The Motion Picture,""The Black Hole,""The Empire Strikes Back," and…

  2. Seed dormancy mechanisms in basalt milkvetch and western prairie clover (United States)

    A greater diversity of native legumes and forbs is desirable for rangeland restoration practice in the Intermountain Region of the western U.S. However, for such diversity to materialize in the seed marketplace and to be effective in restoration practice, plant materials are needed that can be germ...

  3. Host-plant resistance to western flower thrips in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoen, Manus P.M.


    Western flower thrips is a pest on a large variety of vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops. The damage these minute slender insects cause in agriculture through feeding and the transmission of tospoviruses requires a sustainable solution. Host-plant resistance is a cornerstone of Integrated Pest Ma

  4. 75 FR 6636 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting (United States)


    ... the Western Pacific Fishery Management Council undertake the process to recommend definitions and.... March 12, 2010, Tinian, CNMI. From 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. at the Tinian Elementary School. San Jose Village... Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act), those issues may not be the subject of formal action during...

  5. Mercury content of shark from south-western Australian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputi, N.; Edmonds, J.S.; Heald, D.I.


    Muscle samples from four species of commercially sought sharks off the Western Australia coast were analyzed for total mercury. While substantial amounts of mercury were accumulated by sharks, as by other marine fish, the lack of polluting industry on the coast indicates that such mercury levels probably are natural. Mercury concentrations generally increased with fish size. (4 graphs, 1 map, 8 references, 2 tables)

  6. A Profile of Agriculture Students at Western Kentucky University. (United States)

    George, K. M.

    Background characteristics of agriculture students at Western Kentucky University (WKU), the factors affecting their choice of careers, their goals and expectations, and certain agriculture related attitudes were examined in 1978 in a survey of 150 randomly selected agriculture students at that university. Similarities and differences with their…

  7. Teacher Education Evaluation: The Western Kentucky University Approach. (United States)

    Adams, Ronald D.

    The Teacher Preparation Evaluation Program (TPEP) was begun at Western Kentucky University in 1972. The TPEP is a longitudinal follow-up of teacher education graduates to obtain data on selected variables determined from the review of research literature on teacher effectiveness. It is a product centered evaluation system that emphasizes objective…

  8. Faculty and Staff Handbook. Western Kentucky University. Eighth Edition. (United States)

    Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green.

    The 1972 faculty and staff handbook of Western Kentucky University contains information regarding the history of the institution, and its accreditations and professional memberships. The document details the university organization and administration; the academic organization; instructional policies and services, as well as academic services and…

  9. The Western Kentucky University Evaluation Model: Implications for Career Decisions. (United States)

    Pankratz, Roger; Harryman, Eugene

    This longitudinal study of beginning teachers in Kentucky yields a number of characteristics useful in identifying persons most likely to obtain and retain teaching positions in secondary education. The Western Kentucky University Teacher Preparation Evaluation Program (TPEP), begun in 1971, follows careers of elementary and secondary school…

  10. Western Kentucky University Teacher Preparation Evaluation System. Case Study. (United States)

    Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green.

    Western Kentucky University is engaged in testing an evaluation system designed to obtain objective, quantifiable data on graduates of its teacher education program. Each year 20 elementary and 20 secondary participants are randomly selected at the beginning of their student teaching experience. Participants are observed during their preservice…

  11. Indigenous knowledge in Canadian science curricula: cases from Western Canada (United States)

    Kim, Mijung


    To enhance Aboriginal students' educational opportunities in sciences, culturally relevant science curriculum has been examined and practiced in Western Canadian science classrooms. This article shares some examples of inclusion of indigenous knowledge in science curricula and discusses the improvement and challenges of culturally relevant science curricula in Canadian contexts.

  12. Total system hazards analysis for the western area demilitarization facility (United States)

    Pape, R.; Mniszewski, K.; Swider, E.


    The results of a hazards analysis of the Western Area Demilitarization facility (WADF) at Hawthorne, Nevada are summarized. An overview of the WADF systems, the hazards analysis methodology that was applied, a general discussion of the fault tree analysis results, and a compilation of the conclusions and recommendations for each area of the facility are given.

  13. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.


    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  14. 78 FR 6810 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings (United States)


    ... Management Council (Council) will hold the 112th meeting of its Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC473 Western Pacific Fishery Management Council..., 2013 7. Pelagic Fisheries. A. Action Item. 1. Management Options for American Samoa South...

  15. Undergraduate Non-Music Major Preferences for Western Art Music (United States)

    Hash, Phillip M.


    The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate non-music major (N = 95) preferences for Western art music. A survey of 15 musical examples was assembled consisting of five subtests, each with three excerpts from the Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, or Twentieth Century. The mean preference rating of all excerpts combined was 4.68…

  16. Meditation, Mindfulness, Psyche and Soma: Eastern, Western Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Jordanov, Daniel; Autrup, Mads

    This presentation focuses on the genesis of meditation and mindfulness in the East for comprehension of these phenomena, which are increasingly applied and adapted in the current Western context. Their very origin from the East, particularly Buddhism and Yoga practices, directs our attention...

  17. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects (United States)

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.


    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  18. Native Resistance of Maize to Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding (United States)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major insect pest in continuous corn production. By feeding on corn roots, WCR causes economic losses due to plant lodging and decreased nutrient uptake. Currently, insecticides and transgenic corn are only available options for its control under continuous cor...

  19. Deep sea benthos of the western and central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ingole, B.S.; Harkantra, S.N.; Ansari, Z.A.

    in the western and the Central Indian Ocean. Mean population density varied from 23322 m-2 in 1500-1999 m depth zone to 50269 m sup(-2) in 5500-5999 m depth zone. Both macro- and meiobenthos decreased in abundance with increasing water depth. The rate of decrease...

  20. 75 FR 8674 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings (United States)


    ... Spatial Planning, coral reef ecosystem threats, truth in science, Western and Central Pacific Fisheries.... NOAA Draft Catch Shares Policy E. National Ocean Policy and Marine Spatial Planning F. Local, National... the Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center Director 5. Program Planning A. ACLs...