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Sample records for chs torsatron

  1. Observation of parallel viscosity in the CHS Heliotron/Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damping of the toroidal velocity owing to parallel viscosity is observed in the plasma with a tangential neutral beam injection in the CHS Heliotron/Torsatron device. Toroidal velocity profile is dominated by the perpendicular viscosity when magnetic field modulation is weak near axis. However, the parallel viscosity is found to be dominant when the modulation is strong enough and to increase in proportion to the square of the modulation of magnetic field. The absolute values of the viscosity agree with the neoclassical prediction within a factor of three. (author)

  2. Shafranov shift in low-aspect-ratio heliotron/torsatron CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MHD equilibrium properties of neutral-beam-heated plasmas have been experimentally investigated in the Compact Helical System (CHS), a low-aspect-ratio (Ap ∼ 5) heliotron/torsatron. This configuration is characterized by a strong breaking of helical symmetry. The radial profiles measured by various diagnostics have shown significant Shafranov shift due to plasma pressure. The deviation of the magnetic axis from its vacuum position has reached 50% of the minor radius. When the three-dimensional equilibrium code VMEC is used to reconstruct the equilibrium from the experimental data, the result is in good agreement with the experimentally observed Shafranov shift as well as the diamagnetic pressure in plasmas with ≤ 1.2% and β0 ≤ 3.3%. This β value corresponds to half of the conventional equilibrium β limit defined by the Shafranov shift reaching a value of half the minor radius. Although tangential neutral beam injection has caused pressure anisotropies p parallel/p perpendicular ≤ 3, the description of the equilibrium assuming isotropic pressure is consistent with the experiment. (author)

  3. Compact Torsatron configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-aspect-ratio stellarator configurations can be realized by using torsatron winding. Plasmas with aspect ratios in the range of 3.5 to 5 can be confined by these Compact Torsatron configurations. Stable operation at high Β should be possible in these devices, if a vertical field coil system is adequately designed to avoid breaking of the magnetic surfaces at finite Β. 17 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  4. Divertor for a torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The divertor for a torsatron comprising a toroidal vacuum chamber embracing the toroidal chamber of torsatron trap and communicating with it through the gaps between helical conductors of the system for creation of the trap magnetic field is described. The divertor comprises also a collector realized in a form of plates crossing magnetic field force lines. With the purpose of decreasing the plasma contamination level the collector plates realized curvilinear and embrace conductors at full their length and have the curvature less than that of the magnetic field force lines in the plate mounting point. The invention permits to decrease the plasma contamination by decreasing the particles flux formed as a result of collector plates errosion and accordingly increase plasma temperature in the trap

  5. Compact torsatron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-aspect-ratio torsatron configurations could lead to compact stellarator reactors with R0 = 8--11m, roughly one-half to one-third the size of more conventional stellarator reactor designs. Minimum-size torsatron reactors are found using various assumptions. Their size is relatively insensitive to the choice of the conductor parameters and depends mostly on geometrical constraints. The smallest size is obtained by eliminating the tritium breeding blanket under the helical winding on the inboard side and by reducing the radial depth of the superconducting coil. Engineering design issues and reactor performance are examined for three examples to illustrate the feasibility of this approach for compact reactors and for a medium-size (R0 ≅ 4 m,/bar a/ /approx lt/ 1 m) copper-coil ignition experiment. 26 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Reconstruction of local emissivity profile from chord-integrated soft x-ray data in heliotron/torsatron plasmas by singular-value decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reconstruction method for a local soft X-ray (SX) emissivity profile based on singular-value decomposition (SVD) was applied to the chord-integrated SX data obtained in the compact helical system (CHS) heliotron/torsatron. The numerical procedure for this method was simplified by introducing the data of equilibrium magnetic surfaces to analyze the experimental data efficiently. The applicability of the Akaide information criterion (AIC) was investigated for the determination of the optimal number of parameters characterizing a local emissivity profile. This method was applied to SX data for sawtoothing plasmas of the CHS. For these CHS data, the optimal number of parameters is determined from the spatial resolution of an SX detector array rather than the AIC. A characteristic feature of the off-axis or annular sawtooth crash was clearly derived with this technique. (author)

  7. Wisconsin Torsatron/Stellarator Program, FY 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of the Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory during the present contract period has concentrated on several main areas. The confinement in IMS is being investigated under the conditions of an applied vertical magnetic field and with the insertion of a localized limiter. Excellent agreement between a simplified stochastic heating theory and the measured electron cyclotron breakdown and heating phases of the Proto-Cleo torsatron have been achieved. Measurements of the secondary currents and the ability to drive currents using Alfven waves are continuing on the Proto-Cleo stellarator. Theoretical efforts have concentrated on modelling the experimental devices, including 1-D transport modelling, particle-in-cell simulation and divertor field line following codes

  8. Wisconsin torsatron/stellarator program, FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal documents recent activities within the University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory and presents plans for future research activities for a three year period. Research efforts have focused on fundamental stellarator physics issues through experimental investigations on the Interchangeable Module Stellarator (IMS) and the Proto-Cleo Stellarator. Theoretical activities and studies of new configurations are being undertaken to support and broaden the experimental program. Experimental research at the Torsatron Stellarator Laboratory has been primarily concerned with effects induced through electron-cyclotron resonant frequency plasma production and heating in the IMS device. Plasma electric fields have been shown to play a major role in particle transport and confinement in IMS. ECRF heating at 6 kG has produced electron tail populations in agreement with Monte-Carlo models. Electric and magnetic fields have been shown to alter the particle flows to the IMS modular divertors. 48 refs

  9. Design of the Compact Auburn Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and optimization procedure for the Compact Auburn Torsatron. Included in this is a description of the Cary-Hanson Optimization technique. In this paper the properties of the magnetic fields are presented and a description of the machine and the construction procedure. The experimental setup for the surface mapping is described and conclusions are presented. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  10. Bolometer studies in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four channel bolometer head was mounted on CHS and used to investigate the effectiveness of wire mesh in blocking unabsorbed microwaves which can produce spurious signals on the bolometer sensors. The 50 mesh per inch, 20 micron diameter tungsten wire mesh was effective in blocking 70% of the 53 GHz signal and 50% of the 106 GHz signal. When an additional mesh was added at a separation of 1.4 mm (λ/4 for 53 GHz and λ/2 for 106 GHz) the 53 GHz signal was reduced by more than a factor of 10 and the 106 GHz signal was reduced by an additional 70% compared to the single mesh case. Experiments from CHS show that radiation reflected off the wall is at power levels which are 6% of the power seen on the peak central chord. Experiments on CHS in a neutral beam heated plasma with a three chord bolometer show that hollow radiation profiles during gas puffing become more peaked after the puff is turned off. As the injection angle of the neutral beam is varied from rt = 80 cm to 87 cm to 94 cm this transition becomes more pronounced and extends beyond the termination of the gas puff. (author)

  11. Perspectives on low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of the low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron configuration is discussed from the point of view of plasma confinement. Recent numerical results on the configuration study and the experimental data base are reviewed. (author)

  12. [Wisconsin Torsatron/Stellarator Program: FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory Program during the present period has concentrated on experimental investigations into ECR-produced plasmas in the IMS device. Significant progress has been made in understanding the role of convection in maintaining the hollow plasma density profiles under a wide range of operating conditions. Divertor studies have continued to show good agreement with predictions derived from simple field-line models and the ability to effect particle flows through biasing of divertor plates. Preliminary fluctuation studies showed a dependence of the amplitudes of the fluctuations and profile shapes as a function of the magnetic topology of the device. Theoretical support of the experimental program has provided models to help interpret the experimental results. New initiatives have begun in reduced-Q operation of the Proto-Cleo Stellarator, and in ion-Bernstein wave heating in IMS

  13. Experimental studies of radio frequency waves and confinement in the Auburn Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Auburn University Torsatron Group has been very active during the past year. The design of the new Compact Auburn Torsatron (CAT) was completed and construction is underway. Plasma experiments on the existing Auburn Torsatron in the areas of ICH and plasma microwave emission have also been carried out. Personnel from the Auburn Torsatron Group have also been involved in collaborative research with other research institutions, particularly the ATF Group at ORNL. Another significant development has been the Auburn Torsatron laboratory renovation project. Auburn University committed $75,000 to a laboratory upgrade in the Nuclear Science Center, the building which houses the Torsatron laboratory. The main result of this renovation is a doubling of the floor space in the Auburn Torsatron laboratory. This renovation work started on August 1, 1989 and is scheduled for completion on October 30, 1989

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHS107 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS107 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11527-1 CHS107P (Link to Original site) CHS10...7F 486 CHS107Z 581 CHS107P 1047 - - Show CHS107 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS10...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS107Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS10...7P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS107 (CHS107Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS10...oducing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS107 (CHS107Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS107Q.Seq.d/ 1518 0.0 VHO413

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHS104 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS104 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - CHS104P (Link to Original site) CHS104F 633 CHS10...4Z 697 CHS104P 1310 - - Show CHS104 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS104 (Link...sukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS104Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS104P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS104 (CHS104Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS104Q.Seq.d/ TAGATGCTTCAAAATC...ducing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS104 (CHS104Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS104Q.Seq.d/ 2478 0.0 SHL489 (

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHS105 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS105 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16290-1 CHS105P (Link to Original site) CHS10...5F 570 CHS105Z 753 CHS105P 1303 - - Show CHS105 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS10...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS105Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS10...5P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS105 (CHS105Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS10... E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS105 (CHS105Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS105Q.Seq.d/ 1

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHS122 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS122 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11458-1 CHS122P (Link to Original site) CHS1...22F 663 CHS122Z 819 CHS122P 1462 - - Show CHS122 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS122Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...22P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS122 (CHS122Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS1...ant alignments: (bits) Value CHS122 (CHS122Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS122Q.Seq.d/ 2391 0.0 SSG440 (SSG440Q) /CSM/S

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHS124 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS124 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16439-1 CHS124P (Link to Original site) CHS1...24F 587 CHS124Z 771 CHS124P 1338 - - Show CHS124 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS124Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...24P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS124 (CHS124Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS1...nificant alignments: (bits) Value CHS124 (CHS124Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS124Q.Seq.d/ 2565 0.0 SHD220 (SHD220Q) /

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHS130 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS130 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15941-1 CHS130P (Link to Original site) CHS1...30F 575 CHS130Z 798 CHS130P 1353 - - Show CHS130 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS130Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...30P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS130 (CHS130Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS1...DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS130 (CHS130Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS130Q

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHS140 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS140 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16405-1 CHS140P (Link to Original site) CHS1...40F 553 CHS140Z 718 CHS140P 1251 - - Show CHS140 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS140Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...40P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS140 (CHS140Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS1...ucing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS140 (CHS140Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS140Q.Seq.d/ 1392 0.0 AHK465 (A

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHS117 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS117 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 CHS117P (Link to Original site) CHS1...17F 501 CHS117Z 771 CHS117P 1252 - - Show CHS117 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS117Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...17P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS117 (CHS117Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS1...oducing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS117 (CHS117Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS117Q.Seq.d/ 1487 0.0 SHJ637

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHS191 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS191 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11946-1 CHS191P (Link to Original site) CHS19...1F 630 CHS191Z 689 CHS191P 1299 - - Show CHS191 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS19...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS191Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS19...1P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS191 (CHS191Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS19...roducing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS191 (CHS191Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS191Q.Seq.d/ 1130 0.0 VHK578

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHS174 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS174 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16256-1 - (Link to Original site) CHS1...74F 593 - - - - - - Show CHS174 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS174 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS174Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS174 (CHS174Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS174Q.Seq.d/ CAAATCTTACAACTGTC...RSTIRIETTIELQ CPWYDFCGVCTGN--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS174 (CHS1

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHS150 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS150 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11696-1 - (Link to Original site) CHS1...50F 168 - - - - - - Show CHS150 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS150 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS150Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS150 (CHS150Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS150Q.Seq.d/ AAAAATTACTTTTAAAA...kkkkkkxgxxkkxgxx--- Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS194 (CHS1

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHS109 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS109 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 CHS109P (Link to Original site) CHS10...9F 343 CHS109Z 728 CHS109P 1051 - - Show CHS109 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS10...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS109Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS10...9P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS109 (CHS109Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS10...eticulum >> prediction for CHS109 is nuc 5' end seq. ID CHS109F 5' end seq. >CHS109F.Seq TTGATTTTATCATGTATCA

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHS158 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS158 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16313-1 CHS158P (Link to Original site) CHS1...58F 647 CHS158Z 746 CHS158P 1373 - - Show CHS158 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS158Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...58P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS158 (CHS158Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS1...n*fqfniti*tlsll*nliink kttapfk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS158 (CHS1

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHS185 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS185 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10823-1 CHS185P (Link to Original site) CHS1...85F 537 CHS185Z 639 CHS185P 1156 - - Show CHS185 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS185Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...85P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS185 (CHS185Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS1...stlsvsnlqlaldesfevdfvly*k Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS185 (CHS1

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHS131 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS131 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15897-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...31Z 765 - - - - Show CHS131 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS131 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS131Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS131 (CHS131Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS131Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXCAATCGA...VHA533Q) /CSM/VH/VHA5-B/VHA533Q.Seq.d/ 1491 0.0 CHS391 (CHS391Q) /CSM/CH/CHS3-D/CHS391Q.Seq.d/ 1491 0.0 CHS131 (CHS1

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHS134 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS134 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15930-1 CHS134P (Link to Original site) CHS13...4F 649 CHS134Z 693 CHS134P 1322 - - Show CHS134 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS13...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS134Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS13...4P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS134 (CHS134Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS13...TIATQEGNTNNQ*in Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS134 (CHS13

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHS112 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS112 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15579-1 - (Link to Original site) CHS1...12F 166 - - - - - - Show CHS112 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS112 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS112Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS112 (CHS112Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS112Q.Seq.d/ ATGAACATTTAATAAAT... mitochondrial 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall >> prediction for CHS1

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHS145 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS145 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...45Z 629 - - - - Show CHS145 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS145 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS145Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS145 (CHS145Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS145Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXGTTCACC...4.0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: endoplasmic reticulum >> prediction for CHS145 is nuc 5' end seq. ID - 5' end

  12. Dicty_cDB: CHS137 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS137 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16475-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS13...7Z 598 - - - - Show CHS137 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS137 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS137Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS137 (CHS137Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS137Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXATGTGTA... wall 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: plasma membrane >> prediction for CHS137 is cyt

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHS192 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS192 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 CHS192P (Link to Original site) CHS1...92F 681 CHS192Z 796 CHS192P 1457 - - Show CHS192 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...e URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS192Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS1...92P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS192 (CHS192Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS1...igkekekqkqkeqi kenqrtnqqrkrrqketskxkxke Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS1

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHS132 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS132 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 CHS132P (Link to Original site) CHS13...2F 121 CHS132Z 816 CHS132P 917 - - Show CHS132 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS13... URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS132Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS13...2P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS132 (CHS132Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS13....00 60.0 %: nuclear 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 8.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: plasma membrane >> prediction for CHS132

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHS103 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS103 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - - (Link to Original site) - - CHS10...3Z 631 - - - - Show CHS103 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS103 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID... - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS10...3Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS10...3 (CHS103Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS103Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXGAAAGATTGTTATGCGATGAACAATACATTGTATT

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHS106 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS106 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16381-1 | Contig-U16460-1 CHS10...6P (Link to Original site) CHS106F 487 CHS106Z 538 CHS106P 1005 - - Show CHS106 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS10...381-1 | Contig-U16460-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS10...6Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS106P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS106 (CHS10...6Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS106Q.Seq.d/ ATGGTAATAGACAATGTGTTGAAGATCAAATTACATTGCCACCATTTGATAAATGTGATA

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHS102 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS102 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 - (Link to Original site) CHS10...2F 201 - - - - - - Show CHS102 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS102 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS102Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS102 (CHS102Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS102Q.Seq.d/ TTGGCCTACTGGAAAAA...gy vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS102 (CHS102Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS10

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHS182 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS182 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U10924-1 | Contig-U12653-1 CHS1...82P (Link to Original site) CHS182F 610 CHS182Z 789 CHS182P 1379 - - Show CHS182 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...924-1 | Contig-U12653-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS1...82Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS182P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS182 (CHS1...82Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS182Q.Seq.d/ ATTAAAAATTAATATAAATAAAATATAAAATAAAATGTCTACAGCAAAATTAGATTTTGT

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHS136 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS136 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16510-1 | Contig-U16524-1 CHS1...36P (Link to Original site) CHS136F 179 CHS136Z 353 CHS136P 512 - - Show CHS136 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...10-1 | Contig-U16524-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS1...36Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS136P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS136 (CHS1...36Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS136Q.Seq.d/ TTCAACTCAGTAATAATAATAATAAAAATAATAACAATAATAAGGAATTATAATCAAATA

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHS189 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS189 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - CHS189P (Link to Original site) CHS189F 339 CHS1...89Z 323 CHS189P 642 - - Show CHS189 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS189 (Link ...to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1...-D/CHS189Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS189P (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS189 (CHS189Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS189Q.Seq.d/ ATCAAATTATTTTTAAC

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHS133 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS133 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - CHS133P (Link to Original site) CHS133F 704 CHS1...33Z 773 CHS133P 1457 - - Show CHS133 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS133 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1...-B/CHS133Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS133P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS133 (CHS133Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS133Q.Seq.d/ ATTTTTAAATATATAT

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHS135 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS135 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15348-1 | Contig-U16600-1 CHS1...35P (Link to Original site) CHS135F 583 CHS135Z 754 CHS135P 1317 - - Show CHS135 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...348-1 | Contig-U16600-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS1...35Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS135P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS135 (CHS1...35Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS135Q.Seq.d/ AAAAATAAATTAAATAACTTTTAAAACAAATAATTTAAATAAAAAAATAAAAAAATAAAA

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHS163 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS163 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12984-1 | Contig-U16415-1 CHS1...63P (Link to Original site) CHS163F 470 CHS163Z 612 CHS163P 1062 - - Show CHS163 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...984-1 | Contig-U16415-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS1...63Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS163P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS163 (CHS1...63Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS163Q.Seq.d/ ATATTTACATATTTTTAAAAAATGGCAACAATTGAAGATACTTCAAAGATAATAACAATC

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHS194 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS194 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11696-1 - (Link to Original site) CHS1...94F 159 - - - - - - Show CHS194 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS194 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS194Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS194 (CHS194Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS194Q.Seq.d/ ATAATTATAAAAATTAC...omology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS194 (CHS194Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS1

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHS178 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS178 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15337-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...78Z 808 - - - - Show CHS178 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS178 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS178Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS178 (CHS178Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS178Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXACTGGTA...Value SHA557 (SHA557Q) /CSM/SH/SHA5-C/SHA557Q.Seq.d/ 1582 0.0 CHS178 (CHS178Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS1

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHS169 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS169 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...69Z 706 - - - - Show CHS169 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS169 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS169Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS169 (CHS169Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS169Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXGTTCACC...SH/SHD4-B/SHD429Q.Seq.d/ 666 0.0 CHS169 (CHS169Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS169Q.Seq.d/ 666 0.0 AHH414 (AHH414Q) /CS

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHS119 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS119 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11262-1 - (Link to Original site) CHS1...19F 569 - - - - - - Show CHS119 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS119 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS119Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS119 (CHS119Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS119Q.Seq.d/ AATATTATTTATTTATT...e E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS119 (CHS119Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS119Q.Seq.d/

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHS166 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS166 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - CHS166P (Link to Original site) CHS166F 433 CHS1...66Z 763 CHS166P 1176 - - Show CHS166 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS166 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1...-C/CHS166Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS166P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS166 (CHS166Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS166Q.Seq.d/ ATNATTATTGTTAAAA

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHS187 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS187 (Link to dictyBase) - G01715 DDB0185797 Contig-U11857-1 CHS1...87P (Link to Original site) CHS187F 627 CHS187Z 803 CHS187P 1410 - - Show CHS187 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS1...Contig-U11857-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS1...87Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS187P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS187 (CHS187Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1...-D/CHS187Q.Seq.d/ AAATTCCAAATTATTTTAACACACTCACACACACACTGGAGAATTAAATAAAACGATAGA TAAAAAA

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHS190 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS190 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - CHS190P (Link to Original site) CHS190F 680 CHS1...90Z 762 CHS190P 1422 - - Show CHS190 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS190 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1...-D/CHS190Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS190P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS190 (CHS190Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS190Q.Seq.d/ CAATTAATATATTAAT

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHS142 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS142 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16345-1 - (Link to Original site) CHS1...42F 601 - - - - - - Show CHS142 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS142 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS142Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS142 (CHS142Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS142Q.Seq.d/ CTTGGAACTGGTCAATT...ant alignments: (bits) Value CHS142 (CHS142Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS142Q.Seq.d/ 1172 0.0 CHO845 (CHO845Q) /CSM/C

  12. Dicty_cDB: CHS186 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS186 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - CHS186P (Link to Original site) CHS186F 716 CHS1...86Z 770 CHS186P 1466 - - Show CHS186 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS186 (Link... to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig - Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1...-D/CHS186Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS186P (Link to... Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS186 (CHS186Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS186Q.Seq.d/ ATTGTATATAATATTT

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHS162 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS162 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15935-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...62Z 745 - - - - Show CHS162 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS162 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS162Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS162 (CHS162Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS162Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXAACAGAT...CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS162 (CHS162Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS1

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHS111 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS111 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11043-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...11Z 152 - - - - Show CHS111 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS111 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS111Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS111 (CHS111Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS111Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXCCACCAC....Seq.d/ 90 1e-17 VHH658 (VHH658Q) /CSM/VH/VHH6-C/VHH658Q.Seq.d/ 90 1e-17 CHS111 (CHS111Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS1

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHS196 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS196 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16411-1 | Contig-U16470-1 CHS19...6P (Link to Original site) CHS196F 587 CHS196Z 845 CHS196P 1412 - - Show CHS196 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS19...411-1 | Contig-U16470-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.biol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS19...6Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID CHS196P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS196 (CHS19...6Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS196Q.Seq.d/ CATAATAAATAATAATTAAAATTTGCATATATAAAAGAAATAAAAATTTTTTATTTTTTG

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHS193 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS193 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16475-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS19...3Z 556 - - - - Show CHS193 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS193 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS193Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS193 (CHS193Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS193Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXAAATGTG...icant alignments: (bits) Value SFE223 (SFE223Q) /CSM/SF/SFE2-A/SFE223Q.Seq.d/ 1082 0.0 CHS193 (CHS193Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS19

  17. TOREX-4: a torsatron proof of principle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOREX-4 is a torsatron Proof of Principle experiment designed to simultaneously achieve ntau approx. = to 5 x 1013, n approx. = to 5 x 1014/cm3, and T greater than or equal to 1 keV. TOREX-4 is capable of operating without externally driven currents; sufficient neutral beam power to reach betas of 2 to 5% is provided. The unique 4(+2) constant pitch angle winding configuration allows the reliable design of large systems with far greater experimental flexibility than can be achieved in conventional stellarators of comparable size. This will allow investigation of the basic physics questions of the torsatron configuration over a wide range of plasma properties and field configurations without sacrifice of the Proof of Principle goals

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHS120 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS120 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 - (Link to Original site) CHS1...20F 188 - - - - - - Show CHS120 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS120 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS120Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS120 (CHS120Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS120Q.Seq.d/ AAAAAAATATTCAACTC... 4.0 %: Golgi >> prediction for CHS120 is nuc 5' end seq. ID CHS120F 5' end seq. >CHS120F.Seq AAAAAAATATTCAA

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHS138 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS138 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11514-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...38Z 380 - - - - Show CHS138 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS138 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS138Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS138 (CHS138Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-B/CHS138Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXGTATCAC...IPKEAT QVSHK Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS138 (CHS138Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHS161 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS161 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...61Z 658 - - - - Show CHS161 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS161 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS161Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS161 (CHS161Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS161Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXATTGCTT.../SF/SFG2-A/SFG212Q.Seq.d/ 862 0.0 SFC806 (SFC806Q) /CSM/SF/SFC8-A/SFC806Q.Seq.d/ 862 0.0 CHS161 (CHS1

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHS151 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS151 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U12673-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...51Z 669 - - - - Show CHS151 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS151 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS151Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS151 (CHS151Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS151Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXTGGTTTC...ory system >> prediction for CHS151 is cyt 5' end seq. ID - 5' end seq. - Length of 5' end seq. - 3' end seq. ID CHS1

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHS181 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS181 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16430-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...81Z 776 - - - - Show CHS181 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS181 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS181Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS181 (CHS181Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS181Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXCATTCAT... %: Golgi >> prediction for CHS181 is nuc 5' end seq. ID - 5' end seq. - Length of 5' end seq. - 3' end seq. ID CHS1

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHS173 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS173 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16313-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...73Z 721 - - - - Show CHS173 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS173 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS173Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS173 (CHS173Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS173Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXGGTTTTA... 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for CHS173 is cyt 5' end seq. ID - 5' end seq. - Length of 5' end seq. - 3' end seq. ID CHS1

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHS153 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS153 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16471-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS1...53Z 796 - - - - Show CHS153 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS153 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS153Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS153 (CHS153Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-C/CHS153Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXCAGAGAG... 1.00 48.0 %: nuclear 32.0 %: cytoplasmic 12.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: plasma membrane >> prediction for CHS1

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHS115 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS115 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16259-1 - (Link to Original site) CHS1...15F 492 - - - - - - Show CHS115 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS115 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS115Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS115 (CHS115Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-A/CHS115Q.Seq.d/ ATTATATTATAATTTCA...olgi 4.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall 4.0 %: plasma membrane 4.0 %: vesicles of secretory system >> prediction for CHS1

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHS195 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS195 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16423-1 - (Link to Original site) - - CHS19...5Z 671 - - - - Show CHS195 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS195 (Link to dicty...iol.tsukuba.ac.jp/CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS195Q.Seq.d/ Representative seq. ID - (Link to ...Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS195 (CHS195Q) /CSM/CH/CHS1-D/CHS195Q.Seq.d/ XXXXXXXXXXTTGAAAC....00 44.0 %: nuclear 28.0 %: cytoplasmic 20.0 %: cytoskeletal 4.0 %: mitochondrial 4.0 %: peroxisomal >> prediction for CHS19

  7. Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  8. Virtual Observatory Publishing with DaCHS

    CERN Document Server

    Demleitner, Markus; Rothmaier, Florian; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building Virtual Observatory (VO) and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  9. MHD stability of torsatrons using the average method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of torsatrons is studied using the average method, or stellarator expansion. Attention is focused upon the Advanced Toroidal Fusion Device (ATF), an l = 2, 12 field period, moderate aspect ratio configuration which, through a combination of shear and toroidally induced magnetic well, is stable to ideal modes. Using the vertical field (VF) coil system of ATF it is possible to enhance this stability by shaping the plasma to control the rotational transform. The VF coils are also useful tools for exploring the stability boundaries of ATF. By shifting the plasma inward along the major radius, the magnetic well can be removed, leading to three types of long wavelength instabilities: (1) A free boundary ''edge mode'' occurs when the rotational transform at the plasma edge is just less than unity. This mode is stabilized by the placement of a conducting wall at 1.5 times the plasma radius. (2) A free boundary global kink mode is observed at high β. When either β is lowered or a conducting wall is placed at the plasma boundary, the global mode is suppressed, and (3) an interchange mode is observed instead. For this interchange mode, calculations of the second, third, etc., most unstable modes are used to understand the nature of the degeneracy breaking induced by toroidal effects. Thus, the ATF configuration is well chosen for the study of torsatron stability limits

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHS203 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS203 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11332-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) - - CHS203Z 727 - - - - Show CHS203 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS203 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U11332-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...LSYDILSLLDS HLWLKKPLTISPQFLTMIGPELDPTLPNNPFKEFFNKLGTSSHDSGDNIDFKIPSFFEDN SRRHWGVETELSTGSCPICTLSLAENPESSFLGST...SYDILSLLDS HLWLKKPLTISPQFLTMIGPELDPTLPNNPFKEFFNKLGTSSHDSGDNIDFKIPSFFEDN SRRHWGVETELSTGSCPICTLSLAENPESSFLGSTP

  11. Runaway studies in the ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed torsatrons and heliotrons are susceptible to runaway electron formation and confinement resulting from the inherent good containment in the vacuum fields and the high loop voltages during the initiation and termination of the helical and vertical fields (''field ramping''). Because runaway electrons can cause an unacceptable level of hard X rays near the machine, a runaway suppression system was designed and included in the initial operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). The main component of the system is a rotating paddle that is normally left in the vacuum chamber during the field ramps. This device proved to be very effective in reducing the runaway population. Measurements of hard X rays from ATF have shown that the runaways are produced primarily during the field ramping but that usually a small steady-state runaway component is also present during the ''flat-top'' portion of the fields. The paddle is the main source of the hard X rays (thick-target bremsstrahlung), although other objects in the vacuum chamber also serve as targets for the runaways at various times. The maximum X-ray energy found by pulse height analysis is /approximately/12--15 MeV; the mean energy appears to be a few mega-electron-volts. A noticeable forward peaking of the bremsstrahlung from the paddle is evident. The limiters do not appear to be major sources of bremsstrahlung. 17 refs., 14 figs

  12. Studies on magnetic surface structures and basic magnetic field properties in 'Ultimate' configurations of the L=1, m=13 torsatron and the 'Vint-20' torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is concerned with numerical investigations of various magnetic configurations of a single-pole toroidal L=1, m=13 'ultimate' torsatron having a low aspect ratio Ah=4.345 and the modulation factors (-0.23) ≤ α ≤ 0.71 (K=1, β=0) of the helix law -mφ=Θ-αK SinΘ-βK sin2Θ. The extremums of the basic properties of closed magnetic surfaces as functions of the coefficient α in the neighborhood of α ∼ 0.4, as well as the structures of the edge magnetic field (substructures of virtual current) and the separatrix have been first determined for the L=1, m=13 'ultimate' torsatron and the 'Vint-20' torsatron. Unusual positions of the separatrix X-points in the cross sections for 1/4- and 3/4-magnetic field periods have been identified. The formula that takes into account the modulation factor α of the helix law was first derived to determine the average vertical magnetic field on the geometrical axis of the torus.

  13. On vacuum field properties of the URAGAN-2M Torsatron standard configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum field properties of the URAGAN-2M Torsatron are investigated. In the 'Standard Case', within a certain range of field parameters, the size of the observed magnetic islands at τ = 2/3 can be reduced considerably. Some characteristic quantities for stellarator vacuum fields are reported. (orig.)

  14. Stabilisation of ballooning modes in torsatrons with an externally applied toroidal current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1996-09-01

    It has been found that ideal ballooning modes can impose very restrictive volume average {beta} limits in torsatrons much below the typical values close to 5% that are required to be economically realisable as reactor systems and it has been shown that externally applied toroidal currents that are peaked can destabilise the Mercier criterion in this type of configuration. We will show here that if the applied currents are hollow, they can stabilise the ballooning modes without triggering Mercier instabilities and as a result raise the limiting {beta}* from 2% to 5%. (author) 3 figs., 10 refs.

  15. Ripple transport in helical-axis advanced stellarators - a comparison with classical stellarator/torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of the neoclassical transport rates due to particles trapped in the helical ripples of a stellarator's magnetic field are carried out, based on solutions of the bounce-averaged kinetic equation. These calculations employ a model for the magnetic field strength, B, which is an accurate approximation to the actual B for a wide variety of stellarator-type devices, among which are Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators (Helias) as well as conventional stellarators and torsatrons. Comparisons are carried out in which it is shown that the Helias concept leads to significant reductions in neoclassical transport rates throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime, with the reduction being particularly dramatic in the ν-1 regime. These findings are confirmed by numerical simulations. Further, it is shown that the behavior of deeply trapped particles in Helias can be fundamentally different from that in classical stellarator/torsatrons; as a consequence, the beneficial effects of a radial electric field on the transport make themselves felt at lower collision frequency than is usual. (orig.)

  16. Experimental studies of radio frequency waves and confinement in the Auburn Torsatron. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first year of operation of the Auburn Torsatron has resulted in the majority of the basic operating systems becoming operational or nearly operational. The diagnostic systems now include two microwave interferometers, a monochrometer, several probes and photodiodes. The plasma is produced by any of three sources: electron cyclotron heating with a cw power of 1 kW, low frequency rf heating with power soon to come up to 10 kW cw, and a pulsed washer-stack gun. The magnetic field studies have mapped the field surfaces and several corrections have been made to center the plasma. The ion-cyclotron source and antenna are nearly ready for experiments to begin

  17. Solve: a non linear least-squares code and its application to the optimal placement of torsatron vertical field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational method was developed which alleviates the need for lengthy parametric scans as part of a design process. The method makes use of a least squares algorithm to find the optimal value of a parameter vector. Optimal is defined in terms of a utility function prescribed by the user. The placement of the vertical field coils of a torsatron is such a non linear problem

  18. [Chitin Synthase 2 (CHS2) gene of Malassezia species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui

    2005-01-01

    Malassezia species have been recognized as members of the microbiological flora of human and animal skin; they are also considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of folliculitis, atopic dermatitis and otitis externa. Therefore, the molecular characteristics were investigated to clarify the epidemiology and the pathogenesis of diseases associated with Malassezia species in human and animals. Molecular investigation was made of 105 clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis from dogs and cats by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and chitin synthase 2 (CHS2) gene sequence analyses. The RAPD analysis and CHS2 gene analysis indicated that clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis were divided into four distinct genetic types (A, B, C and D). Type A was isolated from lesions of atopic dermatitis, flea allergic dermatitis, otitis externa, pyoderma and seborrheic (dermatitidis) in dogs and cats, and might be predominant on this. The phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences of CHS2 gene fragments of standard strains of 11 Malassezia species showed 11 distinct clusters of this species. PMID:16094288

  19. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation measured with coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Tgavalekos, Kristen T.; Fantini, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Coherent Hemodynamics Spectroscopy (CHS) is a novel technique for non-invasive measurements of local microcirculation quantities such as the capillary blood transit times and dynamic autoregulation. The basis of CHS is to measure, for instance with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), peripheral coherent hemodynamic changes that are induced by controlled perturbations in the systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP). In this study, the MAP perturbation was induced by the fast release of two pneumatic cuffs placed around the subject's thighs after they were kept inflated (at 200 mmHg) for two minutes. The resulting transient changes in cerebral oxy- (O) and deoxy- (D) hemoglobin concentrations measured with NIRS on the prefrontal cortex are then described by a novel hemodynamic model, from which quantifiable parameters such as the capillary blood transit time and a cutoff frequency for cerebral autoregulation are obtained. We present results on eleven healthy volunteers in a protocol involving measurements during normal breathing and during hyperventilation, which is known to cause a hypocapnia-induced increase in cerebral autoregulation. The measured capillary transit time was unaffected by hyperventilation (normal breathing: 1.1±0.1 s; hyperventilation: 1.1±0.1 s), whereas the cutoff frequency of autoregulation, which increases for higher autoregulation efficiency, was indeed found to be significantly greater during hyperventilation (normal breathing: 0.017±0.002 Hz; hyperventilation: 0.034±0.005 Hz). These results provide a validation of local cerebral autoregulation measurements with the new technique of CHS.

  20. Proto-CIRCUS Tilted-Coil Tokamak-Torsatron Hybrid: Design and Construction

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, A W; Hammond, K C; Kornbluth, Y; Spong, D A; Sweeney, R; Volpe, F A

    2014-01-01

    We present the field-line modeling, design and construction of a prototype circular-coil tokamak-torsatron hybrid called Proto-CIRCUS. The device has a major radius R = 16 cm and minor radius a < 5 cm. The six "toroidal field" coils are planar as in a tokamak, but they are tilted. This, combined with induced or driven plasma current, is expected to generate rotational transform, as seen in field-line tracing and equilibrium calculations. The device is expected to operate at lower plasma current than a tokamak of comparable size and magnetic field, which might have interesting implications for disruptions and steady-state operation. Additionally, the toroidal magnetic ripple is less pronounced than in an equivalent tokamak in which the coils are not tilted. The tilted coils are interlocked, resulting in a relatively low aspect ratio, and can be moved, both radially and in tilt angle, between discharges. This capability will be exploited for detailed comparisons between calculations and field-line mapping me...

  1. [MOLECULAR-GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF chs_H1 GENE IN UKRAINIAN HOP VARIETIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzer, A M; Volkova, N E; Sivolap, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism of chs_H1 gene encoding the "true" chalcone synthase was determined by alignment of sequences. The polymorphism associates with single nucleotide changes, insertions or deletions (indels) in the promoter, exons, intron, 3'-untranslated region. The molecular-genetic polymorphism in gene chs_H1 different regions of hop varieties of Polessye Agriculture Institute' breeding NAAS was analyzed. PMID:26638493

  2. A missense mutation in CHS1, a TIR-NB protein, induces chilling sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuancong; Zhang, Yao; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shuhua

    2013-08-01

    Low temperature is an environmental factor that affects plant growth and development and plant-pathogen interactions. How temperature regulates plant defense responses is not well understood. In this study, we characterized chilling-sensitive mutant 1 (chs1), and functionally analyzed the role of the CHS1 gene in plant responses to chilling stress. The chs1 mutant displayed a chilling-sensitive phenotype, and also displayed defense-associated phenotypes, including extensive cell death, the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid, and an increased expression of PR genes: these phenotypes indicated that the mutation in chs1 activates the defense responses under chilling stress. A map-based cloning analysis revealed that CHS1 encodes a TIR-NB-type protein. The chilling sensitivity of chs1 was fully rescued by pad4 and eds1, but not by ndr1. The overexpression of the TIR and NB domains can suppress the chs1-conferred phenotypes. Interestingly, the stability of the CHS1 protein was positively regulated by low temperatures independently of the 26S proteasome pathway. This study revealed the role of a TIR-NB-type gene in plant growth and cell death under chilling stress, and suggests that temperature modulates the stability of the TIR-NB protein in Arabidopsis.

  3. Edge plasma control using an LID configuration on CHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuzaki, S.; Komori, A.; Morisaki, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki (Japan)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    A Local Island Divertor (LID) has been proposed to enhance energy confinement through neutral particle control. For the case of the Large Helical Device (LHD), the separatrix of an m/n = 1/1 magnetic island, formed at the edge region, will be utilized as a divertor configuration. The divertor head is inserted in the island, and the island separatrix provides connection between the edge plasma region surrounding the core plasma and the back plate of the divertor head through the field lines. The particle flux and associated heat flux from the core plasma strike the back plate of the divertor head, and thus particle recycling is localized in this region. A pumping duct covers the divertor head to form a closed divertor system for efficient particle exhaust. The advantages of the LID are ease of hydrogen pumping because of the localized particle recycling and avoidance of the high heat load that would be localized on the leading edge of the divertor head. With efficient pumping, the neutral pressure in the edge plasma region will be reduced, and hence the edge plasma temperature will be higher, hopefully leading to a better core confinement region. A LID configuration experiment was done on the Compact Helical System (CHS) to confirm the effect of the LID. The typical effects of the LID configuration on the core plasma are reduction of the line averaged density to a half, and small or no reduction of the stored energy. In this contribution, the experimental results which were obtained in edge plasma control experiments with the LID configuration in the CHS are presented.

  4. IBR5 Modulates Temperature-Dependent, R Protein CHS3-Mediated Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyan Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to low temperature are tightly associated with defense responses. We previously characterized the chilling-sensitive mutant chs3-1 resulting from the activation of the Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR-type resistance (R protein harboring a C-terminal LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains domain. Here we report the identification of a suppressor of chs3, ibr5-7 (indole-3-butyric acid response 5, which largely suppresses chilling-activated defense responses. IBR5 encodes a putative dual-specificity protein phosphatase. The accumulation of CHS3 protein at chilling temperatures is inhibited by the IBR5 mutation. Moreover, chs3-conferred defense phenotypes were synergistically suppressed by mutations in HSP90 and IBR5. Further analysis showed that IBR5, with holdase activity, physically associates with CHS3, HSP90 and SGT1b (Suppressor of the G2 allele of skp1 to form a complex that protects CHS3. In addition to the positive role of IBR5 in regulating CHS3, IBR5 is also involved in defense responses mediated by R genes, including SNC1 (Suppressor of npr1-1, Constitutive 1, RPS4 (Resistance to P. syringae 4 and RPM1 (Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1. Thus, the results of the present study reveal a role for IBR5 in the regulation of multiple R protein-mediated defense responses.

  5. The chitin synthase genes chs-1 and chs-2 are essential for C. elegans development and responsible for chitin deposition in the eggshell and pharynx, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinhua; Foster, Jeremy M; Nelson, Laura S; Ma, Dong; Carlow, Clotilde K S

    2005-09-15

    It is widely accepted that chitin is present in nematodes. However, its precise role in embryogenesis is unclear and it is unknown if chitin is necessary in other nematode tissues. Here, we determined the roles of chitin and the two predicted chitin synthase genes in Caenorhabditis elegans by chitin localization and gene disruption. Using a novel probe, we detected chitin in the eggshell and discovered elaborate chitin localization patterns in the pharyngeal lumen walls. Chitin deposition in these two sites is likely regulated by the activities of chs-1 (T25G3.2) and chs-2 (F48A11.1), respectively. Reducing chs-1 gene activity by RNAi led to eggs that were fragile and permeable to small molecules, and in the most severe case, absence of embryonic cell division. Complete loss of function in a chs-1 deletion resulted in embryos that lacked chitin in their eggshells and failed to divide. These results showed that eggshell chitin provides both mechanical support and chemical impermeability essential to developing embryos. Knocking down chs-2 by RNAi caused a defect in the pharynx and led to L1 larval arrest, indicating that chitin is involved in the development and function of the pharynx.

  6. Characteristics of the three-half-turn-antenna-driven RF discharge in the Uragan-3M torsatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor’eva, L. I.; Chechkin, V. V., E-mail: chechkin@ipp.kharkov.ua; Moiseenko, V. E.; Grekov, D. L.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Lozin, A. V.; Tarasov, I. K.; Kulaga, A. Ye.; Zamanov, N. V.; Tretiak, K. K.; Kozulya, M. M.; Beletskii, A. A.; Kasilov, A. A.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Romanov, V. S.; Voitsenya, V. S. [National Science Center Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Institute of Plasma Physics (Ukraine)

    2015-12-15

    In the ℓ = 3 Uragan-3M torsatron hydrogen plasma is produced by RF fields in the Alfvén range of frequencies (ω ≤ ω{sub ci}). The initial (target) plasma with the line-averaged density of units 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is produced by a frame antenna with a broad spectrum of generated parallel wavenumbers. After this, to heat the plasma and bring its density to ∼10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}, another, shorter wavelength three-half-turn antenna with large transverse currents is used. The behavior of the density, electron temperature, and loss of the plasma supported by the three-half-turn antenna is studied depending on the RF power fed to the antenna and initial values of the density and electron temperature supplied by the frame antenna.

  7. Determination of 2-dimensional temperature and density profiles of a plasma in the Auburn torsatron via computer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early studies of the magnetic surfaces of the Auburn Torsatron indicated the presence of an X-point in the magnetic surfaces. Both theoretical calculations and experimental verification were performed in these studies. The plasma density distribution is believed to be determined by these magnetic surfaces. The 2-dimensional relative plasma density and electron temperature profiles over a cross-section of the plasma will verify that the X-point does have an influence on the distribution of the plasma. An electric double probe is used to measure the electron temperature and relative density at pre-defined points inside the plasma. The probe is on a moveable platform which is motor driven and positioned by a computer

  8. A Malus crabapple chalcone synthase gene, McCHS, regulates red petal color and flavonoid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiang Tai

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase is a key and often rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin pigments that accumulate in plant organs such as flowers and fruits, but the relationship between CHS expression and the petal coloration level in different cultivars is still unclear. In this study, three typical crabapple cultivars were chosen based on different petal colors and coloration patterns. The two extreme color cultivars, 'Royalty' and 'Flame', have dark red and white petals respectively, while the intermediate cultivar 'Radiant' has pink petals. We detected the flavoniods accumulation and the expression levels of McCHS during petals expansion process in different cultivars. The results showed McCHS have their special expression patterns in each tested cultivars, and is responsible for the red coloration and color variation in crabapple petals, especially for color fade process in 'Radiant'. Furthermore, tobacco plants constitutively expressing McCHS displayed a higher anthocyanins accumulation and a deeper red petal color compared with control untransformed lines. Moreover, the expression levels of several anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were higher in the transgenic McCHS overexpressing tobacco lines than in the control plants. A close relationship was observed between the expression of McCHS and the transcription factors McMYB4 and McMYB5 during petals development in different crabapple cultivars, suggesting that the expression of McCHS was regulated by these transcription factors. We conclude that the endogenous McCHS gene is a critical factor in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis during petal coloration in Malus crabapple.

  9. Autoimmunity conferred by chs3-2D relies on CSA1, its adjacent TNL-encoding neighbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Zhu, Chipan; Cevik, Volkan; Johnson, Kaeli; Liu, Yanan; Sohn, Kee; Jones, Jonathan D; Holub, Eric B; Li, Xin

    2015-03-05

    Plant innate immunity depends on the function of a large number of intracellular immune receptor proteins, the majority of which are structurally similar to mammalian nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) proteins. CHILLING SENSITIVE 3 (CHS3) encodes an atypical Toll/Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR)-type NLR protein with an additional Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 (LIM) domain at its C-terminus. The gain-of-function mutant allele chs3-2D exhibits severe dwarfism and constitutively activated defense responses, including enhanced resistance to virulent pathogens, high defence marker gene expression, and salicylic acid accumulation. To search for novel regulators involved in CHS3-mediated immune signaling, we conducted suppressor screens in the chs3-2D and chs3-2D pad4-1 genetic backgrounds. Alleles of sag101 and eds1-90 were isolated as complete suppressors of chs3-2D, and alleles of sgt1b were isolated as partial suppressors of chs3-2D pad4-1. These mutants suggest that SAG101, EDS1-90, and SGT1b are all positive regulators of CHS3-mediated defense signaling. Additionally, the TIR-type NLR-encoding CSA1 locus located genomically adjacent to CHS3 was found to be fully required for chs3-2D-mediated autoimmunity. CSA1 is located 3.9 kb upstream of CHS3 and is transcribed in the opposite direction. Altogether, these data illustrate the distinct genetic requirements for CHS3-mediated defense signaling.

  10. RNA interference silencing of CHS greatly alters the growth pattern of apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Andrew P; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-08-01

    Plants produce a vast array of phenolic compounds which are essential for their survival on land. One major class of polyphenols are the flavonoids and their formation is dependent on the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). In a recent study we silenced the CHS genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and observed a loss of pigmentation in the fruit skin, flowers and stems. More surprisingly, highly silenced lines were significantly reduced in size, with small leaves and shortened internode lengths. Chemical analysis also revealed that the transgenic shoots contained greatly reduced concentrations of flavonoids which are known to modulate auxin flow. An auxin transport study verified this, with an increased auxin transport in the CHS-silenced lines. Overall, these findings suggest that auxin transport in apple has adapted to take place in the presence of high endogenous concentrations of flavonoids. Removal of these compounds therefore results in abnormal auxin movement and a highly disrupted growth pattern.

  11. The Citizen Health System (CHS): a modular medical contact center providing quality telemedicine services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglaveras, Nicos; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Gogou, George; Lekka, Irini; Goulis, Dimitrios; Avramidis, Avram; Karvounis, Charalambos; Louridas, George; Balas, E Andrew

    2005-09-01

    In the context of the Citizen Health System (CHS) project, a modular Medical Contact Center (MCC) was developed, which can be used in the monitoring, treatment, and management of chronically ill patients at home, such as diabetic or congestive heart failure patients. The virtue of the CHS contact center is that, using any type of communication and telematics technology, it is able to provide timely and preventive prompting to the patients, thus, achieving better disease management. In this paper, we present the structure of the CHS system, describing the modules that enable its flexible and extensible architecture. It is shown, through specific examples, how quality of healthcare delivery can be increased by using such a system. PMID:16167689

  12. Design of multichord Hα detector arrays for the U-3M torsatron and identification of rotating plasma perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval, M. B.; Shapoval, A. M.; Ozherelyev, F. I.; Makhov, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    An Hα camera has been designed and installed in the U-3M torsatron for spatially and temporally resolved measurements. This device provides fast measurements of the emission brightness profile in the noisy environment of the radio frequency (RF) heated plasma. Unusual topology of diagnostics and the data acquisition system are applied. All the system components, including digitizers, are assembled in a single unit. It allows the suppression of a low-frequency electromagnetic interference by eliminating the ground loops. And the suppression of RF noises is achieved by eliminating the signal interface cables and digital interface cables in the design. The Wi-Fi interface is used to prevent a ground loop in the data transfer stage. The achieved sensitivity of our diagnostics is high enough for measuring the Hα emission from the low-density (ne ≈ (1-2)ṡ1010 cm-3) plasma with a temporal resolution of about 20 μs in the noisy environment. Different types of Hα emission fluctuations within the frequency range of 1-5 kHz and poloidal mode numbers m = 0 and m = 5 have been observed in U-3M. A simple technique of the line-of-sight data analysis, based on the U-3M magnetic surface asymmetry, is proposed and used for the spatial localization of the rotating mode and for the determination of mode numbers and its poloidal rotation direction using a single Hα array.

  13. Testing of a pulsed He supersonic beam for plasma edge diagnostic in the TJ-IU torsatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarés, F. L.; Tafalla, D.; Herrero, V.; Tanarro, I.

    1997-02-01

    A new, compact atomic beam source based on the supersonic expansion of He has been developed for application as a plasma edge diagnostic. The beam is produced from a pulsed valve with a duration between 0.2 to 2 ms and a nominal repetition rate 10 and a divergence of ± 1° have been achieved at stagnation pressures below 2 bar. The diagnostic has been tested in ECRH plasmas on the TJ-IU torsatron, representing the first application of a supersonic beam to plasma characterization, to our knowledge. Operational conditions which minimized the total amount of He injected into the plasma were chosen. Non-perturbative injection conditions in the low density plasmas could be obtained at local He densities of ⋍ 1 × 10 11 cm -3 and a beam diameter < 1 cm. Due to the relatively low electron density of the ECRH plasmas, and to the good penetration characteristics of the supersonic He beam, the diagnostic could be used up to fairly low values of the normalized plasma minor radius, {r}/{a} (a = 12 cm) . Details of the optimization of the atomic beam diagnostics and typical results for steady state conditions in the TJ-IU plasmas are presented.

  14. Testing of a pulsed He supersonic beam for plasma edge diagnostic in the TJ-IU torsatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares, F.L. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Tafalla, D. [Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Herrero, V. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Tanarro, I. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    A new, compact atomic beam source based on the supersonic expansion of He has been developed for application as a plasma edge diagnostic. The beam is produced from a pulsed valve with a duration between 0.2 to 2 ms and a nominal repetition rate <500 Hz. A terminal speed ratio >10 and a divergence of {+-}1 have been achieved at stagnation pressures below 2 bar. The diagnostic has been tested in ECRH plasmas on the TJ-IU torsatron, representing the first application of a supersonic beam to plasma characterization, to our knowledge. Operational conditions which minimized the total amount of He injected into the plasma were chosen. Non-perturbative injection conditions in the low density plasmas could be obtained at local He densities of {approx_equal}1 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and a beam diameter <1 cm. Due to the relatively low electron density of the ECRH plasmas, and to the good penetration characteristics of the supersonic He beam, the diagnostic could be used up to fairly low values of the normalized plasma minor radius, r/a (a=12 cm). Details of the optimization of the atomic beam diagnostics and typical results for steady state conditions in the TJ-IU plasmas are presented. (orig.).

  15. 黄皮 CHS 基因的克隆及其表达%Clone and Expression of CHS Gene in Wampee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 许真; 赵志常; 高爱平; 陈业渊; 黄建峰; 党志国; 罗睿雄

    2014-01-01

    为研究黄皮果实中查尔酮合成酶(CHS)的功能,以黄皮果实的 cDNA 和 DNA 为模板,采用同源克隆的方法克隆得 CHS 基因后进行序列比对和聚类分析。结果表明:该基因的开放阅读框为1032 bp,编码343个氨基酸。基因组扩增得到了1100 bp 的片段,不含内含子。该基因主要在果实中表达,而叶片中表达较其他组织低,初步推断该基因可能与果实和花朵中的黄酮类物质合成有密切的关系。该基因编码的蛋白与柑桔的 CHS 蛋白序列亲缘关系较近,可与柑桔、葡萄、芍药、牡丹、荔枝、龙眼等聚为一类。%In order to study the function of CHS gene,a CHS gene was cloned from wampee fruit by homology cloning method taking cDNA and DNA of wampee fruit as the template, then sequence comparison and clustering analysis was conducted.Results:The open reading frame was 1032 bp,and encoding 343 amino acids.The 1100bp fragment was amplified from the genome,the gene did not contain introns.The expression of CHS gene was mainly in fruit,and in flowers was higher than in leaves.It was inferred that the gene may be involved in the flavonoids synthesis of fruit and flowers.The cluster analysis showed that the gene encoding protein had near relationship with citrus,considered as a group with orange,grape,peony,litchi,longan,and other groups.

  16. 黄皮 CHS 基因的克隆及其表达%Clone and Expression of CHS Gene in Wampee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 许真; 赵志常; 高爱平; 陈业渊; 黄建峰; 党志国; 罗睿雄

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the function of CHS gene,a CHS gene was cloned from wampee fruit by homology cloning method taking cDNA and DNA of wampee fruit as the template, then sequence comparison and clustering analysis was conducted.Results:The open reading frame was 1032 bp,and encoding 343 amino acids.The 1100bp fragment was amplified from the genome,the gene did not contain introns.The expression of CHS gene was mainly in fruit,and in flowers was higher than in leaves.It was inferred that the gene may be involved in the flavonoids synthesis of fruit and flowers.The cluster analysis showed that the gene encoding protein had near relationship with citrus,considered as a group with orange,grape,peony,litchi,longan,and other groups.%为研究黄皮果实中查尔酮合成酶(CHS)的功能,以黄皮果实的 cDNA 和 DNA 为模板,采用同源克隆的方法克隆得 CHS 基因后进行序列比对和聚类分析。结果表明:该基因的开放阅读框为1032 bp,编码343个氨基酸。基因组扩增得到了1100 bp 的片段,不含内含子。该基因主要在果实中表达,而叶片中表达较其他组织低,初步推断该基因可能与果实和花朵中的黄酮类物质合成有密切的关系。该基因编码的蛋白与柑桔的 CHS 蛋白序列亲缘关系较近,可与柑桔、葡萄、芍药、牡丹、荔枝、龙眼等聚为一类。

  17. Behaviour of the radiation of the suprathermal electrons at the Uragan-3M torsatron after rf heating off from ECE measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microwave radiometry is a well-known diagnostics to obtain the information on temporal evolution and radial profile of the electron temperature at U-3M torsatron plasma experiments. However, under low plasma density with this diagnostics we report on the large production of runaway electrons after RF heating pulse off. We notice a gradually increasing of the radiometer signal at the frequencies that match the second and third harmonics of electron cyclotron emission of the extraordinary mode. This effect could be explained with the existence of the ''runaway'' electrons in U-3M discharge. A phenomenological description of this process is presented, where the time evolution of the ECE radiation signal is compared to the electron density evolution

  18. A TIR-NBS protein encoded by Arabidopsis Chilling Sensitive 1 (CHS1) limits chloroplast damage and cell death at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbierzak, Anna Maria; Porfirova, Svetlana; Griebel, Thomas; Melzer, Michael; Parker, Jane E; Dörmann, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Survival of plants at low temperature depends on mechanisms for limiting physiological damage and maintaining growth. We mapped the chs1-1 (chilling sensitive1-1) mutation in Arabidopsis accession Columbia to the TIR-NBS gene At1g17610. In chs1-1, a single amino acid exchange at the CHS1 N-terminus close to the conserved TIR domain creates a stable mutant protein that fails to protect leaves against chilling stress. The sequence of another TIR-NBS gene (At5g40090) named CHL1 (CHS1-like 1) is related to that of CHS1. Over-expression of CHS1 or CHL1 alleviates chilling damage and enhances plant growth at moderate (24°C) and chilling (13°C) temperatures, suggesting a role for both proteins in growth homeostasis. chs1-1 mutants show induced salicylic acid production and defense gene expression at 13°C, indicative of autoimmunity. Genetic analysis of chs1-1 in combination with defense pathway mutants shows that chs1-1 chilling sensitivity requires the TIR-NBS-LRR and basal resistance regulators encoded by EDS1 and PAD4 but not salicylic acid. By following the timing of metabolic, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural changes in chs1-1 leaves during chilling, we have established that alterations in photosynthetic complexes and thylakoid membrane integrity precede leaf cell death measured by ion leakage. At 24°C, the chs1-1 mutant appears normal but produces a massive necrotic response to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato infection, although this does not affect bacterial proliferation. Our results suggest that CHS1 acts at an intersection between temperature sensing and biotic stress pathway activation to maintain plant performance over a range of conditions.

  19. Swelling and microstructure of austenitic stainless steel ChS-68 CW after high dose neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porollo, S.I.; Konobeev, Yu.V. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Garner, F.A., E-mail: frank.garner@dslextreme.co [Radiation Effects Consulting, 2003 Howell Avenue, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Austenitic stainless steel ChS-68 serving as fuel pin cladding was irradiated in the 20% cold-worked condition in the BN-600 fast reactor in the range 56-84 dpa. This steel was developed to replace EI-847 which was limited by its insufficient resistance to void swelling. Comparison of swelling between EI-847 and ChS-68 under similar irradiation conditions showed improvement of the latter steel by an extended transient regime of an additional approx10 dpa. Concurrent with swelling was the development of a variety of phases. In the temperature range 430-460 deg. S where the temperature peak of swelling was located, the principal type of phase generated during irradiation was G-phase, with volume fraction increasing linearly with dose to approx0.5% at 84 dpa. While the onset of swelling is concurrent with formation of G-phase, the action of G-phase cannot be confidently ascribed to significant removal from solution of swelling-suppressive elements such as silicon. A plausible mechanism for the higher resistance to void swelling of ChS-68 as compared with EI-847 may be related to an observed higher stability of faulted dislocation loops in ChS-68 that impedes the formation of a glissile dislocation network. The higher level of boron in ChS-68 is thought to be one contributor that might play this role.

  20. Molecular evolution of the exon 2 of CHS genes and the possibility of its application to plant phylogenetic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The exon 2 of chalcone synthase (CHS) gene is relatively conserved during evolution.In this study,three exon 2 fragments from two species in gymnosperm (Cycas panzhihuaensis,Ginkgo biloba) and seven from four species in angiosperm (Magnolia denudata,Salix babylonica,Nymphaea tetragona,Camellia japonica) have been amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and sequenced.Together with other 73 sequences of CHS collected from EMBL database and literature,these sequences,which embrace 19 families of gymnosperm and angiosperm,have been analyzed for their phylogenetic relations by parsimony method.The result indicated that sequences from the same systematic family usually grouped together except those from Theaceae,Magnoliaceae and Nymphaeaceae.The relative rate test revealed the rate heterogeneity of CHS genes among the families.For the nucleotide substitution the sequences from Asteraceae and Solanaceae evolve faster than those from the other families analyzed while the sequences from Poaceae,Asteraceae and Solanaceae evolve faster for the nonsynonymous substitution.These results suggest that the duplication and extinction events of CHS genes are different among systematic families,therefore it seems impractical to look for orthologous sequences from CHS genes to study plant phylogeny at the family level and/or above.However,it is possible to do so below the family level.

  1. Changes of the electron density distribution during MHD activity in CHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltwish, H. [Ruhr-University Bochum, Institute for Experimental Physics, Bochum (Germany); Tanaka, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Density oscillations induced by MHD activities were observed in NBI heated plasmas on CHS by using an HCN laser interferometer. The accompanied changes of the density profiles were also observed. The oscillations are composition of m=0 sawteeth like crash and m=2 sinusoidal oscillations as a post courser of the crash. Possible models of the oscillation structure are examined in order to explain experimental data of the interferometer. Rotating plasma core, which is hollow profile and keeps constant elongation of the flux surface can explain amplitude and phase distribution of the sinusoidal oscillation. (author)

  2. 90Y-DOTA-CHS Microspheres for Live Radiomicrosphere Therapy: Preliminary In Vivo Lung Radiochemical Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amor-Coarasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CHS is used to prepare microspheres of 31 ± 8 µm size. Surface modification with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was performed. A maximum 90Y capacity was found to be 12.1 ± 4.4 µCi/particle. The best obtained labeling yield was 87.7 ± 0.6%. More than 90% in vitro stability was found. Particle in vitro degradation half-life in PBS was found to be greater than 21 days. In vivo studies with 90Y-DOTA-CHS showed more than 95% of the injected activity (decay corrected in the lungs 24 hours after tail vein administration. 90Y-DOTA-CHS in vivo label stability was superior to resin microspheres. The addition of p-SCN-Bn-DOTA served as a radioprotectant for bone marrow as the 5% 90Y released, during the first 24 hours, was quickly eliminated via urine.

  3. CHS silencing suggests a negative cross-talk between wax and flavonoid pathways in tomato fruit cuticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Antonio; Heredia-Guerrero, José Alejandro; Domínguez, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum L.) accumulate flavonoids in their cuticle and epidermal cells during ripening. These flavonoids come from de novo biosynthesis due to a significant increase in chalcone synthase (CHS) activity during ripening. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of tomato fruits have been used to down-regulate SlCHS expression during ripening and analyze the effects at the epidermal and cuticle level. Besides the expected change in fruit color due to a lack of flavonoids incorporated to the cuticle, several other modifications such as a decrease in the amount of cutin and polysaccharides were observed. These indicate a role for either flavonoids or CHS in the alteration of the expression levels of some genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis. Moreover, a negative interaction between the 2 cuticle components, flavonoids and waxes, suggests a relationship between these 2 metabolic pathways.

  4. 90Y-DOTA-CHS Microspheres for Live Radio microsphere Therapy: Preliminary In Vivo Lung Radiochemical Stability Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan (CHS) is used to prepare microspheres of 31 ± 8 µm size. Surface modification with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was performed. A maximum 90Y capacity was found to be 12.1 ± 4.4 µCi/particle. The best obtained labeling yield was 87.7 ± 0.6%. More than 90% in vitro stability was found. Particle in vitro degradation half-life in PBS was found to be greater than 21 days. In vivo studies with 90Y-DOTA-CHS showed more than 95% of the injected activity (decay corrected) in the lungs 24 hours after tail vein administration. 90Y-DOTA-CHS in vivo label stability was superior to resin microspheres. The addition of p-SCN-Bn-DOTA served as a radioprotectant for bone marrow as the 5% 90Y released, during the first 24 hours, was quickly eliminated via urine.

  5. Parametric analysis and design equation of ultimate capacity for unstiffened overlapped CHS K-joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A finite element model simulating an experiment on unstiffened,overlapped circular hollow structure (CHS)K-joints was generated and validated by comparing the ultimate capacities,deformation processes and failure modes of the experimental results.Using this model,the stress distribution,propagation of plasticity and the failure modes of overlapped joints with through-brace-in-compression and welded hidden seams were analyzed.The effect of geometric parameters,with or without hidden welds,and the loading hierarchy reversal of braces on the ultimate capacity of the joints were also studied.The results of finite element parametric analysis indicate that the brace-tochord thickness ratio has relatively large effects on the failure mechanism and ultimate capacity of overlapped joints.It was also found that the absence of hidden welds has less significance on the ultimate capacity of through-brace-incompression joints than through-brace-in tension joints.Finally,based on the design equation of gap joints,a formula predicting the ultimate capacity of overlapped CHS K-joints was derived by applying multivariate regression analysis.Results from the proposed design equation are consistent with experimental results.

  6. Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.

  7. 90Y-DOTA-CHS Microspheres for Live Radiomicrosphere Therapy: Preliminary In Vivo Lung Radiochemical Stability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Amor-Coarasa; Andrew Milera; Denny Carvajal; Seza Gulec; McGoron, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan (CHS) is used to prepare microspheres of 31 ± 8 µm size. Surface modification with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was performed. A maximum 90Y capacity was found to be 12.1 ± 4.4 µCi/particle. The best obtained labeling yield was 87.7 ± 0.6%. More than 90% in vitro stability was found. Particle in vitro degradation half-life in PBS was found to be greater than 21 days. In vivo studies with 90Y-DOTA-CHS showed more than 95% of the injected activity (decay corrected) in the lungs 24 hours after tail ve...

  8. Structure-activity relationship analysis of cytotoxic cyanoguanidines: selection of CHS 828 as candidate drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullbo Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-(6-(4-chlorophenoxyhexyl-N'-cyano-N''-4-pyridyl guanidine (CHS 828 is the first candidate drug from a novel group of anti-tumour agents – the pyridyl cyanoguanidines, shown to be potent compounds interfering with cellular metabolism (inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase and NF-κB signalling. Substituted cyanoguanidines are also found in anti-hypertensive agents such as the potassium channel opener pinacidil (N-cyano-N'-(4-pyridyl-N''-(1,2,2-trimethylpropylguanidine and histamine-II receptor antagonists (e.g. cimetidine, N-cyano-N'-methyl-N''-[2-[[(5-methylimidazol-4-yl]methyl]thio]ethylguanidine. In animal studies, CHS 828 has shown very promising activity, and phase I and II studies resulted in further development of a with a water soluble prodrug. Findings To study the structural requirements for cyanoguanidine cytotoxicity a set of 19 analogues were synthesized. The cytotoxic effects were then studied in ten cell lines selected for different origins and mechanisms of resistance, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA. The compounds showed varying cytotoxic activity even though the dose-response curves for some analogues were very shallow. Pinacidil and cimetidine were found to be non-toxic in all ten cell lines. Starting with cyanoguanidine as the crucial core it was shown that 4-pyridyl substitution was more efficient than was 3-pyridyl substitution. The 4-pyridyl cyanoguanidine moiety should be linked by an alkyl chain, optimally a hexyl, heptyl or octyl chain, to a bulky end group. The exact composition of this end group did not seem to be of crucial importance; when the end group was a mono-substituted phenyl ring it was shown that the preferred position was 4-substitution, followed by 3- and, finally, 2-substitution as the least active. Whether the substituent was a chloro, nitro or methoxy substituent seemed to be of minor importance. Finally, the activity patterns in the

  9. The spectral type of CHS7797 - an intriguing very low mass periodic variable in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, M V; Pintado, O; Boudreault, S; Hessman, F; Herbst, W

    2013-01-01

    We present the spectroscopic characterization of the unusual high-amplitude very low mass pre-main-sequence periodic variable CHS7797. This study is based on optical medium-resolution (R=2200) spectroscopy in the 6450-8600 A range, carried out with GMOS-GEMINI-S in March 2011. Observations of CHS7797 have been carried out at two distinct phases of the 17.8d period, namely at maximum and four days before maximum. Four different spectral indices were used for the spectral classification at these two phases, all of them well-suited for spectral classification of young and obscured late M dwarfs. In addition, the gravity-sensitive NaI (8183/8195 A) and KI (7665/7699 A) doublet lines were used to confirm the young age of CHS7797. From the spectrum obtained at maximum light we derived a spectral type (SpT) of M6.05, while for the spectrum taken four days before maximum the derived SpT is M5.75. The derived SpTs confirm that CHS7797 has a mass in the stellar-substellar boundary mass range. In addition, the small dif...

  10. The Interaction between Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Coronal Holes (CHs) during the Solar Cycle 23 and its Geomagnetic Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amaal; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-07-01

    The interactions between the two large scale phenomena, coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) maybe considered as one of the most important relations that having a direct impact not only on space weather but also on the relevant plasma physics. Many observations have shown that throughout their propagation from the Sun to interplanetary space, CMEs interact with the heliospheric structures (e.g., other CMEs, Corotating interaction regions (CIRs), helmet streamers, and CHs). Such interactions could enhance the southward magnetic field component, which has important implications for geomagnetic storm generation. These interactions imply also a significant energy and momentum transfer between the interacting systems where magnetic reconnection is taking place. When CHs deflect CMEs away from or towards the Sun-Earth line, the geomagnetic response of the CME is highly affected. Gopalswamy et al. [2009] have addressed the deflection of CMEs due to the existence of CHs that are in close proximity to the eruption regions. They have shown that CHs can act as magnetic barriers that constrain CMEs propagation and can significantly affect their trajectories. Here, we study the interaction between coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using a resultant force exerted by all coronal holes present on the disk and is defined as the coronal hole influence parameter (CHIP). The CHIP magnitude for each CH depends on the CH area, the distance between the CH centroid and the eruption region, and the average magnetic field within the CH at the photospheric level. The CHIP direction for each CH points from the CH centroid to the eruption region. We focus on Solar Cycle 23 CMEs originating from the disk center of the Sun (central meridian distance data sets of observations of CMEs and their interplanetary counterparts; known as interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). There are 2 subsets of ICMEs: magnetic cloud (MC) and non-magnetic cloud (non-MC) ICMEs. MCs are

  11. The impact of cHS4 insulators on DNA transposon vector mobilization and silencing in retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynne Sharma

    Full Text Available DNA transposons have become important vectors for efficient non-viral integration of transgenes into genomic DNA. The Sleeping Beauty (SB, piggyBac (PB, and Tol2 transposable elements have distinct biological properties and currently represent the most promising transposon systems for animal transgenesis and gene therapy. A potential obstacle, however, for persistent function of integrating vectors is transcriptional repression of the element and its genetic cargo. In this study we analyze the insulating effect of the 1.2-kb 5'-HS4 chicken β-globin (cHS4 insulator element in the context of SB, PB, and Tol2 transposon vectors. By examining transgene expression from genomically inserted transposon vectors encoding a marker gene driven by a silencing-prone promoter, we detect variable levels of transcriptional silencing for the three transposon systems in retinal pigment epithelium cells. Notably, the PB system seems less vulnerable to silencing. Incorporation of cHS4 insulator sequences into the transposon vectors results in 2.2-fold and 1.5-fold increased transgene expression levels for insulated SB and PB vectors, respectively, but an improved persistency of expression was not obtained for insulated transgenes. Colony formation assays and quantitative excision assays unveil enhanced SB transposition efficiencies by the inclusion of the cHS4 element, resulting in a significant increase in the stable transfection rate for insulated SB transposon vectors in human cell lines. Our findings reveal a positive impact of cHS4 insulator inclusion for SB and PB vectors in terms of increased transgene expression levels and improved SB stable transfection rates, but also the lack of a long-term protective effect of the cHS4 insulator against progressive transgene silencing in retinal pigment epithelium cells.

  12. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) Gene Suppression in Flax Leads to Changes in Wall Synthesis and Sensing Genes, Cell Wall Chemistry and Stem Morphology Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Magdalena; Działo, Magdalena; Richter, Dorota; Dymińska, Lucyna; Matuła, Jan; Kotecki, Andrzej; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. In flax, CHS down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but plant growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing. This was accompanied by increased levels of cellulose and hemicellulose. CHS-reduced flax also showed significant changes in morphology and arrangement of the cell wall. The stem tissue layers were enlarged averagely twofold compared to the control, and the number of fiber cells more than doubled. The stem morphology changes were accompanied by reduction of the crystallinity index of the cell wall. CHS silencing induces a signal transduction cascade that leads to modification of plant metabolism in a wide range and thus cell wall structure. PMID:27446124

  13. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) Gene Suppression in Flax Leads to Changes in Wall Synthesis and Sensing Genes, Cell Wall Chemistry and Stem Morphology Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Magdalena; Działo, Magdalena; Richter, Dorota; Dymińska, Lucyna; Matuła, Jan; Kotecki, Andrzej; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. In flax, CHS down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but plant growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing. This was accompanied by increased levels of cellulose and hemicellulose. CHS-reduced flax also showed significant changes in morphology and arrangement of the cell wall. The stem tissue layers were enlarged averagely twofold compared to the control, and the number of fiber cells more than doubled. The stem morphology changes were accompanied by reduction of the crystallinity index of the cell wall. CHS silencing induces a signal transduction cascade that leads to modification of plant metabolism in a wide range and thus cell wall structure. PMID:27446124

  14. A new member of the chalcone synthase (CHS family in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contessotto Miriam G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequences from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database were analyzed based on their identities to genes encoding chalcone-synthase-like enzymes. The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor chalcone-synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74 protein sequence (gi|12229613 was used to search the SUCEST database for clusters of sequencing reads that were most similar to chalcone synthase. We found 121 reads with homology to sorghum chalcone synthase, which we were then able to sort into 14 clusters which themselves were divided into two groups (group 1 and group 2 based on the similarity of their deduced amino acid sequences. Clusters in group 1 were more similar to the sorghum enzyme than those in group 2, having the consensus sequence of the active site of chalcone and stilbene synthase. Analysis of gene expression (based on the number of reads from a specific library present in each group indicated that most of the group 1 reads were from sugarcane flower and root libraries. Group 2 clusters were more similar to the amino acid sequence of an uncharacterized pathogen-induced protein (PI1, gi|9855801 from the S. bicolor expressed sequence tag (EST database. The group 2 clusters sequences and PI1 proteins are 90% identical, having two amino acid changes at the chalcone and stilbene synthase consensi but conserving the cysteine residue at the active site. The PI1 EST has not been previously associated with chalcone synthase and has a different consensus sequence from the previously described chalcone synthase of sorghum. Most of the group 2 reads were from libraries prepared from sugarcane roots and plants infected with Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans and Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans. Our results indicate that we have identified a sugarcane chalcone synthase similar to the pathogen-induced PI1 protein found in the sorghum cDNA libraries, and it appears that both proteins represent new members of the chalcone and stilbene synthase super-family.

  15. CHS Application In Automotive wiring Harness Design%Capital Harness XC线束设计软件的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春芝

    2015-01-01

    Capital Harness XC是Captial Harness System (CHS)软件中一个设计模块,本文介绍了Capital Harness XC线束设计模块的应用,及以Capital Harness XC在设计流程中的作用和使用过程中应注意的事项,使读者能够理解Capital Harness XC在汽车设计中的操作应用方法.同时指出其在设计过程中的优点及在实际汽车领域中的意义.

  16. The myosin motor domain-containing chitin synthase PdChsVII is required for development, cell wall integrity and virulence in the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandía, Mónica; Harries, Eleonora; Marcos, Jose F

    2014-06-01

    Chitin is an essential component of the fungal cell wall and a potential target in the development of new antifungal compounds, due to its presence in fungi and not in plants or vertebrates. Chitin synthase genes (chs) constitute a complex family in filamentous fungi and are involved in fungal development, morphogenesis, pathogenesis and virulence. In this study, additional chs genes in the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum have been identified. Comparative analyses included each PdChs in each one of the classes I to VII previously established, and support the grouping of these into three divisions. Disruption of the gene coding PdChsVII, which contains a short version of a myosin motor domain, has been achieved by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and revealed its role in the life cycle of the fungus. Disruption strains were viable but showed reduced growth and conidia production. Moreover, Pdchs mutants developed morphological defects as balloon-like enlarged cells and increased chitin content, indicative of an altered cell wall structure. Gene disruption also increased susceptibility to antifungal compounds such as calcofluor white (CFW), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), hydroxide peroxide (H2O2) and commercial fungicides, but significantly no change was observed in the sensitivity to antifungal peptides. The PdchsVII mutants were able to infect citrus fruit and produced tissue maceration, although had reduced virulence and most importantly were greatly impaired in the production of visible mycelium and conidia on the fruit.

  17. Co-suppression in transgenic Petunia hybrida expressing chalcone synthase A (chsA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yan; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Napoli, C., Lemieux, C., Jorgensen, R., Introduction of a chimeric chalone synthase gene into petunia results in reversible cosuppession of homologous genes in trans, The Plant Cell, 1990, 2: 279-289.[2]Van der Krol, A.R., Mur, L.A., Beld, M. M. et al., Flavonnoid genes in petunia: addition of a limited number of gene copies may lead to a suppression of gene expression, The Plant Cell, 1990, 2: 291-299.[3]Manika, P.B., Bhadra, U., Birchler, J., Cosuppression in Drosophila: gene silencing of Alcohol dehydrogenase by White-Adh transgene is Polycomb dependent, Cell, 1997, 90: 479-498.[4]de Carvalho Niebel, F., Frendo, P., Van Montagu, M. et al., Post-transcriptional cosuppression of ?-1,3-glucanase transgene expression in homozygous plants, EMBO J., 1992, 11: 2595-2602.[5]Van Blokland, R., Van der Geest, N., Mol, J. N. M. et al., Transgene-mediated suppression of chalcone synthase expression in Petunia hybrida results from an increase in RNA turnover, The Plant Cell, 1994, 6: 861-877.[6]Stam, M., Mol, J. N. M., Kooter, J. M., The silence of genes in transgenic plants, Annals of Bot., 1997, 79: 3-12.[7]Vaucheret, H., Beclin, C., Elmayan, T. et al., Transgene-induced gene silencing in plants, Plant J., 1998, 16(6): 651-659.[8]Shao, L., Li, Y., Yang, M. Z. et al., Transformation of Petunia hybrida with chalcone synthase A (chsA) resulting flower colour alteration and male sterility, Acta Botanica Sinica (in Chinese), 1996, 38(7): 517-524.[9]Koes, R. E., Spelt, C. E., Mol, J. N. M., The chalcone synthase multigene family of Petunia hybrida (V30): differential, light-regulated expression during flower development and UV light induction, Plant Mol. Biol., 1989, 12: 213-225.[10]Drews, G. N., Beals, T. P., Bul, A. Q. et al., Regional and cell-specific expression patterns during petal development, The Plant Cell, 1992, 4: 1383-1404.[11]Martin, C., Gerats, T., Control of pigment biosynthesis genes during petal development, The

  18. The unique functional role of the C-HS hydrogen bond in the substrate specificity and enzyme catalysis of type 1 methionine aminopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Ravikumar; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Pal, Debnath; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2016-07-19

    It is intriguing how nature attains recognition specificity between molecular interfaces where there is no apparent scope for classical hydrogen bonding or polar interactions. Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) is one such enzyme where this fascinating conundrum is at play. In this study, we demonstrate that a unique C-HS hydrogen bond exists between the enzyme methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) and its N-terminal-methionine polypeptide substrate, which allows specific interaction between apparent apolar interfaces, imposing a strict substrate recognition specificity and efficient catalysis, a feature replicated in Type I MetAPs across all kingdoms of life. We evidence this evolutionarily conserved C-HS hydrogen bond through enzyme assays on wild-type and mutant MetAP proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that show a drastic difference in catalytic efficiency. The X-ray crystallographic structure of the methionine bound protein revealed a conserved water bridge and short contacts involving the Met side-chain, a feature also observed in MetAPs from other organisms. Thermal shift assays showed a remarkable 3.3 °C increase in melting temperature for methionine bound protein compared to its norleucine homolog, where C-HS interaction is absent. The presence of C-HS hydrogen bonding was also corroborated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy through a change in chemical shift. Computational chemistry studies revealed the unique role of the electrostatic environment in facilitating the C-HS interaction. The significance of this atypical hydrogen bond is underscored by the fact that the function of MetAP is essential for any living cell. PMID:27225936

  19. Torsatron equilibrium and stability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium and stability results are presented for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) device. The results of three-dimensional equilibrium calculations and free boundary average method calculations are shown to be in good agreement with previous fixed boundary average method results. These favorable comparisons serve as a valuable validation of the simple and computationally efficient fixed boundary average method. Stability calculations for the free boundary average method equilibria are also in good agreement with fixed boundary calculations, showing instability only when the plasma is shifted inward with an applied vertical field

  20. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Younghoon; Norby, Faye L; Jensen, Paul N; Agarwal, Sunil K; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Lip, Gregory Y H; Longstreth, W T; Alonso, Alvaro; Heckbert, Susan R; Chen, Lin Y

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV) death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI]), and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4) and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1) participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26)] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61)]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years), but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years) adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  1. Association of Smoking, Alcohol, and Obesity with Cardiovascular Death and Ischemic Stroke in Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghoon Kwon

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke and cardiovascular (CV death. Whether modifiable lifestyle risk factors are associated with these CV outcomes in AF is unknown. Among Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS participants with incident AF, we estimated the risk of composite endpoint of ischemic stroke or CV death associated with candidate modifiable risk factor (smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, or high body mass index [BMI], and computed the C-statistic, net reclassification improvement (NRI, and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI of incorporating each factor into the CHA2DS2-VASc. Among 1222 ARIC (mean age: 63.4 and 756 CHS (mean age: 79.1 participants with incident AF, during mean follow-up of 6.9 years and 5.7 years, there were 332 and 335 composite events respectively. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a higher incidence of the composite endpoint in ARIC [HR: 1.65 (1.21-2.26] but not in CHS [HR: 1.05 (0.69-1.61]. In ARIC, the addition of current smoking did not improve risk prediction over and above the CHA2DS2-VASc. No significant associations were observed with alcohol consumption or BMI with CVD outcomes in AF patients from either cohort. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke or CV death in ARIC, which comprised mostly middle-aged to young-old (65-74 years, but not in CHS, which comprised mostly middle-old or oldest-old (≥75 years adults with AF. However, addition of smoking to the CHA2DS2-VASc score did not improve risk prediction of these outcomes.

  2. A grander challenge: the case of how Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS contributes to health outcomes in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groves Sara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background “Grand challenges” in global health have focused on discovery and development of technologies to save lives. The “grander challenge” involves building institutions, systems, capacity and demand to effectively deliver strategies to improve health. In 2008, Makerere University began a radical institutional change to bring together four schools under one College of Health Sciences. This paper’s objective is to demonstrate how its leadership in training, research, and services can improve health in Uganda and internationally, which lies at the core of the College’s vision. Methods A comprehensive needs assessment involved five task forces that identified MakCHS’s contribution to the Ugandan government health priorities. Data were collected through analysis of key documents; systematic review of MakCHS publications and grants; surveys of patients, students and faculty; and key informant interviews of the College’s major stakeholders. Four pilot projects were conducted to demonstrate how the College can translate research into policy and practice, extend integrated outreach community-based education and service, and work with communities and key stakeholders to address their priority health problems. Results MakCHS inputs to the health sector include more than 600 health professionals graduating per year through 23 degree programs, many of whom assume leadership positions. MakCHS contributions to processes include strengthened approaches to engaging communities, standardized clinical care procedures, and evidence-informed policy development. Outputs include the largest number of outpatients and inpatient admissions in Uganda. From 2005-2009, MakCHS also produced 837 peer-reviewed research publications (67% in priority areas. Outcomes include an expanded knowledge pool, and contributions to coverage of health services and healthy behaviors. Impacts include discovery and applications of global significance, such as

  3. The characteristics and functions of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element TaMITE81 in the 5' UTR of TaCHS7BL from Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xinyuan; Li, Na; Li, Shiming; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Huaigang

    2016-10-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. In this article, a MITE, TaMITE81, was isolated from the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of TaCHS7BL, chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzing the first committed step of anthocyanin biosynthesis, in the wheat cultivar 'Opata' with white grain. TaMITE81 was only 81 nucleotides, including a terminal inverted repeat with 39 nucleotides and was flanked by two nucleotides, "TA", target site duplications that were typical features of stowaway-like MITEs. Compared with the wheat cultivar 'Gy115' with purple grain, which is without the insertion, the expression of TaCHS7BL was lower in several organs of 'Opata'. The insertion of TaMITE81 into the 5' UTR of the GUS gene also reduced the transient expression of GUS on the coleoptiles of 'Opata', which means the insertion of TaMITE81 was the reason for the low expression of TaCHS7BL in 'Opata'. But the genotype of TaCHS7BL was not linked to phenotype of grain color in the RILs derived from a cross 'Gy115' and 'Opata'. The TaMITE81 density of the hexaploid variety of T. aestivum was more than 10 times that of diploid relatives, which implies that polyploidization caused the amplification of TaMITE81 homologous sequences. Further research should be conducted on decoding the relationship between TaCHS7BL and other traits relative to anthocyanin biosynthesis in wheat, and discovering the mechanism of TaMITE81 transposon action. PMID:27481288

  4. Performance of the BN-600 reactor fuel pins with claddings made of austenitic steels EI-847, EP-172 and ChS-68 at high radiation damage levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    hot cells or during cutting samples from the fuel pin cladding. Among cold-worked steels investigated, the steel ChS-68 has minimum swelling. The swelling is higher in the steel EP-172 CW and especially in the steel EI-847 CW. The swelling temperature dependence in the steel ChS-68 CW is smoother than in EP-172 CW, that reduces the level of stresses in fuel pin cladding made of the steel ChS-68 CW

  5. Cloning,Expression Analysis and Promoter Isolation of Chalcone-synthase Gene from Fruits of Nane,Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata%油果实中查尔酮合成酶基因 PsCHS 的克隆表达分析及其启动子的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠; 王玉珍; 叶新福

    2016-01-01

    Chalcone-synthase (CHS,EC 2.3.1.74)is an important enzyme involved inflavonoids synthesis pathway in plants.This study aimed to investigate the gene structure and expression profile of CHS gene in the fruits of nane (Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata).A full-length cDNA sequence harboring a CHS gene,named PsCHS ,was successfully separated from a normalized full-length cDNA library of matured nane fruits.The up-stream promoter sequence of PsCHS was separated by genome walking strategy using primer pair designed byPsCHS sequence.The length of PsCHS was 1 442 bp with ORF of 1 176 bp and deduced amino acid of 392 aa.From the prediction by an online software,the promoter sequence of PsCHS have typical structure element TATA-box and CAAT-box, photon-response element, anaerote-induced element, endosperm-related element, MYB-bingding element and hormone-response element,etc.RT-PCR indicated that PsCHS had higher expression level at the earlier stage of development of the fruit,especially 40 d after blossom,then decreased to a lower level at the maturing stage. PsCHS seperated in this study was a member of the CHS gene family.Since CHS is a key enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway,PsCHS might act with a regulatory role in biosynthesis of flavonoids.%从成熟果实均一化全长 cDNA 文库中分离了编码 CHS 基因的全长 cDNA 序列,命名为 PsCHS ,根据其序列设计引物,采用 Genome Walking 方法从基因组 DNA 中分离获得 PsCHS 基因上游的调控序列,命名为 PsCHSp ,PsCHS 基因全长1442 bp,其中 ORF 1176 bp,编码392个氨基酸;采用 APA-Walking 技术,获得该基因的5′端调控区,经在线软件预测,启动子序列含有典型的结构特征元件 TATA-box 和 CAAT-box,还包含光响应元件、厌氧诱导元件、胚乳表达相关元件、MYB 结合位点以及激素响应元件;RT-PCR 结果显示,PsCHS 基因在果实发育的前期表达量较高,花后40 d 表达量最高,随

  6. Differenz als Belastungsprobe. Verhandlungen des deutsch-jüdischen Gesprächs in Bernhard Schlinks Erzählung »Die Beschneidung«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Bitter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schlinks Erzählung stellt anhand zweier Liebender das Scheitern eines deutsch-jüdischen Gesprächs dar und verhandelt die Frage, wie viele Differenzen eine Beziehung aushält. Die titelgebende Beschneidung tritt dabei nicht nur auf der Handlungsebene auf, wo der Protagonist durch Konversion zum Judentum die Differenz zu seiner jüdischen Freundin zu überwinden hofft. Auch auf metaphorischer Ebene problematisiert die Erzählung die ›Selbstbeschneidung‹ des Protagonisten, der aus Angst vor Tadel von jüdischen Figuren viele seiner Gedanken nicht ausspricht. Als Opfer antideutscher Vorurteile ruft er diverse antisemitische Stereotype auf. Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, inwiefern die Erzählung damit für solch stereotypes Gedankengut sensibilisiert und subtil gegen einen antisemitischen und revisionistischen Diskurs anschreibt oder inwiefern sich der Text vielmehr in einen solchen Diskurs einschreibt.

  7. Biocompatibility of Schwann Cells with PDLLA/CS/CHS Self-assembled Composite Materials%雪旺细胞与PDLLA/CS/CHS自组装复合材料生物相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利剑; 梅玉峰; 徐海星

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biocompatibility of self-cultured Schwann cells with polylactic acid/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan(PDLLA/CS/CHS) composite material with good biodegradability, and evaluate the possibility of the PDLLA/CS/CHS material applied to the repair of peripheral nerve. Methods By using pairs of differential adhesion,Schwann cells were cultured and purified. The growth curve of Schwann cells was drawn,and their phenotypes were examined by using HF staining and immunohistochemical staining. The purified Schwann cells were seeded in the PDLLA/CS/CHS composite materials and the biocompatibility was studied by using MTT method and environmental scanning electron microscopy. Results The growth platform period of Schwann cells was 1 day,the logarithmic period was 5-7 days, and the doubling time was 5 days with the purity of more than 90 %. MTT assay revealed that at 0,2nd,4th day after inoculation.The absorbance(A)values in PDLLA group,CHS group,and PDLLA/CS/CHS group were lower than in control group. At the 7th and lOth day, the A values in PDLLA and CHS groups were also lower than in control group,and those in PDLLA/CS/CHS group were higher than in control group with no significant difference(P>0. 05). But there was significant difference in the A values between PDLLA/CS/CHS group and PDLLA group(P<0. 05). Conclusion PDLLA/CS/CHS composite is biological materials with ideal biocompatibility and good material-cell interface.and facilitates the adhesion,growth and proliferation of Schwann cells.%目的 利用自行培养的雪旺细胞(SCs)与具有良好可生物降解性的高分子聚乳酸/硫酸软骨素/壳聚糖(PDLLA/CS/CHS)复合材料进行生物相容性研究,评价该材料应用于周围神经修复的可能性.方法 利用双差速贴壁法进行SCs的培养与纯化,并观察其生长曲线,苏木精-伊红染色和免疫组织化学染色观察细胞表征;将纯化后的SCs接种在PDLLA/CS/CHS复合材料上进行材料生物

  8. Tests for fatigue behavior of welded CHS-SHS-concrete filled T-joints%圆管-方管混凝土T型节点疲劳性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童乐为; 杨德磊; Zhao X L

    2013-01-01

    Stress concentration factors(SCF) and fatigue life are two main aspects of studying fatigue behavior of tubular joints based on hot spot stress method. 8 welded CHS-SHS concrete filled T-joints were tested under static loading to determine stress concentration factors at hot spot locations and were also tested under cyclic loading to obtain fatigue life data. The results were compared with those for T-joints made of circular hollow section to square hollow section (CHS-SHS) and no concrete filled. The test results indicated that the CHS-SHS concrete filled T-joints exhibit evident improvements in rigidity distribution and have better anti-fatigue performance than the T-joints made of CHS-SHS and no concrete filled do; S-N curves of hollow section tubular T-joints in the relevant codes are not suitable for fatigue performance analysis of CHS-SHS concrete filled T-joints.%基于热点应力法的管节点疲劳性能研究中,热点应力集中系数和疲劳寿命是描述焊接管结构节点疲劳性能的两个主要因素.对8个支管的圆管主管内填充C50等级混凝土方管节点试件(CT1~CT8)进行热点应力试验以确定其热点应力集中系数(SCF),在此基础上进行疲劳试验以确定其疲劳寿命(N3),将试验结果与具有相同几何尺寸和受力条件的圆管-方管节点试验结果及相关规范进行比较分析.研究表明,支管受轴向荷载下,圆管-方管混凝土节点与对应空钢管节点而言,节点区刚度分布明显改善,前者SCF最大值均小于后者SCF最大值,具有更好的抗疲劳性能;规范中关于空钢管节点疲劳性能的S-N曲线不适用圆管-方管混凝土T型节点的疲劳性能分析.

  9. Phase stabilities of pyrite-related MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te): A systematic DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachhuber, Frederik [University of Regensburg, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Krach, Alexander; Furtner, Andrea [University of Regensburg, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Söhnel, Tilo [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Peter, Philipp; Rothballer, Jan [University of Regensburg, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Weihrich, Richard, E-mail: richard.weihrich@chemie.uni-r.de [University of Regensburg, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Pyrite-type and related systems appear for a wide range of binary and ternary combinations of transition metals and main group elements that form Zintl type dumbbell anion units. Those representatives with 20 valence electrons exhibit an extraordinary structural flexibility and interesting properties as low-gap semiconductors or thermoelectric and electrode materials. This work is devoted to the systematic exploration of novel compounds within the class of MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te) by means of density functional calculations. Their preferred structures are predicted from an extended scheme of colored pyrites and marcasites. To determine their stabilities, competing binary MT{sub 2} and MCh{sub 2} boundary phases are taken into account as well as ternary M{sub 3}T{sub 2}Ch{sub 2} and M{sub 2}T{sub 3}Ch{sub 3} systems. Recently established stability diagrams are presented to account for MTCh ordering phenomena with a focus on a not-yet-reported ordering variant of the NiAs{sub 2} type. Due to the good agreement with experimental data available for several PtTCh systems, the predictions for the residual systems are considered sufficiently accurate. - Graphical abstract: Compositional and structural stability of MTCh compounds is investigated from first principle calculations. A conceptional approach is presented to study and predict novel stable and metastable compounds and structures of low gap semiconductors with TCh dumbbell units that are isoelectronic and structurally related to pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Study of compositional stability of MTCh vs. M{sub 3}T{sub 2}Ch{sub 2} and M{sub 2}T{sub 3}Ch{sub 3} compounds. • Study of structural stability of known and novel MTCh compounds. • Prediction of novel stable and metastable structures and compounds isoelectronic to pyrite, FeS{sub 2}.

  10. CHS基因起源初探及其在被子植物中的进化分析%A Preliminary Study on the Origin and Evolution of Chalcone Synthase (CHS) Gene in Angiosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金霞; 瞿礼嘉; 杨继; 银好; 顾红雅

    2004-01-01

    利用PCR与TAlL-PCR方法,从半月苔(Lunularia cructata(L.)Dum.ex Lindb)中获得了一段长约l 000 bp的基因片段,它与已知的CHS基因在核苷酸水平上的相似性大于56%,在氨基酸水平上的相似性大于60%,所推断的氨基酸序列中酶反应的4个催化位点与已知晶体结构的紫花苜蓿MCHS2A上的催化位点相同,首次证明了苔类植物中可能存在类CHS基因,将CHS基因的起源时间推到苔藓类植物出现之前.以该序列和两种蕨类植物(Psilotumnudum(L.)Griseb.和Equisetum arvense L.)的CHS序列作为外类群,应用邻接法、最大简约法和最大似然法分别构建了被子植物的CHS的分子系统树.结果表明,大部分科中的CHS分布在不同的分支上,而十字花科、可科和禾本科各自聚成一个单系类群.以邻接树为依据,对茄科、旋花科和菊科的CHS基因进行了相对碱基替换速率的检测,发现这三个科内或科间序列的替换速率不一致.被子植物的CHS基因在基因拷贝数目、碱基替换速率以及重复/丢失事件的发生上都存在较大的差异,这种差异可能与被子植物的生活史、生活环境、花的特性以及对外界的防御系统等的多样性相关.%By using Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) method, a DNA fragment of about 1 000 bp was amplified and cloned from a liverwort species (Lunularia cruciata (L.) Dum. ex Lindb). The nucleotide sequence of this fragment and its deduced amino acid sequence shared about 56% and 60% identity with those of exon 2 of CHS genes from vascular plants respectively. The four characteristic catalyzing sites of CHS were found conserved in the deduced amino acid sequences of the fragment when compared with other CHS sequences. This is the first report of cloning a CHS-like gene from liverworts,suggesting that the origin of CHS genes may predate liverworts. Using the CHS-like sequence from L.cruciata and CHS sequences from two fern-alien species, Psilotum

  11. Noncentrosymmetric rare-earth copper gallium chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} (RE=La–Nd; Ch=S, Se): An unexpected combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Abishek K.; Rudyk, Brent W.; Lin, Xinsong; Singh, Harpreet [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada); Sharma, Arzoo Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wiebe, Christopher R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, The University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB Canada R3B 2G3 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1Z8 (Canada); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    The quaternary rare-earth chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaS{sub 7} and RE{sub 3}CuGaSe{sub 7} (RE=La–Nd) have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1050 °C and 900 °C, respectively. They crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric La{sub 3}CuSiS{sub 7}-type structure (hexagonal, space group P6{sub 3}, Z=2) in which the a-parameter is largely controlled by the RE component (a=10.0–10.3 Å for the sulfides and 10.3–10.6 Å for the selenides) whereas the c-parameter is essentially fixed by the choice of Ga and chalcogen atoms within tetrahedral units (c=6.1 Å for the sulfides and 6.4 Å for the selenides). They extend the series RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7}, previously known for divalent metal atoms (M=Mn–Ni), differing in that the Cu atoms in RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} occupy trigonal planar sites instead of octahedral sites. Among quaternary chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MM′Ch{sub 7}, the combination of monovalent (M=Cu) and trivalent (M′=Ga) metals is unusual because it appears to violate the condition of charge balance satisfied by most La{sub 3}CuSiS{sub 7}-type compounds. The possibility of divalent Cu atoms was ruled out by bond valence sum analysis, magnetic measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electron deficiency in RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} is accommodated through S-based holes at the top of the valence band, as shown by band structure calculations on La{sub 3}CuGaS{sub 7}. An optical band gap of about 2.0 eV was found for La{sub 3}CuGaSe{sub 7}. - Graphical abstract: The chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} contain monovalent Cu in trigonal planes and trivalent Ga in tetrahedra; they are electron-deficient representatives of La{sub 3}CuSiS{sub 7}-type compounds, which normally satisfy charge balance. - Highlights: • Quaternary chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} (RE=La–Nd; Ch=S, Se) were prepared. • Bond valence sums, magnetism, and XPS data give evidence for monovalent Cu. • Crystal structures reveal high anisotropy of Cu displacement.

  12. 平面K型圆管节点新的承载力计算公式%A New Formula for Loading Capacity of Unstiffened CHS K-joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童乐为; 孙建东; 陈以一

    2012-01-01

    建立了平面K型节点非线性有限元分析模型,综合考虑两支管搭接顺序和内隐蔽部分焊缝是否焊接等影响因素,并得到了试验验证,适应性良好.应用该模型,对4类圆管K型节点型式进行了分析计算,通过多元非线性回归,导出K型节点极限承载力新的计算公式,进而提出承载力设计值建议公式,采用国际管节点数据库中试验数据,与现有国内外规范公式进行比较评价,证明该公式有较高的精度和广泛的适用性,能综合反映影响承载力的诸多因素,公式可同时计算间隙型和搭接K型节点,可计算两腹杆具有不同几何参数以及弦杆有轴力作用的K型节点承载力等特点.%A nonlinear finite element model simulating the behavior of unstiffened circular hollow section (CHS) K-joints was first developed and validated by experiments, in which two influencing factors were considered such as an overlap sequence between two braces and a hidden weld to be connected or not. Then, this model was used to analyze four types of CHS K-joints. By means of multiple nonlinear regression analysis techniques, a new formula for ultimate capacity of CHS K-joints was proposed and then a design formula was recommended. Finally, by using the experimental data of tubular joints from an international database, the proposed design formula was compared with some existing design formulae from codes in the world. It is concluded that the proposed formula shows better accuracy and wider application, including the consideration of all effects on loading capacity. It is suitable for both the gap and overlap K-joints. and also suitable for the K-joints with two different braces and subjected to an axial force in the chord.

  13. 猕猴桃花青素合成途径基因AcCHS和AcLDOX的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Expression of Anthocyanin Pathway Genes,AcCHS and AcLDOX,in Actinidia chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮; 满玉萍; 姜正旺; 王彦昌

    2012-01-01

    Based on the highly conserved sequences of other plants,counterpart sequences of CHS(chalcone synthase,CHS)and LDOX(leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase,LDOX)of Actinida chinesis,‘Hongyang’were obtained using the special primers. Full-length cDNAs encoding CHS and LDOX were cloned respectively from fruit of‘Hongyang’by RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA ends). The AcCHS was 1501 bp in length,encoding 389 amino acids. AcLDOX was 1381 bp in length and encoded 355 amino acids. Amino acids sequence of AcCHS exhibited over 95% homology with CHS of Abelmoschus manihot,Camellia japonica and Gossypium hirsutum. It also shared 94% and 93% homology with Vitis vinifera and Malus × domestica respectively. AcLDOX showed 94% and 93% identity with Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera respectively at amino acids level. The expression of AcCHS and AcLDOX in the inner pericarp of three kiwifruit cultivars with red,green and yellow color was analyzed by Real-time PCR. AcCHS expressed highly in flesh of‘Hongyang’at 65 DAF(days after flower). Expression of the gene in yellow-fleshed‘Jinnong’decreased permanently after flowering. Expression of AcLDOX increased during the early developmental stage in‘Hongyang’,but dropped quickly after 65 DAF. Interestingly,expression of AcLDOX raised markedly in the late developmental stages of green-fleshed‘Jinkui’,which was the highest among three cultivars. AcLDOX in‘Jinnong’also deregulated after flowering.%根据物种水平上蛋白保守序列设计特异引物,扩增获得‘红阳’猕猴桃花青素合成途径中查尔酮合成酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)和无色花青素双加氧酶(leucoanthocyanidin dioxygenase,LDOX)基因的特异片段,用RACE(rapid-amplification of cDNA ends)技术克隆出这两个基因的cDNA全长,长度分别为1501 bp(AcCHS)和1381 bp(AcLDOX),分别编码389个和355个氨基酸。通过比对发现AcCHS与棉花(Gossypium hirsutum

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHS177 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 60317.1 Diagnosis of Diseases Associated with Cell Cycle. 36 0.020 4 BD452239 |BD452239.1 Diagnosis of Disea...ses Associated with Cell Cycle. 36 0.020 4 AC122628 |AC122628.4 Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-101F19, *** SE

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHS346 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ry Gland 4th instar 3rd period (spinning cocoon) Rhynchosciara americana cDNA, mR...NA sequence. 34 4e-05 3 CK808739 |CK808739.1 Rasgsc1529 Salivary Gland 4th instar 3rd period (spinning cocoo...sgsc0316 Salivary Gland 4th instar 3rd period (spinning cocoon) Rhynchosciara americana cDNA, mRNA sequence.

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHS144 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lone: ola1-242I19.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.005 1 DE092915 |DE092915.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-209J09.R, genomic surv...ipes DNA, clone: ola1-188M19.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.005 1 DE078411 |DE078411.1 Oryzias latipes DNA..., clone: ola1-200D13.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.005 1 DE075571 |DE075571.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone:... ola1-178O04.F, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.005 1 DE057397 |DE057397.1 Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-099G20.R, genomic survey...DNA, clone: ola1-164C24.R, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.005 1 AC027286 |AC027286.14 Homo sapiens chromosome

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHS337 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Grid AA Zea mays genomic, genomic survey sequence. 44 1.5 1 CG711657 |CG711657.1 1119022C08.y1 1119 - Rescu...eMu Grid AA Zea mays genomic, genomic survey sequence. 44 1.5 1 BZ158667 |BZ15866...19.1 Danio rerio genomic clone DKey-7L12, genomic survey sequence. 44 1.5 1 CW928277 |CW928277.1 EDCBQ46TF A...omic clone EDCBQ46, genomic survey sequence. 44 1.5 1 CW918360 |CW918360.1 EDCA491TF A. castellanii, 6-8 kb ...library from total genomic DNA Acanthamoeba castellanii genomic clone EDCA491, genomic survey sequence. 44 1

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHS251 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ibrary D Homo sapiens genomic clone Plate=3113 Col=14 Row=F, genomic survey sequence. 44 0.055 2 DT661445 |DT661445.1 est_e_glacial...is75 RWS Eubalaena glacialis cDNA, mRNA sequence. 46 0.71 1 AC116986 |AC116986.2 Dict

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHS159 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available EN IPESGTVLYKIQTESNIVDTLHVFRVGLNSFSSCTEVNTSVYETVTKTTDPYGYDCVSSV IASGKQESICDLQNSIDNTKTYYVRVSFPQAPHIDSTDKFTLKF...KIQTESNIVDTLHVFRVGLNSFSSCTEVNTSVYETVTKTTDPYGYDCVSSV IASGKQESICDLQNSIDNTKTYYVRVSFPQAPHID

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHS164 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available utrients Pinus taeda cDNA clone RTMNUT1_37_B06_A029 5', mRNA sequence. 54 2e-11 4 C...icon esculentum cDNA clone cLEG49G24 5' end, mRNA sequence. 58 7e-12 2 DR181209 |DR181209.1 RTMNUT1_37_B06.g2_A029 Roots minus micron

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHS457 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available esculentum cDNA clone cLEG49G24 5' end, mRNA sequence. 58 6e-12 2 DR181209 |DR181209.1 RTMNUT1_37_B06.g2_A029 Roots minus micronutrie...nts Pinus taeda cDNA clone RTMNUT1_37_B06_A029 5', mRNA sequence. 54 1e-11 4 CK0732

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHS489 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS ...Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJ

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHS126 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHS289 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AATAATAATAATAATAAA AAATAAAGTTATNATAAAT sequence update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence gllei*qfk*lik**hyi*n*illqlynn...iiiiiknkvn**iylnk*kk--- ---ksnnsns*snsnitykikyyynytiifikknnnnnnnnkk*syxk Frame B: gllei*qfk*lik**hyi*n*illqlynn...itykikyyynytiifikknnnnnnnnkk*s*linifk*ikkk--- ---i*qfk*lik**hyi*n*illqlynnfykkk**

  5. Anticancer agent CHS-828 inhibits cellular synthesis of NAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, U.H.; Christensen, M.K.; Bjorkling, F.;

    2008-01-01

    Malignant cells display increased demands for energy production and DNA repair. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is required for both processes and is also continuously degraded by cellular enzymes. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is a crucial factor in the resynthesis of NA...

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHS443 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fqskestin*kyfknafrw*n*ksrllygflgnviftickrislelfi r*f*fhfrefntr*yw*icnlfciingfpskn*sn*tifhrcssnpslfvgkc...iingfpskn*sn*tifhrcssnpslfvgkcyikysiq xng*ktkhxtxif*ix Frame B: *ts*ckiiismf**tiiesqldnldytsk*l*stlkyaslfsgr

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHS301 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 84.1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1)) partial N1NA gene for... Neuraminidase, genomic RNA. 42 0.91 2 AJ410883 |AJ410883.1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1482/99 (H1N1

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHS239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available end partial sequence. 42 9.9 1 CR029411 |CR029411.1 Forward strand read from insert in 5'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engi...neering clone MHPN192d01. 42 9.9 1 AZ781723 |AZ781723.1 2M0021H18F Mouse 10kb plasm

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHS321 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _KB Zea mays genomic clone ZMMBTa391I09,genomic survey sequence. 38 1e-04 3 CK269381 |CK269381.1 EST715459 potato abiotic...1023C12 5', mRNA sequence. 32 0.043 3 CK278044 |CK278044.1 EST724122 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Sola...ce. 46 0.050 2 CK276419 |CK276419.1 EST722497 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Solanum tuberosum cDNA clon...9380.1 EST715458 potato abiotic stress cDNA library Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone POACM48 5' end, mRNA sequen...num tuberosum cDNA clone POAE360 3' end, mRNA sequence. 46 0.049 2 CK269380 |CK26

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHS422 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( P51112 ) RecName: Full=Huntingtin; AltName: Full=Huntington dise... 72 2e-11 L28827_1( L28827 |pid:none) Mouse Huntington...ington dise... 71 4e-11 AX460946_1( AX460946 |pid:none) Sequence 7 from Patent WO02...'s Disease gene homolo... 71 4e-11 ( P42859 ) RecName: Full=Huntingtin; AltName: Full=Hunt

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHS243 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FM992695_70( FM992695 |pid:none) Candida dubliniensis CD36 chromos... 35 1.5 EU361927_1( EU361927 |pid:none)... Daniellia klainei tRNA-Lys (trnK) ... 34 1.9 FM992689_882( FM992689 |pid:none) Candida dubli

  12. Sensor Based Effective Monitoring of Coal Handling System (CHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttalakkani.M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal level detection is an important aspect to assess the performance of a coal-fired power plant. Coal has to be transported, via a coal handling system. The fuel in a coal-fired power plant is stored in silos, bunkers or stock piles. Coal is stored in silos in a small plant, Bunkers for handling a day’s operation and Stock piling methods for large plants. So, fuel handling had to done efficiently. To accurately sense the coal height, Real-time feedback is deployed within the bunker or stock pile. The real time range information is then fedback to the control system. Of the different types of ranging sensors, radar based system is used. Also a real-time temperature monitoring system is developed to protect the coal. The range and temperature data from sensors are sent to the main system through GSM modem by means of SMS. The range information is used to start the conveyor belt to draw the coal from coal yard. If the temperature exceeds the limit, the SMS will be sent through the software or it will call the respective person to monitor the process. A fire sensor is also used to extinguish the fire by initiating the water spraying system. A PIC Microcontroller is interfaced all the sensors for effective handling of thermal power plant.

  13. Dicty_cDB: CHS392 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Xenopus laevis MGC81993 protein, m... 62 5e-10 BC155581_1( BC155581 |pid:none) Danio rerio scinderin like a,... mRNA... 64 8e-10 BC125898_1( BC125898 |pid:none) Danio rerio scinderin like a, m...C094991 |pid:none) Danio rerio scinderin like a, mRNA... 64 8e-10 AJ719674_1( AJ719674 |pid:none) Gallus gal

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHS484 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available enopus laevis gelsolin, mRNA (cDN... 65 6e-09 BC155581_1( BC155581 |pid:none) Danio rerio scinderin like a, ...mRNA... 64 7e-09 BC125898_1( BC125898 |pid:none) Danio rerio scinderin like a, mRNA... 64 7e-09 AF175294_1( ...074175 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis MGC81993 protein, m... 62 7e-09 BC094991_1( BC094991 |pid:none) Danio rerio scinder

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHS326 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 46 0.076 2 DT283771 |DT283771.1 JGI_CAAV11164.rev CAAV Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males an...d females pooled (H) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAV11164 3', mRNA sequence. ...48 0.19 1 DT275805 |DT275805.1 JGI_CAAV6564.rev CAAV Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and ...females pooled (H) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAV6564 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.19 1 DT230922 |DT230922.1... JGI_CAAT5104.rev CAAT Pimephales promelas brain 7-8 month adults, males and fema

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHS272 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3',... mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month a...dults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', ...mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adu...lts, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX1517 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.26 1 DT102

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHS428 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ne PIMFW90 3' end, mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT364098 |DT364098.1 JGI_ANNN9278.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas W...47978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promela...17.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas...rev CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA ...clone CAAX1517 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.20 1 DT102344 |DT102344.1 JGI_ANNN5669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas W

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHS488 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN9278 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1... DT347978 |DT347978.1 JGI_CAAX10802.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females ...pooled (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone CAAX10802 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.21 1 ...DT309975 |DT309975.1 JGI_CAAX1517.fwd CAAX Pimephales promelas testis 7-8 month adults, males and females po...669.rev ANNN Pimephales promelas Whole (L) Pimephales promelas cDNA clone ANNN5669 3', mRNA sequence. 48 0.2

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHS217 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DYQCLLWCPPKYAALMNRCWETDPTHRPSFPEILPNYGGNDL*iskreeginsar *tntlcwpt*krsiq*ttttkygxnnsttigttttstiirttntptsxttss...f aqkeldtkkrkkeesr*f*KTTYLKTELKIETTLXRNCKLQMPRQPKFE--- ---VKDYQCLLWCPPKYAALMNRCWETDPTHRPSFPEILPNYGGNDL*iskreeginsar

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHS483 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ey sequence. 38 0.14 2 AI484136 |AI484136.1 EST248943 tomato resistant, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA...490786.1 EST241494 tomato shoot, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLEB3H9 similar to cinnamic acid...34.1 EST255034 tomato resistant, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLER8N1, mRNA sequence. 38 0.15

  1. Multi-Channel Detector Arrays for Heavy Ion Beam Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Steven; Beckstead, Jeffrey; Castracane, James; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Demers, Diane; Schatz, John

    1997-11-01

    InterScience, Inc. has developed a multiple slit detector array for use with heavy ion beam probes. The first array was a twenty element array installed on the TEXT tokamak. An initial set of data was obtained with this array prior to the shutdown on the TEXT tokamak in December of 1995. More recently, a smaller detector array has been developed for use in the CHS torsatron in Nagoya. This array is smaller than the TEXT array, with ten elements, but contains two prototype sets of detector plates to determine the beam position. The operating conditions in CHS are expected to be much harsher than in TEXT, with ECH and NBI plasmas. Trajectory simulations allowed for the design of a tilted detector array in the CHS vacuum vessel. First tests of the CHS array will begin in the late summer of 1997. Other candidate machines for detector arrays are the MST reversed field pinch, in which a beam probe is expected to be installed in late 1997 or early 1998 and the Large Helical Device (LHD) which is expected to be operational in 1998. Design issues, trajectory simulations and array test results will be presented. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant #DE-FG02-94ER81788

  2. University of Wisconsin torsatron/stellarator laboratory program final report, January 1, 1986--January 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports work performed in the final period of the referenced grant number, from January 1992 through January 1994. Prior work under this grant number has been reported in previous reports of this series. Measurements of the radial electric field, flow velocity, and momentum decay times were made in the IMS stellarator to examine the effects of in-neutral collisions and viscosity showing the importance of the collision effects. A new neoclassical model including these effects has been developed and applied to this analysis. Fluctuation-induced transport studies have also been performed with a full 2-D poloidal cross-section analysis. Electrode biasing was used to induce rotation into the plasma. The data shows the fluctuation-induced transport to be poloidally asymmetric and dependent upon the location of the electron cyclotron resonance layer and the electrode biasing. The induced plasma ploidal flow changes the nominally outward fluctuation-induced transport to be inward by changing the phase relationship of the density and potential oscillations. The amplitude of the fluctuations is, in general, not reduced by the sheared poloidal flows. Computed Reynolds stress flows are comparable to those measured, but uncertainties in the data and its analysis on this drive mechanism for poloidal flow does not permit the authors to make definitive conclusions

  3. FEM stress concentration factors for fillet welded CHS-plate T-joint

    OpenAIRE

    Kršćanski, Sanjin; Turkalj, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue life analysis of various mechanical components is influenced by numerous factors. In case of welded components, fatigue analysis can be even more challenging because of additional variables that influence fatigue life in these types of structures. Many of these factors have an influence on levels of stress concentrations that are occurring in a component. Determining these stress concentrations is of foremost importance for correct calculation of fatigue life. In this paper fil...

  4. Dialogtypologie und Vermittlung des Fachorientierten Gesprächs Im Studienbegleitenden Fremdsprachenunterricht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Šumskytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel beschäftigt sich mit der Aufstellung der Typologie von fach- und berufsorientierten Dialogen. Sie hat zum Ziel dazu beizutragen, den studienbegleitenden Fremdsprachenunterricht erfolgreicher und zielgerichteter zu gestalten. Im Artikel werden die Fragen der Vermittlung des fach- und berufsorientierten Dialogs den Studenten der Fachrichtung Bibliothekswesen behandelt. Mit Hilfe einer Befragung der Spezialisten der größten litauischen und deutschen Bibliotheken wurden die typischen Situationen der interpersonalen Kommunikation bei der Bibliotheksbenutzung (in der Auskuftsstelle, an der Ausleihstelle und Ausleihberatung ermittelt. Infolgedessen lassen sich zu Unterrichtszwecken folgende Dialogtypen empfehlen: informierender Dialog, Problemdialog, Streitgespräch. Bei der Aufbereitung der Unterrichtsmaterialien ist es von authentischen Dialogen, die sich in typischen Situationen der fachbezogenen Kommunikation abspielen, auszugehen.

  5. The big squeeze. CHS-HMA merger tightens the vise on independent hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth

    2013-08-01

    News of the Community-HMA merger shows the increasing momentum for such deals. The merger will allow Community to diversify and find synergies where it can cut expenses. "The volumes are a little more critical in nonurban hospitals than urban hospitals. As 2014 gets here and we start enrolling people (in health insurance exchanges), then the revenue will start to grow," says Wayne Smith, left, Community's chairman, president and CEO. PMID:24010150

  6. 78 FR 37537 - CHS Inc., Federal Express Corporation, GROWMARK, Inc., HWRT Oil Company LLC, MFA Oil Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ..., MFA Oil Company, Southwest Airline Co., United Airlines, Inc., UPS Fuel Services, Inc. v. Enterprise... Express Corporation; GROWMARK, Inc.; HWRT Oil Company LLC; MFA Oil Company; Southwest Airline Co.;...

  7. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: National Weather Service Forecast Office - Charleston (CHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  8. Stress Concentration Factors at Saddle and Crown Positions on the Central Brace of Two-Planar Welded CHS DKT-connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Ahmadi; Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin; Mohammad H. Aminfar

    2012-01-01

    A set of parametric stress analyses was carried out for two-planar tubular DKT-joints under different axial loading conditions.The analysis results were used to present general remarks on the effects of the geometrical parameters on stress concentration factors (SCFs) at the inner saddle,outer saddle,and crown positions on the central brace.Based on results of finite element (FE) analysis and through nonlinear regression analysis,a new set of SCF parametric equations was established for fatigue design purposes.An assessment study of equations was conducted against the experimental data and original SCF database.The satisfaction of acceptance criteria proposed by the UK Department of Energy (UK DoE) was also checked.Results of parametric study showed that highly remarkable differences exist between the SCF values in a multi-planar DKT-joint and the corresponding SCFs in an equivalent uni-planar KT-joint having the same geometrical properties.It can be clearly concluded from this observation that using the equations proposed for uni-planar KT-connections to compute the SCFs in multi-planar DKT-joints will lead to either considerably under-predicting or over-predicting results.Hence,it is necessary to develop SCF formulae specially designed for multi-planar DKT-joints.Good results of equation assessment according to UK DoE acceptance criteria,high values of correlation coefficients,and the satisfactory agreement between the predictions of the proposed equations and the experimental data guarantee the accuracy of the equations.Therefore,the developed equations can be reliably used for fatigue design of offshore structures.

  9. Main: BOX1PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX1PVCHS15 S000208 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 1 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; one of SBF-1 binding sites in chs15 promoter; Located at -318 to -305; Involved in organ-specific exp...e Villain et al. (1996); Box 1; chs; chs15; CHS; SBF-1; silencer; organ-specific; Gt; GT-1; GT; bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) TAAAAGTTAAAAAC ...

  10. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Chalcone Synthase from Freesia hybrid in flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase (CHS catalyzes the first committed step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the cDNA (FhCHS1 encoding CHS from Freesia hybrida was successfully isolated and analyzed. Multiple sequence alignments showed that both the conserved CHS active site residues and CHS signature sequence were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of FhCHS1. Meanwhile, crystallographic analysis revealed that protein structure of FhCHS1 is highly similar to that of alfalfa CHS2, and the biochemical analysis results indicated that it has an enzymatic role in naringenin biosynthesis. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the transcript levels of FhCHS1 in flowers and different tissues, and patterns of FhCHS1 expression in flowers showed significant correlation to the accumulation patterns of anthocyanin during flower development. To further characterize the functionality of FhCHS1, its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana tt4 mutants and Petunia hybrida was performed. The results showed that overexpression of FhCHS1 in tt4 mutants fully restored the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coats, cotyledons and hypocotyls, while transgenic petunia expressing FhCHS1 showed flower color alteration from white to pink. In summary, these results suggest that FhCHS1 plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of flavonoid in Freesia hybrida and may be used to modify the components of flavonoids in other plants.

  11. Studies on Origin and Evolution of Tuber Mustard (Brassica juncea var.tumida Tsen et Lee) based on Chs Gene Sequences%基于Chs基因序列的茎瘤芥起源进化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发波; 姚启伦; 董二飞; 方平

    2016-01-01

    为探讨我国茎瘤芥的起源、进化,克隆、测序了30份茎瘤芥及其近缘种的Chs基因序列,并构建系统发育树、系统发育网络及网状支系结构.结果表明:系统发育树将茎瘤芥及其近缘种Chs基因序列分成3个亚支,9个支系.系统发育网络分析结果表明,茎瘤芥与其他芥菜变种之间不仅存在树状的进化关系,还大量存在非树状的进化史.网状支系分析结果表明,伊犁野生油菜可能是茎瘤芥A基因组的供体,黑芥可能是茎瘤芥B基因组的供体.茎瘤芥为芸薹属芥菜种的一个变种,与薹芥的亲缘关系较近,可能是由薹芥进化而来.单拷贝的Chs基因可作为一个理想的候选基因用于茎瘤芥及其近缘植物多倍体系统发育关系的研究.

  12. Infantile Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Case of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome Caused by a Mutation in the LYST/CHS1 Gene Presenting With Delayed Umbilical Cord Detachment and Diarrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Agergaard, Charlotte N; Jakobsen, Marianne A;

    2015-01-01

    A 2-month-old female infant, born to consanguineous parents, presented with infections in skin and upper respiratory tract. She was notable for delayed umbilical cord detachment, partial albinism, and neurological irritability. Giant granules were present in white blood cells. The intracellular p...

  13. Supramolecular association via Sb...S and C-H...S interactions in dimeric tris(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III): an approach to overcome the concept of steric bulk on such interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H P S; Carpenter, Jaswant

    2013-12-01

    Tris(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III) has been isolated as a dimer in acetonitrile. Single-crystal X-ray analysis shows that the molecule possesses both Sb···S and C-H···S interactions, which results in a supramolecular association in the absence of hydrogen-bonding functionality on the R group. The co-existence in the title compound of such interactions is a unique character of known dimeric antimony(III) alkyl and/or aryl dithiocarbamate complexes. The literature reveals that the species where the alkyl and/or aryl dithiocarbamates carry the following groups: R = methyl (chloroform solvated), ethyl, n-propyl, pyrrolidine, morpholine, piperidine, azepane, benzyl, methylphenyl, are not capable of forming significant hydrogen-bonding interactions. However, either Sb···S or C-H···S intermolecular interactions dominate between two centrosymmetrically related molecules leading to a supramolecular aggregation. In the species where the R group carries hydrogen-bonding functionality, i.e. 2-hydroxylethyl, the C-H···S interactions are subverted by O-H···O hydrogen bonding. In addition, the title compound does not have steric hindrance or any hydrogen-bonding group but is stabilized with the co-existence of Sb···S and C-H···S interactions. Analysis of the secondary interactions of a series of analogues previously reported reveals that steric bulk is unnecessary for the mitigation of Sb···S interactions and for the establishment of C-H···S secondary bonding. PMID:24253087

  14. Human Resource Staffing and Service Functions of Community Health Services Organizations in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Aimin; Wang, Yadong; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Xinhua; Li, Hang; Duckitt, Roger; Liang, Wannian

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE We report a study on the developmental status of human resource staffing and service functions of community health services (CHS) in China and offer recommendations for improving the CHS in the future.

  15. Molecular cloning and expression profiling of a chalcone synthase gene from Lamiophlomis rotata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qiao Feng; Geng Gui-Gong; Zeng Yang; Xie Hui-Chun; Jin Lan; Shang Jun; Chen Zhi

    2015-06-01

    Lamiophlomis rotata is a renowned Chinese medicinal plant. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is important in flavonoid and isoflavonoid biosynthesis, catalysing the formation of naringenin chalcone in plants. A full-length cDNA encoding the CHS gene was cloned from L. rotata based on the highly conserved CHS gene sequences of Labiatae plants. A blast search showed its homology (named LrCHS) with other CHS genes of Labiate plants. The full-length genomic DNA of LrCHS was 2026 bp with one intron of 651 bp, two exons of 178 bp and 998 bp, flanked by a 73 bp $5'$-UTR and a 126 bp $3'$-UTR. The cDNA sequence of the LrCHS gene had an 1176 bp open reading frame encoding a 391 amino acid protein of 42,798 Da. The CHS protein predicted from L. rotata showed 79–86% identity with CHS of other plant species. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of nine families containing 48 plants and L. rotata based on the full amino acid sequences of CHS proteins. Consequently, LrCHS was located in the Labiatae branch. Additionally, we examined LrCHS gene expression patterns in different tissues by quantitative real-time PCR with specific primers. The expression analysis showed preferential expression of LrCHS in flowers and leaves during the flowering stage. Total flavonoid content and CHS gene expression exhibited similar patterns during L. rotata organ development. In agreement with its function as an elicitor-responsive gene, LrCHS expression was coordinated by methyl jasmonate and UV light, and induced between 6 and 18 h. These results provide a molecular basis for additional functional studies of LrCHS in L. rotata.

  16. Main: BOX2PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PVCHS15 S000209 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 2 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; SBF-1 binding site; For a compilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); Box 2; chs; chs1

  17. Main: BOX3PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX3PVCHS15 S000210 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 3 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; SBF-1 binding site; For a compilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); Box 3; chs; chs1

  18. A case of multiple system atrophy: onset with the cold hands sign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-fu; WANG Qiong; WU Wei-ping

    2011-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: The cold hands sign (CHS) presents a distinct feature in some multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients, but it is receiving little consideration.To our knowledge, there are few reported cases of MSA with onset of CHS.We reported here a case of MSA in a patient with onset of a typical CHS.

  19. AcEST: DK956441 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SYNW... 34 0.33 sp|Q11118|WOS2_SCHPO Protein wos2 OS=Schizosaccharomyces pombe G... 33 0.96 sp|P48017|CHS_SAPMO...GAGGMPDLS 141 >sp|P48017|CHS_SAPMO Chitin synthase OS=Saprolegnia monoica GN=CHS

  20. Comparison of classical heat stroke between conscious and unconscious rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan GENG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce conscious and unconscious classical heat stroke(CHS models in conscious and unconscious rats, and the difference in heat stress response between the two models was investigated. Methods Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly and equally divided into conscious classic heatstroke(C-CHS, unconscious classi cheatstroke(N-CHS, conscious normal control(C-NC and unconscious normal control(N-NCgroups.Rats of C-CHS and N-CHS groups were put into artificial climate chamber, and exposed to 39℃ heat stress.Core temperature and systolic blood pressure(SBP of rats were monitored via rectal thermal couple and by both invasive and non-invasive arterial blood pressure monitor instrument respectively. Heat stress responses of C-CHS and N-CHS rats were quantitatively analyzed and compared, and the survival time was also compared by K-M survival analysis. Results There was a significant difference in regulatory features of the core temperature and SBP betweenC-CHS and N-CHS rats. Although no difference in maximum core temperature has been observed between N-CHS and C-CHS rats, but in comparison with C-CHS rats,N-CHS rats had significantly faster rise in core temperature(P<0.05, shorter heat stress time period,lighter total thermal load and severe thermal load(P<0.05.N-CHS rats had a poorer prognosis than C-CHS rats(P<0.05. Conclusion In comparison with traditional heatstroke in unconscious rats, heatstroke in conscious rats model is more suitable for the investigation of experimental heatstroke, and further investigation of this model may help understand the mechanism ofpathogenesis of classic heatstroke.

  1. AcEST: DK955574 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available INST Chalcone synthase OS=Pinus strobus GN=CHS P... 166 1e-40 sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta...p|Q9FSB9|CHS1_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 1 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=C... 161 2e-39 sp|O22652|CHSY_RAPSA Chalcone s...EWG-QPKSK 128 >sp|Q9FSB7|CHS3_RUTGR Chalcone synthase 3 OS=Ruta graveolens GN=CHS3 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 393 Sc

  2. Comparison of classical heat stroke between conscious and unconscious rat models

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yan; Fu, Wei; Liu, Ya-Nan; Na PENG; Yu-mei LEI; Su, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Objective To reproduce conscious and unconscious classical heat stroke(CHS) models in conscious and unconscious rats, and the difference in heat stress response between the two models was investigated. Methods Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly and equally divided into conscious classic heatstroke(C-CHS), unconscious classi cheatstroke(N-CHS), conscious normal control(C-NC) and unconscious normal control(N-NC)groups.Rats of C-CHS and N-CHS groups were put into artificial climate chamber, a...

  3. Chediak-Higashi syndrome presenting in accelerated phase: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaloul, I; Talmoudi, J; Chabchoub, I; Ayadi, L; Kamoun, T H; Boudawara, T; Kallel, C H; Hachicha, M

    2016-06-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder characterized by frequent infections, oculocutaneous albinism, bleeding diathesis, and progressive neurologic deterioration. In 85% of cases, CHS patients develop the accelerated phase characterized by pancytopenia, high fever, and lymphohistiocytic infiltration of liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Treatment of accelerated-phase CHS is difficult and the prognosis is poor. Here, we report a case of CHS in a 2-year-old boy who presented in the accelerated phase of the disease. CHS diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical characteristics, hair analysis, and identification of pathognomonic giant azurophilic granules in peripheral blood and bone marrow. PMID:26254864

  4. Endogenous, tissue-specific short interfering RNAs silence the chalcone synthase gene family in glycine max seed coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Jigyasa H; Zabala, Gracia; Varala, Kranthi; Hudson, Matthew; Vodkin, Lila O

    2009-10-01

    Two dominant alleles of the I locus in Glycine max silence nine chalcone synthase (CHS) genes to inhibit function of the flavonoid pathway in the seed coat. We describe here the intricacies of this naturally occurring silencing mechanism based on results from small RNA gel blots and high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations. The two dominant alleles of the I locus encompass a 27-kb region containing two perfectly repeated and inverted clusters of three chalcone synthase genes (CHS1, CHS3, and CHS4). This structure silences the expression of all CHS genes, including CHS7 and CHS8, located on other chromosomes. The CHS short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) sequenced support a mechanism by which RNAs transcribed from the CHS inverted repeat form aberrant double-stranded RNAs that become substrates for dicer-like ribonuclease. The resulting primary siRNAs become guides that target the mRNAs of the nonlinked, highly expressed CHS7 and CHS8 genes, followed by subsequent amplification of CHS7 and CHS8 secondary siRNAs by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Most remarkably, this silencing mechanism occurs only in one tissue, the seed coat, as shown by the lack of CHS siRNAs in cotyledons and vegetative tissues. Thus, production of the trigger double-stranded RNA that initiates the process occurs in a specific tissue and represents an example of naturally occurring inhibition of a metabolic pathway by siRNAs in one tissue while allowing expression of the pathway and synthesis of valuable secondary metabolites in all other organs/tissues of the plant.

  5. Construction and initial operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron was designed on a physics basis for access to the second stability regime and on an engineering basis for independent fabrication of high-accuracy components. The actual construction, assembly, and initial operation of ATF are compared with the characteristics expected during the design of ATF. 31 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Chalcone Synthase Family in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yahui; Ding, Ting; Su, Bo; Jiang, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Members of the chalcone synthase (CHS) family participate in the synthesis of a series of secondary metabolites in plants, fungi and bacteria. The metabolites play important roles in protecting land plants against various environmental stresses during the evolutionary process. Our research was conducted on comprehensive investigation of CHS genes in maize (Zea mays L.), including their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, chromosomal locations and expression analysis. Fourteen CHS genes (ZmCHS01-14) were identified in the genome of maize, representing one of the largest numbers of CHS family members identified in one organism to date. The gene family was classified into four major classes (classes I-IV) based on their phylogenetic relationships. Most of them contained two exons and one intron. The 14 genes were unevenly located on six chromosomes. Two segmental duplication events were identified, which might contribute to the expansion of the maize CHS gene family to some extent. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and microarray data analyses suggested that ZmCHS genes exhibited various expression patterns, indicating functional diversification of the ZmCHS genes. Our results will contribute to future studies of the complexity of the CHS gene family in maize and provide valuable information for the systematic analysis of the functions of the CHS gene family. PMID:26828478

  7. Characterization of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} modified chitosan membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osifo, Peter O.; Masala, Aluwani [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Andries Potgieter Bolevald, P/Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900, Gauteng (South Africa)

    2010-08-01

    Chitosan (Chs) flakes were prepared from chitin materials that were extracted from the exoskeleton of Cape rock lobsters in South Africa. The Chs flakes were prepared into membranes and the Chs membranes were modified by cross-linking with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The cross-linked Chs membranes were characterized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells. The Chs membrane characteristics such as water uptake, thermal stability, proton resistance and methanol permeability were compared to that of high performance conventional Nafion 117 membranes. Under the temperature range studied 20-60 C, the membrane water uptake for Chs was found to be higher than that of Nafion. Thermal analysis revealed that Chs membranes could withstand temperature as high as 230 C whereas Nafion 117 membranes were stable to 320 C under nitrogen. Nafion 117 membranes were found to exhibit high proton resistance of 284 s cm{sup -1} than Chs membranes of 204 s cm{sup -1}. The proton fluxes across the membranes were 2.73 mol cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for Chs- and 1.12 mol cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} Nafion membranes. Methanol (MeOH) permeability through Chs membrane was less, 1.4 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for Chs membranes and 3.9 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for Nafion 117 membranes at 20 C. Chs and Nafion membranes were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MAE) and their performances measure in a free-breathing commercial single cell DMFC. The Nafion membranes showed a better performance as the power density determined for Nafion membranes of 0.0075 W cm{sup -2} was 2.7 times higher than in the case of Chs MEA. (author)

  8. Transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding chitin and β-1,3-glucan synthases from Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Briones, Mariana; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2012-07-01

    Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding chitin synthases (CHS) and β-1,3-glucan synthase (GLS) from Ustilago maydis was studied. Transcript levels were measured during the growth curve of yeast and mycelial forms, in response to ionic and osmotic stress, and during infection of maize plants. Expression of the single GLS gene was constitutive. In contrast, CHS genes expression showed differences depending on environmental conditions. Transcript levels were slightly higher in the mycelial forms, the highest levels occurring at the log phase. Ionic and osmotic stress induced alterations in the expression of CHS genes, but not following a defined pattern, some genes were induced and others repressed by the tested compounds. Changes in transcripts were more apparent during the pathogenic process. At early infection stages, only CHS6 gene showed significant transcript levels, whereas at the period of tumor formation CHS7 and CHS8 genes were also were induced.

  9. Evaluation of Responsiveness of Community Health Services in Urban China: A Quantitative Study in Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qing; Wang, Qi; Lu, Zuxun; Liu, Junan

    2013-01-01

    Background With the objective of the national health services systems reform to move care to the community, community health services (CHS) are becoming the gateways of the health system in China. This study aims to evaluate the levels and distributions of the responsiveness of CHS in urban China and identify the relevant features to provide the government with policy advice on the improvement of CHS responsiveness. Methods A total of 872 face-to-face interviews were conducted in community he...

  10. Evaluation of Responsiveness of Community Health Services in Urban China: A Quantitative Study in Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Luo; Qi Wang; Zuxun Lu; Junan Liu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the objective of the national health services systems reform to move care to the community, community health services (CHS) are becoming the gateways of the health system in China. This study aims to evaluate the levels and distributions of the responsiveness of CHS in urban China and identify the relevant features to provide the government with policy advice on the improvement of CHS responsiveness. METHODS: A total of 872 face-to-face interviews were conducted in community ...

  11. Overvej cannabinoid hyperemesis-syndrom ved recidiverende opkastninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is characterised by unrelenting nausea, recurrent vomiting, abdominal pain and compulsive, hot bathing behaviour. The symptoms contrast the traditional effects associated with cannabis use. We report a "textbook example" of a 26-year-old man with CHS. CHS...... is an important differential diagnosis to consider in patients with similar symptoms and the distinctive symptom relief in hot water. Early recognition may prevent extensive, unnecessary medical examinations and frequent hospital admissions....

  12. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Chalcone Synthase Family in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Yahui Han; Ting Ding; Bo Su; Haiyang Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Members of the chalcone synthase (CHS) family participate in the synthesis of a series of secondary metabolites in plants, fungi and bacteria. The metabolites play important roles in protecting land plants against various environmental stresses during the evolutionary process. Our research was conducted on comprehensive investigation of CHS genes in maize (Zea mays L.), including their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, chromosomal locations and expression analysis. Fourteen CHS gen...

  13. Likelihood analysis of the chalcone synthase genes suggests the role of positive selection in morning glories (Ipomoea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Gu, Hongya; Yang, Ziheng

    2004-01-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoides, which are important for the pigmentation of flowers and act as attractants to pollinators. Genes encoding CHS constitute a multigene family in which the copy number varies among plant species and functional divergence appears to have occurred repeatedly. In morning glories (Ipomoea), five functional CHS genes (A-E) have been described. Phylogenetic analysis of the Ipomoea CHS gene family revealed that CHS A, B, and C experienced accelerated rates of amino acid substitution relative to CHS D and E. To examine whether the CHS genes of the morning glories underwent adaptive evolution, maximum-likelihood models of codon substitution were used to analyze the functional sequences in the Ipomoea CHS gene family. These models used the nonsynonymous/synonymous rate ratio (omega = d(N)/ d(S)) as an indicator of selective pressure and allowed the ratio to vary among lineages or sites. Likelihood ratio test suggested significant variation in selection pressure among amino acid sites, with a small proportion of them detected to be under positive selection along the branches ancestral to CHS A, B, and C. Positive Darwinian selection appears to have promoted the divergence of subfamily ABC and subfamily DE and is at least partially responsible for a rate increase following gene duplication. PMID:14743314

  14. Effect of plagiochin E, an antifungal macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl), on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-zhen WU; Ai-xia CHENG; Ling-mei SUN; Hong-xiang LOU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of plagiochin E (PLE), an antifungal macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl) isolated from liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L, on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans. Methods: The effect of PLE on chitin synthesis in Candida albicans was investigated at the cellular and molecular lev-els. First, the ultrastructural changes were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Second, the effects of PLE on chitin synthetase (Chs) activi-ties in vitro were assayed using 6-O-dansyl-N-acetylglucosamine as a fluorescent substrate, and its effect on chitin synthesis in situ was assayed by spheroplast regeneration. Finally, real-time RT-PCR was performed to assay its effect on the expression of Chs genes (CHS). Results: Observation under TEM showed that the structure of the cell wall in Candida albicans was seriously damaged, which suggested that the antifungal activity of PLE was associated with its effect on the cell wail. Enzymatic assays and spheroplast regeneration showed that PLE inhibited chitin synthesis in vitro and in situ. The results of the PCR showed that PLE significantly downregulated the expression of CHS1, and upregulated the expression of CHS2 and CHS3. Because different Chs is regulated at different stages of transcription and post-translation, the downregulation of CHS1 would decrease the level of Chs 1 and inhibit its activity, and the inhibitory effects of PLE on Chs2 and Chs3 would be at the post-translational level or by the inhibi-tion on the enzyme-active center. Conclusion: These results indicate that the antifungal activity of PLE would be attributed to its inhibitory effect on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans.

  15. Magnetic field of a combined plasma trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, V. G.; Moiseenko, V. E.; Ågren, O.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations performed on the structure of a magnetic field created by the magnetic system of a combined plasma trap. The magnetic system includes the stellarator-type magnetic system and one of the mirror-type. For the stellarator type magnetic system the numeric model contains a magnetic system of an l=2 torsatron with the coils of an additional toroidal magnetic field. The mirror-type magnetic system element is considered as being single current-carrying turn enveloping the region of existence of closed magnetic surfaces of the torsatron. The calculations indicate the existence of a vast area of the values of the additional magnetic field magnitude and magnetic field of the single turn where, in principle, the implementation of the closed magnetic surface configuration is quite feasible.

  16. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment

  17. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  18. Different approaches to the thermonuclear fusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some alternative approaches to the problem of a controlled fusion are given in brief. Advantages, shortcomings and problems are considered while developing the following approaches: a corrugated torus, an astron, toroidal Z-pinch, a stellarator, a torsatron, a tormak, a topolotron, a surmak, fusion in a target, irradiated by an electron beam, a dense plasma focus, a compressed linear and fusion in a laser heating solenoid

  19. Active trajectory control for a heavy ion beam probe on the compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 200 keV heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) on the Compact Helical System torsatron/heliotron uses a newly proposed method in order to control complicated beam trajectories in non-axisymmetrical devices. As a result, the HIBP has successfully measured potential profiles of the toroidal helical plasma. The article will describe the results of the potential profile measurements, together with the HIBP hardware system and procedures to realize the method. (author)

  20. Art and experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerwen, R.C.H.M. van

    2001-01-01

    This three-part dissertation is on the double role of experience in art: as a subject matter, and as the vehicle for our evaluations. It argues (Part three, Chs. 7, 8) for the inclusion within contemporary analytical ‘cognitivism’ (Part one, Chs. 1-3) of certain arguments from the founding fathers o

  1. Fatigue strength of truss girders made of very high strength steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    An effective application of Very High Strength Steel (VHSS) in civil engineering structures is expected in stiff, truss like structures, typically made of Circular Hollow Sections (CHS). Use of castings in combination with CHS could be promising for the design of highly fatigue resistant joints. Cas

  2. Basophil-Derived Amphiregulin Is Essential for UVB Irradiation-Induced Immune Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P M G; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J A M; Zaiss, Dietmar M W

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epiderma

  3. Depletion of regulatory T cells in a hapten-induced inflammation model results in prolonged and increased inflammation driven by T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A. D.; Skov, Søren; Kvist, P. H.;

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs ) are known to play an immunosuppressive role in the response of contact hypersensitivity (CHS), but neither the dynamics of Tregs during the CHS response nor the exaggerated inflammatory response after depletion of Tregs has been characterized in detail. In this study we...

  4. Volatile Drosophila cuticular pheromones are affected by social but not sexual experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Farine

    Full Text Available Recognition of conspecifics and mates is based on a variety of sensory cues that are specific to the species, sex and social status of each individual. The courtship and mating activity of Drosophila melanogaster flies is thought to depend on the olfactory perception of a male-specific volatile pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA, and the gustatory perception of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs, some of which are sexually dimorphic. Using two complementary sampling methods (headspace Solid Phase Micro-Extraction [SPME] and solvent extraction coupled with GC-MS analysis, we measured the dispersion of pheromonal CHs in the air and on the substrate around the fly. We also followed the variations in CHs that were induced by social and sexual interactions. We found that all CHs present on the fly body were deposited as a thin layer on the substrate, whereas only a few of these molecules were also detected in the air. Moreover, social experience during early adult development and in mature flies strongly affected male volatile CHs but not cVA, whereas sexual interaction only had a moderate influence on dispersed CHs. Our study suggests that, in addition to their role as contact cues, CHs can influence fly behavior at a distance and that volatile, deposited and body pheromonal CHs participate in a three-step recognition of the chemical identity and social status of insects.

  5. Main: ACEATCHS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ACEATCHS S000355 02-August-2006 (last modified) kehi ACEAtCHS (ACGT containing elem...ated by exposure to UV-B light; CHS; ACE; MYB; light; UV-A; UV-B; MYB4; leaf; shoot; Arabidopsis thaliana GACACGTAGA ...

  6. Feature evaluation of complex hysteresis smoothing and its practical applications to noisy SEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2013-01-01

    Quality of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image is strongly influenced by noise. This is a fundamental drawback of the SEM instrument. Complex hysteresis smoothing (CHS) has been previously developed for noise removal of SEM images. This noise removal is performed by monitoring and processing properly the amplitude of the SEM signal. As it stands now, CHS may not be so utilized, though it has several advantages for SEM. For example, the resolution of image processed by CHS is basically equal to that of the original image. In order to find wide application of the CHS method in microscopy, the feature of CHS, which has not been so clarified until now is evaluated correctly. As the application of the result obtained by the feature evaluation, cursor width (CW), which is the sole processing parameter of CHS, is determined more properly using standard deviation of noise Nσ. In addition, disadvantage that CHS cannot remove the noise with excessively large amplitude is improved by a certain postprocessing. CHS is successfully applicable to SEM images with various noise amplitudes.

  7. Living Democracy: How Constitution High School Molds Better Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasof, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Philadelphia's Constitution High School (CHS) is committed both to the theory of education for democracy, and to its practice, as reflected by a school constitution, student elections, town hall meetings, and active student participation in school government. As its name indicates, CHS is a theme-based high school that focuses on history,…

  8. Phonon dispersion relation of liquid metals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P B Thakor; P N Gajjar; A R Jani

    2009-06-01

    The phonon dispersion curves of some liquid metals, viz. Na ( = 1), Mg ( = 2), Al ( = 3) and Pb ( = 4), have been computed using our model potential. The charged hard sphere (CHS) reference system is applied to describe the structural information. Our model potential along with CHS reference system is capable of explaining the phonon dispersion relation for monovalent, divalent, trivalent and tetravalent liquid metals.

  9. Molecular characterization of a stable antisense chalcone synthase phenotype in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunkenbein, S.; Coiner, H.; Vos, de C.H.; Schaart, J.G.; Boone, M.J.; Krens, F.A.; Schwab, W.

    2006-01-01

    An octaploid (Fragaria × ananassa cv. Calypso) genotype of strawberry was transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) gene construct using a ripening related CHS cDNA from Fragaria × ananassa cv. Elsanta under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  10. Cholesterol increases kinetic, energetic, and mechanical stability of the human β2-adrenergic receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zocher, Michael; Zhang, Cheng; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup;

    2012-01-01

    to quantify the mechanical strength and flexibility, conformational variability, and kinetic and energetic stability of structural segments stabilizing the human β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) in the absence and presence of the cholesterol analog cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). CHS considerably increased...

  11. Referral patterns between the child health care, general practitioners and secondary health care: a prospective descriptive study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einhorn, R.; Eekhof, J.A.H. van; Engelberts, A.C.; Groeneveld, Y.; Verkerk, P.H.; Wit, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, preventive child health service (CHS) screening plays an important role in the early detection of congenital, developmental, physical, and mental disorders. Objective: To obtain insight into the referral patterns of children from CHS to general practitioners and from

  12. Association between time of pay-for-performance for patients and community health services use by chronic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pay-for-performance for patients is a cost-effective means of improving health behaviours. This study examined the association between the pay time for performance for patients and CHS use by chronic patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to estimate distribution characteristics of CHS use in 2011 and collect data of socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, education level, occupation, disposable personal income in 2011, distance between home and community health agency, chronic disease number, and time of pay-for-performance for patients. Participants were 889 rural adults with hypertension or type II diabetes aged 35 and above. Standardized CHS use means chronic patients use CHS at least once per quarter. RESULTS: Patients who received incentives prior to services had 2.724 times greater odds of using standardized CHS than those who received incentives after services (95%CI, 1.986-3.736, P<0.001. For all subgroups (socio-demographic characteristics and chronic disease number, patients who received incentives prior to services were more likely to use standardized CHS than those receiving incentives after services. CONCLUSIONS: Pay time for performance for patients was associated with CHS use by chronic patients. Patients receiving incentive prior to services were more likely to use standardized CHS. And pay time should not be ignored when the policy on pay-for-performance for patients is designed.

  13. Cloning and expression analysis of chalcone synthase gene from Coleus forskohlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Praveen; Mahajan, Vidushi; Jamwal, Vijay Lakshmi; Kapoor, Nitika; Rasool, Shafaq; Bedi, Yashbir S; Gandhi, Sumit G

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoids are an important class of secondary metabolites that play various roles in plants such as mediating defense, floral pigmentation and plant-microbe interaction. Flavonoids are also known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) is an important medicinal herb with a diverse metabolic profile, including production of a flavonoid, genkwanin. However, components of the flavonoid pathway have not yet been studied in this plant. Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyses the first committed step of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Full-length cDNA, showing homology with plant CHS gene was isolated from leaves of C. forskohlii and named CfCHS (GenBank accession no. KF643243). Theoretical translation of CfCHS nucleotide sequence shows that it encodes a protein of 391 amino acids with a molecular weight of 42.75 kDa and pI 6.57. Expression analysis of CfCHS in different tissues and elicitor treatments showed that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) strongly induced its expression. Total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of C. forskohlii also got enhanced in response to MeJA, which correlated with increased CfCHS expression. Induction of CfCHS by MeJA suggest its involvement in production of flavonoids, providing protection from microbes during herbivory or mechanical wounding. Further, our in silico predictions and experimental data suggested that CfCHS may be posttranscriptionally regulated by miR34. PMID:27659336

  14. Flavonols and fertilization in Petunia hybrida: localization and mode of action during pollen tube growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ylstra, B.; Busscher, J.; Franken, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Mol, J.N.M.; Tunen, van A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonols form an important class of flavonoids which serve an essential function during plant reproduction. Flavonoid biosynthesis is initiated by the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). A high abundance of flavonols and chs mRNA was demonstrated in male and female reproductive organs of Petunia hybrid

  15. In situ localization of chalcone synthase mRNA in pea root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it

  16. Cloning and expression analysis of chalcone synthase gene from Coleus forskohlii

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAVEEN AWASTHI; VIDUSHI MAHAJAN; VIJAY LAKSHMI JAMWAL; NITIKA KAPOOR; SHAFAQ RASOOL; YASHBIR S. BEDI; SUMIT G. GANDHI

    2016-09-01

    Flavonoids are an important class of secondary metabolites that play various roles in plants such as mediating defense, floral pigmentation and plant–microbe interaction. Flavonoids are also known to possess antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Coleus forskohlii (Willd.) Briq. (Lamiaceae) is an important medicinal herb with a diverse metabolic profile, including production of a flavonoid, genkwanin. However, components of the flavonoid pathway have not yet been studied in this plant. Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyses the first committed step of flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Full-length cDNA, showing homology with plantCHS gene was isolated from leaves of C. forskohlii and named CfCHS (GenBank accession no. KF643243). Theoretical translation of CfCHS nucleotide sequence shows that it encodes a protein of 391 amino acids with a molecular weight of 42.75 kDa and pI 6.57. Expression analysis of CfCHS in different tissues and elicitor treatments showed that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) strongly induced its expression. Total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of C.forskohlii also got enhanced in response to MeJA, which correlated with increased CfCHS expression. Induction ofCfCHS by MeJA suggest its involvement in production of flavonoids, providing protection from microbes during herbivory or mechanical wounding. Further, ourin silico predictions and experimental data suggested that CfCHS may be posttranscriptionally regulated by miR34.

  17. Target enzyme mutations are the molecular basis for resistance towards pharmacological inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Uffe H; Petersen, Jakob G; Garten, Antje;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) are promising cancer drugs currently in clinical trials in oncology, including APO866, CHS-828 and the CHS-828 prodrug EB1627/GMX1777, but cancer cell resistance to these drugs has not been studied in detail. METHODS: Here, we...

  18. Metabolic engineering of the morphology of Aspergillus oryzae by altering chitin synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, C.; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Hansen, Kim;

    2002-01-01

    Morphology and alpha-amylase production during submerged cultivation were examined in a wild-type strain (A1560) and in strains of Aspergillus oryzae in which chitin synthase B (chsB) and chitin synthesis myosin A (csmA) have been disrupted (ChsB/G and CM101). In a flowthrough cell, the growth of...

  19. CFT driven cosmology and conformal higher spin fields

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinsky, Andrei O

    2015-01-01

    Conformal higher spin (CHS) field theory, which is a solid part of recent advanced checks of AdS/CFT correspondence, finds applications in cosmology. Hidden sector of weakly interacting CHS fields suggests a resolution of the hierarchy problem in the model of initial conditions for inflationary cosmology driven by conformal field theory. These initial conditions are set by thermal garland type cosmological instantons in the sub-planckian energy range for the model of CHS fields with a large positive coefficient $\\beta$ of the topological Gauss-Bonnet term in their total conformal anomaly. Negative values of $\\beta$ in the models dominated by fermionic CHS fields generate the so-called necklace type instantons which lead to a divergent intrinsically inconsistent statistical sum for ensemble of cosmologies. Anomaly free models of an infinite tower of CHS fields with $\\zeta$-function regularized $\\beta=0$ generate vacuum necklace instantons. They originate due to an exotic property of these models -- their negat...

  20. Chediak Higashi Syndrome masquerading as acute leukemia / storage disorder - A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Asif Baig

    2015-07-01

    CHS is characterised by partial oculocutaneous albinism, frequent fatal bacterial infections, bleeding diathesis and peripheral + Cranial nerve palsies. This disorder further culminates into accelerated phase (Lymphoproliferative Syndrome progressing into pancytopenia. CHS is due to single gene mutation in LYST (CHS gene localized to 1q chromosome. The diagnostic hallmark of CHS is presence of giant purple to blue violet inclusions in leucocytes. In this study granules are more prominent in Bone marrow than in PBS correlating well with previous studies. Approximately 85% of the cases, of CHS culminates into Accelerated phase showing Lymphohistiocytic infiltration progressing to pancytopenia and death due to infection. The very rare nature of this disease and its grave prognosis merits its reporting. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1785-1787

  1. Enhanced expression and differential inducibility of soybean chalcone synthase genes by supplemental UV-B in dark-grown seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By developing gene-specific RT-PCR and using filters to allow transmission down to 290 nm (UV-B+) or blocking all radiation below 320 nm (UV-B(-)), the effect of UV-B+ and UV-B- light on expression of each of the presently known seven members of soybean chalcone synthase (CHS) gene family in dark-grown seedlings was analyzed. Dark expression was detectable already in 18 h dark-germinating embryos, with progressive increases on successive days, suggesting that chs belongs to a class of genes expressed very early during germination, and that the expression at this stage is either constitutive or induced by non-light-dependent factors present in the seed or made available following imbibition. Exposure of 18 h dark-germinating embryos to UV-B- or to UV-B+ light did not lead to an increase in chs signal. However, the 24 h dark-germinating embryos showed a distinct effect of UV-B+, interestingly coinciding with the stage when the head of seedlings was in the process of being pushed up above ground by stem elongation, suggesting the possibility of a developmental switch modulating the appearance of UV-B response. The response to UV-B- was most prominent in chs1 and almost silent in chs2, while the up-regulation by UV-B+ was most prominent in chs5 and chs6 and much less so in chs2. Interestingly, chs2 was noted to be the only member of the Gmchs gene family devoid of H-box, raising the possibility that the H-box may be a good indicator of the photo-inducibility of a chs gene. (author)

  2. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. A report of six new cases and a summary of previous reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Narváez, Carla; Mola Gilbert, Montserrat; Batlle de Santiago, Enric; Bigas Farreres, Jordi; Giné Serven, Eloy; Cañete Crespillo, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a medical condition which was identified for the first time in 2004 and affects chronic users of cannabis. It is characterized by cyclic episodes of uncontrollable vomiting as well as compulsive bathing in hot water. The episodes have a duration of two to four days. The vomiting is recognizable by a lack of response to regular antiemetic treatment, and subsides only with cannabis abstinence, reappearing in periods of consumption of this substance. The etiology of this syndrome is unknown. Up until June 2014, 83 cases of CHS were published worldwide, four of them in Spain.The first patient of CHS at Mataró Hospital was diagnosed in 2012. Since then, five new cases have been identified. The average duration between the onset of acute CHS episodes and diagnosis is 6.1 years, similar to that observed in previously published cases, an average of 3.1 years. This "delay" of CHS diagnosis demonstrates a lack of awareness with respect to this medical condition in the healthcare profession.With the objective of providing information concerning CHS and facilitating its timely diagnosis, a series of six new cases of CHS diagnosed in Mataró Hospital is presented along with a summary of cases published between 2004 and June 2014. PMID:26990261

  3. Two Novel Mutations Identified in an African-American Child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Morrone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, coagulopathy and late-onset, progressive neurological dysfunction. It also has an “accelerated phase” characterized by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH. The disease is caused by mutations in the CHS1/LYST gene located on chromosome 1, which affects lysosome morphology and function. We report the case of an African-American child with CHS in Case. This 16-month old African-American girl presented with fever and lethargy. The proband had pale skin compared to her parents, with light brown eyes, silvery hair and massive hepatosplenomegaly. Her laboratory evaluation was remarkable for pancytopenia, high serum ferritin and an elevated LDH. Bone marrow aspirate revealed large inclusions in granulocytes and erythrophagocytosis consistent with HLH. Genetic evaluation revealed two novel nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene: c.3622C>T (p.Q1208X and c.11002G>T (p.E3668X. Conclusions. Our patient is one of the few cases of CHS reported in the African American population. We identified 2 nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene, the first mutation analysis published of an African-American child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. These two mutations predict a severe phenotype and thus identification of these mutations has an important clinical significance in CHS.

  4. Determinants of Club Head Speed in PGA Professional Golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam L; Ward, Nick; Bishop, Chris; Maloney, Sean; Turner, Anthony N

    2016-08-01

    Turner, AN. Determinants of club head speed in PGA professional golfers. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2266-2270, 2016-Club head speed (CHS) has been significantly correlated with golf performance, but only in amateurs. The purpose of this study therefore, was to investigate the relationship between field-based measures of strength and power with CHS in Professional Golfers Association (PGA) professional golfers, and further determine differences between age groups. A correlation design was used to test relationships between squat jump (SJ), seated medicine ball throw (SMBT), rotational medicine ball throw (RMBT), and CHS. Twenty participants volunteered to take part in the study (age, 31.95 ± 8.7 years; height, 182.75 ± 6.88 cm; mass, 90.47 ± 15.6 kg). Intraclass correlation coefficients reported high reliability for performance variables (r = 0.85-0.95). Significant correlations (p professionals professionals >30 (n = 10; 39.7 ± 5.5 years). Correlations to CHS for 30 had significant correlations to CHS not only in SMBT (r = 0.881) and SJ (r = 0.729), but also in RMBT (r = 0.642). The results of this study suggest that SJ and SMBT have the largest contribution to CHS in PGA professional golfers. When comparing age groups, it appears that younger golfers (30 years) utilize more upper body strength. Results suggest that strength-based leg exercises and power-based chest exercises may improve CHS in professional golfers. PMID:26849785

  5. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Kai Xia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor, which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult. When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB.

  6. Exposure to diflubenzuron results in an up-regulation of a chitin synthase 1 gene in citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB. PMID:24590130

  7. RNA interference silencing of chalcone synthase, the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, leads to parthenocarpic tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijlen, Elio G W M; de Vos, C H Ric; Martens, Stefan; Jonker, Harry H; Rosin, Faye M; Molthoff, Jos W; Tikunov, Yury M; Angenent, Gerco C; van Tunen, Arjen J; Bovy, Arnaud G

    2007-07-01

    Parthenocarpy, the formation of seedless fruits in the absence of functional fertilization, is a desirable trait for several important crop plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Seedless fruits can be of great value for consumers, the processing industry, and breeding companies. In this article, we propose a novel strategy to obtain parthenocarpic tomatoes by down-regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of chalcone synthase (CHS), the first gene in the flavonoid pathway. In CHS RNAi plants, total flavonoid levels, transcript levels of both Chs1 and Chs2, as well as CHS enzyme activity were reduced by up to a few percent of the corresponding wild-type values. Surprisingly, all strong Chs-silenced tomato lines developed parthenocarpic fruits. Although a relation between flavonoids and parthenocarpic fruit development has never been described, it is well known that flavonoids are essential for pollen development and pollen tube growth and, hence, play an essential role in plant reproduction. The observed parthenocarpic fruit development appeared to be pollination dependent, and Chs RNAi fruits displayed impaired pollen tube growth. Our results lead to novel insight in the mechanisms underlying parthenocarpic fruit development. The potential of this technology for applications in plant breeding and biotechnology will be discussed. PMID:17478633

  8. Oxazolone-induced contact hypersensitivity reduces lymphatic drainage but enhances the induction of adaptive immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aebischer

    Full Text Available Contact hypersensitivity (CHS induced by topical application of haptens is a commonly used model to study dermal inflammatory responses in mice. Several recent studies have indicated that CHS-induced skin inflammation triggers lymphangiogenesis but may negatively impact the immune-function of lymphatic vessels, namely fluid drainage and dendritic cell (DC migration to draining lymph nodes (dLNs. On the other hand, haptens have been shown to exert immune-stimulatory activity by inducing DC maturation. In this study we investigated how the presence of pre-established CHS-induced skin inflammation affects the induction of adaptive immunity in dLNs. Using a mouse model of oxazolone-induced skin inflammation we observed that lymphatic drainage was reduced and DC migration from skin to dLNs was partially compromised. At the same time, a significantly stronger adaptive immune response towards ovalbumin (OVA was induced when immunization had occurred in CHS-inflamed skin as compared to uninflamed control skin. In fact, immunization with sterile OVA in CHS-inflamed skin evoked a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response comparable to the one induced by conventional immunization with OVA and adjuvant in uninflamed skin. Striking phenotypic and functional differences were observed when comparing DCs from LNs draining uninflamed or CHS-inflamed skin. DCs from LNs draining CHS-inflamed skin expressed higher levels of co-stimulatory molecules and MHC molecules, produced higher levels of the interleukin-12/23 p40 subunit (IL-12/23-p40 and more potently induced T cell activation in vitro. Immunization experiments revealed that blockade of IL-12/23-p40 during the priming phase partially reverted the CHS-induced enhancement of the adaptive immune response. Collectively, our findings indicate that CHS-induced skin inflammation generates an overall immune-stimulatory milieu, which outweighs the potentially suppressive effect of reduced lymphatic vessel function.

  9. Characterization of a Chitin Synthase Encoding Gene and Effect of Diflubenzuron in Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal, M. A. Rouf Mian, Omprakash Mittapalli, Andy P. Michel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthases are critical enzymes for synthesis of chitin and thus for subsequent growth and development in insects. We identified the cDNA of chitin synthase gene (CHS in Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, which is a serious pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of CHS in A. glycines (AyCHS was 5802 bp long with an open reading frame of 4704 bp that encoded for a 1567 amino acid residues protein. The predicted AyCHS protein had a molecular mass of 180.05 kDa and its amino acid sequence contained all the signature motifs (EDR, QRRRW and TWGTR of chitin synthases. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis revealed that AyCHS was expressed in all major tissues (gut, fat body and integument; however, it had the highest expression in integument (~3.5 fold compared to gut. Interestingly, the expression of AyCHS in developing embryos was nearly 7 fold higher compared to adult integument, which probably is a reflection of embryonic molts in hemimetabolus insects. Expression analysis in different developmental stages of A. glycines revealed a consistent AyCHS expression in all stages. Further, through leaf dip bioassay, we tested the effect of diflubenzuron (DFB, Dimilin ®, a chitin-synthesis inhibitor, on A. glycines' survival, fecundity and body weight. When fed with soybean leaves previously dipped in 50 ppm DFB solution, A. glycines nymphs suffered significantly higher mortality compared to control. A. glycines nymphs feeding on diflubenzuron treated leaves showed a slightly enhanced expression (1.67 fold of AyCHS compared to nymphs on untreated leaves. We discussed the potential applications of the current study to develop novel management strategies using chitin-synthesis inhibitors and using RNAi by knocking down AyCHS expression.

  10. Simultaneous post-transcriptional gene silencing of two different chalcone synthase genes resulting in pure white flowers in the octoploid dahlia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Kojima, Misa; Kitamura, Yoshikuni; Hoshino, Atsushi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki; Yazawa, Susumu

    2011-11-01

    Garden dahlias (Dahlia variabilis) are autoallooctoploids with redundant genes producing wide color variations in flowers. There are no pure white dahlia cultivars, despite its long breeding history. However, the white areas of bicolor flower petals appear to be pure white. The objective of this experiment was to elucidate the mechanism by which the pure white color is expressed in the petals of some bicolor cultivars. A pigment analysis showed that no flavonoid derivatives were detected in the white areas of petals in a star-type cultivar 'Yuino' and the two seedling cultivars 'OriW1' and 'OriW2' borne from a red-white bicolor cultivar, 'Orihime', indicating that their white areas are pure white. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that in the pure white areas, transcripts of two chalcone synthases (CHS), DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 which share 69% nucleotide similarity with each other, were barely detected. Premature mRNA of DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 were detected, indicating that these two CHS genes are silenced post-transcriptionally. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from CHSs were produced in these pure white areas. By high-throughput sequence analysis of small RNAs in the pure white areas with no mismatch acceptance, small RNAs were mapped to two alleles of DvCHS1 and two alleles of DvCHS2 expressed in 'Yuino' petals. Therefore, we concluded that simultaneous siRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing of redundant CHS genes results in the appearance of pure white color in dahlias.

  11. Simultaneous post-transcriptional gene silencing of two different chalcone synthase genes resulting in pure white flowers in the octoploid dahlia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Kojima, Misa; Kitamura, Yoshikuni; Hoshino, Atsushi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki; Yazawa, Susumu

    2011-11-01

    Garden dahlias (Dahlia variabilis) are autoallooctoploids with redundant genes producing wide color variations in flowers. There are no pure white dahlia cultivars, despite its long breeding history. However, the white areas of bicolor flower petals appear to be pure white. The objective of this experiment was to elucidate the mechanism by which the pure white color is expressed in the petals of some bicolor cultivars. A pigment analysis showed that no flavonoid derivatives were detected in the white areas of petals in a star-type cultivar 'Yuino' and the two seedling cultivars 'OriW1' and 'OriW2' borne from a red-white bicolor cultivar, 'Orihime', indicating that their white areas are pure white. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that in the pure white areas, transcripts of two chalcone synthases (CHS), DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 which share 69% nucleotide similarity with each other, were barely detected. Premature mRNA of DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 were detected, indicating that these two CHS genes are silenced post-transcriptionally. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from CHSs were produced in these pure white areas. By high-throughput sequence analysis of small RNAs in the pure white areas with no mismatch acceptance, small RNAs were mapped to two alleles of DvCHS1 and two alleles of DvCHS2 expressed in 'Yuino' petals. Therefore, we concluded that simultaneous siRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing of redundant CHS genes results in the appearance of pure white color in dahlias. PMID:21688014

  12. Colostrum hexasaccharide, a novel Staphylococcus aureus quorum-sensing inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A; Singh, B N; Deepak, D; Rawat, A K S; Singh, B R

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and characterized CHS from mare colostrum by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography evaporative light-scattering detection (RP-HPLC-ELSD), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Antibiofilm activity of CHS against S. aureus and its possible interference with bacterial QS systems were determined. The inhibition and eradication potentials of the biofilms were studied by microscopic analyses and quantified by 96-well-microtiter-plate assays. Also, the ability of CHS to interfere in bacterial QS by degrading acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), one of the most studied signal molecules for Gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated. The results revealed that CHS exhibited promising inhibitory activities against QS-regulated secretion of VFs, including spreading ability, hemolysis, protease, and lipase activities, when applied at a rate of 5 mg/ml. The results of biofilm experiments indicated that CHS is a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and also has the ability to eradicate it. The potential of CHS to interfere with bacterial QS systems was also examined by degradation of AHLs. Furthermore, it was documented that CHS decreased antibiotic resistance in S. aureus. The results thus give a lead that mare colostrum can be a promising source for isolating a next-generation antibacterial. PMID:25645850

  13. Expression in E. coli and characterization of the catalytic domain of Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piffeteau Annie

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitin synthase 3a (CHS3a from Botrytis cinerea (Bc catalyses the multiple transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc residues to the growing chitin chain. Chitin, a β-1,4 linked GlcNAc homopolymer, is an essential cell wall component of filamentous fungi. Chitin synthase, processive membranous protein, has been recognized as a promising target for new antifungicides. Enzymatic characterizations of chitin synthases have been limited, mainly because purity and amounts of integral enzyme obtained after purification procedures have not been sufficient. Findings We undertook the preparation of two BcCHS3a fragment proteins, containing only the central domain and devoid of the N-terminal and transmembrane C-terminal regions. The central domain of CHS3a, named SGC (Spsa GntI Core, is conserved in all UDP-glycosyltransferases and it is believed to contain the active site of the enzyme. CHS3a-SGC protein was totally expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. We performed recombinant CHS3a-SGC purification in denaturing conditions, followed by a refolding step. Although circular dichroism spectra clearly exhibited secondary structures of renatured CHS3a-SGC, no chitin synthase activity was detected. Nevertheless CHS3a-SGC proteins show specific binding for the substrate UDP-GlcNAc with a dissociation constant similar to the Michaelis constant and a major contribution of the uracil moiety for recognition was confirmed. Conclusions Milligram-scale quantities of CHS3a-SGC protein with native-like properties such as specific substrate UDP-GlcNAc binding could be easily obtained. These results are encouraging for subsequent heterologous expression of full-length CHS3a.

  14. Inhibition of survivin influences the biological activities of canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yamazaki

    Full Text Available Canine histiocytic sarcoma (CHS is an aggressive malignant neoplasm that originates from histiocytic lineage cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages, and is characterized by progressive local infiltration and a very high metastatic potential. Survivin is as an apoptotic inhibitory factor that has major functions in cell proliferation, including inhibition of apoptosis and regulation of cell division, and is expressed in most types of human and canine malignant neoplasms, including melanoma and osteosarcoma. To investigate whether survivin was expressed at high levels in CHS and whether its expression was correlated with the aggressive biological behavior of CHS, we assessed relation between survivin expression and CHS progression, as well as the effects of survivin inhibition on the biological activities of CHS cells. We comparatively analyzed the expression of 6 selected anti-apoptotic genes, including survivin, in specimens from 30 dogs with histiocytic sarcoma and performed annexin V staining to evaluate apoptosis, methylthiazole tetrazolium assays to assess cell viability and chemosensitivity, and latex bead assays to measure changes in phagocytic activities in 4 CHS cell lines and normal canine fibroblasts transfected with survivin siRNA. Survivin gene expression levels in 30 specimens were significantly higher than those of the other 6 genes. After transfection with survivin siRNA, apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, enhanced chemosensitivity, and weakened phagocytic activities were observed in all CHS cell lines. In contrast, normal canine fibroblasts were not significantly affected by survivin knockdown. These results suggested that survivin expression may mediate the aggressive biological activities of CHS and that survivin may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of CHS.

  15. CLONACIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE LA ESTRUCTURA PRIMARIA DE QUITINA SINTASAS DE ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Eduardo; EBERT, FRANK; Willhoeft, Ute; SAID, SALVADOR; Tannich, Egbert

    2005-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, parásito responsable de la amibiasis, presenta dos etapas en su ciclo de vida: trofozoíto y quiste. Los quistes (forma infectiva) poseen una pared compuesta principalmente por quitina, polímero de ß-(1?4)-N-acetil-Dglucosamina cuya síntesis es catalizada por quitina sintasas (CHS). Las CHS se han descrito en hongos, insectos y nemátodos, pero no en protozoarios como Entamoeba. Se clonaron y secuenciaron dos genes CHS de E. histolytica. Se dete...

  16. Treatment of the X-linked lymphoproliferative, Griscelli and Chédiak-Higashi syndromes by HLH directed therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trottestam, Helena; Beutel, Karin; Meeths, Marie;

    2009-01-01

    be used for these syndromes. PROCEDURE: In the HLH-94/HLH-2004 treatment study registries, we evaluated all patients with GS2 (n = 5), XLP (n = 2) or CHS (n = 2) treated between 1994 and 2004. RESULTS: All patients responded to the therapy, and all are alive but one (suffering from CHS), with a mean...... follow-up of 5.6 years. All GS2, one XLP and one CHS patient underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Mean follow-up post transplant was 6.0 years. Six of the seven transplanted children achieved non-active disease status at the time for SCT. Neurological sequelae were reported in all, except...

  17. Multimodal neuromonitoring in pediatric cardiac anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. C. Mittnacht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in overall outcome, neurological injury remains a feared complication following pediatric congenital heart surgery (CHS. Only if adverse events are detected early enough, can effective actions be initiated preventing potentially serious injury. The multifactorial etiology of neurological injury in CHS patients makes it unlikely that one single monitoring modality will be effective in capturing all possible threats. Improving current and developing new technologies and combining them according to the concept of multimodal monitoring may allow for early detection and possible intervention with the goal to further improve neurological outcome in children undergoing CHS.

  18. Comparison of Charlson's weighted index of comorbidities with the chronic health score for the prediction of mortality in septic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yunliang; Wang Tao; Bao Jun; Tian Zhaotao; Lin Zhaofen; Chen Dechang

    2014-01-01

    Background Comorbidity is one of the most important determinants of short-term and long-term outcomes in septic patients.Charlson's weighted index of comorbidities (WIC) and the chronic health score (CHS),which is a component of the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ,are two frequently-used measures of comorbidity.In this study,we assess the performance of WIC and CHS in predicting the hospital mortality of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with sepsis.Methods A total of 338 adult patients with sepsis were admitted to a multisystem ICU between October 2010 and August 2012.Clinical data were collected,including age,gender,underlying diseases,key predisposing causes,severity-of-sepsis,and hospital mortality.The APACHE Ⅱ,CHS,acute physiology score (APS),sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) and WIC scores were assessed within the first 24 hours of admission.Univariate and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to compare the performance of WIC and CHS.The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to predict hospital mortality over classes of risk.Results Of all the enrolled patients,224 patients survived and 114 patients died.The surviving patients had significantly lower WIC,CHS,APACHE Ⅱ,and SOFA scores than the non-surviving patients (P <0.05).Combining WIC or CHS with other administrative data showed that the hospital mortality was significantly associated with age,severe sepsis,key predisposing causes such as pneumonia,a history of underlying diseases such as hypertension and congestive cardiac failure,and WIC,CHS and APS scores (P <0.05).The AUC for the hospital mortality were 0.564 (95% confidence interval (Cl) 0.496-0.631) of CHS,0.663 (95% Cl 0.599-0.727) of WIC,0.770 (95% Cl 0.718-0.822) of APACHE Ⅱ,0.856 (95% Cl 0.815-0.897) of the CHS combined with other administrative data,and 0.857 (95% Cl 0.817-0.897) of the WIC combined with other administrative data.The diagnostic

  19. An Overlooked Victim of Cannabis: Losing Several Years of Well-being and Inches of Jejunum on the Way to Unravel Her Hyperemesis Enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo

    2016-01-01

    A case report of a severe cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is presented, which had worsened during dronabinol administration and was associated with intestinal dysmotility (pseudo-obstruction). Because dronabinol is an isomer of THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, this case provides first direct clinical evidence on the key role of THC in the obscure pathogenesis of CHS. Another peculiarity of this case was that the patient had an odyssey of hospital stays with extensive workups before the patient herself found via Internet the right diagnosis for her cyclic vomiting and abdominal pain. This is typical for CHS, which is often overlooked because physicians refer to the widely known antiemetic properties of cannabis, for example, in cancer chemotherapy but were not always aware of a possible paradoxical emetic reaction of recreational cannabis use. Being pathognomonic of CHS, the patient became symptom-free while abstaining from her cannabis use, meanwhile being in her 12th month of controlled abstinence.

  20. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YPR106W, YBR038W [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as prey (0) YBR038W CHS2 Chitin synthase II, requires activation from zymogenic form in order to catalyze th...ption Chitin synthase II, requires activation from zymogenic form in order to cat

  1. Gclust Server: 113022 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 113022 SCE_YBR038W=CHS2 Cluster Sequences - 963 Chitin synthase II, requires activa...ative annotation Chitin synthase II, requires activation from zymogenic form in order to catalyze the transf

  2. Molecular mechanism for cadmium-induced anthocyanin accumulation in Azolla imbricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling-Peng; Dong, Xin-Jiao; Ma, Hai-Hu

    2012-04-01

    Anthocyanins inducibly synthesized by Cd treatment showed high antioxidant activity and might be involved in internal detoxification mechanisms of Azolla imbricata against Cd toxicity. In order to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis mechanism during Cd stress, the cDNAs encoding chalcone synthase (CHS) and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), two key enzymes in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway, were isolated from A. imbricata. Deduced amino acid sequences of the cDNAs showed high homology to the sequences from other plants. Expression of AiDFR, and to a lesser extent AiCHS, was significantly induced in Cd treatment plant in comparison with the control. CHS and DFR enzymatic activities showed similar pattern changes with these genes expression during Cd stress. These results strongly indicate that Cd induced anthocyanin accumulation is probably mediated by up-regulation of structural genes including CHS and DFR, which might further increase the activities of enzymes encoded by these structural genes that control the anthocyanin biosynthetic steps. PMID:22225708

  3. Strains for the production of flavonoids from glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Santos, Christine; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-11-13

    The invention relates to the production of flavonoids and flavonoid precursors in cells through recombinant expression of tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and chalcone isomerase (CHI).

  4. Main: LREBOXIIPCCHS1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LREBOXIIPCCHS1 S000303 10-Feb-2000 (last modified) seki BoxII; Light responsive element (LR...02; chalcone synthase; CHS; light; Box II; LRE; leaf; shoot; parsley (Petroselinum crispum) TCCACGTGGC ...

  5. Final Report: Cartanega Lagoon Contaminants Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Organochlorine analysis did not reveal any 0CH traces in the sediments. Low traces of some 0CHs including DDE were found in both bird liver samples (Appendix 2)....

  6. Silvery Hair with Speckled Dyspigmentation: Chediak-Higashi Syndrome in Three Indian Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuveer, Chekuri; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Mithuna, Mallur N; Suresh, Tamraparni

    2015-01-01

    Silvery hair is a common feature of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome, and Elejalde syndrome. CHS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, frequent pyogenic infections, and the presence of abnormal large granules in leukocytes and other granule containing cells. A 6-year-old girl had recurrent respiratory infections, speckled hypo- and hyper-pigmentation over exposed areas, and silvery hair since early childhood. Clinical features, laboratory investigations, hair microscopy, and skin biopsy findings were consistent with CHS. Her younger sisters aged 4 and 2 years had similar clinical, peripheral blood picture, and hair microscopy findings consistent with CHS. This case is reported for its rare occurrence in all the three siblings of the family, prominent pigmentary changes, and absent accelerated phase till date. Awareness, early recognition, and management of the condition may prevent the preterm morbidity associated. PMID:26622160

  7. Pareto-optimal clustering scheme using data aggregation for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Puneet; Sharma, Vidushi

    2015-07-01

    The presence of cluster heads (CHs) in a clustered wireless sensor network (WSN) leads to improved data aggregation and enhanced network lifetime. Thus, the selection of appropriate CHs in WSNs is a challenging task, which needs to be addressed. A multicriterion decision-making approach for the selection of CHs is presented using Pareto-optimal theory and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) methods. CHs are selected using three criteria including energy, cluster density and distance from the sink. The overall network lifetime in this method with 50% data aggregation after simulations is 81% higher than that of distributed hierarchical agglomerative clustering in similar environment and with same set of parameters. Optimum number of clusters is estimated using TOPSIS technique and found to be 9-11 for effective energy usage in WSNs.

  8. Mutations in an Atypical TIR-NB-LRR-LIM Resistance Protein Confer Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dongling; Johnson, Kaeli C. M.; Zhu, Zhaohai; Huang, Yan; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yuelin; Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In order to defend against microbial infection, plants employ a complex immune system that relies partly on resistance (R) proteins that initiate intricate signaling cascades upon pathogen detection. The resistance signaling network utilized by plants is only partially characterized. A genetic screen conducted to identify novel defense regulators involved in this network resulted in the isolation of the snc6-1D mutant. Positional cloning revealed that this mutant contained a molecular lesion in the chilling sensitive 3 (CHS3) gene, thus the allele was renamed chs3-2D. CHS3 encodes a TIR-NB-LRR R protein that contains a C-terminal zinc-binding LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1, Mec-3) domain. Although this protein has been previously implicated in cold stress and defense response, the role of the LIM domain in modulating protein activity is unclear. The chs3-2D allele contains a G to A point mutation causing a C1340 to Y1340 substitution close to the LIM domain. It encodes a dominant gain-of-function mutation. The chs3-2D mutant is severely stunted and displays curled leaf morphology. Additionally, it constitutively expresses PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes, accumulates salicylic acid, and shows enhanced resistance to the virulent oomycete isolate Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (H.a.) Noco2. Subcellular localization assays using GFP fusion constructs indicate that both CHS3 and chs3-2D localize to the nucleus. A third chs3 mutant allele, chs3-3D, was identified in an unrelated genetic screen in our lab. This allele contains a C to T point mutation resulting in an M1017 to V1017 substitution in the LRR–LIM linker region. Additionally, a chs3-2D suppressor screen identified two revertant alleles containing secondary mutations that abolish the mutant morphology. Analysis of the locations of these molecular lesions provides support for the hypothesis that the LIM domain represses CHS3 R-like protein activity. This repression may occur through either autoinhibition or binding of a

  9. Proceedings of US-Japan heliotron-stellarator workshop: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This paper is the first of four volumes on the US-Japan Heliotron-Stellarator workshop. It contains talks on the Heliotron E experiment, the compact helical system (CHS) program, the status of the ATF project, the status of the W VII-AS, the status of the TJ-II program, the ATF experimental plans, the ATF diagnostics, the compact Helical system, and the CHS experimental program and diagnostics. (LSP)

  10. Proceedings of US-Japan heliotron-stellarator workshop: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the first of four volumes on the US-Japan Heliotron-Stellarator workshop. It contains talks on the Heliotron E experiment, the compact helical system (CHS) program, the status of the ATF project, the status of the W VII-AS, the status of the TJ-II program, the ATF experimental plans, the ATF diagnostics, the compact Helical system, and the CHS experimental program and diagnostics

  11. Post-Transcriptional Silencing of Flavonol Synthase mRNA in Tobacco Leads to Fruits with Arrested Seed Set

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Mahajan; Paramvir Singh Ahuja; Sudesh Kumar Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids are synthesized by phenylpropanoid pathway. They are known to participate in large number of physiological and biochemical processes in plants. Parthenocarpy and male sterility has earlier been reported by silencing chalcone synthase (CHS) encoding gene. Silencing of CHS has blocked the synthesis of most of useful flavonoids including flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Also, these studies could not identify whether parthenocarpy/male sterility were due to lack of flavan-3-ols or flavonols...

  12. Multimodal neuromonitoring in pediatric cardiac anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J. C. Mittnacht; Cesar Rodriguez-Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in overall outcome, neurological injury remains a feared complication following pediatric congenital heart surgery (CHS). Only if adverse events are detected early enough, can effective actions be initiated preventing potentially serious injury. The multifactorial etiology of neurological injury in CHS patients makes it unlikely that one single monitoring modality will be effective in capturing all possible threats. Improving current and developing new technol...

  13. Colostrum Hexasaccharide, a Novel Staphylococcus aureus Quorum-Sensing Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, A; Singh, B.N.; Deepak, D.; Rawat, A. K. S.; Singh, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of quorum-sensing (QS) systems regulating antibiotic resistance and virulence factors (VFs) has afforded a novel opportunity to prevent bacterial pathogenicity. Dietary molecules have been demonstrated to attenuate QS circuits of bacteria. But, to our knowledge, no study exploring the potential of colostrum hexasaccharide (CHS) in regulating QS systems has been published. In this study, we analyzed CHS for inhibiting QS signaling in Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated and charact...

  14. Grupos Relacionados de Diagnóstico (grd ): ¿herramientas de pago en tiempos de crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor E. Castro J.

    2011-01-01

    This document is intended to be read by the Colombian Ministry of Social Protection (formerMoH) and includes some recommendations that could be implemented on the aim to increase allocative efficiency, thus improving macroeconomic performance of the Colombian Health System (CHS). It will be conducted as follows: first it will brieflyreview the background and actual context of the CHS, after this, willmention some related issues that justify a policy intervention onstrategic purchasing to prom...

  15. Prediction of Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome with Velocity Blood Pressure Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Chao Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is an important complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA. An >100% increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAV after CEA is used to predict the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS development, but the accuracy is limited. The increase in blood pressure (BP after surgery is a risk factor of CHS, but no study uses it to predict CHS. This study was to create a more precise parameter for prediction of CHS by combined the increase of MCAV and BP after CEA. Methods: Systolic MCAV measured by transcranial Doppler and systematic BP were recorded preoperatively; 30 min postoperatively. The new parameter velocity BP index (VBI was calculated from the postoperative increase ratios of MCAV and BP. The prediction powers of VBI and the increase ratio of MCAV (velocity ratio [VR] were compared for predicting CHS occurrence. Results: Totally, 6/185 cases suffered CHS. The best-fit cut-off point of 2.0 for VBI was identified, which had 83.3% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, 62.5% positive predictive value and 99.4% negative predictive value for CHS development. This result is significantly better than VR (33.3%, 97.2%, 28.6% and 97.8%. The area under the curve (AUC of receiver operating characteristic: AUC VBI = 0.981, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949-0.995; AUC VR = 0.935, 95% CI 0.890-0.966, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The new parameter VBI can more accurately predict patients at risk of CHS after CEA. This observation needs to be validated by larger studies.

  16. Assessment of the sensitizing potency of low molecular weight chemicals : employment of a regression method in vivo and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Och, Franciscus Martinus Maria van

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important allergic diseases caused by chemicals, contact hypersensitivity (CHS) or skin sensitization, forms a serious problem for individuals experiencing such a reaction. The prevalence of CHS tends to grow proportionally to the increasing exposure to an expanding variety of chemicals. Predictive animal tests to identify sensitizing properties of chemicals are therefore carried out at a large scale. For a better risk assessment, a more quantitative assessment of the sensitiz...

  17. Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from Physcomitrella patens

    OpenAIRE

    Mahiran Basri; Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar Salleh; Iffah Izzati Zakaria

    2012-01-01

    PpCHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in PpCHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving ...

  18. Extensively deacetylated high molecular weight chitosan from the multistep ultrasound-assisted deacetylation of beta-chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiamingo, Anderson; Delezuk, Jorge Augusto de Moura; Trombotto, Stéphane; David, Laurent; Campana-Filho, Sergio Paulo

    2016-09-01

    High intensity ultrasound irradiation was used to convert beta-chitin (BCHt) into chitosan (CHs). Typically, beta-chitin was suspended in 40% (w/w) aqueous sodium hydroxide at a ratio 1/10 (gmL(-1)) and then submitted to ultrasound-assisted deacetylation (USAD) during 50min at 60°C and a fixed irradiation surface intensity (52.6Wcm(-2)). Hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and capillary viscometry were used to determine the average degree of acetylation (DA‾) and viscosity average degree of polymerization (DPv‾), respectively, of the parent beta-chitin (DA‾=80.7%; DPv‾=6865) and USAD chitosans. A first USAD reaction resulted in chitosan CHs1 (DA‾=36.7%; DPv‾=5838). Chitosans CHs2 (DA‾=15.0%; DPv‾=5128) and CHs3 (DA‾=4.3%; DPv‾=4889) resulted after repeating the USAD procedure to CHs1 consecutively once and twice, respectively. Size-exclusion chromatography analyzes allowed the determination of the weight average molecular weight (Mw‾) and dispersity (Ð) of CHs1 (Mw‾=1,260,000gmol(-1); Ð=1.4), CHs2 (Mw‾=1,137,000gmol(-1); Ð=1.4) and CHs3 (Mw‾=912,000gmol(-1); Ð=1.3). Such results revealed that, thanks to the action of high intensity ultrasound irradiation, the USAD process allowed the preparation of unusually high molecular weight, randomly deacetylated chitosan, an important breakthrough to the development of new high grade chitosan-based materials displaying superior mechanical properties. PMID:27150748

  19. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac

  20. Modular coils: a promising toroidal-reactor-coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of modular coils originated from a need to find reactor-relevant stellarator windings, but its usefulness can be extended to provide an externally applied, additional rotational transform in tokamaks. Considerations of (1) basic principles of modular coils, (2) types of coils, (3) types of configurations (general, helically symmetric, helically asymmetric, with magnetic well, with magnetic hill), (4) types of rotational transform profile, and (5) structure and origin of ripples are given. These results show that modular coils can offer a wide range of vacuum magnetic field configurations, some of which cannot be obtained with the classical stellarator or torsatron coil configuration

  1. Development and Testing of Atomic Beam-Based Plasma Edge Diagnostics in the CIEMAT Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the development of plasma edge diagnostic based on atomic beam techniques fir their application in the CIEMAT fusion devices is described. The characterisation of the beams in laboratory experiments at the CSIC, together with first results in the Torsatron TJ-II are reported. Two types of beam diagnostics have been developed: a thermal (effusive) Li and a supersonic, pulsed He beams. This work has been carried out in collaboration between the institutions mentioned above under partial financial support by EURATOM. (Author) 17 refs

  2. Pulsed supersonic helium beams for plasma edge diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Rojo, T.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I.; Tabarés, F. L.; Tafalla, D.

    1997-03-01

    An experimental setup for the production of pulsed supersonic He beams to be used for plasma edge diagnosis in fusion devices is described. A compromise between compact design, low cost, and good quality of the probe beams has been met. The main characteristics of the generated beams, such as pulse shape, absolute flux intensity, and velocity distribution, differ in general from those expected for ideal beam performance and have been determined and optimized experimentally. A first test of this He beam source at the TJ-I UP Torsatron in Madrid is also reported.

  3. Pulsed supersonic helium beams for plasma edge diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Rojo, T.; Herrero, V.J.; Tanarro, I. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (CSIC), Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Tabares, F.L.; Tafalla, D. [Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT para Fusion, Avenue Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    1997-03-01

    An experimental setup for the production of pulsed supersonic He beams to be used for plasma edge diagnosis in fusion devices is described. A compromise between compact design, low cost, and good quality of the probe beams has been met. The main characteristics of the generated beams, such as pulse shape, absolute flux intensity, and velocity distribution, differ in general from those expected for ideal beam performance and have been determined and optimized experimentally. A first test of this He beam source at the TJ-I UP Torsatron in Madrid is also reported. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: Case Report of a Paradoxical Reaction with Heavy Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS is a rare constellation of clinical findings that includes a history of chronic heavy marijuana use, severe abdominal pain, unrelenting nausea, and intractable vomiting. A striking component of this history includes the use of hot showers or long baths that help to alleviate these symptoms. This is an underrecognized syndrome that can lead to expensive and unrevealing workups and can leave patients self-medicating their nausea and vomiting with the very substance that is causing their symptoms. Long-term treatment of CHS is abstinence from marijuana use—but the acute symptomatic treatment of CHS has been a struggle for many clinicians. Many standard medications used for the symptomatic treatment of CHS (including ondansetron, promethazine, and morphine have repeatedly been shown to be ineffective. Here we present the use of lorazepam as an agent that successfully and safely treats the tenacious symptoms of CHS. Additionally, we build upon existing hypotheses for the pathogenesis of CHS to try to explain why a substance that has been used for thousands of years is only now beginning to cause this paradoxical hyperemesis syndrome.

  5. A Gut Gone to Pot: A Case of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome due to K2, a Synthetic Cannabinoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anene Ukaigwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS was first described in 2004. Due to its novelty, CHS is often unrecognized by clinicians leading to expensive workup of these patients with cyclical symptoms. It may take up to 9 years to diagnose CHS. CHS is characterized by cyclical nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and an unusual compulsion to take hot showers in the presence of chronic use of cannabinoids. Cannabicyclohexanol is a synthetic cannabinoid, popularly known as K2 spice. It is a popular marijuana alternative among teenagers and young adults since it is readily available as herbal incense. Unlike marijuana, many users know that K2 is not detected in conventional urine drug screens, allowing those users to conceal their intake from typical detection methods. Serum or urine gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry is diagnostic, though not widely available. Thus, it is imperative for clinicians to recognize CHS, even with negative UDS, to provide cost-effective care. We present a 38-year-old man with a 10-year history of cannabis, and 1-year history of K2 abuse admitted with 1-week history of episodes of nausea, vomiting of clear fluids, and epigastric discomfort. Symptoms are relieved only by hot showers. Extensive laboratory, radiologic, and endoscopic evaluation was unrevealing. CHS was diagnosed, based on proposed criteria by Simonetti et al.

  6. The 3' region of the chicken hypersensitive site-4 insulator has properties similar to its core and is required for full insulator activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritha I Arumugam

    Full Text Available Chromatin insulators separate active transcriptional domains and block the spread of heterochromatin in the genome. Studies on the chicken hypersensitive site-4 (cHS4 element, a prototypic insulator, have identified CTCF and USF-1/2 motifs in the proximal 250 bp of cHS4, termed the "core", which provide enhancer blocking activity and reduce position effects. However, the core alone does not insulate viral vectors effectively. The full-length cHS4 has excellent insulating properties, but its large size severely compromises vector titers. We performed a structure-function analysis of cHS4 flanking lentivirus-vectors and analyzed transgene expression in the clonal progeny of hematopoietic stem cells and epigenetic changes in cHS4 and the transgene promoter. We found that the core only reduced the clonal variegation in expression. Unique insulator activity resided in the distal 400 bp cHS4 sequences, which when combined with the core, restored full insulator activity and open chromatin marks over the transgene promoter and the insulator. These data consolidate the known insulating activity of the canonical 5' core with a novel 3' 400 bp element with properties similar to the core. Together, they have excellent insulating properties and viral titers. Our data have important implications in understanding the molecular basis of insulator function and design of gene therapy vectors.

  7. Hurdle Effect of Antimicrobial Activity Achieved by Time Differential Releasing of Nisin and Chitosan Hydrolysates from Bacterial Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hui-Ling; Lin, Shih-Bin; Chen, Li-Chen; Chen, Hui-Huang

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effect of nisin and chitosan hydrolysates (CHs) by regulating the antimicrobial reaction order of substances due to differential releasing rate from hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-modified bacterial cellulose (HBC). The minimum inhibitory concentration of nisin against Staphylococcus aureus and that of CHs against Escherichia coli were 6 IU and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Hurdle and additive effects in antimicrobial tests were observed when nisin was used 6 h before CH treatment against S. aureus; similar effects were observed when CH was used before nisin treatment against E. coli. Simultaneously combined treatment of nisin and CHs exhibited the low antimicrobial effect. HBC was then selected as the carrier for the controlled release of nisin and CHs. A 90% inhibition in the growth of S. aureus and E. coli was achieved when 30 IU-nisin-containing HBC and 62.5 μg/mL-CH-containing HBC were used simultaneously. The controlled release of nisin and CHs by using HBC minimized the interaction between nisin and CHs as well as increased the number of microbial targets.

  8. Ingression Progression Complexes Control Extracellular Matrix Remodelling during Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Foltman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic cells must coordinate contraction of the actomyosin ring at the division site together with ingression of the plasma membrane and remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM to support cytokinesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In eukaryotes, glycosyltransferases that synthesise ECM polysaccharides are emerging as key factors during cytokinesis. The budding yeast chitin synthase Chs2 makes the primary septum, a special layer of the ECM, which is an essential process during cell division. Here we isolated a group of actomyosin ring components that form complexes together with Chs2 at the cleavage site at the end of the cell cycle, which we named 'ingression progression complexes' (IPCs. In addition to type II myosin, the IQGAP protein Iqg1 and Chs2, IPCs contain the F-BAR protein Hof1, and the cytokinesis regulators Inn1 and Cyk3. We describe the molecular mechanism by which chitin synthase is activated by direct association of the C2 domain of Inn1, and the transglutaminase-like domain of Cyk3, with the catalytic domain of Chs2. We used an experimental system to find a previously unanticipated role for the C-terminus of Inn1 in preventing the untimely activation of Chs2 at the cleavage site until Cyk3 releases the block on Chs2 activity during late mitosis. These findings support a model for the co-ordinated regulation of cell division in budding yeast, in which IPCs play a central role.

  9. Molecular evolution and sequence divergence of plant chalcone synthase and chalcone synthase-Like genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Zhicui; Zhu, Jingying; Liu, Qisong

    2014-06-01

    Plant chalcone synthase (CHS) and CHS-Like (CHSL) proteins are polyketide synthases. In this study, we evaluated the molecular evolution of this gene family using representative types of CHSL genes, including stilbene synthase (STS), 2-pyrone synthase (2-PS), bibenzyl synthase (BBS), acridone synthase (ACS), biphenyl synthase (BIS), benzalacetone synthase, coumaroyl triacetic acid synthase (CTAS), and benzophenone synthase (BPS), along with their CHS homologs from the same species of both angiosperms and gymnosperms. A cDNA-based phylogeny indicated that CHSLs had diverse evolutionary patterns. STS, ACS, and 2-PS clustered with CHSs from the same species (late diverged pattern), while CTAS, BBS, BPS, and BIS were distant from their CHS homologs (early diverged pattern). The amino-acid phylogeny suggested that CHS and CHSL proteins formed clades according to enzyme function. The CHSs and CHSLs from Polygonaceae and Arachis had unique evolutionary histories. Synonymous mutation rates were lower in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones, indicating that gene duplications occurred more recently in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones. Relative rate tests proved that late diverged CHSLs had unequal rates to CHSs from the same species when using fatty acid synthase, which evolved from the common ancestor with the CHS superfamily, as the outgroup, while the early diverged lineages had equal rates. This indicated that late diverged CHSLs experienced more frequent mutation than early diverged CHSLs after gene duplication, allowing obtaining new functions in relatively short period of time.

  10. Unrelated cord blood transplantation can restore hematologic and immunologic functions in patients with Chediak-Higashi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihani, Rawad; Barbar, Maha; Faqih, Nesreen; Halalsheh, Hadeel; Hussein, Ayad Ahmad; Al-Zaben, Abdul Hadi; Rahman, Fawzi Abdel; Sarhan, Mahmoud

    2012-06-01

    CHS is a rare hereditary fatal disease, if not treated. APs occur in 85% of patients and are usually the main cause of mortality, and HSCT from HLA-matched related and unrelated donors is the only effective treatment for CHS and prevents recurrences of APs. We reviewed the records of three patients with CHS who underwent UCBT at KHCC. Records were examined for clinical features at the time of UCBT, conditioning regimens, morbidities, and outcomes. Conditioning comprised BU, cyclophosphamide, horse ATG, and etoposide. All patients tolerated the conditioning well. Two patients are alive, one with mixed and the other with full donor chimerism; hematologic and immunologic defects of CHS have been corrected in both patients. They show no evidence of recurrences of APs and have normal growth and development. In patients with CHS who lack HLA-matched related and unrelated donors, UCBT is a suitable alternative source of stem cells to restore immunologic and hematologic functions and prevent AP relapses, even in mixed chimeric states. Long follow-up and close monitoring are essential to evaluate the long-term benefits of using UCBT in patients with CHS. PMID:21450011

  11. Oral Mucosa Bleeding Times of Normal Cats and Cats with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome or Hageman Trait (Factor XII Deficiency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M T; Collier, L L; Kier, A B; Johnson, G S

    1988-01-01

    A commercially available, disposable blade in a spring-loaded cassette was used to measure oral mucosa bleeding times (OMBT) of ketamine/acepromazine-anesthetized cats. The OMBT were determined in cats homozygous for Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS, n = 7), cats heterozygous for CHS (n = 6), and cats homozygous for Hageman factor (factor XII) deficiency (n = 5). In addition, OMBT were determined in three groups of normal cats: random-source cats (n = 14), inbred normal relatives of the cats with CHS (n = 7), and inbred normal relatives of Hageman factor deficient cats (n = 9). No significant differences were found in the OMBT of the three groups of normal cats. The mean OMBT for all 30 normal cats was 1.9 minutes +/- 0.5 minutes s.d. Compared to the normal cats, those homozygous for CHS had significantly prolonged OMBT (14.1 +/- 3.3 minutes; p cats heterozygous for CHS (2.6 +/- 0.8 minutes) was also significantly longer than the OMBT of the combined normal group. The mean OMBT of the CHS heterozygotes, however, was not significantly longer than that of their normal relatives (OMBT = 1.8 +/- 0.5 minutes), probably because of the low number of cats in this subgroup of normals. As expected, the OMBT of cats homozygous for Hageman factor deficiency (2.3 +/- 0.3 minutes) were not significantly prolonged. PMID:15162339

  12. Interleukin-12 reverses the inhibitory impact of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the murine contact hypersensitivity response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Guillermo O.; Levy, Julia G.; Hunt, David W. C.

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of mice with certain photosensitizers combined with exposure to visible light limits the development of the immunologically-mediated contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response against topically-applied chemical haptens. Understanding of the inhibitory action of photosensitizers upon the CHS response is incomplete. Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, verteporfin), a photosensitizer with immunomodulatory activity, strongly depressed CHS responses to the hapten dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). However, if mice were administered 1 (mu) g of a recombinant preparation of the pro- inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (rIL-12), full-fledged CHS responses to DNFB ensued in animals treated with BPD-MA and light. In contrast, when rIL-12 was given in combination with an anti-IL-12 antibody the restorative effect of rIL-12 on the CHS response of PDT-treated mice was blocked. Evaluation of the cytokine status of spleen and draining lymph node cells showed for DNFB painted animals, that the release of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 was increased by PDT and rIL-12 counter-acted the increase in IL-10 liberation associated with PDT. These studies indicate that IL-10 formation is upregulated and the availability of IL-12 may be limited in mice treated with PDT. These features may contribute to deficient CHS responses observed with PDT.

  13. Child health care utilisation in families with young or single mothers in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallby, Thomas; Modin, Bitte; Hjern, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Young age and lone parenthood are risk factors for impaired health among mothers and their children. Due to the higher risks of negative influences on physical and mental health, young and single mothers should be of special concern to the Child Health Services (CHS). In the present study, we investigated consumption patterns of child health care services among young and single mothers in Uppsala County, Sweden to study whether they are reached by the universal CHS program and if selective or indicative measures were administered in daily CHS practice. Register data on CHS contacts and socio-demographic indicators were collected for 10692 infants, born in 1998-2006. Results show small differences in contact pattern and immunization status, between children of young versus older, and single versus cohabiting mothers. However, both young (RR 0.64) and single (RR 0.80) mothers had significantly lower rates of participation in parental group. The CHS were consequently successful in implementing the universal preventive child health programme for all families, including families with young or single mothers. There was no indication, however, of an established selective preventive strategy aimed at these high risk families. Programs for strengthening the support provided to vulnerable families by the CHS are needed. PMID:23197384

  14. Hurdle Effect of Antimicrobial Activity Achieved by Time Differential Releasing of Nisin and Chitosan Hydrolysates from Bacterial Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hui-Ling; Lin, Shih-Bin; Chen, Li-Chen; Chen, Hui-Huang

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effect of nisin and chitosan hydrolysates (CHs) by regulating the antimicrobial reaction order of substances due to differential releasing rate from hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-modified bacterial cellulose (HBC). The minimum inhibitory concentration of nisin against Staphylococcus aureus and that of CHs against Escherichia coli were 6 IU and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Hurdle and additive effects in antimicrobial tests were observed when nisin was used 6 h before CH treatment against S. aureus; similar effects were observed when CH was used before nisin treatment against E. coli. Simultaneously combined treatment of nisin and CHs exhibited the low antimicrobial effect. HBC was then selected as the carrier for the controlled release of nisin and CHs. A 90% inhibition in the growth of S. aureus and E. coli was achieved when 30 IU-nisin-containing HBC and 62.5 μg/mL-CH-containing HBC were used simultaneously. The controlled release of nisin and CHs by using HBC minimized the interaction between nisin and CHs as well as increased the number of microbial targets. PMID:27074534

  15. 社区卫生服务举办主体多元化与政府主导权被迫让渡的关系%Multi-ownership of community health services and the transferred govrenment leadership in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明吉; 王伟; 李静然; 杨蓉蓉; 徐玲; 严非

    2016-01-01

    Objective:About half of Community Health Services ( CHS) in China are not government-owned, forming a multi-ownership situation of CHS .This study aims to examine the effect of “multi-ownership policy” on the development of CHS and put forward suggestions for improving the governance of CHS .Methods:We applied maxi-mum variation sampling to select health workers of different CHS specialties and administrators from local health bu -reaus in District T of Shaanxi province and District X of Shandong province .Inductive thematic analysis was utilized to interpret the development and ramification of multi-ownership policy , and then to formulate substantive theory .Re-sults:The adoption of multi-ownership in two districts was an adaptive strategy based on the limited public finance , institutional restriction of government , and diversity of health resources .This policy promoted the establishment of CHS network , and meanwhile the government's leadership of CHS development was transferred to multiple owners of CHS, which caused the lack of CHS autonomy , fragmented regulation power and deviated development of CHS .Con-clusions:The key problem of multi-ownership situation in CHS development is the problematic partition of governance power.In order to redeem the leadership of CHS development to the local government , it is necessary to strengthen service regulation while to decentralize the facility management power to CHS , to adjust service price ,and to deepen medical insurance coverage of CHS to enhance autonomy of CHS .%目的:社区卫生服务机构中约有半数不属于政府直接举办,形成了多元化的举办主体格局。本文用定性研究的方法审视“举办主体多元化”对社区卫生发展的影响,并探讨监管权解决方案。方法:在陕西省T区和山东省X区,用最大差异抽样法选取不同专业的卫生技术人员以及卫生行政人员进行访谈。采用归纳式的主题分析方法,解释举办主

  16. Mutations in an atypical TIR-NB-LRR-LIM resistance protein confers autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongling eBi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to defend against infection, plants employ a complex immune system that relies partly on resistance (R proteins which initiate intricate signalling cascades upon pathogen detection. The resistance signalling network in plants is only partially characterized. A genetic screen conducted to identify novel defense regulators involved in this network resulted in the isolation of the snc6-1D mutant. Positional cloning revealed that this mutant contained a molecular lesion in the CHILLING SENSITIVE 3 (CHS3 gene, thus the allele was renamed chs3-2D. CHS3 encodes a TIR-NB-LRR R protein that contains a C-terminal zinc-binding LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1, Mec-3 domain. Although this protein has been previously implicated in cold stress and defense response, the role of the LIM domain in modulating protein activity is unclear. The chs3-2D allele contains a G to A point mutation causing a C1340 to Y1340 substitution close to the LIM domain. It encodes a dominant, gain-of-function mutation. The chs3-2D mutant is stunted and displays curled leaf morphology. Additionally, it constitutively expresses PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR genes, accumulates salicylic acid, and shows enhanced resistance to the virulent oomycete isolate Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (H.a. Noco2. Subcellular localization assays using GFP fusion constructs indicate that both CHS3 and chs3-2D localize to the nucleus. A third mutant allele, chs3-3D, was identified in an unrelated genetic screen in our lab. This allele contains a C to T point mutation resulting in an M1017 to V1017 substitution in the LRR-LIM linker region. Additionally, a chs3-2D suppressor screen identified two revertant alleles containing secondary mutations that abolish the mutant morphology. Analysis of the locations of these molecular lesions provides support for the hypothesis that the LIM domain represses CHS3 R-like protein activity. This repression may occur through either autoinhibition or binding of a negative defense

  17. 冕洞内矢量磁场的分布和演化%Distribution and Evolution of Vector Magnetic Fields in Coronal Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨书红

    2012-01-01

    With the observations from the SOHO, Hinode, STEREO, and SDO, we investigate some aspects of CHs in detail for the first time, such as the evolution of vector magnetic field and magnetic nonpotentiality in CHs, and obtain a series of results. (1) Response of the solar atmosphere to the magnetic field distribution and evolution in a CH. We study the magnetic fields in a CH and at the CH boundary, and present the corresponding atmospheric response of different overlying layers to the magnetic field distribution and evolution. We also quantitatively analyze the relationship between the magnetic flux density and atmospheric emissions at different wavelengths. (2) Evolution of dipoles in an equatorial CH and its effect on the decay of the CH. We investigate the evolution of dipolar magnetic fields in an equatorial CH region. In the CH, the submergence of initial loops after their emergence is observed for the first time. The area where the dipoles are located becomes a place of mixed polarities instead of the unipolar fields, resulting in the change of the overlying corona from a CH area to a quiet region. (3) Distribution of vector magnetic fields and magnetic nonpotentiality of CHs. We investigate the vector magnetic fields, current densities, and current helicities in two CHs, and compare them with two quiet regions. We find that: (i) in the areas where the large current helicities are concentrated, there are strong vertical and horizontal field elements; (ii) the mean current density in the magnetic flux concentrations with the vertical fields stronger than 100 Gs is as large as (0.012 0.001) Am-2, consistent with that in the flare productive active regions; (iii) the magnetic fields in both the CHs and the quiet regions are nonpotential. (4) SDO observations of magnetic reconnection at CH boundaries. At the CH boundaries, we find many coronal jets as the signatures of magnetic reconnection, below which the magnetic emergence and cancellation are observed. We study

  18. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis.

  19. Determination and validation of chikusetsusaponin IVa in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Shi-Ping; Guo, Mei-Hua; Wang, Zhuo

    2016-09-01

    A novel, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of chikusetsusaponin IVa (CHS-IVa) in rat plasma was established and validated. Plasma samples were pre-treated by precipitation of protein with acetonitrile and chromatographed on a Waters Symmetry C18 analytical column (4.6 × 50 mm, i.d., 3.5 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water containing 0.05% formic acid (55:45, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The deprotonated molecular ions [M - H](-) were employed in electrospray negative ionization mode and selected reaction monitoring transitions were performed for detection. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r > 0.99) over the range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL for CHS-IVa. The recoveries of CHS-IVa were >92.5% and exhibited no severe matrix effect. This method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetic study of CHS-IVa in rats. For oral administration, the plasma concentrations of CHS-IVa increased to a peak value at 0.35 ± 0.14 h, followed by a gradual decrease to the lower limit of quantitation in 24 h. For intravenous administration, the plasma concentrations of CHS-IVa decreased quickly (t1/2 , 1.59 ± 0.25 h). The absolute bioavailability of CHS-IVa in rats was 8.63%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26864353

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their hydroxylated analogs in plasma of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the United States east coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Magali; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Darling, Colin; Fair, Patricia A; Alaee, Mehran; Bossart, Gregory D; Solomon, Keith R; Letcher, Robert J; Bergman, Ake; Marsh, Göran; Muir, Derek C G

    2009-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) were determined in plasma of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, U.S.A. Significantly lower sums (sigma) of PBDE concentrations (sum of 12 congeners) were found in animals from the IRL (arithmetic mean, 5.45 +/- 4.63 ng/g wet wt) compared with those from CHS (30 +/- 40 ng/g wet wt). Brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47 was the predominant PBDE in dolphins from the IRL (50% of the sigma PBDEs) and CHS (58%). The sigma PBDE concentrations in plasma of dolphins were negatively correlated with age at both locations. Fifteen and sixteen individual OH-PBDE congeners could be quantified in plasma of dolphins from IRL and CHS, respectively. Similar to sigma PBDE, mean sigma OH-PBDE concentrations were significantly higher in plasma of dolphins at CHS (1150 +/- 708 pg/g wet wt) compared with those at IRL (624 +/- 393 pg/g wet wt). The predominant congener at both locations was 6-OH-PBDE-47 (IRL, 384 +/- 319 pg/g wet wt; CHS, 541 +/- 344 pg/g wet wt), representing 61.5% of total sigma OH-PBDE at IRL and 47.0% at CHS. Concentrations of sigma OH-PBDEs were weakly negatively correlated with age in dolphins from both locations (p dolphins are minor products in plasma relative to sigma PBDEs and a significant proportion may be a consequence of the dietary uptake of naturally produced methoxylated- and OH-PBDEs.

  1. Functional Promiscuity of Two Divergent Paralogs of Type III Plant Polyketide Synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Shahzad A; Dhar, Niha; Rana, Satiander; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai P; Shah, Manzoor A; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2016-08-01

    Plants effectively defend themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses by synthesizing diverse secondary metabolites, including health-protective flavonoids. These display incredible chemical diversity and ubiquitous occurrence and confer impeccable biological and agricultural applications. Chalcone synthase (CHS), a type III plant polyketide synthase, is critical for flavonoid biosynthesis. It catalyzes acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to synthesize naringenin chalcone through a polyketidic intermediate. The functional divergence among the evolutionarily generated members of a gene family is pivotal in driving the chemical diversity. Against this backdrop, this study was aimed to functionally characterize members of the CHS gene family from Rheum emodi, an endangered and endemic high-altitude medicinal herb of northwestern Himalayas. Two full-length cDNAs (1,179 bp each), ReCHS1 and ReCHS2, encoding unique paralogs were isolated and characterized. Heterologous expression and purification in Escherichia coli, bottom-up proteomic characterization, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and enzyme kinetic studies using five different substrates confirmed their catalytic potential. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of higher synonymous mutations in the intronless divergents of ReCHS. ReCHS2 displayed significant enzymatic efficiency (Vmax/Km) with different substrates. There were significant spatial and altitudinal variations in messenger RNA transcript levels of ReCHSs correlating positively with metabolite accumulation. Furthermore, the elicitations in the form of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, ultraviolet B light, and wounding, chosen on the basis of identified cis-regulatory promoter elements, presented considerable differences in the transcript profiles of ReCHSs. Taken together, our results demonstrate differential propensities of CHS paralogs in terms of the accumulation of flavonoids and

  2. Molecular dynamic behavior and binding affinity of flavonoid analogues to the cyclin dependent kinase 6/cyclin D complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuntawee, Wasinee; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Hannongbua, Supot

    2012-01-23

    The cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), each with their respective regulatory partner cyclin that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and transcription, are potentially interesting targets for cancer therapy. The CDK6 complex with cyclin D (CDK6/cycD) drives cellular proliferation by phosphorylation of specific key target proteins. To understand the flavonoids that inhibit the CDK6/cycD functions, molecular dynamics simulations (MDSs) were performed on three inhibitors, fisetin (FST), apigenin (AGN), and chrysin (CHS), complexed with CDK6/cycD, including the two different binding orientations of CHS: FST-like (CHS_A) and deschloro-flavopiridol-like (CHS_B). For all three inhibitors, including both CHS orientations, the conserved interaction between the 4-keto group of the flavonoid and the backbone V101 nitrogen of CDK6 was strongly detected. The 3'- and 4'-OH groups on the flavonoid phenyl ring and the 3-OH group on the benzopyranone ring of inhibitor were found to significantly increase the binding and inhibitory efficiency. Besides the electrostatic interactions, especially through hydrogen bond formation, the van der Waals (vdW) interactions with the I19, V27, F98, H100, and L152 residues of CDK6 are also important factors in the binding efficiency of flavonoids against the CDK6/cycD complex. On the basis of the docking calculation and MM-PBSA method, the order of the predicted inhibitory affinities of these three inhibitors toward the CDK6/cycD was FST > AGN > CHS, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, CHS preferentially binds to the active CDK6 in a different orientation to FST and AGN but similar to its related analog, deschloro-flavopiridol. The obtained results are useful as the basic information for the further design of potent anticancer drugs specifically targeting the CDK6 enzyme. PMID:22172011

  3. Determination and validation of chikusetsusaponin IVa in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Shi-Ping; Guo, Mei-Hua; Wang, Zhuo

    2016-09-01

    A novel, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of chikusetsusaponin IVa (CHS-IVa) in rat plasma was established and validated. Plasma samples were pre-treated by precipitation of protein with acetonitrile and chromatographed on a Waters Symmetry C18 analytical column (4.6 × 50 mm, i.d., 3.5 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water containing 0.05% formic acid (55:45, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The deprotonated molecular ions [M - H](-) were employed in electrospray negative ionization mode and selected reaction monitoring transitions were performed for detection. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r > 0.99) over the range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL for CHS-IVa. The recoveries of CHS-IVa were >92.5% and exhibited no severe matrix effect. This method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetic study of CHS-IVa in rats. For oral administration, the plasma concentrations of CHS-IVa increased to a peak value at 0.35 ± 0.14 h, followed by a gradual decrease to the lower limit of quantitation in 24 h. For intravenous administration, the plasma concentrations of CHS-IVa decreased quickly (t1/2 , 1.59 ± 0.25 h). The absolute bioavailability of CHS-IVa in rats was 8.63%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and in vivo chemosuppressive activity studies on cryptolepine hydrochloride and cryptolepine hydrochloride-loaded gelatine nanoformulation designed for parenteral administration for the treatment of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntworbe, N; Ofori, M; Addo, P; Tingle, M; Al-Kassas, R

    2013-09-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to establish the pharmacokinetics profile and in vivo chemosuppressive activities of cryptolepine hydrochloride-loaded gelatine nanoparticles (CHN) designed for parenteral administration for the treatment of malaria in comparison to the drug free in solution (CHS). Single-dose pharmacokinetics was investigated in Wistar rats by administering CHN or CHS (equivalent to 10 mg/kg of drug) by IV bolus injection via the lateral tail vein. The drug concentration in plasma was monitored over a 24-h period following administration. Chemosuppressive activity was investigated in Wistar rats challenged with P berghei parasites. Animals were given a daily dose of either CHN or CHS, equivalent to 2.5-100 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection. The level of parasitaemia was determined by light microscopy by examining Giemsa-stained thin blood smears prepared from the tail end on day four of infection. It was found that CHN attained a higher (4.5-folds) area under the curve (AUC (0-24)) compared to CHS. CHS however produced a higher volume of distribution (4-folds). Distribution and elimination rates were higher with CHS which resulted in a lower (11.7 h) elimination half-life compared to that of CHN (21.85 h). The superior pharmacokinetic profile of CHN translated into superior chemosuppressive activity at all dose levels relative to CHS. As a conclusion, loading cryptolepine hydrochloride into gelatine nanoparticles improved both pharmacokinetics and in vivo antiplasmodial activity of the compound with the highest chemosuppression (97.89 ± 3.10) produced by 100 mg/kg of CHN.

  5. In vitro evaluation of the compatibility of a novel collagen-heparan sulfate biological scaffold with olfactory ensheathing cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhou-ping; YANG Jie; PAN Deng-ji; LIU Na; LI Zai-wang; XIE Xue-wei; CHEN Yun; SHI Yuan-hong; ZENG Wen-gao; WANG Shu-xin; CHEN Juan

    2010-01-01

    Background Stroke and traumatic injury to the nerve system may trigger axonal destruction and the formation of scar tissue, cystic cavitations and physical gaps.Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can secrete neurotrophic factors to promote neurite growth and thus act as a prime candidate for autologous transplantation.Biological scaffolds can provide a robust delivery vehicle to injured nerve tissue for neural cell transplantation strategies, owing to the porous three-dimensional structures (3D).So transplantation of the purposeful cells seeded scaffolds may be a promising method for nerve tissue repair.This study aimed to evaluate the compatibility of a novel collagen-heparan sulfate biological scaffold with olfactory ensheathing cells in vitro.Methods Collagen-heparan sulfate (CHS) biological scaffolds were made, and then the scaffolds and OECs were co-cultured in vitro.The viability of OECs was tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay at days 1, 3, 5 and 7.Statistical analysis was evaluated by student's t test.Significance was accepted at P <0.05.OECs were labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and the CFSE-labeled OECs were seeded into CHS scaffolds.The attachment and growth of OECs in CHS scaffolds were observed and traced directly by fluorescent microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM).Results CHS biological scaffolds had steady porous 3D structures and no cytotoxicity to OECs (F=0.14, P=0.9330).CHS biological scaffolds were good bridging materials for OECs attachment and proliferation, and they promoted the axonal growth.Conclusion The compatibility of CHS biological scaffolds with OECs is pretty good and CHS biological scaffold is a promising cell carrier for the implantation of OECs in nerve tissue bioengineering.

  6. Biochemical characterization of chitin synthase activity and inhibition in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Kun Yan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme catalyzing the formation of chitin polymers in all chitin containing organisms and a potential target site for insect pest control.However,our understanding of biochemical properties of insect CHSs has been very limited.We here report enzymatic and inhibitory properties of CHS prepared from the African malaria mosquito,Anopheles gambiae.Our study,which represents the first time to use a nonradioactive method to assay CHS activity in an insect species,determined the optimal conditions for measuring the enzyme activity,including pH,temperature,and concentrations of the substrate uridine diphosphate N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDPGlcNAc) and Mg++.The optimal pH was about 6.5-7.0,and the highest activity was detected at temperatures between 37℃ and 44℃.Dithithreitol is required to prevent melanization of the enzyme extract.CHS activity was enhanced at low concentration of GlcNAc,but inhibited at high concentrations.Proteolytic activation of the activity is significant both in the 500×g supernatant and the 40 000×g pellet.Our study revealed only slight in vitro inhibition ofA.gambiae CHS activity by diflubenzuron and nikkomycin Z at the highest concentration (2.5μmol/L) examined.There was no in vitro inhibition by polyoxin D at any concentration examined.Furthermore,we did not observe any in vivo inhibition of CHS activity by any of these chemicals at any concentration examined.Our results suggest that the inhibition of chitin synthesis by these chemicals is not due to direct inhibition of CHS in A.gambiae.

  7. 邯郸市社区卫生服务人员工作满意度调查%STUDY ON THE JOB SATISFACTION AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICE PERSONNEL IN HANDAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤丽; 李焰; 张婷; 毛希瑞; 党瑞英; 焦丽艳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究邯郸市社区卫生服务(Community Health Service,CHS)机构工作人员满意度现况,探索满意度影响因素,为制定促进人员工作满意度相关策略提供依据.[方法]运用现状调查方法,进行现场问卷调查.收集邯郸市103个社区卫生服务机构(中心25个、站78个)工作人员工作满意度的相关数据,进行统计学分析. [结果]邯郸市社区卫生服务机构医务人员工作总的满意程度较高,学历、机构类型等是卫技人员工作满意度的影响因素.[结论]邯郸市CHS人员工作满意度受多方面因素影响,满意度有待进一步提高.%[Objective] To study the status of job satisfaction of Community Health Service (CHS) agencies in Handan, and explore the influencing factors of job satisfaction and provide suggestion on policy decision of improving the job satisfaction. [Methods] Investigation method and on-site survey was conducted to collect data about job satisfaction of the 103 (25 centers, 78 stations) Community Health Service (CHS) agencies in Handan. [Results] The total job satisfaction of the status of Community Health Service (CHS) agencies in Handan was higher at some extent. Age, education background and institution style were potential influencing factors of job satisfaction to CHS technical personal. [Conclusion] The job satisfaction of CHS personnel is influenced by intricate factors, and the job satisfaction of CHS personal should be improved in Handan.

  8. Community hospitals – the place of local service provision in a modernising NHS: an integrative thematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaney David

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments within the United Kingdom's (UK health care system have re-awakened interest in community hospitals (CHs and their role in the provision of health care. This integrative literature review sought to identify and assess the current evidence base for CHs. Methods A range of electronic reference databases were searched from January 1984 to either December 2004 or February 2005: Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, BNI, CINAHL, HMIC, ASSIA, PsychInfo, SIGLE, Dissertation Abstracts, Cochrane Library, Kings Fund website, using both keywords and text words. Thematic analysis identified recurrent themes across the literature; narrative analyses were written for each theme, identifying unifying concepts and discrepant issues. Results The search strategy identified over 16,000 international references. We included papers of any study design focussing on hospitals in which care was led principally by general practitioners or nurses. Papers from developing countries were excluded. A review of titles revealed 641 potentially relevant references; abstract appraisal identified 161 references for review. During data extraction, a further 48 papers were excluded, leaving 113 papers in the final review. The most common methodological approaches were cross-sectional/descriptive studies, commentaries and expert opinion. There were few experimental studies, systematic reviews, economic studies or studies that reported on longer-term outcomes. The key themes identified were origin and location of CHs; their place in the continuum of care; services provided; effectiveness, efficiency and equity of CHs; and views of patients and staff. In general, there was a lack of robust evidence for the role of CHs, which is partly due to the ad hoc nature of their development and lack of clear strategic vision for their future. Evidence for the effectiveness and efficiency of the services provided was limited. Most people admitted to CHs

  9. Comparative effects of α2δ-1 ligands in mouse models of colonic hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleine, Mathieu; Boudieu, Ludivine; Gelot, Agathe; Muller, Emilie; Lashermes, Amandine; Matricon, Julien; Silberberg, Celine; Theodorou, Vassilia; Eschalier, Alain; Ardid, Denis; Carvalho, Frederic A

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate anti-hypersensitive effects of α2δ-1 ligands in non-inflammatory and inflammation-associated colonic hypersensitivity (CHS) mouse models. METHODS To induce an inflammation-associated CHS, 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was administered to C57Bl/6J male mice, in drinking water, for 14 d. Regarding the non-inflammatory neonatal maternal separation (NMS) -induced CHS model, wild-type C57BI/6J pups were isolated from their mother from day 2 to day 14 (P2 to P14), three hours per day (from 9:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.). Colorectal distension was performed by inflating distension probe from 20 μL to 100 μL by 20 μL increment step every 10 s. After a first colorectal distension (CRD), drugs were administered subcutaneously, in a cumulative manner, (Gabapentin at 30 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg; Pregabalin at 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg; Carbamazepine at 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) and a second CRD was performed one hour after each injection. RESULTS The visceromotor response (VMR) to CRD was increased by our NMS paradigm protocol in comparison to non-handled (NH) mice, considering the highest distension volumes (80 μL: 0.783 ± 0.056 mV/s vs 0.531 ± 0.034 mV/s, P NMS and NH mice, respectively). In the inflammation-associated CHS, DSS-treated mice showed a dramatic and significant increase in VMR at 60 and 80 μL distension volumes when compared to control mice (60 μL: 0.920 ± 0.079 mV/s vs 0.426 ± 0.100 mV/s P NMS-induced CHS model for the acute subcutaneous administration of the highest cumulative dose (30 mg/kg) and significantly reduced CHS in low-dose DSS-treated mice in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, the percent decrease of AUC induced by acute GBP or Pregabalin treatment were higher in the inflammatory DSS-induced CHS model in comparison to the non-inflammatory NMS-induced CHS model. CONCLUSION This preclinical study demonstrates α2δ-1 ligands efficacy on inflammation-associated CHS, highlighting their potential clinical interest in patients with chronic

  10. Chikusetsu Saponin IVa Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Mice via Adiponectin-Mediated AMPK/GSK-3β Pathway In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jialin; Yin, Ying; Cui, Jia; Yan, Jiajia; Zhu, Yanrong; Guan, Yue; Wei, Guo; Weng, Yan; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Guo, Chao; Wang, Yanhua; Xi, Miaomiao; Wen, Aidong

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus substantially increases the risk of stroke and enhances brain's vulnerability to ischemia insult. In a previous study, Chikusetsu saponin IVa (CHS) pretreatment was proved to protect the brain from cerebral ischemic in normal stroke models. Whether CHS could attenuate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in diabetic mice and the possible underlying mechanism are still unrevealed. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected streptozotocin to induce diabetes. After that, the mice were pretreated with CHS for 1 month, and then, focal cerebral ischemia was induced following 24-h reperfusion. The neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, and some cytokines in the brain were measured. Apoptosis was analyzed by caspase-3, Bax, and Bcl-2 expression. Downstream molecules of adiponectin (APN) were investigated by Western blotting. The results showed that CHS reduced infarct size, improved neurological outcomes, and inhibited cell injury after I/R. In addition, CHS pretreatment increased APN level and enhanced neuronal AdipoR1, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) expression in a concentration-dependent manner in diabetic mice, and these effects were abolished by APN knockout (KO). In vitro test, CHS treatment also alleviated PC12 cell injury and apoptosis, evidenced by reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA) and caspase-3 expression, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in I/R injured cells. Moreover, CHS enhanced AdipoR1, AMPK, and GSK-3β expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Likewise, short interfering RNA (sinRNA) knockdown of liver kinase B1 (LKB1), an upstream kinase of AMPK, reduced the ability of CHS in protecting cells from I/R injury. Furthermore, this LKB1-dependent cellular protection resulted from AdipoR1 and APN activation, as supported by the experiment using sinRNA knockdown of AdipoR1 and APN. Thus, CHS protected brain I/R in diabetes through AMPK

  11. An assessment of Makerere University College of Health Sciences: optimizing health research capacity to meet Uganda’s priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groves Sara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research is critical to the institutional mission of the Makerere College of Health Sciences (MakCHS. Optimizing the alignment of health research capacity at MakCHS with the health needs and priorities of Uganda, as outlined in the country’s Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP, is a deliberate priority, a responsibility, and a significant opportunity for research. To guide this strategic direction, an assessment of MakCHS’s research grants and publication portfolio was conducted. Methods A survey of all new and ongoing grants, as well as all publications, between January 2005 and December 2009 was conducted. Research, training, and education grants awarded to MakCHS’ constituent faculties and departments, were looked for through financial records at the college or by contact with funding organizations. Published manuscripts registered with PubMed, that included MakCHS faculty authors, were also analyzed. Results A total of 58 active grants were identified, of which 18 had been initiated prior to 2005 and there were an average of about eight new grants per year. Most grants funded basic and applied research, with major focus areas being HIV/AIDS (44%, malaria (19%, maternal and child health (14%, tuberculosis (11%, mental health (3%, and others (8%. MakCHS faculty were identified as Principal Investigators (PIs in only 22 (38% active grants. Grant funding details were only available for one third of the active grants at MakCHS. A total of 837 publications were identified, with an average of 167 publications per year, most of which (66% addressed the country’s priority health areas, and 58% had MakCHS faculty or students as first authors. Conclusions The research grants and publications at MakCHS are generally well-aligned with the Ugandan Health Ministry priorities. Greater efforts to establish centralized and efficient grants management procedures are needed. In addition, greater efforts are needed to expand

  12. Imaging Evidence for Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome after Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS, a rare complication after cerebral revascularization, is a well-described phenomenon after carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting. However, the imaging evidence of CHS after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (iv tPA for acute ischemic stroke (AIS has not been reported. Case Report. Four patients were determined to have manifestations of CHS with clinical deterioration after treatment with iv tPA, including one patient who developed seizure, one patient who had a deviation of the eyes toward lesion with worsened mental status, and two patients who developed worsened hemiparesis. In all four patients, postthrombolysis head CT examinations were negative for hemorrhage; CT angiogram showed patent cervical and intracranial arterial vasculature; CT perfusion imaging revealed hyperperfusion with increased relative cerebral blood flow and relative cerebral blood volume and decreased mean transit time along with decreased time to peak in the clinically related artery territory. Vascular dilation was also noted in three of these four cases. Conclusions. CHS should be considered in patients with clinical deterioration after iv tPA and imaging negative for hemorrhage. Cerebral angiogram and perfusion studies can be useful in diagnosing CHS thereby helping with further management.

  13. On triviality of S-matrix in conformal higher spin theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beccaria, M; Tseytlin, A A

    2016-01-01

    We consider the conformal higher spin (CHS) theory in d=4 that contains the s=1 Maxwell vector, s=2 Weyl graviton and their higher spin s=3,4,... counterparts with higher-derivative \\box^s kinetic terms. The interacting action for such theory can be found as the coefficient of the logarithmically divergent part in the induced action for sources coupled to higher spin currents in a free complex scalar field model. We explicitly determine some cubic and quartic interaction vertices in the CHS action from scalar loop integrals. We then compute the simplest tree-level 4-particle scattering amplitudes 11 -> 11, 22 -> 22 and 11 -> 22 and find that after summing up all the intermediate CHS exchanges they vanish. This generalises the vanishing of the scattering amplitude for external conformal scalars interacting via the exchange of all CHS fields found earlier in arXiv:1512.08896. This vanishing should generalise to all scattering amplitudes in the CHS theory and as in the conformal scalar scattering case should be ...

  14. 选择与适应:兰科植物查尔酮合酶基因家族成员的分子进化和功能趋异%Selection and Adaptation: Molecular Evolution and Functional Divergence of Orchid Chalcone Synthase Gene Family Members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩颖颖; 明凤

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the achievements made at home and abroad on molecular evolution of plant CHS genes during he past 15 years. Combining with our study results on Orchid CHS genes,this paper sums up the molecular evolution and functional divergence of Orchid CHS genes and reveals the ubiquitously existed phenomenon and mechanism of sequence evolution accompanied by functional differentiation of CHS in plant kingdom. The relationship between molecular evolution of CHS,biological evolution and natural selection is also discussed.%回顾了近十五年来国内外对各科植物查尔酮合酶基因CHS分子进化的研究成果,并结合作者近年来对兰科植物CHS基因分子进化的研究结果,对兰科植物CHS基因分子进化和功能趋异的机制展开综述,揭示了植物中普遍存在的CHS基因分子进化以及伴随的功能趋异的现象和机制,初步探讨了CHS基因分子进化与生物进化和自然选择的关系.

  15. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  16. Providing end-of-life care in care homes for older people: a qualitative study of the views of care home staff and community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Cassie; Stewart, Frances; Thompson, Genevieve; Hall, Sue

    2013-02-01

    The study aimed to explore the views of care home staff (CHS) and community nurses (CNs) on providing end-of-life care (EOLC) in care homes. Participants were randomly selected and qualitative interviews conducted with 80 CHS and 10 CNs. Themes emerging from the data included the following: The meaning of EOLC; starting EOLC; dying in the care home; stress of providing EOLC; improving EOLC; and the role of the CN. CHS felt that planning for the end of life was important before residents reached the dying phase, which some found difficult to determine. Although CHS wished to avoid residents being transferred to hospital to die, they acknowledged that improvements in their skills and the resources available to them were needed to manage EOLC effectively. CNs were critical of the EOLC provided in some care homes, reporting tensions over their relationship with CHS. As the number of older people who die in care homes increases, there is a need to overcome these barriers to provide good EOLC. PMID:25473926

  17. Genetic and physical mapping of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome on chromosome 1q42-43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrat, F.J.; Auloge, L.; Pastural, E. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a severe autosomal recessive condition, features of which are partial oculocutaneous albinism, increased susceptibility to infections, deficient natural killer cell activity, and the presence of large intracytoplasmic granulations in various cell types. Similar genetic disorders have been described in other species, including the beige mouse. On the basis of the hypothesis that the murine chromosome 13 region containing the beige locus was homologous to human chromosome 1, we have mapped the CHS locus to a 5-cM interval in chromosome segment 1q42.1-q42.2. The highest LOD score was obtained with the marker D1S235 (Z{sub max} = 5.38; {theta} = 0). Haplotype analysis enabled us to establish D1S2680 and D1S163, respectively, as the telomeric and the centromeric flanking markers. Multipoint linkage analysis confirms the localization of the CHS locus in this interval. Three YAC clones were found to cover the entire region in a contig established by YAC end-sequence characterization and sequence-tagged site mapping. The YAC contig contains all genetic markers that are nonrecombinant for the disease in the nine CHS families studied. This mapping confirms the previous hypothesis that the same gene defect causes CHS in human and beige phenotype in mice and provides a genetic framework for the identification of candidate genes. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Homozygosity mapping of the gene for Chediak-Higashi syndrome to chromosome 1q42-q44 in a segment of conserved synteny that includes the mouse beige locus (bg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Oh, Jangsuk; Karim, M.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypopigmentation or oculocutaneous albinism and severe immunologic deficiency with neutropenia and lack of natural killer (NK) cell function. Most patients die in childhood from pyogenic infections or an unusual lymphoma-like condition. A hallmark of the disorder is giant inclusion bodies seen in all granule-containing cells, including granulocytes, lymphocytes, melanocytes, mast cells, and neurons. Similar ultrastructural abnormalities occur in the beige mouse, which thus has been suggested to be homologous to human CHS. High-resolution genetic mapping has indicated that the bg gene region of mouse chromosome 13 is likely homologous to the distal portion of human chromosome 1q. Accordingly, we carried out homozygosity mapping using markers derived from distal human chromosome 1q in four inbred families or probands with CHS. Our results indicate that the human CHS gene maps to an 18.8-cM interval in chromosome segment 1q42-q44 and that human CHS therefore is very likely homologous to mouse bg. 43 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Genetic and physical mapping of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome on chromosome 1q42-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, F J; Auloge, L; Pastural, E; Lagelouse, R D; Vilmer, E; Cant, A J; Weissenbach, J; Le Paslier, D; Fischer, A; de Saint Basile, G

    1996-09-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a severe autosomal recessive condition, features of which are partial oculocutaneous albinism, increased susceptibility to infections, deficient natural killer cell activity, and the presence of large intracytoplasmic granulations in various cell types. Similar genetic disorders have been described in other species, including the beige mouse. On the basis of the hypothesis that the murine chromosome 13 region containing the beige locus was homologous to human chromosome 1, we have mapped the CHS locus to a 5-cM interval in chromosome segment 1q42.1-q42.2. The highest LOD score was obtained with the marker D1S235 (Zmax = 5.38; theta = 0). Haplo-type analysis enabled us to establish D1S2680 and D1S163, respectively, as the telomeric and the centromeric flanking markers. Multipoint linkage analysis confirms the localization of the CHS locus in this interval. Three YAC clones were found to cover the entire region in a conting established by YAC end-sequence characterization and sequence-tagged site mapping. The YAC contig contains all genetic markers that are nonrecombinant for the disease in the nine CHS families studied. This mapping confirms the previous hypothesis that the same gene defect causes CHS in human and beige pheno-type in mice and provides a genetic framework for the identification of candidate genes.

  20. Role of DNA damage in local suppression of contact hypersensitivity in mice by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of mice to UVE radiation down-regulates the induction of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses to haptens applied to the site of irradiation. Concomittantly, the activity of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the draining lymph nodes is decreased, and T lymphocytes that suppress the induction of CHS are induced. We assessed the role of DNA damage in modulation of the CHS response by UV irradiation by applying liposomes containing T4 endonuclease V (T4N5) to the UV-irradiated skin. Liposomal T4N5, which increases the rate of repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in DNA, prevented the reduction in the CHS response, the impairment in APC function, and the induction of transferrable immune suppression. Liposomes containing heat-inactivated T4N5 did not restore immune responsiveness. In this model, hapten-bearing APC from unirradiated mice also fail to induce CHS upon injection into UV-irradiated recipients. This systemic effect of UV irradiation on APC function was also prevented by application of liposomes containing active, but not inactive, T4N5. These studies support the hypothesis that DNA damage is an essential initiator of one or more steps leading to impaired immune responsiveness after UV irradiation. They further imply that the release of cytokines that modulate APC function after UV irradiation is triggered by DNA damage. (au) 37 refs

  1. An unusual very low-mass high-amplitude pre-main sequence periodic variable

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, Maria V; Ibrahimov, Mansur; Messina, Sergio; Parihar, Padmakar; Hessman, Frederic; de Oliveira, Catarina Alves; Herbst, William

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the nature of the variability of CHS7797, an unusual periodic variable in the Orion Nebula Cluster. An extensive I-band photometric data set of CHS7797 was compiled between 2004-2010 using various telescopes. Further optical data have been collected in R and z' bands. In addition, simultaneous observations of the ONC region including CHS7797 were performed in the I, J, Ks and IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] bands over a time interval of about 40d. CHS7797 shows an unusual large-amplitude variation of about 1.7 mag in the R, I, and z' bands with a period 17.786. The amplitude of the brightness modulation decreases only slightly at longer wavelengths. The star is faint during 2/3 of the period and the shape of the phased light-curves for seven different observing seasons shows minor changes and small-amplitude variations. Interestingly, there are no significant colour-flux correlations for wavelengths smaller than 2microns, while the object becomes redder when fainter at longer wavelengths. CHS7797 ha...

  2. 南宁市城区社区卫生服务机构的SWOT分析%The SWOT Analyzing of Community Health Services in the District of Nanning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 倪建; 唐耀华; 梁贵琪; 张瑜

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative and quantitative research of Nanning city community health service institutions (CHS),in view of the situation of CHS development,using the SWOT analysis method to identify the internal strengths,weaknesses and external opportunities and threats of CHS institutions of Nanning city . Using SWOT matrix combination method to conduct system analysis, so as to put forward feasible suggestion and countermeasure for the existing problems in the process of CHS development , ultimately provide decision-making reference to promote the development of CHS Nanning city .%在对南宁市城区社区卫生服务(CHS)机构定性、定量调查的基础上,针对CHS发展的现状,利用SWOT分析法,识别南宁市城区CHS机构内部能力的优势、劣势和外部环境的机会及挑战。用SWOT的矩阵组合方法,对南宁市CHS发展过程中存在的问题进行系统分析,并提出可行的对策建议,为促进南宁市城区社区卫生服务事业的发展提供决策参考。

  3. New Role of Rosea1 in Regulating Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway in Hairy Root of Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in hairy roots system by ectopically expressing Rosea1 and Delila and we found something different from previous research. The RT-PCR results revealed that Rosea1 could activate early and late biosynthetic genes tested, including CHS, DFR and ANS. Delila enhanced the expression of CHS weakly, but did not influence DFR or ANS. The two regulators, Rosea1 and Delila, failed to interplay each other. It was speculated that Delila would be ineffective in the absence of Rosea1, another MYB factor specifically controlling CHS may exist. This investigation provided a new way to increase anthocyanin content by over expressing a MYB factor, potentially to be used in the field of agriculture and food

  4. Modification of a viral satellite DNA-based gene silencing vector and its application to leaf or flower color change in Petunia hybrida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiaorong; QIAN Yajuan; ZHOU Xueping

    2006-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing offers a powerful reverse-genetic tool for the study of gene function in plants. We have previously reported effective gene silencing of plant genes using a viral satellite DNA associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV). In this study, we further modified the viral satellite DNA-based vector. The modified vector can induce sulfu (Su) gene silencing as effective as the original vector in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, but the new system simplifies procedures for construction of vector derivative. Furthermore, a fragment of petunia Su or chalcone synthase (CHS) endogenous gene was inserted into the modified vector. When petunia plants were agro- inoculated with the modified vector carrying a Su or CHS gene, the Su silenced plants started to appear yellowing in veins of systemically infected upper leaves two weeks after agroinoculation, while the CHS silenced plants started to show flower color change one month after agroinoculation and later single-color flowers became mosaic.

  5. Propane Clathrate Hydrate Formation Accelerated by Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amtawong, Jaruwan; Guo, Jin; Hale, Jared S; Sengupta, Suvrajit; Fleischer, Everly B; Martin, Rachel W; Janda, Kenneth C

    2016-07-01

    The role of methanol as both an inhibitor and a catalyst for the formation of clathrate hydrates (CHs) has been a topic of intense study. We report a new quantitative study of the kinetics of propane CH formation at 253 K from the reaction of propane gas with ice particles that have been doped with varying amounts of methanol. We find that methanol significantly accelerates the formation reaction with quite small doping quantities. Even for only 1 methanol molecule per 10 000 water molecules, the maximum uptake rate of propane into CHs is enhanced and the initiation pressure is reduced. These results enable more efficient production of CHs for gas storage. This remarkable acceleration of the CH formation reaction by small quantities of methanol may place constraints on the mechanism of the inhibition effect observed under other conditions, usually employing much larger quantities of methanol. PMID:27275862

  6. Lowest-ID with Adaptive ID Reassignment: A Novel Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks Clustering Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Gavalas, Damianos; Konstantopoulos, Charalampos; Mamalis, Basilis

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is a promising approach for building hierarchies and simplifying the routing process in mobile ad-hoc network environments. The main objective of clustering is to identify suitable node representatives, i.e. cluster heads (CHs), to store routing and topology information and maximize clusters stability. Traditional clustering algorithms suggest CH election exclusively based on node IDs or location information and involve frequent broadcasting of control packets, even when network topology remains unchanged. More recent works take into account additional metrics (such as energy and mobility) and optimize initial clustering. However, in many situations (e.g. in relatively static topologies) re-clustering procedure is hardly ever invoked; hence initially elected CHs soon reach battery exhaustion. Herein, we introduce an efficient distributed clustering algorithm that uses both mobility and energy metrics to provide stable cluster formations. CHs are initially elected based on the time and cost-efficien...

  7. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  8. Expression of cysLT1 and cysLT2 Receptor in Chronic Hyperplastic Eosinophilic Sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) from sinus tissues and abundant sinus eosinophils are characteristic features of chronic hyperplastic eosinophilic sinusitis (CHS). CysLTs exert their action through G-protein-coupled receptors named cysLTs receptor type I (cysLT1R) and type II (cysLT2R). These expressions of cysLT receptors in the sinus mucosa have yet to be clarified and the relationship between eosinophilia and the expression of these receptors remains obscure. We compared the expressions of cysLT1R and cysLT2R in the sinus mucosa in patients with CHS, non-eosinophilic chronic sinusitis (NECS), and control sinus tissues; and analyzed the correlation between the expression of CysLTRs and the presence of sinus eosinophils by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. A significantly higher percentage of eosinophils expressing cysLT2R protein was observed in patients with CHS compared with NECS and controls. In addition, cysLT2R mRNA expression in CHS was significantly higher than in NECS and controls. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between cysLT2R mRNA expression and the number of infiltrated eosinophils. In contrast, the cysLT1R mRNA expression did not differ significantly among these groups. The effect of cysLTs on sinus eosinophils may be mediated through the cysLT2R in patients with CHS. These results may suggest the therapeutic benefit of cysLT2R antagonists in CHS

  9. Non-invasive assessment of cerebral microcirculation with diffuse optics and coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Sassaroli, Angelo; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Tgavalekos, Kristen T.; Zang, Xuan

    2016-03-01

    We describe the general principles and initial results of coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS), which is a new technique for the quantitative assessment of cerebral hemodynamics on the basis of dynamic near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements. The two components of CHS are (1) dynamic measurements of coherent cerebral hemodynamics in the form of oscillations at multiple frequencies (frequency domain) or temporal transients (time domain), and (2) their quantitative analysis with a dynamic mathematical model that relates the concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in tissue to cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). In particular, CHS can provide absolute measurements and dynamic monitoring of CBF, and quantitative measures of cerebral autoregulation. We report initial results of CBF measurements in hemodialysis patients, where we found a lower CBF (54 +/- 16 ml/(100 g-min)) compared to a group of healthy controls (95 +/- 11 ml/(100 g-min)). We also report CHS measurements of cerebral autoregulation, where a quantitative index of autoregulation (its cutoff frequency) was found to be significantly greater in healthy subjects during hyperventilation (0.034 +/- 0.005 Hz) than during normal breathing (0.017 +/- 0.002 Hz). We also present our approach to depth resolved CHS, based on multi-distance, frequency-domain NIRS data and a two-layer diffusion model, to enhance sensitivity to cerebral tissue. CHS offers a potentially powerful approach to the quantitative assessment and continuous monitoring of local brain perfusion at the microcirculation level, with prospective brain mapping capabilities of research and clinical significance.

  10. Lack of TAK1 in dendritic cells inhibits the contact hypersensitivity response induced by trichloroethylene in local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Pan; Hongqian, Chu; Qinghe, Meng; Lanqin, Shang; Jianjun, Jiang; Xiaohua, Yang; Xuetao, Wei; Weidong, Hao

    2016-09-15

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. Occupational TCE exposure has been associated with severe, generalized contact hypersensitivity (CHS) skin disorder. The development of CHS depends on innate and adaptive immune functions. Transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1) controls the survival of dendritic cells (DCs) that affect the immune system homeostasis. We aimed to investigate the role of TAK1 activity in DC on TCE-induced CHS response. Control mice and DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice were treated with 80% (v/v) TCE using local lymph node assay (LLNA) to establish a TCE-induced CHS model. The draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised and the lymphocytes were measure for proliferation by BrdU-ELISA, T-cell phenotype analysis by flow cytometry and signaling pathway activation by western blot. The ears were harvested for histopathological analysis. Control mice in the 80% TCE group displayed an inflammatory response in the ears, increased lymphocyte proliferation, elevated regulatory T-cell and activated T-cell percentages, and more IFN-γ producing CD8(+) T cells in DLNs. In contrast to control mice, DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice in the 80% TCE group showed an abolished CHS response and this was associated with defective T-cell expansion, activation and IFN-γ production. This effect may occur through Jnk and NF-κB signaling pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates a pivotal role of TAK1 in DCs in controlling TCE-induced CHS response and suggests that targeting TAK1 function in DCs may be a viable approach to preventing and treating TCE-related occupational health hazards. PMID:27473013

  11. Nonlinear extension of a hemodynamic linear model for coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Angelo; Kainerstorfer, Jana M; Fantini, Sergio

    2016-01-21

    In this work, we are proposing an extension of a recent hemodynamic model (Fantini, 2014a), which was developed within the framework of a novel approach to the study of tissue hemodynamics, named coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS). The previous hemodynamic model, from a signal processing viewpoint, treats the tissue microvasculature as a linear time-invariant system, and considers changes of blood volume, capillary blood flow velocity and the rate of oxygen diffusion as inputs, and the changes of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations (measured in near infrared spectroscopy) as outputs. The model has been used also as a forward solver in an inversion procedure to retrieve quantitative parameters that assess physiological and biological processes such as microcirculation, cerebral autoregulation, tissue metabolic rate of oxygen, and oxygen extraction fraction. Within the assumption of "small" capillary blood flow velocity oscillations the model showed that the capillary and venous compartments "respond" to this input as low pass filters, characterized by two distinct impulse response functions. In this work, we do not make the assumption of "small" perturbations of capillary blood flow velocity by solving without approximations the partial differential equation that governs the spatio-temporal behavior of hemoglobin saturation in capillary and venous blood. Preliminary comparison between the linear time-invariant model and the extended model (here identified as nonlinear model) are shown for the relevant parameters measured in CHS as a function of the oscillation frequency (CHS spectra). We have found that for capillary blood flow velocity oscillations with amplitudes up to 10% of the baseline value (which reflect typical scenarios in CHS), the discrepancies between CHS spectra obtained with the linear and nonlinear models are negligible. For larger oscillations (~50%) the linear and nonlinear models yield CHS spectra with differences within typical

  12. Main: CPRFPCCHS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CPRFPCCHS S000313 8-February-2006 (last modified) kehi BoxII; Binding site of CPRF-...1, -2, -3 and -4(Common Plant Regulatory Factor) in the parsley (P.c.) light responsive chalcone synthase (CHS) gene promoter; CPRF... proteins are bZIP class transcription factors; CPRF proteins participates in the lig...ht-mediated activation of the CHS gene in parsley; ACE; The proline-rich domains of CPRF...1 and 4 activate transcription; CPRF1-containing bZIP heterodimer interacts with ACE in vivo; BoxII; CPRF

  13. Basophil-Derived Amphiregulin Is Essential for UVB Irradiation-Induced Immune Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J.A.M.; Zaiss, Dietmar M.W.

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor amphiregulin (AREG) engages EGFR on Treg cells and, in different disease models, it was shown that mast cell-derived AREG is essential for optimal Treg cell...

  14. The enlarged lysosomes in beigej cells result from decreased lysosome fission and not increased lysosome fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Durchfort, Nina; Verhoef, Shane; Vaughn, Michael B.; Shrestha, Rishna; Adam, Dieter; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane McVey

    2011-01-01

    Chediak-Higashi Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects vesicle morphology. The Chs1/Lyst protein is a member of the BEACH family of proteins. The absence of Chs1/Lyst gives rise to enlarged lysosomes. Lysosome size is regulated by a balance between vesicle fusion and fission and can be reversibly altered by acidifying the cytoplasm using Acetate Ringer’s or by incubating with the drug vacuolin-1. We took advantage of these procedures to determine rates of lysosome fusion and...

  15. 一种基于软件再生的无线传感器网络簇头节点管理策略%Management Strategy for Cluster Heads in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Software Rejuvenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲元昌; 胡江坤; 郭开林; 赵贞贞

    2011-01-01

    A software rejuvenation model with proactive rejuvenation and reactive recovery approach is proposed to increase the availability and survivability of CHs in WSN.The resault showes that the method can enhance the availability and survivability of CHs greatly.%本文构建了一种软件再生模型,采用主动再生与自我修复方法,研究WSN中簇头的有用性与生存性.实验表明:该方法能有效提高簇头的有用性和生存性.

  16. Building partnerships towards strengthening Makerere University College of Health Sciences: a stakeholder and sustainability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariyo George W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partnerships and networking are important for an institution of higher learning like Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS to be competitive and sustainable. Methods A stakeholder and sustainability analysis of 25 key informant interviews was conducted among past, current and potential stakeholders of MakCHS to obtain their perspectives and contributions to sustainability of the College in its role to improve health outcomes. Results The College has multiple internal and external stakeholders. Stakeholders from Uganda wanted the College to use its enormous academic capacity to fulfil its vision, take initiative, and be innovative in conducting more research and training relevant to the country’s health needs. Many stakeholders felt that the initiative for collaboration currently came more from the stakeholders than the College. External stakeholders felt that MakCHS was insufficiently marketing itself and not directly engaging the private sector or Parliament. Stakeholders also identified the opportunity for MakCHS to embrace information technology in research, learning and training, and many also wanted MakCHS to start leadership and management training programmes in health systems. The need for MakCHS to be more vigorous in training to enhance professionalism and ethical conduct was also identified. Discussion As a constituent of a public university, MakCHS has relied on public funding, which has been inadequate to fulfill its mission. Broader networking, marketing to mobilize resources, and providing strong leadership and management support to inspire confidence among its current and potential stakeholders will be essential to MakCHS’ further growth. MakCHS’ relevance is hinged on generating research knowledge for solving the country’s contemporary health problems and starting relevant programs and embracing technologies. It should share new knowledge widely through publications and other forms of

  17. Low-Latitude Coronal Holes at the Minimum of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Abramenko, V.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.; Luhmann, J.; Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)

    2010-01-01

    Low and mid-latitude coronal holes (CHs) observed on the Sun during the current solar activity minimum (from September 21, 2006, Carrington rotation (CR) 2048, until June 26, 2009 (CR 2084)) were analyzed using {\\it SOHO}/EIT and STEREO-A SECCHI EUVI data. From both the observations and Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) modeling, we find that the area occupied by CHs inside a belt of $\\pm 40^\\circ$ around the solar equator is larger in the current 2007 solar minimum relative to the simila...

  18. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekandi Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism

  19. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Kai Xia; Tian-Bo Ding; Jin-Zhi Niu; Chong-Yu Liao; Rui Zhong; Wen-Jia Yang; Bin Liu; Wei Dou; Jin-Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic ...

  20. 决明查尔酮合成酶基因的克隆及序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Analysis of a Chalone Synthase Gene of Cassia tora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖海; 周嘉裕

    2008-01-01

    以决明(Cassia tora)为实验材料,利用RT-PCR和RACE技术,从决明嫩叶中克隆出查尔酮合成酶(Chal-one synthase,CHS)基因,其cDNA全长为1 459 bp,编码一个由390个氨基酸残基组成的多肽.氨基酸序列分析表明,决明CHS基因的氨基酸序列中含有44.61%的中性疏水氨基酸,29.74%的中性亲水氨基酸,12.56%的酸性氨基酸和13.O8%的碱性氨基酸.决明CHS基因的氨基酸序列中具有CHS家族酶系的氨基酸保守残基,包括结合底物CoA的结合残基及催化聚酮合成的催化残基,表明其可能参与聚酮化合物的合成.决明与其它植物CHS的氨基酸序列的进化分析表明,其与同为豆科决明属的翼叶决明(Cassia alata)的同源性较近,并且CHS家族可以分为CHS亚家族与非CHS亚家族.将得到的序列提交GenBank,登录号为EU430077.%Using Cassia tara as material,a cDNA encoding chalone synthase (CHS) was cloned from tender leaves of Cassia tara by RT-PCR and RACE. The full-length cDNA of CHS from Cassia tara had 1 459 bp with an open reading frame encoding 390 amino acids of protein. There were 44.61% of neutral hydrophobic residues,29.74% of neutral hydrophilic residues,12.56% of acid residues,and 13.08% of alkaline residues in the CHS amino acid sequence. It was suggested that the CHS from Cassia tara might be involved with the biosynthesis of polyketide since it maintained the same functional regions involved with CoA binding site and catalytic residues conserved in the CHS-superfamily enzymes. Furthermore, phylogenic analysis on the amino acid sequence of CHS from Cassia tara with other plants showed that Cassia tara was closely related to Cassia alata,and CHS-superfamily enzymes. They could be grouped into CHS-subfamily and non CHS-subfamily. The accession number of CHS from Cassia tara in GenBank was EU430077.

  1. Fusion theory and computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed to carry out theoretical studies of the equilibrium, stability, transport and heating properties of high-temperature fusion plasmas. Continued emphasis will be placed on the effective interface of fusion theory and computations with the local Alcator, Versator, Constance and Torex experimental programs. The proposed research includes but will not be limited to the following types of studies: (a) investigation of RF heating of toroidal plasmas, (b) investigation of the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of tokamak plasmas, (c) develop the basic understanding of a wide variety of non-linear and turbulent phenomena, including stochastic magnetic fields, clumps and nonlinear saturation of linear instabilities, (d) investigate the effects of ambipolar fields on transport and stability properties of toroidal plasmas. Investigate high-beat stability properties of tandem-mirror systems, and (e) investigation of the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of Torsatron/Stellarator configurations

  2. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1994. V. 1. Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains (i) the traditional Artsimovich Memorial Lecture; (ii) nine presentations giving an overview of toroidal confinement systems (TFTR, JT-60U, JET, DIII-D, TORE SUPRA, Alcator C-Mod, JFT-2M and T-10 tokamaks and the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator), (iii) twenty-three presentations on core plasma physics (mostly on charged-particle transport and improved confinement regimes), (iv) eight presentations on plasma heating and current drive, (v) twelve presentations on divertors and edge physics, (vi) thirteen on concept optimization (shaping of magnetic field configuration, control of plasma profiles and of disruptions, a.o.), and (vii) six on helical systems (stellarators, including torsatron/heliotron). Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, technical research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    Research programs have produced significant results on four fronts: (1) the basic physics of high-temperature fusion plasmas (plasma theory, RF heating, development of advanced diagnostics and small-scale experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices); (2) major confinement results on the Alcator A and C tokamaks, including pioneering investigations of the equilibrium, stability, transport and radiation properties of fusion plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields; (3) development of a new and innovative design for axisymmetric tandem mirrors with inboard thermal barriers, with initial operation of the TARA tandem mirror experimental facility scheduled for 1983; and (4) a broadly based program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas (e.g., magnet systems, superconducting materials development, environmental and safety studies, advanced gyrotron development for RF heating, preconceptual design studies of torsatrons and stellarators, and advanced tokamak design and reactor studies).

  4. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  5. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  6. Basophil-derived amphiregulin is essential for UVB irradiation-induced immune suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P M G; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J A M; Zaiss, Dietmar M W

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor amphiregulin (AREG) engages EGFR on Treg cells and, in different disease models, it was shown that mast cell-derived AREG is essential for optimal Treg cell function in vivo. Here we determined whether AREG has a role in UVB-induced, Treg cell-mediated suppression of CHS reactions in the skin. Our data show that AREG is essential for UVB-induced CHS suppression. In contrast to the general assumption, however, mast cells were dispensable for UVB-induced immune suppression, whereas basophil-derived AREG was essential. These data reveal, to our knowledge, a previously unreported function for basophils in the homeostasis of immune responses in the skin. Basophils thus fulfill a dual function: they contribute to the initiation of effective type 2 immune responses and, by enhancing the suppressive capacity of local Treg cell populations, also to local immune regulation in the skin. PMID:25089660

  7. Validation of a Portuguese Version of the Children's Hope Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Susana C.; Pais-Ribeiro, J. L.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Portuguese version of the Children's Hope Scale and the examination of its psychometric properties. A sample of 367 Portuguese students completed the Portuguese-language versions of the Children's Hope Scale (CHS; Snyder et al., 1997), Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991), Global…

  8. Immobilized Lentivirus Vector on Chondroitin Sulfate-Hyaluronate Acid-Silk Fibroin Hybrid Scaffold for Tissue-Engineered Ligament-Bone Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of a fibrocartilage layer between graft and bone remains the leading cause of graft failure after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction. The objective of this study was to develop a gene-modified silk cable-reinforced chondroitin sulfate-hyaluronate acid-silk fibroin (CHS hybrid scaffold for reconstructing the fibrocartilage layer. The scaffold was fabricated by lyophilizing the CHS mixture with braided silk cables. The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM showed that microporous CHS sponges were formed around silk cables. Each end of scaffold was modified with lentiviral-mediated transforming growth factor-β3 (TGF-β3 gene. The cells on scaffold were transfected by bonded lentivirus. In vitro culture demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on scaffolds proliferated vigorously and produced abundant collagen. The transcription levels of cartilage-specific genes also increased with culture time. After 2 weeks, the MSCs were distributed uniformly throughout scaffold. Deposited collagen was also found to increase. The chondral differentiation of MSCs was verified by expressions of collagen II and TGF-β3 genes in mRNA and protein level. Histology also confirmed the production of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM components. The results demonstrated that gene-modified silk cable-reinforced CHS scaffold was capable of supporting cell proliferation and differentiation to reconstruct the cartilage layer of interface.

  9. Occurrence of triclosan in plasma of wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and in their environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, Patricia A., E-mail: pat.fair@noaa.go [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Services, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412-9110 (United States); Lee, H.-B. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Adams, Jeff [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Services, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412-9110 (United States); Darling, Colin; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Alaee, Mehran [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Bossart, Gregory D. [Center for Coastal Research, Marine Mammal Research and Conservation Program, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University, 5600 U.S. 1 North, Ft. Pierce, FL 34946 (United States); Henry, Natasha [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Services, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412-9110 (United States); Muir, Derek [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    The presence of triclosan, a widely-used antibacterial chemical, is currently unknown in higher trophic-level species such as marine mammals. Blood plasma collected from wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Charleston, SC (CHS) (n = 13) and Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) (n = 13) in 2005 was analyzed for triclosan. Plasma concentrations in CHS dolphins ranged from 0.12 to 0.27 ng/g wet weight (mean 0.18 ng/g), with 31% of the sampled individuals having detectable triclosan. The mean IRL dolphin plasma concentrations were 0.072 ng/g wet weight (range 0.025-0.11 ng/g); 23% of the samples having detectable triclosan. In the CHS area, triclosan effluent values from two WWTP were both 190 ng/L and primary influents were 2800 ng/L and 3400 ng/L. Triclosan values in CHS estuarine surface water samples averaged 7.5 ng/L (n = 18) ranging from 4.9 to 14 ng/L. This is the first study to report bioaccumulation of anthropogenic triclosan in a marine mammal highlighting the need for further monitoring and assessment. - Triclosan in bottlenose dolphin plasma and their environment.

  10. Regression of orthotopic neuroblastoma in mice by targeting the endothelial and tumor cell compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stridsberg Mats

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk neuroblastoma has an overall five-year survival of less than 40%, indicating a need for new treatment strategies such as angiogenesis inhibition. Recent studies have shown that chemotherapeutic drugs can inhibit angiogenesis if administered in a continuous schedule. The aim of this study was primarily to characterize tumor spread in an orthotopic, metastatic model for aggressive, MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma and secondarily to study the effects of daily administration of the chemotherapeutic agent CHS 828 on tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and spread. Methods MYCN-amplified human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32, 2 × 106 were injected into the left adrenal gland in SCID mice through a flank incision. Nine weeks later, a new laparotomy was performed to confirm tumor establishment and to estimate tumor volume. Animals were randomized to either treatment with CHS 828 (20 mg/kg/day; p.o. or vehicle control. Differences between groups in tumor volume were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and in metastatic spread using Fisher's exact test. Differences with p Results The orthotopic model resembled clinical neuroblastoma in respect to tumor site, growth and spread. Treatment with CHS 828 resulted in tumor regression (p Conclusion The metastatic animal model in this study resembled clinical neuroblastoma and is therefore clinically relevant for examining new treatment strategies for this malignancy. Our results indicate that daily scheduling of CHS 828 may be beneficial in treating patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.

  11. Association of Center Volume With Outcomes : Analysis of Verified Data of European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Congenital Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansy, Andrzej; Ebels, Tjark; Schreiber, Christian; Tobota, Zdzislaw; Maruszewski, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The relation between surgical volumes and outcome in congenital heart surgery (CHS) was investigated with no clear conclusions. We sought to quantify the relationship between surgical volume and surgical performance defined as the relation between outcome and Society of Thoracic Surgeons

  12. Transient silencing of CHALCONE SYNTHASE during fruit ripening modifies tomato epidermal cells and cuticle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Laura; Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Reina-Pinto, José J; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Heredia, Antonio; Domínguez, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is accompanied by an increase in CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS) activity and flavonoid biosynthesis. Flavonoids accumulate in the cuticle, giving its characteristic orange color that contributes to the eventual red color of the ripe fruit. Using virus-induced gene silencing in fruits, we have down-regulated the expression of SlCHS during ripening and compared the cuticles derived from silenced and nonsilenced regions. Silenced regions showed a pink color due to the lack of flavonoids incorporated to the cuticle. This change in color was accompanied by several other changes in the cuticle and epidermis. The epidermal cells displayed a decreased tangential cell width; a decrease in the amount of cuticle and its main components, cutin and polysaccharides, was also observed. Flavonoids dramatically altered the cuticle biomechanical properties by stiffening the elastic and viscoelastic phase and by reducing the ability of the cuticle to deform. There seemed to be a negative relation between SlCHS expression and wax accumulation during ripening that could be related to the decreased cuticle permeability to water observed in the regions silencing SlCHS. A reduction in the overall number of ester linkages present in the cutin matrix was also dependent on the presence of flavonoids.

  13. 48 CFR 211.275-2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Supply Chain Materiel Management Regulation, AP1.1.11: (i) Subclass of Class I—Packaged operational... Depot, Warner Robins, GA: DoDAAC SW3119. (xix) Air Mobility Command Terminal, Charleston Air Force Base, Charleston, SC: Air Terminal Identifier Code CHS. (xx) Air Mobility Command Terminal, Naval Air...

  14. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum): isolation and expression analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sepideh Sanjari; Zahra Sadat Shobbar; Mohsen Ebrahimi; Tahereh Hasanloo; Seyed-Ahmad Sadat-Noor; Soodeh Tirnaz

    2015-12-01

    Silymarin is a flavonoid compound derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds which has several pharmacological applications. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids; thereby, the identification of encoding genes in milk thistle plant can be of great importance. In the current research, fragments of genes were amplified using degenerate primers based on the conserved parts of Asteraceae genes, and then cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the resultant nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences led to the identification of two different members of gene family, 1 and 2. Third member, full-length cDNA (3) was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), whose open reading frame contained 1239 bp including exon 1 (190 bp) and exon 2 (1049 bp), encoding 63 and 349 amino acids, respectively. In silico analysis of SmCHS3 sequence contains all the conserved CHS sites and shares high homology with CHS proteins from other plants. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that 1 and 3 had the highest transcript level in petals in the early flowering stage and in the stem of five upper leaves, followed by five upper leaves in the mid-flowering stage which are most probably involved in anthocyanin and silymarin biosynthesis.

  15. Users' Satisfaction with Library Information Resources and Services: A Case Study College of Health Sciences Library Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemo, Pereware Aghwotu; Ateboh, Benedict Alaowei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated users' satisfaction with library information resources and services at the College of Health Sciences (CHS) library Niger Delta University, Nigeria. The objective was to determine the level of users satisfaction with library information resources and services. 2 (two) research questions were formulated to guide the study.…

  16. Investigation of the role of four mitotic septins and chitin synthase 2 for cytokinesis in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippert, Dorthe; Heinisch, Jürgen J

    2016-09-01

    Septins are key components of the cell division machinery from yeast to humans. The model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has five mitotic septins, Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, Cdc12, and Shs1. Here we characterized the five orthologs from the genetically less-redundant milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. We found that except for KlSHS1 all septin genes are essential. Klshs1 deletions displayed temperature-sensitive growth and morphological defects. Heterologous complementation analyses revealed that all five K. lactis genes encode functional orthologs of their S. cerevisiae counterparts. Fluorophore-tagged versions of the K. lactis septins localized to a ring at the incipient bud site and split into two separate rings at the bud neck later in cytokinesis. One of the key proteins recruited to the bud neck by septins in S. cerevisiae is the chitin synthase Chs2, which synthesizes the primary septum. KlCHS2 was found to be essential and deletions showed cytokinetic defects upon spore germination. KlChs2-GFP also localized to the bud neck and to punctate structures in K. lactis. We conclude that cytokinesis in K. lactis is similar to S. cerevisiae and chimeric septin complexes are fully functional in both yeasts. In contrast to some S. cerevisiae strains, KlChs2 and KlCdc10 were found to be essential. PMID:27422440

  17. Multilayered Thin Films from Boronic Acid-Functional Poly(amido amine)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hujaya, S.D.; Engbersen, J.F.J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the properties of phenylboronic acid-functional poly(amido amine) polymers (BA-PAA) in forming multilayered thin films with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS), and to evaluate their compatibility with COS-7 cells. Methods Copolymers of phenylboronic acid-

  18. Contact sensitizers induce skin inflammation via ROS production and hyaluronic acid degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp R Esser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed the role of contact sensitizer induced ROS production and concomitant changes in hyaluronic acid metabolism on CHS responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed in vitro and in vivo ROS production using fluorescent ROS detection reagents. HA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis. The influence of blocking ROS production and HA degradation by antioxidants, hyaluronidase-inhibitor or p38 MAPK inhibitor was analyzed in the murine CHS model. Here, we demonstrate that organic contact sensitizers induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and a concomitant breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM component hyaluronic acid (HA to pro-inflammatory low molecular weight fragments in the skin. Importantly, inhibition of either ROS-mediated or enzymatic HA breakdown prevents sensitization as well as elicitation of CHS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data identify an indirect mechanism of contact sensitizer induced innate inflammatory signaling involving the breakdown of the ECM and generation of endogenous danger signals. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for anti-oxidants and hyaluronidase inhibitors in prevention and treatment of ACD.

  19. New STS molecular markers for assessment of genetic diversity and DNA fingerprinting in hop (Humulus lupulus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzak, Josef; Vrba, Lukás; Matousek, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Molecular markers have been increasingly used in genetic studies of crop species for their applicability in breeding programs. In this work, we report on the development of new sequence-tagged site (STS) markers based on sequence information from several identified hop (Humulus lupulus L.) genes. We demonstrate the usefulness of these STS markers and compare them to SSRs for identifying hop genotypes and estimating genetic diversity in a collection of 68 hop cultivars from around the world. We found 3 individual gene variants (A, B, C) of the chs_H1 gene in this collection. The most frequent gene variant, B (AJ304877), was not detected in Mt. Hood, Glacier, and Horizon (US) cultivars. Gene variant A came from an American germplasm through wild hops. We found length polymorphism in intron 1 of the chs2 gene, and 4 different amplified markers were detected in PCRs. The chs3 gene was found in only one third of the cultivars. None of the variants of the studied CHS genes were found in Humulus japonicus. We detected 5 major gene variants of DNA-binding protein in the collection of H. lupulus cultivars and 2 others in H. japonicus. We also found 3 individual gene variants of an endochitinase gene. The distribution of gene variants did not correlate with any resistance. We proved that developed STS markers can be successfully used for the analysis of genetic diversity and can substitute and supplement SSR markers in hop. PMID:17546067

  20. Cellular target of UVB-induced DNA damage resulting in local suppression of contact hypersensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, A.A.; Shreedhar, V.; Roza, L.; Krutmann, J.; Kripke, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data are reviewed that lend support to the hypothesis that formation of DNA damage is the initiation event of local suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiaton and that the antigen-presenting cell (APC) is an important traget for this DNA da

  1. Efecto de la Adición de Minerales en el Agua o Alimento sobre la Frecuencia Cardiaca, en Pollos de Engorde Sometidos a Estrés Calórico Crónico y Agudo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas, Jesus; Steffensen, Simon Gabriel Comerma; Chacon, Tony;

    2008-01-01

    The effects of mineral addition in feed or water on performance parameters and heart rate (HR) were evaluated in broilers at 28-35 d and 36 d under both chronic heat stress (CHS) and acute heat stress (AHS) in laboratory conditions. Onehundred ninety two broilers were used, distributed in 6 cages...

  2. A bHLH transcription factor, DvIVS, is involved in regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in dahlia (Dahlia variabilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Hoshino, Atsushi; Kitamura, Yoshikuni; Morita, Yasumasa; Park, Kyeung-Ii; Nakashima, Akiko; Deguchi, Ayumi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki; Iida, Shigeru; Yazawa, Susumu

    2011-10-01

    Dahlias (Dahlia variabilis) exhibit a wide range of flower colours because of accumulation of anthocyanin and other flavonoids in their ray florets. Two lateral mutants were used that spontaneously occurred in 'Michael J' (MJW) which has yellow ray florets with orange variegation. MJOr, a bud mutant producing completely orange ray florets, accumulates anthocyanins, flavones, and butein, and MJY, another mutant producing completely yellow ray florets, accumulates flavones and butein. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed that expression of chalcone synthase 1 (DvCHS1), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (DvF3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DvDFR), anthocyanidin synthase (DvANS), and DvIVS encoding a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor were suppressed, whereas that of chalcone isomerase (DvCHI) and DvCHS2, another CHS with 69% nucleotide identity with DvCHS1, was not suppressed in the yellow ray florets of MJY. A 5.4 kb CACTA superfamily transposable element, transposable element of Dahlia variabilis 1 (Tdv1), was found in the fourth intron of the DvIVS gene of MJW and MJY, and footprints of Tdv1 were detected in the variegated flowers of MJW. It is shown that only one type of DvIVS gene was expressed in MJOr, whereas these plants are likely to have three types of the DvIVS gene. On the basis of these results, the mechanism regulating the formation of orange and yellow ray florets in dahlia is discussed. PMID:21765172

  3. Bio-mimetic composite scaffold from mussel shells, squid pen and crab chitosan for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavandi, Amin; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Ali, M Azam; Sun, Zhifa

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, chitosan/hydroxyapatite (HA)/β-tircalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composites were produced using squid pen derived chitosan (CHS) and commercial crab derived chitosan (CHC). CHS was prepared from squid pens by alkaline N-deacetylation. HA and β-TCP were extracted from mussel shells using a microwave irradiation method. Two different composites were prepared by incorporating 50% (w/w) HA/(β-TCP) in CHS or CHC followed by lyophilization and cross-linking of composites by tripolyphosphate (TPP). The effect of different freezing temperatures of -20, -80 and -196 °C on the physicochemical characteristics of composites was investigated. A simulated body fluid (SBF) solution was used for preliminary in vitro study for 1, 7, 14 and 28 days and the composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, TGA, SEM, μ-CT and ICP-MS. Porosity, pore size, water uptake; water retention abilities and in vitro degradations of the prepared composites were evaluated. The CHS composites were found to have higher porosity (62%) compared to the CHC composites (porosity 42%) and better mechanical properties. The results of this study indicated that composites produced at -20 °C had higher mechanical properties and lower degradation rate compared with -80 °C. Chitosan from the squid pen is an excellent biomaterial candidate for bone tissue engineering applications.

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0383 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0383 ref|NP_001034492.1| chitin synthase 2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AA...Q55061.1| chitin synthase CHS2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AAQ62692.1| chitin synthase [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001034492.1 0.021 22% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0127 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0127 ref|NP_001034492.1| chitin synthase 2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AA...Q55061.1| chitin synthase CHS2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AAQ62692.1| chitin synthase [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001034492.1 0.007 21% ...

  6. Department of Homeland Security Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Aviation Security Infrastructure Fee (ASIF) 11/05/03 68 FR 62613 Notice--Imposition of ASIF; Comment Period... Part VIII Department of Homeland Security Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (DHS) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Chs. I and II Unified...

  7. Main: LREBOXIPCCHS1 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LREBOXIPCCHS1 S000302 16-Feb-2001 (last modified) seki BoxI; Light responsive element (LR...YB repeat; chalcone synthase; CHS; light; Box I; LRE; PcMYB1; MRECHS; MYB; leaf; shoot; parsley (Petroselinum crispum) AACCTAACCT ...

  8. 不同举办主体社区卫生服务机构管理制度及员工满意度调查研究%Research on Management System and staff members′Satisfaction of the Community Health Service Institutions Held by Different Ownership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢欢欢; 丰成祥; 朱伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the management system and the staff′s satisfaction of the community health service in-stitutions held by different ownership. Methods 390 community health service workers were randomly investigated in six cities of the Henan province in the end of 2012 about their present monthly income,working time,working load,of training times,will-ingness to be transferred from the community as well as their satisfaction with income,performance appraisal,bonus distribution, working environment,working contents,cultural atmosphere,working load,working hours,training,personal development space. Results Compared with the staff members in the CHS held by the enterprise,the public institution and the society,the staff in the CHS held by government and medical institutions felt that they had more working time and less training opportunities (P ﹤ 0. 05). The staff in government - runned were more satisfied with the working environment,the cultural atmosphere,the working hours(P ﹤ 0. 05);the staff in the public institution - runned were the less satisfied,especially with the working envi-ronment and cultural atmosphere(P ﹤ 0. 05);the staff in the medical institution - runned were the least satisfied with salary, performance appraisal,bonus distribution,working load,working hours,training and personal development(P ﹤ 0. 05);the staff in the society - runned were the most satisfied with every aspect expect with working hours(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion The management system of CHS held by government and medical institution is less flexible than that of society - runned CHS,ao they should promote the separation of management from operation,perfect work system and incentive system;CHS run by enterprises, public institution should be more socialized and try to improve the salary level and change and make them have a better under-standing of the community health service.%目的:了解不同举办主体社区卫生服务(CHS)机构的管理制度及

  9. Parameters of the Magnetic Flux inside Coronal Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Abramenko, Valentina; Watanabe, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Parameters of magnetic flux distribution inside low-latitude coronal holes (CHs) were analyzed. A statistical study of 44 CHs based on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/MDI full disk magnetograms and SOHO/EIT 284\\AA images showed that the density of the net magnetic flux, $B_{{\\rm net}}$, does not correlate with the associated solar wind speeds, $V_x$. Both the area and net flux of CHs correlate with the solar wind speed and the corresponding spatial Pearson correlation coefficients are 0.75 and 0.71, respectively. A possible explanation for the low correlation between $B_{{\\rm net}}$ and $V_x$ is proposed. The observed non-correlation might be rooted in the structural complexity of the magnetic field. As a measure of complexity of the magnetic field, the filling factor, $ f(r)$, was calculated as a function of spatial scales. In CHs, $f(r)$ was found to be nearly constant at scales above 2 Mm, which indicates a monofractal structural organization and smooth temporal evolution. The magnitude of the fi...

  10. Experimental determination and computational interpretation of biophysical properties of lipid bilayers enriched by cholesteryl hemisuccinate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Olzyńska, Agnieszka;

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS) is one of the cholesterol-mimicking detergents not observed in nature. It is, however, widely used in protein crystallography, in biochemical studies of proteins, and in pharmacology. Here, we performed an extensive experimental and theoretical...

  11. Metabolic changes in carrot cells in response to simultaneous treatment with ultraviolet light and a fungal elicitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet light induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell cultures of an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus). Simultaneous treatment with a fungal elicitor from Pythium aphanidermatum results in an inhibition of the catalytic activity of chalcone synthase (CHS), which in turn correlates with an inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis. On immunoblots, one isoenzyme (40 kDa) of CHS disappears upon elicitor treatment. On an mRNA level, only the mRNA for the 40-kDa-CHS is active after treatment with ultraviolet light. After inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the elicitor the enzyme protein disappears and the CHS mRNA is strongly diminished. This inhibition depends on the concentration of the elicitor. In addition, elicitor treatment leads to an induction of the general phenylpropanoid pathway as well as to the accumulation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid which is covalently bound to wall polysaccharides of the carrot cells. The possible function of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in providing precursors for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is discussed

  12. Psychology of intelligence services 1

    OpenAIRE

    Houben, Mirjam; Krauß, Manfred; Litzcke, Sven Max; Zimmermann, Thomas; Nortz, Frank; Nöller, Werner; Venne, Susanne; Wiesen, Marcus; Zoller, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Herausgeberwerk (Litzcke): 1. Die Intelligence-Acht. Überlegungen zu einer wissenschaftlichen Annäherung an nachrichtendienstliches Tun. 2. Korruption in Auslandsnachrichtendiensten 3. Interkulturelle Kommunikation Deutschland - China 4. Aspekte eines nachrichtendienstlichen Gesprächs 5. Nonverbale Lügen- und Machtmerkmale 6. Illegale Migration aus psychologischer und aus nachrichtendienstlicher Sicht 7. Stessbelastung operativ arbeitender Mitarbeiter 8. Psychologie ve...

  13. Glyceollin is an important component of soybean plant defense against Phytophthora sojae and Macrophomina phaseolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic soybean plants were generated using bombardment of embryogenic cultures with the PAL5 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), CHS6 (chalcone synthase) and IFS2 (isoflavone synthase) genes in sense orientation, driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter, or with the IFS2 (isoflavone synthas...

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel phosphoramidate derivatives of coumarin as chitin synthase inhibitors and antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qinggang; Ge, Zhiqiang; Ge, Zhixing; Chen, Kaizhi; Wu, Hualong; Liu, Xiaofei; Huang, Yanrong; Yuan, Lvjiang; Yang, Xiaolan; Liao, Fei

    2016-01-27

    A series of novel phosphoramidate derivatives of coumarin have been designed and synthesized as chitin synthase (CHS) inhibitors. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their chitin synthase inhibition activity and antimicrobial activity in vitro. The bioactive assay manifested that most of the target compounds exhibited good efficacy against CHS and a variety of clinically important fungal pathogens. In particular, compound 7t with IC50 of 0.08 mM against CHS displayed stronger efficiency than the reference Polyoxin B with IC50 of 0.16 mM. In addition, the apparent Ki values of compound 7t was 0.096 mM while the Km of Chitin synthase prepared from Candida tropicalis was 3.86 mM for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, and the result of the Ki showed that the compounds was a non-competitive inhibitor of the CHS. As far as the antifungal activity is concerned, compounds 7o, 7r and 7t were highly active against Aspergillus flavus with MIC values in the range of 1 μg/mL to 2 μg/Ml while the results of antibacterial screening showed that these compounds have negligible actions to the tested bacteria. These results indicated that the design of these compounds as antifungal agents was rational.

  15. Occurrence of triclosan in plasma of wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and in their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of triclosan, a widely-used antibacterial chemical, is currently unknown in higher trophic-level species such as marine mammals. Blood plasma collected from wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Charleston, SC (CHS) (n = 13) and Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) (n = 13) in 2005 was analyzed for triclosan. Plasma concentrations in CHS dolphins ranged from 0.12 to 0.27 ng/g wet weight (mean 0.18 ng/g), with 31% of the sampled individuals having detectable triclosan. The mean IRL dolphin plasma concentrations were 0.072 ng/g wet weight (range 0.025-0.11 ng/g); 23% of the samples having detectable triclosan. In the CHS area, triclosan effluent values from two WWTP were both 190 ng/L and primary influents were 2800 ng/L and 3400 ng/L. Triclosan values in CHS estuarine surface water samples averaged 7.5 ng/L (n = 18) ranging from 4.9 to 14 ng/L. This is the first study to report bioaccumulation of anthropogenic triclosan in a marine mammal highlighting the need for further monitoring and assessment. - Triclosan in bottlenose dolphin plasma and their environment.

  16. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  17. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome masquerading as an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewerton, Timothy D; Anderson, Odette

    2016-08-01

    The case of a 22 year old woman with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) presenting as an eating disorder is described. The importance of recognizing chronic cannabis use as a cause of episodic vomiting is emphasized, given that CHS can be confused with self-induced purging and cyclic vomiting. This case was further complicated by the well-defined history of anorexia nervosa (binge-purge type), major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, migraine headache, and the initial denial of cannabis use. However, collateral history and a positive drug screen confirmed the diagnosis. The signs, symptoms and pathophysiological mechanisms of CHS are reviewed in light of clinical presentations that mimic eating disorder phenomenology complicated by addiction. Given the trend for increasing legalization of recreational marijuana as well as medical marijuana, CHS is an important and potentially complicating disorder that eating disorder clinicians need to be aware of. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:826-829). PMID:26842268

  18. 78 FR 55743 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Shinnecock Indian Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... the ISDEAA, Public Law 93-638. \\22\\ This is a newly recognized Tribe, as documented at 67 FR 46329... counties listed are designated administratively as the SDA, to function as a Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA), for the purposes of operating a Contract Health Service (CHS) program pursuant...

  19. 78 FR 55737 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Tejon Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... administratively as the SDA, to function as a Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA), for the purpose of operating a Contract Health Service (CHS) program pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination and Education ] Assistant Act (ISDEAA), Public Law 93-638. DATES: This notice is effective 30 days after date of...

  20. 78 FR 55731 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Wilton Rancheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA), for the purpose of operating a Contract Health Service (CHS) program pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistant Act (ISDEAA), Public Law 93-638. DATES: This notice is effective 30 days after date of publication in the Federal Register...

  1. Low-Latitude Coronal Holes at the Minimum of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Abramenko, V; Linker, J; Mikic, Z; Luhmann, J; Lee, C

    2010-01-01

    Low and mid-latitude coronal holes (CHs) observed on the Sun during the current solar activity minimum (from September 21, 2006, Carrington rotation (CR) 2048, until June 26, 2009 (CR 2084)) were analyzed using {\\it SOHO}/EIT and STEREO-A SECCHI EUVI data. From both the observations and Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) modeling, we find that the area occupied by CHs inside a belt of $\\pm 40^\\circ$ around the solar equator is larger in the current 2007 solar minimum relative to the similar phase of the previous 1996 solar minimum. The enhanced CH area is related to a recurrent appearance of five persistent CHs, which survived during 7-27 solar rotations. Three of the CHs are of positive magnetic polarity and two are negative. The most long-lived CH was being formed during 2 days and existed for 27 rotations. This CH was associated with fast solar wind at 1 AU of approximately 620$\\pm 40$ km s$^{-1}$. The 3D MHD modeling for this time period shows an open field structure above this CH. We conclude that the...

  2. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  3. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status

  4. Influence of different types of contact hypersensitivity on imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuang; Zhang, Zhenying; Hou, Suchun; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    It is currently believed that psoriasis and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are different diseases; however, they share clinical similarities. The involvement of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in these disorders provides a novel opportunity to investigate the relationship between them. The present study aimed to determine whether the same or overlapping inflammatory pathways are involved in the two diseases, and the influence of different types of ACD on psoriasis. Compound mouse models of Th1 or Th2‑type contact hypersensitivity (CHS) combined with imiquimod (IMQ)‑induced psoriasis‑like inflammation were established, in order to mimic the characteristics of ACD and psoriasis. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and cytokine detection in blood serum and tissues were used to compare the differences between the mice treated with IMQ alone or IMQ combined with Th1 and Th2‑type CHS. As compared with the IMQ‑treated mice or IMQ-treated Th1‑type CHS mice, the mice with Th2‑type CHS treated with IMQ exhibited more serious psoriasis‑like inflammation with increased epidermal thickness and infiltrating cells in the derma. High mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑17, IL‑22, IL‑23, TNF‑α and RORγt were detected in back skin lesions. Additionally, high levels of IL‑17 and IL‑22 in blood serum were detected in IMQ‑treated mice combined with Th2‑type CHS. The mice treated with IMQ alone, and IMQ treatment combined with Th1‑type CHS had a comparable psoriasis‑like inflammatory response in the back skin. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that Th2‑type CHS exacerbated the IMQ‑treated psoriatic inflammation of mice via the IL‑23/IL‑17 axis. Th17 cells and associated pathways may link ACD and psoriasis. Therefore, patients with psoriasis should avoid contact with specific sensitizers, such as fragrance and rubber products, which may induce Th2 polarization. PMID:27221314

  5. Investigation of a miRNA-Induced Gene Silencing Technique in Petunia Reveals Alterations in miR173 Precursor Processing and the Accumulation of Secondary siRNAs from Endogenous Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Han

    Full Text Available MIGS (miRNA-induced gene silencing is a straightforward and efficient gene silencing technique in Arabidopsis. It works by exploiting miR173 to trigger the production of phasiRNAs (phased small interfering RNAs. MIGS can be used in plant species other than Arabidopsis by co-expression of miR173 and target gene fragments fused to an upstream miR173 target site. However, the efficiency and technical mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated in other plants. In this work, two vectors, pMIGS-chs and pMIGS-pds, were constructed and transformed into petunia plants. The transgenic plants showed CHS (chalcone synthase and PDS (phytoene desaturase gene-silencing phenotypes respectively, indicating that MIGS functions in petunia. MIGS-chs plants were used to investigate the mechanisms of this technique in petunia. Results of 5'- RACE showed that the miR173 target site was cleaved at the expected position and that endogenous CHS genes were cut at multiple positions. Small RNA deep sequencing analysis showed that the processing of Arabidopsis miR173 precursors in MIGS-chs transgenic petunia plants did not occur in exactly the same way as in Arabidopsis, suggesting differences in the machinery of miRNA processing between plant species. Small RNAs in-phase with the miR173 cleavage register were produced immediately downstream from the cleavage site and out-of-phase small RNAs were accumulated at relatively high levels from processing cycle 5 onwards. Secondary siRNAs were generated from multiple sites of endogenous CHS-A and CHS-J genes, indicating that miR173 cleavage induced siRNAs have the same ability to initiate siRNA transitivity as the siRNAs functioning in co-suppression and hpRNA silencing. On account of the simplicity of vector construction and the transitive amplification of signals from endogenous transcripts, MIGS is a good alternative gene silencing method for plants, especially for silencing a cluster of homologous genes with redundant

  6. 苦荞查尔酮合成酶基因序列特征及分子进化分析%Characterize of Sequences and Molecular Evolution Analysis of Chalcone Synthase in Fagopyrum Tartaricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙朝霞; 侯思宇; 郭彬; 令狐斌; 黄可盛; 许冬梅; 韩渊怀

    2014-01-01

    Compared to other grain crops, Fagopyrum tataricum contain high levels of flavonoids, especially rutin. It has important significance for the research of key enzymes in the rutin biosynthesis pathway. This study focuses on the rutin biosynthesis pathway first key gene-chalcone synthase. Two genes FtCHS1 (1 430 bp, Genbank number:KJ130961) and FtCHS2 (1 454 bp, Gnebank number: KJ139980) were assembing and sequenced according to flo-wer transcriptom in F. tataricum. Protein 3D structure domain analysis showed that FtCHS contains three active site, 11 product binding sites, five acetyl coenzyme A binding sites. The amino acid sequences were aligned and compared to orthologous sequences from other plants, such as F. esculentum, F. dibotrys and P. cuspidatum. The phylogenetic tree showed that 22 polygonaceae plants was divided into two categories: (Ⅰ and Ⅱ), FtCHS1 and FtCHS2 belong to different categories. Gene expression of different tissues for FtCHS were analysed by semi-quantitive and real-time PCR. It showed that it had a higher expression level in immature embryo and flower for FtCHS1 and FtCHS2, and the expression level were decreased in roots and stems. Our work provides a strategy to improve rutin content, which could also be used to study molecular mechanism of rutin biosynthesis pathway.%相比其他杂粮作物,苦荞(Fagopyrum tataricum)植株中含有高含量的黄酮类物质--‘芦丁’,因此对其生物合成途径中关键酶的研究具有十分重要意义。查尔酮合成酶(chalcone synthase)是黄酮类物质生物合成的第一个关键酶,本研究基于转录组数据库同源搜索方法,核酸序列拼接获得两个查尔酮合成酶基因,分别命名为 FtCHS1(Genbank 登录号: KJ130961)和 FtCHS2(Genbank 登录号: KJ139980)。生物信息学分析结果表明,这两个基因编码的蛋白序列有3个保守结构域,其结构域上包含3个活性位点,11个产物结合位点,5个乙酰辅酶 A 结合

  7. Changes in ideal cardiovascular health status and risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: The Kailuan prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxue; Shi, Jihong; Wang, Anxin; Song, Qiaofeng; Huang, Zhe; Zhu, Chenrui; Du, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Xizhu; Wu, Shouling

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the altered ideal cardiovascular health status (ΔCHS) and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the Kailuan population of China.We included 50,656 Chinese adults aged 18 years or older (11,704 men and 38,952 women) without baseline diabetes mellitus in this study. Information about 7 individual components of the cardiovascular health metrics during 2006 to 2008 was collected. A ΔCHS score was defined as the changes of ideal cardiovascular health status (CHS) from the year 2006 to 2008. New-onset diabetes was identified based on the history of diabetes, currently treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, or having a fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7.0 mmol/L during the 2010 to 2011 and 2012 to 2013 surveys. After a mean follow-up period of 3.80 years, a total of 3071 (6.06%) participants developed diabetes mellitus. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the CHS change and new-onset diabetes.A strong inverse association between the positive CHS changes and lower risks of developing diabetes mellitus was observed. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and other potential confounders, the hazard ratios for new-onset diabetes were 0.73, 0.59, 0.49, and 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.82; P trend diabetes mellitus in this investigated Chinese population. PMID:27559955

  8. Embryonic desiccation resistance in Aedes aegypti: presumptive role of the chitinized Serosal Cuticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto Alexandre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major problems concerning dengue transmission is that embryos of its main vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, resist desiccation, surviving several months under dry conditions. The serosal cuticle (SC contributes to mosquito egg desiccation resistance, but the kinetics of SC secretion during embryogenesis is unknown. It has been argued that mosquito SC contains chitin as one of its components, however conclusive evidence is still missing. Results We observed an abrupt acquisition of desiccation resistance during Ae. aegypti embryogenesis associated with serosal cuticle secretion, occurring at complete germ band extension, between 11 and 13 hours after egglaying. After SC formation embryos are viable on dry for at least several days. The presence of chitin as one of the SC constituents was confirmed through Calcofluor and WGA labeling and chitin quantitation. The Ae. aegypti Chitin Synthase A gene (AaCHS1 possesses two alternatively spliced variants, AaCHS1a and AaCHS1b, differentially expressed during Ae. aegypti embryonic development. It was verified that at the moment of serosal cuticle formation, AaCHS1a is the sole variant specifically expressed. Conclusion In addition to the peritrophic matrix and exoskeleton, these findings confirm chitin is also present in the mosquito serosal cuticle. They also point to the role of the chitinized SC in the desiccation resistance of Ae. aegypti eggs. AaCHS1a expression would be responsible for SC chitin synthesis. With this embryological approach we expect to shed new light regarding this important physiological process related to the Ae. aegypti life cycle.

  9. Aerosol assisted atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films using liquid cyclic hydrosilanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon (Si) thin films were produced using an aerosol assisted atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique with liquid hydrosilane precursors cyclopentasilane (CPS, Si5H10) and cyclohexasilane (CHS, Si6H12). Thin films were deposited at temperatures between 300 and 500 °C, with maximum observed deposition rates of 55 and 47 nm/s for CPS and CHS, respectively, at 500 °C. Atomic force microscopic analyses of the films depict smooth surfaces with roughness of 4–8 nm. Raman spectroscopic analysis indicates that the Si films deposited at 300 °C and 350 °C consist of a hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) phase while the films deposited at 400, 450, and 500 °C are comprised predominantly of a hydrogenated nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si:H) phase. The wide optical bandgaps of 2–2.28 eV for films deposited at 350–400 °C and 1.7–1.8 eV for those deposited at 450–500 °C support the Raman data and depict a transition from a-Si:H to nc-Si:H. Films deposited at 450 oC possess the highest photosensitivity of 102–103 under AM 1.5G illumination. Based on the growth model developed for other silanes, we suggest a mechanism that governs the film growth using CPS and CHS. - Highlights: • Si films via AA-APCVD are realized using cyclopentasilane (CPS) and cyclohexasilane (CHS). • Low activation energies of CPS and CHS allow Si thin films at low temperatures (300 °C). • High growth rates of 47–55 nm/s were obtained at 500 °C • Near device quality Si thin films with 2–3 orders of photosensitivity • Si thin films via AA-APCVD are amenable to continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing

  10. On partition function and Weyl anomaly of conformal higher-spin fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study 4-dimensional higher-derivative conformal higher-spin (CHS) fields generalizing Weyl graviton and conformal gravitino. They appear, in particular, as “induced” theories in the AdS/CFT context. We consider their partition function on curved Einstein-space backgrounds like (A)dS or sphere and Ricci-flat spaces. Remarkably, the bosonic (integer spin s) CHS partition function appears to be given by a product of partition functions of the standard 2nd-derivative “partially massless” spin s fields, generalizing the previously known expression for the 1-loop Weyl graviton (s=2) partition function. We compute the corresponding spin s Weyl anomaly coefficients as and cs. Our result for as reproduces the expression found recently in (arXiv:1306.5242) by an indirect method implied by AdS/CFT (which relates the partition function of a CHS field on S4 to a ratio of known partition functions of massless higher-spin field in AdS5 with alternate boundary conditions). We also obtain similar results for the fermionic CHS fields. In the half-integer s case the CHS partition function on (A)dS background is given by the product of squares of “partially massless” spin s partition functions and one extra factor corresponding to a special massive conformally invariant spin s field. It was noticed in (arXiv:1306.5242) that the sum of the bosonic as coefficients over all s is zero when computed using the ζ-function regularization, and we observe that the same property is true also in the fermionic case

  11. Novel targeting using nanoparticles: an approach to the development of an effective anti-leishmanial drug-delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Chávez-Fumagalli, Miguel A; Valadares, Diogo G; França, Juçara R; Rodrigues, Lívia B; Duarte, Mariana C; Lage, Paula S; Andrade, Pedro H R; Lage, Daniela P; Arruda, Leonardo V; Abánades, Daniel R; Costa, Lourena E; Martins, Vivian T; Tavares, Carlos A P; Castilho, Rachel O; Coelho, Eduardo A F; Faraco, André A G

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here aimed to develop an optimized nanoparticle delivery system for amphotericin B (AmpB) using a polyelectrolyte complexation technique. For this, two oppositely charged polymers presenting anti-leishmanial activity - chitosan (Cs) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS) - were used: Cs as a positively charged polymer and ChS as a negatively charged polymer. The chitosan (NQ) nanoparticles, chitosan-chondroitin sulfate (NQC) nanoparticles, and chitosan-chondroitin sulfate-amphotericin B (NQC-AmpB) nanoparticles presented a mean particle size of 79, 104, and 136 nm, respectively; and a polydispersity index of 0.2. The measured zeta potential of the nanoparticles indicated a positive charge in their surface, while scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical nanoparticles with a smooth surface. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed an electrostatic interaction between the polymers, whereas the release profile of AmpB from the NQC-AmpB nanoparticles showed a controlled release. In addition, the Cs; ChS; and NQ, NQC, and NQC-AmpB nanoparticles proved to be effective against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania chagasi, with a synergistic effect observed between Cs and ChS. Moreover, the applied NQ, NQC, and NQC-AmpB compounds demonstrated low toxicity in murine macrophages, as well as null hemolytic activity in type O(+) human red blood cells. Pure AmpB demonstrated high toxicity in the macrophages. The results show that cells infected with L. amazonensis and later treated with Cs, ChS, NQ, NQC, NQC-AmpB nanoparticles, or pure AmpB presented with a significant reduction in parasite number in the order of 24%, 31%, 55%, 66%, 90%, and 89%, respectively. The data presented indicate that the engineered NQC-AmpB nanoparticles could potentially be used as an alternative therapy to treat leishmaniasis, mainly due its low toxicity to mammals' cells.

  12. Gene specificity of suppression of transgene-mediated insertional transcriptional activation by the chicken HS4 insulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Desprat

    Full Text Available Insertional mutagenesis has emerged as a major obstacle for gene therapy based on vectors that integrate randomly in the genome. Reducing the genotoxicity of genomic viral integration can, in first approximation, be equated with reducing the risk of oncogene activation, at least in the case of therapeutic payloads that have no known oncogenic potential, such as the globin genes. An attractive solution to the problem of oncogene activation is the inclusion of insulators/enhancer-blockers in the viral vectors. In this study we have used Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange to characterize the effect of integration of globin therapeutic cassettes in the presence or absence of the chicken HS4 and three other putative insulators inserted near Stil, Tal1 and MAP17, three well-known cellular proto-oncogenes in the SCL/Tal1 locus. We show that insertion of a Locus Control Region-driven globin therapeutic globin transgene had a dramatic activating effect on Tal1 and Map17, the two closest genes, a minor effect on Stil, and no effect on Cyp4x1, a non-expressed gene. Of the four element tested, cHS4 was the only one that was able to suppress this transgene-mediated insertional transcriptional activation. cHS4 had a strong suppressive effect on the activation expression of Map17 but has little or no effect on expression of Tal1. The suppressive activity of cHS4 is therefore promoter specific. Importantly, the observed suppressive effect of cHS4 on Map17 activation did not depend on its intercalation between the LCR and the Map 17 promoter. Rather, presence of one or two copies of cHS4 anywhere within the transgene was sufficient to almost completely block the activation of Map17. Therefore, at this complex locus, suppression of transgene-mediated insertional transcriptional activation by cHS4 could not be adequately explained by models that predict that cHS4 can only suppress expression through an enhancer-blocking activity that requires intercalation

  13. 番茄查尔酮合成酶基因的鉴定及生物信息学分析%Identification and Bioinformatics Analysis of Chalcone Synthase Genes in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮美颖; 杨悦俭; 万红建; 叶青静; 王荣青; 姚祝平; 周国治; 俞锞; 袁伟; 刘云飞

    2013-01-01

      类黄酮(Flavonoids)是植物体内一类重要的次生代谢产物,它以结合态(黄酮苷)或自由态(黄酮苷元)形式存在于水果、蔬菜、豆类和茶叶等许多植物中,对植物的生长发育有着重要的调节作用。查尔酮合成酶(Chalcone synthase, CHS, EC2.3.1.74)是植物类黄酮合成途径的第一个关键酶,在调控类黄酮的生物合成以及类黄酮的成分起着决定作用。本研究基于番茄全基因组测序数据,利用生物信息学方法,鉴定了查尔酮合成酶基因家族成员,分析其内含子-外显子的结构特征、系统发育关系,序列结构的保守性以及染色体上的分布。研究表明:查尔酮合成酶(SlCHS)是含有8个成员的多家族基因,蛋白质序列编码位于160(SlCHS05)~438(SlCHS08)个氨基酸之间;相似性在33.7%(SlCHS02和SlCHS06)~92.0%(SlCHS04和SlCHS07)之间,表明这些序列之间具有较高的遗传多样性;此外,结构分析发现这些基因均含有较少的内含子(0~2个);序列比对表明这些基因具有较高的保守性;它们不均匀分布在番茄的1、5、6、9和12号染色体上。该研究不仅有助于未来了解该基因家族的进化起源提供参考,而且可为我们进一步分析该基因家族成员的功能奠定基础。%Flavonoids are a kind of important secondary metabolites in plants. Usually, it was found in fruits, vegetables, beans, tea and many other plants as combination (flavonoid glycosides) or free states (flavonoid glyco-sides) form. It has important role in regulating plant growth and development. Chalcone synthase, the first key synthase during the process of flavonoids synthesis, plays an important role in plant growth and development. Based on the whole tomato genome sequence, we investigated gene members of the chalcone synthase family with genome database and bioinformatics analysis. We identified 8 chalcone synthase genes with protein sequence length varying

  14. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J; Linthorst, Huub J M; Verpoorte, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

  15. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isvett J. Flores-Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

  16. Rich: Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head Selection and Node Deployment Strategy in Concentric-based WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN, C.-S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a random deployment, sensor nodes are scattered randomly in the sensing field. Hence, the coverage can not be guaranteed. In contrast, the coverage of uniformly deployment is in general larger than the random deployment. However, uniformly deployment strategy may cause unbalanced traffic pattern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this situation, larger load may be imposed to CHs (cluster heads around the sink. Therefore, CHs close to the sink use up their energy earlier than those farther away from the sink. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel node deployment strategy in the concentric model, namely, Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head selection and node deployment strategy (called Rich. The coverage, energy consumption and data routing issues are well investigated and taken into consideration in the proposed Rich scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed Rich alleviates the unbalanced traffic pattern significantly, prolongs network lifetime and achieves satisfactory coverage ratio.

  17. Effect of deletion of chitin synthase genes on mycelial morphology and culture viscosity in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian; Hansen, Kim; Szabo, Peter; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of disrupting two chitin synthases, chsB and csmA, on the morphology and rheology during batch cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae. The rheological properties were characterized in batch cultivations at different biomass concentrations (from 3.4-22.5 g kg(-1) biomass) and the power-law model adequately described the rheological properties. In the cultivations there were pellets, clumps, and freely dispersed hyphal elements. The different morphological fractions were quantified using image analysis. The apparent viscosity of the fermentation broth was significantly affected by the biomass concentration, the morphology, and also by pH. The chsB disruption strain had lower consistency index K values for all biomass concentrations investigated, which is a desirable trait for industrial Aspergillus fermentations. PMID:12514801

  18. Protocol for the application of cooperative MIMO based on clustering in sparse wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-hua; QU Yu-gui; LIN Zhi-ting; BAI Rong-gang; ZHAO Bao-hua; PAN Quan-ke

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) using cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication are effective tools to collect data in several environments. However, how to apply cooperative MIMO in WSN remains a critical challenge, especially in sparse WSN. In this article, a novel clustering scheme is proposed for the application of cooperative MIMO in sparse WSN by extending the traditional low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol. This clustering scheme solves the problem that the cluster heads (CH) cannot find enough secondary cluster heads (SCH), which are used to cooperate and inform multiple-antenna transmitters with CHs. On the basis of this protocol, the overall energy consumption of the networks model is developed, and the optimal number of CHs is obtained. The simulation results show that this protocol is feasible for the sparse WSN. The simulation results also illustrate that this protocol provides significant energy efficiencies, even after allowing for additional overheads.

  19. Dynamic analysis of compact helical system power supply and designs of its upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed dynamic waveforms are compared with measured ones for the power supply of the Compact Helical System (CHS) during 1.5T operation and found to be in good agreement. On the basis of these results, designs for the upgraded power supply for 2T operation are discussed in the two cases, with and without power consumption for additional heating. In the former case, the additional heating power is supplied from the ac generator that powers the CHS coils. Electric voltages and currents in the electric circuit are shown for both cases. These designs show the possibility for 2T operation by addition of some components without changing the ratings of existing components. (author)

  20. 漫湾水电厂转轮上冠过流面汽蚀的处理%Runner crown flow surface cavitation treatment of Manwan Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季兴光; 岳建锋; 曲岩

    2012-01-01

      介绍了漫湾水电站的工程概况及水轮发电机转轮上冠过流面存在的汽蚀问题,分析了转轮上冠过流面的材料性能,论述了利用CHS237不锈钢焊条焊接钢板的工艺流程及方法。%  An introduction was made on the general of Manwan Power Plant and cavitation damage existing on the runner crown flow surface, based on which the authors analyze the properties of flow surface material, present the technical process and methods of welding steel plates by use of CHS237 stainless rods.

  1. DYNAMIC RE-CLUSTERING LEACH-BASED (DR-LEACH PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ijjeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN contains a large number of sensor nodes equipped with limited energy supplies. In most applications, sensor nodes are deployed in a random fashion. Therefore, battery replacement or charging is considered not practical. As a result, routing protocols must be energy-efficient to prolong the network’s lifetime. In this paper, we propose a new Dynamic Re-clustering LEACH-Based protocol (DR-LEACH which aims to reduce the energy consumption and extending the network’s lifetime. The idea is to balance energy consumption of Cluster Heads (CHs by generating clusters with almost equal number of nodes during each round of the network life time. To perform this, we first calculate the optimal number of CHs in each round, and based on that we calculate the optimal size of each cluster. Results show that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime and reduces overall energy consumption compared to LEACH and BCDCP protocols.

  2. Chediak-Higashi syndrome and premature exfoliation of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Karla Mayra; Canela, Alfredo Hiram Carrillo; Ortega, Adriana Oliveira Lira; Tintel, Claudia; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare hereditary fatal disease, if not treated. These changes are associated with various diseases and syndromes that mainly cause periodontal disease and thus the premature loss of teeth. This paper describes the monitoring of premature loss of primary teeth that began when the child was 5 years old. On presentation his teeth were mobile and there was a history of gingival bleeding. Panoramic radiography revealed generalized and severe bone loss, and the teeth showed no bony support enough for their stability. Blood test was ordered to assess the overall health of the child and giant cells with cytoplasmic granules were found, confirming the diagnosis of CHS. The management of periodontal disease focused on the control of infection and bacterial plaque by mechanical and chemical methods.

  3. A plant type III polyketide synthase that produces pentaketide chromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Ikuro; Utsumi, Yoriko; Oguro, Satoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Sano, Yukie; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2005-02-01

    A novel plant-specific type III polyketide synthase (PKS) that catalyzes formation of a pentaketide chromone, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone, from five molecules of malonyl-CoA, was cloned and sequenced from aloe (Aloe arborescens). Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Met207 (corresponding to Thr197 in CHS) determines the polyketide chain length and the product specificity of the enzyme; remarkably, replacement of a single amino acid residue, Met207, with Gly yielded a mutant enzyme that efficiently produces aromatic octaketides, SEK4 and SEK4b, the products of the minimal PKS for actinorhodin (act from Streptomyces coelicolor), from eight molecules of malonyl-CoA. This provided new insights into the catalytic functions and specificities of the CHS-superfamily type III PKS enzymes. PMID:15686354

  4. The genetic diversity of clinical isolates of Malassezia pachydermatis from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, T; Kano, R; Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, S; Hasegawa, A

    2001-08-01

    Molecular investigation of 110 clinical isolates of non-lipid-dependent Malassezia pachydermatis from dogs and cats was carried out by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and chitin synthase 2 (CHS2) gene sequence analyses. The RAPD analysis indicated that the clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis constituted four distinct genetic types (A, B, C and D). Moreover, the results from CHS2 gene analysis completely agreed with those from the RAPD analyses. The clinical isolates of M. pachydermatis were obtained from normal external ears, lesions of atopic dermatitis, flea allergic dermatitis, otitis externa, pyoderma and seborrheic dermatitidis in dogs and cats. Type A consisted of 93 clinical isolates as well as the ex-neotype strain of M. pachydermatis. The isolates of type A M. pachydermatis originated from lesions of all kinds of diseases. They were predominant on dog and cat skin. The other types, B, C, and D were isolated mainly from otitis externa. PMID:11556762

  5. The Evolution and Space Weather Effects of Solar Coronal Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Krista, Larisza Diana

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the role of space weather forecasting has grown tremendously as our society increasingly relies on satellite dependent technologies. The forecasting of flare and CME related transient geomagnetic storms has become a primary initiative, however, minor magnetic storms caused by coronal holes (CHs) have also proven to be of high importance due to their long lasting and recurrent geomagnetic effects. In order to study CH properties, the author developed an automated CH detection method (CHARM), which uses local intensity histograms to identify CH boundaries. An additional algorithm package (CHEVOL) was developed to study individual CHs by tracking their boundary evolution. It is widely accepted that the short-term changes in CH boundaries are due to the interchange reconnection between the CH open field lines and small loops. In order to test the interchange reconnection model, the magnetic reconnection rate and the diffusion coefficient at CH boundaries were determined using observed CH boundary ...

  6. Remarks on application of VMEC and PROCTR to the Wendelstein 7-AS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the application of the VMEC (Variational Moments Equilibrium Code) and PROCTR (PRedictOr Corrector TRansport code) numerical codes to the W7-AS experiment. The different versions of VMEC, each of which has been used for W7-AS and CHS (National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya, Japan), were compared to confirm their reliability and performance, and successfully benchmarked. The PROCTR code set was installed in the Wendelstein-VAX cluster. Its potential in experimental interpretation and theoretical analysis was demonstrated for coordinate inversion based on full 3-D geometry, power balance analysis and time-dependent transport simulation. The benchmark tests of tools for finite-β equilibrium and power balance analysis are a prerequisite for the joint profile and configuration database for stellarators which has just been started. We successfully recognized the compatibility of the schemes used on W7-AS and CHS. (orig.)

  7. Suppression of contact hypersensitivity by short-term ultraviolet irradiation: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA), produced from trans-UCA (a normal component of epidermis) by UV irradiation, suppressed cell-mediated immunological reactions in vivo and in vitro. It suppressed the development of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) when injected into mice, and it suppressed leucocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) reactions of previously sensitized lymphocytes exposed to antigen. Serum from mice injected with cis-UCA was also immunosuppressive in vitro. Normal murine spleen cells cultured with cis-UCA produced a non-dialysable factor which suppressed LAI reactivity. Trans-UCA was ineffectual in all of these systems. Both the ability of cis-UCA to induce an immunosuppressive serum factor and its ability to suppress CHS were abrogated by prior administration of cyclophosphamide, indicating that cis-UCA (normally from irradiated epidermis) stimulates T suppressor cells to produce the previously described suppressor factor in serum and the immunosuppression associated with short-term irradiation. (author)

  8. Role of UVB-induced serum factor(s) in suppression of contact hypersensitivity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet, 280-320 nm (UVB), irradiation of the shaved dorsal skin of mice results in suppression of the development of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to antigens applied subsequently to a distant nonirradiated skin site. Serum from BALB/cAnNCr mice exposed to a single dose of UVB radiation (8.6 X 10(4) J/m2) was evaluated for its ability to induce suppression of CHS to 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNCB), a contact allergen, after transfer to normal recipients. Serum from UVB-irradiated donors was capable of inducing immunosuppression only when collected and transferred within a restricted time period, i.e., approximately 2-6 h post irradiation, and at least 400 microliters of serum per recipient was required. Serum from UVB-irradiated donors was sufficient to induce splenic suppressor cells in recipient mice

  9. Chronic low-dose UVA irradiation induces local suppression of contact hypersensitivity, Langerhans cell depletion and suppressor cell activation in C3H/HeJ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has previously been demonstrated that chronic low-dose solar-simulated UV radiation could induce both local and systemic immunosuppression as well as tolerance to a topically applied hapten. In this study, we have used a chronic low-dose UV-irradiation protocol to investigate the effects of UVA on the skin immune system of C3H/HeJ mice. Irradiation with UVA+B significantly suppressed the local and systemic primary contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene. Furthermore, UVA+B reduced Langerhans cell (LC) and dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) densities in chronically UV-irradiated mice. Ultraviolet A irradiation induced local, but not systemic, immunosuppression and reduced LC (32%) but not DETC from the epidermis compared to the shaved control animals. Treatment of mice with both UVA+B and UVA radiation also induced an impaired secondary CHS response, and this tolerance was transferable with spleen cells. (Author)

  10. ICR studies of some anionic gas phase reactions and FTICR software design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis consists of two parts. Part one (Chs. 1-5) reports experimental results from mostly drift-cell ICR studies of negative ion-molecule reactions; part two (Chs. 6-11) concerns the design of software for an FTICR instrument. The author discusses successively: 1. ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry; 2. the gas phase allyl anion; 3. the (M-H) and (M-H2) anions from acetone; 4. negative ion-molecule reactions of aliphatic nitrites studied by cyclotron resonance; 5. homoconjugation versus charge-dipole interaction effects in the stabilization of carbanions in the gas phase; 6. the Fourier Transform ICR method; 7. the FTICR-software; 8. an efficient adaptive matcher filter for fast transient signals; 9. reduction of spectral peak height errors by time-domain weighing; 10. Chirp excitation; 11. Compact data storage. The book concludes with a Dutch and English summary (G.J.P.)

  11. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  12. The effect of a bidirectional exchange on faculty and institutional development in a global health collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Bodnar

    Full Text Available The MUYU Collaboration is a partnership between Mulago Hospital-Makerere University College of Health Sciences (M-MakCHS, in Kampala, Uganda, and the Yale University School of Medicine. The program allows Ugandan junior faculty to receive up to 1 year of subspecialty training within the Yale hospital system. The authors performed a qualitative study to assess the effects of this program on participants, as well as on M-MakCHS as an institution.Data was collected via semi-structured interviews with exchange participants. Eight participants (67% of those eligible as of 4/2012 completed interviews. Study authors performed data analysis using standard qualitative data analysis techniques.Analysis revealed themes addressing the benefits, difficulties, and opportunities for improvement of the program. Interviewees described the main benefit of the program as its effect on their fund of knowledge. Participants also described positive effects on their clinical practice and on medical education at M-MakCHS. Most respondents cited financial issues as the primary difficulty of participation. Post-participation difficulties included resource limitations and confronting longstanding institutional and cultural habits. Suggestions for programmatic improvement included expansion of the program, ensuring appropriate management of pre-departure expectations, and refinement of program mentoring structures. Participants also voiced interest in expanding post-exchange programming to ensure both the use of and the maintenance of new capacity.The MUYU Collaboration has benefitted both program participants and M-MakCHS, though these benefits remain difficult to quantify. This study supports the assertion that resource-poor to resource-rich exchanges have the potential to provide significant benefits to the resource-poor partner.

  13. Design of Randomly Deployed Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks by Algorithms Based on Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Joon-Woo Lee; Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design of a randomly deployed heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) with two types of nodes: a powerful node and an ordinary node. Powerful nodes, such as Cluster Heads (CHs), communicate directly to the data sink of the network, and ordinary nodes sense the desired information and transmit the processed data to powerful nodes. The heterogeneity of HWSNs improves the networks lifetime and coverage. This paper focuses on the design of a random network among HWSNs....

  14. Disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation in emerging adults: the roles of attachment and stress paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L; Corliss, Heather L; Wypij, David; Frazier, A Lindsay; Austin, S Bryn

    2014-07-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (BI) youth have elevated rates of depression compared to heterosexuals. We proposed and examined a theoretical model to understand whether attachment and stress paradigms explain disparities in depressive distress by sexual orientation, using the longitudinal Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). GUTS participants eligible for this analysis reported sexual orientation, childhood gender nonconforming behaviors (GNBs), attachment to mother (all in 2005), and depressive symptoms (in 2007). Mothers of the GUTS participants who are the NHSII participants reported attitudes toward homosexuality (in 2004) and maternal affection (in 2006). The sample had 6,122 participants. Of GUTS youth (M = 20.6 years old in 2005; 64.4 % female), 1.7 % were lesbian/gay (LG), 1.7 % bisexual (BI), 10.0 % mostly heterosexual (MH), and 86.7 % completely heterosexual (CH). After adjusting for demographic characteristics and sibling clustering, LGs, BIs, and MHs reported more depressive distress than CHs. This relation was partially mediated (i.e., explained) for LGs, BIs, and MHs relative to CHs by less secure attachment. A conditional relation (i.e., interaction) indicated that BIs reported more distress than CHs as GNBs increased for BIs; no comparable relation was found for LGs versus CHs. Sibling comparisons found that sexual minorities (LGs, BIs, and MHs) reported more depressive distress, less secure attachment, and more childhood GNBs than CH siblings; the mothers reported less affection for their sexual-minority than CH offspring. The findings suggest that attachment and childhood gender nonconformity differentially pattern depressive distress by sexual orientation. Attachment and related experiences are more problematic for sexual minorities than for their CH siblings.

  15. Procalcitonin as a biomarker of bacterial infection in pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarti, Sujata B; Diane A Reformina; Lee, Timothy M; Malhotra, Sunil P; Mosca, Ralph S; Puneet Bhatla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacterial infection (BI) after congenital heart surgery (CHS) is associated with increased morbidity and is difficult to differentiate from systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as a reliable biomarker of BI in various populations. Aim: To determine the optimal PCT threshold to identify BI among children suspected of having infection following CPB. Setting and Design: Single-center retrospective observationa...

  16. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of S-methyl thioformate and O-methyl thioformate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senent, M. L., E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Puzzarini, C., E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica G. Ciamician, Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr [Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, Université Paris-Est, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Domínguez-Gómez, R., E-mail: rosa.dominguez@upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Cátedra de Química, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Carvajal, M., E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Unidad Asociada IEM-CSIC-U.Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-14

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are employed to determine spectroscopic properties at low temperatures of two S-analogs of methyl formate: S-methyl thioformate CH{sub 3}-S-CHO (MSCHO) and O-methyl thioformate CH{sub 3}-O-CHS (MOCHS). Both species are detectable and they are expected to play an important role in Astrochemistry. Molecular properties are compared with those of the O-analog, methyl formate. Both isomers present two conformers cis and trans. cis-CH{sub 3}-S-CHO represents the most stable structure lying 4372.2 cm{sup −1} below cis-CH{sub 3}-O-CHS. The energy difference between the cis and trans forms is drastically lower for MSCHO (1134 cm{sup −1}) than for MOCHS (1963.6 cm{sup −1}). Harmonic and anharmonic fundamentals and the corresponding intensities, as well as the rotational constants for the ground vibrational and first excited torsional states and the centrifugal distortions constants, are provided. Low torsional energy levels have been obtained by solving variationally a two dimensional Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the two torsional degrees of freedom. The corresponding 2D potential energy surfaces have been computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The methyl torsional barriers V{sub 3}(cis) are determined to be 139.7 cm{sup −1} (CH{sub 3}-S-CHO) and 670.4 cm{sup −1} (CH{sub 3}-O-CHS). The A/E splitting of ground torsional state has been estimated to be 0.438 cm{sup −1} for CH{sub 3}-S-CHO and negligible for CH{sub 3}-O-CHS.

  17. Job satisfaction and influencing factors for community health service practitioners in Futian District of Shenzhen%福田区社区卫生服务从业人员工作满意度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖光强; 李巧; 黄莺子; 陈建; 张校辉

    2010-01-01

    采用职业紧张压力量表中的工作满意度问卷,对309名社区卫生服务(CHS)从业人员进行现场调查,了解工作满意度;行条件logistic回归分析,了解满意度的影响因素.总体满意度水平为(68±12)%,CHS从业人员工作满意度水平与岗位、工作年限、年收入、努力被认可与肯定程度、工作激励程度、个人成长与发展的空间、实现个人理想与抱负的空间、自己的薪酬水平以及工作量等有关.建议建立动态的满意度研究机制并制定综合、有效的控制措施.%Three hundred and nine community health service (CHS) practitioners were selected with randomized cluster sampling for survey with the job satisfaction questionnaire-occupational stress indicator (OSI).Degree of the job satisfaction was (68 ± 12)%.Position, work experience, income,feeling of recognition, degree of motivation, the scope for career development, the space for personal ambition and the relationship between salary and work load were potential influencing factors of job satisfaction to CHS practitioners.The authors suggest to establish the dynamic mechanisms of satisfaction study and to formulate comprehensive and effective incentive measures for CHS practitioners.

  18. Community-level Language Planning for Chinese Heritage Language Maintenance in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    An Chung Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of Chinese heritage language in the United States from the perspective of language policy and planning. The case study examines the Chinese heritage language maintenance through community-based Chinese schools (CHS), and CHS’s relationships with Chinese American community, as well as governments and non-government organizations in China, Taiwan, and the United States. The paper starts with a theoretical discussion on the definition ...

  19. Differential Expression of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in Relation to Anthocyanin Accumulation in the Pericarp of Litchi Chinensis Sonn

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Zan Wei; Fu-Chu Hu; Gui-Bing Hu; Xiao-Jing Li; Xu-Ming Huang; Hui-Cong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Litchi has diverse fruit color phenotypes, yet no research reflects the biochemical background of this diversity. In this study, we evaluated 12 litchi cultivars for chromatic parameters and pigments, and investigated the effects of abscisic acid, forchlorofenron (CPPU), bagging and debagging treatments on fruit coloration in cv. Feizixiao, an unevenly red cultivar. Six genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase...

  20. Kritéria výběru koní pro hiporehabilitaci v českých střediscích

    OpenAIRE

    ČAPKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the criteria selected horses for equine assisted therapy and activities in Czech centers, if the centers are governed by the rules the Czech Therapeutic Riding Association (CHS) and whether the selection of horses for hippotherapy significant breed horses. A horse used for equine assisted therapies and activities can not be any, must be carefully chosen animal and specially trained. The main criteria for selection of horses for equine assisted ther...

  1. Simple Risk Model Predicts Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation in a Racially and Geographically Diverse Population: the CHARGE‐AF Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Alvaro; Krijthe, Bouwe P; Aspelund, Thor; Stepas, Katherine A.; Pencina, Michael J.; Moser, Carlee B.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Fontes, João D.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Lubitz, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tools for the prediction of atrial fibrillation (AF) may identify high‐risk individuals more likely to benefit from preventive interventions and serve as a benchmark to test novel putative risk factors. Methods and Results Individual‐level data from 3 large cohorts in the United States (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities [ARIC] study, the Cardiovascular Health Study [CHS], and the Framingham Heart Study [FHS]), including 18 556 men and women aged 46 to 94 years (19% African Americ...

  2. The Effect of Widowhood on Husbands’ and Wives’ Physical Activity: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of widowhood on physical activity by comparing widowed elders to health status-, age-, and sex-matched married controls. Participants included 396 married controls and 396 widows/widowers age 64 to 91 (M age = 72.7 years) who experienced the death of their spouse while participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Compared to married controls, widowed men, but not women, were more likely to increase their physical activity...

  3. Anu Koskivirta, Sari Forsström, (eds.), Manslaughter, fornication and sectarianism. Norm-breaking in Finland and the Baltic area from mediaeval to modern times / Maria Ågren, Åsa Karlsson, Xavier Rousseaux, (eds.), Guises of power. Integra

    OpenAIRE

    Spierenburg, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    The first of the two collective volumes reviewed here results from the productive project on the history of crime in Finland and surrounding areas, directed by Heikki Ylikangas. Other publications in English have already appeared (one reviewed as a short notice by me in CHS 3,2). Of the seven contributions to this volume, five deal with Finland, one with Sweden and one with Estonia. Violence, mainly homicide, is the principal subject, with four contributions devoted to it. The other three are...

  4. Clinico-hematological profile of Chediak-Higashi syndrome: Experience from a tertiary care center in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by partial ocular and cutaneous albinism, increased susceptibility to pyogenic infections, the presence of large lysosomal-like organelles in most granule-containing cells and a bleeding tendency. The abnormal granules are most readily seen in blood and marrow leukocytes, especially granulocytes; and in melanocytes. Other clinical features include silvery hair, photophobia, horizontal and rotatory nystagmus and hepatosplenomegaly. Materials and Methods: The clinico-hematological profile of a series of 5 cases of CHS encountered at JIPMER Hospital with diagnostic work-up done in the Department of Pathology over the last 6 years is presented. The diagnostic work-up included complete hemogram with peripheral smear, bone marrow examination, skin and liver biopsies. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 5 months to 3 years. All patients had silvery hair and partial albinism and presented with fever and recurrent chest infection. Two patients were stable. Three patients were in accelerated phase; of them, 1 patient with associated hemophagocytic syndrome had a rapidly fulminant course. Peripheral blood smear showed anomalously large granules in the leukocytes. Skin biopsy showed sparse, coarse melanin pigment in the epidermis, and liver biopsy done in 2 patients with accelerated phase showed portal lymphohistiocytic aggregates. Conclusions: The diagnostic hallmark of CHS is the occurrence of giant inclusion bodies (granules in the peripheral leukocyte and their bone marrow precursors. The case series is being presented because of the rarity of CHS and varied spectrum of clinical and hematological presentation.

  5. VERIFICATION OF THE EFFECT OF CONCRETE SURFACE PROTECTION ON THE PERMEABILITY OF ACID GASES USING ACCELERATED CARBONATION DEPTH TEST IN AN ATMOSPHERE OF 98% CO2

    OpenAIRE

    JIŘÍ NOVÁK; MICHAL STEHLÍK

    2011-01-01

    Carbonation is one of the corrosion processes negatively influencing the properties of mature concrete. It is caused by a chemical reaction between carbon dioxide infiltrating the surface of a concrete structure and the minerals of the mastic cement. The surface of a concrete structure can be protected from the effects of atmospheric CO2 by coating with modern waterborne epoxy dispersions. Out of the four types of dispersions tested (dispersion A – CHS Epoxy 200 V 55 + hardener Telalit 180, 2...

  6. Contact Sensitizers Induce Skin Inflammation via ROS Production and Hyaluronic Acid Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Esser, Philipp R.; Ute Wölfle; Christoph Dürr; Friederike D von Loewenich; Schempp, Christoph M.; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Thilo Jakob; Martin, Stefan F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed ...

  7. Extraosseous, Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma with Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Birol; Yaldiz, Can; Yaman, Onur; Ozdemır, Nail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cavernous malformations are characterized by enlarged vascular structures located in benign neural tissues within the cerebellum and spinal cord of the central nervous system. Cavernous hemangiomas (CHs) account for 5% to 12% of all spinal vascular malformations. Case Report We removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass in a 40-year-old male patient who presented with progressive neurological deficits. Conclusions We found it appropriate to present this case due to its rarity. PMID:25960818

  8. Global health leadership training in resource-limited settings: a collaborative approach by academic institutions and local health care programs in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanjako, Damalie; Namagala, Elizabeth; Semeere, Aggrey; Kigozi, Joanitor; Sempa, Joseph; Ddamulira, John Bosco; Katamba, Achilles; Biraro, Sam; Naikoba, Sarah; Mashalla, Yohana; Farquhar, Carey; ,; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to a limited health workforce, many health care providers in Africa must take on health leadership roles with minimal formal training in leadership. Hence, the need to equip health care providers with practical skills required to lead high-impact health care programs. In Uganda, the Afya Bora Global Health Leadership Fellowship is implemented through the Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) and her partner institutions. Lessons learned from the program, pre...

  9. Engineering of plant polyketide biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Ikuro

    2008-11-01

    A growing number of functionally divergent the chalcone synthase (CHS) superfamily type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) have been cloned and characterized, which include recently obtained pentaketide chromone synthase (PCS) and octaketide synthase (OKS) from aloe (Aloe arborescens). Recombinant PCS expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzes iterative condensations of five molecules of malonyl-CoA to produce a pentaketide, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone, while OKS carries out sequential condensations of eight molecules of malonyl-CoA to yield aromatic octaketides, SEK4 and SEK4b, the longest polyketides generated by the structurally simple type III PKS. The two enzymes share 91% amino acid sequence identity, maintaining most of the active-site residues of CHS including the Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad. One of the most characteristic features is that the conserved Thr197 of CHS (numbering in Medicago sativa CHS) is uniquely replaced with Met207 in PCS and with Gly207 in OKS, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis and X-ray crystallographic studies clearly demonstrated that the chemically inert single residue lining the active-site cavity controls the polyketide chain length and the product specificity depending on the steric bulk of the side chain. Finally, on the basis of the crystal structures of both wild-type and M207G-mutant PCS, a triple mutant PCS F80A/Y82A/M207G was constructed and shown to catalyze condensations of nine molecules of malonyl-CoA to produce a novel nonaketide naphthopyrone with a fused tricyclic ring system. Structure-based engineering of the type III PKS superfamily enzymes would thus lead to further production of chemically and structurally divergent unnatural novel polyketides. PMID:18981598

  10. Analysis of community health service team in service mode%社区卫生服务团队服务模式的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董燕敏; 尹德卢; 李媛媛; 罗洁; 王媛

    2013-01-01

    选取在全国较早开展“全科团队服务”的五城市29个社区卫生服务(CHS)中心与526名团队成员进行问卷调查.共组建团队275个,团队成员占在岗职工40.8%.辖区居委会覆盖率达100%.团队组合模式分为:医护防经典组合型、大团队专业扩充型、小团队医护组合型与非卫技广泛参与型4种.团队运行各有特色,但仍存在一些问题,建议进一步加强社区卫生服务队伍建设,完善团队合作服务模式,营造CHS发展良好氛围并加大社会宣传力度.%A total of 526 team members from 28 community health service (CHS) centers in 5 pilot cities were surveyed by a questionnaire.All CHS centers developed team service.And 275 service teams were established and the coverage rate of area resident committee was 100%.The teaming modes were mainly divided into four kinds:medical-nursing-prevention classic combination,big team professional expansion,small team medical combination and non-health technology extensive participation.The team services showed multiple advantages of professionism,energy and time complementing.We should strengthen team construction,improve perfect team service mode and policy support and create a good environment for CHS development.

  11. Fabrication of chondroitin sulfate-chitosan composite artificial extracellular matrix for stabilization of fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Fwu-Long; Shyu, Shin-Shing; Peng, Chih-Kang; Wu, Yu-Bey; Sung, Hsing-Wen; Wang, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chi-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    The development of a novel, three-dimensional, macroporous artificial extracellular matrix (AECM) based on chondroitin sulfate (ChS)-chitosan (Chito) combination is reported. The composite AECM composed of ChS-Chito conjugated network was prepared by a homogenizing interpolyelectrolyte complex/covalent conjugation technique through co-crosslinked with N,N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). In contrast to EDC/NHS, two different reagents, calcium ion and glutaraldehyde, were used to react with ChS or Chito for the preparation of ChS-Chito composites containing crosslinked ChS or Chito network in the matrix. The stability and in vitro enzymatic degradability of the glutaraldehyde-, EDC/NHS-, and Ca2+ -crosslinked ChS-Chito composite AECMs were all investigated in this study. The results showed that crosslinking improved the stability of prepared ChS-Chito AECMs in physiological buffer solution (PBS) and provided superior protective effect against the enzymatic hydrolysis of ChS, compared with their non-crosslinked counterpart. Because ChS was a heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (GAG), the ChS-Chito composite AECMs appeared to promote binding efficiency for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The bFGF releasing from the ChS-Chito composite AECMs retained its biological activity as examined by the in vitro proliferation of human fibroblast, depending on the crosslinking mode for the preparation of these composite AECMs. Histological assay showed that the EDC/NHS-crosslinked ChS-Chito composite AECM, after incorporated with bFGF, was biodegradable and could result in a significantly enhanced vascularization effect and tissue penetration. These results suggest that the ChS-Chito composite AECMs fabricated in this study may be a promising approach for tissue-engineering application. PMID:16224775

  12. Bibliometric analysis about the scientific production on the Social Skills Field

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Colepicolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This research consisted to contribute to the systematization of the theoretical and practical field of Social Skills, here called Social Skills Field (SSF). Method. A survey of a representative sample of CHS publications metadata extracted from the 15 scientific and technical literature databases in Psychology available in the CAPES Journals Portal was conducted. After treatment and refinement, this sample resulted in a corpus of metadata 25,409 scientific articles, which is a set ...

  13. Dairy food intake is positively associated with cardiovascular health: findings from Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-12-01

    Conflicting findings have been reported about dairy food consumption and risk for cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, few studies have examined dairy food intake in relation to cardiovascular health and the incorporation of lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity. This study examined whether dairy food consumption was associated with cardiovascular health, recently defined by the American Heart Association. Data were analyzed from 1352 participants from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg survey. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to measure intakes of milk, yogurt, cheese, dairy desserts, ice cream, and butter. Seven cardiovascular health metrics were assessed: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose. A total cardiovascular health score (CHS) was determined by summing the total number of health metrics at ideal levels. It was hypothesized that greater dairy food consumption (both low fat and whole fat) would be associated with better global cardiovascular health, as indicated by a higher CHS. Total dairy food intake was positively associated with the CHS. Higher intakes of whole fat milk, yogurt, and cheese were associated with better cardiovascular health. Even when controlling for demographic and dietary variables, those who consumed at least 5 servings per week of these dairy products had a significantly higher CHS than those who consumed these products less frequently. Higher total whole fat dairy food intake was also associated with other positive health behaviors, including being a nonsmoker, consuming the suggested dietary intakes of recommended foods, and having a normal body mass index. Increased dairy food consumption was associated with better cardiovascular health.

  14. Changes in Phytochemical Synthesis, Chalcone Synthase Activity and Pharmaceutical Qualities of Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans L.) in Relation to Plant Age

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghasemzadeh; Alireza Nasiri; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ali Baghdadi; Izham Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74) was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF) production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest conten...

  15. Ectosymbionts and immunity in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus

    OpenAIRE

    José De Souza, Danival; Lenoir, Alain; Megumi Kasuya, Maria Catarina; Marques Ramos Ribeiro, Myriam; Devers, Séverine; Couceiro, Joel da Cruz; Castro Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria

    2012-01-01

    International audience Associations with symbiotic organisms can serve as a strategy for social insects to resist pathogens. Antibiotics produced by attine ectosymbionts (Actinobacteria) suppress the growth of Escovopsis spp., the specialized parasite of attine fungus gardens. Our objective was to evaluate whether the presence or absence of symbiotic actinobacteria covering the whole ant cuticle is related to differential immunocompetence, respiratory rate and cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs)....

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life Measures for Physically Active Elderly in Community Exercise Programs in Catalonia: Comparative Analysis with Sedentary People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuño-Godes, Jesús; Guerra-Balic, Myriam; Cabedo-Sanromà, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), medication used, and Stock of Health Capital (SHC) in physically active elderly participants in Community Exercise Programs (CEPs) compared to a sedentary group. Methods. EuroQol standardized instrument was completed by physically active elderly (n = 2,185) who participated in CEPs. Common items were compared to HRQoL data of 1,874 sedentary elderly people, taken from the Catalan Health Survey 2006 (CHS'06). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) outcomes and medication used were assessed through parametric statistics. Dimensions of health conditions were compared, between sedentary people and physically active elderly participants in CEPs. SHC results were obtained combining the EuroQol scores and Life Expectancy (LE) values. An economic value of €34,858.70 was assigned to these years of LE. Results. Physically active subjects had better HRQoL values (75.36 in males and 70.71 in females) than CHS'06 sedentary subjects (58.35 in males and 50.59 in females). Medication used was different between physically active subjects (1.89 in males and 2.87 in females) and CHS'06 sedentary subjects (4.34 in males and 4.21 in females). SHC data for physically active elderly (€465,988.31/QALY in males and €522,550.31/QALY in females) were higher than for CHS'06 sedentary subjects (€363,689.33/QALY in males and €346,615.91/QALY in females). PMID:24454357

  17. Neighborhood Walkability and Active Travel (Walking and Cycling) in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Lance; Neckerman, Kathryn; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Quinn, James; Richards, Catherine; Bader, Michael D. M.; Lovasi, Gina; Jack, Darby; Weiss, Christopher; Konty, Kevin; Arno, Peter; Viola, Deborah; Kerker, Bonnie; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Urban planners have suggested that built environment characteristics can support active travel (walking and cycling) and reduce sedentary behavior. This study assessed whether engagement in active travel is associated with neighborhood walkability measured for zip codes in New York City. Data were analyzed on engagement in active travel and the frequency of walking or biking ten blocks or more in the past month, from 8,064 respondents to the New York City 2003 Community Health Survey (CHS). A...

  18. Contact Sensitizers Induce Skin Inflammation via ROS Production and Hyaluronic Acid Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp R Esser; Wölfle, Ute; Dürr, Christoph; Friederike D von Loewenich; Schempp, Christoph M.; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Jakob, Thilo; Martin, Stefan F

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed t...

  19. Modular Optimization of Heterologous Pathways for De Novo Synthesis of (2S)-Naringenin in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Junjun Wu; Tiantian Zhou; Guocheng Du; Jingwen Zhou; Jian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing concerns about food safety and environmental issues, bio-based production of flavonoids from safe, inexpensive, and renewable substrates is increasingly attracting attention. Here, the complete biosynthetic pathway, consisting of 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (CM/PDH), tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), malonate synthetase, and...

  20. Cis-regulatory Evolution of Chalcone-Synthase Expression in the Genus Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    de Meaux, J. (Juliette); Pop, A.(National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania); Mitchell-Olds, T.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of cis-regulation to adaptive evolutionary change is believed to be essential, yet little is known about the evolutionary rules that govern regulatory sequences. Here, we characterize the short-term evolutionary dynamics of a cis-regulatory region within and among two closely related species, A. lyrata and A. halleri, and compare our findings to A. thaliana. We focused on the cis-regulatory region of chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of plant sec...

  1. Involvement of Salicylic Acid on Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties, Anthocyanin Production and Chalcone Synthase Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-01-01

    The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that application of SA induced t...

  2. Catechol-based substrates of chalcone synthase as a scaffold for novel inhibitors of PqsD.

    OpenAIRE

    Allegretta, Giuseppe; Weidel, Elisabeth; Empting, Martin; Hartmann, Rolf W.

    2015-01-01

    A new strategy for treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections could be disrupting the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) quorum sensing (QS) system. The goal is to impair communication among the cells and, hence, reduce the expression of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms. PqsD is an essential enzyme for the synthesis of PQS and shares some features with chalcone synthase (CHS2), an enzyme expressed in Medicago sativa. Both proteins are quite similar concerning the size of the ac...

  3. Assessing community perspectives of the community based education and service model at Makerere University, Uganda: a qualitative evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Okullo Isaac; Oria Hussein; Mwanika Andrew; Kaye Dan; Burnham Gilbert; Plover Colin M; Mbalinda Scovia N; Muhwezi Wilson; Groves Sara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Community partnerships are defined as groups working together with shared goals, responsibilities, and power to improve the community. There is growing evidence that these partnerships contribute to the success and sustainability of community-based education and service programs (COBES), facilitating change in community actions and attitudes. Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) is forging itself as a transformational institution in Uganda and the region...

  4. Positive psychological measure: constructing and evaluating the reliability and validity of a Chinese Humor Scale applicable to professional nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsiao, Yu-Ling; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan; Chang, Chueh

    2005-09-01

    The nursing profession has generally accepted humor as beneficial to health care. As nursing has always emphasized holistic care and the importance of individual needs, the profession values the ability of humor to positively affect all aspects of a patient's well being. The purposes of this study were to develop a "Chinese Humor Scale (CHS)" for the nursing profession and then test its reliability and validity. The 405 individuals selected for participation in this study included nursing on-the-job students from a medical university and professional nurses practicing at four hospitals in north Taiwan. Researchers developed a list of 57 key humor measures which were filled out and returned by study participants. An evaluation of results using Cronbach's alpha coefficients demonstrated good consistency (alpha=.93) for the developed CHS. Intercorrelations amongst the four sub-scales were generally quite low, indicating each sub-scale measures dimensions relatively distinct from one another (r=.24 approximately .48, both p'shumorous creativity", "tendency to laugh", "perceptivity to humor", and "humorous attitude", were found to explain 55.42% of total variances. The CHS was found to provide good validity using a content validity index (CVI) developed by five experts. The results of this study provide encouraging evidence for the construct validity and reliability of the proposed humor scale and support its application by nursing educators and clinicians to further test and assess concepts related to humor. Further research is needed to explore more fully the implications of humor in nursing. PMID:16237632

  5. Mechanism of immune suppression by ultraviolet irradiation in vivo. I. Evidence for the existence of a unique photoreceptor in skin and its role in photoimmunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV irradiation of mice causes a systemic immune alteration that can be detected either by suppression of the immunologic rejection of UV-induced tumors, or by suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Suppression of these two immunologic responses has similar photobiologic characteristics and in both cases is associated with the generation of antigen-specific suppressor T cells. To identify whether a specific photoreceptor for this effect exists, the relative wavelength effectiveness (action spectrum) was determined for the UV-induced suppression of CHS. Narrow bands of UV (half bandwidth 3 nm) were used at 10 wavelengths from 250 to 320 nm to obtain dose-response curves. The action spectrum derived from the dose-response curves has a maximum between 260 and 270 nm, a shoulder at 280-290 nm, and declines steadily to approximately 3% of maximum at 320 nm. The finding of such a clearly defined wavelength dependence implies the presence of a specific photoreceptor for this effect. Removing the stratum corneum by tape stripping before UV irradiation prevented the suppression of CHS using 254-nm radiation, suggesting the photoreceptor is superficially located in the skin. The hypothesis is advanced that the photoreceptor for systemic UV-induced immunosuppression of contact hypersensitivity may be urocanic acid. As such, it may also play a role in UV-induced carcinogenesis via the production of tumor-specific suppressor cells

  6. Data-Collection using Clustering Approach in Wireless Sensor Network Design based on Heuristic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwaja B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data-gathering wireless sensor networks (WSNs are operated unattended over long time horizons to collect data in several applications such as those in climate monitoring and a variety of ecological studies. Typically, sensors have limited energy (e.g., an on-board battery and are subject to the elements in the terrain. In-network operations, which largely involve periodically changing network flow decisions to prolong the network lifetime, are managed remotely, and the collected data are retrieved by a user via internet. In this paper, we study an integrated topology control and routing problem in cluster-based WSNs. To prolong network lifetime via efficient use of the limited energy at the sensors, we adopt a hierarchical network structure with multiple sinks at which the data collected by the sensors are gathered through the cluster heads (CHs. We consider a Particle Swarm Optimization model to optimally determine the sink and CH locations as well as the data flow in the network. Our model effectively utilizes both the position and the energy-level aspects of the sensors while selecting the CHs and avoids the highest-energy sensors or the sensors that are well-positioned sensors with respect to sinks being selected as CHs repeatedly in successive periods

  7. Cis-urocanic acid synergizes with histamine for increased PGE2 production by human keratinocytes: link to indomethacin-inhibitable UVB-induced immunosuppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable evidence that suppression of the immune system by UVB (280-320 nm UV) irradiation is initiated by UVB-dependent isomerization of a specific skin photoreceptor, urocanic acid (UCA), from the trans to the cis form. Previous studies have confirmed that cis-UCA administration to mice 3-5 days prior to hapten sensitization at a distant site, suppresses the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response upon challenge. This study demonstrates in mice that cis-UCA, like UVB, suppresses CHS to trinitrochlorobenzene by a mechanism partly dependent on prostanoid production. In vitro experimentation showed that human keratinocytes, isolated from neonatal foreskin, increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in response to histamine but not UCA alone. However, cis-UCA synergized with histamine for increased PGE2 production by keratinocytes. Cis-urocanic acid also increased the sensitivity of keratinocytes for PGE2 production in response to histamine. Prostaglandin E2 from keratinocytes exposed to cis-UCA and histamine may contribute directly, or indirectly, to the regulation of CHS responses by UVB irradiation. (Author)

  8. 3D-FEM electrical–thermal–mechanical analysis and experiment of Si-based MEMS infrared emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Na; Chen, Ran-Bin; San, Hai-Sheng; Chen, Xu-Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Designs, simulations, and fabrications of silicon-based MEMS infrared (IR) emitters for gas sensing application are presented. A 3D finite element method (3D-FEM) was used to analyze the coupled electrical–thermal–mechanical properties of a bridge hotplate structure (BHS) IR emitter and closed hotplate structure (CHS) IR emitter using Joule heating and thermal expansion models of COMSOL™. The IR absorptions of n- and p-silicon were calculated for the design of self-heating structure. The BHS and CHS IR emitters were fabricated synchronously using micro-electromechanical systems technology for a direct performance comparison. Both types of IR emitters were characterized by electrical and optical measurements. The experimental results show that BHS IR emitters have higher radiation density, lower power consumption, and faster frequency-response than CHS IR emitters due to the use of a thermal isolation structure and self-heating structure. Meanwhile, the simulated results agree well with the corresponding measured results, which indicate that the 3D-FEM-model is effective and can be used in the optimal design of electro-thermal devices.

  9. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (Pstimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (Pstimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  10. An investigation of the techno-economic impact of internal combustion engine based cogeneration systems on the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions of the Canadian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides a techno-economic evaluation of retrofitting internal combustion engine (ICE) based cogeneration systems in the Canadian housing stock (CHS). The study was conducted using the Canadian Hybrid Residential End-Use Energy and GHG Emissions Model (CHREM). CHREM includes close to 17,000 unique house files that are statistically representative of the Canadian housing stock. The cogeneration system performance was evaluated using a high resolution integrated building performance simulation software. It is assumed that the ICE cogeneration system is retrofitted into all houses that currently use a central space heating system and have a suitable basement or crawl space. The GHG emission intensity factor associated with marginal electricity generation in each province is used to estimate the annual GHG emissions reduction due to the cogeneration system retrofit. The results show that cogeneration retrofit yields 13% energy savings in the CHS. While the annual GHG emissions would increase in some provinces due to cogeneration retrofits, the total GHG emissions of the CHS would be reduced by 35%. The economic analysis indicates that ICE cogeneration system retrofits may provide an economically feasible opportunity to approach net/nearly zero energy status for existing Canadian houses. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation ICE cogeneration systems for Canadian housing is reported. • ICE cogeneration retrofit could yield 13% annual energy savings in Canadian housing. • Annual GHG emissions of Canadian housing could decrease by 35% with ICE cogeneration. • But, in some provinces, GHG emissions would increase as a result of ICE cogeneration

  11. The Effect of the Transition to Home Monitoring for the Diagnosis of OSAS on Test Availability, Waiting Time, Patients’ Satisfaction, and Outcome in a Large Health Provider System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Safadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2009, the Haifa district of Clalit Health Services (CHS has switched from in-lab polysomnography (PSG to home studies for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We assessed the effects of this change on accessibility, waiting time, satisfaction, costs, and CPAP purchase by the patients. Data regarding sleep studies, CPAP purchase, and waiting times were collected retrospectively from the computerized database of CHS. Patients’ satisfaction was assessed utilizing a telephone questionnaire introduced to a randomized small sample of 70 patients. Comparisons were made between 2007 and 2008 (in-lab PSGs and 2010 and 2011 (when most studies were ambulatory. Of about 650000 insured individuals in the Haifa district of CHS, 1471 sleep studies were performed during 2007-2008 compared to 2794 tests during 2010-2011. The average waiting time was 9.9 weeks in 2007-2008 compared to 1.1 weeks in 2010-2011 (P<0.05. 597 CPAPs were purchased in 2007-2008 compared to 831 in 2010-2011. The overall patients’ satisfaction was similar, but discomfort tended to be higher in the in-laboratory group (4.1 vs 2.7 in a scale of 0–10; P=0.11. Switching to ambulatory diagnosis improved the test accessibility and reduced the waiting times. Patients’ satisfaction remained similarly high. The total direct cost of OSA management was reduced.

  12. Pathways for retaining human capital in academic departments of a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyanda Dube

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article underscores the process of knowledge retention for academics in select academic departments in the College of Human Sciences (CHS at the University of South Africa (UNISA. The knowledge economy is ubiquitous and necessitates that organisations foster innovation and improve efficiency, effectiveness, competitiveness and productivity through knowledge retention. In an academic setting, which is the focus of this article, the situation is no different because there seems to be an accord worldwide that the quality of higher education largely depends on the qualifications of staff and professorial capability in quality research, instruction and doctoral level certification. By implication, it is critical that the retention of knowledge should be prioritised to ensure the curtailment of the impact of knowledge attrition.Objective: The study intends to profile knowledge assets in CHS, determine retention strategies and offer suggestions about regenerating knowledge retention initiatives.Research methodology: A quantitative approach, more specifically the informetrics technique of data mining, was adopted to profile academics in CHS at UNISA.Results: The results confirm the assertion that there is a discrepancy between senior academics who are probably due to leave the university in the next few years, and entrants who will replace them. The issue is worsened by the lack of an institutional framework to guide, standardise, strengthen or prioritise the process of knowledge retention.Conclusion: The study recommends the prioritisation, formalisation and institutionalisation of knowledge retention through the implementation of a broad range of knowledge retention strategies.

  13. Study of hydrogen diffusion in superprotonic ionic conductors, MHXO{sub 4}, by {mu}{sup +}SR and QENS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikedo, Yutaka; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Harada, Masashi [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc., Nagakute-machi, Aichi-gun, Aichi 480.1192 (Japan); Sugiyama, Jun [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs. Inc., Nagakute-machi, Aichi-gun, Aichi 480.1192 (Japan)], E-mail: e0589@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Sato, Taku J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277.8581 (Japan); Matsuo, Yasumitsu [Faculty of Engineering, Setsunan University, Neyagawa-shi, Osaka 572.8508 (Japan); Nishiyama, Kusuo [Institute of Materials and Structure Science, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305.0801 (Japan); Lord, James S. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Qiu, Yiming [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Copley, John R.D. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-6102 (United States)

    2009-02-21

    In order to clarify the mechanism of high proton conductivity ({sigma}{sub H+}) for superprotonic ionic conductors, MHXO{sub 4}, where M=Cs and Rb, X=S and Se, muon-spin rotation and relaxation ({mu}{sup +}SR) and quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) measurements have been performed at temperatures mainly in the vicinity of T{sub c}, at which MHXO{sub 4} undergoes a structural phase transition from a low-T orthorhombic phase (Phase II) to a high-T tetragonal phase (Phase I). The {mu}{sup +}SR experiment shows the presence of muonium (Mu) state even in Phase I only for CsHSO{sub 4} (CHS), while no Mu state was found in Phase I of CsHSeO{sub 4} (CHSe). Considering the fact that the {sigma}{sub H+} in Phase I of CHS is more than 10 times larger that of CHSe, this implies a relationship between the presence of the atomic hydrogen (Mu) state and high {sigma}{sub H+} in Phase I of CHS. According to the QENS measurements using a single crystal of CHSe, line shapes of the energy spectra along three crystallographic directions are found to be slightly anisotropic in Phase I, in contrast to the isotropic conductivity reported by AC conductivity measurements.

  14. Costing of commune health station visits for provider payment reform in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Phuong, Nguyen Khanh; Özaltın, Annette; Cashin, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Expanding effective coverage in Vietnam will require better use of available resources and placing higher priority on primary care. The way providers are currently paid does not give priority to primary care and does not reflect the costs of delivering services. This paper aims to estimate the unit costs of primary care visits at commune health stations (CHS) in selected areas in Vietnam. Seventy-six CHS from two provinces in northern Vietnam were studied. Costs were calculated from the perspective of the CHS using the top-down costing using the step-down cost accounting technique in order to estimate the full cost of delivering services. On average, the cost of one outpatient visit in mountainous, rural and urban CHSs was VND 49,521 (US$2.40), VND 41,375 (US$2.01) and VND 39,794 (US$1.93), respectively. Personnel costs accounted for the highest share of total costs followed by medicines. The share of operating costs was minimal. On average, CHSs recover 18.9% of their total cost for an outpatient visit from social insurance payments or fees that can be charged patients. The results provide valuable information for policy-makers as they revise the provider payment methods to better reflect the costs of services and give greater priority to primary care. PMID:25136962

  15. Suprathermal ions in solar-wind outflows from coronal holes at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zel'dovich, M. A.; Logachev, Yu. I.; Surova, G. M.; Kecskemety, K.; Veselovskii, I. S.

    2016-07-01

    The energy spectra and relative abundances of 3He, 4He, C, O, and Fe ions with energies of ~0.04-2 MeV/nucleon are studied using data from the ULEIS instrument on board the ACE spacecraft obtained during quiescent periods in 2006-2012. During the unique, prolonged minimum between cycles 23 and 24, 35 quiescent periods were distnguished, during which solar-wind flows from near-equatorial coronal holes (CHs) were detected. It is shown that the C/O and Fe/O ratios for suprathermal ions correspond to the relative abundances of the corresponding thermal ions in the fast and slow (Maxwellian) solar wind (SWICS/ACE), while the 4He/O ratio exceeds the corresponding ratio in the solar wind by a factor of two. The intensities of the 3He, 4He, C, O, and Fe suprathermal ions in outflows from CHs grow with the speed of the solar wind. This indicates that, in periods ofminimumsolar activity, suprathermal ions from CHs represent a high-temperature "tail" of the solar wind. An additional flux of suprathermal helium ions may also be contributed by other external sources.

  16. Immunosuppressive Effect of Litsea cubeba L. Essential Oil on Dendritic Cell and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Chun; Chang, Wen-Te; Hseu, You-Cheng; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chuang, Cheng Hsuan; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-01-01

    Litsea cubeba L., also named as Makauy, is a traditional herb and has been used as cooking condiment or tea brewing to treat diseases for aborigines. The present study was undertaken to explore the chemical compositions of the fruit essential oil of L. cubeba (LCEO) and the immunomodulatory effect of LCEO on dendritic cells and mice. The LCEO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with direct injection (DI/GC) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME/GC). In total, 56 components were identified, of which 48 were detected by DI/GC and 49 were detected by HS-SPME/GC. The principal compounds were citral (neral and geranial). An immunosuppressive activity of LCEO was investigated with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) which have a critical role to trigger the adaptive immunity. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of LCEO on immune response was elucidated by performing the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses in mice. Our results clearly showed that LCEO decreases the production of TNF-α and cytokine IL-12 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. CHS response and the infiltrative T cells were inhibited in the tested ears of the mice co-treated with LCEO. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the LCEO mainly containing citral exhibits an immunosuppressive effect on DCs and mice, indicating that LCEO can potentially be applied in the treatment of CHS, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27529236

  17. Characteristics and Trends in Hypnotics Consumption in the Largest Health Care System in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, O; Rennert, G; Stein, N; Landsman, K; Pillar, G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To quantify and characterize hypnotics consumption habits among adult patients insured by Clalit Health Services (CHS), the largest health care provider in Israel, in 2000 and 2010. Methods. A retrospective analysis of CHS computerized pharmacy records. Data were collected for all patients over the age of 18 years who were prescribed hypnotics in 2000 and in 2010. Results. Sleep medications were consumed by 8.7% of the adult CHS population in 2000 and by 9.6% in 2010. About one-quarter of consumers were treated for more than 6 months in both years. Multiple sleeping drugs were consumed more often in 2010 (45.2%) than a decade before (22%). While in 2000 benzodiazepines accounted for 84.5% of hypnotics, in 2010 this was reduced to 73.7% (p < 0.05). Of all patients treated for longer than 6 months only 11% in 2000 and 9% in 2010 required a dose escalation suggesting the absence of tolerance. Conclusions. Nine percent of the Israeli population consumes hypnotics. There is a major increase in prescription of combination of medications between 2000 and 2010, with an increase in Z class medications use and reduction in benzodiazepines. Most patients chronically treated did not escalate dosage, suggesting the absence of tolerance. PMID:27660727

  18. Transcriptional activation of the parsley chalcone synthase promoter in heterologous pea and yeast systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbin; Strid; Frohnmeyer

    1999-11-01

    Introduction by electroporation of different parsley (Petroselinum crispum) CHS-promoter/beta-glucuronidase(GUS)-reporter constructs into pea (Pisum sativum L.) protoplasts leads to a high constitutive GUS-expression and to the loss of the light-inducibility seen in the homologous parsley protoplast system. These results indicate that Unit 1 of the parsley CHS-promoter is only partly responsible for the GUS-expression detected. Instead, additional cis-elements, which are located downstream within 100 bp from the transcriptional start site, mediate the de-repression in pea protoplasts. In contrast, in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, the GUS expression from the heterologous CHS/GUS construct is controlled by elements between Unit 1 and -100 bp. In both pea and yeast cells, transcription factors different from those regulating UV-responsiveness in parsley, are probably mediating the constitutive expression from the heterologous construct. The results with pea protoplasts imply that protoplastation of pea leaf cells itself induces de-repression as a result of stress to the protoplasts. This notion was strengthened by the finding that mRNA levels of the endogenous chalcone synthase were drastically increased as the result of the protoplastation procedure. PMID:10580282

  19. Automatic Identification of the Repolarization Endpoint by Computing the Dominant T-wave on a Reduced Number of Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, C; Agostinelli, A; Di Nardo, F; Fioretti, S; Burattini, L

    2016-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) T-wave endpoint (Tend) identification suffers lack of reliability due to the presence of noise and variability among leads. Tend identification can be improved by using global repolarization waveforms obtained by combining several leads. The dominant T-wave (DTW) is a global repolarization waveform that proved to improve Tend identification when computed using the 15 (I to III, aVr, aVl, aVf, V1 to V6, X, Y, Z) leads usually available in clinics, of which only 8 (I, II, V1 to V6) are independent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the 8 independent leads are sufficient to obtain a DTW which allows a reliable Tend identification. To this aim Tend measures automatically identified from 15-dependent-lead DTWs of 46 control healthy subjects (CHS) and 103 acute myocardial infarction patients (AMIP) were compared with those obtained from 8-independent-lead DTWs. Results indicate that Tend distributions have not statistically different median values (CHS: 340 ms vs. 340 ms, respectively; AMIP: 325 ms vs. 320 ms, respectively), besides being strongly correlated (CHS: ρ=0.97, AMIP: 0.88; Pidentification from DTW, the 8 independent leads can be used without a statistically significant loss of accuracy but with a significant decrement of computational effort. The lead dependence of 7 out of 15 leads does not introduce a significant bias in the Tend determination from 15 dependent lead DTWs. PMID:27347218

  20. Medical attendance at community health service centre and its influential factors among urban residents in Chengdu city%居民首选社区卫生服务中心就诊情况及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼; 魏咏兰; 鹿茸; 曾伟; 夏劲节; 姚思君

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解四川省成都市居民首选社区卫生服务中心就诊情况及其影响因素,为当地社区卫生服务中心的发展提供参考依据.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法在成都市6个主城区和6个郊区的12个社区卫生服务中心抽取6 902名≥18周岁常住居民进行问卷调查.结果 调查的6 902名居民中,首选社区卫生服务中心、区医院及二级医院、个体诊所、三级综合医院及专科医院和其他类型医疗机构就诊的居民分别占25.31%、24.11%、18.89%、11.40%和20.28%;不同地区、性别、年龄、文化程度、家庭收入居民首选社区卫生服务中心就诊情况不同,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.000 1);参加社会医疗保险、知晓辖区内社区卫生服务中心、有慢性病患病和参加社区慢性病管理居民首选社区卫生服务中心就诊情况高于未参加社会医疗保险、不知晓辖区内社区卫生服务中心、无慢性病患病和未参加社区慢性病管理居民(P <0.000 1);多因素Logistic回归分析结果表明,居住在主城区、不知道家庭收入、参加社会医疗保险、知晓辖区内的社区卫生服务中心和参加社区慢性病患者管理的居民更愿意选择社区卫生服务中心作为首选医疗机构;初中及以上文化程度、家庭人均月收入≥3000元和患有慢性疾病的居民不愿意选择社区卫生服务中心作为首选医疗机构.结论 社区卫生服务中心是成都市城市居民首选就诊医疗机构;居住地区、文化程度、家庭收入、参加社会医疗保险情况、对辖区内社区卫生服务中心知晓情况、患有慢性疾病情况和参加社区慢性病管理情况是成都市居民选择社区卫生服务中心作为首选医疗机构的影响因素.%Objective To investigate the medical attendance at community health service centre (CHS) and its influencing factors among urban residents in Chengdu city. Methods With

  1. Chediak-Higashi syndrome associated with maternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufourcq-Lagelouse, R; Lambert, N; Duval, M; Viot, G; Vilmer, E; Fischer, A; Prieur, M; de Saint Basile, G

    1999-09-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder (incidence around 1 in 106 births), characterised by a complex immunologic defects, reduced pigmentation, and presence of giant granules in many different cell types. It most likely results from defective organellar trafficking or protein sorting. The causative gene (LYST) has recently been identified and shown to be homologous to the beige locus in the mouse. CHS has always been reported associated with premature-termination-codon mutations in both alleles of LYST. We report a unique patient with CHS, who was homozygous for a stop codon in the LYST gene on chromosome 1 and who had a normal 46,XY karyotype. The mother was found to be a carrier of the mutation, whereas the father had two normal LYST alleles. Non-paternity was excluded by the analysis of microsatellite markers from different chromosomes. The results of 13 informative microsatellite markers spanning the entire chromosome 1 revealed that the proband had a maternal isodisomy of chromosome 1 encompassing the LYST mutation. The proband's clinical presentation also confirms the absence of imprinted genes on chromosome 1.

  2. Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiran Basri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PpCHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in PpCHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the PpCHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products. These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant’s active site.

  3. Cell wall chitosaccharides are essential components and exposed patterns of the phytopathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, Ilham; Lafitte, Claude; Heux, Laurent; Skandalis, Nicholas; Spanou, Zacharoula; Martinez, Yves; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérèse; Bulone, Vincent; Dumas, Bernard; Bottin, Arnaud

    2008-11-01

    Chitin is an essential component of fungal cell walls, where it forms a crystalline scaffold, and chitooligosaccharides derived from it are signaling molecules recognized by the hosts of pathogenic fungi. Oomycetes are cellulosic fungus-like microorganisms which most often lack chitin in their cell walls. Here we present the first study of the cell wall of the oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches, a major parasite of legume plants. Biochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of ca. 10% N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) in the cell wall. Further characterization of the GlcNAc-containing material revealed that it corresponds to noncrystalline chitosaccharides associated with glucans, rather than to chitin per se. Two putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes were identified by data mining of an A. euteiches expressed sequence tag collection and Southern blot analysis, and full-length cDNA sequences of both genes were obtained. Phylogeny analysis indicated that oomycete CHS diversification occurred before the divergence of the major oomycete lineages. Remarkably, lectin labeling showed that the Aphanomyces euteiches chitosaccharides are exposed at the cell wall surface, and study of the effect of the CHS inhibitor nikkomycin Z demonstrated that they are involved in cell wall function. These data open new perspectives for the development of antioomycete drugs and further studies of the molecular mechanisms involved in the recognition of pathogenic oomycetes by the host plants. PMID:18806214

  4. Biocompatibility and Stability of Polysaccharide Polyelectrolyte Complexes Aimed at Respiratory Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodrigues

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan (CS and chondroitin sulfate (CHS are natural polymers with demonstrated applicability in drug delivery, while nanoparticles are one of the most explored carriers for transmucosal delivery of biopharmaceuticals. In this work we have prepared CS/CHS nanoparticles and associated for the first time the therapeutic protein insulin. Fluorescein isothiocyanate bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA was also used to enable comparison of behaviors regarding differences in molecular weight (5.7 kDa versus 67 kDa. Nanoparticles of approximately 200 nm and positive zeta potential around +20 mV were obtained. These parameters remained stable for up to 1 month at 4 °C. Proteins were associated with efficiencies of more than 50%. The release of FITC-BSA in PBS pH 7.4 was more sustained (50% in 24 h than that of insulin (85% in 24 h. The biocompatibility of nanoparticles was tested in Calu-3 and A549 cells by means of three different assays. The metabolic assay MTT, the determination of lactate dehydrogenase release, and the quantification of the inflammatory response generated by cell exposure to nanoparticles have indicated an absence of overt toxicity. Overall, the results suggest good indications on the application of CS/CHS nanoparticles in respiratory transmucosal protein delivery, but the set of assays should be widened to clarify obtained results.

  5. Bibliometric analysis about the scientific production on the Social Skills Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Colepicolo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This research consisted to contribute to the systematization of the theoretical and practical field of Social Skills, here called Social Skills Field (SSF. Method. A survey of a representative sample of CHS publications metadata extracted from the 15 scientific and technical literature databases in Psychology available in the CAPES Journals Portal was conducted. After treatment and refinement, this sample resulted in a corpus of metadata 25,409 scientific articles, which is a set of metadata publications, from fields such as author, title, subject, abstract, among others. The corpus of metadata stored in a database allowed the creation of a series of data crossing, resulting in bibliometric indicators. Results. As a result, we have: the SS Corpus, published on the Internet, which enables the inclusion of new metadata and the recovery of almost all scientific articles of the field; 2 bibliometric indicators in CHS, which may offer subsidies for the development and expansion of the field. Conclusions. Bibliometric indicators of the CHS show a representative production growth of social skills in the 1970s. Research on SS is mainly conducted by researchers from the United States, Brazil, United Kingdon and Denmark. The main subject studied are "social skills", "interpersonal relations", "social competence", "empathy", "assertividade", "assertiveness", "children", "adult", "college students"; and the major journals are: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology; Psychological Reports; Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders and Child Development.

  6. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S. W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Akiyama, S. [Institute for Astrophyics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: AFRL.RVB.PA@kirtland.af.mil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E {approx} 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 Degree-Sign of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  7. Case of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Myung; Kozarek, Richard A; Lin, Otto S

    2014-12-16

    Long-term cannabis use may be associated with attacks of severe nausea and vomiting, and a characteristic learned behavior of compulsive hot bathing, termed cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). Long-term follow-up and prognosis of CHS have not been reported previously. A 44-year-old Caucasian man with a long history of addiction to marijuana presented with chronic abdominal pain complicated by attacks of uncontrollable vomiting for 16 years. He had a compulsion to take scalding hot showers, as many as 15 times a day, to relieve his symptoms. All previous therapies had been ineffective. However, abstinence from marijuana led to rapid and complete resolution of all symptoms and his compulsive hot showering behavior. He has been followed for nine years, and is still doing well without recurrence of symptoms. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion for this under-recognized condition, as excellent long-term prognosis of CHS can be achieved when abstinence is maintained. PMID:25516874

  8. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  9. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons revisited: mating status alters cuticular profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Everaerts

    Full Text Available Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs, or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA, affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i reciprocal in the two sexes, suggesting a passive mechanical transfer during mating, (ii parallel in both sexes, such as for cVA which strikingly appeared during mating, or (iii unilateral, presumably as a result of sexual interaction. We provide a complete reassessment of all Drosophila CHs and suggest that the chemical conversation between male and female flies is far more complex than is generally accepted. We conclude that focusing on individual compounds will not provide a satisfactory understanding of the evolution and function of chemical communication in Drosophila.

  10. Coupling of Exothermic and Endothermic Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Bowden, Mark E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Houghton, Adrian Y.; Autrey, Thomas

    2016-08-30

    Chemical hydrogen storage (CHS) materials are a high-storage-density alternative to the gaseous compressed hydrogen currently used to provide hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. One of the challenges of CHS materials is addressing the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers required to break the chemical bonds and release the hydrogen. Coupling CHS reactions that are endothermic and exothermic during the dehydrogenation can improve the system on-board energy efficiency and thermal control, making such materials viable. Acceptable coupling between reactions requires both thermodynamic and kinetics considerations. Models were developed to predict the reaction enthalpy and rate required to achieve high conversions for both reactions based on experimental measurements. These modeling results show that the efficiency of coupling of an exothermic and endothermic reaction is more sensitive the magnitude of the ratio of the exothermic and endothermic enthalpies than the ratio of the rates of the two steps. The modeling shows further that a slower rate of the endothermic step is desirable to permit sufficient heating of the reactor by the exothermic step. We look at two examples of a sequential and parallel reaction scheme and provide some of the first insight into the required temperature range to maximize the H2 release from 1,2-BN cyclohexane and indoline.

  11. Coupling of exothermic and endothermic hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Bowden, Mark E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Houghton, Adrian Y.; Autrey, S. Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage (CHS) materials are a high-storage-density alternative to the gaseous compressed hydrogen currently used to provide hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. One of the challenges of CHS materials is addressing the energy barriers required to break the chemical bonds and release the hydrogen. Coupling CHS reactions that are endothermic and exothermic during dehydrogenation can improve onboard energy efficiency and thermal control for the system, making such materials viable. Acceptable coupling between reactions requires both thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. In this work, models were developed to predict the reaction enthalpy and rate required to achieve high conversions for both reactions based on experimental measurements. Modeling results show that the coupling efficiency of exothermic and endothermic reactions is more sensitive to the ratio of the exothermic and endothermic enthalpies than to the ratio of the rates of the two steps. Modeling results also show that a slower endothermic step rate is desirable to permit sufficient heating of the reactor by the exothermic step. We look at two examples of a sequential and parallel reaction scheme and provide some of the first published insight into the required temperature range to maximize the hydrogen release from 1,2-BN cyclohexane and indoline.

  12. Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Ma, Rui-juan; Shen, Zhi-jun; Yan, Juan; Yu, Ming-liang

    2014-09-01

    The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches. PMID:25183035

  13. Job Analysis on Posts Characteristics in Community Health Service Organizations%社区卫生服务机构岗位特征工作分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭迎春; 苏宁; 何永洁; 梁万年

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解社区卫生服务机构医、护、防各类岗位人员目前实际开展的工作内容,各岗位人员所感受的工作压力,对所在岗位应具备的能力评价、培训要求及对所在岗位绩效考核要素的建议.方法 利用,在北京市分层随机抽取7个区县51家社区卫生服务机构的全科医生147名、社区护士93名、预防保健人员76名进行访谈.结果 各岗位人员均认为不仅需要具备岗位所必需的专业知识与操作技能,同时还需要具备沟通能力、协调能力、团队合作能力等较高的素质要求.各岗位人员均感觉工作存在一定的压力,且均有一定的培训需求.结论 只有科学、合理地进行工作分析,才能够制定出真正反映社区卫生服务机构各岗位特征的绩效考核指标.%Objective To explore the working content, pressure, ability, demand for training of general practitioners , community nurses, and prevention physicians in community health services ( CHS ) organizations, and key elements of post performance appraisal for them were proposed. Methods Totally 147 general practitioners , 93 community nurses and 76 prevention physicians from 51 CHS organizations of 7 districts or counties of Beijing were enrolled by stratified sampling, and they were interviewed by using Job Analysis Questionnaire for CHS Personnel. Results CHS personnel of the above posts held that not only professional knowledge and skills were indispensable , but also the higher qualities of ability of communication , collaboration and teamwork were necessary. They felt a certain pressure on working and all had demand for professional training. Conclusion The performance appraisal indicators of each post reflecting its post characteristics in CHS organizations can be made only on the basis of scientific and reasonable job analysis.

  14. 黄鳝骨硫酸软骨素多糖降血脂功能研究%Study on lipid-decreasing effect of Chondroitin Sulfate Polysaccharides from monopterus albus bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察黄鳝骨硫酸软骨素多糖(Chondroitin Sulfate Polysaccharides,CHS)对高脂小鼠的降血脂功能.方法:将经预处理后的黄鳝骨经碱提、酶解、过柱(大孔吸附树脂)、脱盐得到CHS,灌胃给高脂小鼠,研究其降血脂功能.结果:多糖低、中剂量组(9、27 mg/kg)与高脂模型组比较,能显著降低高脂小鼠血清总胆固醇(TC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)水平(P<0.01),对血清三酰甘油(TG)水平升高也有一定的抑制作用,但差异不显著;而高剂量组(81 mg/kg)仅能显著降低血清TC水平(P<0.05);各组对小鼠体重和腹部脂肪均影响不大.结论:27 mg/kg的CHS能显著降低高脂小鼠TC和LDL-C水平,并在一定程度上抑制小鼠TG水平的升高,具有一定降血脂功能.%Objective: To study the lipid-decreasing effect of Chondroitin Sulfate Polysaccharides (CHS), which was extract ed from monopterus albus bone on hyperlipidermia mice. Methods: CHS was extracted from pretreated monopterus albus bones by alkali-liquor extraction, enzyme decomposition, column separation and desalination. Then it was used on hyperlipidermia mice to observe the function of lipid-decreasing. Results: The total serum cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipopro-tein (LDL-C) were very significantly decreased (P<0.01) in the low and middle-dosage groups (9, 27 mg/kg) compared with hyperlipidermia model group, and the rising of triglyceride (TG) was also be inhibited a little, but without distinct diversity; the TC level of the high-dosage group (81 mg/kg) could be obviously decreased (P<0.05); there had no effects on the weight and belly fat of mice of each groups. Conclusion: CHS (27 mg/kg) can decrease the TC and LDL-C level of hiperlipemia mice, inhibite the raisen of TG in a certain degree, and show some colesterol-lowering function.

  15. Determinants of initial utilization of community healthcare services among patients with major non-communicable chronic diseases in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although expected to act as gate-keeping primary care providers, as community health service (CHS facilities are severely under-utilized; Chinese people in both rural and urban areas used predominantly higher-tier facilities for primary care purpose, with significant financial and outcome consequences. This study intends to explore the determinants of initial utilization of CHS among patients with major non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs in order to understand the care-seeking behavior among urban and rural residents in South China. METHODS: A multi-stage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to create a sample of 19,466 adults with NCDs from 7,970 urban households and 32,035 adults with NCDs from 3,860 rural households in Guangdong, China. Interviews and physical examinations were conducted in 2010 to collect data on patient characteristics, medical conditions, and awareness and utilization of healthcare. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to study utilization patterns and the factors associated with the patterns. RESULTS: Prevalence of major NCDs in urban areas was significantly higher than that in rural areas (12.55% vs. 8.70%; p<0.001. Second-tier district hospitals were most preferred for initial consultation (46.05% in rural areas vs. 45.32% in urban areas; p<0.001, followed by tertiary general or specialized hospitals (28.39% in rural areas vs. 33.89% in urban areas; p<0.001. The proportion of patients who had initial use of CHS was relatively low (25.56% in rural areas vs. 20.79% in urban areas; p<0.001. Awareness of self-care and the presence of medical insurance were leading factors associated with first contact of CHS facilities in both urban and rural areas. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that CHS facilities are not often used as the first contact for patients in both rural and urban areas in south China. Much effect must be made to enhance the gatekeeper system and improve

  16. Knickkopf and retroactive proteins are required for formation of laminar serosal procuticle during embryonic development of Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Sujata S; Noh, Mi Young; Moussian, Bernard; Specht, Charles A; Kramer, Karl J; Beeman, Richard W; Arakane, Yasuyuki; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam

    2015-05-01

    Chitin, a homopolymer of β-1-4-linked N-acetylglucosamine synthesized by chitin synthase A (Chs-A), is organized in the procuticle of the postembryonic cuticle or exoskeleton, which is composed of laminae stacked parallel to the cell surface to give stability and integrity to the underlying insect epidermal and other tissues. Our previous work has revealed an important role for two proteins from Tribolium castaneum named Knickkopf (TcKnk) and Retroactive (TcRtv) in postembryonic cuticular chitin maintenance. TcKnk and TcRtv were shown to be required for protection and organization of newly synthesized procuticular chitin. To study the functions of TcKnk and TcRtv in serosal and larval cuticles produced during embryogenesis in T. castaneum, dsRNAs specific for these two genes were injected into two week-old adult females. The effects of dsRNA treatment on ovarial integrity, oviposition, egg hatching and adult survival were determined. Insects treated with dsRNA for chitin synthase-A (TcChs-A) and tryptophan oxygenase (TcVer) were used as positive and negative controls for these experiments, respectively. Like TcChs-A RNAi, injection of dsRNA for TcKnk or TcRtv into adult females exhibited no adult lethality and oviposition was normal. However, a vast majority of the embryos did not hatch. The remaining (∼10%) of the embryos hatched into first instar larvae that died without molting to the second instar. Chitin content analysis following TcKnk and TcRtv parental RNAi revealed approximately 50% reduction in chitin content of eggs in comparison with control TcVer RNAi, whereas TcChs-A dsRNA-treatment led to >90% loss of chitin. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis of serosal cuticle from TcChs-A, TcKnk and TcRtv dsRNA-treated insects revealed a complete absence of laminar organization of serosal (and larval) procuticle in comparison with TcVer dsRNA-treated controls, which exhibited normal laminar organization of procuticular chitin. The

  17. Clinical, laboratory and molecular signs of immunodeficiency in patients with partial oculo-cutaneous albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Laura; Parolini, Silvia; Prandini, Alberto; Tabellini, Giovanna; Antolini, Maddalena; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Badolato, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Hypopigmentation disorders that are associated with immunodeficiency feature both partial albinism of hair, skin and eyes together with leukocyte defects. These disorders include Chediak Higashi (CHS), Griscelli (GS), Hermansky-Pudlak (HPS) and MAPBP-interacting protein deficiency syndromes. These are heterogeneous autosomal recessive conditions in which the causal genes encode proteins with specific roles in the biogenesis, function and trafficking of secretory lysosomes. In certain specialized cells, these organelles serve as a storage compartment. Impaired secretion of specific effector proteins from that intracellular compartment affects biological activities. In particular, these intracellular granules are essential constituents of melanocytes, platelets, granulocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Thus, abnormalities affect pigmentation, primary hemostasis, blood cell counts and lymphocyte cytotoxic activity against microbial pathogens. Among eight genetically distinct types of HPS, only type 2 is characterized by immunodeficiency. Recently, a new subtype, HPS9, was defined in patients presenting with immunodeficiency and oculocutaneous albinism, associated with mutations in the pallidin-encoding gene, PLDN.Hypopigmentation together with recurrent childhood bacterial or viral infections suggests syndromic albinism. T and NK cell cytotoxicity are generally impaired in patients with these disorders. Specific clinical and biochemical phenotypes can allow differential diagnoses among these disorders before molecular testing. Ocular symptoms, including nystagmus, that are usually evident at birth, are common in patients with HPS2 or CHS. Albinism with short stature is unique to MAPBP-interacting protein (MAPBPIP) deficiency, while hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) mainly suggests a diagnosis of CHS or GS type 2 (GS2). Neurological disease is a long-term complication of CHS, but is uncommon in other syndromic albinism. Chronic

  18. Comparative studies of the global ecological state variation of the aquatic environment in the Crişuri Hydrographic Space between 2007 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Sion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study regarding the evolution across time of the quality of aquatic eco-systems in the Crişuri Hydrographic Space (CHS, between 2007 and 2009. Having as a goal a real and complete image of the quality of the environment in the CHS, the ecological monitoringconducted was meant to observe the structure of the aquatic communities (macrozoobenthos, microphytobenthos, phytoplankton and the biotope characteristics (physical and chemical parameters of water: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CBO5, CCO-Mn, CCO-Cr, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, amonium, chlorophyll “a”, chlorides, sulphates, fix residues, As, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, phenols, detergents etc. The choosing of the monitoring sections, their identification and geographical position were accomplished in 2006. The basic criterion in the choice of the monitoring sections was the identification of all aspects that can influence the quality state of the waters. The monitoring of the quality state of the waters in the CHS was conducted in 40 sections, both on the main courses and their affluents, over a 3-year period. After the results of the analyses of physico-chemical and biological samples were obtained, the categorization of the prelevation sections in quality classes followed; depending on these classes, the modelation of the global ecological states of the watercourses in the CHS was realized by means of mapping techniques (GIS. Most of the monitoring sections were in the good ecological state category. The very good ecological state was determined only for those sections upstream all polluting sources. Nevertheless, some of the prelevation points exceeded both physico-chemically and biologically the limits of the good quality state, entering the category of moderate quality state. No watercourse in the CHS was determined for poor or bad quality state. Generally, a “preservation” of the quality state of the waters from one year to the following was

  19. Survey and analysis of the status of the community health service in Qinhuai district of Nanjing%南京市秦淮区社区卫生服务现状调查和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺勤; 陈宇炼

    2012-01-01

    目的 调查南京市秦淮区社区卫生服务(CHS)现状,为制定与CHS相适应的策略提供依据.方法 采用访谈法、问卷调查法了解南京市秦淮区CHS现状.结果 南京市秦淮区CHS中心机构健全,用房面积、医生数量符合“基本标准”要求;但护士数量偏少.医护人员专业结构基本合理,持证情况良好;但医护人员学历、职称普遍偏低.近三年总的财务收支基本平衡,略有盈余;政府对CHS中心经费投入仅占年总收入的11.36%,药品收入占总收入的55.40%.CHS中心大部分具备基本医疗设备,但仍有少数CHS中心缺乏一些重要的常规医疗设备如简易手术设备、B超机、血球计数仪、尿常规分析仪、生化分析仪等.就诊患者满意度较高.结论 南京市秦淮区CHS现状基本上是好的.政府应加大对CHS中心的财政投入,进一步加强卫生服务队伍的建设.%Objective To conduct a survey on the status of the community health service(CHS) of Qinhuai district of Nanjing city for providing a basis in the establishment of reasonable CHS strategies. Methods The CHS status of Qinhuai district of Nanjing China was investigated by interview and questionnaire survey. Results Organizational structures of the CHS centers in Qinhuai district were of healthiness with the construction areas and the numbers of physicians which' fulfiled the basic standards except for relatively less number of nurses. Professional structure of the medical care personnel was basically reasonable with formal certificate qualifications, but a common fact of relatively lower education background and professional titles existed. In the recent three years, total financial income and expenditure of these centers were generally balanced with slight surplus. Of total income, the financial support from government accounted for 11.36%, the income from drugs accounted for 55. 40%. Most of the centers had necessary medical equipments, but some centers

  20. Division of Layers in Concrete and Characterization Methods for Distribution of Chloride Concentration and Its Application%混凝土层划分与氯离子分布的表征方法及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智山; 魏荟荟

    2013-01-01

    Study and evaluation of permeability of concrete surface are related to quantization of the secondary area of the concrete surface layer and its performance characterization.Some parameters relating to concrete layers are studied.Three main concepts including the fault displacement from the inner surface x,the median of fault displacement from the inner surface z,and the unit fault layer from surface Z is proposed.Then the division method,characterization method and distribution model of unit cross-section layer S as well as the performance parameter and the distribution characterization method of the unit crosssection layer are established.The research purpose and significance of permeable surface layer based on chloride ion are clarified.The test result of chloride ion mass fraction in unit cross-sectional layer is analyzed with the characterization methods of S and its CHS.It is known that the surface layer thickness affecting the permeability of concrete is 2.0-3.0 mm.Z3 =2.5 ± 0.5 is a special fault.The fault magnitude of stratified sampling is sub-millimeter level.The thickness of permeable surface layer is limited to 10 mm.The apparent distribution model of CHS is an exponential function CHS,b-z(x).The benchmark of CHS at the inner surface of permeable layer surface is different from that at outer surface.The distribution model of the position and distribution of fault as well as the structure layer partly relating to the layers are proposed.At the same time the characterization method for CHS and its distribution are put forward.%混凝土表面渗透性的研究与评价,均与表面层的次级层量化及其性能表征有关.阐述了混凝土中部分与层有关的参数,提出距表面断距x、距表面单位断距中值z和距表面单位断距层Z这3个主要概念,建立了混凝土中层的划分方法、表征方法及其分布模型与单位横断层性能参数CHS(单位横断层氯离子质量分数)及其分布的表征方法,通过该

  1. Physics models in the toroidal transport code PROCTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, H.C.

    1990-08-01

    The physics models that are contained in the toroidal transport code PROCTR are described in detail. Time- and space-dependent models are included for the plasma hydrogenic-ion, helium, and impurity densities, the electron and ion temperatures, the toroidal rotation velocity, and the toroidal current profile. Time- and depth-dependent models for the trapped and mobile hydrogenic particle concentrations in the wall and a time-dependent point model for the number of particles in the limiter are also included. Time-dependent models for neutral particle transport, neutral beam deposition and thermalization, fusion heating, impurity radiation, pellet injection, and the radial electric potential are included and recalculated periodically as the time-dependent models evolve. The plasma solution is obtained either in simple flux coordinates, where the radial shift of each elliptical, toroidal flux surface is included to maintain an approximate pressure equilibrium, or in general three-dimensional torsatron coordinates represented by series of helical harmonics. The detailed coupling of the plasma, scrape-off layer, limiter, and wall models through the neutral transport model makes PROCTR especially suited for modeling of recycling and particle control in toroidal plasmas. The model may also be used in a steady-state profile analysis mode for studying energy and particle balances starting with measured plasma profiles.

  2. Research on stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Kotenko, V. G.; Chernitskiy, S. V.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Kalyuzhnyi, V. N.; Hagnestål, A.; Källne, J.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2014-09-01

    The development of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid concept is reviewed. The hybrid comprises of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, neutrons are generated in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma, confined magnetically in a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror. Based on kinetic calculations, the energy balance for such a system is analyzed. Neutron calculations have been performed with the MCNPX code, and the principal design of the reactor part is developed. Neutron outflux at different outer parts of the reactor is calculated. Numerical simulations have been performed on the structure of a magnetic field in a model of the stellarator-mirror device, and that is achieved by switching off one or two coils of toroidal field in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The calculations predict the existence of closed magnetic surfaces under certain conditions. The confinement of fast particles in such a magnetic trap is analyzed.

  3. Curvature dependance of blob dynamics in TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, Stephen; Ramisch, Mirko [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Fuchert, Golo [Institut Jean Lamour, Universite de Lorraine (France)

    2014-07-01

    Turbulent transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) is an important area of investigation in magnetic confinement fusion research. Relatively dense and hot, field-aligned, filament-like structures (blobs) have been observed to propagate radially through the SOL in many fusion devices, and contribute significantly to SOL transport. The torsatron TJ-K operates with a low-temperature plasma, allowing Langmuir probe measurements in the entire plasma volume. Despite the low temperature, investigations are relevant to fusion research due to dimensionless plasma parameters similar to those in the edge region of fusion plasmas. Analytical blob models link blob velocity in the SOL to blob polarisation, which can be driven by magnetic field line curvature. In TJ-K, average blob dynamics can be studied in detail using a 2D movable probe and a conditional averaging technique. In addition, a fast camera can be used to supplement probe data, and provide information on individual blob trajectories. With these tools, the connection between magnetic field line curvature and the poloidal component of blob velocity has been studied. Taking into account background E x B flows, initial investigations suggest a correlation between the poloidal component of blob velocity and averaged geodesic magnetic field line curvature.

  4. Curvature dependence of blob dynamics in TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, Stephen; Ramisch, Mirko; Hirth, Thomas [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Turbulent transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) is an important area of investigation in magnetic confinement fusion research. Relatively dense and hot, field-aligned, filament-like structures (blobs) have been observed to propagate radially through the SOL in many fusion devices, and contribute significantly to SOL transport. The torsatron TJ-K is well suited to turbulence studies since it operates with a low-temperature plasma, allowing Langmuir probe measurements in the entire plasma volume. Despite the low temperature, investigations are relevant to fusion research due to dimensionless plasma parameters similar to those in the edge region of fusion plasmas. Blob dynamics have been studied in the SOL of TJ-K using a 2D movable probe and the conditional averaging technique. In addition, emissive probes have been used to determine equilibrium electric fields, allowing the calculation of background E x B flows. Experimentally deduced centre of mass radial and poloidal blob velocity components have been compared to an analytical blob model, which has been simplified to express blob velocity in terms of the magnetic field curvature vector. Experimental radial blob velocity components compare well to the model, confirming the normal curvature drive of blob polarisation. On the other hand, poloidal velocity components are comparable to the model only when background E x B flow is also taken into account.

  5. ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility]-2 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design studies for a low-aspect-ratio, large next-generation stellarator, ATF-II, with high-current-density, high-field, stable NbTi/Cu helical windings are described. The design parameters are an average plasma radius of 0.52 m, a major radius of 2 m, and a field on axis of 4-5 T, with 10 to 15 MW of heating power. Such a device would be comparable in scope to other next-generation stellarators but would have roughly the same aspect ratio as the tokamaks without, however, the need for current drive to sustain steady-state operation. A number of low-aspect-ratio physics issues need to be addressed in the design of ATF-II, primarily compromises between high-beta capability and good confinement properties. A six-field-period Compact Torsatron is chosen as a reference design for ATF-II, and its main features and performance predictions are discussed. An integrated (beta capability and confinement) optimization approach and optimization of superconducting windings are also discussed. 36 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Stellarator News, Issue 38, March 1995

    CERN Document Server

    Rome, J A

    1995-01-01

    Stellarator News, an international journal of the stellarator community, is Published by Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, James A. Rome, Editor In the March 1995 issue . . . **** Exerpts from the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assment report on TPX and Alternate Concepts. **** Edge transport and turbulence studies on U-3M The turbulent-driven particle flow is shown to be comparable with the equilibrium flow at the boundary of the configuration under Alfven-heating conditions in the U-3M torsatron. **** Topological aspects of island divertor studies on W7-AS The structure of the edge plasma in W7-AS, observed with probes, television camera, and H-alpha light agrees at low beta with vacuum field calculations: the low-valued resonances at iotabar=5/m are resolved for m = 8 to 11; external perturbations are not significant at the edge, even for iotabar = 5/10. **** 140-GHz second harmonic O-mode electron cyclotron heating at W7-AS First experimental results are presented of 140-GHz secon...

  7. Physics models in the toroidal transport code PROCTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics models that are contained in the toroidal transport code PROCTR are described in detail. Time- and space-dependent models are included for the plasma hydrogenic-ion, helium, and impurity densities, the electron and ion temperatures, the toroidal rotation velocity, and the toroidal current profile. Time- and depth-dependent models for the trapped and mobile hydrogenic particle concentrations in the wall and a time-dependent point model for the number of particles in the limiter are also included. Time-dependent models for neutral particle transport, neutral beam deposition and thermalization, fusion heating, impurity radiation, pellet injection, and the radial electric potential are included and recalculated periodically as the time-dependent models evolve. The plasma solution is obtained either in simple flux coordinates, where the radial shift of each elliptical, toroidal flux surface is included to maintain an approximate pressure equilibrium, or in general three-dimensional torsatron coordinates represented by series of helical harmonics. The detailed coupling of the plasma, scrape-off layer, limiter, and wall models through the neutral transport model makes PROCTR especially suited for modeling of recycling and particle control in toroidal plasmas. The model may also be used in a steady-state profile analysis mode for studying energy and particle balances starting with measured plasma profiles

  8. Parametric systems analysis of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The close coupling in the stellarator/torsatron/heliotron (S/T/H) between coil design (peak field, current density, forces), magnetics topology (transform, shear, well depth), and plasma performance (equilibrium, stability, transport, beta) complicates the reactor assessment more so than for most magnetic confinement systems. In order to provide an additional degree of resolution of this problem for the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR), a parametric systems model has been developed and applied. This model reduces key issues associted ith plasma performance, first-wall/blanket/shield (FW/B/S), and coil design to a simple relationship between beta, system geometry, and a number of indicators of overall plant performance. The results of this analysis can then be used to guide more detailed, multidimensional plasma, magnetics, and coil design efforts towards technically and economically viable operating regimes. In general, it is shown that beta values > 0.08 may be needed if the MSR approach is to be substantially competitive with other approaches to magnetic fusion in terms of system power density, mass utilization, and cost for total power output around 4.0 GWt; lower powers will require even higher betas

  9. 双色鸳鸯美人蕉中花青素合成关键基因的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and Expression Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Genes from Red-Yellow Flower Chimera in Canna ge ne ralis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 高广春; 李白

    2015-01-01

    The red-yellow flower chimera in Canna ge ne ralis (Canna ge ne ralis Bailey) was used as material and the chalcone synthase gene (CgCHS) and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene (CgDFR) were cloned using RT-PCR. The 549 bp and 570 bp fragment of CHS and DFR genes were cloned, sequence comparison showed that these genes share 70%to 95%identities with each previously reported corresponding genes. The expression patterns of CHS, DFR and CHI (chalcone isomerase) genes were analyzed by Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The results showed that the expression quantity of CHS and DFR genes was higher in red-part than in yellow-part, while CHI gene showed on the contrary. The expression of CHS and CHI genes increased in accordance with flower development in red-part, while in the yellow-part its expression increased in the earlier three developmental stages and then reduced in the fourth stage. The expression pattern of DFR gene was consistent with flower development both in the red- and yellow-parts. The expression pattern of these three genes in Canna ge ne ralis varied with different flower color were different with each other.%本研究以双色鸳鸯美人蕉为试材,采用RT-PCR技术扩增查尔酮合成酶基因(CHS)及二氢黄酮醇4-还原酶基因(DFR)序列,并利用RT-qPCR技术检测CHS、DFR及查尔酮异构酶基因(CHI)在双色鸳鸯美人蕉同一朵花不同颜色部位、不同发育时期的表达差异以及在不同花色美人蕉中的表达特性。结果显示:通过扩增分别获得了549 bp的CHS基因片段及570 bp的DFR基因片段,与红掌、百合等相应基因的同源性达70%~95%。基因表达分析表明,CHS及DFR在红色花瓣中的表达量高于黄色花瓣,CHI在黄色花瓣中的表达量高于红色花瓣;CHS与CHI在红色花瓣中随着发育表达量逐渐增大,在黄色花瓣随发育表达量呈先增加后减少的趋势;DFR在红色及黄色花瓣的发育后期表达量逐渐增大;在不同

  10. Satisfaction of Community Health Services Users in Dongguan City under the Mode of "Official Politics"%"政办政管"模式下东莞市社区卫生服务利用者的满意度评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉琪; 王培席; 卢楚虹

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨"政办政管"模式下东莞市社区卫生服务利用者的满意度状况及其影响因素.方法 选取实行"政办政管"模式的东莞市某社区卫生服务中心为研究现场,采用现场拦截法,以该社区卫生服务中心的社区卫生服务利用者360人为研究对象.利用美国顾客满意度指数模型(ACSI)构建社区卫生服务利用者满意度指数模型,设计满意度调查问卷,对研究对象进行调查.结果 社区卫生服务利用者总体满意度指数为74.18.多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,对总体满意度产生影响的主要因素包括利用者感知价值、利用者期望和利用者感知质量(OR值分别为11.401、8.671、7.525).结论 社区卫生服务利用者满意度的影响因素包括利用者感知价值、利用者期望和利用者感知质量.社区卫生服务中心应从影响卫生服务利用者满意度的因素出发,着力改善社区卫生服务水平,真正实现社区卫生服务"六位一体"的功能定位.%Objective To investigate the satisfaction status of the community health services ( CHS ) users and its influencing factors under the mode of " Official Politics" in Dongguan City. Methods A CHS center in Dongguan City where " Official Politics" had been implemented was selected as the subject. The intercept survey method was taken to investigate the satisfaction of 360 people who applied the services in the CHS center with self - made satisfaction questionnaire constructed based on American Customer Satisfaction Index ( ACSI ) . Results The index of patients' overall satisfaction on CHS was 74. 18. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the main factors influencing the overall satisfaction were the perceived value, users' expectations and perceived quality ( OR = 11.401, 8.671, 7.525 ) . Conclusion The main factors influencing the overall satisfaction were the perceived value, users' expectations and perceived quality. The CHS organization

  11. Uncertainty analysis of spent nuclear fuel isotopics and rod internal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Ryan N.

    The bias and uncertainty in fuel isotopic calculations for a well-defined radio- chemical assay benchmark are investigated with Sampler, the new sampling-based uncertainty quantification tool in the SCALE code system. Isotopic predictions are compared to measurements of fuel rod MKP109 of assembly D047 from the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 core at three axial locations, representing a range of discharged fuel burnups. A methodology is developed which quantifies the significance of input parameter uncertainties and modeling decisions on isotopic prediction by compar- ing to isotopic measurement uncertainties. The SCALE Sampler model of the D047 assembly incorporates input parameter uncertainties for key input data such as multigroup cross sections, decay constants, fission product yields, the cladding thickness, and the power history for fuel rod MKP109. The effects of each set of input parameter uncertainty on the uncertainty of isotopic predictions have been quantified. In this work, isotopic prediction biases are identified and an investiga- tion into their sources is proposed; namely, biases have been identified for certain plutonium, europium, and gadolinium isotopes for all three axial locations. More- over, isotopic prediction uncertainty resulting from only nuclear data is found to be greatest for Eu-154, Gd-154, and Gd-160. The discharge rod internal pressure (RIP) and cladding hoop stress (CHS) distributions are quantified for Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) fuel rods by modeling core cycle design data, operation data (including modeling significant trips and downpowers), and as-built fuel enrichments and densities of each fuel rod in FRAPCON-3.5. A methodology is developed which tracks inter-cycle as- sembly movements and assembly batch fabrication information to build individual FRAPCON inputs for each considered WBN1 fuel rod. An alternate model for the amount of helium released from zirconium diboride (ZrB2) integral fuel burn- able absorber (IFBA) layers is

  12. Rod internal pressure quantification and distribution analysis using Frapcon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL; Wieselquist, William A [ORNL; Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State University, University Park

    2015-09-01

    This report documents work performed supporting the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) under work breakdown structure element 1.02.08.10, ST Analysis. In particular, this report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT- 15OR0810036, Quantify effects of power uncertainty on fuel assembly characteristics, within work package FT-15OR081003 ST Analysis-ORNL. This research was also supported by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (http://www.casl.gov), an Energy Innovation Hub (http://www.energy.gov/hubs) for Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Reactors under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. The discharge rod internal pressure (RIP) and cladding hoop stress (CHS) distributions are quantified for Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) fuel rods by modeling core cycle design data, operation data (including modeling significant trips and downpowers), and as-built fuel enrichments and densities of each fuel rod in FRAPCON-3.5. A methodology is developed which tracks inter-cycle assembly movements and assembly batch fabrication information to build individual FRAPCON inputs for each evaluated WBN1 fuel rod. An alternate model for the amount of helium released from the zirconium diboride (ZrB2) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) layer is derived and applied to FRAPCON output data to quantify the RIP and CHS for these types of fuel rods. SCALE/Polaris is used to quantify fuel rodspecific spectral quantities and the amount of gaseous fission products produced in the fuel for use in FRAPCON inputs. Fuel rods with ZrB2 IFBA layers (i.e., IFBA rods) are determined to have RIP predictions that are elevated when compared to fuel rod without IFBA layers (i.e., standard rods) despite the fact that IFBA rods often have reduced fill pressures and annular fuel pellets. The primary contributor to elevated RIP predictions at burnups less than and greater than 30 GWd

  13. Effects of Chinese herbs on salivary fluid secretion by isolated and perfused rat submandibular glands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masataka Murakami; Mu-Xin Wei; Wei Ding; Qian-De Zhang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether Chinese herbs (CHs) relieve xerostomia (dry mouth) by increasing salivary secretion.METHODS: The submandibular glands of Wistar rats were surgically isolated and perfused arterially with buffered salt solution. After control perfusion,recording started 5 min prior to the start of stimulation.After fluid secretion was induced by 0.2 mmol/L carbamylcholine (CCh) in the perfusate for 10 min,Chinese herb (CH) was added in the perfusion for 5 min. CCh was then overloaded at 0.2 mmol/L in the perfusion for 20 min. The volume of salivary fluid secretion was recorded by a computer-controlled balance system.RESULTS: Saliva secretion formed an initial ephemeral peak at 30 s followed by a gradual increase to a sustained level. CH alone induced no or little saliva in all types of CH selected. During perfusion with CH ,overloading of CCh promoted fluid secretion in 15 of 20 CHs. This promotion was classified into four patterns,which were eventually related to the categories of CH: Overall sustained phase was continuously raised ( Yin-nourishing, fluid production-promoting and heatclearing agents); The sustained secretion rose to reach a maximum then decreased ( Qi-enhancing agent); Sustained secretion rose to reach the highest maximum and was then sustained with a slight decline (swelling-reducing, phlegm-resolving and pus-expelling agents); Stimulation of salivary secretion without any added stimulants. Addition of CCh raised the fluid secretion to reach the highest maximum then sharply decreased to a lower sustained level (blood activating agent).CONCLUSION: The present findings lead to the conclusion that various CHs have different promotional effects directly on the salivary gland.

  14. Magnesium Lowers the Incidence of Postoperative Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia in Congenital Heart Surgical Patients: Is There a Relationship to Surgical Procedure Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dingchao; Sznycer-Taub, Nathaniel; Cheng, Yao; McCarter, Robert; Jonas, Richard A; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Moak, Jeffrey P

    2015-08-01

    Magnesium sulfate was given to pediatric cardiac surgical patients during cardiopulmonary bypass period in an attempt to reduce the occurrence of postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia (PO JET). We reviewed our data to evaluate the effect of magnesium on the occurrence of JET and assess a possible relationship between PO JET and procedure complexity. A total of 1088 congenital heart surgeries (CHS), performed from 2005 to 2010, were reviewed. A total of 750 cases did not receive magnesium, and 338 cases received magnesium (25 mg/kg). All procedures were classified according to Aristotle score from 1 to 4. Overall, there was a statistically significant decrease in PO JET occurrence between the two groups regardless of the Aristotle score, 15.3 % (115/750) in non-magnesium group versus 7.1 % (24/338) in magnesium group, P < 0.001. In the absence of magnesium, the risk of JET increased with increasing Aristotle score, P = 0.01. Following magnesium administration and controlling for body weight, surgical and aortic cross-clamp times in the analyses, reduction in adjusted risk of JET was significantly greater with increasing Aristotle level of complexity (JET in non-magnesium vs. magnesium group, Aristotle level 1: 9.8 vs. 14.3 %, level 4: 11.5 vs. 3.2 %; odds ratio 0.54, 95 % CI 0.31-0.94, P = 0.028). Our data confirmed that intra-operative usage of magnesium reduced the occurrence of PO JET in a larger number and more diverse group of CHS patients than has previously been reported. Further, our data suggest that magnesium's effect on PO JET occurrence seemed more effective in CHS with higher levels of Aristotle complexity.

  15. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Dick

    Full Text Available Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP, suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments.

  16. Mucocutaneous lesions in free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D; Schaefer, Adam M; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2015-08-20

    Mucocutaneous lesions were biopsied from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and estuarine waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, between 2003 and 2013. A total of 78 incisional biopsies from 58 dolphins (n=43 IRL, n=15 CHS) were examined. Thirteen dolphins had 2 lesions biopsied at the same examination, and 6 dolphins were re-examined and re-biopsied at time intervals varying from 1 to 8 yr. Biopsy sites included the skin (n=47), tongue (n=2), and genital mucosa (n=29). Pathologic diagnoses were: orogenital sessile papilloma (39.7%), cutaneous lobomycosis (16.7%), tattoo skin disease (TSD; 15.4%), nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (15.4%), and epidermal hyperplasia (12.8%). Pathologic diagnoses from dolphins with 2 lesions were predominately orogenital sessile papillomas (n=9) with nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (n=4), TSD (n=3), lobomycosis (n=1), and epidermal hyperplasia (n=1). Persistent pathologic diagnoses from the same dolphins re-examined and re-biopsied at different times included genital sessile papillomas (n=3), lobomycosis (n=2), and nonspecific dermatitis (n=2). This is the first study documenting the various types, combined prevalence, and progression of mucocutaneous lesions in dolphins from the southeastern USA. The data support other published findings describing the health patterns in dolphins from these geographic regions. Potential health impacts related to the observed suite of lesions are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, since previous studies have indicated that both populations are affected by complex infectious diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances and anthropogenic contaminants. PMID:26290502

  17. Phytoalexin synthesis in soybean cells: elicitor induction of reductase involved in biosynthesis of 6'-deoxychalcone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, R; Grisebach, H

    1989-07-01

    Chromatofocusing on Mono P proved to be an efficient purification procedure for the NADPH-dependent reductase from soybean (Glycine max L.) cell cultures which acts together with chalcone synthase in the biosynthesis of 2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone (6'-deoxychalcone). By isoelectric focusing the pI of reductase was determined to be 6.3. Addition of pure soybean reductase to cell-free extracts from stimulated cell cultures of parsley and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and from young flowers of Dahlia variabilis caused in each case synthesis of 6'-deoxychalcone. When 4-coumaroyl-CoA was replaced by caffeoyl-CoA in the reductase assay, formation of 2',4',3,4-tetrahydrochalcone (butein) was observed. A polyclonal antireductase antiserum was raised in rabbits and proved to be specific in Ouchterlony diffusion experiments, Western blots and immunotitration. The reductase antiserum showed no cross-reactivity with soybean chalcone synthase (CHS). A biotin/[125I]streptavidin system provided a quantitative Western blot for the reductase. Changes in the activities, amounts of protein, and mRNA activities of reductase and CHS were determined after challenge of soybean cell cultures by elicitor (from Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. glycinea or yeast). For both enzymes a pronounced and parallel increase in activity and amounts of protein was observed after elicitor addition with a maximum at about 16 h after challenge. Parallel increases in mRNA activities occurred earlier. The results indicate a parallel induction of de novo synthesis of reductase and CHS which coact in synthesis of 6'-deoxychalcone. PMID:2500065

  18. Stress response of wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during capture-release health assessment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, Patricia A; Schaefer, Adam M; Romano, Tracy A; Bossart, Gregory D; Lamb, Stephen V; Reif, John S

    2014-09-15

    There is a growing concern about the impacts of stress in marine mammals as they face a greater array of threats. The stress response of free-ranging dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) was examined by measuring their physiologic response to capture and handling. Samples were collected from 168 dolphins during capture-release health assessments 2003-2007 at two study sites: Charleston, SC (CHS) and the Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, aldosterone (ALD) and catecholamines (epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NOR), dopamine (DA)), were measured in blood and cortisol in urine. Mean time to collect pre-examination samples after netting the animals was 22min; post-examination samples were taken prior to release (mean 1h 37min). EPI and DA concentrations decreased significantly with increased time to blood sampling. ACTH and cortisol levels increased from the initial capture event to the post-examination sample. EPI concentrations increased significantly with increasing time to the pre-examination sample and decreased significantly with time between the pre- and post-examination sample. Cortisol concentrations increased between the pre- and post-examination in CHS dolphins. Age- and sex-adjusted mean pre-examination values of catecholamines were significantly higher in CHS dolphins; ALD was higher in IRL dolphins. Significant differences related to age or sex included higher NOR concentrations in males; higher ALD and urine cortisol levels in juveniles than adults. Wild dolphins exhibited a typical mammalian response to acute stress of capture and restraint. Further studies that relate hormone levels to biological and health endpoints are warranted.

  19. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Park, Chang W; Steer, Clifford J

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  20. Mitochondrial HMG to CoA synthase (mHS): cDNA cloning in human, mouse and C. elegans, mapping to human chromosome 1p12-13 and partial human genomic cloning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukaftane, Y.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A. [Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]|[Kingston General Hospital, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    mHS catalyzes the rate-limiting first step of ketogenesis in the liver. A cytoplasmic HS isozyme, encoded by another gene, catalyzes an early step in cholesterol synthesis. Starting from a rat mHS cDNA obtained by RT-PCR from the published rat cDNA sequence, we obtained and sequenced human and mouse cDNAs spanning the entire coding sequence of natural human and mouse mHS, as well as sequencing C. elegans HS-like cDNA. Consensus sequences for 3 mitochondrial and 4 cytoplasmic HSs were created and compared to invertebrate HS sequences. We found high conversation in the active site and at other regions presumably important for HS function. We mapped the mHS locus, HMGCS2 by in situ hybridization to chromosome 1P12-13, in contrast to the human cHS locus (HMGCS1) known to be on chromosome 5p13. Comparative mapping results suggest that these two chromosomal regions may be contiguous in other species, constant with a recent gene duplication event. Furthermore, we have characterized a human genomic mHS subclone containing 4 mHS exons, and found the position of all splice junctions to be identical to that of the hamster cHS gene except for one site in the 3{prime} nontranslated region. We calculate that the mHS and cHS genes were derived from a common ancestor 400-700 Myrs ago, implying that ketogenesis from fat may have become possible around the time of emergence of vertebrates ({approximately}500 Myr ago). Ketogenesis has evolved into an important pathway of energy metabolism, and we predict the mHS deficiency may prove to be responsible for some as yet explained cases of Reye-like syndromes in humans. This hypothesis can now be tested at the molecular level without the necessity of obtaining hepatic tissue.

  1. UV-B inhibition of hypocotyl growth in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is a consequence of cell cycle arrest initiated by photodimer accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biever, Jessica J; Brinkman, Doug; Gardner, Gary

    2014-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important constituent of sunlight that determines plant morphology and growth. It induces photomorphogenic responses but also causes damage to DNA. Arabidopsis mutants of the endonucleases that function in nucleotide excision repair, xpf-3 and uvr1-1, showed hypersensitivity to UV-B (280-320nm) in terms of inhibition of hypocotyl growth. SOG1 is a transcription factor that functions in the DNA damage signalling response after γ-irradiation. xpf mutants that carry the sog1-1 mutation showed hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B irradiation similar to the wild type. A DNA replication inhibitor, hydroxyurea (HU), also inhibited hypocotyl growth in etiolated seedlings, but xpf-3 was not hypersensitive to HU. UV-B irradiation induced accumulation of the G2/M-specific cell cycle reporter construct CYCB1;1-GUS in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings that was consistent with the expected accumulation of photodimers and coincided with the time course of hypocotyl growth inhibition after UV-B treatment. Etiolated mutants of UVR8, a recently described UV-B photoreceptor gene, irradiated with UV-B showed inhibition of hypocotyl growth that was not different from that of the wild type, but they lacked UV-B-specific expression of chalcone synthase (CHS), as expected from previous reports. CHS expression after UV-B irradiation was not different in xpf-3 compared with the wild type, nor was it altered after HU treatment. These results suggest that hypocotyl growth inhibition by UV-B light in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, a photomorphogenic response, is dictated by signals originating from UV-B absorption by DNA that lead to cell cycle arrest. This process occurs distinct from UVR8 and its signalling pathway responsible for CHS induction.

  2. A randomized controlled trial comparing customized versus standard headrests for head and neck radiotherapy immobilization in terms of set-up errors, patient comfort and staff satisfaction (ICORG 08-09)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To recommend a specific headrest, customized or standard, for head and neck radiotherapy patients in our institution based primarily on an evaluation of set-up accuracy, taking into account a comparison of patient comfort, staff and patient satisfaction, and resource implications. Methods and materials: Between 2008 and 2009, 40 head and neck patients were randomized to either a standard (Arm A, n = 21) or customized (Arm B, n = 19) headrest, and immobilized with a customized thermoplastic mask. Set-up accuracy was assessed using electronic portal images (EPI). Random and systematic set-up errors for each arm were determined from 668 EPIs, which were analyzed by one Radiation Therapist. Patient comfort was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and staff satisfaction was measured using an in-house questionnaire. Resource implications were also evaluated. Results: The difference in set-up errors between arms was not significant in any direction. However, in this study the standard headrest (SH) arm performed well, with set-up errors comparative to customized headrests (CHs) in previous studies. CHs require regular monitoring and 47% were re-vacuumed making them more resource intensive. Patient comfort and staff satisfaction were comparable in both arms. Conclusion: The SH provided similar treatment accuracy and patient comfort compared with the CH. The large number of CHs that needed to be re-vacuumed undermines their reliability for radiotherapy schedules that extend beyond 34 days from the initial CT scan. Accordingly the CH was more resource intensive without improving the accuracy of positioning, thus the standard headrest is recommended for continued use at our institution

  3. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  4. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  5. Engineered biosynthesis of plant polyketides: chain length control in an octaketide-producing plant type III polyketide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Ikuro; Oguro, Satoshi; Utsumi, Yoriko; Sano, Yukie; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2005-09-14

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) produces a variety of plant secondary metabolites with remarkable structural diversity and biological activities (e.g., chalcones, stilbenes, benzophenones, acrydones, phloroglucinols, resorcinols, pyrones, and chromones). Here we describe an octaketide-producing novel plant-specific type III PKS from aloe (Aloe arborescens) sharing 50-60% amino acid sequence identity with other plant CHS-superfamily enzymes. A recombinant enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed seven successive decarboxylative condensations of malonyl-CoA to yield aromatic octaketides SEK4 and SEK4b, the longest polyketides known to be synthesized by the structurally simple type III PKS. Surprisingly, site-directed mutagenesis revealed that a single residue Gly207 (corresponding to the CHS's active site Thr197) determines the polyketide chain length and product specificity. Small-to-large substitutions (G207A, G207T, G207M, G207L, G207F, and G207W) resulted in loss of the octaketide-forming activity and concomitant formation of shorter chain length polyketides (from triketide to heptaketide) including a pentaketide chromone, 2,7-dihydroxy-5-methylchromone, and a hexaketide pyrone, 6-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-pyrone, depending on the size of the side chain. Notably, the functional diversity of the type III PKS was shown to evolve from simple steric modulation of the chemically inert single residue lining the active-site cavity accompanied by conservation of the Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad. This provided novel strategies for the engineered biosynthesis of pharmaceutically important plant polyketides. PMID:16144421

  6. Methods for transient assay of gene function in floral tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathirana Nilangani N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable interest in rapid assays or screening systems for assigning gene function. However, analysis of gene function in the flowers of some species is restricted due to the difficulty of producing stably transformed transgenic plants. As a result, experimental approaches based on transient gene expression assays are frequently used. Biolistics has long been used for transient over-expression of genes of interest, but has not been exploited for gene silencing studies. Agrobacterium-infiltration has also been used, but the focus primarily has been on the transient transformation of leaf tissue. Results Two constructs, one expressing an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum majus (Antirrhinum chalcone synthase gene (CHS and the other an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum transcription factor gene Rosea1, were shown to effectively induce CHS and Rosea1 gene silencing, respectively, when introduced biolistically into petal tissue of Antirrhinum flowers developing in vitro. A high-throughput vector expressing the Antirrhinum CHS gene attached to an inverted repeat of the nos terminator was also shown to be effective. Silencing spread systemically to create large zones of petal tissue lacking pigmentation, with transmission of the silenced state spreading both laterally within the affected epidermal cell layer and into lower cell layers, including the epidermis of the other petal surface. Transient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of petal tissue of tobacco and petunia flowers in situ or detached was also achieved, using expression of the reporter genes GUS and GFP to visualise transgene expression. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of using biolistics-based transient RNAi, and transient transformation of petal tissue via Agrobacterium infiltration to study gene function in petals. We have also produced a vector for high throughput gene silencing studies, incorporating the option of using T-A cloning to

  7. 植物酶催化组合合成黄酮及4-羟基-δ-内酯类化合物%Combinatorial Synthesis of Flavonoids and 4-Hydroxy-δ-lactones by Plant-Originated Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫婷; 王娟; 高博闻; 张乐; 刘晓; 王晓晖; 屠鹏飞; 史社坡

    2015-01-01

    4-Coumarate coenzyme A ligase (4CL) and chalcone synthase (CHS), the two pivotal enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids were applied to combinatorially synthesize varied unnatural natural products. As result, 25 unnatural natural products including eight flavonoidanalogues, 16 4-hydroxy-δ-lactones and one benzalacetone were synthesized by 4CL and CHS. The synthetic methodology would be useful for the construction of library of structurally diverse of small mol-ecules.%以黄酮类化合物生物合成过程中的两个关键酶:4-香豆酰辅酶A连接酶(4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase,4CL)和查尔酮合成酶(chalcone synthase, CHS)为工具酶,探讨酶催化组合合成在合成“非天然的天然产物”群(库)中的应用。结果发现在4CL和CHS的共同作用下,仅利用8个简单的有机酸就可以产生包括8个黄酮类似物、16个4-羟基-δ-内酯和1个苄基丙酮共计25个“非天然的天然产物”群,为构建结构多样的小分子化合物群(库)提供方法学参考。

  8. Chediak-Higashi综合征1例分析并文献复习%A case report of Chediak-Higashi syndrome and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琳; 何勤

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical features of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS) and highlight its recognition. Methods One case of CHS was reported and the related literatures were reviewed. Results Chediak-Higashi Syndrome is a very rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by partial albinism, severe immunedeficiency, recurrent infections, progressive neurological defects and lymphoproliferative syndrome. Final diagnosis depends on the microscopic finding of large lysosome granules in neutrophils. Allogeneic transplantation is expected to be an effective treatment for CHS. Conclusion Chediak-Higashi Syndrome is a very rare disease with complicated clinical presentation and poor prognosis.It is easy to make a misdiagnosis and requires deep understanding.%目的 探讨Chediak-Higashi综合征的临床特点,以提高对本病的认识.方法 分析1例Chediak-Higashi综合征患儿的临床资料,并对相关文献进行复习.结果 本例Chediak-Higashi综合征患儿主要表现为皮肤、毛发色素减退、易感染、眼畏光、出血倾向、肝脾淋巴结肿大、外周神经病变等.血涂片或骨髓片见中性粒细胞内特征性的异常粗大溶酶体颗粒是确诊依据.造血干细胞移植是有望治愈本病的唯一方法.结论 Chediak-Higashi综合征较为罕见,临床表现复杂,预后差,极易漏诊误诊,应提高对本病的认识.

  9. Situational analysis of teaching and learning of medicine and nursing students at Makerere University College of Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiguli Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS in Uganda is undergoing a major reform to become a more influential force in society. It is important that its medicine and nursing graduates are equipped to best address the priority health needs of the Ugandan population, as outlined in the government’s Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP. The assessment identifies critical gaps in the core competencies of the MakCHS medicine and nursing and ways to overcome them in order to achieve HSSP goals. Methods Documents from the Uganda Ministry of Health were reviewed, and medicine and nursing curricula were analyzed. Nineteen key informant interviews (KII and seven focus group discussions (FGD with stakeholders were conducted. The data were manually analyzed for emerging themes and sub-themes. The study team subsequently used the checklists to create matrices summarizing the findings from the KIIs, FGDs, and curricula analysis. Validation of findings was done by triangulating information from the different data collection methods. Results The core competencies that medicine and nursing students are expected to achieve by the end of their education were outlined for both programs. The curricula are in the process of reform towards competency-based education, and on the surface, are well aligned with the strategic needs of the country. But implementation is inadequate, and can be changed: • Learning objectives need to be more applicable to achieving competencies. • Learning experiences need to be more relevant for competencies and setting in which students will work after graduation (i.e. not just clinical care in a tertiary care facility. • Student evaluation needs to be better designed for assessing these competencies. Conclusion MakCHS has made a significant attempt to produce relevant, competent nursing and medicine graduates to meet the community needs. Ways to make them more effective though deliberate efforts to

  10. CD1d knockout mice exhibit aggravated contact hypersensitivity responses due to reduced interleukin-10 production predominantly by regulatory B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Jonas; Antvorskov, Julie C; Buschard, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    knockout (CD1d KO) and wild-type (Wt) mice after contact allergen exposure. For induction of CHS, C57BL/6 CD1d KO mice (n = 6) and C57BL/6 Wt mice (n = 6) were sensitised with 1% (w/v) dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) or vehicle for three consecutive days and subsequently challenged with a single dose of 0.......5% DNCB (w/v) on the ears fifteen days later. We demonstrate that CD1d KO mice, as compared with Wt littermates, have more pronounced infiltration of mononuclear cells in the skin (29.1% increase; P

  11. Effect of deletion of chitin synthase genes on mycelial morphology and culture viscosity in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian; Hansen, K.; Szabo, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    .4-22.5 g kg(-1) biomass) and the power-law model adequately described the rheological properties. In the cultivations there were pellets, clumps, and freely dispersed hyphal elements. The different morphological fractions were quantified using image analysis. The apparent viscosity of the fermentation...... broth was significantly affected by the biomass concentration, the morphology, and also by pH. The chsB disruption strain had lower consistency index K values for all biomass concentrations investigated, which is a desirable trait for industrial Aspergillus fermentations. (C) 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  12. Effect of metal ions on the adaptive response induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Imaeda, T.; Kawazoe, Y.

    1988-12-30

    Induction of the adaptive response was quantified by analysis of beta-galactosidase released after the treatment of Escherichia coli CHS26/pYM3 (ada'-lacZ') with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). Of the 15 metal ions examined, only Cd++ and Hg++ inhibited induction of the adaptive response with neither severe suppression of cell growth nor inhibition of the induction of the SOS response by MNU. Mutagenicity of MNU was potentiated by the presence of these metal ions in an E. coli strain. These results suggest that the inhibition mechanism involves a specific interaction of Cd++ or Hg++ with O6-methyl-guanine-DNA methyltransferase.

  13. Convolutional Neural Network for Image Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Seifnashri, Sahand

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project is to use machine learning techniques especially Convolutional Neural Networks for image processing. These techniques can be used for Quark-Gluon discrimination using calorimeters data, but unfortunately I didn’t manage to get the calorimeters data and I just used the Jet data fromminiaodsim(ak4 chs). The Jet data was not good enough for Convolutional Neural Network which is designed for ’image’ recognition. This report is made of twomain part, part one is mainly about implementing Convolutional Neural Network on unphysical data such as MNIST digits and CIFAR-10 dataset and part 2 is about the Jet data.

  14. 冰岛刺参岩藻糖基化硫酸软骨素降血糖及改善胰岛素抵抗的研究%Study of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from Cucumaria frondosa on hyperglycemic effects and insulin resistance improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田迎樱; 胡世伟; 薛长湖; 李兆杰

    2014-01-01

    以高脂高糖饲料(high-fat high-sucrose,HFSD)饲喂法建立胰岛素抵抗小鼠模型.研究了冰岛刺参岩藻糖基化硫酸软骨素(fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa,Cf-CHS)对胰岛素抵抗小鼠的降血糖及改善胰岛素抵抗作用.雄性C57BL/6J小鼠随机分为正常对照(标准饲料)、模型对照(HFSD)、阳性对照(HFSD+ rosiglitazone (RSG),1 mg·(kg·d)-)、Cf-CHS组(HFSD+ Cf-CHS,80mg·(kg· d)-)及Cf-CHS+ RSG组(HFSD+ Cf-CHS+ RSG,80+ 1mg·(kg·d)-1).各组小鼠自由摄食摄水19周.实验结束后,称重小鼠白色脂肪质量,检测空腹血糖、血清胰岛素及血清脂联素、抵抗素、瘦素、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平.实验结果表明:Cf-CHS可显著降低胰岛素抵抗小鼠的脂肪积累(p<0.01),降低血糖(p<0.01)和胰岛素(p<0.05)水平,改善胰岛素抵抗(p<0.05),提高血清脂联素含量(p<0.05),降低抵抗素(p<0.01)、瘦素(p<0.01)和TNF-α (p <0.05)含量.Cf-CHS与RSG复配使用,效果更显著(p <0.05,p<0.01).Cf-CHS能显著改善胰岛素抵抗小鼠的高血糖症状及胰岛素抵抗程度,其作用机制可能与改善肥胖引起的脂肪细胞因子的分泌紊乱有关.

  15. Das offene Selbstgespräch des Teampartners - Einfluss auf die wahrgenommene Kompetenz und die eigene Anstrengungsbereitschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, David; Lier, Florian; Seiler, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Einleitung und Fragestellung In der Forschung zum Selbstgespräch im Sport dominiert die Frage nach dessen Wir-kung auf die Leistung. Der Einfluss des während der Leistungserbringung geäußerten Selbstgesprächs auf (un-)beteiligte Personen (z.B. Zuschauer, Gegenspieler oder Dop-pelpartner) wurde bislang kaum untersucht. Van Raalte, Brewer, Cornelius und Petitpas (2006) konnten immerhin zeigen, dass Zuschauer einen Tennisspieler als kompetenter einschätzen, wenn er in einem Laborexperiment mi...

  16. Assay of insulator enhancer-blocking activity with the use of transient transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, N A; Didych, D A; Akopov, S B; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2013-08-01

    We used a transient transfection of cultured cells with linearized plasmids to analyze the enhancer-blocking activity of potential insulators including the standard cHS4 chicken beta-globin insulator and several DNA fragments selected from the human genome sequence. About 60-80% of the potential insulators do reveal the enhancer-blocking activity when probed by the transient transfection assay. The activity of different sequences is characterized by certain tissue specificity and by dependence on the orientation of the fragments relative to the promoter. Thus, the transfection model may be used for quantitative analysis of the enhancer-blocking activity of the potential insulators. PMID:24228877

  17. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemzadeh Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1 on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and thiobarbituric acid (TBA assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the

  18. Policy paradox and political neglect in community health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Bob

    2014-09-01

    Community health services (CHSs) have never had a settled organisational existence but the turmoil has intensified since the publication of Transforming Community Services in 2009. CHSs are now beset by three dilemmas: ongoing organisational fragmentation; the extension of competition law and the spread of privatisation; inadequate workforce development and lack of clarity on the nature of CHS activity. This has left the services in a position of policy and political vulnerability. The solution may be for the service to be part of horizontal integration models such as the accountable care organisation, with a focus on locality and multi-professional teams wrapped around patient pathways.

  19. Cannabinoid hyper-emesis syndrome: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana is one of the most frequently abused illicit substances in the world especially Australia. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS is characterized by a triad of symptoms: Cyclic vomiting, chronic marijuana use, and compulsive bathing. It involves recurrent episodes of self-limited nausea and vomiting lasting several days and patients are asymptomatic between episodes. We believe that Cannabinoid Hyper emesis Syndrome is much more common than currently recognized. We present a unique case with an apparent positive family history of the same clinical entity.

  20. Chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid and chitin/chitosan production using marine waste sources: characteristics, applications and eco-friendly processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, José Antonio; Rodríguez-Amado, Isabel; Montemayor, María Ignacia; Fraguas, Javier; González, María Del Pilar; Murado, Miguel Anxo

    2013-03-01

    In the last decade, an increasing number of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), chitin and chitosan applications have been reported. Their commercial demands have been extended to different markets, such as cosmetics, medicine, biotechnology, food and textiles. Marine wastes from fisheries and aquaculture are susceptible sources for polymers but optimized processes for their recovery and production must be developed to satisfy such necessities. In the present work, we have reviewed different alternatives reported in the literature to produce and purify chondroitin sulfate (CS), hyaluronic acid (HA) and chitin/chitosan (CH/CHs) with the aim of proposing environmentally friendly processes by combination of various microbial, chemical, enzymatic and membranes strategies and technologies.