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Sample records for chs torsatron

  1. Observation of parallel viscosity in the CHS Heliotron/Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damping of the toroidal velocity owing to parallel viscosity is observed in the plasma with a tangential neutral beam injection in the CHS Heliotron/Torsatron device. Toroidal velocity profile is dominated by the perpendicular viscosity when magnetic field modulation is weak near axis. However, the parallel viscosity is found to be dominant when the modulation is strong enough and to increase in proportion to the square of the modulation of magnetic field. The absolute values of the viscosity agree with the neoclassical prediction within a factor of three. (author)

  2. On the characteristic difference of neoclassical bootstrap current and its effects on MHD equilibria between CHS heliotron/torsatron and CHS-qa quasi-axisymmetric stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic difference of neoclassical bootstrap current and its effects on MHD equilibria are described for the CHS heliotron/torsatron and the CHS-qa quasi-axisymmetric stellarator. The direction of bootstrap current strongly depends on collisionality in CHS, whereas it does not in CHS-qa because of quasi-axisymmetry. In the CHS configuration, it appears that enhanced bumpy (B01) and sideband components of helical ripple (B11) play an important role in reducing the magnetic geometrical factor, which is a key factor in evaluating the value of bootstrap current, and determining its polarity. The bootstrap current in CHS-qa is theoretically predicted to be larger than that in CHS and produces significant effects on the resulting rotational transform and magnetic shear. In the finite β plasmas, the magnetic well becomes deeper in both CHS and CHS-qa and its region is expanded in CHS. The existence of co-flowing bootstrap current makes the magnetic well shallow in comparison with that in currentless equilibrium. (author)

  3. Transition of toroidal Alfven eigenmode to global Alfven eigenmode in CHS heliotron/torsatron plasmas heated by neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transition of a core localized type toroidal Alfven eigenmode with n 1 toroidal mode number to two n = 1 global Alfven eignemodes was observed in NBI-heated plasmas in the Compact Helical System (CHS) heliotron/torsatron. This transition phenomenon is interpreted based on the temporal evolution of the rotational transform near the plasma center caused by the increased in the beam-driven current. (author)

  4. Effects of nonclassical ion losses on radial electric field in CHS torsatron/heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A selfconsistent analysis is discussed to determine the radial electric field and loss cone boundary in torsatron/heliotron plasmas under the influence of nonclassical ion losses. Effects of the loss cone loss, charge exchange loss of fast ions with neutrals, and the bipolar part of anomalous loss are taken into account. Analysis is applied to the NBI heated plasma in the CHS device. Comparison is made between theoretical results and experimental observations. The increased ion particle losses by the orbit loss and charge exchange loss with neutrals make the radial electric field more negative than the value of purely neoclassical calculation. The partition of the injection energy among the shine through, direct orbit loss , charge exchange loss and bulk heating is estimated by using the self-consistent electric field profile. The power loss of fast ions caused by the orbit loss or charge exchange process is by a factor of several tens to hundred greater than the reduction of the energy loss of bulk ions through the enhancement of radial electric field. Comparison with W7-A experiment is made, and the differences are discussed. (author)

  5. Shafranov shift in low-aspect-ratio heliotron/torsatron CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MHD equilibrium properties of neutral-beam-heated plasmas have been experimentally investigated in the Compact Helical System (CHS), a low-aspect-ratio (Ap ∼ 5) heliotron/torsatron. This configuration is characterized by a strong breaking of helical symmetry. The radial profiles measured by various diagnostics have shown significant Shafranov shift due to plasma pressure. The deviation of the magnetic axis from its vacuum position has reached 50% of the minor radius. When the three-dimensional equilibrium code VMEC is used to reconstruct the equilibrium from the experimental data, the result is in good agreement with the experimentally observed Shafranov shift as well as the diamagnetic pressure in plasmas with ≤ 1.2% and β0 ≤ 3.3%. This β value corresponds to half of the conventional equilibrium β limit defined by the Shafranov shift reaching a value of half the minor radius. Although tangential neutral beam injection has caused pressure anisotropies p parallel/p perpendicular ≤ 3, the description of the equilibrium assuming isotropic pressure is consistent with the experiment. (author)

  6. Compact Torsatron configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-aspect-ratio stellarator configurations can be realized by using torsatron winding. Plasmas with aspect ratios in the range of 3.5 to 5 can be confined by these Compact Torsatron configurations. Stable operation at high Β should be possible in these devices, if a vertical field coil system is adequately designed to avoid breaking of the magnetic surfaces at finite Β. 17 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab

  7. Divertor for a torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The divertor for a torsatron comprising a toroidal vacuum chamber embracing the toroidal chamber of torsatron trap and communicating with it through the gaps between helical conductors of the system for creation of the trap magnetic field is described. The divertor comprises also a collector realized in a form of plates crossing magnetic field force lines. With the purpose of decreasing the plasma contamination level the collector plates realized curvilinear and embrace conductors at full their length and have the curvature less than that of the magnetic field force lines in the plate mounting point. The invention permits to decrease the plasma contamination by decreasing the particles flux formed as a result of collector plates errosion and accordingly increase plasma temperature in the trap

  8. Compact torsatron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-aspect-ratio torsatron configurations could lead to compact stellarator reactors with R0 = 8--11m, roughly one-half to one-third the size of more conventional stellarator reactor designs. Minimum-size torsatron reactors are found using various assumptions. Their size is relatively insensitive to the choice of the conductor parameters and depends mostly on geometrical constraints. The smallest size is obtained by eliminating the tritium breeding blanket under the helical winding on the inboard side and by reducing the radial depth of the superconducting coil. Engineering design issues and reactor performance are examined for three examples to illustrate the feasibility of this approach for compact reactors and for a medium-size (R0 ≅ 4 m,/bar a/ /approx lt/ 1 m) copper-coil ignition experiment. 26 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Bolometer studies in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four channel bolometer head was mounted on CHS and used to investigate the effectiveness of wire mesh in blocking unabsorbed microwaves which can produce spurious signals on the bolometer sensors. The 50 mesh per inch, 20 micron diameter tungsten wire mesh was effective in blocking 70% of the 53 GHz signal and 50% of the 106 GHz signal. When an additional mesh was added at a separation of 1.4 mm (λ/4 for 53 GHz and λ/2 for 106 GHz) the 53 GHz signal was reduced by more than a factor of 10 and the 106 GHz signal was reduced by an additional 70% compared to the single mesh case. Experiments from CHS show that radiation reflected off the wall is at power levels which are 6% of the power seen on the peak central chord. Experiments on CHS in a neutral beam heated plasma with a three chord bolometer show that hollow radiation profiles during gas puffing become more peaked after the puff is turned off. As the injection angle of the neutral beam is varied from rt = 80 cm to 87 cm to 94 cm this transition becomes more pronounced and extends beyond the termination of the gas puff. (author)

  10. Temperature-controlled graphite limiter experiments in CHS plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A movable graphite limiter with an internal heater has been installed in the heliotron/torsatron type compact helical system (CHS). Comparing discharges with and without the limiter the origin of major impurities and the role of the limiter are discussed. Infrared TV measurements reveal that there are two hot spots on the limiter due to heat loading and their temperatures depend on the elecron density and/or the magnetic field direction. Limiter temperature dependence of measured CH/Hγ, CI, CII, OII, CH3+, OV and total radiation loss is compared. From these experiments it is concluded that CH4 molecules produced chemically on the limiter are presumed to recycle rapidly near the limiter and both carbon and oxygen impurities result probably from CO produced chemically on the limiter with oxygen which is predominant in CHS and originiates mostly from the first wall. At surface temperatures above 900deg C the limiter effect on impurities is observable in the main plasma. (orig.)

  11. Reconstruction of local emissivity profile from chord-integrated soft x-ray data in heliotron/torsatron plasmas by singular-value decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reconstruction method for a local soft X-ray (SX) emissivity profile based on singular-value decomposition (SVD) was applied to the chord-integrated SX data obtained in the compact helical system (CHS) heliotron/torsatron. The numerical procedure for this method was simplified by introducing the data of equilibrium magnetic surfaces to analyze the experimental data efficiently. The applicability of the Akaide information criterion (AIC) was investigated for the determination of the optimal number of parameters characterizing a local emissivity profile. This method was applied to SX data for sawtoothing plasmas of the CHS. For these CHS data, the optimal number of parameters is determined from the spatial resolution of an SX detector array rather than the AIC. A characteristic feature of the off-axis or annular sawtooth crash was clearly derived with this technique. (author)

  12. Confinement physic study in a small low-aspect-ratio helical device CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The configuration parameter of the plasma position relative to the center of the helical coil winding is very effective one for controlling the MHD stability and the trapped particle confinement in Heliotron/Torsatron systems. But these two characteristics are contradictory to each other in this parameter. The inward shifted configuration is favorable for the drift-orbit-optimization but it is predicted unstable with the Mercier criterion. Various physics problems, such as electric field structure, plasma rotation and MHD phenomena, have been studied in CHS with a compromising intermediate position. With this standard configuration, CHS has supplied experimental results for understanding general toroidal confinement physics and low-aspect-ratio helical systems. In the recent experiments, it was found that the wide range of inward shifted configurations gives stable plasma discharges without any restriction to the special pressure profile. Such enhanced range of operation made it possible to study experimentally the drift-orbit-optimized configuration in the Heliotron/Torsatron systems. The effect of configuration improvement was studied with plasmas in a low collisionality regime. (author)

  13. Wisconsin Torsatron/Stellarator Program, FY 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of the Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory during the present contract period has concentrated on several main areas. The confinement in IMS is being investigated under the conditions of an applied vertical magnetic field and with the insertion of a localized limiter. Excellent agreement between a simplified stochastic heating theory and the measured electron cyclotron breakdown and heating phases of the Proto-Cleo torsatron have been achieved. Measurements of the secondary currents and the ability to drive currents using Alfven waves are continuing on the Proto-Cleo stellarator. Theoretical efforts have concentrated on modelling the experimental devices, including 1-D transport modelling, particle-in-cell simulation and divertor field line following codes

  14. Wisconsin torsatron/stellarator program, FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal documents recent activities within the University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory and presents plans for future research activities for a three year period. Research efforts have focused on fundamental stellarator physics issues through experimental investigations on the Interchangeable Module Stellarator (IMS) and the Proto-Cleo Stellarator. Theoretical activities and studies of new configurations are being undertaken to support and broaden the experimental program. Experimental research at the Torsatron Stellarator Laboratory has been primarily concerned with effects induced through electron-cyclotron resonant frequency plasma production and heating in the IMS device. Plasma electric fields have been shown to play a major role in particle transport and confinement in IMS. ECRF heating at 6 kG has produced electron tail populations in agreement with Monte-Carlo models. Electric and magnetic fields have been shown to alter the particle flows to the IMS modular divertors. 48 refs

  15. Design of the Compact Auburn Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the design and optimization procedure for the Compact Auburn Torsatron. Included in this is a description of the Cary-Hanson Optimization technique. In this paper the properties of the magnetic fields are presented and a description of the machine and the construction procedure. The experimental setup for the surface mapping is described and conclusions are presented. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Perspectives on low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of the low-aspect-ratio torsatron/heliotron configuration is discussed from the point of view of plasma confinement. Recent numerical results on the configuration study and the experimental data base are reviewed. (author)

  17. [Wisconsin Torsatron/Stellarator Program: FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory Program during the present period has concentrated on experimental investigations into ECR-produced plasmas in the IMS device. Significant progress has been made in understanding the role of convection in maintaining the hollow plasma density profiles under a wide range of operating conditions. Divertor studies have continued to show good agreement with predictions derived from simple field-line models and the ability to effect particle flows through biasing of divertor plates. Preliminary fluctuation studies showed a dependence of the amplitudes of the fluctuations and profile shapes as a function of the magnetic topology of the device. Theoretical support of the experimental program has provided models to help interpret the experimental results. New initiatives have begun in reduced-Q operation of the Proto-Cleo Stellarator, and in ion-Bernstein wave heating in IMS

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHS477 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ffkkiiiiiikiikkininkyylkilfiak*liyckiileylknihiiink neri*knyii*ffsffnfmfcktisfr*pfnnfnnnnnsncttndigsi...ive seq. ID CHS477P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS477 (CHS477Q) /CSM/CH/CHS4-D/CHS...ces producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS477 (CHS477Q) /C...9Q.Seq.d/ 898 0.0 own update 2004.12.25 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: ...CH (Link to library) CHS477 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16333-1 CHS477P (Link to Original si

  19. Experimental studies of radio frequency waves and confinement in the Auburn Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Auburn University Torsatron Group has been very active during the past year. The design of the new Compact Auburn Torsatron (CAT) was completed and construction is underway. Plasma experiments on the existing Auburn Torsatron in the areas of ICH and plasma microwave emission have also been carried out. Personnel from the Auburn Torsatron Group have also been involved in collaborative research with other research institutions, particularly the ATF Group at ORNL. Another significant development has been the Auburn Torsatron laboratory renovation project. Auburn University committed $75,000 to a laboratory upgrade in the Nuclear Science Center, the building which houses the Torsatron laboratory. The main result of this renovation is a doubling of the floor space in the Auburn Torsatron laboratory. This renovation work started on August 1, 1989 and is scheduled for completion on October 30, 1989

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHS443 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available update 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence *ts*ckiiismf**tiies... 4.0 %: vacuolar 4.0 %: extracellular, including cell wall >> prediction for CHS443 is nuc 5' end seq. ID CHS443F 5' end...k to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS443 (CHS443Q) /CSM/CH/CHS4-B/CHS...*sn*tifhrcssnpslfvgkcyikysiq xng*ktkhxtxif*ix Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: lnqlmqdyh...apnlxflnk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS443 (CHS4

  1. H-mode study in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In CHS rapid H-mode transition is observed in NBI heated deuterium and hydrogen plasmas without obvious isotope effect, when a net plasma current is ramped up to increase the external rotational transform. The H-mode of CHS has many similarities with those in tokamaks. Recent measurement with fast response Langmuir probes has revealed that the rapid change in floating potential occurs at the transition, but the change follows the formation of edge transport barrier. The presence of ι/2π = 1 surface near the edge and sawtooth crash triggered by internal modes may play an important role for determining the H-mode transition in CHS. (author)

  2. Virtual Observatory Publishing with DaCHS

    CERN Document Server

    Demleitner, Markus; Rothmaier, Florian; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building Virtual Observatory (VO) and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  3. Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Troy M; Kendra, David F; Busman, Mark; Brown, Daren W

    2011-06-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is both an endophyte and a pathogen of maize and is a health threat in many areas of the world because it can contaminate maize with fumonisins, a toxic secondary metabolite. We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F. verticillioides genomic sequence, and phylogenetic evidence shows that they group into seven established CHS gene classes. We targeted two CHSs (CHS5 and CHS7) for deletion analysis and found that both are required for normal hyphal growth and maximal disease of maize seedlings and ears. CHS5 and CHS7 encode a putative class V and class VII fungal chitin synthase, respectively; they are located adjacent to each other and are divergently transcribed. Fluorescent microscopy found that both CHS deficient strains produce balloon-shaped hyphae, while growth assays indicated that they were more sensitive to cell wall stressing compounds (e.g., the antifungal compound Nikkomycin Z) than wild type. Pathogenicity assays on maize seedlings and ears indicated that both strains were significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease. Our results demonstrate that both CHS5 and CHS7 are necessary for proper hyphal growth and pathogenicity of F. verticillioides on maize. PMID:21246198

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHS330 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ce (All Frames) Frame A: wptgkilfiak*liyckiileylknihiiinkneri*knyii*ffsffnfmfcktisfr* pfnnfnnnnnsncttndigsinskgnnnnhnyritsi...ive seq. ID CHS330P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS330 (CHS330Q) /CSM/CH/CHS3-B/CHS...56Q.Seq.d/ 944 0.0 own update 2004.12.25 Homology vs DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignment...ce. 48 0.10 2 dna update 2005.11.29 Homology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignment...CH (Link to library) CHS330 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16333-1 CHS330P (Link to Original si

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHS395 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available i*ffskkiiiiiikiikkininkyylkilfiak*liyckiileylknihii inkneri*knyii*ffsffnfmfcktisfr*pfnnfnnnnnsncttndigsinskgnnnn hnyritsi...ive seq. ID CHS395P (Link to Original site) Representative DNA sequence >CHS395 (CHS395Q) /CSM/CH/CHS3-D/CHS...kkkqin kkh Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CHS395 (CHS...nificant alignments: (bits) Value N AC116977 |AC116977.2 Dictyostelium di...mology vs Protein Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value CP001055_503( CP001055 |pid:none) Elusi

  6. TOREX-4: a torsatron proof of principle experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOREX-4 is a torsatron Proof of Principle experiment designed to simultaneously achieve ntau approx. = to 5 x 1013, n approx. = to 5 x 1014/cm3, and T greater than or equal to 1 keV. TOREX-4 is capable of operating without externally driven currents; sufficient neutral beam power to reach betas of 2 to 5% is provided. The unique 4(+2) constant pitch angle winding configuration allows the reliable design of large systems with far greater experimental flexibility than can be achieved in conventional stellarators of comparable size. This will allow investigation of the basic physics questions of the torsatron configuration over a wide range of plasma properties and field configurations without sacrifice of the Proof of Principle goals

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHS293 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS293 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16477-1 CHS293P (Link to Original ... sirerffigfgtwhwwctsfsqss*ti*lcisitllvatyss*yv*tlvl crn *sfmrtqisiikhwsrsksystmskrw*nya*ystsnskksw**lgwffry ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHS203 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS203 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11332-1 - (Link to Or...iginal site) - - CHS203Z 727 - - - - Show CHS203 Library CH (Link to library) Clone ID CHS203 (Link to dicty...Base) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U11332-1 Original site URL http://dictycdb.b...LSYDILSLLDS HLWLKKPLTISPQFLTMIGPELDPTLPNNPFKEFFNKLGTSSHDSGDNIDFKIPSFFEDN SRRHWGVETELSTGSCPICTLSLAENPESSFLGST...SYDILSLLDS HLWLKKPLTISPQFLTMIGPELDPTLPNNPFKEFFNKLGTSSHDSGDNIDFKIPSFFEDN SRRHWGVETELSTGSCPICTLSLAENPESSFLGSTP

  9. Alpha-particle losses in compact torsatron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of alpha particles in compact torsatron reactors is studied. For 6, 9, and 12 field period reactors, the direct loss is a relatively weak function of radius and energy and varies from ≅33% for M = 6 to ≅18% for M = 12. Loss of alpha particles through scattering into the loss region is calculated using the Fokker-Plank equation for fast ions and found to contribute an additional alpha-particle energy loss of ≅15%. The consequences of these relatively large losses for torsatron reactor design are discussed. The relationship between the direct particle losses and the magnetic field structure is also studied. Orbit losses from a variety of stellarator configurations are calculated and a figure-of-merit that characterizes the orbit confinement of a magnetic configuration is deduced from these calculations. This figure-of-merit is used to show how the direct losses might be reduced at low aspect-ratio. Effects of finite beta on the direct particle losses are also addressed, and are shown to significantly increase the direct losses in some configurations. 15 refs., 8 figs

  10. MHD stability of torsatrons using the average method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of torsatrons is studied using the average method, or stellarator expansion. Attention is focused upon the Advanced Toroidal Fusion Device (ATF), an l = 2, 12 field period, moderate aspect ratio configuration which, through a combination of shear and toroidally induced magnetic well, is stable to ideal modes. Using the vertical field (VF) coil system of ATF it is possible to enhance this stability by shaping the plasma to control the rotational transform. The VF coils are also useful tools for exploring the stability boundaries of ATF. By shifting the plasma inward along the major radius, the magnetic well can be removed, leading to three types of long wavelength instabilities: (1) A free boundary ''edge mode'' occurs when the rotational transform at the plasma edge is just less than unity. This mode is stabilized by the placement of a conducting wall at 1.5 times the plasma radius. (2) A free boundary global kink mode is observed at high β. When either β is lowered or a conducting wall is placed at the plasma boundary, the global mode is suppressed, and (3) an interchange mode is observed instead. For this interchange mode, calculations of the second, third, etc., most unstable modes are used to understand the nature of the degeneracy breaking induced by toroidal effects. Thus, the ATF configuration is well chosen for the study of torsatron stability limits

  11. Microprocessor based hardware-software complex for investigating the magnetic surfaces of torsatron URAGAN-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the microprocessor hardware and software complex designed to control the fluorescent rod scanning in the poloidal cross section of vacuum toroidal chamber in order to study the structure of magnetic surfaces in the torsatron 'URAGAN-2M'.

  12. Anomalous cross field flux in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous quasi-linear fluxes induced by the curvature drift resonance and transit resonance are evaluated in a rotating helical plasma. The radial electric field makes the Doppler shift, but does not contribute to the anomalous fluxes. The curvature drift resonance induces the new curvature term in the quasi-linear fluxes. The effect of helical magnetic field is through this curvature of magnetic field lines, and contributes to the inward transport. The ion heat diffusivity due to the curvature drift resonance is obtained in the form modified gyro-Bohm coefficient, and is compared with experimentally observed one in CHS Heliotron. (author)

  13. Wall conditioning VHF discharges at Uragan-2M torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. The studies of the RF discharges for wall conditioning have been performed at Uragan-2M torsatron (stellarator). The purpose of the RF discharge wall conditioning is the removal of species adsorbed by the wall, so that they may be pumped out of the vacuum chamber. This can be done by ion or atom impact owing to the momentum transfer or chemical interaction. In the magnetically confined plasma, the outflow of ions is not intensive and their flux to the wall of the vacuum vessel is not uniformly distributed. In such conditions, the wall conditioning with chemically active neutral atoms and molecules is advantageous. Such neutrals are produced intensively in partially ionized plasma when the degree of ionization is low. A scenario for wall conditioning is studied for the discharges in hydrogen. In this scenario the cleaning agents are hydrogen atoms resulting from the dissociation of the hydrogen molecules. If the electron temperature in the discharge is less than the ionization threshold, i.e. 4-10 eV, the dissociation rate is higher than the ionization one, and one electron produces a number of neutral atoms during its lifetime. Continuous VHF discharges in Uragan-2M torsatron are sustained by 2.5 kW oscillator with frequency 150 MHz. For wall conditioning a special small size antenna is designed. It could be fed by both generators. The discharge parameters are measured in wide range of confining magnetic field and pressures. The dependence on launched power is also investigated. Evolution of the impurities in the discharge signified by the optical measurements, the residual gas composition and partial pressures measured with the mass-spectrometer indicate the wall conditioning. Their development is analyzed during days of operation. The studies made indicate that the VHF type discharge could be used at high magnetic fields. This feature is useful for steady-state superconducting machines. (authors)

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHS295 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS295 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11947-1 CHS295P (Link to Original ... nsert in 5'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engineering ... clone MHPN30i13. 52 0.009 1 AC130659 |AC130659.11 ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHS347 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS347 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16298-1 | Contig-U16523-1 CHS347P ... ate 2002.10.25 Translated Amino Acid sequence lfif*tnt *yfh*lif*YFQIKMIPKKQKGFNGEPKSHQEIDRSQSPLKQRTNNNNYQQ ... QYFQPRQTQ NAWGKQNNSIPLEEQFQEVKPITQPQTPETTTTTTTTTTTTTNTTNT NLLVPRISRRDMV KDSDIENVAIVTAKSRTVQGKQISLISNFFP--- ... VRVPATCQFAHKM AFLIGRTVFADAAPQLSXKLFF Frame C: lfif*tnt *yfh*lif*YFQIKMIPKKQKGFNGEPKSHQEIDRSQSPLKQRTNNNNYQQ ... QYFQPRQTQ NAWGKQNNSIPLEEQFQEVKPITQPQTPETTTTTTTTTTTTTNTTNT NLLVPRISRRDMV KDSDIENVAIVTAKSRTVQGKQISLISNFFP--- ...

  16. High-mode-number ballooning modes in a heliotron/torsatron system: 1, Local magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of the local magnetic shear, a quantity associated with high-mode-number ballooning mode stability, are considered in heliotron/torsatron devices that have a large Shafranov shift. The local magnetic shear is shown to vanish even in the stellarator-like region in which the global magnetic shear is positive. The reason for this is that the degree of the local compression of the poloidal magnetic field on the outer side of the torus, which maintains the toroidal force balance, is reduced in the stellarator-like region of global magnetic shear because the global rotational transform in heliotron/torsatron systems is a radially increasing function. This vanishing of the local magnetic shear is a universal property in heliotron/torsatron systems with a large Shafranov shift since it results from toroidal force balance in the stellarator-like global shear regime that is inherent to such systems

  17. Runaway studies in the ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed torsatrons and heliotrons are susceptible to runaway electron formation and confinement resulting from the inherent good containment in the vacuum fields and the high loop voltages during the initiation and termination of the helical and vertical fields (''field ramping''). Because runaway electrons can cause an unacceptable level of hard X rays near the machine, a runaway suppression system was designed and included in the initial operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). The main component of the system is a rotating paddle that is normally left in the vacuum chamber during the field ramps. This device proved to be very effective in reducing the runaway population. Measurements of hard X rays from ATF have shown that the runaways are produced primarily during the field ramping but that usually a small steady-state runaway component is also present during the ''flat-top'' portion of the fields. The paddle is the main source of the hard X rays (thick-target bremsstrahlung), although other objects in the vacuum chamber also serve as targets for the runaways at various times. The maximum X-ray energy found by pulse height analysis is /approximately/12--15 MeV; the mean energy appears to be a few mega-electron-volts. A noticeable forward peaking of the bremsstrahlung from the paddle is evident. The limiters do not appear to be major sources of bremsstrahlung. 17 refs., 14 figs

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHS183 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS183 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11143-1 - (Link to Original site) ... KKKKXFXFXKK--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames ) Frame A: kki*ltsknkpkknnfiy*ekkkkkkkkkkkxkkkkkkkx ...

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHS301 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS301 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16524-1 CHS301P (Link to Original ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1515/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ... .1 Influenza A virus (swine/Cotes d'Armor/1482/99 (H1N1 )) partial N1NA gene for Neuraminidase, genomic RNA ...

  20. Studies on magnetic surface structures and basic magnetic field properties in 'Ultimate' configurations of the L=1, m=13 torsatron and the 'Vint-20' torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is concerned with numerical investigations of various magnetic configurations of a single-pole toroidal L=1, m=13 'ultimate' torsatron having a low aspect ratio Ah=4.345 and the modulation factors (-0.23) ≤ α ≤ 0.71 (K=1, β=0) of the helix law -mφ=Θ-αK SinΘ-βK sin2Θ. The extremums of the basic properties of closed magnetic surfaces as functions of the coefficient α in the neighborhood of α ∼ 0.4, as well as the structures of the edge magnetic field (substructures of virtual current) and the separatrix have been first determined for the L=1, m=13 'ultimate' torsatron and the 'Vint-20' torsatron. Unusual positions of the separatrix X-points in the cross sections for 1/4- and 3/4-magnetic field periods have been identified. The formula that takes into account the modulation factor α of the helix law was first derived to determine the average vertical magnetic field on the geometrical axis of the torus.

  1. On vacuum field properties of the URAGAN-2M Torsatron standard configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacuum field properties of the URAGAN-2M Torsatron are investigated. In the 'Standard Case', within a certain range of field parameters, the size of the observed magnetic islands at τ = 2/3 can be reduced considerably. Some characteristic quantities for stellarator vacuum fields are reported. (orig.)

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHS159 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS159 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11784-1 CHS159P (Link to Original ... lis melanin b... 85 6e-15 ( P07524 ) RecName: Full=Tyrosinase ; EC=1.14.18.1; AltNam... 83 2e-14 AP009493_2447( A ... solate VS1 ty... 82 4e-14 ( P06845 ) RecName: Full=Tyrosinase ; EC=1.14.18.1; AltNam... 81 9e-14 protein update 2 ...

  3. Investigation of a washer-stack plasma gun on the Auburn torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed device for producing a highly-ionized plasma in the Auburn Torsatron is described and construction details given. A plasma is formed by discharging a 14 uF capacitor charged to 6 to 12 kV through a titanium washer impregnated with hydrogen. The ions and electrons are injected transversely into the Torsatron confinement field and the plasma is studied with an x-band microwave interferometer and H-alpha spectral-line detectors. The results of initial measurements to determine the optimal performance parameters for the gun, such as discharge voltage and position, are presented. Also, peak electron density and decay time of the guns plasma are given for different machine and souce conditions

  4. Effect of a noncircular shape of the torus on the magnetic surfaces of l=1 torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the numerical calculation results on the magnetic field produced by one helical winding laying on the surface of a noncircular torus. The influence of the chosen poloidal cross-section shape of the torus on the parameters of the closed magnetic surface configuration has been investigated. The calculation results show that the change of a torus with circular cross-section by a torus with noncircular cross-section in the l=1 torsatron under consideration decreases the value of the mirror ratio on the magnetic surfaces by a factor of ∼8. And other parameters of magnetic surfaces were changed no more than by a factor of 1.5 to 2. A feasibility of the simplest torsatron with central stochastic magnetic field line region is discussed

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHS433 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS433 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15748-1 - (Link to Original site) ... 1 AJ286612 |AJ286612.1 Acipenser ruthenus HindIII satellite ... DNA family, clone pRU11. 46 0.95 1 dna update 2005 ...

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHS464 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS464 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11316-1 - (Link to Original site) ... nhfryiwwfcnfnrfslhc*mdllccswchlftswfiikkdsns*tscke*nts ... sl*sclhfsisksflfqfir*wwc*tnlkglsnlw*instnq**rltigh ... DNA Score E Sequences producing significant alignments : (bits) Value SHG728 (SHG728Q) /CSM/SH/SHG7-B/SHG7 ...

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHS388 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS388 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11791-1 - (Link to Original site) ... n*kkkkxxxkk--- Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames ) Frame A: il*is*k*iisfiiiilinikfr*ninc*eyr*ik*r*ti ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHS321 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS321 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11810-1 - (Link to Original site) ... vesca heat stressed seedlings cDNA library in pCMV-SPORT ... 6.1 Fragaria vesca cDNA clone V01006C10 5, mRNA se ...

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHS229 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS229 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15036-1 - (Link to Original site) ... ents: (bits) Value AM050060_1( AM050060 |pid:none) Azospirillum ... brasilense partial pu... 153 5e-38 CP000943_2544( ...

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHS493 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS493 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 - (Link to Original site) ... 67 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 4.7 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 6.1 protein update 2009. 1. 4 PSO ...

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHS144 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS144 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16371-1 - (Link to Original site) ... Oryzias latipes DNA, clone: ola1-242I19.F, genomic survey ... sequence. 54 0.005 1 DE092915 |DE092915.1 Oryzias ... latipes DNA, clone: ola1-209J09.R, genomic survey ... sequence. 54 0.005 1 DE086252 |DE086252.1 Oryzias ...

  12. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation measured with coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Tgavalekos, Kristen T.; Fantini, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    Coherent Hemodynamics Spectroscopy (CHS) is a novel technique for non-invasive measurements of local microcirculation quantities such as the capillary blood transit times and dynamic autoregulation. The basis of CHS is to measure, for instance with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), peripheral coherent hemodynamic changes that are induced by controlled perturbations in the systemic mean arterial pressure (MAP). In this study, the MAP perturbation was induced by the fast release of two pneumatic cuffs placed around the subject's thighs after they were kept inflated (at 200 mmHg) for two minutes. The resulting transient changes in cerebral oxy- (O) and deoxy- (D) hemoglobin concentrations measured with NIRS on the prefrontal cortex are then described by a novel hemodynamic model, from which quantifiable parameters such as the capillary blood transit time and a cutoff frequency for cerebral autoregulation are obtained. We present results on eleven healthy volunteers in a protocol involving measurements during normal breathing and during hyperventilation, which is known to cause a hypocapnia-induced increase in cerebral autoregulation. The measured capillary transit time was unaffected by hyperventilation (normal breathing: 1.1±0.1 s; hyperventilation: 1.1±0.1 s), whereas the cutoff frequency of autoregulation, which increases for higher autoregulation efficiency, was indeed found to be significantly greater during hyperventilation (normal breathing: 0.017±0.002 Hz; hyperventilation: 0.034±0.005 Hz). These results provide a validation of local cerebral autoregulation measurements with the new technique of CHS.

  13. Torsatron/stellarator research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details experimental activities of the University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory during the period 1978 through 1983. Experiments on the Proto-Cleo Stellarator have demonstrated the effectiveness of ion-cyclotron resonance heating with ion temperatures increased to 150 eV. Tangential injection of gun-produced plasmas showed a reduction in convective cell structures with an increase in confinement time of a factor of two. Pfirsch-Schluter currents were measured to be in excellent agreement with neoclassical predictions. Studies on the Proto-Cleo Torsatron identified the presence of drift waves and rippling modes and identified a runaway instability under certain operating conditions. Heat pulse propagation measurement were used to obtain transport coefficients. Electron-cyclotron resonance heating was observed with good agreement to a stochastic heating model related to local field gradients. During this period, the Interchangeable Module Stellarator (IMS) was designed and fabricated. IMS is the first modular stellarator to be built based upon the modular coil concept of Rehker and Wobig. Details of the design and construction are presented. Initial operation of IMS demonstrated well formed vacuum magnetic surfaces with no evidence of significant isolation. Experience gained in the design of IMS was utilized in a modular stellarator reactor study. UWTOR-M, to demonstrate the feasibility of stellarator reactors based upon this concept

  14. Ripple transport in helical-axis advanced stellarators - a comparison with classical stellarator/torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of the neoclassical transport rates due to particles trapped in the helical ripples of a stellarator's magnetic field are carried out, based on solutions of the bounce-averaged kinetic equation. These calculations employ a model for the magnetic field strength, B, which is an accurate approximation to the actual B for a wide variety of stellarator-type devices, among which are Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators (Helias) as well as conventional stellarators and torsatrons. Comparisons are carried out in which it is shown that the Helias concept leads to significant reductions in neoclassical transport rates throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime, with the reduction being particularly dramatic in the ν-1 regime. These findings are confirmed by numerical simulations. Further, it is shown that the behavior of deeply trapped particles in Helias can be fundamentally different from that in classical stellarator/torsatrons; as a consequence, the beneficial effects of a radial electric field on the transport make themselves felt at lower collision frequency than is usual. (orig.)

  15. 35 years since the start up and the first plasma of the stellarator-torsatron Saturn. Main results for one decade of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the long history of development of the stellarator conception, there were the steps which strongly influenced the further movement. This happened when instead of the figure-of-eight was suggested the system with helical currents flowing in opposite directions in every neighbor helical coil with total number of coils 4 (l=2) or 6 (l=3). The next important step - transmission from bi-directional to the uni-directional system of helical currents, i.e., transmission from a stellarator conception to a torsatron conception (in Japan this conception is named heliotron). The principal difference and at the same time the significant benefits of torsatron configuration in comparison with the classical stellarator configuration is the possibility to have a natural (intrinsic) divertor. Thus, the torsatron/heliotron conception, with magnetic configuration produced without toroidal coils can be the base for the development of a fusion reactor. Let us note the most important milestones in the origin and evolution of the torsatron idea, following [1]. 1) In 1961 V.F.Aleksin (KIPT) has showed that in a system composed of a direct solenoid and several helical conductors with a unidirectional current, magnetic surfaces (MS) can exist. 2) Later C.Gourdon and collaborators suggested independently a toroidal trap with unidirectional helical current called as a torsatron (e.g., [2]). Soon after C.Gourdon, P.Hubert, D.Marty suggested the shape of coils which allows to have closed magnetic surfaces with only helical winding (so called ultimate torsatron [3]; C.Gourdon and others disclosed that the torsatron configuration can have an intrinsic spatial divertor [4], and considered the scheme of torsatron-reactor [4]. 3) Due to efforts of Japanese scientists (K.Uo et al.) an earlier heliotron conception has come to this direction too (named Helical heliotron) [5,6]. 4) A great contribution into improving the torsatron design was made by researchers of different countries. Because of

  16. ICRF plasma production and heating in the URAGAN-3M torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies of Alfven wave production and heating of plasma in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency (ω0 ci) are presented. Several types of antenna have been studied for plasma RF production and heating in the URAGAN-3M torsatron (R = 100 cm, apl ≤ 12.5 cm, B ≤ 1.3 T): A frame type antenna (FTA) conventionally used for plasma RF production and heating with the best operational properties at low and moderate plasma densities (n-bare ≤ 5 x 1012 cm-3); compact three-half-turn antenna (THTA) proposed for plasma heating and density ramp up (up to 3 x 1013 cm-3) after the low density target plasma (n-bare ≥ 4 x 1011 cm-3) had been produced by FTA; recently proposed antenna of combined type (''crankshaft''), which has the best properties of both above mentioned antennae in the whole range of densities. The excitation of the electromagnetic fields in URAGAN-3M plasmas by FTA, THTA and crankshaft antenna has been studied numerically using 1-D wave code. To study the dynamics of RF plasma production in the URAGAN-3M torsatron the 0-dimensional code have been used. The results of calculations showed better performance of crankshaft antenna compared with FTA and THTA in the whole range of plasma densities. When using the THTA at the scenario with FTA as a target plasma source, the experiments performed showed the possibility of dense plasma production (n-bare > 2 x 1013 cm-3) and heating, which had not been obtained earlier in the URAGAN-3M torsatron. The shifted towards the plasma core power deposition profile of THTA resulted in modification of plasma density profile and improvement in plasma confinement. The preliminary experiments with crankshaft antenna on plasma production showed that this antenna can produce the dense (up to 1013 cm-3) plasma in the URAGAN-3M without any additional source of target plasma and it can be used for subsequent Alfven heating. (author)

  17. Permutation entropy analysis of density fluctuations in the torsatron TJ-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to explore the nature of density fluctuations in the edge of magnetically confined fusion plasmas, the technique of permutation entropy and statistical complexity is used. The location of fluctuations on the entropy versus complexity plane classifies the dynamical behaviour of the system. The behaviour can be differentiated between stochastic and chaotic. The latter is supposed to be connected to a specific temporal form of intermittent density events, i.e. blobs, in the scrape-off layer (SOL). In this contribution, density fluctuations measured with a Langmuir probe in the torsatron TJ-K are analyzed with respect to the dynamical nature. Radial scans are performed across the separatrix to distinguish the dynamics in the inner edge and the SOL. Comparisons with well known test systems indeed point to a qualitative change in the dynamics across the separatrix. In the region of maximum density gradient, the fluctuations are characterized by minimum entropy. The results will be discussed on separated scales.

  18. Determination of the electronic temperature in the torsatron TJ-I Upgrade by the two filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, F.; Ochando, M.

    1994-07-01

    A Te monitor for the TJ-IU torsatron, based on the two-filters method, has been designed. It will consist of two surface-barrier silicon detectors looking at the same plasma region through berylium filters of different thickness. Plasma electron temperature is deduced from the ratio of the soft-x-ray fluxes transmitted through the two filters. The flexibility in magnetic configuration of TJ-IU plasmas has been taken into account in the mechanical design of this diagnostic. It will be attached to an upper 1 port of the vacuum vessel and the whole system will be movable both, to change the spatial resolution when needed and to enable the scan of the full plasma cross-section to obtain the radial profile of electron temperature in a shot-to-shot basis. (Author) 7 refs.

  19. Determination of the electronic temperature in the torsatron TJ-I Upgrade by the two filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Te monitor for the TJ-IU torsatron, based on the two-filters method, has been designed. It will consist of two surface-barrier silicon detectors looking at the same plasma region through berilium filters of different thickness. Plasma electron temperature is deduced from the ratio of the soft-x-ray fluxes transmitted through the two filters. The flexibility in magnetic configuration of TJ-IU plasmas has been taken into account in the mechanical design of this diagnostic. It will be attached to an upper port of the vacuum vessel and the whole system will be movable both, to change the spatial resolution when needed and to enable the scan of the full plasma cross-section to obtain the radial profile of electron temperature in a shot-to-shot basis. (Author)

  20. Experimental studies of radio frequency waves and confinement in the Auburn Torsatron. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first year of operation of the Auburn Torsatron has resulted in the majority of the basic operating systems becoming operational or nearly operational. The diagnostic systems now include two microwave interferometers, a monochrometer, several probes and photodiodes. The plasma is produced by any of three sources: electron cyclotron heating with a cw power of 1 kW, low frequency rf heating with power soon to come up to 10 kW cw, and a pulsed washer-stack gun. The magnetic field studies have mapped the field surfaces and several corrections have been made to center the plasma. The ion-cyclotron source and antenna are nearly ready for experiments to begin

  1. The University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory program, FY 1991--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes results obtained during the first eight months of the current three year grant for research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron/Stellarator Laboratory (TSL) and presents plans for future activity during fiscal years 1992 and 1993. Research efforts have focused on fundamental physics issues associated with toroidal confinement, predominantly through experimental investigations on the Interchangeable Module Stellarator (IMS). The program direction has been guided into studies of fluctuations, potentials and electric fields, plasma currents and flows, and effects of magnetic islands by a desire for increased relevance and impact on the general toroidal confinement program. Theoretical and computational activities are also being undertaken to support the experimental research and to identify interesting new toroidal confinement concepts which could contribute to the understanding of tokamak transport

  2. Proto-CIRCUS tilted-coil tokamak–torsatron hybrid: Design and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, A.W.; Doumet, M.; Hammond, K.C. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kornbluth, Y. [Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10033 (United States); Spong, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Sweeney, R. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Volpe, F.A., E-mail: fvolpe@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A tokamak-like device with tilted toroidal field (TF) coils needs less plasma current than a conventional tokamak. • Rotational transform is partly generated by external coils. Device can be considered a tokamak–torsatron hybrid. • We designed and constructed the first device of this type. • Tilted TF coils are interlinked to each other, which helps to reduce aspect ratio of plasma. • This is a six-coil generalization of CNT stellarator, also at Columbia University, which features two interlinked coils. - Abstract: We present the field-line modeling, design, and construction of a prototype circular-coil tokamak–torsatron hybrid called Proto-CIRCUS. The device has a major radius R = 16 cm and minor radius a < 5 cm. The six “toroidal field” coils are planar as in a tokamak, but they are tilted. This, combined with induced or driven plasma current, is expected to generate rotational transform, as seen in field-line tracing and equilibrium calculations. The device is expected to operate at lower plasma current than a tokamak of comparable size and magnetic field, which might have interesting implications for disruptions and steady-state operation. Additionally, the toroidal magnetic ripple is less pronounced than in an equivalent tokamak in which the coils are not tilted. The tilted coils are interlocked, resulting in a relatively low aspect ratio, and can be moved, both radially and in tilt angle, between discharges. This capability will be exploited for detailed comparisons between calculations and field-line mapping measurements. Such comparisons will reveal whether this relatively simple concept can generate the expected rotational transform.

  3. Solve: a non linear least-squares code and its application to the optimal placement of torsatron vertical field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational method was developed which alleviates the need for lengthy parametric scans as part of a design process. The method makes use of a least squares algorithm to find the optimal value of a parameter vector. Optimal is defined in terms of a utility function prescribed by the user. The placement of the vertical field coils of a torsatron is such a non linear problem

  4. The chsA gene, encoding a class-I chitin synthase from Ampelomyces quisqualis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, N; Sztejnberg, A; Yarden, O

    1996-02-01

    Degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers, designed on the basis of conserved regions of the chitin synthase gene family, were used to amplify a fragment of the Ampelomyces quisqualis (Aq) chsA gene. Subsequently, the PCR product was used as a probe in order to identify and isolate genomic clones harboring the entire chsA gene. Aq chsA is 2786-nt long, has one intron and encodes a 910-amino-acid polypeptide belonging to the class-I chitin synthases. Low-stringency Southern hybridizations to Aq genomic DNA provided evidence for the presence of additional DNA fragments resembling chsA in the fungal genome, suggesting the presence of a multigene family of chitin synthases in Aq. PMID:8626074

  5. First results of multichord soft x-ray detection array on the U-3m torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniature pinhole camera array for spatially and temporally resolved measurements of soft X-ray plasma emission has been recently installed on the U-3M. The diagnostics has been tested in different types of the U-3M discharge. In low density frame antenna discharges with so-called ''H-like'' transition a fast SXR emission profile modification is observed. A phase shift of the SXR perturbation induced by the transition as well as different shapes of the perturbation is observed in different channels. The transition can be associated with MHD instability. Different shapes of the SXR emission profile has been observed in different discharge conditions. The SXR array is en excellent tool for study different types of the MHD activity. Different types of the low frequency MHD activity have been observed in the U-3M torsatron. The recently installed SXR diagnostics opens opportunity of detailed studies of the MHD activity together with its driver - the plasma pressure gradient. In the paper we are presented recent experimental results obtained with the use of SXP, without deep analysis these experiments

  6. The Citizen Health System (CHS): a modular medical contact center providing quality telemedicine services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglaveras, Nicos; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Gogou, George; Lekka, Irini; Goulis, Dimitrios; Avramidis, Avram; Karvounis, Charalambos; Louridas, George; Balas, E Andrew

    2005-09-01

    In the context of the Citizen Health System (CHS) project, a modular Medical Contact Center (MCC) was developed, which can be used in the monitoring, treatment, and management of chronically ill patients at home, such as diabetic or congestive heart failure patients. The virtue of the CHS contact center is that, using any type of communication and telematics technology, it is able to provide timely and preventive prompting to the patients, thus, achieving better disease management. In this paper, we present the structure of the CHS system, describing the modules that enable its flexible and extensible architecture. It is shown, through specific examples, how quality of healthcare delivery can be increased by using such a system. PMID:16167689

  7. The microwave system for ECRH experiments on TJ-1U torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For ECRH experiments on the TJ-1U torsatron a microwave system based on a Russian gyrotron was designed. This system delivers to plasma microwave power pulses of a maximum of 350 KW during 43 msecs at 28 GHz with 0.02% duty cycle. The main parts of this system are as follows: a high-voltage power supply, a gyrotron module and a quasi-optical transmission line. The power supply configuration is based on a high voltage power tetrode EBV 50/100 that provides the following functions: regulation, overcurrent limitation and fast switching. Pulses of a maximum of 50 A at 70 KV with a 0.1% accuracy of stabilized voltage during pulse can be obtained. The maximum time to switch the power supply off, in case of breakdown, is less than 20 microsecs. The gyrotron module is comprised of superconductive coils for resonant magnetic field generation and a Russian gyrotron. This kind of gyrotrons has a high flexibility in power control since it is possible to change the output power from 100 KW to 350 KW without deep cuts in regime. The gyrotron forms a Gaussian-like beam with linear polarization and a purity of 90% permitting to handle the output power in a quasi-optical transmission form. The quasi-optical line carrying microwave power from the gyrotron into the TJ-1U consists of four cylindrical copper-covered mirrors and features a transmission coefficient of more then 0.9. Radiative losses occur mainly at the gyrotron output and into the side lobes of the radiation pattern whereas ohmic losses into the copper mirrors are negligible. A Gaussian beam diameter of 4.3 cm (-10 dB power level) results at the TJ-1U window. (orig.)

  8. IBR5 Modulates Temperature-Dependent, R Protein CHS3-Mediated Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jingyan Liu; Haibian Yang; Fei Bao; Kevin Ao; Xiaoyan Zhang; Yuelin Zhang; Shuhua Yang

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to low temperature are tightly associated with defense responses. We previously characterized the chilling-sensitive mutant chs3-1 resulting from the activation of the Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR)-type resistance (R) protein harboring a C-terminal LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains) domain. Here we report the identification of a suppressor of chs3, ibr5-7 (indole-3-butyric acid response 5), which largely suppresses chill...

  9. IBR5 Modulates Temperature-Dependent, R Protein CHS3-Mediated Defense Responses in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingyan; Yang, Haibian; Bao, Fei; Ao, Kevin; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuelin; Yang, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to low temperature are tightly associated with defense responses. We previously characterized the chilling-sensitive mutant chs3-1 resulting from the activation of the Toll and interleukin 1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR)-type resistance (R) protein harboring a C-terminal LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 domains) domain. Here we report the identification of a suppressor of chs3, ibr5-7 (indole-3-butyric acid response 5), which largely suppresses chill...

  10. 黄皮 CHS 基因的克隆及其表达%Clone and Expression of CHS Gene in Wampee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 许真; 赵志常; 高爱平; 陈业渊; 黄建峰; 党志国; 罗睿雄

    2014-01-01

    为研究黄皮果实中查尔酮合成酶(CHS)的功能,以黄皮果实的 cDNA 和 DNA 为模板,采用同源克隆的方法克隆得 CHS 基因后进行序列比对和聚类分析。结果表明:该基因的开放阅读框为1032 bp,编码343个氨基酸。基因组扩增得到了1100 bp 的片段,不含内含子。该基因主要在果实中表达,而叶片中表达较其他组织低,初步推断该基因可能与果实和花朵中的黄酮类物质合成有密切的关系。该基因编码的蛋白与柑桔的 CHS 蛋白序列亲缘关系较近,可与柑桔、葡萄、芍药、牡丹、荔枝、龙眼等聚为一类。%In order to study the function of CHS gene,a CHS gene was cloned from wampee fruit by homology cloning method taking cDNA and DNA of wampee fruit as the template, then sequence comparison and clustering analysis was conducted.Results:The open reading frame was 1032 bp,and encoding 343 amino acids.The 1100bp fragment was amplified from the genome,the gene did not contain introns.The expression of CHS gene was mainly in fruit,and in flowers was higher than in leaves.It was inferred that the gene may be involved in the flavonoids synthesis of fruit and flowers.The cluster analysis showed that the gene encoding protein had near relationship with citrus,considered as a group with orange,grape,peony,litchi,longan,and other groups.

  11. 黄皮 CHS 基因的克隆及其表达%Clone and Expression of CHS Gene in Wampee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 许真; 赵志常; 高爱平; 陈业渊; 黄建峰; 党志国; 罗睿雄

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the function of CHS gene,a CHS gene was cloned from wampee fruit by homology cloning method taking cDNA and DNA of wampee fruit as the template, then sequence comparison and clustering analysis was conducted.Results:The open reading frame was 1032 bp,and encoding 343 amino acids.The 1100bp fragment was amplified from the genome,the gene did not contain introns.The expression of CHS gene was mainly in fruit,and in flowers was higher than in leaves.It was inferred that the gene may be involved in the flavonoids synthesis of fruit and flowers.The cluster analysis showed that the gene encoding protein had near relationship with citrus,considered as a group with orange,grape,peony,litchi,longan,and other groups.%为研究黄皮果实中查尔酮合成酶(CHS)的功能,以黄皮果实的 cDNA 和 DNA 为模板,采用同源克隆的方法克隆得 CHS 基因后进行序列比对和聚类分析。结果表明:该基因的开放阅读框为1032 bp,编码343个氨基酸。基因组扩增得到了1100 bp 的片段,不含内含子。该基因主要在果实中表达,而叶片中表达较其他组织低,初步推断该基因可能与果实和花朵中的黄酮类物质合成有密切的关系。该基因编码的蛋白与柑桔的 CHS 蛋白序列亲缘关系较近,可与柑桔、葡萄、芍药、牡丹、荔枝、龙眼等聚为一类。

  12. Influence of plasma biasing on turbulence in the torsatron TJ-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma confinement can be strongly improved by transport barriers. First in the ASDEX tokamak, spontaneous transitions from a low-confinement (L-mode) into a high-confinement regime (H-mode) have been observed. L-H transitions are accompanied by the formation of a transport barrier at the plasma edge. E x B shear flows have been considered as a candidate for trigger- ing the transport barrier. They are assumed to limit the radial correlation length of turbulent structures and, thus, reduce radial turbulent transport. Besides spontaneous L-H transitions, improved confinement regimes can also be achieved by externally induced electric fields. In the concept of plasma biasing, the plasma potential is locally modified by an inserted electrode. In this contribution, biasing is applied to the low-temperature plasma in the torsatron TJ-K in order to investigate the mechanism of transport reduction due to shear flows. The plasma is throughout accessible for probe diagnostics and the dimensionless parameters are similar to those at the edge of fusion plasmas. Turbulent structures are detected by means of an 8 x 8 Langmuir probe array in order to study the shear decorrelation mechanism. Different biasing schemes were tested to create sufficiently strong shear flows to have an impact on turbulent structures and radial transport. A clear effect was achieved with ring-like electrodes aligned on a flux surface. The plasma conditions and the fluctuations could strongly be influenced. Steepened density gradients and reduced fluctuation and transport levels were obtained when the shear was increased inside the confinement region. The direction of the poloidal propagation of turbulent structures changed from the electron-diamagnetic to the E x B-drift direction when strong radial electric fields were induced. The structures were found to be distorted, but a decrease of the radial correlation length was not observed. Transport reduction can be traced to enhanced stability reflected

  13. Determination of 2-dimensional temperature and density profiles of a plasma in the Auburn torsatron via computer control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early studies of the magnetic surfaces of the Auburn Torsatron indicated the presence of an X-point in the magnetic surfaces. Both theoretical calculations and experimental verification were performed in these studies. The plasma density distribution is believed to be determined by these magnetic surfaces. The 2-dimensional relative plasma density and electron temperature profiles over a cross-section of the plasma will verify that the X-point does have an influence on the distribution of the plasma. An electric double probe is used to measure the electron temperature and relative density at pre-defined points inside the plasma. The probe is on a moveable platform which is motor driven and positioned by a computer

  14. Characteristics of the three-half-turn-antenna-driven RF discharge in the Uragan-3M torsatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor’eva, L. I.; Chechkin, V. V., E-mail: chechkin@ipp.kharkov.ua; Moiseenko, V. E.; Grekov, D. L.; Pavlichenko, R. O.; Lozin, A. V.; Tarasov, I. K.; Kulaga, A. Ye.; Zamanov, N. V.; Tretiak, K. K.; Kozulya, M. M.; Beletskii, A. A.; Kasilov, A. A.; Mironov, Yu. K.; Romanov, V. S.; Voitsenya, V. S. [National Science Center Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Institute of Plasma Physics (Ukraine)

    2015-12-15

    In the ℓ = 3 Uragan-3M torsatron hydrogen plasma is produced by RF fields in the Alfvén range of frequencies (ω ≤ ω{sub ci}). The initial (target) plasma with the line-averaged density of units 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is produced by a frame antenna with a broad spectrum of generated parallel wavenumbers. After this, to heat the plasma and bring its density to ∼10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}, another, shorter wavelength three-half-turn antenna with large transverse currents is used. The behavior of the density, electron temperature, and loss of the plasma supported by the three-half-turn antenna is studied depending on the RF power fed to the antenna and initial values of the density and electron temperature supplied by the frame antenna.

  15. Retrovirus silencer blocking by the cHS4 insulator is CTCF independent

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Shuyuan; Osborne, Cameron S; Bharadwaj, Rikki R.; Pasceri, Peter; Sukonnik, Tanya; Pannell, Dylan; Recillas-Targa, Félix; West, Adam G.; Ellis, James

    2003-01-01

    Silencing of retrovirus vectors poses a significant obstacle to genetic manipulation of stem cells and their use in gene therapy. We describe a mammalian silencer blocking assay using insulator elements positioned between retrovirus silencer elements and an LCRβ-globin reporter transgene. In transgenic mice, we show that retrovirus silencers are blocked by the cHS4 insulator. Silencer blocking is independent of the CTCF binding site and is most effective when flanking the internal reporter tr...

  16. Observation of bifurcation property of radial electric field using a heavy ion beam probe in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifurcation nature of potential profile of a toroidal helical plasma is investigated in the Compact Helical System (CHS), using a heavy ion beam probe. The measurements reveal that there exist three main branches of potential profiles in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heated plasmas with low density of ne∼0.5x1013cm-3. The branches with higher central potential exhibit a rather strong radial electric field shear that should result in fluctuation reduction and formation of transport barrier. Lissajous expression is useful to extract the bifurcation characteristics of potential structure. (author)

  17. Properties of turbulence and stationary zonal flow on transport barrier in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral changes in electric field fluctuation are measured using twin heavy ion beam probes in CHS before and after an internal transport barrier is broken down. A wavelet analysis reveals intermittent behaviors of the fluctuations, and a significant correlation between fluctuation powers of the low (2.5 < f < 10 kHz) and high (30 < f < 250 kHz) ranges. The high frequency (turbulence) fluctuation increases with a decrease in the low frequency fluctuation after the back-transition. The change in the power distribution between these two frequency ranges may contribute to the improved transport on the barrier. (author)

  18. Changes of the electron density distribution during MHD activity in CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Density oscillations induced by MHD activities were observed in NBI heated plasmas on CHS by using an HCN laser interferometer. The accompanied changes of the density profiles were also observed. The oscillations are composition of m=0 sawteeth like crash and m=2 sinusoidal oscillations as a post courser of the crash. Possible models of the oscillation structure are examined in order to explain experimental data of the interferometer. Rotating plasma core, which is hollow profile and keeps constant elongation of the flux surface can explain amplitude and phase distribution of the sinusoidal oscillation. (author)

  19. Molecular evolution of the exon 2 of CHS genes and the possibility of its application to plant phylogenetic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The exon 2 of chalcone synthase (CHS) gene is relatively conserved during evolution.In this study,three exon 2 fragments from two species in gymnosperm (Cycas panzhihuaensis,Ginkgo biloba) and seven from four species in angiosperm (Magnolia denudata,Salix babylonica,Nymphaea tetragona,Camellia japonica) have been amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and sequenced.Together with other 73 sequences of CHS collected from EMBL database and literature,these sequences,which embrace 19 families of gymnosperm and angiosperm,have been analyzed for their phylogenetic relations by parsimony method.The result indicated that sequences from the same systematic family usually grouped together except those from Theaceae,Magnoliaceae and Nymphaeaceae.The relative rate test revealed the rate heterogeneity of CHS genes among the families.For the nucleotide substitution the sequences from Asteraceae and Solanaceae evolve faster than those from the other families analyzed while the sequences from Poaceae,Asteraceae and Solanaceae evolve faster for the nonsynonymous substitution.These results suggest that the duplication and extinction events of CHS genes are different among systematic families,therefore it seems impractical to look for orthologous sequences from CHS genes to study plant phylogeny at the family level and/or above.However,it is possible to do so below the family level.

  20. Swelling and microstructure of austenitic stainless steel ChS-68 CW after high dose neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porollo, S. I.; Konobeev, Yu. V.; Garner, F. А.

    2009-08-01

    Austenitic stainless steel ChS-68 serving as fuel pin cladding was irradiated in the 20% cold-worked condition in the BN-600 fast reactor in the range 56-84 dpa. This steel was developed to replace EI-847 which was limited by its insufficient resistance to void swelling. Comparison of swelling between EI-847 and ChS-68 under similar irradiation conditions showed improvement of the latter steel by an extended transient regime of an additional ˜10 dpa. Concurrent with swelling was the development of a variety of phases. In the temperature range 430-460 °С where the temperature peak of swelling was located, the principal type of phase generated during irradiation was G-phase, with volume fraction increasing linearly with dose to ˜0.5% at 84 dpa. While the onset of swelling is concurrent with formation of G-phase, the action of G-phase cannot be confidently ascribed to significant removal from solution of swelling-suppressive elements such as silicon. A plausible mechanism for the higher resistance to void swelling of ChS-68 as compared with EI-847 may be related to an observed higher stability of faulted dislocation loops in ChS-68 that impedes the formation of a glissile dislocation network. The higher level of boron in ChS-68 is thought to be one contributor that might play this role.

  1. Swelling and microstructure of austenitic stainless steel ChS-68 CW after high dose neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porollo, S.I.; Konobeev, Yu.V. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Garner, F.A., E-mail: frank.garner@dslextreme.co [Radiation Effects Consulting, 2003 Howell Avenue, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Austenitic stainless steel ChS-68 serving as fuel pin cladding was irradiated in the 20% cold-worked condition in the BN-600 fast reactor in the range 56-84 dpa. This steel was developed to replace EI-847 which was limited by its insufficient resistance to void swelling. Comparison of swelling between EI-847 and ChS-68 under similar irradiation conditions showed improvement of the latter steel by an extended transient regime of an additional approx10 dpa. Concurrent with swelling was the development of a variety of phases. In the temperature range 430-460 deg. S where the temperature peak of swelling was located, the principal type of phase generated during irradiation was G-phase, with volume fraction increasing linearly with dose to approx0.5% at 84 dpa. While the onset of swelling is concurrent with formation of G-phase, the action of G-phase cannot be confidently ascribed to significant removal from solution of swelling-suppressive elements such as silicon. A plausible mechanism for the higher resistance to void swelling of ChS-68 as compared with EI-847 may be related to an observed higher stability of faulted dislocation loops in ChS-68 that impedes the formation of a glissile dislocation network. The higher level of boron in ChS-68 is thought to be one contributor that might play this role.

  2. Design of multichord Hα detector arrays for the U-3M torsatron and identification of rotating plasma perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreval, M. B.; Shapoval, A. M.; Ozherelyev, F. I.; Makhov, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    An Hα camera has been designed and installed in the U-3M torsatron for spatially and temporally resolved measurements. This device provides fast measurements of the emission brightness profile in the noisy environment of the radio frequency (RF) heated plasma. Unusual topology of diagnostics and the data acquisition system are applied. All the system components, including digitizers, are assembled in a single unit. It allows the suppression of a low-frequency electromagnetic interference by eliminating the ground loops. And the suppression of RF noises is achieved by eliminating the signal interface cables and digital interface cables in the design. The Wi-Fi interface is used to prevent a ground loop in the data transfer stage. The achieved sensitivity of our diagnostics is high enough for measuring the Hα emission from the low-density (ne ≈ (1-2)ṡ1010 cm-3) plasma with a temporal resolution of about 20 μs in the noisy environment. Different types of Hα emission fluctuations within the frequency range of 1-5 kHz and poloidal mode numbers m = 0 and m = 5 have been observed in U-3M. A simple technique of the line-of-sight data analysis, based on the U-3M magnetic surface asymmetry, is proposed and used for the spatial localization of the rotating mode and for the determination of mode numbers and its poloidal rotation direction using a single Hα array.

  3. 90Y-DOTA-CHS Microspheres for Live Radio microsphere Therapy: Preliminary In Vivo Lung Radiochemical Stability Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitosan (CHS) is used to prepare microspheres of 31 ± 8 µm size. Surface modification with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was performed. A maximum 90Y capacity was found to be 12.1 ± 4.4 µCi/particle. The best obtained labeling yield was 87.7 ± 0.6%. More than 90% in vitro stability was found. Particle in vitro degradation half-life in PBS was found to be greater than 21 days. In vivo studies with 90Y-DOTA-CHS showed more than 95% of the injected activity (decay corrected) in the lungs 24 hours after tail vein administration. 90Y-DOTA-CHS in vivo label stability was superior to resin microspheres. The addition of p-SCN-Bn-DOTA served as a radioprotectant for bone marrow as the 5% 90Y released, during the first 24 hours, was quickly eliminated via urine.

  4. Degradation properties of the electrostatic assembly PDLLA/CS/CHS nerve conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A poly(d,l-lactic acid)/chondroitin sulfate/chitosan (PDLLA/CS/CHS) nerve conduit for repairing nerve defects was prepared by electrostatic assembly and the thermally induced phase separation technique. The hydrophilic characteristics of the PDLLA/CS/CHS assembly nerve conduits were improved markedly. The degradation behavior of the nerve conduit with various assembly layers was evaluated by a pH change, weight loss rate and molecular weight change. The pH of the solution of the nerve conduit could be effectively adjusted by varying the layer numbers and overcoming the acidity-caused auto-acceleration of PDLLA; the nerve conduit can retain its integrity in a phosphate buffer solution after being degraded for 3 months. After such a conduit was implanted in the rat for 3 months, obvious degradation occurred, but the regenerated nerve was integrated and it grew successfully from the proximal to distal nerve stump. All these results implied that the degradation rate of the prepared conduit can adapt to the regeneration of the peripheral nerve, which might be a new derivative of PDLLA-based biodegradable materials for repairing nerve injuries without acidity-caused irritations and acidity-induced auto-accelerating degradation behavior as shown by PDLLA.

  5. Application of the Ball-Pen Probe in Two Low-Temperature Magnetised Plasma Devices and in Torsatron TJ-K

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Jiří; Peterka, M.; Gyergyek, T.; Kudrna, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.; Cavalier, Jordan; Tichý, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2013), s. 39-44. ISSN 0863-1042. [International Workshop on Electric Probes in Magnetized Plasmas/9./. Iasi, 21.09.2011-23.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100430901; GA ČR GA202/07/0044 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Ball-pen probe * magnetron * torsatron * CASTOR tokamak * coefficient Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ctpp.201310007/pdf

  6. 90Y-DOTA-CHS Microspheres for Live Radiomicrosphere Therapy: Preliminary In Vivo Lung Radiochemical Stability Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Amor-Coarasa; Andrew Milera; Denny Carvajal; Seza Gulec; McGoron, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan (CHS) is used to prepare microspheres of 31 ± 8 µm size. Surface modification with p-SCN-Bn-DOTA was performed. A maximum 90Y capacity was found to be 12.1 ± 4.4 µCi/particle. The best obtained labeling yield was 87.7 ± 0.6%. More than 90% in vitro stability was found. Particle in vitro degradation half-life in PBS was found to be greater than 21 days. In vivo studies with 90Y-DOTA-CHS showed more than 95% of the injected activity (decay corrected) in the lungs 24 hours after tail ve...

  7. Structure-activity relationship analysis of cytotoxic cyanoguanidines: selection of CHS 828 as candidate drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullbo Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-(6-(4-chlorophenoxyhexyl-N'-cyano-N''-4-pyridyl guanidine (CHS 828 is the first candidate drug from a novel group of anti-tumour agents – the pyridyl cyanoguanidines, shown to be potent compounds interfering with cellular metabolism (inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase and NF-κB signalling. Substituted cyanoguanidines are also found in anti-hypertensive agents such as the potassium channel opener pinacidil (N-cyano-N'-(4-pyridyl-N''-(1,2,2-trimethylpropylguanidine and histamine-II receptor antagonists (e.g. cimetidine, N-cyano-N'-methyl-N''-[2-[[(5-methylimidazol-4-yl]methyl]thio]ethylguanidine. In animal studies, CHS 828 has shown very promising activity, and phase I and II studies resulted in further development of a with a water soluble prodrug. Findings To study the structural requirements for cyanoguanidine cytotoxicity a set of 19 analogues were synthesized. The cytotoxic effects were then studied in ten cell lines selected for different origins and mechanisms of resistance, using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA. The compounds showed varying cytotoxic activity even though the dose-response curves for some analogues were very shallow. Pinacidil and cimetidine were found to be non-toxic in all ten cell lines. Starting with cyanoguanidine as the crucial core it was shown that 4-pyridyl substitution was more efficient than was 3-pyridyl substitution. The 4-pyridyl cyanoguanidine moiety should be linked by an alkyl chain, optimally a hexyl, heptyl or octyl chain, to a bulky end group. The exact composition of this end group did not seem to be of crucial importance; when the end group was a mono-substituted phenyl ring it was shown that the preferred position was 4-substitution, followed by 3- and, finally, 2-substitution as the least active. Whether the substituent was a chloro, nitro or methoxy substituent seemed to be of minor importance. Finally, the activity patterns in the

  8. The spectral type of CHS7797 - an intriguing very low mass periodic variable in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Ledesma, M V; Pintado, O; Boudreault, S; Hessman, F; Herbst, W

    2013-01-01

    We present the spectroscopic characterization of the unusual high-amplitude very low mass pre-main-sequence periodic variable CHS7797. This study is based on optical medium-resolution (R=2200) spectroscopy in the 6450-8600 A range, carried out with GMOS-GEMINI-S in March 2011. Observations of CHS7797 have been carried out at two distinct phases of the 17.8d period, namely at maximum and four days before maximum. Four different spectral indices were used for the spectral classification at these two phases, all of them well-suited for spectral classification of young and obscured late M dwarfs. In addition, the gravity-sensitive NaI (8183/8195 A) and KI (7665/7699 A) doublet lines were used to confirm the young age of CHS7797. From the spectrum obtained at maximum light we derived a spectral type (SpT) of M6.05, while for the spectrum taken four days before maximum the derived SpT is M5.75. The derived SpTs confirm that CHS7797 has a mass in the stellar-substellar boundary mass range. In addition, the small dif...

  9. The Interaction between Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Coronal Holes (CHs) during the Solar Cycle 23 and its Geomagnetic Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Amaal; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-07-01

    The interactions between the two large scale phenomena, coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) maybe considered as one of the most important relations that having a direct impact not only on space weather but also on the relevant plasma physics. Many observations have shown that throughout their propagation from the Sun to interplanetary space, CMEs interact with the heliospheric structures (e.g., other CMEs, Corotating interaction regions (CIRs), helmet streamers, and CHs). Such interactions could enhance the southward magnetic field component, which has important implications for geomagnetic storm generation. These interactions imply also a significant energy and momentum transfer between the interacting systems where magnetic reconnection is taking place. When CHs deflect CMEs away from or towards the Sun-Earth line, the geomagnetic response of the CME is highly affected. Gopalswamy et al. [2009] have addressed the deflection of CMEs due to the existence of CHs that are in close proximity to the eruption regions. They have shown that CHs can act as magnetic barriers that constrain CMEs propagation and can significantly affect their trajectories. Here, we study the interaction between coronal holes (CHs) and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using a resultant force exerted by all coronal holes present on the disk and is defined as the coronal hole influence parameter (CHIP). The CHIP magnitude for each CH depends on the CH area, the distance between the CH centroid and the eruption region, and the average magnetic field within the CH at the photospheric level. The CHIP direction for each CH points from the CH centroid to the eruption region. We focus on Solar Cycle 23 CMEs originating from the disk center of the Sun (central meridian distance data sets of observations of CMEs and their interplanetary counterparts; known as interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). There are 2 subsets of ICMEs: magnetic cloud (MC) and non-magnetic cloud (non-MC) ICMEs. MCs are

  10. A new member of the chalcone synthase (CHS family in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam G.G. Contessotto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sequences from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database were analyzed based on their identities to genes encoding chalcone-synthase-like enzymes. The sorghum (Sorghum bicolor chalcone-synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74 protein sequence (gi|12229613 was used to search the SUCEST database for clusters of sequencing reads that were most similar to chalcone synthase. We found 121 reads with homology to sorghum chalcone synthase, which we were then able to sort into 14 clusters which themselves were divided into two groups (group 1 and group 2 based on the similarity of their deduced amino acid sequences. Clusters in group 1 were more similar to the sorghum enzyme than those in group 2, having the consensus sequence of the active site of chalcone and stilbene synthase. Analysis of gene expression (based on the number of reads from a specific library present in each group indicated that most of the group 1 reads were from sugarcane flower and root libraries. Group 2 clusters were more similar to the amino acid sequence of an uncharacterized pathogen-induced protein (PI1, gi|9855801 from the S. bicolor expressed sequence tag (EST database. The group 2 clusters sequences and PI1 proteins are 90% identical, having two amino acid changes at the chalcone and stilbene synthase consensi but conserving the cysteine residue at the active site. The PI1 EST has not been previously associated with chalcone synthase and has a different consensus sequence from the previously described chalcone synthase of sorghum. Most of the group 2 reads were from libraries prepared from sugarcane roots and plants infected with Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans and Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans. Our results indicate that we have identified a sugarcane chalcone synthase similar to the pathogen-induced PI1 protein found in the sorghum cDNA libraries, and it appears that both proteins represent new members of the chalcone and stilbene synthase super-family.Seqüências do

  11. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) Gene Suppression in Flax Leads to Changes in Wall Synthesis and Sensing Genes, Cell Wall Chemistry and Stem Morphology Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Magdalena; Działo, Magdalena; Richter, Dorota; Dymińska, Lucyna; Matuła, Jan; Kotecki, Andrzej; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. In flax, CHS down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but plant growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing. This was accompanied by increased levels of cellulose and hemicellulose. CHS-reduced flax also showed significant changes in morphology and arrangement of the cell wall. The stem tissue layers were enlarged averagely twofold compared to the control, and the number of fiber cells more than doubled. The stem morphology changes were accompanied by reduction of the crystallinity index of the cell wall. CHS silencing induces a signal transduction cascade that leads to modification of plant metabolism in a wide range and thus cell wall structure. PMID:27446124

  12. Chalcone Synthase (CHS) Gene Suppression in Flax Leads to Changes in Wall Synthesis and Sensing Genes, Cell Wall Chemistry and Stem Morphology Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Magdalena; Działo, Magdalena; Richter, Dorota; Dymińska, Lucyna; Matuła, Jan; Kotecki, Andrzej; Hanuza, Jerzy; Szopa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The chalcone synthase (CHS) gene controls the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis. In flax, CHS down-regulation resulted in tannin accumulation and reduction in lignin synthesis, but plant growth was not affected. This suggests that lignin content and thus cell wall characteristics might be modulated through CHS activity. This study investigated the possibility that CHS affects cell wall sensing as well as polymer content and arrangement. CHS-suppressed and thus lignin-reduced plants showed significant changes in expression of genes involved in both synthesis of components and cell wall sensing. This was accompanied by increased levels of cellulose and hemicellulose. CHS-reduced flax also showed significant changes in morphology and arrangement of the cell wall. The stem tissue layers were enlarged averagely twofold compared to the control, and the number of fiber cells more than doubled. The stem morphology changes were accompanied by reduction of the crystallinity index of the cell wall. CHS silencing induces a signal transduction cascade that leads to modification of plant metabolism in a wide range and thus cell wall structure. PMID:27446124

  13. Behaviour of the radiation of the suprathermal electrons at the Uragan-3M torsatron after rf heating off from ECE measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microwave radiometry is a well-known diagnostics to obtain the information on temporal evolution and radial profile of the electron temperature at U-3M torsatron plasma experiments. However, under low plasma density with this diagnostics we report on the large production of runaway electrons after RF heating pulse off. We notice a gradually increasing of the radiometer signal at the frequencies that match the second and third harmonics of electron cyclotron emission of the extraordinary mode. This effect could be explained with the existence of the ''runaway'' electrons in U-3M discharge. A phenomenological description of this process is presented, where the time evolution of the ECE radiation signal is compared to the electron density evolution

  14. Distinct N-terminal regions of the exomer secretory vesicle cargo Chs3 regulate its trafficking itinerary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ChristopherFromme

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cells transport integral membrane proteins between organelles by sorting them into vesicles. Cargo adaptors act to recognize sorting signals in transmembrane cargos and to interact with coat complexes that aid in vesicle biogenesis. No coat proteins have yet been identified that generate secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN to the plasma membrane, but the exomer complex has been identified as a cargo adaptor complex that mediates transport of several proteins in this pathway. Chs3, the most well-studied exomer cargo, cycles between the TGN and the plasma membrane in synchrony with the cell cycle, providing an opportunity to study regulation of proteins that cycle in response to signaling. Here we show that different segments of the Chs3 N-terminus mediate distinct trafficking steps. Residues 10-27, known to mediate retention, also appear to play a role in internalization. Residues 28-52 are involved in transport to the plasma membrane and recycling out of endosomes to prevent degradation in the vacuole. We also present the crystal structure of residues 10-27 bound to the exomer complex, suggesting different cargo adaptors could compete for binding to this segment, providing a potential mechanism for regulation.

  15. Co-suppression in transgenic Petunia hybrida expressing chalcone synthase A (chsA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Yan; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Napoli, C., Lemieux, C., Jorgensen, R., Introduction of a chimeric chalone synthase gene into petunia results in reversible cosuppession of homologous genes in trans, The Plant Cell, 1990, 2: 279-289.[2]Van der Krol, A.R., Mur, L.A., Beld, M. M. et al., Flavonnoid genes in petunia: addition of a limited number of gene copies may lead to a suppression of gene expression, The Plant Cell, 1990, 2: 291-299.[3]Manika, P.B., Bhadra, U., Birchler, J., Cosuppression in Drosophila: gene silencing of Alcohol dehydrogenase by White-Adh transgene is Polycomb dependent, Cell, 1997, 90: 479-498.[4]de Carvalho Niebel, F., Frendo, P., Van Montagu, M. et al., Post-transcriptional cosuppression of ?-1,3-glucanase transgene expression in homozygous plants, EMBO J., 1992, 11: 2595-2602.[5]Van Blokland, R., Van der Geest, N., Mol, J. N. M. et al., Transgene-mediated suppression of chalcone synthase expression in Petunia hybrida results from an increase in RNA turnover, The Plant Cell, 1994, 6: 861-877.[6]Stam, M., Mol, J. N. M., Kooter, J. M., The silence of genes in transgenic plants, Annals of Bot., 1997, 79: 3-12.[7]Vaucheret, H., Beclin, C., Elmayan, T. et al., Transgene-induced gene silencing in plants, Plant J., 1998, 16(6): 651-659.[8]Shao, L., Li, Y., Yang, M. Z. et al., Transformation of Petunia hybrida with chalcone synthase A (chsA) resulting flower colour alteration and male sterility, Acta Botanica Sinica (in Chinese), 1996, 38(7): 517-524.[9]Koes, R. E., Spelt, C. E., Mol, J. N. M., The chalcone synthase multigene family of Petunia hybrida (V30): differential, light-regulated expression during flower development and UV light induction, Plant Mol. Biol., 1989, 12: 213-225.[10]Drews, G. N., Beals, T. P., Bul, A. Q. et al., Regional and cell-specific expression patterns during petal development, The Plant Cell, 1992, 4: 1383-1404.[11]Martin, C., Gerats, T., Control of pigment biosynthesis genes during petal development, The

  16. The unique functional role of the C-HS hydrogen bond in the substrate specificity and enzyme catalysis of type 1 methionine aminopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddi, Ravikumar; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Pal, Debnath; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2016-07-19

    It is intriguing how nature attains recognition specificity between molecular interfaces where there is no apparent scope for classical hydrogen bonding or polar interactions. Methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) is one such enzyme where this fascinating conundrum is at play. In this study, we demonstrate that a unique C-HS hydrogen bond exists between the enzyme methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP) and its N-terminal-methionine polypeptide substrate, which allows specific interaction between apparent apolar interfaces, imposing a strict substrate recognition specificity and efficient catalysis, a feature replicated in Type I MetAPs across all kingdoms of life. We evidence this evolutionarily conserved C-HS hydrogen bond through enzyme assays on wild-type and mutant MetAP proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that show a drastic difference in catalytic efficiency. The X-ray crystallographic structure of the methionine bound protein revealed a conserved water bridge and short contacts involving the Met side-chain, a feature also observed in MetAPs from other organisms. Thermal shift assays showed a remarkable 3.3 °C increase in melting temperature for methionine bound protein compared to its norleucine homolog, where C-HS interaction is absent. The presence of C-HS hydrogen bonding was also corroborated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy through a change in chemical shift. Computational chemistry studies revealed the unique role of the electrostatic environment in facilitating the C-HS interaction. The significance of this atypical hydrogen bond is underscored by the fact that the function of MetAP is essential for any living cell. PMID:27225936

  17. A grander challenge: the case of how Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS contributes to health outcomes in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groves Sara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background “Grand challenges” in global health have focused on discovery and development of technologies to save lives. The “grander challenge” involves building institutions, systems, capacity and demand to effectively deliver strategies to improve health. In 2008, Makerere University began a radical institutional change to bring together four schools under one College of Health Sciences. This paper’s objective is to demonstrate how its leadership in training, research, and services can improve health in Uganda and internationally, which lies at the core of the College’s vision. Methods A comprehensive needs assessment involved five task forces that identified MakCHS’s contribution to the Ugandan government health priorities. Data were collected through analysis of key documents; systematic review of MakCHS publications and grants; surveys of patients, students and faculty; and key informant interviews of the College’s major stakeholders. Four pilot projects were conducted to demonstrate how the College can translate research into policy and practice, extend integrated outreach community-based education and service, and work with communities and key stakeholders to address their priority health problems. Results MakCHS inputs to the health sector include more than 600 health professionals graduating per year through 23 degree programs, many of whom assume leadership positions. MakCHS contributions to processes include strengthened approaches to engaging communities, standardized clinical care procedures, and evidence-informed policy development. Outputs include the largest number of outpatients and inpatient admissions in Uganda. From 2005-2009, MakCHS also produced 837 peer-reviewed research publications (67% in priority areas. Outcomes include an expanded knowledge pool, and contributions to coverage of health services and healthy behaviors. Impacts include discovery and applications of global significance, such as

  18. Correlation between physical and mechanical properties changes of austenitic steel ChS-68 under high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershova, O.V.; Shcherbakov, E.N.; Evseev, M.V.; Shihkalev, V.S.; Kozlov, A.V. [FSUE, Institute of Nuclear Materials, Zarechney, Sverdlovsk (Russian Federation); Garner, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland WA, AK 99352 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: It is well known that void swelling at high levels exerts significant influence on physical, mechanical and creep properties of austenitic steels. For many fusion or fission reactor concepts it is desirable not only to characterize these relationships but also to develop nondestructive measurements to measure swelling without removing components from the reactor. Previous studies at this institute have shown that swelling can be estimated using changes in elastic moduli via ultrasonic techniques and electrical resistivity via electro-resistive methods. In this study we examined two pin claddings of ChS-68 (Fe-16Cr-15Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Ti-Si irradiated at somewhat different dpa rates in the high-flux BN-600 fast reactor, with temperatures ranging from 370-590 deg. C to maximum doses of 69 and 78 dpa. After removing the fuel, ring specimens were cut and used to conduct tensile tests using a standardized ring-pull test. Changes in density, elastic moduli and electrical resistivity were performed prior to tensile testing. Maximum swelling levels in the two pins reached {approx}7 and 12%, with strong consequences observed in mechanical properties. At the higher swelling level there was a total loss of ductility over a significant middle portion of the pin. In both the lower swelling and higher swelling pins there was a clear correlation between the local swelling along the pin length with declining ultimate strength and total elongation, providing clear evidence of void-induced embrittlement. Changes in electrical resistivity and elastic moduli correlated well with predictions based on void swelling at lower irradiation temperatures where precipitates were not a dominant part of the radiation-induced microstructure. At higher temperatures large precipitates of Ni-rich radiation-stable phases are a large portion of the microstructure and void-based predictions of elastic moduli and electrical resistivity do not agree well with the measurements

  19. Torsatron equilibrium and stability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium and stability results are presented for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) device. The results of three-dimensional equilibrium calculations and free boundary average method calculations are shown to be in good agreement with previous fixed boundary average method results. These favorable comparisons serve as a valuable validation of the simple and computationally efficient fixed boundary average method. Stability calculations for the free boundary average method equilibria are also in good agreement with fixed boundary calculations, showing instability only when the plasma is shifted inward with an applied vertical field

  20. The characteristics and functions of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element TaMITE81 in the 5' UTR of TaCHS7BL from Triticum aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xinyuan; Li, Na; Li, Shiming; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Huaigang

    2016-10-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. In this article, a MITE, TaMITE81, was isolated from the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of TaCHS7BL, chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzing the first committed step of anthocyanin biosynthesis, in the wheat cultivar 'Opata' with white grain. TaMITE81 was only 81 nucleotides, including a terminal inverted repeat with 39 nucleotides and was flanked by two nucleotides, "TA", target site duplications that were typical features of stowaway-like MITEs. Compared with the wheat cultivar 'Gy115' with purple grain, which is without the insertion, the expression of TaCHS7BL was lower in several organs of 'Opata'. The insertion of TaMITE81 into the 5' UTR of the GUS gene also reduced the transient expression of GUS on the coleoptiles of 'Opata', which means the insertion of TaMITE81 was the reason for the low expression of TaCHS7BL in 'Opata'. But the genotype of TaCHS7BL was not linked to phenotype of grain color in the RILs derived from a cross 'Gy115' and 'Opata'. The TaMITE81 density of the hexaploid variety of T. aestivum was more than 10 times that of diploid relatives, which implies that polyploidization caused the amplification of TaMITE81 homologous sequences. Further research should be conducted on decoding the relationship between TaCHS7BL and other traits relative to anthocyanin biosynthesis in wheat, and discovering the mechanism of TaMITE81 transposon action. PMID:27481288

  1. Performance of the BN-600 reactor fuel pins with claddings made of austenitic steels EI-847, EP-172 and ChS-68 at high radiation damage levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    hot cells or during cutting samples from the fuel pin cladding. Among cold-worked steels investigated, the steel ChS-68 has minimum swelling. The swelling is higher in the steel EP-172 CW and especially in the steel EI-847 CW. The swelling temperature dependence in the steel ChS-68 CW is smoother than in EP-172 CW, that reduces the level of stresses in fuel pin cladding made of the steel ChS-68 CW

  2. Differenz als Belastungsprobe. Verhandlungen des deutsch-jüdischen Gesprächs in Bernhard Schlinks Erzählung »Die Beschneidung«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Bitter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schlinks Erzählung stellt anhand zweier Liebender das Scheitern eines deutsch-jüdischen Gesprächs dar und verhandelt die Frage, wie viele Differenzen eine Beziehung aushält. Die titelgebende Beschneidung tritt dabei nicht nur auf der Handlungsebene auf, wo der Protagonist durch Konversion zum Judentum die Differenz zu seiner jüdischen Freundin zu überwinden hofft. Auch auf metaphorischer Ebene problematisiert die Erzählung die ›Selbstbeschneidung‹ des Protagonisten, der aus Angst vor Tadel von jüdischen Figuren viele seiner Gedanken nicht ausspricht. Als Opfer antideutscher Vorurteile ruft er diverse antisemitische Stereotype auf. Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, inwiefern die Erzählung damit für solch stereotypes Gedankengut sensibilisiert und subtil gegen einen antisemitischen und revisionistischen Diskurs anschreibt oder inwiefern sich der Text vielmehr in einen solchen Diskurs einschreibt.

  3. Cloning,Expression Analysis and Promoter Isolation of Chalcone-synthase Gene from Fruits of Nane,Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata%油果实中查尔酮合成酶基因 PsCHS 的克隆表达分析及其启动子的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜翠翠; 王玉珍; 叶新福

    2016-01-01

    Chalcone-synthase (CHS,EC 2.3.1.74)is an important enzyme involved inflavonoids synthesis pathway in plants.This study aimed to investigate the gene structure and expression profile of CHS gene in the fruits of nane (Prunus salicina Lindl.var.cordata).A full-length cDNA sequence harboring a CHS gene,named PsCHS ,was successfully separated from a normalized full-length cDNA library of matured nane fruits.The up-stream promoter sequence of PsCHS was separated by genome walking strategy using primer pair designed byPsCHS sequence.The length of PsCHS was 1 442 bp with ORF of 1 176 bp and deduced amino acid of 392 aa.From the prediction by an online software,the promoter sequence of PsCHS have typical structure element TATA-box and CAAT-box, photon-response element, anaerote-induced element, endosperm-related element, MYB-bingding element and hormone-response element,etc.RT-PCR indicated that PsCHS had higher expression level at the earlier stage of development of the fruit,especially 40 d after blossom,then decreased to a lower level at the maturing stage. PsCHS seperated in this study was a member of the CHS gene family.Since CHS is a key enzyme involved in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway,PsCHS might act with a regulatory role in biosynthesis of flavonoids.%从成熟果实均一化全长 cDNA 文库中分离了编码 CHS 基因的全长 cDNA 序列,命名为 PsCHS ,根据其序列设计引物,采用 Genome Walking 方法从基因组 DNA 中分离获得 PsCHS 基因上游的调控序列,命名为 PsCHSp ,PsCHS 基因全长1442 bp,其中 ORF 1176 bp,编码392个氨基酸;采用 APA-Walking 技术,获得该基因的5′端调控区,经在线软件预测,启动子序列含有典型的结构特征元件 TATA-box 和 CAAT-box,还包含光响应元件、厌氧诱导元件、胚乳表达相关元件、MYB 结合位点以及激素响应元件;RT-PCR 结果显示,PsCHS 基因在果实发育的前期表达量较高,花后40 d 表达量最高,随

  4. Phase stabilities of pyrite-related MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te): A systematic DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachhuber, Frederik [University of Regensburg, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Krach, Alexander; Furtner, Andrea [University of Regensburg, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Söhnel, Tilo [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand); Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Peter, Philipp; Rothballer, Jan [University of Regensburg, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Weihrich, Richard, E-mail: richard.weihrich@chemie.uni-r.de [University of Regensburg, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Universitätsstr. 31, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Pyrite-type and related systems appear for a wide range of binary and ternary combinations of transition metals and main group elements that form Zintl type dumbbell anion units. Those representatives with 20 valence electrons exhibit an extraordinary structural flexibility and interesting properties as low-gap semiconductors or thermoelectric and electrode materials. This work is devoted to the systematic exploration of novel compounds within the class of MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te) by means of density functional calculations. Their preferred structures are predicted from an extended scheme of colored pyrites and marcasites. To determine their stabilities, competing binary MT{sub 2} and MCh{sub 2} boundary phases are taken into account as well as ternary M{sub 3}T{sub 2}Ch{sub 2} and M{sub 2}T{sub 3}Ch{sub 3} systems. Recently established stability diagrams are presented to account for MTCh ordering phenomena with a focus on a not-yet-reported ordering variant of the NiAs{sub 2} type. Due to the good agreement with experimental data available for several PtTCh systems, the predictions for the residual systems are considered sufficiently accurate. - Graphical abstract: Compositional and structural stability of MTCh compounds is investigated from first principle calculations. A conceptional approach is presented to study and predict novel stable and metastable compounds and structures of low gap semiconductors with TCh dumbbell units that are isoelectronic and structurally related to pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Study of compositional stability of MTCh vs. M{sub 3}T{sub 2}Ch{sub 2} and M{sub 2}T{sub 3}Ch{sub 3} compounds. • Study of structural stability of known and novel MTCh compounds. • Prediction of novel stable and metastable structures and compounds isoelectronic to pyrite, FeS{sub 2}.

  5. Phase stabilities of pyrite-related MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te): A systematic DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrite-type and related systems appear for a wide range of binary and ternary combinations of transition metals and main group elements that form Zintl type dumbbell anion units. Those representatives with 20 valence electrons exhibit an extraordinary structural flexibility and interesting properties as low-gap semiconductors or thermoelectric and electrode materials. This work is devoted to the systematic exploration of novel compounds within the class of MTCh compounds (M=Ni, Pd, Pt; T=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb; Ch=S, Se, Te) by means of density functional calculations. Their preferred structures are predicted from an extended scheme of colored pyrites and marcasites. To determine their stabilities, competing binary MT2 and MCh2 boundary phases are taken into account as well as ternary M3T2Ch2 and M2T3Ch3 systems. Recently established stability diagrams are presented to account for MTCh ordering phenomena with a focus on a not-yet-reported ordering variant of the NiAs2 type. Due to the good agreement with experimental data available for several PtTCh systems, the predictions for the residual systems are considered sufficiently accurate. - Graphical abstract: Compositional and structural stability of MTCh compounds is investigated from first principle calculations. A conceptional approach is presented to study and predict novel stable and metastable compounds and structures of low gap semiconductors with TCh dumbbell units that are isoelectronic and structurally related to pyrite (FeS2). - Highlights: • Study of compositional stability of MTCh vs. M3T2Ch2 and M2T3Ch3 compounds. • Study of structural stability of known and novel MTCh compounds. • Prediction of novel stable and metastable structures and compounds isoelectronic to pyrite, FeS2

  6. CHS基因起源初探及其在被子植物中的进化分析%A Preliminary Study on the Origin and Evolution of Chalcone Synthase (CHS) Gene in Angiosperms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金霞; 瞿礼嘉; 杨继; 银好; 顾红雅

    2004-01-01

    利用PCR与TAlL-PCR方法,从半月苔(Lunularia cructata(L.)Dum.ex Lindb)中获得了一段长约l 000 bp的基因片段,它与已知的CHS基因在核苷酸水平上的相似性大于56%,在氨基酸水平上的相似性大于60%,所推断的氨基酸序列中酶反应的4个催化位点与已知晶体结构的紫花苜蓿MCHS2A上的催化位点相同,首次证明了苔类植物中可能存在类CHS基因,将CHS基因的起源时间推到苔藓类植物出现之前.以该序列和两种蕨类植物(Psilotumnudum(L.)Griseb.和Equisetum arvense L.)的CHS序列作为外类群,应用邻接法、最大简约法和最大似然法分别构建了被子植物的CHS的分子系统树.结果表明,大部分科中的CHS分布在不同的分支上,而十字花科、可科和禾本科各自聚成一个单系类群.以邻接树为依据,对茄科、旋花科和菊科的CHS基因进行了相对碱基替换速率的检测,发现这三个科内或科间序列的替换速率不一致.被子植物的CHS基因在基因拷贝数目、碱基替换速率以及重复/丢失事件的发生上都存在较大的差异,这种差异可能与被子植物的生活史、生活环境、花的特性以及对外界的防御系统等的多样性相关.%By using Thermal Asymmetric Interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) method, a DNA fragment of about 1 000 bp was amplified and cloned from a liverwort species (Lunularia cruciata (L.) Dum. ex Lindb). The nucleotide sequence of this fragment and its deduced amino acid sequence shared about 56% and 60% identity with those of exon 2 of CHS genes from vascular plants respectively. The four characteristic catalyzing sites of CHS were found conserved in the deduced amino acid sequences of the fragment when compared with other CHS sequences. This is the first report of cloning a CHS-like gene from liverworts,suggesting that the origin of CHS genes may predate liverworts. Using the CHS-like sequence from L.cruciata and CHS sequences from two fern-alien species, Psilotum

  7. Noncentrosymmetric rare-earth copper gallium chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} (RE=La–Nd; Ch=S, Se): An unexpected combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Abishek K.; Rudyk, Brent W.; Lin, Xinsong; Singh, Harpreet [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada); Sharma, Arzoo Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Wiebe, Christopher R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB Canada R3T 2N2 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, The University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB Canada R3B 2G3 (Canada); Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1Z8 (Canada); Mar, Arthur, E-mail: arthur.mar@ualberta.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada T6G 2G2 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    The quaternary rare-earth chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaS{sub 7} and RE{sub 3}CuGaSe{sub 7} (RE=La–Nd) have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1050 °C and 900 °C, respectively. They crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric La{sub 3}CuSiS{sub 7}-type structure (hexagonal, space group P6{sub 3}, Z=2) in which the a-parameter is largely controlled by the RE component (a=10.0–10.3 Å for the sulfides and 10.3–10.6 Å for the selenides) whereas the c-parameter is essentially fixed by the choice of Ga and chalcogen atoms within tetrahedral units (c=6.1 Å for the sulfides and 6.4 Å for the selenides). They extend the series RE{sub 3}MGaCh{sub 7}, previously known for divalent metal atoms (M=Mn–Ni), differing in that the Cu atoms in RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} occupy trigonal planar sites instead of octahedral sites. Among quaternary chalcogenides RE{sub 3}MM′Ch{sub 7}, the combination of monovalent (M=Cu) and trivalent (M′=Ga) metals is unusual because it appears to violate the condition of charge balance satisfied by most La{sub 3}CuSiS{sub 7}-type compounds. The possibility of divalent Cu atoms was ruled out by bond valence sum analysis, magnetic measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electron deficiency in RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} is accommodated through S-based holes at the top of the valence band, as shown by band structure calculations on La{sub 3}CuGaS{sub 7}. An optical band gap of about 2.0 eV was found for La{sub 3}CuGaSe{sub 7}. - Graphical abstract: The chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} contain monovalent Cu in trigonal planes and trivalent Ga in tetrahedra; they are electron-deficient representatives of La{sub 3}CuSiS{sub 7}-type compounds, which normally satisfy charge balance. - Highlights: • Quaternary chalcogenides RE{sub 3}CuGaCh{sub 7} (RE=La–Nd; Ch=S, Se) were prepared. • Bond valence sums, magnetism, and XPS data give evidence for monovalent Cu. • Crystal structures reveal high anisotropy of Cu displacement.

  8. Noncentrosymmetric rare-earth copper gallium chalcogenides RE3CuGaCh7 (RE=La–Nd; Ch=S, Se): An unexpected combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quaternary rare-earth chalcogenides RE3CuGaS7 and RE3CuGaSe7 (RE=La–Nd) have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1050 °C and 900 °C, respectively. They crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric La3CuSiS7-type structure (hexagonal, space group P63, Z=2) in which the a-parameter is largely controlled by the RE component (a=10.0–10.3 Å for the sulfides and 10.3–10.6 Å for the selenides) whereas the c-parameter is essentially fixed by the choice of Ga and chalcogen atoms within tetrahedral units (c=6.1 Å for the sulfides and 6.4 Å for the selenides). They extend the series RE3MGaCh7, previously known for divalent metal atoms (M=Mn–Ni), differing in that the Cu atoms in RE3CuGaCh7 occupy trigonal planar sites instead of octahedral sites. Among quaternary chalcogenides RE3MM′Ch7, the combination of monovalent (M=Cu) and trivalent (M′=Ga) metals is unusual because it appears to violate the condition of charge balance satisfied by most La3CuSiS7-type compounds. The possibility of divalent Cu atoms was ruled out by bond valence sum analysis, magnetic measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electron deficiency in RE3CuGaCh7 is accommodated through S-based holes at the top of the valence band, as shown by band structure calculations on La3CuGaS7. An optical band gap of about 2.0 eV was found for La3CuGaSe7. - Graphical abstract: The chalcogenides RE3CuGaCh7 contain monovalent Cu in trigonal planes and trivalent Ga in tetrahedra; they are electron-deficient representatives of La3CuSiS7-type compounds, which normally satisfy charge balance. - Highlights: • Quaternary chalcogenides RE3CuGaCh7 (RE=La–Nd; Ch=S, Se) were prepared. • Bond valence sums, magnetism, and XPS data give evidence for monovalent Cu. • Crystal structures reveal high anisotropy of Cu displacement. • Electron deficiency is accommodated by S-based holes in valence band

  9. 平面K型圆管节点新的承载力计算公式%A New Formula for Loading Capacity of Unstiffened CHS K-joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童乐为; 孙建东; 陈以一

    2012-01-01

    建立了平面K型节点非线性有限元分析模型,综合考虑两支管搭接顺序和内隐蔽部分焊缝是否焊接等影响因素,并得到了试验验证,适应性良好.应用该模型,对4类圆管K型节点型式进行了分析计算,通过多元非线性回归,导出K型节点极限承载力新的计算公式,进而提出承载力设计值建议公式,采用国际管节点数据库中试验数据,与现有国内外规范公式进行比较评价,证明该公式有较高的精度和广泛的适用性,能综合反映影响承载力的诸多因素,公式可同时计算间隙型和搭接K型节点,可计算两腹杆具有不同几何参数以及弦杆有轴力作用的K型节点承载力等特点.%A nonlinear finite element model simulating the behavior of unstiffened circular hollow section (CHS) K-joints was first developed and validated by experiments, in which two influencing factors were considered such as an overlap sequence between two braces and a hidden weld to be connected or not. Then, this model was used to analyze four types of CHS K-joints. By means of multiple nonlinear regression analysis techniques, a new formula for ultimate capacity of CHS K-joints was proposed and then a design formula was recommended. Finally, by using the experimental data of tubular joints from an international database, the proposed design formula was compared with some existing design formulae from codes in the world. It is concluded that the proposed formula shows better accuracy and wider application, including the consideration of all effects on loading capacity. It is suitable for both the gap and overlap K-joints. and also suitable for the K-joints with two different braces and subjected to an axial force in the chord.

  10. Variations of mechanical properties in steel ChS-68 cold def. under irradiation as a fuel can material in BN-600 reactor up to damaging doses of 10-40 dpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanical properties of fuel can material (steel ChS-68, 20% cold.def.) are investigated after irradiation in BN-600 reactor for 160 and 264 EFDP up to burnups of 2.5 and 4.5% h.a. and damaging doses of 20 and 37 dpa. Tensile tests of annular specimens are carries out in the temperature range of 20-800 deg C. The results obtained show that along with a conventional decrease of plasticity due to irradiation defect formation the high temperature embrittlement is observed. The effect is the greater the higher is the neutron fluence. The effect manifests itself in the material irradiated in the temperature range of 500-600 deg C. The phenomenon of high temperature embrittlement is associated with alloying elements segregation and precipitation of noncoherent particles resulting in grain boundaries weakening

  11. Electronic, optical properties and chemical bonding in six novel 1111-like chalcogenide fluorides AMChF (A=Sr, Ba; M=Cu, Ag; and Ch=S, Se, Te) from first principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing first-principles band structure calculations, we have examined the electronic, optical properties and the peculiarities of the chemical bonding for six newly synthesized layered quaternary 1111-like chalcogenide fluorides SrAgSF, SrAgSeF, SrAgTeF, BaAgSF, BaAgSeF, and SrCuTeF, which are discussed in comparison with some isostructural 1111-like chalcogenide oxides. We found that all of the studied phases AMChF (A=Sr, Ba; M=Cu, Ag; and Ch=S, Se, Te) are semiconductors for which the fitted “experimental” gaps lie in the interval from 2.23 eV (for SrAgSeF) to 3.07 eV (for SrCuTeF). The near-Fermi states of AMChF are formed exclusively by the valence orbitals of the atoms from the blocks (MCh); thus, these phases belong to the layered materials with “natural multiple quantum wells”. The bonding in these new AMChF phases is described as a high-anisotropic mixture of ionic and covalent contributions, where ionic M–Ch bonds together with covalent M–Ch and Ch–Ch bonds take place inside blocks (MCh), while inside blocks (AF) and between the adjacent blocks (MCh)/(AF) mainly ionic bonds emerge. - Graphical Abstract: Isoelectronic surface for SrAgSeF and atomic-resolved densities of states for SrAgTeF, and SrCuTeF. Highlights: ► Very recently six new layered 1111-like chalcogenide fluorides AMChF were synthesized. ► Electronic, optical properties for AMChF phases were examined from first principles. ► All these materials are characterized as non-magnetic semiconductors. ► Bonding is highly anisotropic and includes ionic and covalent contributions. ► Introduction of magnetic ions in AMChF is proposed for search of novel magnetic materials.

  12. Effects of magnetic field perturbations in the ATF torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of errors in the magnetic fields of tokamaks on the plasma are quite different from those in stellarators. In tokamaks, field errors can cause disruptive locked modes through the non-linear evolution of tearing modes acting on initially small error-induced islands. Scaling predictions for these effects indicate that the critical relative field error which can be tolerated becomes smaller as the tokamak size becomes larger. In stellarators, the effect is more benign, as field errors appear only to cause increased plasma transport in the vicinity of islands. Great care has been taken to minimize magnetic field errors in the most recent generation of stellarator-type magnetic plasma traps. In the past six years, several new and sensitive techniques have been developed to detect and map field errors. These methods all rely on the detection of electrons injected along magnetic field lines. During the commissioning of ATF, flux surfaces were mapped using the fluorescent screen technique. Field errors were discovered and traced to uncompensated dipoles in the helical current feeds. Prior to elimination of these errors, plasma discharges indicated centrally peaked plasma profiles. After correction of the uncompensated dipoles, flux surfaces were mapped a second time, and the island widths were found to be greatly reduced. Field errors were then deliberately introduced using a set of perturbation coils that had been added to ATF, and electron-beam mapping of the flux surfaces showed that islands several centimeters in width could easily be created by these coils. After elimination of the error fields, the measured plasma temperature and density profiles were much broader. The field-perturbation coils were then used to produce magnetic field asymmetries, and the measured plasma profiles were again shown to narrow as a result of islands

  13. Proceedings of US-Japan heliotron-stellarator workshop: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the third of four volumes on the US-Japan Heliotron-Stellarator Workshop. It contains talks on the following: Heliotron EICRF Heating Experiment; CHS Heating Systems (NBI, ECH, ICH); ICH Program for ATF; ICRF Wave Propagation; the HBQM Heliac Work; configuration studies; compact torsatron studies; low aspect ratio torsatron design; optimized small stellarator designs; configuration studies for ATF; currents in ATF; currents in ATF; computations of 3-D equilibria with islands; magnetic surface mapping studies; magnetic field alignment and mapping on ATF; divertor experiments in IMS; PMI program and wall conditioning for ATF; hard X-ray suppression on ATF; plasma rotation and potential measurement; and status of heavy ion beam probe for ATF

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHS333 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lqilqlqlqpqi iiiii*nqi*qlingyqkkkhfqnvimkf*kreksyqfgnkkril*kllkrikl*f*lvk qvqvkphkfhnl*lmqd*ldqvkw*...*cpftig*nlnsfqitig*w*ck**ill*kykem yrcwllyasg*mrekkyllhpr**ticnlssfnwfnsss*ilylq*icfnl*kly*nnh* c*i*lvirigsklf*tkifp*knkrnnsksski...rvtsletkrgfyksy*resscnfsw*n rfr*nhtnstics*crin*tr*ngrcyttkksssnkcskksirgngf*ig*rgwlfnsf- -...qfkelkdyivvvvvvvvvvviknk*inkf*k*nki fx*yikxlk Homology vs CSM-cDNA Score E Sequences producing...i*w***w***w***kinklinfknkik yxinilnx*k Frame B: skfllfinkpknrifvil**vkestnhqiqikkq*knnkik*kkkkkk

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHS489 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS ...Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service30_G09_sjs2-14-10C09-T3 SJ

  16. Dicty_cDB: CHS126 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682907 |CV682907.1 service...43_H06_sjs2-16-2B11-T3 SJS Schistosoma japonicum cDNA, mRNA sequence. 56 8e-04 1 CV682854 |CV682854.1 service

  17. Dicty_cDB: CHS244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d:none) Homo sapiens mRNA for mannosidase,... 121 4e-26 AY099704_1( AY099704 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana alpha-man... sequence. 74 9e-13 2 BW354577 |BW354577.1 Ciona intestinalis cDNA, clone:cima804e24, 5'end, single read. 66...dqicqlhlqvfnilwiqplpvywqiqkeslfmlklhfskdggmnkvqqckill rvwlkvvnwn--- ---hhgi*pwfnqpvvim...M82822.1 Dictyostelium discoideum alpha-mannosidase (manA) gene, complete cds. 1302 0.0 1 CK149800 |CK149800...( P34098 ) RecName: Full=Lysosomal alpha-mannosidase; Sho... 387 e-106 M82822_1(

  18. Increased understanding of neoclassical internal transport barrier on CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the recent progress of the study on neoclassical internal transport barrier (N-ITB) on Compact Helical System experiment. N-ITB has been observed for EC heated NBI plasma. The improved confinement region for electrons is expanded compared to that of the previous N-ITB plasma heated by only ECH. Moreover, the ion temperature is found to be increased simultaneously by about two to three times (Ti(0)∼400-500eV) with steep gradient region at ρ∼0.6. From the measurement of the averaged peak energy intensity using the soft X-ray CCD camera it is confirmed that the impurity confinement is also improved with N-ITB. The radial electric field is observed to bifurcate into electron root (Er∼15kV/m) and rather large electric field shear (dEr/dr∼-300kV/m2) is produced in the layer between ion and electron root. (author)

  19. Increased understanding of neoclassical internal transport barrier on CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the recent progress of the study on neoclassical internal transport barrier (N-ITB) on Compact Helical System experiment. N-ITB has been observed for EC heated NBI plasma. The improved confinement region for electrons is expanded compared to that of the previous N-ITB plasma heated by only ECH. Moreover, the ion temperature is found to be increased simultaneously by about two to three times (Ti(0)∼400-500eV) with steep gradient region at ρ∼0.6. From the measurement of the averaged peak energy intensity using the soft X-ray CCD camera it is confirmed that the impurity confinement is also improved with N-ITB. The radial electric field is observed to bifurcate into electron root (Er∼15kV/m) and rather large electric field shear (dEr/dr∼300kV/m2) is produced in the layer between ion and electron root. (author)

  20. Dicty_cDB: CHS418 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available i strain zzca heat shock protein 70-like gene, partial sequence. 127 1e-77 7 AY954894 |AY954894.1 Cryptospor...idium andersoni strain bjcm heat shock protein 70 gene, partial cds. 117 2e-77 8 AX536934 |AX536934.1 Sequen

  1. Anticancer agent CHS-828 inhibits cellular synthesis of NAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, U.H.; Christensen, M.K.; Bjorkling, F.;

    2008-01-01

    Malignant cells display increased demands for energy production and DNA repair. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is required for both processes and is also continuously degraded by cellular enzymes. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) is a crucial factor in the resynthesis of NA...

  2. Dicty_cDB: CHS432 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ete sequence. 1392 0.0 3 CJ438186 |CJ438186.1 Macaca fascicularis mRNA, clone: QccE-15390, 5' end, expressed...X347137 |AX347137.1 Sequence 2208 from Patent WO0200928. 34 0.069 5 CJ480078 |CJ480078.1 Macaca fascicularis...l*nncreiki cfsnq*yqqspqwrwyfk**kw*yhs*ynfk**sfktitres*kvyfllfnylsfhysny fitrsfk*isitstsihyktksfqsitiitfnsigfl*ktldelfpnclsq*mdhskfii...lf hhqif*mn*yyfnihtlqnkvvsiyhnyhv*fnrfslknlg*iisqlfisingsfkihhp linsfvkwhkyqi*mn*ftianimkscwkiilnfvq*lislrsf...( AM600681 |pid:none) Oncorhynchus mykiss partial mRNA f... 67 2e-09 CR858800_1(

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHS391 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TATATAAAGAATATTTAATTAAATTCAATTTTATATATATATATAAA AAGATGAAAACTATTAAAAGTTTATTTTTACTGTCATTGTTGATAGTGAATTTATTAATA...CTTTTGGAAATAAAAGAGAACTCAAATTAGAGTATAGTCAAATT TATCCAAAGAAACAATTAAATCAAGAAAATATTAATTTCATGTCTGCCAGAGATA...CTTTT GTTGATAATTTAATGTCAAAAATGTCAATCACTGAAAAAATTGGTCAAATGACTCAATTG GATATTACAACATTAACATCACCAAATACAATTACAATTAATGA...AACAACATTAGCATAT TATGCTAAAACTTATTATATTGGATCATATTTAAATTCACCAGTATCAGGTGGTTTAGCA GGTGATAT...TCATCATATTAATAGTAGTGTTTGGTTAGATATGATTAATACTATTCAAACC ATTGTTATCGAAGGTAGTCCAAATAAGATTCCAATGATTTATGGTTTAGATTCAGTA

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHS422 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( P51112 ) RecName: Full=Huntingtin; AltName: Full=Huntington dise... 72 2e-11 L28827_1( L28827 |pid:none) Mouse Huntington...ington dise... 71 4e-11 AX460946_1( AX460946 |pid:none) Sequence 7 from Patent WO02...'s Disease gene homolo... 71 4e-11 ( P42859 ) RecName: Full=Huntingtin; AltName: Full=Hunt

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHS243 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FM992695_70( FM992695 |pid:none) Candida dubliniensis CD36 chromos... 35 1.5 EU361927_1( EU361927 |pid:none)... Daniellia klainei tRNA-Lys (trnK) ... 34 1.9 FM992689_882( FM992689 |pid:none) Candida dubli

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHS249 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tii PhoA (PH... 171 4e-41 ( P32811 ) RecName: Full=Alpha-glucan phosphorylase, H isozyme; ... 170 9e-41 AB435244_1( AB435244 |pid...PNDINAISIERLSPLTFVKQTSASPLSVISGGDKTNNTLKPKQTTKGF NIGVNQVIQQIN*iiiikkxk Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Fram...e A: eiknnkinnlnnnnknkhqinqkilllnylh*nlkvikkknklyfglswqaifqrirvhf kknllnmlnilwlkprvnvlisqvskhfhivpgid...ments: (bits) Value N M77492 |M77492.1 Dictyostelium discoideum glycoprotein phosphorylase 2 (glpD) gene, co...mplete cds. 1417 0.0 2 X62142 |X62142.1 D. discoideum glpV gene for glycogen phosphorylase 1. 127 2e-46 6 BX

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHS239 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available neering clone MHPN192d01. 42 9.9 1 AZ781723 |AZ781723.1 2M0021H18F Mouse 10kb plasm...end partial sequence. 42 9.9 1 CR029411 |CR029411.1 Forward strand read from insert in 5'HPRT insertion targeting and chromosome engi

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHS112 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nio rerio clone CH211-173B16, complete sequence. 40 0.035 2 CB938049 |CB938049.1 IpCGJx13_25_D02_23 IpCGJ...x13 Ictalurus punctatus cDNA clone IpCGJx13_25_D02 5', mRNA sequence. 38 0.041 2 CT0

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHS346 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ry Gland 4th instar 3rd period (spinning cocoon) Rhynchosciara americana cDNA, mR...NA sequence. 34 4e-05 3 CK808739 |CK808739.1 Rasgsc1529 Salivary Gland 4th instar 3rd period (spinning cocoo...sgsc0316 Salivary Gland 4th instar 3rd period (spinning cocoon) Rhynchosciara americana cDNA, mRNA sequence.

  10. Dicty_cDB: CHS390 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wfcwylyfimerrfrfnr*ts*s*kd*ss*vshveleerfrketssl* sfpsn*igq*k**csrikw*t*g*tifpyfkqri*y...FIPMALRQSEKQWPYASSYHAHNIV Translated Amino Acid sequence (All Frames) Frame A: r*rvvitkeetiinaik*ketcrqrrf*nirdnhw*ree...VSRTFRTAISMDYPSENLWIGLLDDSVNYRES RGWAHLQSVEKNFLYVLLQKAVYSVHNIRPPVTSQH--- ---lh*l*vfglyqsl*kiqsfsfssv*fl*wcyqesfni*fle...krisfmysykrqfipftifvhl*qvnm--- ---sinyeyldctnrckrsnhfhsrrydscngvtkshsiyds*sqetl*sr*ewsitlgr sy*sles*tnfl...ggci*s*tilfscnsssnhgg ifnleyfllciscrldne*nrlyhillfnpfhhcrvylifgfsiafe*lyqsmyfcfggn igtnpcqekkeasnr

  11. Dicty_cDB: CHS348 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nce (All Frames) Frame A: r*rvvitkeetiinaik*ketcrqrrf*nirdnhw*reeggci*s*tilfscnsssnhgg ifnseyfllciscrldne*nr...wfcwylyfimerrfrfnr*ts*s*kd*ss*vshveleerfrketssl* sfpsn*igq*...lyhillfnpfhhcrvylifgfsiafe*lyqsmyfcfggn igtnpcqekkeas--- ---sinyeyldctnrckrsnhfhsrrydscngvtkshsiyds*sqetl*sr*ewsitlgr sy*sles*tnfl...rsi--- ---h*l*vfglyqsl*kiqsfsfssv*fl*wcyqesfni*fleprdlmkpvrvvhhfg*k llif...n*vkrnmspkkilkh*rqslvkrrrrlylklnhtflmqffkqpwry f*fgifftlhivpvgq*iepiishsliqsfssl*slshfwvqhci*itlpihvllfww*h wnkslpree

  12. Dicty_cDB: CHS483 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ey sequence. 38 0.14 2 AI484136 |AI484136.1 EST248943 tomato resistant, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA...490786.1 EST241494 tomato shoot, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLEB3H9 similar to cinnamic acid...34.1 EST255034 tomato resistant, Cornell Lycopersicon esculentum cDNA clone cLER8N1, mRNA sequence. 38 0.15

  13. Sensor Based Effective Monitoring of Coal Handling System (CHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuttalakkani.M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal level detection is an important aspect to assess the performance of a coal-fired power plant. Coal has to be transported, via a coal handling system. The fuel in a coal-fired power plant is stored in silos, bunkers or stock piles. Coal is stored in silos in a small plant, Bunkers for handling a day’s operation and Stock piling methods for large plants. So, fuel handling had to done efficiently. To accurately sense the coal height, Real-time feedback is deployed within the bunker or stock pile. The real time range information is then fedback to the control system. Of the different types of ranging sensors, radar based system is used. Also a real-time temperature monitoring system is developed to protect the coal. The range and temperature data from sensors are sent to the main system through GSM modem by means of SMS. The range information is used to start the conveyor belt to draw the coal from coal yard. If the temperature exceeds the limit, the SMS will be sent through the software or it will call the respective person to monitor the process. A fire sensor is also used to extinguish the fire by initiating the water spraying system. A PIC Microcontroller is interfaced all the sensors for effective handling of thermal power plant.

  14. Dicty_cDB: CHS334 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fkslkisllklkrennlns*kiinqfhl*lqlvmyq vqlqlq*llqfnqllmnlqvviiimitviqqllqqlqllqq*mieikqprqfkrhgkiiv vsnnlkkklklknylkilvncylim...50 0.012 6 AZ188093 |AZ188093.1 SP_1011_B1_A04_T7A Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, purple sea urchin , sperm genomi...keihlkiikh*ilksmmmkiminhktitimnqtnk lnqmkilkikmkmlkikmkmlkikmkmkkikskikyiknfk*k*k*rnnkk Frame... AE006471_96( AE006471 |pid:none) Salmonella typhimurium LT2 strain... 35 7.6 CR940352_701( CR940352 |pid:no... 3.4 AE017340_616( AE017340 |pid:none) Idiomarina loihiensis L2TR, comp... 35 5.8

  15. Multi-Channel Detector Arrays for Heavy Ion Beam Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Steven; Beckstead, Jeffrey; Castracane, James; Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Demers, Diane; Schatz, John

    1997-11-01

    InterScience, Inc. has developed a multiple slit detector array for use with heavy ion beam probes. The first array was a twenty element array installed on the TEXT tokamak. An initial set of data was obtained with this array prior to the shutdown on the TEXT tokamak in December of 1995. More recently, a smaller detector array has been developed for use in the CHS torsatron in Nagoya. This array is smaller than the TEXT array, with ten elements, but contains two prototype sets of detector plates to determine the beam position. The operating conditions in CHS are expected to be much harsher than in TEXT, with ECH and NBI plasmas. Trajectory simulations allowed for the design of a tilted detector array in the CHS vacuum vessel. First tests of the CHS array will begin in the late summer of 1997. Other candidate machines for detector arrays are the MST reversed field pinch, in which a beam probe is expected to be installed in late 1997 or early 1998 and the Large Helical Device (LHD) which is expected to be operational in 1998. Design issues, trajectory simulations and array test results will be presented. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant #DE-FG02-94ER81788

  16. Investigation of three-dimensional turbulent structures in the torsatron TJ-K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, for the first time, the three-dimensional nature of drift waves has been verified experimentally inside the confinement region of the toroidal plasma in TJ-K. The perpendicular dynamics of turbulence has been studied with the focus on the poloidal wavenumber spectra and the scaling of the turbulent structure with the drift scale. To this end, a 64 tip Langmuir probe array has been used, which is poloidally positioned on a flux surface. For the first time, the parallel dynamics of turbulence has been investigated in the core of a toroidally confined plasma. In contrast to previous experiments, multi-probe measurements were carried out to get simultaneous information on the shape and the propagation direction of the turbulent structures. The results for the parallel wave number and the parallel propagation velocity have been compared with results from the simulation code GEM3. It is demonstrated that the propagation in the direction parallel to the magnetic field is affected by Alfven dynamics. Together, these results strongly confirm previous investigations, which have demonstrated the importance of drift-wave turbulence in TJ-K and therefore also in fusion edge plasma. (orig.)

  17. University of Wisconsin torsatron/stellarator laboratory program final report, January 1, 1986--January 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports work performed in the final period of the referenced grant number, from January 1992 through January 1994. Prior work under this grant number has been reported in previous reports of this series. Measurements of the radial electric field, flow velocity, and momentum decay times were made in the IMS stellarator to examine the effects of in-neutral collisions and viscosity showing the importance of the collision effects. A new neoclassical model including these effects has been developed and applied to this analysis. Fluctuation-induced transport studies have also been performed with a full 2-D poloidal cross-section analysis. Electrode biasing was used to induce rotation into the plasma. The data shows the fluctuation-induced transport to be poloidally asymmetric and dependent upon the location of the electron cyclotron resonance layer and the electrode biasing. The induced plasma ploidal flow changes the nominally outward fluctuation-induced transport to be inward by changing the phase relationship of the density and potential oscillations. The amplitude of the fluctuations is, in general, not reduced by the sheared poloidal flows. Computed Reynolds stress flows are comparable to those measured, but uncertainties in the data and its analysis on this drive mechanism for poloidal flow does not permit the authors to make definitive conclusions

  18. Effect of anomalous plasma transport on radial electric field in torsatron/heliotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous cross field plasma fluxes induced by the electric field fluctuations has been evaluated in a rotating plasma with shear flow in a helical system. The plasma rotation frequency due to the radial electric field makes the Doppler frequency shift which does not explicitly affect the cross field flux. The anomalous ion flux is evaluated by the ion curvature drift resonance continuum in the test particle model. The curvature drift resonance induces a new force term '/ which did not make large influence in the ion flux. The shear flow term in the anomalous flux combined with the electric field in neoclassical flux reduces to a first order differential equation which governs the radial profile of the electric field. A general exact analytical solution for the differential equation is derived and a simple approximate solution for the radial electric field is also given. Numerical results indicate that the shear flow effect is important for the anomalous cross field flux and for determination of the radial electric field particularly in the peripheral region. (author)

  19. Propagation and absorption of Ion Bernstein waves in U-2M torsatron by ray tracing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion Bernstein modes with frequencies higher than the ion cyclotron frequency are planned to be applied to produce and heat the Uragan-2M plasma. This brief report gives the propagation and absorption ray-tracing studies of these waves in the Uragan-2M device, taking into account the three-dimensional non-uniformities of the plasma parameters and the magnetic field. 4 refs, 5 figs

  20. Discovery of electric pulsation in a toroidal helical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A self-organized pulsation in electrostatic potential has been discovered in a low density plasma of CHS heliotron/torsatron with combined ECH+NBI heating. The potential profiles repeat transition between two distinctive states (Δφ(0) - 0.5Te - 0.6kV) in a constant external magnetic field when there is a continuous supply of particles and energy. Each transition, which occurs on microseconds time scale that is much faster than the diffusive one of milliseconds, is accompanied with drastic changes in density and temperature profiles. This discovery clearly demonstrates that spontaneously generated 'electric' field can affect transports and other properties of 'magnetically' confined plasmas. (author)

  1. The big squeeze. CHS-HMA merger tightens the vise on independent hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Beth

    2013-08-01

    News of the Community-HMA merger shows the increasing momentum for such deals. The merger will allow Community to diversify and find synergies where it can cut expenses. "The volumes are a little more critical in nonurban hospitals than urban hospitals. As 2014 gets here and we start enrolling people (in health insurance exchanges), then the revenue will start to grow," says Wayne Smith, left, Community's chairman, president and CEO. PMID:24010150

  2. Dialogtypologie und Vermittlung des Fachorientierten Gesprächs Im Studienbegleitenden Fremdsprachenunterricht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Šumskytė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Der Artikel beschäftigt sich mit der Aufstellung der Typologie von fach- und berufsorientierten Dialogen. Sie hat zum Ziel dazu beizutragen, den studienbegleitenden Fremdsprachenunterricht erfolgreicher und zielgerichteter zu gestalten. Im Artikel werden die Fragen der Vermittlung des fach- und berufsorientierten Dialogs den Studenten der Fachrichtung Bibliothekswesen behandelt. Mit Hilfe einer Befragung der Spezialisten der größten litauischen und deutschen Bibliotheken wurden die typischen Situationen der interpersonalen Kommunikation bei der Bibliotheksbenutzung (in der Auskuftsstelle, an der Ausleihstelle und Ausleihberatung ermittelt. Infolgedessen lassen sich zu Unterrichtszwecken folgende Dialogtypen empfehlen: informierender Dialog, Problemdialog, Streitgespräch. Bei der Aufbereitung der Unterrichtsmaterialien ist es von authentischen Dialogen, die sich in typischen Situationen der fachbezogenen Kommunikation abspielen, auszugehen.

  3. FEM stress concentration factors for fillet welded CHS-plate T-joint

    OpenAIRE

    Kršćanski, Sanjin; Turkalj, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue life analysis of various mechanical components is influenced by numerous factors. In case of welded components, fatigue analysis can be even more challenging because of additional variables that influence fatigue life in these types of structures. Many of these factors have an influence on levels of stress concentrations that are occurring in a component. Determining these stress concentrations is of foremost importance for correct calculation of fatigue life. In this paper fil...

  4. Improved models of β-limit, anomalous transport and radial electric field with loss cone loss in Heliotron/torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical study is made on the physics mechanisms which determine the beta-limit, the anomalous transport, and the radial electric field and loss cone. New theory is developed to analyze the stability boundary against the interchange mode in high-aspect-ratio toroidal helical plasmas, taking into account the transport processes. The stability β-limit is given at finite β-value, and the dependences on the plasma parameters and on the transport coefficient are investigated. It is found that the current-diffusive interchange mode is more important than the resistive mode in hot plasmas. The β-limit is predicted in the range of experimental observation for the anomalous transport. The dynamics of the pressure gradient and mode amplitude around this stability boundary are analysed. As the heating power is increased, the dynamics changes from the monotonous saturation, through the saturation with overshoot, and to the sawtoothing. Using the mean-field theory approach of statistical physics for the microscopic current-diffusive interchange mode, the anomalous transport theory is developed. The expression of the thermal transport coefficient is obtained. The pressure gradient, not the temperature itself, enhances the transport coefficient. Comparison with experimental observations from various aspects is made, and the model explains experimental observations. The method to obtain the self-consistent picture of the radial electric field Er and the loss cone loss is explored. The structure of Er and the loss cone are obtained, and it is confirmed that the direct ion loss makes Er near edge more negative. Effects of other nonclassical loss are also evaluated. (author)

  5. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Coastal Inundation Digital Elevation Model: National Weather Service Forecast Office - Charleston (CHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were created as part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office for Coastal Management's efforts to create an online mapping viewer...

  6. 78 FR 37537 - CHS Inc., Federal Express Corporation, GROWMARK, Inc., HWRT Oil Company LLC, MFA Oil Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ..., MFA Oil Company, Southwest Airline Co., United Airlines, Inc., UPS Fuel Services, Inc. v. Enterprise... Express Corporation; GROWMARK, Inc.; HWRT Oil Company LLC; MFA Oil Company; Southwest Airline Co.;...

  7. Analysis of gene silencing induced via chs RNA sense and antisense combinations in "cis" and "trans" in transformed ornamentals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Pavingerová, Daniela; Bříza, Jindřich; Vrba, Lukáš; Novák, Petr; Dusbábková, Jana

    München : TUM, 2003 - (Forkmann, G.; Hauser, B.; Michaelis, S.). s. 40-41 [International Eucarpia Symposium, Section Ornamentals - Classical versus Molecular Breeding of Ornamentals/21./. 25.08.2003-29.08.2003, Freising-Weihenstephan] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5051006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : ornamental plants * gene manipulation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  8. Significance of the Amyloidogenic Transthyretin Val 122 Ile allele in African-Americans in the Arteriosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Cardiovascular Health (CHS) Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Buxbaum, Joel; Alexander, Alice; Koziol, James; Tagoe, Clement; Fox, Ervin; Kitzman, Dalane

    2010-01-01

    Many African-Americans carry an amyloidogenic transthyretin mutation (TTR V122I), with a high risk for cardiac TTR amyloid deposition after age 65. We wished to determine the allele frequency and its clinical penetrance in community-dwelling African-Americans.

  9. A grander challenge: the case of how Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) contributes to health outcomes in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Groves Sara; Sewankambo Nelson K; Serwadda David; Pariyo George; Bollinger Robert C; Peters David H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background “Grand challenges” in global health have focused on discovery and development of technologies to save lives. The “grander challenge” involves building institutions, systems, capacity and demand to effectively deliver strategies to improve health. In 2008, Makerere University began a radical institutional change to bring together four schools under one College of Health Sciences. This paper’s objective is to demonstrate how its leadership in training, research, and services...

  10. Noncentrosymmetric rare-earth copper gallium chalcogenides RE3CuGaCh7 (RE=La-Nd; Ch=S, Se): An unexpected combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Abishek K.; Rudyk, Brent W.; Lin, Xinsong; Singh, Harpreet; Sharma, Arzoo Z.; Wiebe, Christopher R.; Mar, Arthur

    2015-09-01

    The quaternary rare-earth chalcogenides RE3CuGaS7 and RE3CuGaSe7 (RE=La-Nd) have been prepared by reactions of the elements at 1050 °C and 900 °C, respectively. They crystallize in the noncentrosymmetric La3CuSiS7-type structure (hexagonal, space group P63, Z=2) in which the a-parameter is largely controlled by the RE component (a=10.0-10.3 Å for the sulfides and 10.3-10.6 Å for the selenides) whereas the c-parameter is essentially fixed by the choice of Ga and chalcogen atoms within tetrahedral units (c=6.1 Å for the sulfides and 6.4 Å for the selenides). They extend the series RE3MGaCh7, previously known for divalent metal atoms (M=Mn-Ni), differing in that the Cu atoms in RE3CuGaCh7 occupy trigonal planar sites instead of octahedral sites. Among quaternary chalcogenides RE3MM‧Ch7, the combination of monovalent (M=Cu) and trivalent (M‧=Ga) metals is unusual because it appears to violate the condition of charge balance satisfied by most La3CuSiS7-type compounds. The possibility of divalent Cu atoms was ruled out by bond valence sum analysis, magnetic measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electron deficiency in RE3CuGaCh7 is accommodated through S-based holes at the top of the valence band, as shown by band structure calculations on La3CuGaS7. An optical band gap of about 2.0 eV was found for La3CuGaSe7.

  11. Molecular and Biochemical Analysis of Chalcone Synthase from Freesia hybrid in flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    Full Text Available Chalcone synthase (CHS catalyzes the first committed step in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. In this study, the cDNA (FhCHS1 encoding CHS from Freesia hybrida was successfully isolated and analyzed. Multiple sequence alignments showed that both the conserved CHS active site residues and CHS signature sequence were found in the deduced amino acid sequence of FhCHS1. Meanwhile, crystallographic analysis revealed that protein structure of FhCHS1 is highly similar to that of alfalfa CHS2, and the biochemical analysis results indicated that it has an enzymatic role in naringenin biosynthesis. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR was performed to detect the transcript levels of FhCHS1 in flowers and different tissues, and patterns of FhCHS1 expression in flowers showed significant correlation to the accumulation patterns of anthocyanin during flower development. To further characterize the functionality of FhCHS1, its ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana tt4 mutants and Petunia hybrida was performed. The results showed that overexpression of FhCHS1 in tt4 mutants fully restored the pigmentation phenotype of the seed coats, cotyledons and hypocotyls, while transgenic petunia expressing FhCHS1 showed flower color alteration from white to pink. In summary, these results suggest that FhCHS1 plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of flavonoid in Freesia hybrida and may be used to modify the components of flavonoids in other plants.

  12. Studies on Origin and Evolution of Tuber Mustard (Brassica juncea var.tumida Tsen et Lee) based on Chs Gene Sequences%基于Chs基因序列的茎瘤芥起源进化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈发波; 姚启伦; 董二飞; 方平

    2016-01-01

    为探讨我国茎瘤芥的起源、进化,克隆、测序了30份茎瘤芥及其近缘种的Chs基因序列,并构建系统发育树、系统发育网络及网状支系结构.结果表明:系统发育树将茎瘤芥及其近缘种Chs基因序列分成3个亚支,9个支系.系统发育网络分析结果表明,茎瘤芥与其他芥菜变种之间不仅存在树状的进化关系,还大量存在非树状的进化史.网状支系分析结果表明,伊犁野生油菜可能是茎瘤芥A基因组的供体,黑芥可能是茎瘤芥B基因组的供体.茎瘤芥为芸薹属芥菜种的一个变种,与薹芥的亲缘关系较近,可能是由薹芥进化而来.单拷贝的Chs基因可作为一个理想的候选基因用于茎瘤芥及其近缘植物多倍体系统发育关系的研究.

  13. Supramolecular association via Sb...S and C-H...S interactions in dimeric tris(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III): an approach to overcome the concept of steric bulk on such interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, H P S; Carpenter, Jaswant

    2013-12-01

    Tris(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S')antimony(III) has been isolated as a dimer in acetonitrile. Single-crystal X-ray analysis shows that the molecule possesses both Sb···S and C-H···S interactions, which results in a supramolecular association in the absence of hydrogen-bonding functionality on the R group. The co-existence in the title compound of such interactions is a unique character of known dimeric antimony(III) alkyl and/or aryl dithiocarbamate complexes. The literature reveals that the species where the alkyl and/or aryl dithiocarbamates carry the following groups: R = methyl (chloroform solvated), ethyl, n-propyl, pyrrolidine, morpholine, piperidine, azepane, benzyl, methylphenyl, are not capable of forming significant hydrogen-bonding interactions. However, either Sb···S or C-H···S intermolecular interactions dominate between two centrosymmetrically related molecules leading to a supramolecular aggregation. In the species where the R group carries hydrogen-bonding functionality, i.e. 2-hydroxylethyl, the C-H···S interactions are subverted by O-H···O hydrogen bonding. In addition, the title compound does not have steric hindrance or any hydrogen-bonding group but is stabilized with the co-existence of Sb···S and C-H···S interactions. Analysis of the secondary interactions of a series of analogues previously reported reveals that steric bulk is unnecessary for the mitigation of Sb···S interactions and for the establishment of C-H···S secondary bonding. PMID:24253087

  14. Infantile Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Case of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome Caused by a Mutation in the LYST/CHS1 Gene Presenting With Delayed Umbilical Cord Detachment and Diarrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Agergaard, Charlotte N; Jakobsen, Marianne A;

    2015-01-01

    A 2-month-old female infant, born to consanguineous parents, presented with infections in skin and upper respiratory tract. She was notable for delayed umbilical cord detachment, partial albinism, and neurological irritability. Giant granules were present in white blood cells. The intracellular p...

  15. Mechanistic Aspects of the Holmium-Mediated, Reciprocal Hydrogen/Sulfur Exchange in the Gas Phase: C6 H5 CH3 +CH2 S→C6 H5 CHS+CH4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaodong; Li, Jilai; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2016-03-18

    The thermal reaction of [Ho(CH2 S)](+) with toluene giving rise to [C6 H5 CHSHo](+) and CH4 has been investigated using Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry complemented by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The high reactivity of [Ho(CH2 S)](+) which is in distinct contrast with the non-reactivity of "bare" Ho(+) has its origin in the presence of a carbon-centered radical; the latter initiates hydrogen-atom abstraction from the methyl group of toluene as the first step of a sequence of hydrogen and sulfur transfer mediated by cationic holmium. PMID:26789533

  16. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum): isolation and expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjari, Sepideh; Shobbar, Zahra Sadat; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Sadat-Noori, Seyed-Ahmad; Tirnaz, Soodeh

    2015-12-01

    Silymarin is a flavonoid compound derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds which has several pharmacological applications. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids; thereby, the identification of CHS encoding genes in milk thistle plant can be of great importance. In the current research, fragments of CHS genes were amplified using degenerate primers based on the conserved parts of Asteraceae CHS genes, and then cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the resultant nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences led to the identification of two different members of CHS gene family,SmCHS1 and SmCHS2. Third member, full-length cDNA (SmCHS3) was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), whose open reading frame contained 1239 bp including exon 1 (190 bp) and exon 2 (1049 bp), encoding 63 and 349 amino acids, respectively. In silico analysis of SmCHS3 sequence contains all the conserved CHS sites and shares high homology with CHS proteins from other plants.Real-time PCR analysis indicated that SmCHS1 and SmCHS3 had the highest transcript level in petals in the early flowering stage and in the stem of five upper leaves, followed by five upper leaves in the mid-flowering stage which are most probably involved in anthocyanin and silymarin biosynthesis. PMID:26690515

  17. Human Resource Staffing and Service Functions of Community Health Services Organizations in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jun; Guo, Aimin; Wang, Yadong; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Xinhua; Li, Hang; Duckitt, Roger; Liang, Wannian

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE We report a study on the developmental status of human resource staffing and service functions of community health services (CHS) in China and offer recommendations for improving the CHS in the future.

  18. Molecular cloning and expression profiling of a chalcone synthase gene from Lamiophlomis rotata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qiao Feng; Geng Gui-Gong; Zeng Yang; Xie Hui-Chun; Jin Lan; Shang Jun; Chen Zhi

    2015-06-01

    Lamiophlomis rotata is a renowned Chinese medicinal plant. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is important in flavonoid and isoflavonoid biosynthesis, catalysing the formation of naringenin chalcone in plants. A full-length cDNA encoding the CHS gene was cloned from L. rotata based on the highly conserved CHS gene sequences of Labiatae plants. A blast search showed its homology (named LrCHS) with other CHS genes of Labiate plants. The full-length genomic DNA of LrCHS was 2026 bp with one intron of 651 bp, two exons of 178 bp and 998 bp, flanked by a 73 bp $5'$-UTR and a 126 bp $3'$-UTR. The cDNA sequence of the LrCHS gene had an 1176 bp open reading frame encoding a 391 amino acid protein of 42,798 Da. The CHS protein predicted from L. rotata showed 79–86% identity with CHS of other plant species. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of nine families containing 48 plants and L. rotata based on the full amino acid sequences of CHS proteins. Consequently, LrCHS was located in the Labiatae branch. Additionally, we examined LrCHS gene expression patterns in different tissues by quantitative real-time PCR with specific primers. The expression analysis showed preferential expression of LrCHS in flowers and leaves during the flowering stage. Total flavonoid content and CHS gene expression exhibited similar patterns during L. rotata organ development. In agreement with its function as an elicitor-responsive gene, LrCHS expression was coordinated by methyl jasmonate and UV light, and induced between 6 and 18 h. These results provide a molecular basis for additional functional studies of LrCHS in L. rotata.

  19. AcEST: DK956441 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SYNW... 34 0.33 sp|Q11118|WOS2_SCHPO Protein wos2 OS=Schizosaccharomyces pombe G... 33 0.96 sp|P48017|CHS_SAPMO...GAGGMPDLS 141 >sp|P48017|CHS_SAPMO Chitin synthase OS=Saprolegnia monoica GN=CHS

  20. Comparison of classical heat stroke between conscious and unconscious rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan GENG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To reproduce conscious and unconscious classical heat stroke(CHS models in conscious and unconscious rats, and the difference in heat stress response between the two models was investigated. Methods Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly and equally divided into conscious classic heatstroke(C-CHS, unconscious classi cheatstroke(N-CHS, conscious normal control(C-NC and unconscious normal control(N-NCgroups.Rats of C-CHS and N-CHS groups were put into artificial climate chamber, and exposed to 39℃ heat stress.Core temperature and systolic blood pressure(SBP of rats were monitored via rectal thermal couple and by both invasive and non-invasive arterial blood pressure monitor instrument respectively. Heat stress responses of C-CHS and N-CHS rats were quantitatively analyzed and compared, and the survival time was also compared by K-M survival analysis. Results There was a significant difference in regulatory features of the core temperature and SBP betweenC-CHS and N-CHS rats. Although no difference in maximum core temperature has been observed between N-CHS and C-CHS rats, but in comparison with C-CHS rats,N-CHS rats had significantly faster rise in core temperature(P<0.05, shorter heat stress time period,lighter total thermal load and severe thermal load(P<0.05.N-CHS rats had a poorer prognosis than C-CHS rats(P<0.05. Conclusion In comparison with traditional heatstroke in unconscious rats, heatstroke in conscious rats model is more suitable for the investigation of experimental heatstroke, and further investigation of this model may help understand the mechanism ofpathogenesis of classic heatstroke.

  1. Comparison of classical heat stroke between conscious and unconscious rat models

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yan; Fu, Wei; Liu, Ya-Nan; Na PENG; Yu-mei LEI; Su, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Objective To reproduce conscious and unconscious classical heat stroke(CHS) models in conscious and unconscious rats, and the difference in heat stress response between the two models was investigated. Methods Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly and equally divided into conscious classic heatstroke(C-CHS), unconscious classi cheatstroke(N-CHS), conscious normal control(C-NC) and unconscious normal control(N-NC)groups.Rats of C-CHS and N-CHS groups were put into artificial climate chamber, a...

  2. Chediak-Higashi syndrome presenting in accelerated phase: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaloul, I; Talmoudi, J; Chabchoub, I; Ayadi, L; Kamoun, T H; Boudawara, T; Kallel, C H; Hachicha, M

    2016-06-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder characterized by frequent infections, oculocutaneous albinism, bleeding diathesis, and progressive neurologic deterioration. In 85% of cases, CHS patients develop the accelerated phase characterized by pancytopenia, high fever, and lymphohistiocytic infiltration of liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Treatment of accelerated-phase CHS is difficult and the prognosis is poor. Here, we report a case of CHS in a 2-year-old boy who presented in the accelerated phase of the disease. CHS diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical characteristics, hair analysis, and identification of pathognomonic giant azurophilic granules in peripheral blood and bone marrow. PMID:26254864

  3. Physical mechanism determining the radial electric field and its radial structure in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial structures of plasma rotation and radial electric field are experimentally studied in tokamak, heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices. The perpendicular and parallel viscosities are measured. The parallel viscosity, which is dominant in determining the toroidal velocity in heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices, is found to be neoclassical. On the other hand, the perpendicular viscosity, which is dominant in dictating the toroidal rotation in tokamaks, is anomalous. Even without external momentum input, both a plasma rotation and a radial electric field exist in tokamaks and heliotrons/torsatrons. The observed profiles of the radial electric field do not agree with the theoretical prediction based on neoclassical transport. This is mainly due to the existence of anomalous perpendicular viscosity. The shear of the radial electric field improves particle and heat transport both in bulk and edge plasma regimes of tokamaks. (author) 95 refs

  4. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Chalcone Synthase Family in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yahui; Ding, Ting; Su, Bo; Jiang, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    Members of the chalcone synthase (CHS) family participate in the synthesis of a series of secondary metabolites in plants, fungi and bacteria. The metabolites play important roles in protecting land plants against various environmental stresses during the evolutionary process. Our research was conducted on comprehensive investigation of CHS genes in maize (Zea mays L.), including their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, chromosomal locations and expression analysis. Fourteen CHS genes (ZmCHS01-14) were identified in the genome of maize, representing one of the largest numbers of CHS family members identified in one organism to date. The gene family was classified into four major classes (classes I-IV) based on their phylogenetic relationships. Most of them contained two exons and one intron. The 14 genes were unevenly located on six chromosomes. Two segmental duplication events were identified, which might contribute to the expansion of the maize CHS gene family to some extent. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and microarray data analyses suggested that ZmCHS genes exhibited various expression patterns, indicating functional diversification of the ZmCHS genes. Our results will contribute to future studies of the complexity of the CHS gene family in maize and provide valuable information for the systematic analysis of the functions of the CHS gene family. PMID:26828478

  5. Characterization of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} modified chitosan membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osifo, Peter O.; Masala, Aluwani [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Andries Potgieter Bolevald, P/Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900, Gauteng (South Africa)

    2010-08-01

    Chitosan (Chs) flakes were prepared from chitin materials that were extracted from the exoskeleton of Cape rock lobsters in South Africa. The Chs flakes were prepared into membranes and the Chs membranes were modified by cross-linking with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The cross-linked Chs membranes were characterized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells. The Chs membrane characteristics such as water uptake, thermal stability, proton resistance and methanol permeability were compared to that of high performance conventional Nafion 117 membranes. Under the temperature range studied 20-60 C, the membrane water uptake for Chs was found to be higher than that of Nafion. Thermal analysis revealed that Chs membranes could withstand temperature as high as 230 C whereas Nafion 117 membranes were stable to 320 C under nitrogen. Nafion 117 membranes were found to exhibit high proton resistance of 284 s cm{sup -1} than Chs membranes of 204 s cm{sup -1}. The proton fluxes across the membranes were 2.73 mol cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for Chs- and 1.12 mol cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} Nafion membranes. Methanol (MeOH) permeability through Chs membrane was less, 1.4 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for Chs membranes and 3.9 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for Nafion 117 membranes at 20 C. Chs and Nafion membranes were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MAE) and their performances measure in a free-breathing commercial single cell DMFC. The Nafion membranes showed a better performance as the power density determined for Nafion membranes of 0.0075 W cm{sup -2} was 2.7 times higher than in the case of Chs MEA. (author)

  6. Improving medical education in Kenya: an international collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Alexa

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a partnership between the University of Nairobi College of Health Sciences (CHS) Library and the University of Maryland Health Sciences and Human Services Library (HS/HSL). The libraries are collaborating to develop best practices for the CHS Library as it meets the challenge of changing medical education information needs in a digital environment. The collaboration is part of a Medical Education Partnership Initiative. The library project has several components: an assessment of the CHS Library, learning visits in the United States and Kenya, development of recommendations to enhance the CHS Library, and ongoing evaluation of the program's progress. Development of new services and expertise at the CHS Library is critical to the project's success. A productive collaboration between the HS/HSL and CHS Library is ongoing. A successful program to improve the quality of medical education will have a beneficial impact on health outcomes in Kenya. PMID:24860265

  7. Suppression of magnetic surface breaking by simple extra coils in a finite beta equilibrium of helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple method is proposed to suppress actively the breaking of magnetic surfaces which occurs in l = 2 Heliotron/Torsatron equilibria, by which fairly high beta equilibria with clearly nested magnetic surfaces can be realized without changing other physical properties such as the rotational transform profile and the well depth. (author)

  8. Construction and initial operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron was designed on a physics basis for access to the second stability regime and on an engineering basis for independent fabrication of high-accuracy components. The actual construction, assembly, and initial operation of ATF are compared with the characteristics expected during the design of ATF. 31 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Poloidal rotation velocity measurement in toroidal plasmas via microwave reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experiment modeling backscattering of microwaves from rotating plasma layer perturbed by fluctuations are presented. It was shown that auto- and crosscorrelation of reflected power have a periodicity equal to rotation period. Such periodicity was observed by microwave reflectometry in experiments on RF plasma production on U-3M torsatron and was used for measurement of plasma poloidal rotation velocity. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Responsiveness of Community Health Services in Urban China: A Quantitative Study in Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Qing; Wang, Qi; Lu, Zuxun; Liu, Junan

    2013-01-01

    Background With the objective of the national health services systems reform to move care to the community, community health services (CHS) are becoming the gateways of the health system in China. This study aims to evaluate the levels and distributions of the responsiveness of CHS in urban China and identify the relevant features to provide the government with policy advice on the improvement of CHS responsiveness. Methods A total of 872 face-to-face interviews were conducted in community he...

  11. Evaluation of Responsiveness of Community Health Services in Urban China: A Quantitative Study in Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Luo; Qi Wang; Zuxun Lu; Junan Liu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the objective of the national health services systems reform to move care to the community, community health services (CHS) are becoming the gateways of the health system in China. This study aims to evaluate the levels and distributions of the responsiveness of CHS in urban China and identify the relevant features to provide the government with policy advice on the improvement of CHS responsiveness. METHODS: A total of 872 face-to-face interviews were conducted in community ...

  12. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Chalcone Synthase Family in Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Yahui Han; Ting Ding; Bo Su; Haiyang Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Members of the chalcone synthase (CHS) family participate in the synthesis of a series of secondary metabolites in plants, fungi and bacteria. The metabolites play important roles in protecting land plants against various environmental stresses during the evolutionary process. Our research was conducted on comprehensive investigation of CHS genes in maize (Zea mays L.), including their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, chromosomal locations and expression analysis. Fourteen CHS gen...

  13. Lika för alla? : Social position och etnicitet som determinanter för amning, föräldrars rökvanor och kontakter med BVC

    OpenAIRE

    Wallby, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Child Health Services (CHS) in Sweden are offered free of charge to all Swedish parents with children 0-5 years of age.  The regular service schedule includes home visits, health examinations, vaccinations and participation in parenting groups. The CHS should pay extra attention to disadvantaged families. The aim of this thesis was to investigate to what extent the CHS reaches groups of families with special needs, e.g. immigrant families, low income families, young and single mothers, with ...

  14. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and mRNA Expression of a Chitin Synthase 2 Gene from the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Kang Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthase (CHS, a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2 was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis.

  15. Likelihood analysis of the chalcone synthase genes suggests the role of positive selection in morning glories (Ipomoea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Gu, Hongya; Yang, Ziheng

    2004-01-01

    Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoides, which are important for the pigmentation of flowers and act as attractants to pollinators. Genes encoding CHS constitute a multigene family in which the copy number varies among plant species and functional divergence appears to have occurred repeatedly. In morning glories (Ipomoea), five functional CHS genes (A-E) have been described. Phylogenetic analysis of the Ipomoea CHS gene family revealed that CHS A, B, and C experienced accelerated rates of amino acid substitution relative to CHS D and E. To examine whether the CHS genes of the morning glories underwent adaptive evolution, maximum-likelihood models of codon substitution were used to analyze the functional sequences in the Ipomoea CHS gene family. These models used the nonsynonymous/synonymous rate ratio (omega = d(N)/ d(S)) as an indicator of selective pressure and allowed the ratio to vary among lineages or sites. Likelihood ratio test suggested significant variation in selection pressure among amino acid sites, with a small proportion of them detected to be under positive selection along the branches ancestral to CHS A, B, and C. Positive Darwinian selection appears to have promoted the divergence of subfamily ABC and subfamily DE and is at least partially responsible for a rate increase following gene duplication. PMID:14743314

  16. Die prognostische Validität des Auswahlgesprächs für die Tierärztliche Vorprüfung : Eine retrospektive Studie am Fachbereich Veterinärmedizin der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen in den Prüfungsjahren 1988-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Prange, Timo

    2006-01-01

    Die Leistungen von Studenten der Veterinärmedizin an der Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen in der Tierärztlichen Vorprüfung während der Prüfungsjahre 1988 - 1999 wurden unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des Zulassungsverfahrens untersucht. Im Rahmen des in dieser Zeit angewendeten Besonderen Auswahlverfahrens wurden 15 % der Studierenden nach einem Auswahlgespräch durch die Hochschule zugelassen. Die Leistungen dieser Studenten wurden mit denen der ZVS-Zugelassenen verglichen. Ausgewertet ...

  17. Effect of plagiochin E, an antifungal macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl), on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-zhen WU; Ai-xia CHENG; Ling-mei SUN; Hong-xiang LOU

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of plagiochin E (PLE), an antifungal macrocyclic bis(bibenzyl) isolated from liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L, on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans. Methods: The effect of PLE on chitin synthesis in Candida albicans was investigated at the cellular and molecular lev-els. First, the ultrastructural changes were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Second, the effects of PLE on chitin synthetase (Chs) activi-ties in vitro were assayed using 6-O-dansyl-N-acetylglucosamine as a fluorescent substrate, and its effect on chitin synthesis in situ was assayed by spheroplast regeneration. Finally, real-time RT-PCR was performed to assay its effect on the expression of Chs genes (CHS). Results: Observation under TEM showed that the structure of the cell wall in Candida albicans was seriously damaged, which suggested that the antifungal activity of PLE was associated with its effect on the cell wail. Enzymatic assays and spheroplast regeneration showed that PLE inhibited chitin synthesis in vitro and in situ. The results of the PCR showed that PLE significantly downregulated the expression of CHS1, and upregulated the expression of CHS2 and CHS3. Because different Chs is regulated at different stages of transcription and post-translation, the downregulation of CHS1 would decrease the level of Chs 1 and inhibit its activity, and the inhibitory effects of PLE on Chs2 and Chs3 would be at the post-translational level or by the inhibi-tion on the enzyme-active center. Conclusion: These results indicate that the antifungal activity of PLE would be attributed to its inhibitory effect on cell wall chitin synthesis in Candida albicans.

  18. Depletion of regulatory T cells in a hapten-induced inflammation model results in prolonged and increased inflammation driven by T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A. D.; Skov, Søren; Kvist, P. H.;

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs ) are known to play an immunosuppressive role in the response of contact hypersensitivity (CHS), but neither the dynamics of Tregs during the CHS response nor the exaggerated inflammatory response after depletion of Tregs has been characterized in detail. In this study we...

  19. Main: ACEATCHS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ACEATCHS S000355 02-August-2006 (last modified) kehi ACEAtCHS (ACGT containing elem...ated by exposure to UV-B light; CHS; ACE; MYB; light; UV-A; UV-B; MYB4; leaf; shoot; Arabidopsis thaliana GACACGTAGA ...

  20. Phonon dispersion relation of liquid metals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P B Thakor; P N Gajjar; A R Jani

    2009-06-01

    The phonon dispersion curves of some liquid metals, viz. Na ( = 1), Mg ( = 2), Al ( = 3) and Pb ( = 4), have been computed using our model potential. The charged hard sphere (CHS) reference system is applied to describe the structural information. Our model potential along with CHS reference system is capable of explaining the phonon dispersion relation for monovalent, divalent, trivalent and tetravalent liquid metals.

  1. Association between time of pay-for-performance for patients and community health services use by chronic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pay-for-performance for patients is a cost-effective means of improving health behaviours. This study examined the association between the pay time for performance for patients and CHS use by chronic patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to estimate distribution characteristics of CHS use in 2011 and collect data of socio-demographic characteristics (sex, age, education level, occupation, disposable personal income in 2011, distance between home and community health agency, chronic disease number, and time of pay-for-performance for patients. Participants were 889 rural adults with hypertension or type II diabetes aged 35 and above. Standardized CHS use means chronic patients use CHS at least once per quarter. RESULTS: Patients who received incentives prior to services had 2.724 times greater odds of using standardized CHS than those who received incentives after services (95%CI, 1.986-3.736, P<0.001. For all subgroups (socio-demographic characteristics and chronic disease number, patients who received incentives prior to services were more likely to use standardized CHS than those receiving incentives after services. CONCLUSIONS: Pay time for performance for patients was associated with CHS use by chronic patients. Patients receiving incentive prior to services were more likely to use standardized CHS. And pay time should not be ignored when the policy on pay-for-performance for patients is designed.

  2. Fatigue strength of truss girders made of very high strength steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    An effective application of Very High Strength Steel (VHSS) in civil engineering structures is expected in stiff, truss like structures, typically made of Circular Hollow Sections (CHS). Use of castings in combination with CHS could be promising for the design of highly fatigue resistant joints. Cas

  3. Basophil-Derived Amphiregulin Is Essential for UVB Irradiation-Induced Immune Suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P M G; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J A M; Zaiss, Dietmar M W

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epiderma

  4. Flavonols and fertilization in Petunia hybrida: localization and mode of action during pollen tube growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ylstra, B.; Busscher, J.; Franken, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Mol, J.N.M.; Tunen, van A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Flavonols form an important class of flavonoids which serve an essential function during plant reproduction. Flavonoid biosynthesis is initiated by the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). A high abundance of flavonols and chs mRNA was demonstrated in male and female reproductive organs of Petunia hybrid

  5. In situ localization of chalcone synthase mRNA in pea root nodule development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, W.C.; Canter Cremers, H.C.J.; Hogendijk, P.; Katinakis, P.; Wijffelman, C.A.; Franssen, H.J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper studies on the role of flavonoids in pea root nodule development are reported. Flavonoid synthesis was followed by localizing chalcone synthase (CHS) mRNA in infected pea roots and in root nodules. In a nodule primordium, CHS mRNA is present in all cells of the primordium. Therefore it

  6. CFT driven cosmology and conformal higher spin fields

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinsky, Andrei O

    2015-01-01

    Conformal higher spin (CHS) field theory, which is a solid part of recent advanced checks of AdS/CFT correspondence, finds applications in cosmology. Hidden sector of weakly interacting CHS fields suggests a resolution of the hierarchy problem in the model of initial conditions for inflationary cosmology driven by conformal field theory. These initial conditions are set by thermal garland type cosmological instantons in the sub-planckian energy range for the model of CHS fields with a large positive coefficient $\\beta$ of the topological Gauss-Bonnet term in their total conformal anomaly. Negative values of $\\beta$ in the models dominated by fermionic CHS fields generate the so-called necklace type instantons which lead to a divergent intrinsically inconsistent statistical sum for ensemble of cosmologies. Anomaly free models of an infinite tower of CHS fields with $\\zeta$-function regularized $\\beta=0$ generate vacuum necklace instantons. They originate due to an exotic property of these models -- their negat...

  7. Chediak Higashi Syndrome masquerading as acute leukemia / storage disorder - A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Asif Baig

    2015-07-01

    CHS is characterised by partial oculocutaneous albinism, frequent fatal bacterial infections, bleeding diathesis and peripheral + Cranial nerve palsies. This disorder further culminates into accelerated phase (Lymphoproliferative Syndrome progressing into pancytopenia. CHS is due to single gene mutation in LYST (CHS gene localized to 1q chromosome. The diagnostic hallmark of CHS is presence of giant purple to blue violet inclusions in leucocytes. In this study granules are more prominent in Bone marrow than in PBS correlating well with previous studies. Approximately 85% of the cases, of CHS culminates into Accelerated phase showing Lymphohistiocytic infiltration progressing to pancytopenia and death due to infection. The very rare nature of this disease and its grave prognosis merits its reporting. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1785-1787

  8. Enhanced expression and differential inducibility of soybean chalcone synthase genes by supplemental UV-B in dark-grown seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By developing gene-specific RT-PCR and using filters to allow transmission down to 290 nm (UV-B+) or blocking all radiation below 320 nm (UV-B(-)), the effect of UV-B+ and UV-B- light on expression of each of the presently known seven members of soybean chalcone synthase (CHS) gene family in dark-grown seedlings was analyzed. Dark expression was detectable already in 18 h dark-germinating embryos, with progressive increases on successive days, suggesting that chs belongs to a class of genes expressed very early during germination, and that the expression at this stage is either constitutive or induced by non-light-dependent factors present in the seed or made available following imbibition. Exposure of 18 h dark-germinating embryos to UV-B- or to UV-B+ light did not lead to an increase in chs signal. However, the 24 h dark-germinating embryos showed a distinct effect of UV-B+, interestingly coinciding with the stage when the head of seedlings was in the process of being pushed up above ground by stem elongation, suggesting the possibility of a developmental switch modulating the appearance of UV-B response. The response to UV-B- was most prominent in chs1 and almost silent in chs2, while the up-regulation by UV-B+ was most prominent in chs5 and chs6 and much less so in chs2. Interestingly, chs2 was noted to be the only member of the Gmchs gene family devoid of H-box, raising the possibility that the H-box may be a good indicator of the photo-inducibility of a chs gene. (author)

  9. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment

  10. Different approaches to the thermonuclear fusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some alternative approaches to the problem of a controlled fusion are given in brief. Advantages, shortcomings and problems are considered while developing the following approaches: a corrugated torus, an astron, toroidal Z-pinch, a stellarator, a torsatron, a tormak, a topolotron, a surmak, fusion in a target, irradiated by an electron beam, a dense plasma focus, a compressed linear and fusion in a laser heating solenoid

  11. Design study of the large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) is a Heliotron/torsatron type superconducting helical fusion device, which is scheduled to be constructed by the newly established National Institute for Fusion Science as the major joint-university fusion research project. This report describes the design study of the LHD. Our goal is demonstration of high energy confinement and high β in the helical device, which is a necessary step toward a helical reactor system. (author)

  12. Active trajectory control for a heavy ion beam probe on the compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 200 keV heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) on the Compact Helical System torsatron/heliotron uses a newly proposed method in order to control complicated beam trajectories in non-axisymmetrical devices. As a result, the HIBP has successfully measured potential profiles of the toroidal helical plasma. The article will describe the results of the potential profile measurements, together with the HIBP hardware system and procedures to realize the method. (author)

  13. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Kai Xia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor, which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult. When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB.

  14. Exposure to diflubenzuron results in an up-regulation of a chitin synthase 1 gene in citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB. PMID:24590130

  15. Two Novel Mutations Identified in an African-American Child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Morrone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, coagulopathy and late-onset, progressive neurological dysfunction. It also has an “accelerated phase” characterized by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH. The disease is caused by mutations in the CHS1/LYST gene located on chromosome 1, which affects lysosome morphology and function. We report the case of an African-American child with CHS in Case. This 16-month old African-American girl presented with fever and lethargy. The proband had pale skin compared to her parents, with light brown eyes, silvery hair and massive hepatosplenomegaly. Her laboratory evaluation was remarkable for pancytopenia, high serum ferritin and an elevated LDH. Bone marrow aspirate revealed large inclusions in granulocytes and erythrophagocytosis consistent with HLH. Genetic evaluation revealed two novel nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene: c.3622C>T (p.Q1208X and c.11002G>T (p.E3668X. Conclusions. Our patient is one of the few cases of CHS reported in the African American population. We identified 2 nonsense mutations in the CHS1 gene, the first mutation analysis published of an African-American child with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome. These two mutations predict a severe phenotype and thus identification of these mutations has an important clinical significance in CHS.

  16. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. A report of six new cases and a summary of previous reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Narváez, Carla; Mola Gilbert, Montserrat; Batlle de Santiago, Enric; Bigas Farreres, Jordi; Giné Serven, Eloy; Cañete Crespillo, Josep

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a medical condition which was identified for the first time in 2004 and affects chronic users of cannabis. It is characterized by cyclic episodes of uncontrollable vomiting as well as compulsive bathing in hot water. The episodes have a duration of two to four days. The vomiting is recognizable by a lack of response to regular antiemetic treatment, and subsides only with cannabis abstinence, reappearing in periods of consumption of this substance. The etiology of this syndrome is unknown. Up until June 2014, 83 cases of CHS were published worldwide, four of them in Spain.The first patient of CHS at Mataró Hospital was diagnosed in 2012. Since then, five new cases have been identified. The average duration between the onset of acute CHS episodes and diagnosis is 6.1 years, similar to that observed in previously published cases, an average of 3.1 years. This "delay" of CHS diagnosis demonstrates a lack of awareness with respect to this medical condition in the healthcare profession.With the objective of providing information concerning CHS and facilitating its timely diagnosis, a series of six new cases of CHS diagnosed in Mataró Hospital is presented along with a summary of cases published between 2004 and June 2014. PMID:26990261

  17. Determinants of Club Head Speed in PGA Professional Golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam L; Ward, Nick; Bishop, Chris; Maloney, Sean; Turner, Anthony N

    2016-08-01

    Turner, AN. Determinants of club head speed in PGA professional golfers. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2266-2270, 2016-Club head speed (CHS) has been significantly correlated with golf performance, but only in amateurs. The purpose of this study therefore, was to investigate the relationship between field-based measures of strength and power with CHS in Professional Golfers Association (PGA) professional golfers, and further determine differences between age groups. A correlation design was used to test relationships between squat jump (SJ), seated medicine ball throw (SMBT), rotational medicine ball throw (RMBT), and CHS. Twenty participants volunteered to take part in the study (age, 31.95 ± 8.7 years; height, 182.75 ± 6.88 cm; mass, 90.47 ± 15.6 kg). Intraclass correlation coefficients reported high reliability for performance variables (r = 0.85-0.95). Significant correlations (p professionals professionals >30 (n = 10; 39.7 ± 5.5 years). Correlations to CHS for 30 had significant correlations to CHS not only in SMBT (r = 0.881) and SJ (r = 0.729), but also in RMBT (r = 0.642). The results of this study suggest that SJ and SMBT have the largest contribution to CHS in PGA professional golfers. When comparing age groups, it appears that younger golfers (30 years) utilize more upper body strength. Results suggest that strength-based leg exercises and power-based chest exercises may improve CHS in professional golfers. PMID:26849785

  18. Transport barriers in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are some publications with indications that the formation of transport barriers in toroidal devices could take place in the vicinity of low order rational surfaces (RS). It is necessary to note that the environs of RS have very important peculiarities. In particular, a stochastic layer of magnetic field lines forms instead of separaterix which must separate the island surfaces from the adjacent to them non-island surfaces in stellarator magnetic configurations. The attempt to realize the formation of transport barriers near RS and to study their influence on the RF discharge plasma confinement was undertaken in presented experiments on the U-3M torsatron. The presupposition was made that the radial electric field profile would have sharp change on the width of stochastic layer near RS in the case of collisionless longitudinal motion of electrons in this layer. Experimental data obtained on the U-3M torsatron during the formation of interior and edge transport barriers are in a good agreement with this presupposition. The results of experiments on the U-3M torsatron are discussed in comparison with data of other helical systems. It is shown that the number of dependences (the threshold power and density, the time of barrier formation, the localization of radial electric field shear layer) are in a good agreement for all these systems. In conclusion, the common features of formation of transport barriers in non- axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric systems are discussed. (author)

  19. Oxazolone-induced contact hypersensitivity reduces lymphatic drainage but enhances the induction of adaptive immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aebischer

    Full Text Available Contact hypersensitivity (CHS induced by topical application of haptens is a commonly used model to study dermal inflammatory responses in mice. Several recent studies have indicated that CHS-induced skin inflammation triggers lymphangiogenesis but may negatively impact the immune-function of lymphatic vessels, namely fluid drainage and dendritic cell (DC migration to draining lymph nodes (dLNs. On the other hand, haptens have been shown to exert immune-stimulatory activity by inducing DC maturation. In this study we investigated how the presence of pre-established CHS-induced skin inflammation affects the induction of adaptive immunity in dLNs. Using a mouse model of oxazolone-induced skin inflammation we observed that lymphatic drainage was reduced and DC migration from skin to dLNs was partially compromised. At the same time, a significantly stronger adaptive immune response towards ovalbumin (OVA was induced when immunization had occurred in CHS-inflamed skin as compared to uninflamed control skin. In fact, immunization with sterile OVA in CHS-inflamed skin evoked a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response comparable to the one induced by conventional immunization with OVA and adjuvant in uninflamed skin. Striking phenotypic and functional differences were observed when comparing DCs from LNs draining uninflamed or CHS-inflamed skin. DCs from LNs draining CHS-inflamed skin expressed higher levels of co-stimulatory molecules and MHC molecules, produced higher levels of the interleukin-12/23 p40 subunit (IL-12/23-p40 and more potently induced T cell activation in vitro. Immunization experiments revealed that blockade of IL-12/23-p40 during the priming phase partially reverted the CHS-induced enhancement of the adaptive immune response. Collectively, our findings indicate that CHS-induced skin inflammation generates an overall immune-stimulatory milieu, which outweighs the potentially suppressive effect of reduced lymphatic vessel function.

  20. A comparative study of different methods for the generation of tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide clathrate hydrate slurry in a cold storage air-conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Four kinds of TBAB CHS generation methods are experimentally investigated. ► Accession of CHS into supercooled solution can be helpful to the generation. ► Higher flow rate results in higher energy efficiency of CHS generation. - Abstract: A cold storage air-conditioning system using tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) as cold storage medium was built to investigate the high-efficiency method of TBAB CHS generation. In the present study, four kinds of different TBAB CHS generation methods were experimentally investigated and compared, and these methods included continuously cooling, turning off refrigerator while crystals appearing, supercooling release and accession of TBAB CHS into supercooled TBAB aqueous solution. The results showed that continuously cooling would lead to severe adhesion of crystal to the heat exchanger wall, and supercooling release took place with a big stochastic characteristic, hence the first and third method were concluded not reliable. Both the second and fourth methods could maintain the temperature of heat exchanger wall at a relatively higher level, therefore the crystal adhesion to the heat exchanger wall would be reduced significantly, which led to higher coefficient of performance (COP). In addition, accession of TBAB CHS into TBAB supercooled solution could shorten the time of supercooling release, resulting in about 21.8–35.4% shorter generation time than other methods. Moreover, the influence of flow rate on the CHS generation process was investigated, and the results showed that higher flow rate generally resulted in higher system COP

  1. Inhibition of survivin influences the biological activities of canine histiocytic sarcoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yamazaki

    Full Text Available Canine histiocytic sarcoma (CHS is an aggressive malignant neoplasm that originates from histiocytic lineage cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages, and is characterized by progressive local infiltration and a very high metastatic potential. Survivin is as an apoptotic inhibitory factor that has major functions in cell proliferation, including inhibition of apoptosis and regulation of cell division, and is expressed in most types of human and canine malignant neoplasms, including melanoma and osteosarcoma. To investigate whether survivin was expressed at high levels in CHS and whether its expression was correlated with the aggressive biological behavior of CHS, we assessed relation between survivin expression and CHS progression, as well as the effects of survivin inhibition on the biological activities of CHS cells. We comparatively analyzed the expression of 6 selected anti-apoptotic genes, including survivin, in specimens from 30 dogs with histiocytic sarcoma and performed annexin V staining to evaluate apoptosis, methylthiazole tetrazolium assays to assess cell viability and chemosensitivity, and latex bead assays to measure changes in phagocytic activities in 4 CHS cell lines and normal canine fibroblasts transfected with survivin siRNA. Survivin gene expression levels in 30 specimens were significantly higher than those of the other 6 genes. After transfection with survivin siRNA, apoptosis, cell growth inhibition, enhanced chemosensitivity, and weakened phagocytic activities were observed in all CHS cell lines. In contrast, normal canine fibroblasts were not significantly affected by survivin knockdown. These results suggested that survivin expression may mediate the aggressive biological activities of CHS and that survivin may be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of CHS.

  2. CLONACIÓN Y ANÁLISIS DE LA ESTRUCTURA PRIMARIA DE QUITINA SINTASAS DE ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Eduardo; EBERT, FRANK; Willhoeft, Ute; SAID, SALVADOR; Tannich, Egbert

    2005-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, parásito responsable de la amibiasis, presenta dos etapas en su ciclo de vida: trofozoíto y quiste. Los quistes (forma infectiva) poseen una pared compuesta principalmente por quitina, polímero de ß-(1?4)-N-acetil-Dglucosamina cuya síntesis es catalizada por quitina sintasas (CHS). Las CHS se han descrito en hongos, insectos y nemátodos, pero no en protozoarios como Entamoeba. Se clonaron y secuenciaron dos genes CHS de E. histolytica. Se dete...

  3. Multimodal neuromonitoring in pediatric cardiac anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. C. Mittnacht

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant improvements in overall outcome, neurological injury remains a feared complication following pediatric congenital heart surgery (CHS. Only if adverse events are detected early enough, can effective actions be initiated preventing potentially serious injury. The multifactorial etiology of neurological injury in CHS patients makes it unlikely that one single monitoring modality will be effective in capturing all possible threats. Improving current and developing new technologies and combining them according to the concept of multimodal monitoring may allow for early detection and possible intervention with the goal to further improve neurological outcome in children undergoing CHS.

  4. Treatment of the X-linked lymphoproliferative, Griscelli and Chédiak-Higashi syndromes by HLH directed therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trottestam, Helena; Beutel, Karin; Meeths, Marie; Carlsen, Niels; Heilmann, Carsten; Pasic, Srdjan; Webb, David; Hasle, Henrik; Henter, Jan-Inge

    2009-01-01

    follow-up of 5.6 years. All GS2, one XLP and one CHS patient underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Mean follow-up post transplant was 6.0 years. Six of the seven transplanted children achieved non-active disease status at the time for SCT. Neurological sequelae were reported in all, except for......BACKGROUND: Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2), the X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) and the Chédiak-Higashi (CHS) syndromes are diseases that all may develop hemophagocytic syndromes. We wanted to investigate whether the treatment protocols for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) can also be...... used for these syndromes. PROCEDURE: In the HLH-94/HLH-2004 treatment study registries, we evaluated all patients with GS2 (n = 5), XLP (n = 2) or CHS (n = 2) treated between 1994 and 2004. RESULTS: All patients responded to the therapy, and all are alive but one (suffering from CHS), with a mean...

  5. Molecular mechanism for cadmium-induced anthocyanin accumulation in Azolla imbricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling-Peng; Dong, Xin-Jiao; Ma, Hai-Hu

    2012-04-01

    Anthocyanins inducibly synthesized by Cd treatment showed high antioxidant activity and might be involved in internal detoxification mechanisms of Azolla imbricata against Cd toxicity. In order to understand anthocyanin biosynthesis mechanism during Cd stress, the cDNAs encoding chalcone synthase (CHS) and dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR), two key enzymes in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway, were isolated from A. imbricata. Deduced amino acid sequences of the cDNAs showed high homology to the sequences from other plants. Expression of AiDFR, and to a lesser extent AiCHS, was significantly induced in Cd treatment plant in comparison with the control. CHS and DFR enzymatic activities showed similar pattern changes with these genes expression during Cd stress. These results strongly indicate that Cd induced anthocyanin accumulation is probably mediated by up-regulation of structural genes including CHS and DFR, which might further increase the activities of enzymes encoded by these structural genes that control the anthocyanin biosynthetic steps. PMID:22225708

  6. Health Effects of the 2003 Southern California Wildfires on Children

    OpenAIRE

    Künzli, Nino; Avol, Ed; Wu, Jun; Gauderman, W. James; Rappaport, Ed; Millstein, Joshua; Bennion, Jonathan; McConnell, Rob; Gilliland, Frank D.; Berhane, Kiros; Lurmann, Fred; Winer, Arthur; Peters, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: In late October 2003, Southern California wildfires burned more than 3,000 km2. The wildfires produced heavy smoke that affected several communities participating in the University of Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS).

  7. Strains for the production of flavonoids from glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Santos, Christine; Koffas, Mattheos

    2015-11-13

    The invention relates to the production of flavonoids and flavonoid precursors in cells through recombinant expression of tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), and chalcone isomerase (CHI).

  8. Final Report: Cartanega Lagoon Contaminants Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Organochlorine analysis did not reveal any 0CH traces in the sediments. Low traces of some 0CHs including DDE were found in both bird liver samples (Appendix 2)....

  9. Pareto-optimal clustering scheme using data aggregation for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Puneet; Sharma, Vidushi

    2015-07-01

    The presence of cluster heads (CHs) in a clustered wireless sensor network (WSN) leads to improved data aggregation and enhanced network lifetime. Thus, the selection of appropriate CHs in WSNs is a challenging task, which needs to be addressed. A multicriterion decision-making approach for the selection of CHs is presented using Pareto-optimal theory and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) methods. CHs are selected using three criteria including energy, cluster density and distance from the sink. The overall network lifetime in this method with 50% data aggregation after simulations is 81% higher than that of distributed hierarchical agglomerative clustering in similar environment and with same set of parameters. Optimum number of clusters is estimated using TOPSIS technique and found to be 9-11 for effective energy usage in WSNs.

  10. Silvery Hair with Speckled Dyspigmentation: Chediak-Higashi Syndrome in Three Indian Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuveer, Chekuri; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Mithuna, Mallur N; Suresh, Tamraparni

    2015-01-01

    Silvery hair is a common feature of Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), Griscelli syndrome, and Elejalde syndrome. CHS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, frequent pyogenic infections, and the presence of abnormal large granules in leukocytes and other granule containing cells. A 6-year-old girl had recurrent respiratory infections, speckled hypo- and hyper-pigmentation over exposed areas, and silvery hair since early childhood. Clinical features, laboratory investigations, hair microscopy, and skin biopsy findings were consistent with CHS. Her younger sisters aged 4 and 2 years had similar clinical, peripheral blood picture, and hair microscopy findings consistent with CHS. This case is reported for its rare occurrence in all the three siblings of the family, prominent pigmentary changes, and absent accelerated phase till date. Awareness, early recognition, and management of the condition may prevent the preterm morbidity associated. PMID:26622160

  11. Transcriptome changes in the phenylpropanoid pathway of Glycine max in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Delkin O

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of plant molecular responses to pathogenic infections have pinpointed increases in activity of several genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway leading to the synthesis of lignin and flavonoids. The majority of those findings were derived from single gene studies and more recently from several global gene expression analyses. We undertook a global transcriptional analysis focused on the response of genes of the multiple branches of the phenylpropanoid pathway to infection by the Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea with or without the avirulence gene avrB to characterize more broadly the contribution of the multiple branches of the pathway to the resistance response in soybean. Transcript abundance in leaves was determined from analysis of soybean cDNA microarray data and hybridizations to RNA blots with specific gene probes. Results The majority of the genes surveyed presented patterns of increased transcript accumulation. Some increased rapidly, 2 and 4 hours after inoculation, while others started to accumulate slowly by 8 – 12 hours. In contrast, transcripts of a few genes decreased in abundance 2 hours post inoculation. Most interestingly was the opposite temporal fluctuation in transcript abundance between early responsive genes in defense (CHS and IFS1 and F3H, the gene encoding a pivotal enzyme in the synthesis of anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and flavonols. F3H transcripts decreased rapidly 2 hours post inoculation and increased during periods when CHS and IFS transcripts decreased. It was also determined that all but one (CHS4 family member genes (CHS1, CHS2, CHS3, CHS5, CHS6 and CHS7/8 accumulated higher transcript levels during the defense response provoked by the avirulent pathogen challenge. Conclusion Based on the mRNA profiles, these results show the strong bias that soybean has towards increasing the synthesis of isoflavonoid phytoalexins concomitant with the down regulation of genes required for the

  12. Proceedings of US-Japan heliotron-stellarator workshop: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the first of four volumes on the US-Japan Heliotron-Stellarator workshop. It contains talks on the Heliotron E experiment, the compact helical system (CHS) program, the status of the ATF project, the status of the W VII-AS, the status of the TJ-II program, the ATF experimental plans, the ATF diagnostics, the compact Helical system, and the CHS experimental program and diagnostics

  13. Multimodal neuromonitoring in pediatric cardiac anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander J. C. Mittnacht; Cesar Rodriguez-Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in overall outcome, neurological injury remains a feared complication following pediatric congenital heart surgery (CHS). Only if adverse events are detected early enough, can effective actions be initiated preventing potentially serious injury. The multifactorial etiology of neurological injury in CHS patients makes it unlikely that one single monitoring modality will be effective in capturing all possible threats. Improving current and developing new technol...

  14. Grupos Relacionados de Diagnóstico (grd ): ¿herramientas de pago en tiempos de crisis?

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor E. Castro J.

    2011-01-01

    This document is intended to be read by the Colombian Ministry of Social Protection (formerMoH) and includes some recommendations that could be implemented on the aim to increase allocative efficiency, thus improving macroeconomic performance of the Colombian Health System (CHS). It will be conducted as follows: first it will brieflyreview the background and actual context of the CHS, after this, willmention some related issues that justify a policy intervention onstrategic purchasing to prom...

  15. Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from Physcomitrella patens

    OpenAIRE

    Mahiran Basri; Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar Salleh; Iffah Izzati Zakaria

    2012-01-01

    PpCHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in PpCHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving ...

  16. Crystallization of tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide clathrate hydrate slurry and the related heat transfer characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Crystallization characteristics of TBAB CHS under different thermal conditions were clarified. • Overall heat transfer coefficients before and during the crystallization were obtained. • The crystallization characteristics of TBAB CHS mainly depend on the status of supercooled solution. • Dropping of TBAB CHS can accelerate the supercooling release and crystallization. - Abstract: Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate slurry (CHS) is a promising phase change material slurry for cold storage and transport in air-conditioning system. This slurry can be generated from the supercooled TBAB aqueous solution. In the present study, TBAB CHS was generated under different thermal conditions, i.e. different initial mass concentrations of TBAB aqueous solution and different supercooling degrees. The crystallization of TBAB CHS and the overall heat transfer coefficient under different thermal conditions were clarified. It was concluded that the crystallization characteristics of TBAB hydrate crystals mainly depended upon the thermal condition of the supercooled TBAB aqueous solution. In addition, the dropping of pre-produced TBAB CHS into supercooled TBAB aqueous solution could immediately induce the crystallization of TBAB hydrate crystals, and the initial type of TBAB hydrate crystals was only related to the status of the supercooled TBAB aqueous solution regardless of the type of the dropped TBAB CHS. Furthermore, the overall heat transfer coefficients before crystallization and during crystallization were also measured. It was found that more hydrate crystals would adhere to the vessel wall at larger supercooling degree and higher mass concentration of aqueous solution, which would deteriorate the heat transfer significantly. Moreover, images of TBAB hydrate crystals under different thermal conditions were recorded in order to help clarifying the crystallization characteristics

  17. Gene silencing and homology-dependent gene silencing in Arabidopsis: genetic modifiers and DNA methylation.

    OpenAIRE

    Furner, I J; Sheikh, M. A.; Collett, C E

    1998-01-01

    Transgenes inserted into the plant genome can become inactive (gene silencing) or result in silencing of homologous cellular genes [homology-dependent gene silencing (HDG silencing)]. In an earlier study we reported HDG silencing of chalcone synthase (CHS) in Arabidopsis. This study concerns genetic revertants of one of the CHS HDG-silencing transgenic homozygotes. Two monogenic recessive trans-acting mutations (hog1 and ddm1) that impair gene silencing and HDG silencing were identified. Thes...

  18. Extensively deacetylated high molecular weight chitosan from the multistep ultrasound-assisted deacetylation of beta-chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiamingo, Anderson; Delezuk, Jorge Augusto de Moura; Trombotto, Stéphane; David, Laurent; Campana-Filho, Sergio Paulo

    2016-09-01

    High intensity ultrasound irradiation was used to convert beta-chitin (BCHt) into chitosan (CHs). Typically, beta-chitin was suspended in 40% (w/w) aqueous sodium hydroxide at a ratio 1/10 (gmL(-1)) and then submitted to ultrasound-assisted deacetylation (USAD) during 50min at 60°C and a fixed irradiation surface intensity (52.6Wcm(-2)). Hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and capillary viscometry were used to determine the average degree of acetylation (DA‾) and viscosity average degree of polymerization (DPv‾), respectively, of the parent beta-chitin (DA‾=80.7%; DPv‾=6865) and USAD chitosans. A first USAD reaction resulted in chitosan CHs1 (DA‾=36.7%; DPv‾=5838). Chitosans CHs2 (DA‾=15.0%; DPv‾=5128) and CHs3 (DA‾=4.3%; DPv‾=4889) resulted after repeating the USAD procedure to CHs1 consecutively once and twice, respectively. Size-exclusion chromatography analyzes allowed the determination of the weight average molecular weight (Mw‾) and dispersity (Ð) of CHs1 (Mw‾=1,260,000gmol(-1); Ð=1.4), CHs2 (Mw‾=1,137,000gmol(-1); Ð=1.4) and CHs3 (Mw‾=912,000gmol(-1); Ð=1.3). Such results revealed that, thanks to the action of high intensity ultrasound irradiation, the USAD process allowed the preparation of unusually high molecular weight, randomly deacetylated chitosan, an important breakthrough to the development of new high grade chitosan-based materials displaying superior mechanical properties. PMID:27150748

  19. The combined hybrid system: A symbiotic thermal reactor/fast reactor system for power generation and radioactive waste toxicity reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If there is to be a next generation of nuclear power in the United States, then the four fundamental obstacles confronting nuclear power technology must be overcome: safety, cost, waste management, and proliferation resistance. The Combined Hybrid System (CHS) is proposed as a possible solution to the problems preventing a vigorous resurgence of nuclear power. The CHS combines Thermal Reactors (for operability, safety, and cost) and Integral Fast Reactors (for waste treatment and actinide burning) in a symbiotic large scale system. The CHS addresses the safety and cost issues through the use of advanced reactor designs, the waste management issue through the use of actinide burning, and the proliferation resistance issue through the use of an integral fuel cycle with co-located components. There are nine major components in the Combined Hybrid System linked by nineteen nuclear material mass flow streams. A computer code, CHASM, is used to analyze the mass flow rates CHS, and the reactor support ratio (the ratio of thermal/fast reactors), IFR of the system. The primary advantages of the CHS are its essentially actinide-free high-level radioactive waste, plus improved reactor safety, uranium utilization, and widening of the option base. The primary disadvantages of the CHS are the large capacity of IFRs required (approximately one MWe IFR capacity for every three MWe Thermal Reactor) and the novel radioactive waste streams produced by the CHS. The capability of the IFR to burn pure transuranic fuel, a primary assumption of this study, has yet to be proven. The Combined Hybrid System represents an attractive option for future nuclear power development; that disposal of the essentially actinide-free radioactive waste produced by the CHS provides an excellent alternative to the disposal of intact actinide-bearing Light Water Reactor spent fuel (reducing the toxicity based lifetime of the waste from roughly 360,000 years to about 510 years)

  20. Proceedings of US-Japan heliotron-stellarator workshop: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This paper is the first of four volumes on the US-Japan Heliotron-Stellarator workshop. It contains talks on the Heliotron E experiment, the compact helical system (CHS) program, the status of the ATF project, the status of the W VII-AS, the status of the TJ-II program, the ATF experimental plans, the ATF diagnostics, the compact Helical system, and the CHS experimental program and diagnostics. (LSP)

  1. Giant dense bodies in fibroblasts cultured from beige mice with the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, R. A.; Spicer, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Fibroblasts cultured from the skin of beige mice manifesting the Chédiak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), unlike cells derived from normal black mice, exhibited giant dense bodies in the cytoplasm. These megabodies were membrane-delimited and exhibited dense content by electron microscopy, with myelin figures, highly osmiophilic, thick membranous contours, and lucent areas. The megabodies evidenced acid phosphatase ultrastructurally. Cells of both normal and CHS mice contained smaller dense bodies. Du...

  2. Assessment of the sensitizing potency of low molecular weight chemicals : employment of a regression method in vivo and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Och, Franciscus Martinus Maria van

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important allergic diseases caused by chemicals, contact hypersensitivity (CHS) or skin sensitization, forms a serious problem for individuals experiencing such a reaction. The prevalence of CHS tends to grow proportionally to the increasing exposure to an expanding variety of chemicals. Predictive animal tests to identify sensitizing properties of chemicals are therefore carried out at a large scale. For a better risk assessment, a more quantitative assessment of the sensitiz...

  3. Post-Transcriptional Silencing of Flavonol Synthase mRNA in Tobacco Leads to Fruits with Arrested Seed Set

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Mahajan; Paramvir Singh Ahuja; Sudesh Kumar Yadav

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids are synthesized by phenylpropanoid pathway. They are known to participate in large number of physiological and biochemical processes in plants. Parthenocarpy and male sterility has earlier been reported by silencing chalcone synthase (CHS) encoding gene. Silencing of CHS has blocked the synthesis of most of useful flavonoids including flavan-3-ols and flavonols. Also, these studies could not identify whether parthenocarpy/male sterility were due to lack of flavan-3-ols or flavonols...

  4. Prediction of Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome with Velocity Blood Pressure Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Chao Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is an important complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA. An >100% increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAV after CEA is used to predict the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS development, but the accuracy is limited. The increase in blood pressure (BP after surgery is a risk factor of CHS, but no study uses it to predict CHS. This study was to create a more precise parameter for prediction of CHS by combined the increase of MCAV and BP after CEA. Methods: Systolic MCAV measured by transcranial Doppler and systematic BP were recorded preoperatively; 30 min postoperatively. The new parameter velocity BP index (VBI was calculated from the postoperative increase ratios of MCAV and BP. The prediction powers of VBI and the increase ratio of MCAV (velocity ratio [VR] were compared for predicting CHS occurrence. Results: Totally, 6/185 cases suffered CHS. The best-fit cut-off point of 2.0 for VBI was identified, which had 83.3% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, 62.5% positive predictive value and 99.4% negative predictive value for CHS development. This result is significantly better than VR (33.3%, 97.2%, 28.6% and 97.8%. The area under the curve (AUC of receiver operating characteristic: AUC VBI = 0.981, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949-0.995; AUC VR = 0.935, 95% CI 0.890-0.966, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The new parameter VBI can more accurately predict patients at risk of CHS after CEA. This observation needs to be validated by larger studies.

  5. The 3' region of the chicken hypersensitive site-4 insulator has properties similar to its core and is required for full insulator activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Paritha I; Urbinati, Fabrizia; Velu, Chinavenmeni S; Higashimoto, Tomoyasu; Grimes, H Leighton; Malik, Punam

    2009-01-01

    Chromatin insulators separate active transcriptional domains and block the spread of heterochromatin in the genome. Studies on the chicken hypersensitive site-4 (cHS4) element, a prototypic insulator, have identified CTCF and USF-1/2 motifs in the proximal 250 bp of cHS4, termed the "core", which provide enhancer blocking activity and reduce position effects. However, the core alone does not insulate viral vectors effectively. The full-length cHS4 has excellent insulating properties, but its large size severely compromises vector titers. We performed a structure-function analysis of cHS4 flanking lentivirus-vectors and analyzed transgene expression in the clonal progeny of hematopoietic stem cells and epigenetic changes in cHS4 and the transgene promoter. We found that the core only reduced the clonal variegation in expression. Unique insulator activity resided in the distal 400 bp cHS4 sequences, which when combined with the core, restored full insulator activity and open chromatin marks over the transgene promoter and the insulator. These data consolidate the known insulating activity of the canonical 5' core with a novel 3' 400 bp element with properties similar to the core. Together, they have excellent insulating properties and viral titers. Our data have important implications in understanding the molecular basis of insulator function and design of gene therapy vectors. PMID:19746166

  6. Oral Mucosa Bleeding Times of Normal Cats and Cats with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome or Hageman Trait (Factor XII Deficiency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M T; Collier, L L; Kier, A B; Johnson, G S

    1988-01-01

    A commercially available, disposable blade in a spring-loaded cassette was used to measure oral mucosa bleeding times (OMBT) of ketamine/acepromazine-anesthetized cats. The OMBT were determined in cats homozygous for Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS, n = 7), cats heterozygous for CHS (n = 6), and cats homozygous for Hageman factor (factor XII) deficiency (n = 5). In addition, OMBT were determined in three groups of normal cats: random-source cats (n = 14), inbred normal relatives of the cats with CHS (n = 7), and inbred normal relatives of Hageman factor deficient cats (n = 9). No significant differences were found in the OMBT of the three groups of normal cats. The mean OMBT for all 30 normal cats was 1.9 minutes +/- 0.5 minutes s.d. Compared to the normal cats, those homozygous for CHS had significantly prolonged OMBT (14.1 +/- 3.3 minutes; p cats heterozygous for CHS (2.6 +/- 0.8 minutes) was also significantly longer than the OMBT of the combined normal group. The mean OMBT of the CHS heterozygotes, however, was not significantly longer than that of their normal relatives (OMBT = 1.8 +/- 0.5 minutes), probably because of the low number of cats in this subgroup of normals. As expected, the OMBT of cats homozygous for Hageman factor deficiency (2.3 +/- 0.3 minutes) were not significantly prolonged. PMID:15162339

  7. The 3' region of the chicken hypersensitive site-4 insulator has properties similar to its core and is required for full insulator activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paritha I Arumugam

    Full Text Available Chromatin insulators separate active transcriptional domains and block the spread of heterochromatin in the genome. Studies on the chicken hypersensitive site-4 (cHS4 element, a prototypic insulator, have identified CTCF and USF-1/2 motifs in the proximal 250 bp of cHS4, termed the "core", which provide enhancer blocking activity and reduce position effects. However, the core alone does not insulate viral vectors effectively. The full-length cHS4 has excellent insulating properties, but its large size severely compromises vector titers. We performed a structure-function analysis of cHS4 flanking lentivirus-vectors and analyzed transgene expression in the clonal progeny of hematopoietic stem cells and epigenetic changes in cHS4 and the transgene promoter. We found that the core only reduced the clonal variegation in expression. Unique insulator activity resided in the distal 400 bp cHS4 sequences, which when combined with the core, restored full insulator activity and open chromatin marks over the transgene promoter and the insulator. These data consolidate the known insulating activity of the canonical 5' core with a novel 3' 400 bp element with properties similar to the core. Together, they have excellent insulating properties and viral titers. Our data have important implications in understanding the molecular basis of insulator function and design of gene therapy vectors.

  8. Interleukin-12 reverses the inhibitory impact of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on the murine contact hypersensitivity response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Guillermo O.; Levy, Julia G.; Hunt, David W. C.

    1998-05-01

    Treatment of mice with certain photosensitizers combined with exposure to visible light limits the development of the immunologically-mediated contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response against topically-applied chemical haptens. Understanding of the inhibitory action of photosensitizers upon the CHS response is incomplete. Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, verteporfin), a photosensitizer with immunomodulatory activity, strongly depressed CHS responses to the hapten dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB). However, if mice were administered 1 (mu) g of a recombinant preparation of the pro- inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (rIL-12), full-fledged CHS responses to DNFB ensued in animals treated with BPD-MA and light. In contrast, when rIL-12 was given in combination with an anti-IL-12 antibody the restorative effect of rIL-12 on the CHS response of PDT-treated mice was blocked. Evaluation of the cytokine status of spleen and draining lymph node cells showed for DNFB painted animals, that the release of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 was increased by PDT and rIL-12 counter-acted the increase in IL-10 liberation associated with PDT. These studies indicate that IL-10 formation is upregulated and the availability of IL-12 may be limited in mice treated with PDT. These features may contribute to deficient CHS responses observed with PDT.

  9. Child health care utilisation in families with young or single mothers in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallby, Thomas; Modin, Bitte; Hjern, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Young age and lone parenthood are risk factors for impaired health among mothers and their children. Due to the higher risks of negative influences on physical and mental health, young and single mothers should be of special concern to the Child Health Services (CHS). In the present study, we investigated consumption patterns of child health care services among young and single mothers in Uppsala County, Sweden to study whether they are reached by the universal CHS program and if selective or indicative measures were administered in daily CHS practice. Register data on CHS contacts and socio-demographic indicators were collected for 10692 infants, born in 1998-2006. Results show small differences in contact pattern and immunization status, between children of young versus older, and single versus cohabiting mothers. However, both young (RR 0.64) and single (RR 0.80) mothers had significantly lower rates of participation in parental group. The CHS were consequently successful in implementing the universal preventive child health programme for all families, including families with young or single mothers. There was no indication, however, of an established selective preventive strategy aimed at these high risk families. Programs for strengthening the support provided to vulnerable families by the CHS are needed. PMID:23197384

  10. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: Case Report of a Paradoxical Reaction with Heavy Marijuana Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS is a rare constellation of clinical findings that includes a history of chronic heavy marijuana use, severe abdominal pain, unrelenting nausea, and intractable vomiting. A striking component of this history includes the use of hot showers or long baths that help to alleviate these symptoms. This is an underrecognized syndrome that can lead to expensive and unrevealing workups and can leave patients self-medicating their nausea and vomiting with the very substance that is causing their symptoms. Long-term treatment of CHS is abstinence from marijuana use—but the acute symptomatic treatment of CHS has been a struggle for many clinicians. Many standard medications used for the symptomatic treatment of CHS (including ondansetron, promethazine, and morphine have repeatedly been shown to be ineffective. Here we present the use of lorazepam as an agent that successfully and safely treats the tenacious symptoms of CHS. Additionally, we build upon existing hypotheses for the pathogenesis of CHS to try to explain why a substance that has been used for thousands of years is only now beginning to cause this paradoxical hyperemesis syndrome.

  11. A Gut Gone to Pot: A Case of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome due to K2, a Synthetic Cannabinoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anene Ukaigwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS was first described in 2004. Due to its novelty, CHS is often unrecognized by clinicians leading to expensive workup of these patients with cyclical symptoms. It may take up to 9 years to diagnose CHS. CHS is characterized by cyclical nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and an unusual compulsion to take hot showers in the presence of chronic use of cannabinoids. Cannabicyclohexanol is a synthetic cannabinoid, popularly known as K2 spice. It is a popular marijuana alternative among teenagers and young adults since it is readily available as herbal incense. Unlike marijuana, many users know that K2 is not detected in conventional urine drug screens, allowing those users to conceal their intake from typical detection methods. Serum or urine gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry is diagnostic, though not widely available. Thus, it is imperative for clinicians to recognize CHS, even with negative UDS, to provide cost-effective care. We present a 38-year-old man with a 10-year history of cannabis, and 1-year history of K2 abuse admitted with 1-week history of episodes of nausea, vomiting of clear fluids, and epigastric discomfort. Symptoms are relieved only by hot showers. Extensive laboratory, radiologic, and endoscopic evaluation was unrevealing. CHS was diagnosed, based on proposed criteria by Simonetti et al.

  12. A new financial budgetary system for community health services institutions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Chuanmei; Yao, Lan; Fu, Jiakang; Wang, Fang; Wang, Hongqing; Dai, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The separation of revenue and expenditure budgets (SREB) is a new financial budgetary system that is being implemented in community health services (CHS) institutions in some areas in China. Through literature review, it was found that, derived from the traditional separation of revenue and expenditure budgets (TSREB) implemented in administrative public services units, SREB and TSREB have something in common and yet many more differences. On the basis of some quantitative and qualitative data that were collected by field survey, it was also found that implementation of SREB in CHS institutions brings positive outcomes in terms of the quantity, quality and efficiency of services; residents' satisfaction; and the behavior of CHS institutions. The conclusion can be suggested that SREB, as a system having impact upon the incentives facing CHS institutions and the nature of governmental responsibility for developing CHS in China, will promote CHS institutions to fulfill basic service functions if implemented well. Therefore, it is a system that is worth further development and evaluation. PMID:22213260

  13. Unrelated cord blood transplantation can restore hematologic and immunologic functions in patients with Chediak-Higashi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihani, Rawad; Barbar, Maha; Faqih, Nesreen; Halalsheh, Hadeel; Hussein, Ayad Ahmad; Al-Zaben, Abdul Hadi; Rahman, Fawzi Abdel; Sarhan, Mahmoud

    2012-06-01

    CHS is a rare hereditary fatal disease, if not treated. APs occur in 85% of patients and are usually the main cause of mortality, and HSCT from HLA-matched related and unrelated donors is the only effective treatment for CHS and prevents recurrences of APs. We reviewed the records of three patients with CHS who underwent UCBT at KHCC. Records were examined for clinical features at the time of UCBT, conditioning regimens, morbidities, and outcomes. Conditioning comprised BU, cyclophosphamide, horse ATG, and etoposide. All patients tolerated the conditioning well. Two patients are alive, one with mixed and the other with full donor chimerism; hematologic and immunologic defects of CHS have been corrected in both patients. They show no evidence of recurrences of APs and have normal growth and development. In patients with CHS who lack HLA-matched related and unrelated donors, UCBT is a suitable alternative source of stem cells to restore immunologic and hematologic functions and prevent AP relapses, even in mixed chimeric states. Long follow-up and close monitoring are essential to evaluate the long-term benefits of using UCBT in patients with CHS. PMID:21450011

  14. Hurdle Effect of Antimicrobial Activity Achieved by Time Differential Releasing of Nisin and Chitosan Hydrolysates from Bacterial Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Hui-Ling; Lin, Shih-Bin; Chen, Li-Chen; Chen, Hui-Huang

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the combined antimicrobial effect of nisin and chitosan hydrolysates (CHs) by regulating the antimicrobial reaction order of substances due to differential releasing rate from hydroxypropylmethylcellulose-modified bacterial cellulose (HBC). The minimum inhibitory concentration of nisin against Staphylococcus aureus and that of CHs against Escherichia coli were 6 IU and 200 μg/mL, respectively. Hurdle and additive effects in antimicrobial tests were observed when nisin was used 6 h before CH treatment against S. aureus; similar effects were observed when CH was used before nisin treatment against E. coli. Simultaneously combined treatment of nisin and CHs exhibited the low antimicrobial effect. HBC was then selected as the carrier for the controlled release of nisin and CHs. A 90% inhibition in the growth of S. aureus and E. coli was achieved when 30 IU-nisin-containing HBC and 62.5 μg/mL-CH-containing HBC were used simultaneously. The controlled release of nisin and CHs by using HBC minimized the interaction between nisin and CHs as well as increased the number of microbial targets. PMID:27074534

  15. Ingression Progression Complexes Control Extracellular Matrix Remodelling during Cytokinesis in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltman, Magdalena; Molist, Iago; Arcones, Irene; Sacristan, Carlos; Filali-Mouncef, Yasmina; Roncero, Cesar; Sanchez-Diaz, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells must coordinate contraction of the actomyosin ring at the division site together with ingression of the plasma membrane and remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to support cytokinesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In eukaryotes, glycosyltransferases that synthesise ECM polysaccharides are emerging as key factors during cytokinesis. The budding yeast chitin synthase Chs2 makes the primary septum, a special layer of the ECM, which is an essential process during cell division. Here we isolated a group of actomyosin ring components that form complexes together with Chs2 at the cleavage site at the end of the cell cycle, which we named ‘ingression progression complexes’ (IPCs). In addition to type II myosin, the IQGAP protein Iqg1 and Chs2, IPCs contain the F-BAR protein Hof1, and the cytokinesis regulators Inn1 and Cyk3. We describe the molecular mechanism by which chitin synthase is activated by direct association of the C2 domain of Inn1, and the transglutaminase-like domain of Cyk3, with the catalytic domain of Chs2. We used an experimental system to find a previously unanticipated role for the C-terminus of Inn1 in preventing the untimely activation of Chs2 at the cleavage site until Cyk3 releases the block on Chs2 activity during late mitosis. These findings support a model for the co-ordinated regulation of cell division in budding yeast, in which IPCs play a central role. PMID:26891268

  16. Mutations in an atypical TIR-NB-LRR-LIM resistance protein confers autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongling eBi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to defend against infection, plants employ a complex immune system that relies partly on resistance (R proteins which initiate intricate signalling cascades upon pathogen detection. The resistance signalling network in plants is only partially characterized. A genetic screen conducted to identify novel defense regulators involved in this network resulted in the isolation of the snc6-1D mutant. Positional cloning revealed that this mutant contained a molecular lesion in the CHILLING SENSITIVE 3 (CHS3 gene, thus the allele was renamed chs3-2D. CHS3 encodes a TIR-NB-LRR R protein that contains a C-terminal zinc-binding LIM (Lin-11, Isl-1, Mec-3 domain. Although this protein has been previously implicated in cold stress and defense response, the role of the LIM domain in modulating protein activity is unclear. The chs3-2D allele contains a G to A point mutation causing a C1340 to Y1340 substitution close to the LIM domain. It encodes a dominant, gain-of-function mutation. The chs3-2D mutant is stunted and displays curled leaf morphology. Additionally, it constitutively expresses PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR genes, accumulates salicylic acid, and shows enhanced resistance to the virulent oomycete isolate Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (H.a. Noco2. Subcellular localization assays using GFP fusion constructs indicate that both CHS3 and chs3-2D localize to the nucleus. A third mutant allele, chs3-3D, was identified in an unrelated genetic screen in our lab. This allele contains a C to T point mutation resulting in an M1017 to V1017 substitution in the LRR-LIM linker region. Additionally, a chs3-2D suppressor screen identified two revertant alleles containing secondary mutations that abolish the mutant morphology. Analysis of the locations of these molecular lesions provides support for the hypothesis that the LIM domain represses CHS3 R-like protein activity. This repression may occur through either autoinhibition or binding of a negative defense

  17. Effective photosensitization-based inactivation of Gram (-) food pathogens and molds using the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex: towards photoactive edible coatings to preserve strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchovec, Irina; Lukseviciute, Viktorija; Marsalka, Arunas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Luksiene, Zivile

    2016-04-13

    This study is focused on the novel approaches to enhance the inactivation of the Gram (-) food pathogen Salmonella enterica and harmful molds in vitro and on the surface of strawberries using the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex. Salmonella enterica (∼1 × 10(7) CFU mL(-1)) was incubated with chlorophyllin 1.5 × 10(-5) M (Chl, food additive), chitosan 0.1% (CHS, food supplement) or the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex (1.5 × 10(-5) M Chl-0.1% CHS) and illuminated with visible light (λ = 405 nm, light dose 38 J cm(-2)) in vitro. Chlorophyllin (Chl)-based photosensitization inactivated Salmonella just by 1.8 log. Chitosan (CHS) alone incubated for 2 h with Salmonella reduced viability 2.15 log, whereas photoactivated Chl-CHS diminished bacterial viability by 7 log. SEM images indicate that the Chl-CHS complex under these experimental conditions covered the entire bacterial surface. Significant cell membrane disintegration was the main lethal injury induced in Gram (-) bacteria by this treatment. Analysis of strawberry decontamination from surface-inoculated Salmonella indicated that photoactivated Chl-CHS (1.5 × 10(-5) M Chl-0.1% CHS, 30 min incubation, light dose 38 J cm(-2)) coatings diminished the pathogen population on the surface of strawberries by 2.2 log. Decontamination of strawberries from naturally distributed yeasts/molds revealed that chitosan alone reduced the population of yeasts/molds just by 0.4 log, Chl-based photosensitization just by 0.9 log, whereas photoactivated Chl-CHS coatings reduced yeasts/molds on the surface of strawberries by 1.4 log. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed that no additional photosensitization-induced free radicals have been found in the strawberry matrix. Visual quality (color, texture) of the treated strawberries was not affected either. In conclusion, photoactive Chl-CHS exhibited strong antimicrobial action against more resistant to photosensitization Gram (-) Salmonella enterica in comparison with

  18. 冕洞内矢量磁场的分布和演化%Distribution and Evolution of Vector Magnetic Fields in Coronal Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨书红

    2012-01-01

    With the observations from the SOHO, Hinode, STEREO, and SDO, we investigate some aspects of CHs in detail for the first time, such as the evolution of vector magnetic field and magnetic nonpotentiality in CHs, and obtain a series of results. (1) Response of the solar atmosphere to the magnetic field distribution and evolution in a CH. We study the magnetic fields in a CH and at the CH boundary, and present the corresponding atmospheric response of different overlying layers to the magnetic field distribution and evolution. We also quantitatively analyze the relationship between the magnetic flux density and atmospheric emissions at different wavelengths. (2) Evolution of dipoles in an equatorial CH and its effect on the decay of the CH. We investigate the evolution of dipolar magnetic fields in an equatorial CH region. In the CH, the submergence of initial loops after their emergence is observed for the first time. The area where the dipoles are located becomes a place of mixed polarities instead of the unipolar fields, resulting in the change of the overlying corona from a CH area to a quiet region. (3) Distribution of vector magnetic fields and magnetic nonpotentiality of CHs. We investigate the vector magnetic fields, current densities, and current helicities in two CHs, and compare them with two quiet regions. We find that: (i) in the areas where the large current helicities are concentrated, there are strong vertical and horizontal field elements; (ii) the mean current density in the magnetic flux concentrations with the vertical fields stronger than 100 Gs is as large as (0.012 0.001) Am-2, consistent with that in the flare productive active regions; (iii) the magnetic fields in both the CHs and the quiet regions are nonpotential. (4) SDO observations of magnetic reconnection at CH boundaries. At the CH boundaries, we find many coronal jets as the signatures of magnetic reconnection, below which the magnetic emergence and cancellation are observed. We study

  19. 邯郸市社区卫生服务人员工作满意度调查%STUDY ON THE JOB SATISFACTION AND INFLUENCING FACTORS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICE PERSONNEL IN HANDAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤丽; 李焰; 张婷; 毛希瑞; 党瑞英; 焦丽艳

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究邯郸市社区卫生服务(Community Health Service,CHS)机构工作人员满意度现况,探索满意度影响因素,为制定促进人员工作满意度相关策略提供依据.[方法]运用现状调查方法,进行现场问卷调查.收集邯郸市103个社区卫生服务机构(中心25个、站78个)工作人员工作满意度的相关数据,进行统计学分析. [结果]邯郸市社区卫生服务机构医务人员工作总的满意程度较高,学历、机构类型等是卫技人员工作满意度的影响因素.[结论]邯郸市CHS人员工作满意度受多方面因素影响,满意度有待进一步提高.%[Objective] To study the status of job satisfaction of Community Health Service (CHS) agencies in Handan, and explore the influencing factors of job satisfaction and provide suggestion on policy decision of improving the job satisfaction. [Methods] Investigation method and on-site survey was conducted to collect data about job satisfaction of the 103 (25 centers, 78 stations) Community Health Service (CHS) agencies in Handan. [Results] The total job satisfaction of the status of Community Health Service (CHS) agencies in Handan was higher at some extent. Age, education background and institution style were potential influencing factors of job satisfaction to CHS technical personal. [Conclusion] The job satisfaction of CHS personnel is influenced by intricate factors, and the job satisfaction of CHS personal should be improved in Handan.

  20. Metabolic engineering of the morphology of Aspergillus oryzae by altering chitin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian; McIntyre, Mhairi; Hansen, Kim; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-04-01

    Morphology and alpha-amylase production during submerged cultivation were examined in a wild-type strain (A1560) and in strains of Aspergillus oryzae in which chitin synthase B (chsB) and chitin synthesis myosin A (csmA) have been disrupted (ChsB/G and CM101). In a flowthrough cell, the growth of submerged hyphal elements was studied online, making it possible to examine the growth kinetics of the three strains. The average tip extension rates of the CM101 and ChsB/G strains were 25 and 88% lower, respectively, than that of the wild type. The branching intensity in the CM101 strain was 25% lower than that in the wild type, whereas that in the ChsB/G strain was 188% higher. During batch cultivation, inseparable clumps were formed in the wild-type strain, while no or fewer large inseparable clumps existed in the cultivations of the ChsB/G and CM101 strains. The alpha-amylase productivity was not significantly different in the three strains. A strain in which the transcription of chsB could be controlled by the nitrogen source-regulated promoter niiA (NiiA1) was examined during chemostat cultivation, and it was found that the branching intensity could be regulated by regulating the promoter, signifying an important role for chsB in branching. However, the pattern of branching responded very slowly to the change in transcription, and increased branching did not affect alpha-amylase productivity. alpha-Amylase residing in the cell wall was stained by immunofluorescence, and the relationship between tip number and enzyme secretion is discussed. PMID:11916702

  1. Functional Promiscuity of Two Divergent Paralogs of Type III Plant Polyketide Synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandith, Shahzad A; Dhar, Niha; Rana, Satiander; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai P; Shah, Manzoor A; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2016-08-01

    Plants effectively defend themselves against biotic and abiotic stresses by synthesizing diverse secondary metabolites, including health-protective flavonoids. These display incredible chemical diversity and ubiquitous occurrence and confer impeccable biological and agricultural applications. Chalcone synthase (CHS), a type III plant polyketide synthase, is critical for flavonoid biosynthesis. It catalyzes acyl-coenzyme A thioesters to synthesize naringenin chalcone through a polyketidic intermediate. The functional divergence among the evolutionarily generated members of a gene family is pivotal in driving the chemical diversity. Against this backdrop, this study was aimed to functionally characterize members of the CHS gene family from Rheum emodi, an endangered and endemic high-altitude medicinal herb of northwestern Himalayas. Two full-length cDNAs (1,179 bp each), ReCHS1 and ReCHS2, encoding unique paralogs were isolated and characterized. Heterologous expression and purification in Escherichia coli, bottom-up proteomic characterization, high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, and enzyme kinetic studies using five different substrates confirmed their catalytic potential. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of higher synonymous mutations in the intronless divergents of ReCHS. ReCHS2 displayed significant enzymatic efficiency (Vmax/Km) with different substrates. There were significant spatial and altitudinal variations in messenger RNA transcript levels of ReCHSs correlating positively with metabolite accumulation. Furthermore, the elicitations in the form of methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, ultraviolet B light, and wounding, chosen on the basis of identified cis-regulatory promoter elements, presented considerable differences in the transcript profiles of ReCHSs. Taken together, our results demonstrate differential propensities of CHS paralogs in terms of the accumulation of flavonoids and

  2. Impaired adaptation of gastrointestinal motility following chronic stress in maternally separated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülbül, Mehmet; Babygirija, Reji; Cerjak, Diana; Yoshimoto, Sazu; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2012-04-01

    Exposure to early life stress causes increased stress responsiveness and permanent changes in the central nervous system. We recently showed that delayed gastric emptying (GE) and accelerated colonic transit (CT) in response to acute restraint stress (ARS) were completely restored following chronic homotypic stress (CHS) in rats via upregulation of hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) expression. However, it is unknown whether early life stress affects hypothalamic OXT circuits and gastrointestinal motor function. Neonatal rats were subjected to maternal separation (MS) for 180 min/day for 2 wk. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated-plus-maze test. GE and CT were measured under nonstressed (NS), ARS, and CHS conditions. Expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and OXT in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus was evaluated by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. MS increased anxiety-like behaviors. ARS delayed GE and accelerated CT in control and MS rats. After CHS, delayed GE and accelerated CT were restored in control, but not MS, rats. CRF mRNA expression was significantly increased in response to ARS in control and MS rats. Increased CRF mRNA expression was still observed following CHS in MS, but not control, rats. In response to CHS, OXT mRNA expression was significantly increased in control, but not MS, rats. The number of OXT-immunoreactive cells was increased following CHS in the magnocellular part of the PVN in control, but not MS, rats. MS impairs the adaptation response of gastrointestinal motility following CHS. The mechanism of the impaired adaptation involves downregulation of OXT and upregulation of CRF in the hypothalamus in MS rats. PMID:22241856

  3. Hypothalamic oxytocin attenuates CRF expression via GABA(A) receptors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülbül, Mehmet; Babygirija, Reji; Cerjak, Diana; Yoshimoto, Sazu; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2011-04-28

    Centrally released oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic and anti-stress effects. Delayed gastric emptying (GE) induced by acute restraint stress (ARS) for 90 min is completely restored following 5 consecutive days of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHS), via up-regulating hypothalamic OXT expression in rats. However, the mechanism behind the restoration of delayed GE following CHS remains unclear. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-projecting neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) have been shown to inhibit corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) synthesis via GABA(A) receptors. We hypothesized that GABA(A) receptors are involved in mediating the inhibitory effect of OXT on CRF expression in the PVN, which in turn restores delayed GE following CHS. OXT (0.5 μg) and selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (BMI) (100 ng), were administered intracerebroventricularly (icv). Solid GE was measured under non-stressed (NS), ARS and CHS conditions. Expression of CRF mRNA in the PVN was evaluated by real time RT-PCR. Neither OXT nor BMI changed GE and CRF mRNA expression under NS conditions. Delayed GE and increased CRF mRNA expression induced by ARS were restored by icv-injection of OXT. The effects of OXT on delayed GE and increased CRF mRNA expression in ARS were abolished by icv-injection of BMI. Following CHS, delayed GE was completely restored in saline (icv)-injected rats, whereas daily injection of BMI (icv) attenuated the restoration of delayed GE. Daily injection of BMI (icv) significantly increased CRF mRNA expression following CHS. It is suggested that central OXT inhibits ARS-induced CRF mRNA expression via GABA(A) receptors in the PVN. GABAergic system is also involved in OXT-mediated adaptation response of delayed GE under CHS conditions. PMID:21382355

  4. Acylphloroglucinol Biosynthesis in Strawberry Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chuankui; Ring, Ludwig; Hoffmann, Thomas; Huang, Fong-Chin; Slovin, Janet; Schwab, Wilfried

    2015-11-01

    Phenolics have health-promoting properties and are a major group of metabolites in fruit crops. Through reverse genetic analysis of the functions of four ripening-related genes in the octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), we discovered four acylphloroglucinol (APG)-glucosides as native Fragaria spp. fruit metabolites whose levels were differently regulated in the transgenic fruits. The biosynthesis of the APG aglycones was investigated by examination of the enzymatic properties of three recombinant Fragaria vesca chalcone synthase (FvCHS) proteins. CHS is involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis during ripening. The F. vesca enzymes readily catalyzed the condensation of two intermediates in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, isovaleryl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and isobutyryl-CoA, with three molecules of malonyl-CoA to form phlorisovalerophenone and phlorisobutyrophenone, respectively, and formed naringenin chalcone when 4-coumaroyl-CoA was used as starter molecule. Isovaleryl-CoA was the preferred starter substrate of FvCHS2-1. Suppression of CHS activity in both transient and stable CHS-silenced fruit resulted in a substantial decrease of APG glucosides and anthocyanins and enhanced levels of volatiles derived from branched-chain amino acids. The proposed APG pathway was confirmed by feeding isotopically labeled amino acids. Thus, Fragaria spp. plants have the capacity to synthesize pharmaceutically important APGs using dual functional CHS/(phloriso)valerophenone synthases that are expressed during fruit ripening. Duplication and adaptive evolution of CHS is the most probable scenario and might be generally applicable to other plants. The results highlight that important promiscuous gene function may be missed when annotation relies solely on in silico analysis. PMID:26169681

  5. Determination and validation of chikusetsusaponin IVa in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Shi-Ping; Guo, Mei-Hua; Wang, Zhuo

    2016-09-01

    A novel, sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of chikusetsusaponin IVa (CHS-IVa) in rat plasma was established and validated. Plasma samples were pre-treated by precipitation of protein with acetonitrile and chromatographed on a Waters Symmetry C18 analytical column (4.6 × 50 mm, i.d., 3.5 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water containing 0.05% formic acid (55:45, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The deprotonated molecular ions [M - H](-) were employed in electrospray negative ionization mode and selected reaction monitoring transitions were performed for detection. The calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r > 0.99) over the range of 0.5-1000 ng/mL for CHS-IVa. The recoveries of CHS-IVa were >92.5% and exhibited no severe matrix effect. This method was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetic study of CHS-IVa in rats. For oral administration, the plasma concentrations of CHS-IVa increased to a peak value at 0.35 ± 0.14 h, followed by a gradual decrease to the lower limit of quantitation in 24 h. For intravenous administration, the plasma concentrations of CHS-IVa decreased quickly (t1/2 , 1.59 ± 0.25 h). The absolute bioavailability of CHS-IVa in rats was 8.63%. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26864353

  6. Molecular dynamic behavior and binding affinity of flavonoid analogues to the cyclin dependent kinase 6/cyclin D complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuntawee, Wasinee; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Hannongbua, Supot

    2012-01-23

    The cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), each with their respective regulatory partner cyclin that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, apoptosis, and transcription, are potentially interesting targets for cancer therapy. The CDK6 complex with cyclin D (CDK6/cycD) drives cellular proliferation by phosphorylation of specific key target proteins. To understand the flavonoids that inhibit the CDK6/cycD functions, molecular dynamics simulations (MDSs) were performed on three inhibitors, fisetin (FST), apigenin (AGN), and chrysin (CHS), complexed with CDK6/cycD, including the two different binding orientations of CHS: FST-like (CHS_A) and deschloro-flavopiridol-like (CHS_B). For all three inhibitors, including both CHS orientations, the conserved interaction between the 4-keto group of the flavonoid and the backbone V101 nitrogen of CDK6 was strongly detected. The 3'- and 4'-OH groups on the flavonoid phenyl ring and the 3-OH group on the benzopyranone ring of inhibitor were found to significantly increase the binding and inhibitory efficiency. Besides the electrostatic interactions, especially through hydrogen bond formation, the van der Waals (vdW) interactions with the I19, V27, F98, H100, and L152 residues of CDK6 are also important factors in the binding efficiency of flavonoids against the CDK6/cycD complex. On the basis of the docking calculation and MM-PBSA method, the order of the predicted inhibitory affinities of these three inhibitors toward the CDK6/cycD was FST > AGN > CHS, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, CHS preferentially binds to the active CDK6 in a different orientation to FST and AGN but similar to its related analog, deschloro-flavopiridol. The obtained results are useful as the basic information for the further design of potent anticancer drugs specifically targeting the CDK6 enzyme. PMID:22172011

  7. Biochemical characterization of chitin synthase activity and inhibition in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Kun Yan Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme catalyzing the formation of chitin polymers in all chitin containing organisms and a potential target site for insect pest control.However,our understanding of biochemical properties of insect CHSs has been very limited.We here report enzymatic and inhibitory properties of CHS prepared from the African malaria mosquito,Anopheles gambiae.Our study,which represents the first time to use a nonradioactive method to assay CHS activity in an insect species,determined the optimal conditions for measuring the enzyme activity,including pH,temperature,and concentrations of the substrate uridine diphosphate N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (UDPGlcNAc) and Mg++.The optimal pH was about 6.5-7.0,and the highest activity was detected at temperatures between 37℃ and 44℃.Dithithreitol is required to prevent melanization of the enzyme extract.CHS activity was enhanced at low concentration of GlcNAc,but inhibited at high concentrations.Proteolytic activation of the activity is significant both in the 500×g supernatant and the 40 000×g pellet.Our study revealed only slight in vitro inhibition ofA.gambiae CHS activity by diflubenzuron and nikkomycin Z at the highest concentration (2.5μmol/L) examined.There was no in vitro inhibition by polyoxin D at any concentration examined.Furthermore,we did not observe any in vivo inhibition of CHS activity by any of these chemicals at any concentration examined.Our results suggest that the inhibition of chitin synthesis by these chemicals is not due to direct inhibition of CHS in A.gambiae.

  8. ATF neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility is a stellarator torsatron being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate improved plasma confinement schemes. Plasmas heating will be carried out predominantly by means of neutral beam injection. This paper describes the basic parameters of the injection system. Numerical calculations were done to optimize the aiming of the injectors. The results of these calculations and their implications on the neutral power to the machine are elaborated. The effects of improving the beam optics and altering the focal length on the power transmitted to the plasma are discussed

  9. Peripheral plasma characteristics near LCMS in URAGAN-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of peripheral plasma parameters and of physical processes in this plasma will enable in particular to find out the mechanisms responsible for particle and energy transport from the confinement volume. The investigating of main peripheral plasma parameters in the URAGAN-3M (U-3M) torsatron was carried out when the bulk plasma was produced and heated in ICR conditions. The radial density, electron temperature, and floating potential profiles near the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS) have been measured at the active stage of the discharge. In particular, the effect of RF fields on generation of an additional positive potential near the LCMS has been shown. 11 refs, 4 figs

  10. Theoretical prediction of bootstrap current in the large helical device with unbalanced helical coil currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Helical Device (LHD), which is a heliotron/torsatron device with two helical coils, is designed so that the current in each helical coil can be controlled independently. Unbalancing these currents leads to spatial axis configurations. The bootstrap current is found to be strongly affected by any imbalance between these currents. When the ratio of the currents in the two helical coils is small enough, a bootstrap current flows in a direction so as to decrease the rotational transform because of the enhancement of the bumpiness component of the magnetic field as well as of the spatial axis component. This leads to improved stability. (author). 17 refs, 9 figs

  11. Development and Testing of Atomic Beam-Based Plasma Edge Diagnostics in the CIEMAT Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the development of plasma edge diagnostic based on atomic beam techniques fir their application in the CIEMAT fusion devices is described. The characterisation of the beams in laboratory experiments at the CSIC, together with first results in the Torsatron TJ-II are reported. Two types of beam diagnostics have been developed: a thermal (effusive) Li and a supersonic, pulsed He beams. This work has been carried out in collaboration between the institutions mentioned above under partial financial support by EURATOM. (Author) 17 refs

  12. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac

  13. Creation of low density starting plasma with small frame antenna at Uragan-3M device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deficient shot-to-shot stability of Uragan-3M discharges makes difficult to reproduce experimental results over the period of experimental session. An efficient way of reducing difference between shots is creation of initial low density plasma before the main discharge to start up. A RF pre-ionization in the same frequency range as that of the main discharge is used in the Uragan-3M torsatron. The pre-ionization provides stable discharges during the whole experimental campaign. The main parameters of the pre-ionization plasma are measured and discussed

  14. Modular coils: a promising toroidal-reactor-coil system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of modular coils originated from a need to find reactor-relevant stellarator windings, but its usefulness can be extended to provide an externally applied, additional rotational transform in tokamaks. Considerations of (1) basic principles of modular coils, (2) types of coils, (3) types of configurations (general, helically symmetric, helically asymmetric, with magnetic well, with magnetic hill), (4) types of rotational transform profile, and (5) structure and origin of ripples are given. These results show that modular coils can offer a wide range of vacuum magnetic field configurations, some of which cannot be obtained with the classical stellarator or torsatron coil configuration

  15. Plasma exposure tests of a carbon fiber/epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to test the exposure of a vacuum chamber made of a carbon fiber/epoxy composite to a plasma environment. In previous tests this material(CE 339, made by Ferro Corp.) has shown good vacuum properties and has also demonstrated the capability to withstand high energy electron beams in tests at the Naval Research Laboratory. Based on these promising results, the Torsatron Group at Auburn University conducted plasma exposure tests on a section of carbon fiber/epoxy composite pipe furnished by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1 ref, 2 figs

  16. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  17. Community hospitals – the place of local service provision in a modernising NHS: an integrative thematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaney David

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments within the United Kingdom's (UK health care system have re-awakened interest in community hospitals (CHs and their role in the provision of health care. This integrative literature review sought to identify and assess the current evidence base for CHs. Methods A range of electronic reference databases were searched from January 1984 to either December 2004 or February 2005: Medline, Embase, Web of Knowledge, BNI, CINAHL, HMIC, ASSIA, PsychInfo, SIGLE, Dissertation Abstracts, Cochrane Library, Kings Fund website, using both keywords and text words. Thematic analysis identified recurrent themes across the literature; narrative analyses were written for each theme, identifying unifying concepts and discrepant issues. Results The search strategy identified over 16,000 international references. We included papers of any study design focussing on hospitals in which care was led principally by general practitioners or nurses. Papers from developing countries were excluded. A review of titles revealed 641 potentially relevant references; abstract appraisal identified 161 references for review. During data extraction, a further 48 papers were excluded, leaving 113 papers in the final review. The most common methodological approaches were cross-sectional/descriptive studies, commentaries and expert opinion. There were few experimental studies, systematic reviews, economic studies or studies that reported on longer-term outcomes. The key themes identified were origin and location of CHs; their place in the continuum of care; services provided; effectiveness, efficiency and equity of CHs; and views of patients and staff. In general, there was a lack of robust evidence for the role of CHs, which is partly due to the ad hoc nature of their development and lack of clear strategic vision for their future. Evidence for the effectiveness and efficiency of the services provided was limited. Most people admitted to CHs

  18. An assessment of Makerere University College of Health Sciences: optimizing health research capacity to meet Uganda’s priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groves Sara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research is critical to the institutional mission of the Makerere College of Health Sciences (MakCHS. Optimizing the alignment of health research capacity at MakCHS with the health needs and priorities of Uganda, as outlined in the country’s Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP, is a deliberate priority, a responsibility, and a significant opportunity for research. To guide this strategic direction, an assessment of MakCHS’s research grants and publication portfolio was conducted. Methods A survey of all new and ongoing grants, as well as all publications, between January 2005 and December 2009 was conducted. Research, training, and education grants awarded to MakCHS’ constituent faculties and departments, were looked for through financial records at the college or by contact with funding organizations. Published manuscripts registered with PubMed, that included MakCHS faculty authors, were also analyzed. Results A total of 58 active grants were identified, of which 18 had been initiated prior to 2005 and there were an average of about eight new grants per year. Most grants funded basic and applied research, with major focus areas being HIV/AIDS (44%, malaria (19%, maternal and child health (14%, tuberculosis (11%, mental health (3%, and others (8%. MakCHS faculty were identified as Principal Investigators (PIs in only 22 (38% active grants. Grant funding details were only available for one third of the active grants at MakCHS. A total of 837 publications were identified, with an average of 167 publications per year, most of which (66% addressed the country’s priority health areas, and 58% had MakCHS faculty or students as first authors. Conclusions The research grants and publications at MakCHS are generally well-aligned with the Ugandan Health Ministry priorities. Greater efforts to establish centralized and efficient grants management procedures are needed. In addition, greater efforts are needed to expand

  19. LYST controls the biogenesis of the endosomal compartment required for secretory lysosome function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Fernando E; Burgess, Agathe; Heiligenstein, Xavier; Goudin, Nicolas; Ménager, Mickaël M; Romao, Maryse; Côte, Marjorie; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Fischer, Alain; Raposo, Graça; Ménasché, Gaël; de Saint Basile, Geneviève

    2015-02-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding LYST protein, the function of which remains poorly understood. Prominent features of CHS include defective secretory lysosome exocytosis and the presence of enlarged, lysosome-like organelles in several cell types. In order to get further insight into the role of LYST in the biogenesis and exocytosis of cytotoxic granules, we analyzed cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from patients with CHS. Using confocal microscopy and correlative light electron microscopy, we showed that the enlarged organelle in CTLs is a hybrid compartment that contains proteins components from recycling-late endosomes and lysosomes. Enlargement of cytotoxic granules results from the progressive clustering and then fusion of normal-sized endolysosomal organelles. At the immunological synapse (IS) in CHS CTLs, cytotoxic granules have limited motility and appear docked while nevertheless unable to degranulate. By increasing the expression of effectors of lytic granule exocytosis, such as Munc13-4, Rab27a and Slp3, in CHS CTLs, we were able to restore the dynamics and the secretory ability of cytotoxic granules at the IS. Our results indicate that LYST is involved in the trafficking of the effectors involved in exocytosis required for the terminal maturation of perforin-containing vesicles into secretory cytotoxic granules. PMID:25425525

  20. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite/chondroitin sulfate composites by biomimetic synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the principles of biomineralization, flakelike hydroxyapatite/chondroitin sulfate composites were synthesized through biomimetic method using Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and (NH4)3PO4.3H2O as reagents and chondroitin sulfate as template. The crystalline phase, microstructure, chemical composition, morphology and thermal behavior of the composites obtained in the experiment were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Thermogravimetry-Differential thermal analyzer (TG-DTA) and Elemental analyzer, respectively. The interaction between the functional groups of ChS and HA was investigated by electrical conductivity and UV-vis spectrum. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared powders with small amount of carbonate have the component similar to human bone. It can be concluded that the nucleation and growth of HA crystals occurred through the chemical interactions between the HA crystals and preorganized functional groups of the ChS template. Furthermore, the concentration of ChS significantly affects the morphology of the composites. Short fiberlike crystals could be obtained at a low concentration of ChS, but flakelike crystals could be synthesized using a high concentration (≥0.5 wt%) of ChS as template

  1. Sequence analysis of the chitin synthase A gene of the Dutch elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi indicates a close association with the human pathogen Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, W E

    1999-09-01

    Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed according to conserved regions of the chitin synthase gene family and used to amplify a 621 basepair (bp) fragment from genomic DNA of Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the causal agent of Dutch elm disease. The amplification product was used as a hybridization probe to screen a library of genomic DNA sequences and to retrieve a full-length chitin synthase gene (chsA). The putative coding region of the gene was 2619 bp long, lacked introns, and encoded a polypeptide of 873 amino acids. Based on the similarity of the predicted amino acid sequence to the full-length chsC gene of Aspergillus nidulans and chsA gene of Ampelomyces quisqualis, the O. novo-ulmi chsA was classified as a Class I chitin synthase. The phylogenies constructed, according to a subregion of all available chitin synthases, showed that O. novo-ulmi consistently clustered most closely with the human pathogen Sporothrix schenckii, recently classified as a member of the mitosporic Ophiostomataceae. Disruption of the chsA gene locus had no obvious effects on the growth or morphology of the fungus. PMID:10524253

  2. Providing end-of-life care in care homes for older people: a qualitative study of the views of care home staff and community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Cassie; Stewart, Frances; Thompson, Genevieve; Hall, Sue

    2013-02-01

    The study aimed to explore the views of care home staff (CHS) and community nurses (CNs) on providing end-of-life care (EOLC) in care homes. Participants were randomly selected and qualitative interviews conducted with 80 CHS and 10 CNs. Themes emerging from the data included the following: The meaning of EOLC; starting EOLC; dying in the care home; stress of providing EOLC; improving EOLC; and the role of the CN. CHS felt that planning for the end of life was important before residents reached the dying phase, which some found difficult to determine. Although CHS wished to avoid residents being transferred to hospital to die, they acknowledged that improvements in their skills and the resources available to them were needed to manage EOLC effectively. CNs were critical of the EOLC provided in some care homes, reporting tensions over their relationship with CHS. As the number of older people who die in care homes increases, there is a need to overcome these barriers to provide good EOLC. PMID:25473926

  3. Metabolic engineering of the morphology of Aspergillus oryzae by altering chitin synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, C.; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Hansen, Kim; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    than that in the wild type., whereas that in the ChsB/G strain was 188% higher. During batch cultivation, inseparable clumps were formed in the wild-type strain., while no or fewer large inseparable clumps existed in the cultivations of the ChsB/G and CM101 strains. The alpha-amylase productivity was......Morphology and alpha-amylase production during submerged cultivation were examined in a wild-type strain (A1560) and in strains of Aspergillus oryzae in which chitin synthase B (chsB) and chitin synthesis myosin A (csmA) have been disrupted (ChsB/G and CM101). In a flowthrough cell, the growth of...... not significantly different in the three strains. A strain in which the transcription of chsB could be controlled by the nitrogen source-regulated promoter niiA (NiiA1) was examined during chemostat cultivation, and it was found that the branching intensity could be regulated by regulating the...

  4. On triviality of S-matrix in conformal higher spin theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beccaria, M; Tseytlin, A A

    2016-01-01

    We consider the conformal higher spin (CHS) theory in d=4 that contains the s=1 Maxwell vector, s=2 Weyl graviton and their higher spin s=3,4,... counterparts with higher-derivative \\box^s kinetic terms. The interacting action for such theory can be found as the coefficient of the logarithmically divergent part in the induced action for sources coupled to higher spin currents in a free complex scalar field model. We explicitly determine some cubic and quartic interaction vertices in the CHS action from scalar loop integrals. We then compute the simplest tree-level 4-particle scattering amplitudes 11 -> 11, 22 -> 22 and 11 -> 22 and find that after summing up all the intermediate CHS exchanges they vanish. This generalises the vanishing of the scattering amplitude for external conformal scalars interacting via the exchange of all CHS fields found earlier in arXiv:1512.08896. This vanishing should generalise to all scattering amplitudes in the CHS theory and as in the conformal scalar scattering case should be ...

  5. IL-1β-Dependent Activation of Dendritic Epidermal T Cells in Contact Hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten M; Lovato, Paola; Macleod, Amanda S; Witherden, Deborah A; Skov, Lone; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Dabelsteen, Sally; Woetmann, Anders; Odum, Niels; Havran, Wendy L; Geisler, Carsten; Bonefeld, Charlotte M

    2014-01-01

    Substances that penetrate the skin surface can act as allergens and induce a T cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease called contact hypersensitivity (CHS). IL-17 is a key cytokine in CHS and was originally thought to be produced solely by CD4(+) T cells. However, it is now known that several cell...... types, including γδ T cells, can produce IL-17. In this study, we determine the role of γδ T cells, especially dendritic epidermal T cells (DETCs), in CHS. Using a well-established model for CHS in which 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) is used as allergen, we found that γδ T cells are important players...... in CHS. Thus, more IL-17-producing DETCs appear in the skin following exposure to DNFB in wild-type mice, and DNFB-induced ear swelling is reduced by ∼50% in TCRδ(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. In accordance, DNFB-induced ear swelling was reduced by ∼50% in IL-17(-/-) mice. We show that DNFB...

  6. FUZZY LOGIC BASED ENERGY EFFICIENT PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Wei Siew

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs have been vastly developed due to the advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS using WSN to study and monitor the environments towards climates changes. In environmental monitoring, sensors are randomly deployed over the interest area to periodically sense the physical environments for a few months or even a year. Therefore, to prolong the network lifetime with limited battery capacity becomes a challenging issue. Low energy adaptive cluster hierarchical (LEACH is the common clustering protocol that aim to reduce the energy consumption by rotating the heavy workload cluster heads (CHs. The CHs election in LEACH is based on probability model which will lead to inefficient in energy consumption due to least desired CHs location in the network. In WSNs, the CHs location can directly influence the network energy consumption and further affect the network lifetime. In this paper, factors which will affect the network lifetime will be presented and the demonstration of fuzzy logic based CH selection conducted in base station (BS will also be carried out. To select suitable CHs that will prolong the network first node dies (FND round and consistent throughput to the BS, energy level and distance to the BS are selected as fuzzy inputs.

  7. Role of DNA damage in local suppression of contact hypersensitivity in mice by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of mice to UVE radiation down-regulates the induction of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses to haptens applied to the site of irradiation. Concomittantly, the activity of antigen-presenting cells (APC) in the draining lymph nodes is decreased, and T lymphocytes that suppress the induction of CHS are induced. We assessed the role of DNA damage in modulation of the CHS response by UV irradiation by applying liposomes containing T4 endonuclease V (T4N5) to the UV-irradiated skin. Liposomal T4N5, which increases the rate of repair of cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in DNA, prevented the reduction in the CHS response, the impairment in APC function, and the induction of transferrable immune suppression. Liposomes containing heat-inactivated T4N5 did not restore immune responsiveness. In this model, hapten-bearing APC from unirradiated mice also fail to induce CHS upon injection into UV-irradiated recipients. This systemic effect of UV irradiation on APC function was also prevented by application of liposomes containing active, but not inactive, T4N5. These studies support the hypothesis that DNA damage is an essential initiator of one or more steps leading to impaired immune responsiveness after UV irradiation. They further imply that the release of cytokines that modulate APC function after UV irradiation is triggered by DNA damage. (au) 37 refs

  8. Public juridic person ensures Catholic presence. How one Catholic healthcare system assumed a lay model of sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, N

    1996-01-01

    To ensure that the Catholic healing presence remained in the communities it has served for many years, the United States St. Joseph Province of the Sisters of Charity of Montreal (Grey Nuns) is transferring its healthcare institutions to a lay model of sponsorship. The new arrangement makes Covenant Health Systems (CHS) a public juridic person of pontifical right sponsoring the U.S. Grey Nuns' healthcare organizations. In addition to extensive education and communication efforts aimed at all its constituencies, CHS needed to pass through several stages before it could become a public juridic person. Approval had to be obtained from the Grey Nuns Provincial Administration and General Administration (in Montreal). Proposed statutes and bylaws had to be drafted. The CHS Board of Directors had to sign a letter of intent, indicating its willingness to accept these responsibilities of sponsorship. The Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and Apostolic Societies approved the request for public juridic person status. CHS and the Grey Nuns will take a year to implement the transfer, which will be official on October 24, 1996. CHS will continue to operate in a manner consistent with the teachings of the Catholic Church by complying with the Ethical and Religious Directives and by maintaining contact with local ordinaries. PMID:10154456

  9. Solid-state mechanochemical synthesis of CsHSO4 and 1,2,4-triazole inorganic-organic composite electrolytes for dry fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic-organic composite electrolytes for use in dry fuel cells were synthesized from CsHSO4 (CHS) and 1,2,4-triazole (Tz). CHS and Tz were mechanochemically treated in a dry nitrogen atmosphere to obtain composites with xCHS.(100 - x)Tz, where x is the amount (mol) and was varied in increments of 10 between 90 and 50. Structural investigation of the composites indicated that chemical interactions occurred between CHS and Tz after solid-state mechanochemical treatment. The proton conductivity of the composite electrolytes was largely increased by introduction of Tz, particularly in the low temperature region. The composite with x = 80 showed high proton conductivity (6.0 x 10-4 to 1.60 x 10-3 S cm-1) over a wide temperature range (60-160 oC) in a dry atmosphere. These observations suggest that proton transfer in the CHS and Tz composite systems includes the proton-hopping mechanism and self-dissociation. This phenomenon probably supports proton diffusion, especially in low temperature regions.

  10. Homozygosity mapping of the gene for Chediak-Higashi syndrome to chromosome 1q42-q44 in a segment of conserved synteny that includes the mouse beige locus (bg)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukai, Kazuyoshi; Oh, Jangsuk; Karim, M.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypopigmentation or oculocutaneous albinism and severe immunologic deficiency with neutropenia and lack of natural killer (NK) cell function. Most patients die in childhood from pyogenic infections or an unusual lymphoma-like condition. A hallmark of the disorder is giant inclusion bodies seen in all granule-containing cells, including granulocytes, lymphocytes, melanocytes, mast cells, and neurons. Similar ultrastructural abnormalities occur in the beige mouse, which thus has been suggested to be homologous to human CHS. High-resolution genetic mapping has indicated that the bg gene region of mouse chromosome 13 is likely homologous to the distal portion of human chromosome 1q. Accordingly, we carried out homozygosity mapping using markers derived from distal human chromosome 1q in four inbred families or probands with CHS. Our results indicate that the human CHS gene maps to an 18.8-cM interval in chromosome segment 1q42-q44 and that human CHS therefore is very likely homologous to mouse bg. 43 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Genetic and physical mapping of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome on chromosome 1q42-43

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrat, F.J.; Auloge, L.; Pastural, E. [INSERM, Paris (France)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a severe autosomal recessive condition, features of which are partial oculocutaneous albinism, increased susceptibility to infections, deficient natural killer cell activity, and the presence of large intracytoplasmic granulations in various cell types. Similar genetic disorders have been described in other species, including the beige mouse. On the basis of the hypothesis that the murine chromosome 13 region containing the beige locus was homologous to human chromosome 1, we have mapped the CHS locus to a 5-cM interval in chromosome segment 1q42.1-q42.2. The highest LOD score was obtained with the marker D1S235 (Z{sub max} = 5.38; {theta} = 0). Haplotype analysis enabled us to establish D1S2680 and D1S163, respectively, as the telomeric and the centromeric flanking markers. Multipoint linkage analysis confirms the localization of the CHS locus in this interval. Three YAC clones were found to cover the entire region in a contig established by YAC end-sequence characterization and sequence-tagged site mapping. The YAC contig contains all genetic markers that are nonrecombinant for the disease in the nine CHS families studied. This mapping confirms the previous hypothesis that the same gene defect causes CHS in human and beige phenotype in mice and provides a genetic framework for the identification of candidate genes. 36 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. A new Energy-Efficient TDMA-based MAC Protocol for Periodic Sensing Applications in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shams Ur Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is a major requirement in wireless sensor networks. Media Access Control is one of the key areas where energy efficiency can be achieved by designing such MAC protocol that is tuned to the requirements of the sensor networks. Different applications have different requirements and a single MAC protocol cannot be optimal for all types of applications. In this paper we present a TDMA-based MAC (TDMAC protocol which is specially designed for such applications that require periodic sensing of the sensor field. TDMAC organizes nodes into clusters. Nodes send their data to their cluster head (CH and CHs forward it to the base station. CHs away from the base station use multi-hop communication by forwarding their data to CHs nearer than themselves to the base station. Both inter-cluster and intra-cluster communication is purely TDMA-based which effectively eliminates both inter-cluster as well as intra-cluster interference.

  13. New Role of Rosea1 in Regulating Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Pathway in Hairy Root of Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in hairy roots system by ectopically expressing Rosea1 and Delila and we found something different from previous research. The RT-PCR results revealed that Rosea1 could activate early and late biosynthetic genes tested, including CHS, DFR and ANS. Delila enhanced the expression of CHS weakly, but did not influence DFR or ANS. The two regulators, Rosea1 and Delila, failed to interplay each other. It was speculated that Delila would be ineffective in the absence of Rosea1, another MYB factor specifically controlling CHS may exist. This investigation provided a new way to increase anthocyanin content by over expressing a MYB factor, potentially to be used in the field of agriculture and food

  14. Modification of a viral satellite DNA-based gene silencing vector and its application to leaf or flower color change in Petunia hybrida

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiaorong; QIAN Yajuan; ZHOU Xueping

    2006-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing offers a powerful reverse-genetic tool for the study of gene function in plants. We have previously reported effective gene silencing of plant genes using a viral satellite DNA associated with Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV). In this study, we further modified the viral satellite DNA-based vector. The modified vector can induce sulfu (Su) gene silencing as effective as the original vector in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, but the new system simplifies procedures for construction of vector derivative. Furthermore, a fragment of petunia Su or chalcone synthase (CHS) endogenous gene was inserted into the modified vector. When petunia plants were agro- inoculated with the modified vector carrying a Su or CHS gene, the Su silenced plants started to appear yellowing in veins of systemically infected upper leaves two weeks after agroinoculation, while the CHS silenced plants started to show flower color change one month after agroinoculation and later single-color flowers became mosaic.

  15. Computer simulation of magnetic field circuits in ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed design of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) contains several closely coupled magnetic field circuits that are being modeled using the SUPER*SCEPTRE computer program in order to predict their transient behavior. The results of this transient analysis study will be used to determine component values and/or special precautions that may be required for power supply and other circuit element protection due to the mutual coupling between circuits. ATF is a continuous-coil torsatron device using resistive coils in a pulsed mode of operation in which a current fluctuation in one coil induces voltages in the other circuit element protection due to the mutual coupling between circuits. ATF is a continuous-coil torsatron device using resistive coils in a pulsed mode of operation in which a current fluctuation in one coil induces voltages in the other circuit that may not be desirable. The model contains the solid-state power supplies' equivalent circuits, the resistance and self-inductance of each magnetic field coil, and the mutual inductances of every coil combination. The SUPER*SCEPTRE program allows for the direct input of all electrical components as well as the mutual inductances. The power supply voltages are entered as preprogrammed wave shapes designed to achieve the desired magnetic field strengths. The outputs of this program are tables and plots of voltages and currents associated with each circuit component

  16. Expression of cysLT1 and cysLT2 Receptor in Chronic Hyperplastic Eosinophilic Sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) from sinus tissues and abundant sinus eosinophils are characteristic features of chronic hyperplastic eosinophilic sinusitis (CHS). CysLTs exert their action through G-protein-coupled receptors named cysLTs receptor type I (cysLT1R) and type II (cysLT2R). These expressions of cysLT receptors in the sinus mucosa have yet to be clarified and the relationship between eosinophilia and the expression of these receptors remains obscure. We compared the expressions of cysLT1R and cysLT2R in the sinus mucosa in patients with CHS, non-eosinophilic chronic sinusitis (NECS), and control sinus tissues; and analyzed the correlation between the expression of CysLTRs and the presence of sinus eosinophils by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. A significantly higher percentage of eosinophils expressing cysLT2R protein was observed in patients with CHS compared with NECS and controls. In addition, cysLT2R mRNA expression in CHS was significantly higher than in NECS and controls. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between cysLT2R mRNA expression and the number of infiltrated eosinophils. In contrast, the cysLT1R mRNA expression did not differ significantly among these groups. The effect of cysLTs on sinus eosinophils may be mediated through the cysLT2R in patients with CHS. These results may suggest the therapeutic benefit of cysLT2R antagonists in CHS

  17. The Memory Alteration Test Discriminates between Cognitively Healthy Status, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Nuñez del Prado, Liza; Parodi, José; Guevara-Silva, Erik; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Montesinos, Rosa; Cortijo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Dementia is a worldwide public health problem and there are several diagnostic tools for its assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T) to discriminate between patients with early Alzheimer's disease (AD), patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI), and subjects with a cognitively healthy status (CHS). Methods The discriminative validity was assessed in a sample of 90 patients with AD, 45 patients with a-MCI, and 180 subjects with CHS. Clinical, functional, and cognitive studies were independently performed in a blinded fashion and the gold standard diagnosis was established by consensus on the basis of these results. The test performance was assessed by means of a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis as area under the curve (AUC). Results M@T mean scores were 17.7 (SD = 5.7) in AD, 30.8 (SD = 2.3) in a-MCI, and 44.5 (SD = 3.1) in CHS. A cutoff score of 37 points had a sensitivity of 98.3% and a specificity of 97.8% to differentiate a-MCI from CHS (AUC = 0.999). A cutoff score of 27 points had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98.9% to differentiate mild AD from a-MCI and from CHS (AUC = 1.000). Conclusions The M@T had a high performance in the discrimination between early AD, a-MCI and CHS. PMID:25298775

  18. Non-invasive assessment of cerebral microcirculation with diffuse optics and coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Sassaroli, Angelo; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Tgavalekos, Kristen T.; Zang, Xuan

    2016-03-01

    We describe the general principles and initial results of coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS), which is a new technique for the quantitative assessment of cerebral hemodynamics on the basis of dynamic near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements. The two components of CHS are (1) dynamic measurements of coherent cerebral hemodynamics in the form of oscillations at multiple frequencies (frequency domain) or temporal transients (time domain), and (2) their quantitative analysis with a dynamic mathematical model that relates the concentration and oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in tissue to cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). In particular, CHS can provide absolute measurements and dynamic monitoring of CBF, and quantitative measures of cerebral autoregulation. We report initial results of CBF measurements in hemodialysis patients, where we found a lower CBF (54 +/- 16 ml/(100 g-min)) compared to a group of healthy controls (95 +/- 11 ml/(100 g-min)). We also report CHS measurements of cerebral autoregulation, where a quantitative index of autoregulation (its cutoff frequency) was found to be significantly greater in healthy subjects during hyperventilation (0.034 +/- 0.005 Hz) than during normal breathing (0.017 +/- 0.002 Hz). We also present our approach to depth resolved CHS, based on multi-distance, frequency-domain NIRS data and a two-layer diffusion model, to enhance sensitivity to cerebral tissue. CHS offers a potentially powerful approach to the quantitative assessment and continuous monitoring of local brain perfusion at the microcirculation level, with prospective brain mapping capabilities of research and clinical significance.

  19. Purinergic responses of chondrogenic stem cells to dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gađanski Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In habitually loaded tissues, dynamic loading can trigger ATP (adenosine 5’- triphosphate release to extracellular environment, and result in calcium signaling via ATP binding to purine P2 receptors1. In the current study we have compared purinergic responses (ATP release of two types of cells: bovine chondrocytes (bCHs and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC that were encapsulated in agarose and subjected to dynamic loading. Both cell types were cultured under chondrogenic conditions, and their responses to loading were evaluated by ATP release assay in combination with connexin (Cx-sensitive fluorescent dye (Lucifer Yellow - LY and a Cx-hemichannel blocker (Flufenamic acid - FFA. In response to dynamic loading, chondrogenic hMSCs released significantly higher amounts of ATP (5-fold in comparison to the bCHs early in culture (day 2. Triggering of LY uptake in the bCHs and hMSCs by dynamic loading implies opening of the Cx-hemichannels. However, the number of LY-positive cells in hMSC-constructs was 2.5-fold lower compared to the loaded bCH-constructs, suggesting utilization of additional mechanisms of ATP release. Cx-reactive sites were detected in both bCHs and hMSCs-constructs. FFA application led to reduced ATP release both in bCHs and hMSCs, which confirms the involvement of connexin hemichannels, with more prominent effects in bCHs than in hMSCs, further implying the existence of additional mechanism of ATP release in chondrogenic hMSCs. Taken together, these results indicate stronger purinergic response to dynamic loading of chondrogenic hMSCs than primary chondrocytes, by activation of connexin hemichannels and additional mechanisms of ATP release. [Projekat Ministrastva nauke Republike Srbije, ON174028 i br. III41007

  20. Lack of TAK1 in dendritic cells inhibits the contact hypersensitivity response induced by trichloroethylene in local lymph node assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Pan; Hongqian, Chu; Qinghe, Meng; Lanqin, Shang; Jianjun, Jiang; Xiaohua, Yang; Xuetao, Wei; Weidong, Hao

    2016-09-15

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. Occupational TCE exposure has been associated with severe, generalized contact hypersensitivity (CHS) skin disorder. The development of CHS depends on innate and adaptive immune functions. Transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1) controls the survival of dendritic cells (DCs) that affect the immune system homeostasis. We aimed to investigate the role of TAK1 activity in DC on TCE-induced CHS response. Control mice and DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice were treated with 80% (v/v) TCE using local lymph node assay (LLNA) to establish a TCE-induced CHS model. The draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised and the lymphocytes were measure for proliferation by BrdU-ELISA, T-cell phenotype analysis by flow cytometry and signaling pathway activation by western blot. The ears were harvested for histopathological analysis. Control mice in the 80% TCE group displayed an inflammatory response in the ears, increased lymphocyte proliferation, elevated regulatory T-cell and activated T-cell percentages, and more IFN-γ producing CD8(+) T cells in DLNs. In contrast to control mice, DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice in the 80% TCE group showed an abolished CHS response and this was associated with defective T-cell expansion, activation and IFN-γ production. This effect may occur through Jnk and NF-κB signaling pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates a pivotal role of TAK1 in DCs in controlling TCE-induced CHS response and suggests that targeting TAK1 function in DCs may be a viable approach to preventing and treating TCE-related occupational health hazards. PMID:27473013

  1. A gain-of-function mutation in the Arabidopsis disease resistance gene RPP4 confers sensitivity to low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaozhen; Li, Jianyong; Bao, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Shuhua

    2010-10-01

    How plants adapt to low temperature is not well understood. To identify components involved in low-temperature signaling, we characterized the previously isolated chilling-sensitive2 mutant (chs2) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This mutant grew normally at 22°C but showed phenotypes similar to activation of defense responses when shifted to temperatures below 16°C. These phenotypes include yellowish and collapsed leaves, increased electrolyte leakage, up-regulation of PATHOGENESIS RELATED genes, and accumulation of excess hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid (SA). Moreover, the chs2 mutant was seedling lethal when germinated at or shifted for more than 3 d to low temperatures of 4°C to 12°C. Map-based cloning revealed that a single amino acid substitution occurred in the TIR-NB-LRR (for Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor- nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich repeat)-type resistance (R) protein RPP4 (for Recognition of Peronospora parasitica4), which causes a deregulation of the R protein in a temperature-dependent manner. The chs2 mutation led to an increase in the mutated RPP4 mRNA transcript, activation of defense responses, and an induction of cell death at low temperatures. In addition, a chs2 intragenic suppressor, in which the mutation occurs in the conserved NB domain, abolished defense responses at lower temperatures. Genetic analyses of chs2 in combination with known SA pathway and immune signaling mutants indicate that the chs2-conferred temperature sensitivity requires ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1, REQUIRED FOR Mla12 RESISTANCE, and SUPPRESSOR OF G2 ALLELE OF skp1 but does not require PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4, NONEXPRESSOR OF PR GENES1, or SA. This study reveals that an activated TIR-NB-LRR protein has a large impact on temperature sensitivity in plant growth and survival. PMID:20699401

  2. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Kai Xia; Tian-Bo Ding; Jin-Zhi Niu; Chong-Yu Liao; Rui Zhong; Wen-Jia Yang; Bin Liu; Wei Dou; Jin-Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic ...

  3. Makerere University College of Health Sciences’ role in addressing challenges in health service provision at Mulago National Referral Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekandi Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mulago National Referral Hospital (MNRH, Uganda’s primary tertiary and teaching hospital, and Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS have a close collaborative relationship. MakCHS students complete clinical rotations at MNRH, and MakCHS faculty partner with Mulago staff in clinical care and research. In 2009, as part of a strategic planning process, MakCHS undertook a qualitative study to examine care and service provision at MNRH, identify challenges, gaps, and solutions, and explore how MakCHS could contribute to improving care and service delivery at MNRH. Methods Key informant interviews (n=23 and focus group discussions (n=7 were conducted with nurses, doctors, administrators, clinical officers and other key stakeholders. Interviews and focus groups were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim, and findings were analyzed through collaborative thematic analysis. Results Challenges to care and service delivery at MNRH included resource constraints (staff, space, equipment, and supplies, staff inadequacies (knowledge, motivation, and professionalism, overcrowding, a poorly functioning referral system, limited quality assurance, and a cumbersome procurement system. There were also insufficiencies in the teaching of professionalism and communication skills to students, and patient care challenges that included lack of access to specialized services, risk of infections, and inappropriate medications. Suggestions for how MakCHS could contribute to addressing these challenges included strengthening referral systems and peripheral health center capacity, and establishing quality assurance mechanisms. The College could also strengthen the teaching of professionalism, communication and leadership skills to students, and monitor student training and develop courses that contribute to continuous professional development. Additionally, the College could provide in-service education for providers on professionalism

  4. Building partnerships towards strengthening Makerere University College of Health Sciences: a stakeholder and sustainability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariyo George W

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partnerships and networking are important for an institution of higher learning like Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS to be competitive and sustainable. Methods A stakeholder and sustainability analysis of 25 key informant interviews was conducted among past, current and potential stakeholders of MakCHS to obtain their perspectives and contributions to sustainability of the College in its role to improve health outcomes. Results The College has multiple internal and external stakeholders. Stakeholders from Uganda wanted the College to use its enormous academic capacity to fulfil its vision, take initiative, and be innovative in conducting more research and training relevant to the country’s health needs. Many stakeholders felt that the initiative for collaboration currently came more from the stakeholders than the College. External stakeholders felt that MakCHS was insufficiently marketing itself and not directly engaging the private sector or Parliament. Stakeholders also identified the opportunity for MakCHS to embrace information technology in research, learning and training, and many also wanted MakCHS to start leadership and management training programmes in health systems. The need for MakCHS to be more vigorous in training to enhance professionalism and ethical conduct was also identified. Discussion As a constituent of a public university, MakCHS has relied on public funding, which has been inadequate to fulfill its mission. Broader networking, marketing to mobilize resources, and providing strong leadership and management support to inspire confidence among its current and potential stakeholders will be essential to MakCHS’ further growth. MakCHS’ relevance is hinged on generating research knowledge for solving the country’s contemporary health problems and starting relevant programs and embracing technologies. It should share new knowledge widely through publications and other forms of

  5. Experimental determination and computational interpretation of biophysical properties of lipid bilayers enriched by cholesteryl hemisuccinate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Olzyńska, Agnieszka;

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS) is one of the cholesterol-mimicking detergents not observed in nature. It is, however, widely used in protein crystallography, in biochemical studies of proteins, and in pharmacology. Here, we performed an extensive experimental and theoretical...... experimental and atomistic simulation data, we conclude that these differences originate from the fact that the ester group of CHS does not anchor it in an optimal position at the water-membrane interface. The implications of these findings for considerations of protein-cholesterol interactions are briefly...

  6. 一种基于软件再生的无线传感器网络簇头节点管理策略%Management Strategy for Cluster Heads in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Software Rejuvenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲元昌; 胡江坤; 郭开林; 赵贞贞

    2011-01-01

    A software rejuvenation model with proactive rejuvenation and reactive recovery approach is proposed to increase the availability and survivability of CHs in WSN.The resault showes that the method can enhance the availability and survivability of CHs greatly.%本文构建了一种软件再生模型,采用主动再生与自我修复方法,研究WSN中簇头的有用性与生存性.实验表明:该方法能有效提高簇头的有用性和生存性.

  7. Main: CPRFPCCHS [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CPRFPCCHS S000313 8-February-2006 (last modified) kehi BoxII; Binding site of CPRF-...1, -2, -3 and -4(Common Plant Regulatory Factor) in the parsley (P.c.) light responsive chalcone synthase (CHS) gene promoter; CPR...F proteins are bZIP class transcription factors; CPRF proteins participates in the lig...ht-mediated activation of the CHS gene in parsley; ACE; The proline-rich domains of CPR...F1 and 4 activate transcription; CPRF1-containing bZIP heterodimer interacts with ACE in vivo; BoxII; CPR

  8. Basophil-Derived Amphiregulin Is Essential for UVB Irradiation-Induced Immune Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P.M.G.; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J.A.M.; Zaiss, Dietmar M.W.

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor amphiregulin (AREG) engages EGFR on Treg cells and, in different disease models, it was shown that mast cell-derived AREG is essential for optimal Treg cell...

  9. Nonlinear extension of a hemodynamic linear model for coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Angelo; Kainerstorfer, Jana M; Fantini, Sergio

    2016-01-21

    In this work, we are proposing an extension of a recent hemodynamic model (Fantini, 2014a), which was developed within the framework of a novel approach to the study of tissue hemodynamics, named coherent hemodynamics spectroscopy (CHS). The previous hemodynamic model, from a signal processing viewpoint, treats the tissue microvasculature as a linear time-invariant system, and considers changes of blood volume, capillary blood flow velocity and the rate of oxygen diffusion as inputs, and the changes of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations (measured in near infrared spectroscopy) as outputs. The model has been used also as a forward solver in an inversion procedure to retrieve quantitative parameters that assess physiological and biological processes such as microcirculation, cerebral autoregulation, tissue metabolic rate of oxygen, and oxygen extraction fraction. Within the assumption of "small" capillary blood flow velocity oscillations the model showed that the capillary and venous compartments "respond" to this input as low pass filters, characterized by two distinct impulse response functions. In this work, we do not make the assumption of "small" perturbations of capillary blood flow velocity by solving without approximations the partial differential equation that governs the spatio-temporal behavior of hemoglobin saturation in capillary and venous blood. Preliminary comparison between the linear time-invariant model and the extended model (here identified as nonlinear model) are shown for the relevant parameters measured in CHS as a function of the oscillation frequency (CHS spectra). We have found that for capillary blood flow velocity oscillations with amplitudes up to 10% of the baseline value (which reflect typical scenarios in CHS), the discrepancies between CHS spectra obtained with the linear and nonlinear models are negligible. For larger oscillations (~50%) the linear and nonlinear models yield CHS spectra with differences within typical

  10. A Rare Association of Pili Multigemini and Rolled Hairs in a Young Female

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pragya Ashok; Kota, Rahulkrishna S; Gandhi, Shailee; Singhal, Rochit R

    2016-01-01

    Pili multigemini and circle hairs (CHs) both are hair shaft deformities. Being asymptomatic and benign they are often under-reported in medical science. Till now, literature showed the involvement of only males. CHs are seen in obese individuals with sedentary lifestyle and pili multigemini is seen in adults over beard and children over scalp. Cosmetic concern in a young female with asymptomatic hyperpigmented papular lesions brought her to dermatology clinic. Apart from histopathology, dermatoscopy is a noninvasive technique that can be utilized for the evaluation of various hair disorders, especially like this. PMID:27127374

  11. Cholesterol increases kinetic, energetic, and mechanical stability of the human β2-adrenergic receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zocher, Michael; Zhang, Cheng; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; Kobilka, Brian K; Müller, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    the kinetic, energetic, and mechanical stability of almost every structural segment at sufficient magnitude to alter the structure and functional relationship of β(2)AR. One exception was the structural core segment of β(2)AR, which establishes multiple ligand binding sites, and its properties were...... quantify the mechanical strength and flexibility, conformational variability, and kinetic and energetic stability of structural segments stabilizing the human β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) in the absence and presence of the cholesterol analog cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). CHS considerably increased...

  12. The enlarged lysosomes in beigej cells result from decreased lysosome fission and not increased lysosome fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Durchfort, Nina; Verhoef, Shane; Vaughn, Michael B.; Shrestha, Rishna; Adam, Dieter; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane McVey

    2011-01-01

    Chediak-Higashi Syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder that affects vesicle morphology. The Chs1/Lyst protein is a member of the BEACH family of proteins. The absence of Chs1/Lyst gives rise to enlarged lysosomes. Lysosome size is regulated by a balance between vesicle fusion and fission and can be reversibly altered by acidifying the cytoplasm using Acetate Ringer’s or by incubating with the drug vacuolin-1. We took advantage of these procedures to determine rates of lysosome fusion and...

  13. Low-Latitude Coronal Holes at the Minimum of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Abramenko, V.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.; Luhmann, J.; Lee, C.(Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan)

    2010-01-01

    Low and mid-latitude coronal holes (CHs) observed on the Sun during the current solar activity minimum (from September 21, 2006, Carrington rotation (CR) 2048, until June 26, 2009 (CR 2084)) were analyzed using {\\it SOHO}/EIT and STEREO-A SECCHI EUVI data. From both the observations and Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) modeling, we find that the area occupied by CHs inside a belt of $\\pm 40^\\circ$ around the solar equator is larger in the current 2007 solar minimum relative to the simila...

  14. Småbarnsföräldrars behov av föräldrastödsinsatser

    OpenAIRE

    Smeds, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Background During the child’s first year of life there is a continuous contact with the Child Health Services (CHS) and the parents feel confident and involved. After the first year, the visits to the CHS is reduced at the same time as the everyday life changes for the family as the child starts going to day-care and the parents often go back to work. Aim To examine what it is like being a parent to children aged one to five and what kind of parenting support parents of children aged one to f...

  15. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  16. Organizational Response to Conflict: Future Conflict and Work Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how on organization's response to conflict affected the amount and intensity of future conflict and negative work outcomes. In this cross-sectional study of 3,374 government service workers, bivariate correlations and multiple regressions revealed associations between managers' conflict-handling style (CHS)…

  17. Parameters of the Magnetic Flux inside Coronal Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Abramenko, Valentina; Watanabe, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Parameters of magnetic flux distribution inside low-latitude coronal holes (CHs) were analyzed. A statistical study of 44 CHs based on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/MDI full disk magnetograms and SOHO/EIT 284\\AA images showed that the density of the net magnetic flux, $B_{{\\rm net}}$, does not correlate with the associated solar wind speeds, $V_x$. Both the area and net flux of CHs correlate with the solar wind speed and the corresponding spatial Pearson correlation coefficients are 0.75 and 0.71, respectively. A possible explanation for the low correlation between $B_{{\\rm net}}$ and $V_x$ is proposed. The observed non-correlation might be rooted in the structural complexity of the magnetic field. As a measure of complexity of the magnetic field, the filling factor, $ f(r)$, was calculated as a function of spatial scales. In CHs, $f(r)$ was found to be nearly constant at scales above 2 Mm, which indicates a monofractal structural organization and smooth temporal evolution. The magnitude of the fi...

  18. Regression of orthotopic neuroblastoma in mice by targeting the endothelial and tumor cell compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stridsberg Mats

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk neuroblastoma has an overall five-year survival of less than 40%, indicating a need for new treatment strategies such as angiogenesis inhibition. Recent studies have shown that chemotherapeutic drugs can inhibit angiogenesis if administered in a continuous schedule. The aim of this study was primarily to characterize tumor spread in an orthotopic, metastatic model for aggressive, MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma and secondarily to study the effects of daily administration of the chemotherapeutic agent CHS 828 on tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and spread. Methods MYCN-amplified human neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32, 2 × 106 were injected into the left adrenal gland in SCID mice through a flank incision. Nine weeks later, a new laparotomy was performed to confirm tumor establishment and to estimate tumor volume. Animals were randomized to either treatment with CHS 828 (20 mg/kg/day; p.o. or vehicle control. Differences between groups in tumor volume were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and in metastatic spread using Fisher's exact test. Differences with p Results The orthotopic model resembled clinical neuroblastoma in respect to tumor site, growth and spread. Treatment with CHS 828 resulted in tumor regression (p Conclusion The metastatic animal model in this study resembled clinical neuroblastoma and is therefore clinically relevant for examining new treatment strategies for this malignancy. Our results indicate that daily scheduling of CHS 828 may be beneficial in treating patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.

  19. Evolution of mustard (Brassica juncea Coss) subspecies in China: evidence from the chalcone synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F B; Liu, H F; Yao, Q L; Fang, P

    2016-01-01

    To explore the phylogenetic relationship, genome donor, and evolutionary history of the polyploid mustard (Brassica juncea) from China, eighty-one sequences of the chalcone synthase gene (Chs) were analyzed in 43 individuals, including 34 B. juncea, 2 B. rapa, 1 B. nigra, 2 B. oleracea, 1 B. napus, 1 B. carinata, and 2 Raphanus sativus. A maximum likelihood analysis showed that sequences from B. juncea were separated into two well-supported groups in accordance with the A and B genomes, whereas the traditional phenotypic classification of B. juncea was not wholly supported by the molecular results. The SplitsTree analysis recognized four distinct groups of Brassicaceae, and the median-joining network analysis recognized four distinct haplotypes of Chs. The estimates of Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F statistic for the Chs gene in the B genome were negative, while those in the A genome were significant. The results indicated that 1) the Chs sequences revealed a high level of sequence variation in Chinese mustard, 2) both tree and reticulate evolutions existed, and artificial selection played an important role in the evolution of Chinese mustard, 3) the original parental species of Chinese mustard are B. rapa var. sinapis arvensis and B. nigra (derived from China), 4) nucleotide variation in the B genome was higher than that in the A genome, and 5) cultivated mustard evolved from wild mustard, and China is one of the primary origins of B. juncea. PMID:27173323

  20. NKG2D-Dependent Activation of Dendritic Epidermal T cells in Contact Hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Milek; Dyring-Andersen, Beatrice; Schmidt, Jonas Damgård;

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between keratinocytes (KC) and skin-resident immune cells plays an important role in induction of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). A specific subset of γδ T cells termed dendritic epidermal T cells (DETC) are located in mouse epidermis, and we have recently shown that DETC become a...

  1. Association of Center Volume With Outcomes : Analysis of Verified Data of European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Congenital Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansy, Andrzej; Ebels, Tjark; Schreiber, Christian; Tobota, Zdzislaw; Maruszewski, Bohdan

    2014-01-01

    Background. The relation between surgical volumes and outcome in congenital heart surgery (CHS) was investigated with no clear conclusions. We sought to quantify the relationship between surgical volume and surgical performance defined as the relation between outcome and Society of Thoracic Surgeons

  2. Chalcone synthase genes from milk thistle (Silybum marianum): isolation and expression analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sepideh Sanjari; Zahra Sadat Shobbar; Mohsen Ebrahimi; Tahereh Hasanloo; Seyed-Ahmad Sadat-Noor; Soodeh Tirnaz

    2015-12-01

    Silymarin is a flavonoid compound derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds which has several pharmacological applications. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids; thereby, the identification of encoding genes in milk thistle plant can be of great importance. In the current research, fragments of genes were amplified using degenerate primers based on the conserved parts of Asteraceae genes, and then cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the resultant nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences led to the identification of two different members of gene family, 1 and 2. Third member, full-length cDNA (3) was isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), whose open reading frame contained 1239 bp including exon 1 (190 bp) and exon 2 (1049 bp), encoding 63 and 349 amino acids, respectively. In silico analysis of SmCHS3 sequence contains all the conserved CHS sites and shares high homology with CHS proteins from other plants. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that 1 and 3 had the highest transcript level in petals in the early flowering stage and in the stem of five upper leaves, followed by five upper leaves in the mid-flowering stage which are most probably involved in anthocyanin and silymarin biosynthesis.

  3. Sequence Classification: 889339 [TMBETA-GENOME[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Non-TMB TMH Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB Non-TMB >gi|6319497|ref|NP_009579.1| Chitin synthase III, ca ... e chitin ring during bud emergence, and spore wall chitosan ; Chs3p || http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/6319 ...

  4. Delineating species boundaries using an iterative taxonomic approach: The case of soldierless termites (Isoptera, Termitidae, Apicotermitinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bourguignon, T.; Šobotník, Jan; Hanus, Robert; Krasulová, Jana; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Cvačka, Josef; Roisin, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 3 (2013), s. 694-703. ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/12/1093 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Anoplotermes * CHs profile * COI * chemical fingerprint * DNA barcoding * enteric valve Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2013

  5. Department of Homeland Security Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Aviation Security Infrastructure Fee (ASIF) 11/05/03 68 FR 62613 Notice--Imposition of ASIF; Comment Period... Part VIII Department of Homeland Security Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (DHS) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Chs. I and II Unified...

  6. Occurrence of triclosan in plasma of wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and in their environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, Patricia A., E-mail: pat.fair@noaa.go [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Services, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412-9110 (United States); Lee, H.-B. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Adams, Jeff [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Services, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412-9110 (United States); Darling, Colin; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Alaee, Mehran [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Bossart, Gregory D. [Center for Coastal Research, Marine Mammal Research and Conservation Program, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute at Florida Atlantic University, 5600 U.S. 1 North, Ft. Pierce, FL 34946 (United States); Henry, Natasha [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Services, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412-9110 (United States); Muir, Derek [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON L7R 4A6 (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    The presence of triclosan, a widely-used antibacterial chemical, is currently unknown in higher trophic-level species such as marine mammals. Blood plasma collected from wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Charleston, SC (CHS) (n = 13) and Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) (n = 13) in 2005 was analyzed for triclosan. Plasma concentrations in CHS dolphins ranged from 0.12 to 0.27 ng/g wet weight (mean 0.18 ng/g), with 31% of the sampled individuals having detectable triclosan. The mean IRL dolphin plasma concentrations were 0.072 ng/g wet weight (range 0.025-0.11 ng/g); 23% of the samples having detectable triclosan. In the CHS area, triclosan effluent values from two WWTP were both 190 ng/L and primary influents were 2800 ng/L and 3400 ng/L. Triclosan values in CHS estuarine surface water samples averaged 7.5 ng/L (n = 18) ranging from 4.9 to 14 ng/L. This is the first study to report bioaccumulation of anthropogenic triclosan in a marine mammal highlighting the need for further monitoring and assessment. - Triclosan in bottlenose dolphin plasma and their environment.

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0383 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0383 ref|NP_001034492.1| chitin synthase 2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AA...Q55061.1| chitin synthase CHS2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AAQ62692.1| chitin synthase [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001034492.1 0.021 22% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0127 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0127 ref|NP_001034492.1| chitin synthase 2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AA...Q55061.1| chitin synthase CHS2 [Tribolium castaneum] gb|AAQ62692.1| chitin synthase [Tribolium castaneum] NP_001034492.1 0.007 21% ...

  9. Basophil-derived amphiregulin is essential for UVB irradiation-induced immune suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulenbroeks, Chantal; van Weelden, Huib; Schwartz, Christian; Voehringer, David; Redegeld, Frank A M; Rutten, Victor P M G; Willemse, Ton; Sijts, Alice J A M; Zaiss, Dietmar M W

    2015-01-01

    UVB irradiation (290-320 nm) is used to treat skin diseases like psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, and is known to suppress contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions in mouse models. Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to be responsible for this UVB-induced suppression of CHS. The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor amphiregulin (AREG) engages EGFR on Treg cells and, in different disease models, it was shown that mast cell-derived AREG is essential for optimal Treg cell function in vivo. Here we determined whether AREG has a role in UVB-induced, Treg cell-mediated suppression of CHS reactions in the skin. Our data show that AREG is essential for UVB-induced CHS suppression. In contrast to the general assumption, however, mast cells were dispensable for UVB-induced immune suppression, whereas basophil-derived AREG was essential. These data reveal, to our knowledge, a previously unreported function for basophils in the homeostasis of immune responses in the skin. Basophils thus fulfill a dual function: they contribute to the initiation of effective type 2 immune responses and, by enhancing the suppressive capacity of local Treg cell populations, also to local immune regulation in the skin. PMID:25089660

  10. Gene : CBRC-PMAR-01-0428 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0428 Novel UN D UNKNOWN CHS7_ASPOR 0.63 29% ref|XP_001472026.1| PREDICTED: hypothet ... gnl|UG|Pma#S35120154 PMAL-aab53h06.g1 Lamprey_EST_Tissues ... Petromyzon marinus cDNA 5', mRNA sequence /clone_e ...

  11. A Study of Small EUV Flashes around Coronal Hole Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheron, Laura E.; Valluri, Meghala; McAteer, James

    2016-05-01

    Coronal holes (CHs) are theorized to have magnetically open magnetic flux lines and are the source of high-speed solar wind. It is hypothesized that there will be small scale reconnection events at the CH boundary due to interaction between open fields of the CH and closed fields of the quiet and active sun. These reconnection events are expected to manifest themselves as spatially small and temporally short increases in extreme ultraviolet intensity at the CH boundary. We investigate an automated detection of small flashes near the CH boundary and present statistics on the characteristics of these flashes, including lifetime, size, and brightness. We compare these characteristics to those of flashes occurring away from the CH boundary. The application of active contours without edges (ACWE) allows for the automated detection of CHs without dependence on a fixed threshold value. ACWE employs an energy-minimization in which CHs are assumed to have more homogeneous intensities than surrounding active and quiet Sun. The CHs segmented with ACWE tend to correspond to unipolar magnetic regions, are consistent with concurrent solar wind observations, and qualitatively match the coronal holes segmented by other methods. Detection of flashes around the CH boundary serve as additional evidence of correct CH segmentation and provides further evidence supporting the hypothesis of reconnection events at CH boundaries, while the ACWE now provides a tool to study these flashes further in large datasets.

  12. Metabolic engineering of the morphology of Aspergillus oryzae by altering chitin synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, C.; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Hansen, Kim;

    2002-01-01

    not significantly different in the three strains. A strain in which the transcription of chsB could be controlled by the nitrogen source-regulated promoter niiA (NiiA1) was examined during chemostat cultivation, and it was found that the branching intensity could be regulated by regulating the...

  13. 78 FR 55743 - Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Shinnecock Indian Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Notice of Service Delivery Area Designation for the Shinnecock... boundaries of the Service Delivery Area (SDA) for the newly recognized Shinnecock Indian Nation. The... Delivery Area (CHSDA), for the purposes of operating a Contract Health Service (CHS) program pursuant...

  14. 不同举办主体社区卫生服务机构管理制度及员工满意度调查研究%Research on Management System and staff members′Satisfaction of the Community Health Service Institutions Held by Different Ownership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢欢欢; 丰成祥; 朱伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the management system and the staff′s satisfaction of the community health service in-stitutions held by different ownership. Methods 390 community health service workers were randomly investigated in six cities of the Henan province in the end of 2012 about their present monthly income,working time,working load,of training times,will-ingness to be transferred from the community as well as their satisfaction with income,performance appraisal,bonus distribution, working environment,working contents,cultural atmosphere,working load,working hours,training,personal development space. Results Compared with the staff members in the CHS held by the enterprise,the public institution and the society,the staff in the CHS held by government and medical institutions felt that they had more working time and less training opportunities (P ﹤ 0. 05). The staff in government - runned were more satisfied with the working environment,the cultural atmosphere,the working hours(P ﹤ 0. 05);the staff in the public institution - runned were the less satisfied,especially with the working envi-ronment and cultural atmosphere(P ﹤ 0. 05);the staff in the medical institution - runned were the least satisfied with salary, performance appraisal,bonus distribution,working load,working hours,training and personal development(P ﹤ 0. 05);the staff in the society - runned were the most satisfied with every aspect expect with working hours(P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion The management system of CHS held by government and medical institution is less flexible than that of society - runned CHS,ao they should promote the separation of management from operation,perfect work system and incentive system;CHS run by enterprises, public institution should be more socialized and try to improve the salary level and change and make them have a better under-standing of the community health service.%目的:了解不同举办主体社区卫生服务(CHS)机构的管理制度及

  15. Psychology of intelligence services 1

    OpenAIRE

    Houben, Mirjam; Krauß, Manfred; Litzcke, Sven Max; Zimmermann, Thomas; Nortz, Frank; Nöller, Werner; Venne, Susanne; Wiesen, Marcus; Zoller, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    Herausgeberwerk (Litzcke): 1. Die Intelligence-Acht. Überlegungen zu einer wissenschaftlichen Annäherung an nachrichtendienstliches Tun. 2. Korruption in Auslandsnachrichtendiensten 3. Interkulturelle Kommunikation Deutschland - China 4. Aspekte eines nachrichtendienstlichen Gesprächs 5. Nonverbale Lügen- und Machtmerkmale 6. Illegale Migration aus psychologischer und aus nachrichtendienstlicher Sicht 7. Stessbelastung operativ arbeitender Mitarbeiter 8. Psychologie ve...

  16. Occurrence of triclosan in plasma of wild Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and in their environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of triclosan, a widely-used antibacterial chemical, is currently unknown in higher trophic-level species such as marine mammals. Blood plasma collected from wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Charleston, SC (CHS) (n = 13) and Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) (n = 13) in 2005 was analyzed for triclosan. Plasma concentrations in CHS dolphins ranged from 0.12 to 0.27 ng/g wet weight (mean 0.18 ng/g), with 31% of the sampled individuals having detectable triclosan. The mean IRL dolphin plasma concentrations were 0.072 ng/g wet weight (range 0.025-0.11 ng/g); 23% of the samples having detectable triclosan. In the CHS area, triclosan effluent values from two WWTP were both 190 ng/L and primary influents were 2800 ng/L and 3400 ng/L. Triclosan values in CHS estuarine surface water samples averaged 7.5 ng/L (n = 18) ranging from 4.9 to 14 ng/L. This is the first study to report bioaccumulation of anthropogenic triclosan in a marine mammal highlighting the need for further monitoring and assessment. - Triclosan in bottlenose dolphin plasma and their environment.

  17. Contact sensitizers induce skin inflammation via ROS production and hyaluronic acid degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp R Esser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed the role of contact sensitizer induced ROS production and concomitant changes in hyaluronic acid metabolism on CHS responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed in vitro and in vivo ROS production using fluorescent ROS detection reagents. HA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis. The influence of blocking ROS production and HA degradation by antioxidants, hyaluronidase-inhibitor or p38 MAPK inhibitor was analyzed in the murine CHS model. Here, we demonstrate that organic contact sensitizers induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and a concomitant breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM component hyaluronic acid (HA to pro-inflammatory low molecular weight fragments in the skin. Importantly, inhibition of either ROS-mediated or enzymatic HA breakdown prevents sensitization as well as elicitation of CHS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data identify an indirect mechanism of contact sensitizer induced innate inflammatory signaling involving the breakdown of the ECM and generation of endogenous danger signals. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for anti-oxidants and hyaluronidase inhibitors in prevention and treatment of ACD.

  18. Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome masquerading as an eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewerton, Timothy D; Anderson, Odette

    2016-08-01

    The case of a 22 year old woman with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) presenting as an eating disorder is described. The importance of recognizing chronic cannabis use as a cause of episodic vomiting is emphasized, given that CHS can be confused with self-induced purging and cyclic vomiting. This case was further complicated by the well-defined history of anorexia nervosa (binge-purge type), major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, migraine headache, and the initial denial of cannabis use. However, collateral history and a positive drug screen confirmed the diagnosis. The signs, symptoms and pathophysiological mechanisms of CHS are reviewed in light of clinical presentations that mimic eating disorder phenomenology complicated by addiction. Given the trend for increasing legalization of recreational marijuana as well as medical marijuana, CHS is an important and potentially complicating disorder that eating disorder clinicians need to be aware of. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:826-829). PMID:26842268

  19. Collaboration between general hospitals and community health services in the care of suicide attempters in Norway: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadum Elin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper was to study the collaboration between emergency departments (EDs in general hospitals and community health services (CHS in Norway when providing psychosocial care and aftercare to patients treated in EDs following a suicide attempt. We wanted to explore the extent to which quality indicators at the hospital level measured in 1999 and 2006 could predict the presence or absence of a chain of care structure in the CHS in 2006. Methods Data were collected through structured interviews with informants from 95% of all general hospitals in Norway in 1999 and 2006, and informants from CHS, in a stratified sample of Norwegian municipalities in 2006 (n = 47. Results In 15 of the 47 municipalities (32%, the CHS reported having a chain of care structure in 2006. A discriminant function analysis revealed that the hospitals that in 1999 had: (a a collaboration agreement with aftercare providers, and (b written guidelines, including a quality assurance system, were significantly more likely to have municipalities with a chain of care structure in their catchment area in 2006. Conclusions Hospitals' and municipalities' self-reported provision of aftercare services for patients treated after a suicide attempt was markedly below the recommendations given in national standards. Systems at the hospital level for the management and care of patients admitted after a suicide attempt and systematic collaboration between hospitals and aftercare providers seem to be important elements in the long-term maintenance of continuity of care for suicide attempters.

  20. An Overlooked Victim of Cannabis: Losing Several Years of Well-being and Inches of Jejunum on the Way to Unravel Her Hyperemesis Enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo

    2016-01-01

    A case report of a severe cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is presented, which had worsened during dronabinol administration and was associated with intestinal dysmotility (pseudo-obstruction). Because dronabinol is an isomer of THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, this case provides first direct clinical evidence on the key role of THC in the obscure pathogenesis of CHS. Another peculiarity of this case was that the patient had an odyssey of hospital stays with extensive workups before the patient herself found via Internet the right diagnosis for her cyclic vomiting and abdominal pain. This is typical for CHS, which is often overlooked because physicians refer to the widely known antiemetic properties of cannabis, for example, in cancer chemotherapy but were not always aware of a possible paradoxical emetic reaction of recreational cannabis use. Being pathognomonic of CHS, the patient became symptom-free while abstaining from her cannabis use, meanwhile being in her 12th month of controlled abstinence. PMID:26757305

  1. Metabolic changes in carrot cells in response to simultaneous treatment with ultraviolet light and a fungal elicitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet light induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in cell cultures of an Afghan cultivar of Daucus carota (Daucus carota L. ssp. sativus). Simultaneous treatment with a fungal elicitor from Pythium aphanidermatum results in an inhibition of the catalytic activity of chalcone synthase (CHS), which in turn correlates with an inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis. On immunoblots, one isoenzyme (40 kDa) of CHS disappears upon elicitor treatment. On an mRNA level, only the mRNA for the 40-kDa-CHS is active after treatment with ultraviolet light. After inhibition of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the elicitor the enzyme protein disappears and the CHS mRNA is strongly diminished. This inhibition depends on the concentration of the elicitor. In addition, elicitor treatment leads to an induction of the general phenylpropanoid pathway as well as to the accumulation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid which is covalently bound to wall polysaccharides of the carrot cells. The possible function of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in providing precursors for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is discussed

  2. Chronic Heat Stress Inhibits Immune Responses to H5N1 Vaccination through Regulating CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Meng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic heat stress (CHS is known to have negative impacts on the immune responses in animals and increases their susceptibility to infections including the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1. However, the role of regulatory T cells (Tregs in CHS immunosuppression remains largely undefined. In this study, we demonstrated a novel mechanism by which CHS suppressed both Th1 and Th2 immune responses and dramatically decreased the protective efficacy of the formalin-inactivated H5N1 vaccine against H5N1 influenza virus infection. This suppression was found to be associated with the induced generation of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs and the increased secretions of IL-10 and TGF-β in CD4+ T cells. Adoptive transfer of the induced Tregs also suppressed the protective efficacy of formalin-inactivated H5N1 virus immunization. Collectively, this study identifies a novel mechanism of CHS immunosuppression mediated by regulating CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs.

  3. Efecto de la Adición de Minerales en el Agua o Alimento sobre la Frecuencia Cardiaca, en Pollos de Engorde Sometidos a Estrés Calórico Crónico y Agudo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas, Jesus; Steffensen, Simon Gabriel Comerma; Chacon, Tony;

    2008-01-01

    The effects of mineral addition in feed or water on performance parameters and heart rate (HR) were evaluated in broilers at 28-35 d and 36 d under both chronic heat stress (CHS) and acute heat stress (AHS) in laboratory conditions. Onehundred ninety two broilers were used, distributed in 6 cages...

  4. Users' Satisfaction with Library Information Resources and Services: A Case Study College of Health Sciences Library Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemo, Pereware Aghwotu; Ateboh, Benedict Alaowei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated users' satisfaction with library information resources and services at the College of Health Sciences (CHS) library Niger Delta University, Nigeria. The objective was to determine the level of users satisfaction with library information resources and services. 2 (two) research questions were formulated to guide the study.…

  5. Validation of a Portuguese Version of the Children's Hope Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Susana C.; Pais-Ribeiro, J. L.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Portuguese version of the Children's Hope Scale and the examination of its psychometric properties. A sample of 367 Portuguese students completed the Portuguese-language versions of the Children's Hope Scale (CHS; Snyder et al., 1997), Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991), Global…

  6. Alteration of gene expression in Pisum sativum tissue cultures caused by the free radical-generating agent 2,2`-azobis (2-amidinipropane) dihydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkow, L. [Sveriges Lantbruksuniv., Inst. foer Vaextfoeraedling, Uppsala (Sweden); Strid, Aa.; Rydstroem, J. [Goeteborgs Univ. och Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, Inst. foer Biokemi och Biofysik, Goeteborg (Sweden); Berglund, T.; Ohlsson, A.B. [Kungliga Tekniska Hoegskolan, Inst. foer Biokemi och biokemisk Teknologi, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    Root-differentiated tissue cultures (PS-R) from Pisum sativum (cv. Greenfeast) were exposed to a 5 mM solution of the free radical-generating compound 2,2`-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The levels of mRNA transcripts for two genes were examined: chs2, encoding a chalcone synthase isozyme, and cab, encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of the light-harvesting antenna complex. In light-grown PS-R, cab mRNA transcript levels decreased to 14% of controls after 6 h of exposure, whereas chs2 mRNA levels increased 50-fold. In dark-grown PS-R, chs2 mRNA transcripts increased by 40-fold compared with the controls. Glutathione determination inlight-grown PS-R showed no substantial difference in total glutathione (GSH{sub tot}), whereas oxidized glutathione (GSSG) increased by 66% after 12 h of exposure. However, in dark-grown PS-R a decrease in both GSH{sub tot} and GSSG after 6 h was followed by an increase of about 70%, as compared with the controls, after 12 h of exposure. In conclusion AAPH generated oxidative stress, reflected in changed glutathione levels and induced expression of the chs2 gene of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and also caused a decreased level of mRNA for the photosynthetic cab gene. (au) 39 refs.

  7. Measurement of water diffusion in epoxy and polyester resins with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief characteristic is given of diffusion processes in polymers and their importance in the corrosion of plastics and synthetic resins. The method and equipment are described for the application of radionuclides in measuring the diffusion of water in epoxy and polyester resins. The desorption of water labelled with tritium and the diffusion coefficients of water molecules were investigated in five samples of resins. The experimental results show that there are evident differences between the individual evaluated synthetic resins in the diffusion rate of water molecules at temperatures within the region of 15 to 55 degC. Of the epoxy resins, the smallest diffusion rate of water was found for ChS Epoxifurol EFF hardened with the EFF 33 setting agent, and for ChS Epoxi 110 Bg 15. The ChS Epoxifurol EFF 33 type set by adding 20% aminoamide has a higher diffusion rate probably due to the presence of polar functional groups. The epoxy resin Eprosin E 26 containing a considerable amount of inorganic filler has a substantially higher diffusion rate for water molecules than the other types of evaluated resins. The polyester resin ChS Polyester 221 has the lowest rate of water diffusion. (J.B.)

  8. Low-Latitude Coronal Holes at the Minimum of the 23rd Solar Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Abramenko, V; Linker, J; Mikic, Z; Luhmann, J; Lee, C

    2010-01-01

    Low and mid-latitude coronal holes (CHs) observed on the Sun during the current solar activity minimum (from September 21, 2006, Carrington rotation (CR) 2048, until June 26, 2009 (CR 2084)) were analyzed using {\\it SOHO}/EIT and STEREO-A SECCHI EUVI data. From both the observations and Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) modeling, we find that the area occupied by CHs inside a belt of $\\pm 40^\\circ$ around the solar equator is larger in the current 2007 solar minimum relative to the similar phase of the previous 1996 solar minimum. The enhanced CH area is related to a recurrent appearance of five persistent CHs, which survived during 7-27 solar rotations. Three of the CHs are of positive magnetic polarity and two are negative. The most long-lived CH was being formed during 2 days and existed for 27 rotations. This CH was associated with fast solar wind at 1 AU of approximately 620$\\pm 40$ km s$^{-1}$. The 3D MHD modeling for this time period shows an open field structure above this CH. We conclude that the...

  9. Investigation of a miRNA-Induced Gene Silencing Technique in Petunia Reveals Alterations in miR173 Precursor Processing and the Accumulation of Secondary siRNAs from Endogenous Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Han

    Full Text Available MIGS (miRNA-induced gene silencing is a straightforward and efficient gene silencing technique in Arabidopsis. It works by exploiting miR173 to trigger the production of phasiRNAs (phased small interfering RNAs. MIGS can be used in plant species other than Arabidopsis by co-expression of miR173 and target gene fragments fused to an upstream miR173 target site. However, the efficiency and technical mechanisms have not been thoroughly investigated in other plants. In this work, two vectors, pMIGS-chs and pMIGS-pds, were constructed and transformed into petunia plants. The transgenic plants showed CHS (chalcone synthase and PDS (phytoene desaturase gene-silencing phenotypes respectively, indicating that MIGS functions in petunia. MIGS-chs plants were used to investigate the mechanisms of this technique in petunia. Results of 5'- RACE showed that the miR173 target site was cleaved at the expected position and that endogenous CHS genes were cut at multiple positions. Small RNA deep sequencing analysis showed that the processing of Arabidopsis miR173 precursors in MIGS-chs transgenic petunia plants did not occur in exactly the same way as in Arabidopsis, suggesting differences in the machinery of miRNA processing between plant species. Small RNAs in-phase with the miR173 cleavage register were produced immediately downstream from the cleavage site and out-of-phase small RNAs were accumulated at relatively high levels from processing cycle 5 onwards. Secondary siRNAs were generated from multiple sites of endogenous CHS-A and CHS-J genes, indicating that miR173 cleavage induced siRNAs have the same ability to initiate siRNA transitivity as the siRNAs functioning in co-suppression and hpRNA silencing. On account of the simplicity of vector construction and the transitive amplification of signals from endogenous transcripts, MIGS is a good alternative gene silencing method for plants, especially for silencing a cluster of homologous genes with redundant

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status

  11. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Oh, Yu Whan; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status.

  12. Influence of different types of contact hypersensitivity on imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuang; Zhang, Zhenying; Hou, Suchun; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-07-01

    It is currently believed that psoriasis and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are different diseases; however, they share clinical similarities. The involvement of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in these disorders provides a novel opportunity to investigate the relationship between them. The present study aimed to determine whether the same or overlapping inflammatory pathways are involved in the two diseases, and the influence of different types of ACD on psoriasis. Compound mouse models of Th1 or Th2‑type contact hypersensitivity (CHS) combined with imiquimod (IMQ)‑induced psoriasis‑like inflammation were established, in order to mimic the characteristics of ACD and psoriasis. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and cytokine detection in blood serum and tissues were used to compare the differences between the mice treated with IMQ alone or IMQ combined with Th1 and Th2‑type CHS. As compared with the IMQ‑treated mice or IMQ-treated Th1‑type CHS mice, the mice with Th2‑type CHS treated with IMQ exhibited more serious psoriasis‑like inflammation with increased epidermal thickness and infiltrating cells in the derma. High mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑17, IL‑22, IL‑23, TNF‑α and RORγt were detected in back skin lesions. Additionally, high levels of IL‑17 and IL‑22 in blood serum were detected in IMQ‑treated mice combined with Th2‑type CHS. The mice treated with IMQ alone, and IMQ treatment combined with Th1‑type CHS had a comparable psoriasis‑like inflammatory response in the back skin. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that Th2‑type CHS exacerbated the IMQ‑treated psoriatic inflammation of mice via the IL‑23/IL‑17 axis. Th17 cells and associated pathways may link ACD and psoriasis. Therefore, patients with psoriasis should avoid contact with specific sensitizers, such as fragrance and rubber products, which may induce Th2 polarization. PMID:27221314

  13. Cloning and Sequence Analyzing of Chalcone Synthase Gene in Loropetalum chinense var.Rubrum%红花檵木CHS基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 于晓英; 陈己任; 符红艳; 胡博文; 陈彦斌; 李达

    2013-01-01

    查尔酮合酶(chalcone synthase,CHS)是进入类黄酮和花色素苷次生代谢的第1个关键酶.根据植物查尔酮合成酶保守区序列设计引物,以红花檵木Loropetalurn chinense var.Rubrum)大叶红的嫩叶为材料,用RT-PCR方法,分离得到了一个查尔酮合成酶基因的eDNA(GenBank登录号为JQ609678),将该基因命名为Lc vrCHS1.该序列长927 bp,编码232个氨基酸残基.其核苷酸序列与GenBank已登录的同样来源的核桃、山茶属植物CHS序列同源性达83%,与其他科植物(绣球花、葡萄、桃、马铃薯、甘草、领春木属)CHS序列同源性也达到80%以上;其编码的氨基酸序列与山茶属、葡萄、鳄梨、洋梨、沙梨、映山红CHS基因编码的氨基酸序列同样具有高度同源性,同源性高达98%.%Chalcone synthase (chalcone synthase, CHS) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the first step in flavonoids biosynthesis and anthocyanins secondary metabolites. A full-length cDNA encoding CHS was cloned from the young leaves of Loropetalurn chinense var. rubrum by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the highly conserved sequences of plant CHS that had already known. Blast search revealed that it was a new gene, and was named as LcvrCHSl (GenBank accession: JQ609678). The sequence was 927 bp, encoding 232 amino acid residues. It had 83% sequence homology with walnut and camellia that had been logged in GenBank; with other genus plants (hydrangea, grapes, peaches, potatoes, licorice, Euptelea genus), CHS sequence homology was also more than 80%; with other plants (camellia, grapes, avocados, bartlett pear, sand pear, azalea), CHS sequence also had high homology, up to 98% homology.

  14. Technical aspects in understanding effects of gamma irradiation on flower colour changes in Dendrobium Sonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colour is one of the most important traits in orchids and has created great interest in breeding programmes. Gamma irradiation is an alternative way for generation of somaclonal variation for new flower colours. Phenotypic changes are usually observed during screening and selection of mutants. Understanding of targeted gene expression level and evaluation of the changes facilitate in the development of functional markers for selection of desired flower colour mutants. Four Dendrobium orchid sequences (NCBI accessions: AM490639, AY41319, FM209429 and DQ462460) were selected to design gene specific primers based on information for chalcone synthase (CHS) from NCBI database. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to understand flower colour expression quantitatively derived from the CHS gene activities in different flower tissues (petal and sepal) from control Dendrobium Sonia (red purple), mutant DS 35-1/M (purple pink) and mutant DS 35-WhiteA. It was found that expression of CHS gene was highest in sepals of white flowers and lowest in both sepals and petals of purple pink flowers. Genomic DNA was amplified and PCR products were sequenced, aligned and compared. Sequence variations of CHS partial gene in Dendrobium Sonia mutants with different flower colour showed that two protein positions have been changed as compared to the control. These non-synonymous mutations may have contributed to the colour alterations in the white and purple pink mutants. This paper describes important procedures to quantify gene expression such as RNA isolation (quantity and quality), cDNA synthesis and primer design steps for CHS genes. (author)

  15. On partition function and Weyl anomaly of conformal higher-spin fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study 4-dimensional higher-derivative conformal higher-spin (CHS) fields generalizing Weyl graviton and conformal gravitino. They appear, in particular, as “induced” theories in the AdS/CFT context. We consider their partition function on curved Einstein-space backgrounds like (A)dS or sphere and Ricci-flat spaces. Remarkably, the bosonic (integer spin s) CHS partition function appears to be given by a product of partition functions of the standard 2nd-derivative “partially massless” spin s fields, generalizing the previously known expression for the 1-loop Weyl graviton (s=2) partition function. We compute the corresponding spin s Weyl anomaly coefficients as and cs. Our result for as reproduces the expression found recently in (arXiv:1306.5242) by an indirect method implied by AdS/CFT (which relates the partition function of a CHS field on S4 to a ratio of known partition functions of massless higher-spin field in AdS5 with alternate boundary conditions). We also obtain similar results for the fermionic CHS fields. In the half-integer s case the CHS partition function on (A)dS background is given by the product of squares of “partially massless” spin s partition functions and one extra factor corresponding to a special massive conformally invariant spin s field. It was noticed in (arXiv:1306.5242) that the sum of the bosonic as coefficients over all s is zero when computed using the ζ-function regularization, and we observe that the same property is true also in the fermionic case

  16. Aerosol assisted atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films using liquid cyclic hydrosilanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon (Si) thin films were produced using an aerosol assisted atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique with liquid hydrosilane precursors cyclopentasilane (CPS, Si5H10) and cyclohexasilane (CHS, Si6H12). Thin films were deposited at temperatures between 300 and 500 °C, with maximum observed deposition rates of 55 and 47 nm/s for CPS and CHS, respectively, at 500 °C. Atomic force microscopic analyses of the films depict smooth surfaces with roughness of 4–8 nm. Raman spectroscopic analysis indicates that the Si films deposited at 300 °C and 350 °C consist of a hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) phase while the films deposited at 400, 450, and 500 °C are comprised predominantly of a hydrogenated nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si:H) phase. The wide optical bandgaps of 2–2.28 eV for films deposited at 350–400 °C and 1.7–1.8 eV for those deposited at 450–500 °C support the Raman data and depict a transition from a-Si:H to nc-Si:H. Films deposited at 450 oC possess the highest photosensitivity of 102–103 under AM 1.5G illumination. Based on the growth model developed for other silanes, we suggest a mechanism that governs the film growth using CPS and CHS. - Highlights: • Si films via AA-APCVD are realized using cyclopentasilane (CPS) and cyclohexasilane (CHS). • Low activation energies of CPS and CHS allow Si thin films at low temperatures (300 °C). • High growth rates of 47–55 nm/s were obtained at 500 °C • Near device quality Si thin films with 2–3 orders of photosensitivity • Si thin films via AA-APCVD are amenable to continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing

  17. Developing a Performance Measurement Framework and Indicators for Community Health Service Facilities in Urban China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China has had no effective and systematic information system to provide guidance for strengthening PHC (Primary Health Care or account to citizens on progress. We report on the development of the China results-based Logic Model for Community Health Facilities and Stations (CHS and a set of relevant PHC indicators intended to measure CHS priorities. Methods We adapted the PHC Results Based Logic Model developed in Canada and current work conducted in the community health system in China to create the China CHS Logic Model framework. We used a staged approach by first constructing the framework and indicators and then validating their content through an interactive process involving policy analysis, critical review of relevant literature and multiple stakeholder consultation. Results The China CHS Logic Model includes inputs, activities, outputs and outcomes with a total of 287 detailed performance indicators. In these indicators, 31 indicators measure inputs, 64 measure activities, 105 measure outputs, and 87 measure immediate (n = 65, intermediate (n = 15, or final (n = 7 outcomes. Conclusion A Logic Model framework can be useful in planning, implementation, analysis and evaluation of PHC at a system and service level. The development and content validation of the China CHS Logic Model and subsequent indicators provides a means for stronger accountability and a clearer sense of overall direction and purpose needed to renew and strengthen the PHC system in China. Moreover, this work will be useful in moving towards developing a PHC information system and performance measurement across districts in urban China, and guiding the pursuit of quality in PHC.

  18. Changes in ideal cardiovascular health status and risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: The Kailuan prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxue; Shi, Jihong; Wang, Anxin; Song, Qiaofeng; Huang, Zhe; Zhu, Chenrui; Du, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Shuohua; Wang, Xizhu; Wu, Shouling

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the altered ideal cardiovascular health status (ΔCHS) and the risk of developing diabetes mellitus in the Kailuan population of China.We included 50,656 Chinese adults aged 18 years or older (11,704 men and 38,952 women) without baseline diabetes mellitus in this study. Information about 7 individual components of the cardiovascular health metrics during 2006 to 2008 was collected. A ΔCHS score was defined as the changes of ideal cardiovascular health status (CHS) from the year 2006 to 2008. New-onset diabetes was identified based on the history of diabetes, currently treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, or having a fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7.0 mmol/L during the 2010 to 2011 and 2012 to 2013 surveys. After a mean follow-up period of 3.80 years, a total of 3071 (6.06%) participants developed diabetes mellitus. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the CHS change and new-onset diabetes.A strong inverse association between the positive CHS changes and lower risks of developing diabetes mellitus was observed. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol consumption, and other potential confounders, the hazard ratios for new-onset diabetes were 0.73, 0.59, 0.49, and 0.42 (95% confidence interval: 0.37-0.82; P trend diabetes mellitus in this investigated Chinese population. PMID:27559955

  19. Embryonic desiccation resistance in Aedes aegypti: presumptive role of the chitinized Serosal Cuticle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixoto Alexandre

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major problems concerning dengue transmission is that embryos of its main vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, resist desiccation, surviving several months under dry conditions. The serosal cuticle (SC contributes to mosquito egg desiccation resistance, but the kinetics of SC secretion during embryogenesis is unknown. It has been argued that mosquito SC contains chitin as one of its components, however conclusive evidence is still missing. Results We observed an abrupt acquisition of desiccation resistance during Ae. aegypti embryogenesis associated with serosal cuticle secretion, occurring at complete germ band extension, between 11 and 13 hours after egglaying. After SC formation embryos are viable on dry for at least several days. The presence of chitin as one of the SC constituents was confirmed through Calcofluor and WGA labeling and chitin quantitation. The Ae. aegypti Chitin Synthase A gene (AaCHS1 possesses two alternatively spliced variants, AaCHS1a and AaCHS1b, differentially expressed during Ae. aegypti embryonic development. It was verified that at the moment of serosal cuticle formation, AaCHS1a is the sole variant specifically expressed. Conclusion In addition to the peritrophic matrix and exoskeleton, these findings confirm chitin is also present in the mosquito serosal cuticle. They also point to the role of the chitinized SC in the desiccation resistance of Ae. aegypti eggs. AaCHS1a expression would be responsible for SC chitin synthesis. With this embryological approach we expect to shed new light regarding this important physiological process related to the Ae. aegypti life cycle.

  20. Recent progress in stellarator reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Stellarator/Torsatron/Heliotron (S/T/H) class of toroidal magnetic fusion reactor designs continues to offer a distinct and in several ways superior approach to eventual commercial competitiveness. Although no major, integrated conceptual reactor design activity is presently underway, a number of international research efforts suggest avenues for the substantial improvement of the S/T/H reactor embodiment, which derive from recent experimental and theoretical progress and are responsive to current trends in fusion-reactor projection to set the stage for a third generation of designs. Recent S/T/H reactor design activity is reviewed and the impact of the changing technical and programmatic context on the direction of future S/T/H reactor design studies is outlined

  1. Structural design and analysis for the ISX-C/ATF tokamak of the vacuum vessel, coil joints, and supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISX-C/ATF is being designed as a test bed for advanced toroidal concepts. Because of numerous design concepts being evaluated, a flexible, easily changeable structural-design math-model was needed to afford quick evalution of the structural feasibility of the many proposed concepts. To satisfy this need, the NASTRAN Automated Multi-Stage Substructures technique was used to build a quick-changeable math model. This technique was especially needed because all the coils, first wall and diagnostic devices are to be supported by the vacuum vessel, requiring the entire structure to be analyzed as a system. Without the use of the substructuring technique, the required man hours and computer core would have made timely design analysis impossible. To illustrate the technique, the detailed design analysis of the concept Torsatron (with helical coils and T.F. coils) is presented

  2. Geometrical effects of the magnetic field on the neoclassical flow, current and rotation in general toroidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify geometrical effects of the magnetic field on neoclassical theory, the neoclassical parallel particle flow, heat flux, current and plasma rotation of a multispecies plasma in general toroidal systems are examined in several collisionality regimes. The quantitative and qualitative differences between axisymmetric (tokamaks) and non-axisymmetric toroidal systems (stellarator, heliotron/torsatron) appear mainly through a geometrical factor which prescribes the parallel flow due to the gradients of the density, temperature, and electrostatic potential. In axisymmetric toroidal systems the geometrical factor reduces to the same expression in all collisionality regimes due to axisymmetry. By contrast, in non-axisymmetric toroidal systems, it changes drastically depending on the magnetic fieled structure and the collisionality regime. Thus, the poloidal flow has the radial electric field dependence. When the geometrical factor is very small, the ion parallel flow almost vanishes and the ion rotation consists of the diamagnetic and E vector x B vector flows (perpendicular flows). (author)

  3. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1994. V. 1. Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains (i) the traditional Artsimovich Memorial Lecture; (ii) nine presentations giving an overview of toroidal confinement systems (TFTR, JT-60U, JET, DIII-D, TORE SUPRA, Alcator C-Mod, JFT-2M and T-10 tokamaks and the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator), (iii) twenty-three presentations on core plasma physics (mostly on charged-particle transport and improved confinement regimes), (iv) eight presentations on plasma heating and current drive, (v) twelve presentations on divertors and edge physics, (vi) thirteen on concept optimization (shaping of magnetic field configuration, control of plasma profiles and of disruptions, a.o.), and (vii) six on helical systems (stellarators, including torsatron/heliotron). Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Equilibrium and stability of helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of preparing basic data for designing a new large helical system, we have made a numerical survey of equilibrium and linear stabilities of l = 2 torsatron/heliotron. We try to find out optimum configuration in a wide parameter space where the coil aspect ratio γc is changed as well as the pitch period number M. We determine the parameter region within which a high β current-less plasma is obtained from the view points of both the equilibrium and stability limits. Moreover, we execute a sensitivity analysis of various parameters on the stability, such as the vertical field, the quadruple field, the pressure profile, the shape of the helical coil, and the pitch modulation. We find each parameter gives strong influence on the stability. (author)

  5. Alternative approaches to plasma confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.

  6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, technical research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    Research programs have produced significant results on four fronts: (1) the basic physics of high-temperature fusion plasmas (plasma theory, RF heating, development of advanced diagnostics and small-scale experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices); (2) major confinement results on the Alcator A and C tokamaks, including pioneering investigations of the equilibrium, stability, transport and radiation properties of fusion plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields; (3) development of a new and innovative design for axisymmetric tandem mirrors with inboard thermal barriers, with initial operation of the TARA tandem mirror experimental facility scheduled for 1983; and (4) a broadly based program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas (e.g., magnet systems, superconducting materials development, environmental and safety studies, advanced gyrotron development for RF heating, preconceptual design studies of torsatrons and stellarators, and advanced tokamak design and reactor studies).

  7. Self-sustained turbulence and L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theory of the anomalous transport coefficient in toroidal helical systems (such as stellarators, torsatron and Heliotron devices) is developed. The theoretical formalism of self-sustained turbulence is applied to the interchange mode turbulence and ballooning mode turbulence. The nonlinear destabilization of microscopic modes by the current diffusivity is the key for the anomalous transport. A general form of the anomalous transport coefficient in toroidal plasmas is derived. The intrinsic importance of the pressure gradient, collisionless skin depth and Alfven transit time is confirmed. The geometrical factors which characterize the magnetic configurations are also obtained. The theory is extended to study the influence of parallel compressibility. The ion viscosities of the perpendicular and parallel momenta, electron viscosity and energy diffusion coefficient are obtained. The comparison with experimental results is also given. (author)

  8. Goals and status of HSX: a helically symmetric stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Helically Symmetry Experiment (HSX) is a quasi-helically symmetric (QHS) stellarator being constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Torsatron Stellarator Laboratory, and the first experimental test of the QHS approach. HSX has a single dominant helical component to the magnetic field spectrum, with neoclassical transport 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than conventional stellarators in the low collisionality regime. Auxiliary coils will be used to add a toroidal mirror mode to destroy the symmetry, with only small changes in the rotational transform profile. The ASTRA code predict factors of two between Te(0) for these two spectral cases. The mirror mode also causes a large increase in direct loss orbits and increases viscous damping as compared to the QHS mode. (author)

  9. Fusion theory and computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed to carry out theoretical studies of the equilibrium, stability, transport and heating properties of high-temperature fusion plasmas. Continued emphasis will be placed on the effective interface of fusion theory and computations with the local Alcator, Versator, Constance and Torex experimental programs. The proposed research includes but will not be limited to the following types of studies: (a) investigation of RF heating of toroidal plasmas, (b) investigation of the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of tokamak plasmas, (c) develop the basic understanding of a wide variety of non-linear and turbulent phenomena, including stochastic magnetic fields, clumps and nonlinear saturation of linear instabilities, (d) investigate the effects of ambipolar fields on transport and stability properties of toroidal plasmas. Investigate high-beat stability properties of tandem-mirror systems, and (e) investigation of the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of Torsatron/Stellarator configurations

  10. Improved confinement and related physics study in Compact Helical System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental results in Compact Helical System (CHS) will be presented focusing on the improved confinement and physics study of electric field and turbulence in helical plasmas. Among various improved confinement modes found in CHS experiments, the edge transport barrier (ETB) formation is an important topic, which we have been studying intensively for these years. The discharges of CHS with ETB have characteristics very similar to H-mode discharges in tokamaks and W7-AS stellarator. We observe a sharp drop of Hα emission signal, increase of plasma density together with an increase of local density gradient at the plasma edge, so we call our ETB discharges as H-mode. The power threshold for the transition is clearly observed which is again similar to standard H-mode discharges, i.e., the threshold increases with the density and magnetic field. Unique feature of CHS H-mode is the dependence on the magnetic field configuration. We examined H-mode discharges for the configurations with magnetic axis shift and the magnetic quadrupole control. The transition appeared for a wide range of configurations with the rotational transform at the plasma edge (iota(a)) below and above unity. There is a general dependence of power threshold: higher power needed for the inward shifted configuration (with lower value of iota(a)) and lower power for outward shift. The absolute power threshold of CHS H-mode for the outward shifted configuration is very close to the tokamak H-mode with a divertor configuration. Other topics of confinement studies in CHS will be also presented. We have a unique diagnostic system of two heavy ion beam probes. It is unique in stellarator research and also for all toroidal confinement research including many tokamaks in the world. As well as fruitful result of electric field measurements, that is one of key elements for stellarator physics, this diagnostic measures turbulence in the plasma, which gives essential information for the study of

  11. 番茄查尔酮合成酶基因的鉴定及生物信息学分析%Identification and Bioinformatics Analysis of Chalcone Synthase Genes in Tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮美颖; 杨悦俭; 万红建; 叶青静; 王荣青; 姚祝平; 周国治; 俞锞; 袁伟; 刘云飞

    2013-01-01

      类黄酮(Flavonoids)是植物体内一类重要的次生代谢产物,它以结合态(黄酮苷)或自由态(黄酮苷元)形式存在于水果、蔬菜、豆类和茶叶等许多植物中,对植物的生长发育有着重要的调节作用。查尔酮合成酶(Chalcone synthase, CHS, EC2.3.1.74)是植物类黄酮合成途径的第一个关键酶,在调控类黄酮的生物合成以及类黄酮的成分起着决定作用。本研究基于番茄全基因组测序数据,利用生物信息学方法,鉴定了查尔酮合成酶基因家族成员,分析其内含子-外显子的结构特征、系统发育关系,序列结构的保守性以及染色体上的分布。研究表明:查尔酮合成酶(SlCHS)是含有8个成员的多家族基因,蛋白质序列编码位于160(SlCHS05)~438(SlCHS08)个氨基酸之间;相似性在33.7%(SlCHS02和SlCHS06)~92.0%(SlCHS04和SlCHS07)之间,表明这些序列之间具有较高的遗传多样性;此外,结构分析发现这些基因均含有较少的内含子(0~2个);序列比对表明这些基因具有较高的保守性;它们不均匀分布在番茄的1、5、6、9和12号染色体上。该研究不仅有助于未来了解该基因家族的进化起源提供参考,而且可为我们进一步分析该基因家族成员的功能奠定基础。%Flavonoids are a kind of important secondary metabolites in plants. Usually, it was found in fruits, vegetables, beans, tea and many other plants as combination (flavonoid glycosides) or free states (flavonoid glyco-sides) form. It has important role in regulating plant growth and development. Chalcone synthase, the first key synthase during the process of flavonoids synthesis, plays an important role in plant growth and development. Based on the whole tomato genome sequence, we investigated gene members of the chalcone synthase family with genome database and bioinformatics analysis. We identified 8 chalcone synthase genes with protein sequence length varying

  12. Effect of deletion of chitin synthase genes on mycelial morphology and culture viscosity in Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christian; Hansen, Kim; Szabo, Peter; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of disrupting two chitin synthases, chsB and csmA, on the morphology and rheology during batch cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae. The rheological properties were characterized in batch cultivations at different biomass concentrations (from 3.4-22.5 g kg(-1) biomass) and the power-law model adequately described the rheological properties. In the cultivations there were pellets, clumps, and freely dispersed hyphal elements. The different morphological fractions were quantified using image analysis. The apparent viscosity of the fermentation broth was significantly affected by the biomass concentration, the morphology, and also by pH. The chsB disruption strain had lower consistency index K values for all biomass concentrations investigated, which is a desirable trait for industrial Aspergillus fermentations. PMID:12514801

  13. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isvett J. Flores-Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

  14. The Evolution and Space Weather Effects of Solar Coronal Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Krista, Larisza Diana

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the role of space weather forecasting has grown tremendously as our society increasingly relies on satellite dependent technologies. The forecasting of flare and CME related transient geomagnetic storms has become a primary initiative, however, minor magnetic storms caused by coronal holes (CHs) have also proven to be of high importance due to their long lasting and recurrent geomagnetic effects. In order to study CH properties, the author developed an automated CH detection method (CHARM), which uses local intensity histograms to identify CH boundaries. An additional algorithm package (CHEVOL) was developed to study individual CHs by tracking their boundary evolution. It is widely accepted that the short-term changes in CH boundaries are due to the interchange reconnection between the CH open field lines and small loops. In order to test the interchange reconnection model, the magnetic reconnection rate and the diffusion coefficient at CH boundaries were determined using observed CH boundary ...

  15. Local and systemic effects of co-stimulatory blockade using cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4-immunoglobulin in dinitrofluorobenzene- and oxazolone-induced contact hypersensitivity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, A. D.; Skov, Søren; Haase, C.

    2013-01-01

    dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)- and oxazolone-induced CHS. The suppressive effect was still present 3 weeks after administration, even in the absence of circulating levels of CTLA-4-Ig. It was further shown that CTLA-4-Ig inhibits activation of T cells in the draining lymph node after sensitization and affects the...... maturation level of both dendritic cells and B cells. Furthermore, CTLA-4-Ig reduces infiltration of activated CD8(+) T cells into the inflamed ear tissue and suppresses both local and systemic inflammation, as illustrated by reduced expression of cytokines and chemokines in the inflamed ear and a reduced...... compare the effect of this compound in both DNFB- and oxazolone-induced CHS and to show that CTLA-4-Ig exerts an immunosuppressive effect on both local and systemic inflammatory mediators which is mediated principally during the sensitization phase....

  16. Cellular dynamics in the draining lymph nodes during sensitization and elicitation phases of contact hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Geisler, Carsten; Nielsen, Martin Weiss; Boding, Lasse; Von Essen, Marina; Hansen, Ann Kathrine; Skov, Lone; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2007-01-01

    immunological cells and by studying knockout mice lacking one or more of these immunological cell populations. OBJECTIVES: To develop a method for studying the collective cellular dynamics of immune cells in the draining lymph nodes during CHS in intact animals. PATIENTS/METHODS: Mice were sensitized and....../or challenged with 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene or oxazolone. Using multi-parameter flow cytometry we determined the proliferation, activation state, and absolute number of helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells in the draining lymph nodes. RESULTS: The presented method can be applied...... to evaluate the effect of different contact allergens on various cell populations of the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: Our study support recent findings that several cell types seem to be involved in CHS....

  17. Protocol for the application of cooperative MIMO based on clustering in sparse wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-hua; QU Yu-gui; LIN Zhi-ting; BAI Rong-gang; ZHAO Bao-hua; PAN Quan-ke

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) using cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication are effective tools to collect data in several environments. However, how to apply cooperative MIMO in WSN remains a critical challenge, especially in sparse WSN. In this article, a novel clustering scheme is proposed for the application of cooperative MIMO in sparse WSN by extending the traditional low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) protocol. This clustering scheme solves the problem that the cluster heads (CH) cannot find enough secondary cluster heads (SCH), which are used to cooperate and inform multiple-antenna transmitters with CHs. On the basis of this protocol, the overall energy consumption of the networks model is developed, and the optimal number of CHs is obtained. The simulation results show that this protocol is feasible for the sparse WSN. The simulation results also illustrate that this protocol provides significant energy efficiencies, even after allowing for additional overheads.

  18. Rich: Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head Selection and Node Deployment Strategy in Concentric-based WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN, C.-S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a random deployment, sensor nodes are scattered randomly in the sensing field. Hence, the coverage can not be guaranteed. In contrast, the coverage of uniformly deployment is in general larger than the random deployment. However, uniformly deployment strategy may cause unbalanced traffic pattern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this situation, larger load may be imposed to CHs (cluster heads around the sink. Therefore, CHs close to the sink use up their energy earlier than those farther away from the sink. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel node deployment strategy in the concentric model, namely, Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head selection and node deployment strategy (called Rich. The coverage, energy consumption and data routing issues are well investigated and taken into consideration in the proposed Rich scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed Rich alleviates the unbalanced traffic pattern significantly, prolongs network lifetime and achieves satisfactory coverage ratio.

  19. Dynamic analysis of compact helical system power supply and designs of its upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed dynamic waveforms are compared with measured ones for the power supply of the Compact Helical System (CHS) during 1.5T operation and found to be in good agreement. On the basis of these results, designs for the upgraded power supply for 2T operation are discussed in the two cases, with and without power consumption for additional heating. In the former case, the additional heating power is supplied from the ac generator that powers the CHS coils. Electric voltages and currents in the electric circuit are shown for both cases. These designs show the possibility for 2T operation by addition of some components without changing the ratings of existing components. (author)

  20. DYNAMIC RE-CLUSTERING LEACH-BASED (DR-LEACH PROTOCOL FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ijjeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN contains a large number of sensor nodes equipped with limited energy supplies. In most applications, sensor nodes are deployed in a random fashion. Therefore, battery replacement or charging is considered not practical. As a result, routing protocols must be energy-efficient to prolong the network’s lifetime. In this paper, we propose a new Dynamic Re-clustering LEACH-Based protocol (DR-LEACH which aims to reduce the energy consumption and extending the network’s lifetime. The idea is to balance energy consumption of Cluster Heads (CHs by generating clusters with almost equal number of nodes during each round of the network life time. To perform this, we first calculate the optimal number of CHs in each round, and based on that we calculate the optimal size of each cluster. Results show that the proposed protocol improves network lifetime and reduces overall energy consumption compared to LEACH and BCDCP protocols.

  1. Suppression of contact hypersensitivity by short-term ultraviolet irradiation: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cis-urocanic acid (cis-UCA), produced from trans-UCA (a normal component of epidermis) by UV irradiation, suppressed cell-mediated immunological reactions in vivo and in vitro. It suppressed the development of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) when injected into mice, and it suppressed leucocyte adherence inhibition (LAI) reactions of previously sensitized lymphocytes exposed to antigen. Serum from mice injected with cis-UCA was also immunosuppressive in vitro. Normal murine spleen cells cultured with cis-UCA produced a non-dialysable factor which suppressed LAI reactivity. Trans-UCA was ineffectual in all of these systems. Both the ability of cis-UCA to induce an immunosuppressive serum factor and its ability to suppress CHS were abrogated by prior administration of cyclophosphamide, indicating that cis-UCA (normally from irradiated epidermis) stimulates T suppressor cells to produce the previously described suppressor factor in serum and the immunosuppression associated with short-term irradiation. (author)

  2. Role of UVB-induced serum factor(s) in suppression of contact hypersensitivity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultraviolet, 280-320 nm (UVB), irradiation of the shaved dorsal skin of mice results in suppression of the development of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) to antigens applied subsequently to a distant nonirradiated skin site. Serum from BALB/cAnNCr mice exposed to a single dose of UVB radiation (8.6 X 10(4) J/m2) was evaluated for its ability to induce suppression of CHS to 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNCB), a contact allergen, after transfer to normal recipients. Serum from UVB-irradiated donors was capable of inducing immunosuppression only when collected and transferred within a restricted time period, i.e., approximately 2-6 h post irradiation, and at least 400 microliters of serum per recipient was required. Serum from UVB-irradiated donors was sufficient to induce splenic suppressor cells in recipient mice

  3. Chronic low-dose UVA irradiation induces local suppression of contact hypersensitivity, Langerhans cell depletion and suppressor cell activation in C3H/HeJ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has previously been demonstrated that chronic low-dose solar-simulated UV radiation could induce both local and systemic immunosuppression as well as tolerance to a topically applied hapten. In this study, we have used a chronic low-dose UV-irradiation protocol to investigate the effects of UVA on the skin immune system of C3H/HeJ mice. Irradiation with UVA+B significantly suppressed the local and systemic primary contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to the hapten 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene. Furthermore, UVA+B reduced Langerhans cell (LC) and dendritic epidermal T cell (DETC) densities in chronically UV-irradiated mice. Ultraviolet A irradiation induced local, but not systemic, immunosuppression and reduced LC (32%) but not DETC from the epidermis compared to the shaved control animals. Treatment of mice with both UVA+B and UVA radiation also induced an impaired secondary CHS response, and this tolerance was transferable with spleen cells. (Author)

  4. ICR studies of some anionic gas phase reactions and FTICR software design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis consists of two parts. Part one (Chs. 1-5) reports experimental results from mostly drift-cell ICR studies of negative ion-molecule reactions; part two (Chs. 6-11) concerns the design of software for an FTICR instrument. The author discusses successively: 1. ion cyclotron resonance spectrometry; 2. the gas phase allyl anion; 3. the (M-H) and (M-H2) anions from acetone; 4. negative ion-molecule reactions of aliphatic nitrites studied by cyclotron resonance; 5. homoconjugation versus charge-dipole interaction effects in the stabilization of carbanions in the gas phase; 6. the Fourier Transform ICR method; 7. the FTICR-software; 8. an efficient adaptive matcher filter for fast transient signals; 9. reduction of spectral peak height errors by time-domain weighing; 10. Chirp excitation; 11. Compact data storage. The book concludes with a Dutch and English summary (G.J.P.)

  5. Antioxidant enzymes as potential targets in cardioprotection and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Enzyme antioxidants: the next stage of pharmacological counterwork to the oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vavaev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus in antioxidant research is on enzyme derivative investigations. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD is of particular interest, as it demonstrates in vivo the protective action against development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus. The reliable association of coronary artery disease with decreased level of heparin-released EC-SOD was established in clinical research. To create a base for and to develop antioxidant therapy, various SOD isozymes, catalase (CAT, methods of gene therapy, and combined applications of enzymes are used. Covalent bienzyme SOD-CHS-CAT conjugate (CHS, chondroitin sulphate showed high efficacy and safety as the drug candidate. There is an evident trend to use the components of glycocalyx and extracellular matrix for target delivery of medical substances. Development of new enzyme antioxidants for therapeutic application is closely connected with progress in medical biotechnology, pharmaceutical industry, and bioeconomy.

  6. Remarks on application of VMEC and PROCTR to the Wendelstein 7-AS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the application of the VMEC (Variational Moments Equilibrium Code) and PROCTR (PRedictOr Corrector TRansport code) numerical codes to the W7-AS experiment. The different versions of VMEC, each of which has been used for W7-AS and CHS (National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya, Japan), were compared to confirm their reliability and performance, and successfully benchmarked. The PROCTR code set was installed in the Wendelstein-VAX cluster. Its potential in experimental interpretation and theoretical analysis was demonstrated for coordinate inversion based on full 3-D geometry, power balance analysis and time-dependent transport simulation. The benchmark tests of tools for finite-β equilibrium and power balance analysis are a prerequisite for the joint profile and configuration database for stellarators which has just been started. We successfully recognized the compatibility of the schemes used on W7-AS and CHS. (orig.)

  7. Accelerated Phase of Chediak-Higashi Syndrome at Initial Presentation: A Case Report of an Uncommon Occurrence in a Rare Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Pooja; Yadav, Yogesh Kumar; Bhasker, Nilam; Kushwaha, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an uncommon and fatal congenital disorder. The characteristic features of CHS are partial oculocutaneous albinism, increased vulnerability to infections, presence of abnormal large granules in leukocytes and an accelerated lymphohistiocytic phase. Accelerated phase at initial presentation is rarely seen as it is usually preceded by repeated episodes of infections. Hence this interesting case of a four-month-old Indian child born to consanguineous parents in accelerated phase at initial presentation is described. The boy presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and cleft lip. Clinical diagnosis was leukemia or a lysosomal storage disorder. Cytopaenias, lymphohistiocytic infiltration in bone marrow, and the characteristic large granules in leucocytes helped in the diagnosis, emphasizing the importance of bone marrow in diagnosis of unusual presentation of this rare disorder. PMID:26816903

  8. Chediak-Higashi Syndrome: A Case Series from Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudramurthy, Pradeep; Lokanatha, Hemalata

    2015-01-01

    Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, frequent pyogenic infections, and the presence of abnormal large granules in leukocytes and other granulecontaining cells. The abnormal granules are readily seen in blood and marrow granulocytes. Other clinical features include silvery hair, photophobia, nystagmus and hepatosplenomegaly. However, the presence of abnormal giant intracytoplasmic granules in neutrophils and their precursors are diagnostic of CHS. Here, we present a series of five cases, out of which four presented in the accelerated phase. In all the five cases, the giant granules were noted predominantly in the cytoplasm of lymphocytes, which is a rare occurrence compared to those present in the granulocytes. PMID:26538743

  9. Theoretical spectroscopic characterization at low temperatures of S-methyl thioformate and O-methyl thioformate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senent, M. L., E-mail: senent@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-C.S.I.C., Serrano 121, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Puzzarini, C., E-mail: cristina.puzzarini@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Chimica G. Ciamician, Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Hochlaf, M., E-mail: hochlaf@univ-mlv.fr [Laboratoire de Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, Université Paris-Est, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 boulevard Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Domínguez-Gómez, R., E-mail: rosa.dominguez@upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil, Cátedra de Química, E.U.I.T. Obras Públicas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Carvajal, M., E-mail: miguel.carvajal@dfa.uhu.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Unidad Asociada IEM-CSIC-U.Huelva, Universidad de Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-14

    Highly correlated ab initio methods are employed to determine spectroscopic properties at low temperatures of two S-analogs of methyl formate: S-methyl thioformate CH{sub 3}-S-CHO (MSCHO) and O-methyl thioformate CH{sub 3}-O-CHS (MOCHS). Both species are detectable and they are expected to play an important role in Astrochemistry. Molecular properties are compared with those of the O-analog, methyl formate. Both isomers present two conformers cis and trans. cis-CH{sub 3}-S-CHO represents the most stable structure lying 4372.2 cm{sup −1} below cis-CH{sub 3}-O-CHS. The energy difference between the cis and trans forms is drastically lower for MSCHO (1134 cm{sup −1}) than for MOCHS (1963.6 cm{sup −1}). Harmonic and anharmonic fundamentals and the corresponding intensities, as well as the rotational constants for the ground vibrational and first excited torsional states and the centrifugal distortions constants, are provided. Low torsional energy levels have been obtained by solving variationally a two dimensional Hamiltonian expressed in terms of the two torsional degrees of freedom. The corresponding 2D potential energy surfaces have been computed at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. The methyl torsional barriers V{sub 3}(cis) are determined to be 139.7 cm{sup −1} (CH{sub 3}-S-CHO) and 670.4 cm{sup −1} (CH{sub 3}-O-CHS). The A/E splitting of ground torsional state has been estimated to be 0.438 cm{sup −1} for CH{sub 3}-S-CHO and negligible for CH{sub 3}-O-CHS.

  10. The effect of a bidirectional exchange on faculty and institutional development in a global health collaboration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Bodnar

    Full Text Available The MUYU Collaboration is a partnership between Mulago Hospital-Makerere University College of Health Sciences (M-MakCHS, in Kampala, Uganda, and the Yale University School of Medicine. The program allows Ugandan junior faculty to receive up to 1 year of subspecialty training within the Yale hospital system. The authors performed a qualitative study to assess the effects of this program on participants, as well as on M-MakCHS as an institution.Data was collected via semi-structured interviews with exchange participants. Eight participants (67% of those eligible as of 4/2012 completed interviews. Study authors performed data analysis using standard qualitative data analysis techniques.Analysis revealed themes addressing the benefits, difficulties, and opportunities for improvement of the program. Interviewees described the main benefit of the program as its effect on their fund of knowledge. Participants also described positive effects on their clinical practice and on medical education at M-MakCHS. Most respondents cited financial issues as the primary difficulty of participation. Post-participation difficulties included resource limitations and confronting longstanding institutional and cultural habits. Suggestions for programmatic improvement included expansion of the program, ensuring appropriate management of pre-departure expectations, and refinement of program mentoring structures. Participants also voiced interest in expanding post-exchange programming to ensure both the use of and the maintenance of new capacity.The MUYU Collaboration has benefitted both program participants and M-MakCHS, though these benefits remain difficult to quantify. This study supports the assertion that resource-poor to resource-rich exchanges have the potential to provide significant benefits to the resource-poor partner.

  11. Evaluation of Pan-Dermatophyte Nested PCR in Diagnosis of Onychomycosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Jaya; Tilak, Ragini; Singh, Sanjay; Gulati, Anil Kumar; Garg, Atul; Prakash, Pradyot; Nath, Gopal

    2007-01-01

    In this study, nested PCR using novel primers targeting the pan-dermatophyte-specific sequence of the chitin synthase 1 gene (CHS1) was compared with KOH microscopy, culture isolation, and single-round PCR for diagnosis of 152 patients with clinically suspected onychomycosis. Results indicate that nested PCR may be considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of cases of onychomycosis for which the etiological agents are dermatophytes.

  12. Fatigue of bridge joints using welded tubes or cast steel node solutions

    OpenAIRE

    NUSSBAUMER, Alain; Haldimann-Sturm, Senta C.; Schumacher, Ann

    2006-01-01

    In the design of recently constructed steel-concrete composite bridges using hollow section trusses for the main load carrying structure, the fatigue verification of the tubular truss joints has been a main issue. Recent research on the fatigue behaviour of such joints has focussed on circular hollow section (CHS) K-joints with low diameter-to-thickness ratios - a geometric characteristic typical to tubular bridge trusses. Analytical and experimental research was carried out and joints with b...

  13. Contact Sensitizers Induce Skin Inflammation via ROS Production and Hyaluronic Acid Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp R Esser; Wölfle, Ute; Dürr, Christoph; Friederike D von Loewenich; Schempp, Christoph M.; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Jakob, Thilo; Martin, Stefan F

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed t...

  14. Clinico-hematological profile of Chediak-Higashi syndrome: Experience from a tertiary care center in south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Roy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by partial ocular and cutaneous albinism, increased susceptibility to pyogenic infections, the presence of large lysosomal-like organelles in most granule-containing cells and a bleeding tendency. The abnormal granules are most readily seen in blood and marrow leukocytes, especially granulocytes; and in melanocytes. Other clinical features include silvery hair, photophobia, horizontal and rotatory nystagmus and hepatosplenomegaly. Materials and Methods: The clinico-hematological profile of a series of 5 cases of CHS encountered at JIPMER Hospital with diagnostic work-up done in the Department of Pathology over the last 6 years is presented. The diagnostic work-up included complete hemogram with peripheral smear, bone marrow examination, skin and liver biopsies. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 5 months to 3 years. All patients had silvery hair and partial albinism and presented with fever and recurrent chest infection. Two patients were stable. Three patients were in accelerated phase; of them, 1 patient with associated hemophagocytic syndrome had a rapidly fulminant course. Peripheral blood smear showed anomalously large granules in the leukocytes. Skin biopsy showed sparse, coarse melanin pigment in the epidermis, and liver biopsy done in 2 patients with accelerated phase showed portal lymphohistiocytic aggregates. Conclusions: The diagnostic hallmark of CHS is the occurrence of giant inclusion bodies (granules in the peripheral leukocyte and their bone marrow precursors. The case series is being presented because of the rarity of CHS and varied spectrum of clinical and hematological presentation.

  15. Bibliometric analysis about the scientific production on the Social Skills Field

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Colepicolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This research consisted to contribute to the systematization of the theoretical and practical field of Social Skills, here called Social Skills Field (SSF). Method. A survey of a representative sample of CHS publications metadata extracted from the 15 scientific and technical literature databases in Psychology available in the CAPES Journals Portal was conducted. After treatment and refinement, this sample resulted in a corpus of metadata 25,409 scientific articles, which is a set ...

  16. Differential Expression of Anthocyanin Biosynthetic Genes in Relation to Anthocyanin Accumulation in the Pericarp of Litchi Chinensis Sonn

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Zan Wei; Fu-Chu Hu; Gui-Bing Hu; Xiao-Jing Li; Xu-Ming Huang; Hui-Cong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Litchi has diverse fruit color phenotypes, yet no research reflects the biochemical background of this diversity. In this study, we evaluated 12 litchi cultivars for chromatic parameters and pigments, and investigated the effects of abscisic acid, forchlorofenron (CPPU), bagging and debagging treatments on fruit coloration in cv. Feizixiao, an unevenly red cultivar. Six genes encoding chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase...

  17. Kritéria výběru koní pro hiporehabilitaci v českých střediscích

    OpenAIRE

    ČAPKOVÁ, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the criteria selected horses for equine assisted therapy and activities in Czech centers, if the centers are governed by the rules the Czech Therapeutic Riding Association (CHS) and whether the selection of horses for hippotherapy significant breed horses. A horse used for equine assisted therapies and activities can not be any, must be carefully chosen animal and specially trained. The main criteria for selection of horses for equine assisted ther...

  18. Atlantic ocean disposal sites: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concepts Development Incorporated (CDI) has reviewed the literature and summarized the environmental data base available for two possible waste disposal sites off the northeast coast of the United States. These sites include the 106-Mile Ocean Waste Disposal Site (DWD 106) located due east of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, and the Cape Hatteras Site (CHS). DWD 106 is now used for the disposal of industrial wastes. CHS was identified through a Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) program to locate regions suitable for the marine disposal of large structures, within the exclusive economic zone of the United States (200 nautical miles or less from the coast), in deep (>4000m) water. DWD 106 has been the subject of EPA and NOAA environmental studies in conjunction with industrial waste disposal at the site, and CHS has been described by Hollister, Bruce and Chandler (1979) and considered in a study of dissolved contaminant dispersal by Kupferman and Moore (1981). The prime objective of this study was to identify and review published accounts of environmental studies pertaining to DWD 106 or CHS. A secondary objective was to identify studies conducted within the general region (taken to be the NW Atlantic) so that in cases where site-specific data are unavailable one could identify the nearest available data set of a given category. Additionally, some effort was directed toward assembling references which would aid in the characterization of waste contaminated with traces of natural radioactive material.This document presents literature search site characterization summary material; brief discussion of the result of the waste characterization review; and a listing of bibliographic references identified to date

  19. Design of Randomly Deployed Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks by Algorithms Based on Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Joon-Woo Lee; Won Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design of a randomly deployed heterogeneous wireless sensor network (HWSN) with two types of nodes: a powerful node and an ordinary node. Powerful nodes, such as Cluster Heads (CHs), communicate directly to the data sink of the network, and ordinary nodes sense the desired information and transmit the processed data to powerful nodes. The heterogeneity of HWSNs improves the networks lifetime and coverage. This paper focuses on the design of a random network among HWSNs....

  20. Changes in Phytochemical Synthesis, Chalcone Synthase Activity and Pharmaceutical Qualities of Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans L.) in Relation to Plant Age

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ghasemzadeh; Alireza Nasiri; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ali Baghdadi; Izham Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74) was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF) production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest conten...

  1. Ectosymbionts and immunity in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex subterraneus subterraneus

    OpenAIRE

    José De Souza, Danival; Lenoir, Alain; Megumi Kasuya, Maria Catarina; Marques Ramos Ribeiro, Myriam; Devers, Séverine; Couceiro, Joel da Cruz; Castro Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria

    2012-01-01

    International audience Associations with symbiotic organisms can serve as a strategy for social insects to resist pathogens. Antibiotics produced by attine ectosymbionts (Actinobacteria) suppress the growth of Escovopsis spp., the specialized parasite of attine fungus gardens. Our objective was to evaluate whether the presence or absence of symbiotic actinobacteria covering the whole ant cuticle is related to differential immunocompetence, respiratory rate and cuticular hydrocarbons (CHs)....

  2. Simple Risk Model Predicts Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation in a Racially and Geographically Diverse Population: the CHARGE‐AF Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Alvaro; Krijthe, Bouwe P; Aspelund, Thor; Stepas, Katherine A.; Pencina, Michael J.; Moser, Carlee B.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Fontes, João D.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Kronmal, Richard A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Witteman, Jacqueline C; Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Lubitz, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tools for the prediction of atrial fibrillation (AF) may identify high‐risk individuals more likely to benefit from preventive interventions and serve as a benchmark to test novel putative risk factors. Methods and Results Individual‐level data from 3 large cohorts in the United States (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities [ARIC] study, the Cardiovascular Health Study [CHS], and the Framingham Heart Study [FHS]), including 18 556 men and women aged 46 to 94 years (19% African Americ...

  3. Contracting with private providers for primary care services: evidence from urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Eggleston, Karen; Yu, Zhenjie; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the role of the private sector in health service delivery, including primary care and population health services. China's recent health reforms call for non-discrimination against private providers and emphasize strengthening primary care, but formal contracting-out initiatives remain few, and the associated empirical evidence is very limited. This paper presents a case study of contracting with private providers for urban primary and preventive health services in Shandong Province, China. The case study draws on three primary sources of data: administrative records; a household survey of over 1600 community residents in Weifang and City Y; and a provider survey of over 1000 staff at community health stations (CHS) in both Weifang and City Y. We supplement the quantitative data with one-on-one, in-depth interviews with key informants, including local officials in charge of public health and government finance.We find significant differences in patient mix: Residents in the communities served by private community health stations are of lower socioeconomic status (more likely to be uninsured and to report poor health), compared to residents in communities served by a government-owned CHS. Analysis of a household survey of 1013 residents shows that they are more willing to do a routine health exam at their neighborhood CHS if they are of low socioeconomic status (as measured either by education or income). Government and private community health stations in Weifang did not statistically differ in their performance on contracted dimensions, after controlling for size and other CHS characteristics. In contrast, the comparison City Y had lower performance and a large gap between public and private providers. We discuss why these patterns arose and what policymakers and residents considered to be the main issues and concerns regarding primary care services. PMID:23327666

  4. Anu Koskivirta, Sari Forsström, (eds.), Manslaughter, fornication and sectarianism. Norm-breaking in Finland and the Baltic area from mediaeval to modern times / Maria Ågren, Åsa Karlsson, Xavier Rousseaux, (eds.), Guises of power. Integra

    OpenAIRE

    Spierenburg, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    The first of the two collective volumes reviewed here results from the productive project on the history of crime in Finland and surrounding areas, directed by Heikki Ylikangas. Other publications in English have already appeared (one reviewed as a short notice by me in CHS 3,2). Of the seven contributions to this volume, five deal with Finland, one with Sweden and one with Estonia. Violence, mainly homicide, is the principal subject, with four contributions devoted to it. The other three are...

  5. The Effect of Widowhood on Husbands’ and Wives’ Physical Activity: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study examined the effect of widowhood on physical activity by comparing widowed elders to health status-, age-, and sex-matched married controls. Participants included 396 married controls and 396 widows/widowers age 64 to 91 (M age = 72.7 years) who experienced the death of their spouse while participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Compared to married controls, widowed men, but not women, were more likely to increase their physical activity...

  6. Cystatin C Identifies Chronic Kidney Disease Patients at Higher Risk for Complications

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta, Carmen A.; Katz, Ronit; Sarnak, Mark J.; Ix, Joachim; Fried, Linda F.; Boer, Ian de; Palmas, Walter; Siscovick, David; Levey, Andrew S.; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Although cystatin C is a stronger predictor of clinical outcomes associated with CKD than creatinine, the clinical role for cystatin C is unclear. We included 11,909 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and assessed risks for death, cardiovascular events, heart failure, and ESRD among persons categorized into mutually exclusive groups on the basis of the biomarkers that supported a diagnosis of CKD (eGFR

  7. Community-level Language Planning for Chinese Heritage Language Maintenance in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    An Chung Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of Chinese heritage language in the United States from the perspective of language policy and planning. The case study examines the Chinese heritage language maintenance through community-based Chinese schools (CHS), and CHS’s relationships with Chinese American community, as well as governments and non-government organizations in China, Taiwan, and the United States. The paper starts with a theoretical discussion on the definition ...

  8. VERIFICATION OF THE EFFECT OF CONCRETE SURFACE PROTECTION ON THE PERMEABILITY OF ACID GASES USING ACCELERATED CARBONATION DEPTH TEST IN AN ATMOSPHERE OF 98% CO2

    OpenAIRE

    JIŘÍ NOVÁK; MICHAL STEHLÍK

    2011-01-01

    Carbonation is one of the corrosion processes negatively influencing the properties of mature concrete. It is caused by a chemical reaction between carbon dioxide infiltrating the surface of a concrete structure and the minerals of the mastic cement. The surface of a concrete structure can be protected from the effects of atmospheric CO2 by coating with modern waterborne epoxy dispersions. Out of the four types of dispersions tested (dispersion A – CHS Epoxy 200 V 55 + hardener Telalit 180, 2...

  9. Energy of vacancy migration in 0.06C-16Cr-15Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Ti-Si-V-B and 0.07C-16Cr-19Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Ti-Si-V-P-B cladding steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, A. V.; Portnykh, I. A.; Tselishchev, A. V.; Shilo, O. B.; Asiptsov, O. I.

    2014-05-01

    Samples of 0.06C-16Cr-15Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Ti-Si-V-B and 0.07C-16Cr-19Ni-2Mo-2Mn-Ti-Si-V-P-B steels (ChS68 and EK164 steels, respectively) in the form of fuel element cladding tubes from a BN-600 reactor have been subjected to neutron irradiation in an IVV-2M research reactor to damage doses of 0.0015, 0.0050, and 0.0100 dpa at a temperature of 30°C. Based on a comparison of the results of dilatometric measurements of the irradiated samples and the samples in the initial state, the energies of vacancy migration in the steels are calculated. It is found that the energy of vacancy migration is 1.08 ± 0.02 eV in the ChS68 steel and 0.98 ± 0.02 eV in the EK164 steel. Using these values, the steady-state vacancy concentrations during irradiation of these steels in the BN-600 reactor are calculated. It is shown that the steady-state vacancy concentration in the EK164 fuel cladding portions irradiated in the lower half of the core is significantly lower than that in the ChS68 cladding. This is a cause of the higher resistance of the former steel to radiation-induced swelling as compared to that of the ChS68 steel upon irradiation in fast neutron breeders.

  10. Operational capability of fuel elements with austenitic stainless steel cans i radiated in BN-600 reactor up to high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimed to reveal the factors limiting operational capability of fuel elements a study is made into the behaviour of ChS-68 and EhP-172 cold worked steel fuel cans irradiated up to damaging doses of 61.3-87.5 dpa. Fuel cans are shown to fail due to degradation of mechanical properties and subsequent microcrack formation at internal surface in a zone of maximal increase of diameter

  11. State of fuel elements in BN-600 reactor fuel assembly 917137489 when reaching maximal damaging dose of 93.7 dpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex of post-irradiated studies was accomplished for BN-600 reactor fuel cans of steel ChS-68. The studies were carried out by methods of profilometry, metallography short-term mechanical tests after irradiation up to damaging dose of 93.7 dpa. High volumetric changes, zero plasticity, corrosion defects testify to the fact that further operation of the steel under conditions of BN-600 reactor up to damaging doses more than 91-93 dpa is inadmissible

  12. Contact Sensitizers Induce Skin Inflammation via ROS Production and Hyaluronic Acid Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Esser, Philipp R.; Ute Wölfle; Christoph Dürr; Friederike D von Loewenich; Schempp, Christoph M.; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Thilo Jakob; Martin, Stefan F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed ...

  13. Fabrication of chondroitin sulfate-chitosan composite artificial extracellular matrix for stabilization of fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Fwu-Long; Shyu, Shin-Shing; Peng, Chih-Kang; Wu, Yu-Bey; Sung, Hsing-Wen; Wang, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chi-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    The development of a novel, three-dimensional, macroporous artificial extracellular matrix (AECM) based on chondroitin sulfate (ChS)-chitosan (Chito) combination is reported. The composite AECM composed of ChS-Chito conjugated network was prepared by a homogenizing interpolyelectrolyte complex/covalent conjugation technique through co-crosslinked with N,N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). In contrast to EDC/NHS, two different reagents, calcium ion and glutaraldehyde, were used to react with ChS or Chito for the preparation of ChS-Chito composites containing crosslinked ChS or Chito network in the matrix. The stability and in vitro enzymatic degradability of the glutaraldehyde-, EDC/NHS-, and Ca2+ -crosslinked ChS-Chito composite AECMs were all investigated in this study. The results showed that crosslinking improved the stability of prepared ChS-Chito AECMs in physiological buffer solution (PBS) and provided superior protective effect against the enzymatic hydrolysis of ChS, compared with their non-crosslinked counterpart. Because ChS was a heparin-like glycosaminoglycan (GAG), the ChS-Chito composite AECMs appeared to promote binding efficiency for basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The bFGF releasing from the ChS-Chito composite AECMs retained its biological activity as examined by the in vitro proliferation of human fibroblast, depending on the crosslinking mode for the preparation of these composite AECMs. Histological assay showed that the EDC/NHS-crosslinked ChS-Chito composite AECM, after incorporated with bFGF, was biodegradable and could result in a significantly enhanced vascularization effect and tissue penetration. These results suggest that the ChS-Chito composite AECMs fabricated in this study may be a promising approach for tissue-engineering application. PMID:16224775

  14. Global health leadership training in resource-limited settings: a collaborative approach by academic institutions and local health care programs in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanjako, Damalie; Namagala, Elizabeth; Semeere, Aggrey; Kigozi, Joanitor; Sempa, Joseph; Ddamulira, John Bosco; Katamba, Achilles; Biraro, Sam; Naikoba, Sarah; Mashalla, Yohana; Farquhar, Carey; ,; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Due to a limited health workforce, many health care providers in Africa must take on health leadership roles with minimal formal training in leadership. Hence, the need to equip health care providers with practical skills required to lead high-impact health care programs. In Uganda, the Afya Bora Global Health Leadership Fellowship is implemented through the Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) and her partner institutions. Lessons learned from the program, pre...

  15. Rapid ultrastructural detection of success or failure after bone marrow transplantation in the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    White, James G.; Hess, Richard A; Gahl, William A; Introne, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The present study has used electron microscopic techniques to rapidly detect the success or failure of bone marrow transplantation in three patients with the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome (CHS). The most rapid procedure was the whole mount technique to determine the presence or absence of dense bodies, which are inherently electron-opaque, serotonin-containing storage organelles in platelets. Dense bodies were present in normal numbers in platelets from two patients with successful transplantation...

  16. Human mitochondrial HMG CoA synthase: Liver cDNA and partial genomic cloning, chromosome mapping to 1p12-p13, and possible role in vertebrate evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukaftane, Y.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A. [Hopital Sainte-Justine, Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA synthase (mHS) is the first enzyme of ketogenesis, whereas the cytoplasmic HS isozyme (cHS) mediates an early step in cholersterol synthesis. We here report the sequence of human and mouse liver mHS cDNAs, the sequence of an HS-like cDNA from Caenorhabditis elegans, the structure of a partial human mHS genomic clone, and the mapping of the human mHS gene to chromosome 1p12-p13. the nucleotide sequence of the human mHS cDNA encodes a mature mHS peptide of 471 residues, with a mean amino acid identity of 66.5% with cHS from mammals and chicken. Comparative analysis of all known mHS and cHS protein and DNA sequences shows a high degree of conservation near the N-terminus that decreases progressively toward the C-terminus and suggests that the two isozymes arose from a common ancestor gene 400-900 million years ago. Comparison of the gene structure of mHS and cHS is also consistant with a recent duplication event. We hypothesize that the physiologic result of the HS gene duplication was the appearance of HS within the mitochondria around the time of emergence of early vertebrates, which linked preexisting pathways of beta oxidation and leucine catabolism and created the HMG CoA pathway of ketogenesis, thus providing a lipid-derived energy source for the vertebrate brain. 56 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Modular Optimization of Heterologous Pathways for De Novo Synthesis of (2S)-Naringenin in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Junjun Wu; Tiantian Zhou; Guocheng Du; Jingwen Zhou; Jian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Due to increasing concerns about food safety and environmental issues, bio-based production of flavonoids from safe, inexpensive, and renewable substrates is increasingly attracting attention. Here, the complete biosynthetic pathway, consisting of 3-deoxy-D-arabinoheptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase (DAHPS), chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (CM/PDH), tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), malonate synthetase, and...

  18. Cis-regulatory Evolution of Chalcone-Synthase Expression in the Genus Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    de Meaux, J. (Juliette); Pop, A.(National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania); Mitchell-Olds, T.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of cis-regulation to adaptive evolutionary change is believed to be essential, yet little is known about the evolutionary rules that govern regulatory sequences. Here, we characterize the short-term evolutionary dynamics of a cis-regulatory region within and among two closely related species, A. lyrata and A. halleri, and compare our findings to A. thaliana. We focused on the cis-regulatory region of chalcone synthase (CHS), a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of plant sec...

  19. Involvement of Salicylic Acid on Antioxidant and Anticancer Properties, Anthocyanin Production and Chalcone Synthase Activity in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2012-01-01

    The effect of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−5 M) was investigated on the production of secondary metabolites (flavonoids), chalcone synthase (CHS) activity, antioxidant activity and anticancer activity (against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) in two varieties of Malaysian ginger, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. The results of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that application of SA induced t...

  20. Catechol-based substrates of chalcone synthase as a scaffold for novel inhibitors of PqsD.

    OpenAIRE

    Allegretta, Giuseppe; Weidel, Elisabeth; Empting, Martin; Hartmann, Rolf W.

    2015-01-01

    A new strategy for treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections could be disrupting the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) quorum sensing (QS) system. The goal is to impair communication among the cells and, hence, reduce the expression of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms. PqsD is an essential enzyme for the synthesis of PQS and shares some features with chalcone synthase (CHS2), an enzyme expressed in Medicago sativa. Both proteins are quite similar concerning the size of the ac...

  1. Assessing community perspectives of the community based education and service model at Makerere University, Uganda: a qualitative evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Okullo Isaac; Oria Hussein; Mwanika Andrew; Kaye Dan; Burnham Gilbert; Plover Colin M; Mbalinda Scovia N; Muhwezi Wilson; Groves Sara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Community partnerships are defined as groups working together with shared goals, responsibilities, and power to improve the community. There is growing evidence that these partnerships contribute to the success and sustainability of community-based education and service programs (COBES), facilitating change in community actions and attitudes. Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS) is forging itself as a transformational institution in Uganda and the region...

  2. Genetic Diversity and Differentiation of Colletotrichum spp. Isolates Associated with Leguminosae Using Multigene Loci, RAPD and ISSR

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmodi, Farshid; Kadir, J. B.; Puteh, A.; Pourdad, S. S.; Nasehi, A.; Soleimani, N.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and differentiation of 50 Colletotrichum spp. isolates from legume crops studied through multigene loci, RAPD and ISSR analysis. DNA sequence comparisons by six genes (ITS, ACT, Tub2, CHS-1, GAPDH, and HIS3) verified species identity of C. truncatum, C. dematium and C. gloeosporiodes and identity C. capsici as a synonym of C. truncatum. Based on the matrix distance analysis of multigene sequences, the Colletotrichum species showed diverse degrees of intera and interspecific ...

  3. Dichte Konstruktionen

    OpenAIRE

    Günthner, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    In Alltagserzählungen finden sich immer wieder grammatische Konstruktionen, die mit den Regeln der deutschen Standardgrammatik nur schwer zu beschreiben sind. Hierzu zählen Strukturen, die in der Literatur unter verschiedene Begrifflichkeiten subsumiert werden: "fragmentarische Gesprächsäußerungen", "elliptische Strukturen", "Kurzformen", "Äußerungsfragmente".Diese in Alltagserzählungen immer wieder auftretenden "dichten Konstruktionen" bilden jedoch rekurrente, konventionalisierte, ja gramma...

  4. Procalcitonin as a biomarker of bacterial infection in pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Chakravarti, Sujata B; Diane A Reformina; Lee, Timothy M; Malhotra, Sunil P; Mosca, Ralph S; Puneet Bhatla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacterial infection (BI) after congenital heart surgery (CHS) is associated with increased morbidity and is difficult to differentiate from systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as a reliable biomarker of BI in various populations. Aim: To determine the optimal PCT threshold to identify BI among children suspected of having infection following CPB. Setting and Design: Single-center retrospective observationa...

  5. Neighborhood Walkability and Active Travel (Walking and Cycling) in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Lance; Neckerman, Kathryn; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Quinn, James; Richards, Catherine; Bader, Michael D. M.; Lovasi, Gina; Jack, Darby; Weiss, Christopher; Konty, Kevin; Arno, Peter; Viola, Deborah; Kerker, Bonnie; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Urban planners have suggested that built environment characteristics can support active travel (walking and cycling) and reduce sedentary behavior. This study assessed whether engagement in active travel is associated with neighborhood walkability measured for zip codes in New York City. Data were analyzed on engagement in active travel and the frequency of walking or biking ten blocks or more in the past month, from 8,064 respondents to the New York City 2003 Community Health Survey (CHS). A...

  6. Extraosseous, Epidural Cavernous Hemangioma with Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkal, Birol; Yaldiz, Can; Yaman, Onur; Ozdemır, Nail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Cavernous malformations are characterized by enlarged vascular structures located in benign neural tissues within the cerebellum and spinal cord of the central nervous system. Cavernous hemangiomas (CHs) account for 5% to 12% of all spinal vascular malformations. Case Report We removed a hemorrhagic thoracic mass in a 40-year-old male patient who presented with progressive neurological deficits. Conclusions We found it appropriate to present this case due to its rarity. PMID:25960818

  7. Auf ein Neues: Reform der Pflegeversicherung

    OpenAIRE

    Rothgang, Heinz; Raffelhüschen, Bernd; Vatter, Johannes; Lüngen, Markus; Paschke, Ellen; Eekhoff, Johann; Läufer, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Die Bundesregierung hatte geplant, Ende September Eckpunkte für eine Reform der Pflegeversicherung vorzustellen. Da sich die Koalitionspartner nicht einigen konnten, wird dies nun verschoben. Die Autoren des Zeitgesprächs machen deutlich, dass jetzt aber Entscheidungen erforderlich sind: Auf der Ausgabenseite wird sich die demographische Entwicklung niederschlagen, die Anpassung des Pflegebegriffs kann zu Kostensteigerungen führen und auch die Entlohnung der Beschäftigten wird steigen. Entspr...

  8. Early Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Steps in Cannabis sativa: Link between Genes and Metabolites

    OpenAIRE

    Immacolata Coraggio; Monica Mattana; Roberto Consonni; Teresa Docimo

    2013-01-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), Cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and 4-Coumarate: CoA ligase (4CL) catalyze the first three steps of the general phenylpropanoid pathway whereas chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first specific step towards flavonoids production. This class of specialized metabolites has a wide range of biological functions in plant development and defence and a broad spectrum of therapeutic activities for human health. In this study, we report the isolation of hemp PAL...

  9. Pathways for retaining human capital in academic departments of a South African university

    OpenAIRE

    Luyanda Dube; Patrick Ngulube

    2013-01-01

    Background: The article underscores the process of knowledge retention for academics in select academic departments in the College of Human Sciences (CHS) at the University of South Africa (UNISA). The knowledge economy is ubiquitous and necessitates that organisations foster innovation and improve efficiency, effectiveness, competitiveness and productivity through knowledge retention. In an academic setting, which is the focus of this article, the situation is no different because there seem...

  10. Ventricular volume and dementia progression in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Owen T.; Kuller, L.H.; Lopez, O L.; Thompson, P.M.; Dutton, R A; Lu, A.; Lee, S. E.; Lee, J.Y.; Aizenstein, H.J.; Meltzer, C.C.; Liu, Y. X.; Toga, A.W.; Becker, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated cerebral ventricular volume may be associated with dementia risk and progression. A fully-automated technique that agreed highly with radiological readings was used to estimate lateral ventricle volume on MR scans done at baseline in 1997-99 of 377 subjects in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) from the Pittsburgh Center. 327 subjects were normal or diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline and were evaluated 4 years later. Baseline ventric...

  11. Clinical, laboratory and molecular signs of immunodeficiency in patients with partial oculo-cutaneous albinism

    OpenAIRE

    Dotta, Laura; Parolini, Silvia; Prandini, Alberto; Tabellini, Giovanna; Antolini, Maddalena; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Badolato, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Hypopigmentation disorders that are associated with immunodeficiency feature both partial albinism of hair, skin and eyes together with leukocyte defects. These disorders include Chediak Higashi (CHS), Griscelli (GS), Hermansky-Pudlak (HPS) and MAPBP-interacting protein deficiency syndromes. These are heterogeneous autosomal recessive conditions in which the causal genes encode proteins with specific roles in the biogenesis, function and trafficking of secretory lysosomes. In certain speciali...

  12. Pathways for retaining human capital in academic departments of a South African university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyanda Dube

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article underscores the process of knowledge retention for academics in select academic departments in the College of Human Sciences (CHS at the University of South Africa (UNISA. The knowledge economy is ubiquitous and necessitates that organisations foster innovation and improve efficiency, effectiveness, competitiveness and productivity through knowledge retention. In an academic setting, which is the focus of this article, the situation is no different because there seems to be an accord worldwide that the quality of higher education largely depends on the qualifications of staff and professorial capability in quality research, instruction and doctoral level certification. By implication, it is critical that the retention of knowledge should be prioritised to ensure the curtailment of the impact of knowledge attrition.Objective: The study intends to profile knowledge assets in CHS, determine retention strategies and offer suggestions about regenerating knowledge retention initiatives.Research methodology: A quantitative approach, more specifically the informetrics technique of data mining, was adopted to profile academics in CHS at UNISA.Results: The results confirm the assertion that there is a discrepancy between senior academics who are probably due to leave the university in the next few years, and entrants who will replace them. The issue is worsened by the lack of an institutional framework to guide, standardise, strengthen or prioritise the process of knowledge retention.Conclusion: The study recommends the prioritisation, formalisation and institutionalisation of knowledge retention through the implementation of a broad range of knowledge retention strategies.

  13. Data-Collection using Clustering Approach in Wireless Sensor Network Design based on Heuristic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwaja B

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Data-gathering wireless sensor networks (WSNs are operated unattended over long time horizons to collect data in several applications such as those in climate monitoring and a variety of ecological studies. Typically, sensors have limited energy (e.g., an on-board battery and are subject to the elements in the terrain. In-network operations, which largely involve periodically changing network flow decisions to prolong the network lifetime, are managed remotely, and the collected data are retrieved by a user via internet. In this paper, we study an integrated topology control and routing problem in cluster-based WSNs. To prolong network lifetime via efficient use of the limited energy at the sensors, we adopt a hierarchical network structure with multiple sinks at which the data collected by the sensors are gathered through the cluster heads (CHs. We consider a Particle Swarm Optimization model to optimally determine the sink and CH locations as well as the data flow in the network. Our model effectively utilizes both the position and the energy-level aspects of the sensors while selecting the CHs and avoids the highest-energy sensors or the sensors that are well-positioned sensors with respect to sinks being selected as CHs repeatedly in successive periods

  14. Mechanism of immune suppression by ultraviolet irradiation in vivo. I. Evidence for the existence of a unique photoreceptor in skin and its role in photoimmunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV irradiation of mice causes a systemic immune alteration that can be detected either by suppression of the immunologic rejection of UV-induced tumors, or by suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS). Suppression of these two immunologic responses has similar photobiologic characteristics and in both cases is associated with the generation of antigen-specific suppressor T cells. To identify whether a specific photoreceptor for this effect exists, the relative wavelength effectiveness (action spectrum) was determined for the UV-induced suppression of CHS. Narrow bands of UV (half bandwidth 3 nm) were used at 10 wavelengths from 250 to 320 nm to obtain dose-response curves. The action spectrum derived from the dose-response curves has a maximum between 260 and 270 nm, a shoulder at 280-290 nm, and declines steadily to approximately 3% of maximum at 320 nm. The finding of such a clearly defined wavelength dependence implies the presence of a specific photoreceptor for this effect. Removing the stratum corneum by tape stripping before UV irradiation prevented the suppression of CHS using 254-nm radiation, suggesting the photoreceptor is superficially located in the skin. The hypothesis is advanced that the photoreceptor for systemic UV-induced immunosuppression of contact hypersensitivity may be urocanic acid. As such, it may also play a role in UV-induced carcinogenesis via the production of tumor-specific suppressor cells

  15. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  16. Cis-urocanic acid synergizes with histamine for increased PGE2 production by human keratinocytes: link to indomethacin-inhibitable UVB-induced immunosuppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable evidence that suppression of the immune system by UVB (280-320 nm UV) irradiation is initiated by UVB-dependent isomerization of a specific skin photoreceptor, urocanic acid (UCA), from the trans to the cis form. Previous studies have confirmed that cis-UCA administration to mice 3-5 days prior to hapten sensitization at a distant site, suppresses the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response upon challenge. This study demonstrates in mice that cis-UCA, like UVB, suppresses CHS to trinitrochlorobenzene by a mechanism partly dependent on prostanoid production. In vitro experimentation showed that human keratinocytes, isolated from neonatal foreskin, increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in response to histamine but not UCA alone. However, cis-UCA synergized with histamine for increased PGE2 production by keratinocytes. Cis-urocanic acid also increased the sensitivity of keratinocytes for PGE2 production in response to histamine. Prostaglandin E2 from keratinocytes exposed to cis-UCA and histamine may contribute directly, or indirectly, to the regulation of CHS responses by UVB irradiation. (Author)

  17. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene in flower organs of Forsythia x intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, C; Cadic, A; Duron, M; Renou, J P; Simoneau, P

    1997-10-01

    The expression, during flower development, of the gene encoding the anthocyanin pathway key enzyme dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) was investigated in floral organs of Forsythia x intermedia cv. 'Spring Glory'. Full-length DFR and partial chalcone synthase (CHS) cDNAs, the gene of interest and a flavonoid pathway control gene respectively, were obtained from petal RNA by reverse transcription PCR. Whereas for CHS northern blot analysis enabled the study of its expression pattern, competitive PCR assays were necessary to quantify DFR mRNA levels in wild-type plants and in petals of 2 transgenic clones containing a CaMV 35S promoter-driven DFR gene of Antirrhinum majus. Results indicated a peak of CHS and DFR transcript levels in petals at the very early stages of anthesis, and different expression patterns in anthers and sepals. In comparison to wild-type plants, transformants showed a more intense anthocyanin pigmentation of some vegetative organs, and a dramatic increase in DFR transcript concentration and enzymatic activity in petals. However, petals of transformed plants did not accumulate any anthocyanins. These results indicate that other genes and/or regulatory factors should be considered responsible for the lack of anthocyanin production in Forsythia petals. PMID:9349254

  18. Bibliometric analysis about the scientific production on the Social Skills Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Colepicolo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This research consisted to contribute to the systematization of the theoretical and practical field of Social Skills, here called Social Skills Field (SSF. Method. A survey of a representative sample of CHS publications metadata extracted from the 15 scientific and technical literature databases in Psychology available in the CAPES Journals Portal was conducted. After treatment and refinement, this sample resulted in a corpus of metadata 25,409 scientific articles, which is a set of metadata publications, from fields such as author, title, subject, abstract, among others. The corpus of metadata stored in a database allowed the creation of a series of data crossing, resulting in bibliometric indicators. Results. As a result, we have: the SS Corpus, published on the Internet, which enables the inclusion of new metadata and the recovery of almost all scientific articles of the field; 2 bibliometric indicators in CHS, which may offer subsidies for the development and expansion of the field. Conclusions. Bibliometric indicators of the CHS show a representative production growth of social skills in the 1970s. Research on SS is mainly conducted by researchers from the United States, Brazil, United Kingdon and Denmark. The main subject studied are "social skills", "interpersonal relations", "social competence", "empathy", "assertividade", "assertiveness", "children", "adult", "college students"; and the major journals are: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology; Psychological Reports; Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders and Child Development.

  19. Automatic Identification of the Repolarization Endpoint by Computing the Dominant T-wave on a Reduced Number of Leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, C; Agostinelli, A; Di Nardo, F; Fioretti, S; Burattini, L

    2016-01-01

    Electrocardiographic (ECG) T-wave endpoint (Tend) identification suffers lack of reliability due to the presence of noise and variability among leads. Tend identification can be improved by using global repolarization waveforms obtained by combining several leads. The dominant T-wave (DTW) is a global repolarization waveform that proved to improve Tend identification when computed using the 15 (I to III, aVr, aVl, aVf, V1 to V6, X, Y, Z) leads usually available in clinics, of which only 8 (I, II, V1 to V6) are independent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if the 8 independent leads are sufficient to obtain a DTW which allows a reliable Tend identification. To this aim Tend measures automatically identified from 15-dependent-lead DTWs of 46 control healthy subjects (CHS) and 103 acute myocardial infarction patients (AMIP) were compared with those obtained from 8-independent-lead DTWs. Results indicate that Tend distributions have not statistically different median values (CHS: 340 ms vs. 340 ms, respectively; AMIP: 325 ms vs. 320 ms, respectively), besides being strongly correlated (CHS: ρ=0.97, AMIP: 0.88; Pidentification from DTW, the 8 independent leads can be used without a statistically significant loss of accuracy but with a significant decrement of computational effort. The lead dependence of 7 out of 15 leads does not introduce a significant bias in the Tend determination from 15 dependent lead DTWs. PMID:27347218

  20. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons revisited: mating status alters cuticular profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Everaerts

    Full Text Available Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs, or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA, affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i reciprocal in the two sexes, suggesting a passive mechanical transfer during mating, (ii parallel in both sexes, such as for cVA which strikingly appeared during mating, or (iii unilateral, presumably as a result of sexual interaction. We provide a complete reassessment of all Drosophila CHs and suggest that the chemical conversation between male and female flies is far more complex than is generally accepted. We conclude that focusing on individual compounds will not provide a satisfactory understanding of the evolution and function of chemical communication in Drosophila.

  1. Transcriptional activation of the parsley chalcone synthase promoter in heterologous pea and yeast systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbin; Strid; Frohnmeyer

    1999-11-01

    Introduction by electroporation of different parsley (Petroselinum crispum) CHS-promoter/beta-glucuronidase(GUS)-reporter constructs into pea (Pisum sativum L.) protoplasts leads to a high constitutive GUS-expression and to the loss of the light-inducibility seen in the homologous parsley protoplast system. These results indicate that Unit 1 of the parsley CHS-promoter is only partly responsible for the GUS-expression detected. Instead, additional cis-elements, which are located downstream within 100 bp from the transcriptional start site, mediate the de-repression in pea protoplasts. In contrast, in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells, the GUS expression from the heterologous CHS/GUS construct is controlled by elements between Unit 1 and -100 bp. In both pea and yeast cells, transcription factors different from those regulating UV-responsiveness in parsley, are probably mediating the constitutive expression from the heterologous construct. The results with pea protoplasts imply that protoplastation of pea leaf cells itself induces de-repression as a result of stress to the protoplasts. This notion was strengthened by the finding that mRNA levels of the endogenous chalcone synthase were drastically increased as the result of the protoplastation procedure. PMID:10580282

  2. Immunosuppressive Effect of Litsea cubeba L. Essential Oil on Dendritic Cell and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Chun; Chang, Wen-Te; Hseu, You-Cheng; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Chuang, Cheng Hsuan; Lin, Chi-Chen; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Lin, Ming-Kuem

    2016-01-01

    Litsea cubeba L., also named as Makauy, is a traditional herb and has been used as cooking condiment or tea brewing to treat diseases for aborigines. The present study was undertaken to explore the chemical compositions of the fruit essential oil of L. cubeba (LCEO) and the immunomodulatory effect of LCEO on dendritic cells and mice. The LCEO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with direct injection (DI/GC) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME/GC). In total, 56 components were identified, of which 48 were detected by DI/GC and 49 were detected by HS-SPME/GC. The principal compounds were citral (neral and geranial). An immunosuppressive activity of LCEO was investigated with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) which have a critical role to trigger the adaptive immunity. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of LCEO on immune response was elucidated by performing the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses in mice. Our results clearly showed that LCEO decreases the production of TNF-α and cytokine IL-12 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. CHS response and the infiltrative T cells were inhibited in the tested ears of the mice co-treated with LCEO. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the LCEO mainly containing citral exhibits an immunosuppressive effect on DCs and mice, indicating that LCEO can potentially be applied in the treatment of CHS, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases. PMID:27529236

  3. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E ∼ 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20° of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  4. An investigation of the techno-economic impact of internal combustion engine based cogeneration systems on the energy requirements and greenhouse gas emissions of the Canadian housing stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study provides a techno-economic evaluation of retrofitting internal combustion engine (ICE) based cogeneration systems in the Canadian housing stock (CHS). The study was conducted using the Canadian Hybrid Residential End-Use Energy and GHG Emissions Model (CHREM). CHREM includes close to 17,000 unique house files that are statistically representative of the Canadian housing stock. The cogeneration system performance was evaluated using a high resolution integrated building performance simulation software. It is assumed that the ICE cogeneration system is retrofitted into all houses that currently use a central space heating system and have a suitable basement or crawl space. The GHG emission intensity factor associated with marginal electricity generation in each province is used to estimate the annual GHG emissions reduction due to the cogeneration system retrofit. The results show that cogeneration retrofit yields 13% energy savings in the CHS. While the annual GHG emissions would increase in some provinces due to cogeneration retrofits, the total GHG emissions of the CHS would be reduced by 35%. The economic analysis indicates that ICE cogeneration system retrofits may provide an economically feasible opportunity to approach net/nearly zero energy status for existing Canadian houses. - Highlights: • Techno-economic evaluation ICE cogeneration systems for Canadian housing is reported. • ICE cogeneration retrofit could yield 13% annual energy savings in Canadian housing. • Annual GHG emissions of Canadian housing could decrease by 35% with ICE cogeneration. • But, in some provinces, GHG emissions would increase as a result of ICE cogeneration

  5. Enzymatic Properties and Mutational Studies of Chalcone Synthase from Physcomitrella patens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiran Basri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PpCHS is a member of the type III polyketide synthase family and catalyses the synthesis of the flavonoid precursor naringenin chalcone from p-coumaroyl-CoA. Recent research reports the production of pyrone derivatives using either hexanoyl-CoA or butyryl-CoA as starter molecule. The Cys-His-Asn catalytic triad found in other plant chalcone synthase predicted polypeptides is conserved in PpCHS. Site directed mutagenesis involving these amino acids residing in the active-site cavity revealed that the cavity volume of the active-site plays a significant role in the selection of starter molecules as well as product formation. Substitutions of Cys 170 with Arg and Ser amino acids decreased the ability of the PpCHS to utilize hexanoyl-CoA as a starter molecule, which directly effected the production of pyrone derivatives (products. These substitutions are believed to have a restricted number of elongations of the growing polypeptide chain due to the smaller cavity volume of the mutant’s active site.

  6. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere VIII. "Futile" Processes in the Chromosphere (Letters to Progress in Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the liquid metallic hydrogen solar model (LMHSM, the chr omosphere is the site of hydrogen condensation (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metall ic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosp here. Progr. Phys. , 2013, v. 3, L15–L21. Line emission is associated with the di ssipation of energy from condensed hydrogen structures, CHS. Previously considere d reactions resulted in hy- drogen atom or cluster addition to the site of condensation. In this work, an additional mechanism is presented, wherein atomic or molecular specie s interact with CHS, but do not deposit hydrogen. These reactions channel heat away f rom CHS, enabling them to cool even more rapidly. As a result, this new class of proce sses could complement true hydrogen condensation reactions by providing an auxil iary mechanism for the re- moval of heat. Such ‘futile’ reactions lead to the formation of activated atoms, ions, or molecules and might contribute to line emission from such sp ecies. Evidence that com- plimentary ‘futile’ reactions might be important in the chr omosphere can be extracted from lineshape analysis.

  7. The Effect of the Transition to Home Monitoring for the Diagnosis of OSAS on Test Availability, Waiting Time, Patients’ Satisfaction, and Outcome in a Large Health Provider System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Safadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2009, the Haifa district of Clalit Health Services (CHS has switched from in-lab polysomnography (PSG to home studies for the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We assessed the effects of this change on accessibility, waiting time, satisfaction, costs, and CPAP purchase by the patients. Data regarding sleep studies, CPAP purchase, and waiting times were collected retrospectively from the computerized database of CHS. Patients’ satisfaction was assessed utilizing a telephone questionnaire introduced to a randomized small sample of 70 patients. Comparisons were made between 2007 and 2008 (in-lab PSGs and 2010 and 2011 (when most studies were ambulatory. Of about 650000 insured individuals in the Haifa district of CHS, 1471 sleep studies were performed during 2007-2008 compared to 2794 tests during 2010-2011. The average waiting time was 9.9 weeks in 2007-2008 compared to 1.1 weeks in 2010-2011 (P<0.05. 597 CPAPs were purchased in 2007-2008 compared to 831 in 2010-2011. The overall patients’ satisfaction was similar, but discomfort tended to be higher in the in-laboratory group (4.1 vs 2.7 in a scale of 0–10; P=0.11. Switching to ambulatory diagnosis improved the test accessibility and reduced the waiting times. Patients’ satisfaction remained similarly high. The total direct cost of OSA management was reduced.

  8. Case of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Myung; Kozarek, Richard A; Lin, Otto S

    2014-12-16

    Long-term cannabis use may be associated with attacks of severe nausea and vomiting, and a characteristic learned behavior of compulsive hot bathing, termed cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS). Long-term follow-up and prognosis of CHS have not been reported previously. A 44-year-old Caucasian man with a long history of addiction to marijuana presented with chronic abdominal pain complicated by attacks of uncontrollable vomiting for 16 years. He had a compulsion to take scalding hot showers, as many as 15 times a day, to relieve his symptoms. All previous therapies had been ineffective. However, abstinence from marijuana led to rapid and complete resolution of all symptoms and his compulsive hot showering behavior. He has been followed for nine years, and is still doing well without recurrence of symptoms. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion for this under-recognized condition, as excellent long-term prognosis of CHS can be achieved when abstinence is maintained. PMID:25516874

  9. Coupling of exothermic and endothermic hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Bowden, Mark E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Houghton, Adrian Y.; Autrey, S. Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Chemical hydrogen storage (CHS) materials are a high-storage-density alternative to the gaseous compressed hydrogen currently used to provide hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. One of the challenges of CHS materials is addressing the energy barriers required to break the chemical bonds and release the hydrogen. Coupling CHS reactions that are endothermic and exothermic during dehydrogenation can improve onboard energy efficiency and thermal control for the system, making such materials viable. Acceptable coupling between reactions requires both thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. In this work, models were developed to predict the reaction enthalpy and rate required to achieve high conversions for both reactions based on experimental measurements. Modeling results show that the coupling efficiency of exothermic and endothermic reactions is more sensitive to the ratio of the exothermic and endothermic enthalpies than to the ratio of the rates of the two steps. Modeling results also show that a slower endothermic step rate is desirable to permit sufficient heating of the reactor by the exothermic step. We look at two examples of a sequential and parallel reaction scheme and provide some of the first published insight into the required temperature range to maximize the hydrogen release from 1,2-BN cyclohexane and indoline.

  10. DEFLECTIONS OF FAST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AND THE PROPERTIES OF ASSOCIATED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S. W. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Akiyama, S. [Institute for Astrophyics and Computational Sciences, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: AFRL.RVB.PA@kirtland.af.mil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The onset times and peak intensities of solar energetic particle (SEP) events at Earth have long been thought to be influenced by the open magnetic fields of coronal holes (CHs). The original idea was that a CH lying between the solar SEP source region and the magnetic footpoint of the 1 AU observer would result in a delay in onset and/or a decrease in the peak intensity of that SEP event. Recently, Gopalswamy et al. showed that CHs near coronal mass ejection (CME) source regions can deflect fast CMEs from their expected trajectories in space, explaining the appearance of driverless shocks at 1 AU from CMEs ejected near solar central meridian (CM). This suggests that SEP events originating in CME-driven shocks may show variations attributable to CH deflections of the CME trajectories. Here, we use a CH magnetic force parameter to examine possible effects of CHs on the timing and intensities of 41 observed gradual E {approx} 20 MeV SEP events with CME source regions within 20 Degree-Sign of CM. We find no systematic CH effects on SEP event intensity profiles. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the CME leading-edge measured position angles and SEP event properties, suggesting that the widths of CME-driven shock sources of the SEPs are much larger than the CMEs. Independently of the SEP event properties, we do find evidence for significant CME deflections by CH fields in these events.

  11. Suprathermal ions in solar-wind outflows from coronal holes at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zel'dovich, M. A.; Logachev, Yu. I.; Surova, G. M.; Kecskemety, K.; Veselovskii, I. S.

    2016-07-01

    The energy spectra and relative abundances of 3He, 4He, C, O, and Fe ions with energies of ~0.04-2 MeV/nucleon are studied using data from the ULEIS instrument on board the ACE spacecraft obtained during quiescent periods in 2006-2012. During the unique, prolonged minimum between cycles 23 and 24, 35 quiescent periods were distnguished, during which solar-wind flows from near-equatorial coronal holes (CHs) were detected. It is shown that the C/O and Fe/O ratios for suprathermal ions correspond to the relative abundances of the corresponding thermal ions in the fast and slow (Maxwellian) solar wind (SWICS/ACE), while the 4He/O ratio exceeds the corresponding ratio in the solar wind by a factor of two. The intensities of the 3He, 4He, C, O, and Fe suprathermal ions in outflows from CHs grow with the speed of the solar wind. This indicates that, in periods ofminimumsolar activity, suprathermal ions from CHs represent a high-temperature "tail" of the solar wind. An additional flux of suprathermal helium ions may also be contributed by other external sources.

  12. Roles of chiral symmetry and the sigma meson in hadron and nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We first review the recent accumulating evidences of the existence of a scalar-isoscalar meson with the mass 500 to 800 MeV which may be identified with the sigma meson as the quantum fluctuation of the amplitude of the chiral order parameter . We indicate that phase shift analyses which respect chiral symmetry (ChS), analyticity and crossing symmetry of the scattering amplitude show the sigma meson pole in the s-channel as well as the ρ meson pole in the t-channel in the π-π scattering in the I=J=0 channel. We emphasize that the existence of the σ resonance does not contradict with the success of the chiral perturbation theory; phenomenological difficulties with the renormalizable linear sigma model do not necessarily deny the validity of the linear representation of ChS of QCD as given by the NJL-like models which not only admit the σ resonance but also reproduce the coupling constants Li and Hi appearing the nonlinear chiral lagrangian. We give some examples of the hadronic phenomena which are naturally accounted for with the σ meson. We show that the σ meson as the amplitude fluctuation of the chiral order parameter may be more clearly identified than in free space in hot and/or dense matter, even in finite nuclei where partial restoration of ChS may be realized. (author)

  13. Positive psychological measure: constructing and evaluating the reliability and validity of a Chinese Humor Scale applicable to professional nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Hsiao, Yu-Ling; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan; Chang, Chueh

    2005-09-01

    The nursing profession has generally accepted humor as beneficial to health care. As nursing has always emphasized holistic care and the importance of individual needs, the profession values the ability of humor to positively affect all aspects of a patient's well being. The purposes of this study were to develop a "Chinese Humor Scale (CHS)" for the nursing profession and then test its reliability and validity. The 405 individuals selected for participation in this study included nursing on-the-job students from a medical university and professional nurses practicing at four hospitals in north Taiwan. Researchers developed a list of 57 key humor measures which were filled out and returned by study participants. An evaluation of results using Cronbach's alpha coefficients demonstrated good consistency (alpha=.93) for the developed CHS. Intercorrelations amongst the four sub-scales were generally quite low, indicating each sub-scale measures dimensions relatively distinct from one another (r=.24 approximately .48, both p'shumorous creativity", "tendency to laugh", "perceptivity to humor", and "humorous attitude", were found to explain 55.42% of total variances. The CHS was found to provide good validity using a content validity index (CVI) developed by five experts. The results of this study provide encouraging evidence for the construct validity and reliability of the proposed humor scale and support its application by nursing educators and clinicians to further test and assess concepts related to humor. Further research is needed to explore more fully the implications of humor in nursing. PMID:16237632

  14. Coupling of Exothermic and Endothermic Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Bowden, Mark E.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Houghton, Adrian Y.; Autrey, Thomas

    2016-08-30

    Chemical hydrogen storage (CHS) materials are a high-storage-density alternative to the gaseous compressed hydrogen currently used to provide hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. One of the challenges of CHS materials is addressing the thermodynamic and kinetic barriers required to break the chemical bonds and release the hydrogen. Coupling CHS reactions that are endothermic and exothermic during the dehydrogenation can improve the system on-board energy efficiency and thermal control, making such materials viable. Acceptable coupling between reactions requires both thermodynamic and kinetics considerations. Models were developed to predict the reaction enthalpy and rate required to achieve high conversions for both reactions based on experimental measurements. These modeling results show that the efficiency of coupling of an exothermic and endothermic reaction is more sensitive the magnitude of the ratio of the exothermic and endothermic enthalpies than the ratio of the rates of the two steps. The modeling shows further that a slower rate of the endothermic step is desirable to permit sufficient heating of the reactor by the exothermic step. We look at two examples of a sequential and parallel reaction scheme and provide some of the first insight into the required temperature range to maximize the H2 release from 1,2-BN cyclohexane and indoline.

  15. Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Ma, Rui-juan; Shen, Zhi-jun; Yan, Juan; Yu, Ming-liang

    2014-09-01

    The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches. PMID:25183035

  16. Lysosomal Trafficking Regulator (LYST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaojie; Chang, Bo; Naggert, Jürgen K; Nishina, Patsy M

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of vesicle trafficking to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles (LROs) as well as regulation of the size of these organelles are critical to maintain their functions. Disruption of the lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) results in Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, prolonged bleeding, severe immunodeficiency, recurrent bacterial infection, neurologic dysfunction and hemophagocytic lympohistiocytosis (HLH). The classic diagnostic feature of the syndrome is enlarged LROs in all cell types, including lysosomes, melanosomes, cytolytic granules and platelet dense bodies. The most striking CHS ocular pathology observed is an enlargement of melanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which leads to aberrant distribution of eye pigmentation, and results in photophobia and decreased visual acuity. Understanding the molecular function of LYST and identification of its interacting partners may provide therapeutic targets for CHS and other diseases associated with the regulation of LRO size and/or vesicle trafficking, such as asthma, urticaria and Leishmania amazonensis infections. PMID:26427484

  17. Job Analysis on Posts Characteristics in Community Health Service Organizations%社区卫生服务机构岗位特征工作分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭迎春; 苏宁; 何永洁; 梁万年

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解社区卫生服务机构医、护、防各类岗位人员目前实际开展的工作内容,各岗位人员所感受的工作压力,对所在岗位应具备的能力评价、培训要求及对所在岗位绩效考核要素的建议.方法 利用,在北京市分层随机抽取7个区县51家社区卫生服务机构的全科医生147名、社区护士93名、预防保健人员76名进行访谈.结果 各岗位人员均认为不仅需要具备岗位所必需的专业知识与操作技能,同时还需要具备沟通能力、协调能力、团队合作能力等较高的素质要求.各岗位人员均感觉工作存在一定的压力,且均有一定的培训需求.结论 只有科学、合理地进行工作分析,才能够制定出真正反映社区卫生服务机构各岗位特征的绩效考核指标.%Objective To explore the working content, pressure, ability, demand for training of general practitioners , community nurses, and prevention physicians in community health services ( CHS ) organizations, and key elements of post performance appraisal for them were proposed. Methods Totally 147 general practitioners , 93 community nurses and 76 prevention physicians from 51 CHS organizations of 7 districts or counties of Beijing were enrolled by stratified sampling, and they were interviewed by using Job Analysis Questionnaire for CHS Personnel. Results CHS personnel of the above posts held that not only professional knowledge and skills were indispensable , but also the higher qualities of ability of communication , collaboration and teamwork were necessary. They felt a certain pressure on working and all had demand for professional training. Conclusion The performance appraisal indicators of each post reflecting its post characteristics in CHS organizations can be made only on the basis of scientific and reasonable job analysis.

  18. Determinants of initial utilization of community healthcare services among patients with major non-communicable chronic diseases in South China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although expected to act as gate-keeping primary care providers, as community health service (CHS facilities are severely under-utilized; Chinese people in both rural and urban areas used predominantly higher-tier facilities for primary care purpose, with significant financial and outcome consequences. This study intends to explore the determinants of initial utilization of CHS among patients with major non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs in order to understand the care-seeking behavior among urban and rural residents in South China. METHODS: A multi-stage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to create a sample of 19,466 adults with NCDs from 7,970 urban households and 32,035 adults with NCDs from 3,860 rural households in Guangdong, China. Interviews and physical examinations were conducted in 2010 to collect data on patient characteristics, medical conditions, and awareness and utilization of healthcare. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to study utilization patterns and the factors associated with the patterns. RESULTS: Prevalence of major NCDs in urban areas was significantly higher than that in rural areas (12.55% vs. 8.70%; p<0.001. Second-tier district hospitals were most preferred for initial consultation (46.05% in rural areas vs. 45.32% in urban areas; p<0.001, followed by tertiary general or specialized hospitals (28.39% in rural areas vs. 33.89% in urban areas; p<0.001. The proportion of patients who had initial use of CHS was relatively low (25.56% in rural areas vs. 20.79% in urban areas; p<0.001. Awareness of self-care and the presence of medical insurance were leading factors associated with first contact of CHS facilities in both urban and rural areas. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that CHS facilities are not often used as the first contact for patients in both rural and urban areas in south China. Much effect must be made to enhance the gatekeeper system and improve

  19. Aerosol assisted atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of silicon thin films using liquid cyclic hydrosilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guruvenket, Srinivasan, E-mail: guruvenket.srinivasan@ndsu.edu [Center for Nanoscale Energy Related Materials, 1715 NDSU Research Park Drive N, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Hoey, Justin M.; Anderson, Kenneth J.; Frohlich, Matthew T.; Sailer, Robert A. [Center for Nanoscale Energy Related Materials, 1715 NDSU Research Park Drive N, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Boudjouk, Philip [Center for Nanoscale Energy Related Materials, 1715 NDSU Research Park Drive N, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Ladd-Dunbar Hall, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Silicon (Si) thin films were produced using an aerosol assisted atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition technique with liquid hydrosilane precursors cyclopentasilane (CPS, Si{sub 5}H{sub 10}) and cyclohexasilane (CHS, Si{sub 6}H{sub 12}). Thin films were deposited at temperatures between 300 and 500 °C, with maximum observed deposition rates of 55 and 47 nm/s for CPS and CHS, respectively, at 500 °C. Atomic force microscopic analyses of the films depict smooth surfaces with roughness of 4–8 nm. Raman spectroscopic analysis indicates that the Si films deposited at 300 °C and 350 °C consist of a hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) phase while the films deposited at 400, 450, and 500 °C are comprised predominantly of a hydrogenated nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si:H) phase. The wide optical bandgaps of 2–2.28 eV for films deposited at 350–400 °C and 1.7–1.8 eV for those deposited at 450–500 °C support the Raman data and depict a transition from a-Si:H to nc-Si:H. Films deposited at 450 {sup o}C possess the highest photosensitivity of 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} under AM 1.5G illumination. Based on the growth model developed for other silanes, we suggest a mechanism that governs the film growth using CPS and CHS. - Highlights: • Si films via AA-APCVD are realized using cyclopentasilane (CPS) and cyclohexasilane (CHS). • Low activation energies of CPS and CHS allow Si thin films at low temperatures (300 °C). • High growth rates of 47–55 nm/s were obtained at 500 °C • Near device quality Si thin films with 2–3 orders of photosensitivity • Si thin films via AA-APCVD are amenable to continuous roll-to-roll manufacturing.

  20. Clinical, laboratory and molecular signs of immunodeficiency in patients with partial oculo-cutaneous albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Laura; Parolini, Silvia; Prandini, Alberto; Tabellini, Giovanna; Antolini, Maddalena; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Badolato, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Hypopigmentation disorders that are associated with immunodeficiency feature both partial albinism of hair, skin and eyes together with leukocyte defects. These disorders include Chediak Higashi (CHS), Griscelli (GS), Hermansky-Pudlak (HPS) and MAPBP-interacting protein deficiency syndromes. These are heterogeneous autosomal recessive conditions in which the causal genes encode proteins with specific roles in the biogenesis, function and trafficking of secretory lysosomes. In certain specialized cells, these organelles serve as a storage compartment. Impaired secretion of specific effector proteins from that intracellular compartment affects biological activities. In particular, these intracellular granules are essential constituents of melanocytes, platelets, granulocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Thus, abnormalities affect pigmentation, primary hemostasis, blood cell counts and lymphocyte cytotoxic activity against microbial pathogens. Among eight genetically distinct types of HPS, only type 2 is characterized by immunodeficiency. Recently, a new subtype, HPS9, was defined in patients presenting with immunodeficiency and oculocutaneous albinism, associated with mutations in the pallidin-encoding gene, PLDN.Hypopigmentation together with recurrent childhood bacterial or viral infections suggests syndromic albinism. T and NK cell cytotoxicity are generally impaired in patients with these disorders. Specific clinical and biochemical phenotypes can allow differential diagnoses among these disorders before molecular testing. Ocular symptoms, including nystagmus, that are usually evident at birth, are common in patients with HPS2 or CHS. Albinism with short stature is unique to MAPBP-interacting protein (MAPBPIP) deficiency, while hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) mainly suggests a diagnosis of CHS or GS type 2 (GS2). Neurological disease is a long-term complication of CHS, but is uncommon in other syndromic albinism. Chronic

  1. Comparative studies of the global ecological state variation of the aquatic environment in the Crişuri Hydrographic Space between 2007 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Sion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study regarding the evolution across time of the quality of aquatic eco-systems in the Crişuri Hydrographic Space (CHS, between 2007 and 2009. Having as a goal a real and complete image of the quality of the environment in the CHS, the ecological monitoringconducted was meant to observe the structure of the aquatic communities (macrozoobenthos, microphytobenthos, phytoplankton and the biotope characteristics (physical and chemical parameters of water: pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CBO5, CCO-Mn, CCO-Cr, nitrites, nitrates, phosphates, amonium, chlorophyll “a”, chlorides, sulphates, fix residues, As, Hg, Cu, Zn, Mn, phenols, detergents etc. The choosing of the monitoring sections, their identification and geographical position were accomplished in 2006. The basic criterion in the choice of the monitoring sections was the identification of all aspects that can influence the quality state of the waters. The monitoring of the quality state of the waters in the CHS was conducted in 40 sections, both on the main courses and their affluents, over a 3-year period. After the results of the analyses of physico-chemical and biological samples were obtained, the categorization of the prelevation sections in quality classes followed; depending on these classes, the modelation of the global ecological states of the watercourses in the CHS was realized by means of mapping techniques (GIS. Most of the monitoring sections were in the good ecological state category. The very good ecological state was determined only for those sections upstream all polluting sources. Nevertheless, some of the prelevation points exceeded both physico-chemically and biologically the limits of the good quality state, entering the category of moderate quality state. No watercourse in the CHS was determined for poor or bad quality state. Generally, a “preservation” of the quality state of the waters from one year to the following was

  2. Satisfaction of Community Health Services Users in Dongguan City under the Mode of "Official Politics"%"政办政管"模式下东莞市社区卫生服务利用者的满意度评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉琪; 王培席; 卢楚虹

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨"政办政管"模式下东莞市社区卫生服务利用者的满意度状况及其影响因素.方法 选取实行"政办政管"模式的东莞市某社区卫生服务中心为研究现场,采用现场拦截法,以该社区卫生服务中心的社区卫生服务利用者360人为研究对象.利用美国顾客满意度指数模型(ACSI)构建社区卫生服务利用者满意度指数模型,设计满意度调查问卷,对研究对象进行调查.结果 社区卫生服务利用者总体满意度指数为74.18.多因素Logistic回归分析结果显示,对总体满意度产生影响的主要因素包括利用者感知价值、利用者期望和利用者感知质量(OR值分别为11.401、8.671、7.525).结论 社区卫生服务利用者满意度的影响因素包括利用者感知价值、利用者期望和利用者感知质量.社区卫生服务中心应从影响卫生服务利用者满意度的因素出发,着力改善社区卫生服务水平,真正实现社区卫生服务"六位一体"的功能定位.%Objective To investigate the satisfaction status of the community health services ( CHS ) users and its influencing factors under the mode of " Official Politics" in Dongguan City. Methods A CHS center in Dongguan City where " Official Politics" had been implemented was selected as the subject. The intercept survey method was taken to investigate the satisfaction of 360 people who applied the services in the CHS center with self - made satisfaction questionnaire constructed based on American Customer Satisfaction Index ( ACSI ) . Results The index of patients' overall satisfaction on CHS was 74. 18. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that the main factors influencing the overall satisfaction were the perceived value, users' expectations and perceived quality ( OR = 11.401, 8.671, 7.525 ) . Conclusion The main factors influencing the overall satisfaction were the perceived value, users' expectations and perceived quality. The CHS organization

  3. A systematic review-meta-analysis of primary research investigating the effect of selected alternative treatments on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mederos, A; Waddell, L; Sánchez, J; Kelton, D; Peregrine, A S; Menzies, P; VanLeeuwen, J; Rajić, A

    2012-04-01

    Selected alternative treatments for preventing or controlling gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in sheep under field conditions were evaluated using a systematic review-meta-analysis methodology. Forty-three publications reporting 51 studies (21 controlled studies (CS) and 30 challenge studies (ChS)) and 85 unique treatment comparisons were included in the review. The alternative treatment categories were nutraceuticals (28 studies), breeding for genetic resistance (12), nutritional manipulation (6), homeopathies (2), administration of copper oxide wire particles (2), and biological control (1). Random effect meta-analyses (MA) and meta-regression were performed with the natural logarithm of the difference in means (lnMD) between the control and treatment groups, for fecal egg counts per gram of wet feces (FEC), worm counts (WC) or fecal egg counts per gram of dry matter (FECDM) as the outcome. Treatment effect estimates (lnMD) were back-transformed to their count ratios (CR), a relative measure of effect for controlled versus treated groups, for presentation of results. Significant heterogeneity was observed for both CS and ChS that evaluated nutraceuticals, genetic resistance and nutrition treatments. MA of ChS that investigated nutraceuticals resulted in a significant overall CR of 1.62 (P<0.01) and 1.64 (P<0.01) for FEC and FECDM, respectively and a marginal significant CR of 1.14 (P=0.06) for WC, all favoring the treated groups. MA of CS and ChS that investigated genetic resistance resulted in a significant overall CR of 5.89 and 15.42, respectively (P<0.01), again favoring treated groups. MA of CS that investigated homeopathies with FEC as an outcome were homogenous (I(2)=0.0%) and resulted in a non-significant pooled CR of 1.61. ChS investigating copper oxide wire particle treatments and WC as an outcome, were homogenous (I(2)=0.0%) and had a marginally significant pooled CR of 1.68 (P=0.06). Publication bias was observed for ChS with WC outcomes, indicating

  4. Uncertainty analysis of spent nuclear fuel isotopics and rod internal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratton, Ryan N.

    The bias and uncertainty in fuel isotopic calculations for a well-defined radio- chemical assay benchmark are investigated with Sampler, the new sampling-based uncertainty quantification tool in the SCALE code system. Isotopic predictions are compared to measurements of fuel rod MKP109 of assembly D047 from the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 core at three axial locations, representing a range of discharged fuel burnups. A methodology is developed which quantifies the significance of input parameter uncertainties and modeling decisions on isotopic prediction by compar- ing to isotopic measurement uncertainties. The SCALE Sampler model of the D047 assembly incorporates input parameter uncertainties for key input data such as multigroup cross sections, decay constants, fission product yields, the cladding thickness, and the power history for fuel rod MKP109. The effects of each set of input parameter uncertainty on the uncertainty of isotopic predictions have been quantified. In this work, isotopic prediction biases are identified and an investiga- tion into their sources is proposed; namely, biases have been identified for certain plutonium, europium, and gadolinium isotopes for all three axial locations. More- over, isotopic prediction uncertainty resulting from only nuclear data is found to be greatest for Eu-154, Gd-154, and Gd-160. The discharge rod internal pressure (RIP) and cladding hoop stress (CHS) distributions are quantified for Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) fuel rods by modeling core cycle design data, operation data (including modeling significant trips and downpowers), and as-built fuel enrichments and densities of each fuel rod in FRAPCON-3.5. A methodology is developed which tracks inter-cycle as- sembly movements and assembly batch fabrication information to build individual FRAPCON inputs for each considered WBN1 fuel rod. An alternate model for the amount of helium released from zirconium diboride (ZrB2) integral fuel burn- able absorber (IFBA) layers is

  5. Rod internal pressure quantification and distribution analysis using Frapcon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL; Wieselquist, William A [ORNL; Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State University, University Park

    2015-09-01

    This report documents work performed supporting the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) under work breakdown structure element 1.02.08.10, ST Analysis. In particular, this report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT- 15OR0810036, Quantify effects of power uncertainty on fuel assembly characteristics, within work package FT-15OR081003 ST Analysis-ORNL. This research was also supported by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (http://www.casl.gov), an Energy Innovation Hub (http://www.energy.gov/hubs) for Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Reactors under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. The discharge rod internal pressure (RIP) and cladding hoop stress (CHS) distributions are quantified for Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) fuel rods by modeling core cycle design data, operation data (including modeling significant trips and downpowers), and as-built fuel enrichments and densities of each fuel rod in FRAPCON-3.5. A methodology is developed which tracks inter-cycle assembly movements and assembly batch fabrication information to build individual FRAPCON inputs for each evaluated WBN1 fuel rod. An alternate model for the amount of helium released from the zirconium diboride (ZrB2) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) layer is derived and applied to FRAPCON output data to quantify the RIP and CHS for these types of fuel rods. SCALE/Polaris is used to quantify fuel rodspecific spectral quantities and the amount of gaseous fission products produced in the fuel for use in FRAPCON inputs. Fuel rods with ZrB2 IFBA layers (i.e., IFBA rods) are determined to have RIP predictions that are elevated when compared to fuel rod without IFBA layers (i.e., standard rods) despite the fact that IFBA rods often have reduced fill pressures and annular fuel pellets. The primary contributor to elevated RIP predictions at burnups less than and greater than 30 GWd

  6. Physics models in the toroidal transport code PROCTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, H.C.

    1990-08-01

    The physics models that are contained in the toroidal transport code PROCTR are described in detail. Time- and space-dependent models are included for the plasma hydrogenic-ion, helium, and impurity densities, the electron and ion temperatures, the toroidal rotation velocity, and the toroidal current profile. Time- and depth-dependent models for the trapped and mobile hydrogenic particle concentrations in the wall and a time-dependent point model for the number of particles in the limiter are also included. Time-dependent models for neutral particle transport, neutral beam deposition and thermalization, fusion heating, impurity radiation, pellet injection, and the radial electric potential are included and recalculated periodically as the time-dependent models evolve. The plasma solution is obtained either in simple flux coordinates, where the radial shift of each elliptical, toroidal flux surface is included to maintain an approximate pressure equilibrium, or in general three-dimensional torsatron coordinates represented by series of helical harmonics. The detailed coupling of the plasma, scrape-off layer, limiter, and wall models through the neutral transport model makes PROCTR especially suited for modeling of recycling and particle control in toroidal plasmas. The model may also be used in a steady-state profile analysis mode for studying energy and particle balances starting with measured plasma profiles.

  7. Initial high-power testing of the ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] ECH [electron cyclotron heating] system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a moderate aspect ratio torsatron that will utilize 53.2 GHz 200 kW Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) to produce nearly current-free target plasmas suitable for subsequent heating by strong neutral beam injection. The initial configuration of the ECH system from the gyrotron to ATF consists of an optical arc detector, three bellows, a waveguide mode analyzer, two TiO2 mode absorbers, two 900 miter bends, two waveguide pumpouts, an insulating break, a gate valve, and miscellaneous straight waveguide sections feeding a launcher radiating in the TE02 mode. Later, a focusing Vlasov launcher will be added to beam the ECH power to the saddle point in ATF magnetic geometry for optimum power deposition. The ECH system has several unique features; namely, the entire ECH system is evacuated, the ECH system is broadband, forward power is monitored by a newly developed waveguide mode analyzer, phase correcting miter bends will be employed, and the ECH system will be capable of operating short pulse to cw. Initial high-power tests show that the overall system efficiency is 87%. The waveguide mode analyzer shows that the gyrotron mode output consists of 13% TE01, 82.6% TE02, 2.5% TE03, and 1.9% TE04. 4 refs

  8. Physics models in the toroidal transport code PROCTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics models that are contained in the toroidal transport code PROCTR are described in detail. Time- and space-dependent models are included for the plasma hydrogenic-ion, helium, and impurity densities, the electron and ion temperatures, the toroidal rotation velocity, and the toroidal current profile. Time- and depth-dependent models for the trapped and mobile hydrogenic particle concentrations in the wall and a time-dependent point model for the number of particles in the limiter are also included. Time-dependent models for neutral particle transport, neutral beam deposition and thermalization, fusion heating, impurity radiation, pellet injection, and the radial electric potential are included and recalculated periodically as the time-dependent models evolve. The plasma solution is obtained either in simple flux coordinates, where the radial shift of each elliptical, toroidal flux surface is included to maintain an approximate pressure equilibrium, or in general three-dimensional torsatron coordinates represented by series of helical harmonics. The detailed coupling of the plasma, scrape-off layer, limiter, and wall models through the neutral transport model makes PROCTR especially suited for modeling of recycling and particle control in toroidal plasmas. The model may also be used in a steady-state profile analysis mode for studying energy and particle balances starting with measured plasma profiles

  9. Research on stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Kotenko, V. G.; Chernitskiy, S. V.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Kalyuzhnyi, V. N.; Hagnestål, A.; Källne, J.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2014-09-01

    The development of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid concept is reviewed. The hybrid comprises of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, neutrons are generated in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma, confined magnetically in a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror. Based on kinetic calculations, the energy balance for such a system is analyzed. Neutron calculations have been performed with the MCNPX code, and the principal design of the reactor part is developed. Neutron outflux at different outer parts of the reactor is calculated. Numerical simulations have been performed on the structure of a magnetic field in a model of the stellarator-mirror device, and that is achieved by switching off one or two coils of toroidal field in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The calculations predict the existence of closed magnetic surfaces under certain conditions. The confinement of fast particles in such a magnetic trap is analyzed.

  10. Electron cyclotron ray tracing and absorption predictions for Compact Toroidal Hybrid plasmas using TRAVIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, S. F.; Hartwell, G. J.; Maurer, D. A.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Turkin, Y.; Bigelow, T.

    2015-11-01

    Plasmas in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a five field period, l = 2 torsatron (B0 = 0 . 5 T R0 = 0 . 75 m, ap ~ 0 . 2 m) will be heated by second harmonic X-mode electron cyclotron heating with power provided by a 28 GHz gyrotron capable of producing up to 200 kW. Ray-tracing calculations that will guide the selection of the launching position, antenna focal length, and beam-steering characteristics are performed with the TRAVIS code. Non-axisymmetric vacuum and current-carrying CTH equilibria for the ray tracing are modeled with the V3FIT code. The calculated absorption is highest for vertically propagating rays that traverse the region where a saddle of resonant field strength exists. However, the absorption for top-launched waves is more sensitive to variations in the magnetic equilibria than for a radial side launch where the magnetic field profile is tokamak-like. This work is supported by U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  11. Stellarator News, Issue 38, March 1995

    CERN Document Server

    Rome, J A

    1995-01-01

    Stellarator News, an international journal of the stellarator community, is Published by Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, James A. Rome, Editor In the March 1995 issue . . . **** Exerpts from the U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assment report on TPX and Alternate Concepts. **** Edge transport and turbulence studies on U-3M The turbulent-driven particle flow is shown to be comparable with the equilibrium flow at the boundary of the configuration under Alfven-heating conditions in the U-3M torsatron. **** Topological aspects of island divertor studies on W7-AS The structure of the edge plasma in W7-AS, observed with probes, television camera, and H-alpha light agrees at low beta with vacuum field calculations: the low-valued resonances at iotabar=5/m are resolved for m = 8 to 11; external perturbations are not significant at the edge, even for iotabar = 5/10. **** 140-GHz second harmonic O-mode electron cyclotron heating at W7-AS First experimental results are presented of 140-GHz secon...

  12. Influence of ExB shear flows on plasma edge turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloidal ExB shear flows are widely accepted as a trigger mechanism of transport barriers in the edge of fusion plasmas. Strong ExB flows can act on turbulence and turbulent transport through the shear decorrelation mechanism, which can reduce the radial size of turbulent structures or change the phase relation between density and potential fluctuations. In this contribution the influence of ExB shear flows on the microscopic structure of turbulence is investigated. The experiments have been carried out on the toroidally confined low-temperature plasma of the torsatron TJ-K. The plasma is dimensionally similar to fusion edge plasmas and accessible throughout for Langmuir probes. Multi-probe arrays are used to resolve the turbulent dynamics perpendicular to the confining magnetic field in high detail.Strong ExB flows are externally generated by core plasma biasing. It is shown that the fluctuations are dominated by large-scale coherent structures even though strong flow shear is present. These structures reveal increased correlation lengths. It is found that these structures can contribute to improved confinement through inwards transport due to cross-phase modifications. Furthermore, the response of the turbulent Reynolds stress, which is supposed to drive zonal flows as internally ExB shear flows, is investigated. The externally generated flow shear leads to a redistribution of the Reynolds stress with increased poloidal symmetry

  13. Design description of the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a large torsatron being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to replace the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak. ATF will have a major radius of 2.1 m and an average plasma minor radius of 0.3 m. Major components of the device include the coil sets, structure, and vacuum vessel. The coil sets are designed for broad operating envelopes, including the capability to drive up to 100 kA of plasma current, to produce helical axis configurations, and to operate continuously at one-half the baseline currents. The ATF structure consists of a 40-mm-thick stainless steel toroidal shell encasing the helical coil set. The shell is constructed from 24 identical upper and lower segments, with 12 pairs of intermediate panels to provide access to the helical field (HF) coil joints. The lower portion of the shell also serves as an assembly fixture for the HF coil set. The vacuum vessel is a highly contoured 6-mm-thick stainless steel shell closely fitting the bore and sidewalls of the HF coil winding to provide maximum volume for the plasma. Forty-eight large ports allow good access for diagnostics and neutral beam injection

  14. Electron temperature measurements on ATF using electron cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Second and third harmonic electron cyclotron emission measurements have been carried out on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ATF is a 1=2, m=12 torsatron with a major radius of 2.1m and an average plasma radius of 0.3m. At the standard magnetic field values of 1T and 2T, we have used heterodyne receivers with fixed frequency Gunn local oscillators. The optically thick second harmonic emission has been used to monitor the electron temperature profile as a function of time. The optically thin third harmonic emission has been used to measure the central electron temperature during ECH and Neutral Beam Injection. Results from both harmonics agree well with the Thomson scattering data. Calculations of the width of the resonance zones indicate values from 1 cm at the edge to 5 cm centrally. An in-situ absolute calibration of the system using a liquid nitrogen source has been performed. The beam pattern of the system has also been measured in-situ and agrees well with theoretical calculations. A beam viewing dump has been installed to reduce the wall reflection problem for the optically thin emission. (author)

  15. Curvature dependance of blob dynamics in TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, Stephen; Ramisch, Mirko [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Fuchert, Golo [Institut Jean Lamour, Universite de Lorraine (France)

    2014-07-01

    Turbulent transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) is an important area of investigation in magnetic confinement fusion research. Relatively dense and hot, field-aligned, filament-like structures (blobs) have been observed to propagate radially through the SOL in many fusion devices, and contribute significantly to SOL transport. The torsatron TJ-K operates with a low-temperature plasma, allowing Langmuir probe measurements in the entire plasma volume. Despite the low temperature, investigations are relevant to fusion research due to dimensionless plasma parameters similar to those in the edge region of fusion plasmas. Analytical blob models link blob velocity in the SOL to blob polarisation, which can be driven by magnetic field line curvature. In TJ-K, average blob dynamics can be studied in detail using a 2D movable probe and a conditional averaging technique. In addition, a fast camera can be used to supplement probe data, and provide information on individual blob trajectories. With these tools, the connection between magnetic field line curvature and the poloidal component of blob velocity has been studied. Taking into account background E x B flows, initial investigations suggest a correlation between the poloidal component of blob velocity and averaged geodesic magnetic field line curvature.

  16. Curvature dependence of blob dynamics in TJ-K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garland, Stephen; Ramisch, Mirko; Hirth, Thomas [Institut fuer Grenzflaechenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Turbulent transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) is an important area of investigation in magnetic confinement fusion research. Relatively dense and hot, field-aligned, filament-like structures (blobs) have been observed to propagate radially through the SOL in many fusion devices, and contribute significantly to SOL transport. The torsatron TJ-K is well suited to turbulence studies since it operates with a low-temperature plasma, allowing Langmuir probe measurements in the entire plasma volume. Despite the low temperature, investigations are relevant to fusion research due to dimensionless plasma parameters similar to those in the edge region of fusion plasmas. Blob dynamics have been studied in the SOL of TJ-K using a 2D movable probe and the conditional averaging technique. In addition, emissive probes have been used to determine equilibrium electric fields, allowing the calculation of background E x B flows. Experimentally deduced centre of mass radial and poloidal blob velocity components have been compared to an analytical blob model, which has been simplified to express blob velocity in terms of the magnetic field curvature vector. Experimental radial blob velocity components compare well to the model, confirming the normal curvature drive of blob polarisation. On the other hand, poloidal velocity components are comparable to the model only when background E x B flow is also taken into account.

  17. ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility]-2 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design studies for a low-aspect-ratio, large next-generation stellarator, ATF-II, with high-current-density, high-field, stable NbTi/Cu helical windings are described. The design parameters are an average plasma radius of 0.52 m, a major radius of 2 m, and a field on axis of 4-5 T, with 10 to 15 MW of heating power. Such a device would be comparable in scope to other next-generation stellarators but would have roughly the same aspect ratio as the tokamaks without, however, the need for current drive to sustain steady-state operation. A number of low-aspect-ratio physics issues need to be addressed in the design of ATF-II, primarily compromises between high-beta capability and good confinement properties. A six-field-period Compact Torsatron is chosen as a reference design for ATF-II, and its main features and performance predictions are discussed. An integrated (beta capability and confinement) optimization approach and optimization of superconducting windings are also discussed. 36 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Transport survey calculations using the spectral collocation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel transport survey code has been developed and is being used to study the sensitivity of stellarator reactor performance to various transport assumptions. Instead of following one of the usual approaches, the steady-state transport equation are solved in integral form using the spectral collocation method. This approach effectively combine the computational efficiency of global models with the general nature of 1-D solutions. A compact torsatron reactor test case was used to study the convergence properties and flexibility of the new method. The heat transport model combined Shaing's model for ripple-induced neoclassical transport, the Chang-Hinton model for axisymmetric neoclassical transport, and neoalcator scaling for anomalous electron heat flux. Alpha particle heating, radiation losses, classical electron-ion heat flow, and external heating were included. For the test problem, the method exhibited some remarkable convergence properties. As the number of basis functions was increased, the maximum, pointwise error in the integrated power balance decayed exponentially until the numerical noise level as reached. Better than 10% accuracy in the globally-averaged quantities was achieved with only 5 basis functions; better than 1% accuracy was achieved with 10 basis functions. The numerical method was also found to be very general. Extreme temperature gradients at the plasma edge which sometimes arise from the neoclassical models and are difficult to resolve with finite-difference methods were easily resolved. 8 refs., 6 figs

  19. Parametric systems analysis of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The close coupling in the stellarator/torsatron/heliotron (S/T/H) between coil design (peak field, current density, forces), magnetics topology (transform, shear, well depth), and plasma performance (equilibrium, stability, transport, beta) complicates the reactor assessment more so than for most magnetic confinement systems. In order to provide an additional degree of resolution of this problem for the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR), a parametric systems model has been developed and applied. This model reduces key issues associted ith plasma performance, first-wall/blanket/shield (FW/B/S), and coil design to a simple relationship between beta, system geometry, and a number of indicators of overall plant performance. The results of this analysis can then be used to guide more detailed, multidimensional plasma, magnetics, and coil design efforts towards technically and economically viable operating regimes. In general, it is shown that beta values > 0.08 may be needed if the MSR approach is to be substantially competitive with other approaches to magnetic fusion in terms of system power density, mass utilization, and cost for total power output around 4.0 GWt; lower powers will require even higher betas

  20. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  1. Methods for transient assay of gene function in floral tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathirana Nilangani N

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable interest in rapid assays or screening systems for assigning gene function. However, analysis of gene function in the flowers of some species is restricted due to the difficulty of producing stably transformed transgenic plants. As a result, experimental approaches based on transient gene expression assays are frequently used. Biolistics has long been used for transient over-expression of genes of interest, but has not been exploited for gene silencing studies. Agrobacterium-infiltration has also been used, but the focus primarily has been on the transient transformation of leaf tissue. Results Two constructs, one expressing an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum majus (Antirrhinum chalcone synthase gene (CHS and the other an inverted repeat of the Antirrhinum transcription factor gene Rosea1, were shown to effectively induce CHS and Rosea1 gene silencing, respectively, when introduced biolistically into petal tissue of Antirrhinum flowers developing in vitro. A high-throughput vector expressing the Antirrhinum CHS gene attached to an inverted repeat of the nos terminator was also shown to be effective. Silencing spread systemically to create large zones of petal tissue lacking pigmentation, with transmission of the silenced state spreading both laterally within the affected epidermal cell layer and into lower cell layers, including the epidermis of the other petal surface. Transient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of petal tissue of tobacco and petunia flowers in situ or detached was also achieved, using expression of the reporter genes GUS and GFP to visualise transgene expression. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of using biolistics-based transient RNAi, and transient transformation of petal tissue via Agrobacterium infiltration to study gene function in petals. We have also produced a vector for high throughput gene silencing studies, incorporating the option of using T-A cloning to

  2. 植物酶催化组合合成黄酮及4-羟基-δ-内酯类化合物%Combinatorial Synthesis of Flavonoids and 4-Hydroxy-δ-lactones by Plant-Originated Enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫婷; 王娟; 高博闻; 张乐; 刘晓; 王晓晖; 屠鹏飞; 史社坡

    2015-01-01

    4-Coumarate coenzyme A ligase (4CL) and chalcone synthase (CHS), the two pivotal enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoids were applied to combinatorially synthesize varied unnatural natural products. As result, 25 unnatural natural products including eight flavonoidanalogues, 16 4-hydroxy-δ-lactones and one benzalacetone were synthesized by 4CL and CHS. The synthetic methodology would be useful for the construction of library of structurally diverse of small mol-ecules.%以黄酮类化合物生物合成过程中的两个关键酶:4-香豆酰辅酶A连接酶(4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase,4CL)和查尔酮合成酶(chalcone synthase, CHS)为工具酶,探讨酶催化组合合成在合成“非天然的天然产物”群(库)中的应用。结果发现在4CL和CHS的共同作用下,仅利用8个简单的有机酸就可以产生包括8个黄酮类似物、16个4-羟基-δ-内酯和1个苄基丙酮共计25个“非天然的天然产物”群,为构建结构多样的小分子化合物群(库)提供方法学参考。

  3. A randomized controlled trial comparing customized versus standard headrests for head and neck radiotherapy immobilization in terms of set-up errors, patient comfort and staff satisfaction (ICORG 08-09)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To recommend a specific headrest, customized or standard, for head and neck radiotherapy patients in our institution based primarily on an evaluation of set-up accuracy, taking into account a comparison of patient comfort, staff and patient satisfaction, and resource implications. Methods and materials: Between 2008 and 2009, 40 head and neck patients were randomized to either a standard (Arm A, n = 21) or customized (Arm B, n = 19) headrest, and immobilized with a customized thermoplastic mask. Set-up accuracy was assessed using electronic portal images (EPI). Random and systematic set-up errors for each arm were determined from 668 EPIs, which were analyzed by one Radiation Therapist. Patient comfort was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and staff satisfaction was measured using an in-house questionnaire. Resource implications were also evaluated. Results: The difference in set-up errors between arms was not significant in any direction. However, in this study the standard headrest (SH) arm performed well, with set-up errors comparative to customized headrests (CHs) in previous studies. CHs require regular monitoring and 47% were re-vacuumed making them more resource intensive. Patient comfort and staff satisfaction were comparable in both arms. Conclusion: The SH provided similar treatment accuracy and patient comfort compared with the CH. The large number of CHs that needed to be re-vacuumed undermines their reliability for radiotherapy schedules that extend beyond 34 days from the initial CT scan. Accordingly the CH was more resource intensive without improving the accuracy of positioning, thus the standard headrest is recommended for continued use at our institution

  4. Annual report of National Institute for Fusion Science, April 1999 - March 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), two programs are progressing, one is an experimental research using the superconducting large helical device (LHD) and a smaller helical device CHS and the other is the theory and computer simulation for a complex state of high temperature plasmas as strongly nonlinear, non-equilibrium, and non-closed states. For the LHD project, the following results were obtained; 1) various parameters and 2) the confinement capability better than ISS scaling, 3) stable high beta operation and 4) long pulse operations using NBI or ICRF heating. The next stage of LHD experiments aims to expand plasma parameters themselves by the increase of heating power up to ∼10 MW in total, to study the plasma behaviors in non-dimensional parameter regimes of fusion plasma, and to challenge longer pulse operation. The CHS device has been transferred from Higashiyama site to Toki and started the experiment within the fiscal year 1999 and the advanced helical device concept is now under study as a candidate of the upgrade of CHS. On the other hand, computer simulation research aimed to develop the theoretical formulation of general laws governing the complex action of plasmas by the use of a super computer system. The collisionless magnetic reconnection, the formation of earth's dipole magnetic field by dynamo processes, self-organization processes of 3D MHD plasma, and crystallization of dust plasma are studied to elucidate the basic mechanisms of non-linear dynamics in systems far from equilibrium and open to external systems. The CompleXcope virtual reality system was further developed as an innovative visualization system. During, January 18-21, 2000, the 10th International Toki Conference was held on 'physics and technology for steady state plasmas'. (M.N.)

  5. Mucocutaneous lesions in free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, Gregory D; Schaefer, Adam M; McCulloch, Stephen; Goldstein, Juli; Fair, Patricia A; Reif, John S

    2015-08-20

    Mucocutaneous lesions were biopsied from free-ranging Atlantic bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida, and estuarine waters of Charleston (CHS), South Carolina, USA, between 2003 and 2013. A total of 78 incisional biopsies from 58 dolphins (n=43 IRL, n=15 CHS) were examined. Thirteen dolphins had 2 lesions biopsied at the same examination, and 6 dolphins were re-examined and re-biopsied at time intervals varying from 1 to 8 yr. Biopsy sites included the skin (n=47), tongue (n=2), and genital mucosa (n=29). Pathologic diagnoses were: orogenital sessile papilloma (39.7%), cutaneous lobomycosis (16.7%), tattoo skin disease (TSD; 15.4%), nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (15.4%), and epidermal hyperplasia (12.8%). Pathologic diagnoses from dolphins with 2 lesions were predominately orogenital sessile papillomas (n=9) with nonspecific chronic to chronic-active dermatitis (n=4), TSD (n=3), lobomycosis (n=1), and epidermal hyperplasia (n=1). Persistent pathologic diagnoses from the same dolphins re-examined and re-biopsied at different times included genital sessile papillomas (n=3), lobomycosis (n=2), and nonspecific dermatitis (n=2). This is the first study documenting the various types, combined prevalence, and progression of mucocutaneous lesions in dolphins from the southeastern USA. The data support other published findings describing the health patterns in dolphins from these geographic regions. Potential health impacts related to the observed suite of lesions are important for the IRL and CHS dolphin populations, since previous studies have indicated that both populations are affected by complex infectious diseases often associated with immunologic disturbances and anthropogenic contaminants. PMID:26290502

  6. Seismic Velocity Anomalies beneath Tatun Volcano Group, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-yu; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Chang, Li-Chin

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruption has been a natural disaster for human society. Taiwan is located in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Although there is no obvious phenomenon of volcanic activity in Taiwan, some volcanoes need to be monitored, especially the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which exhibits very active hydrothermal activity, is located on the tip of southwestern Ryukyu arc. TVG is about 15 km north to Taipei, capital of Taiwan, and is nearby two nuclear power plants along the northern coast of Taiwan. If TVG erupts, there must be a serious impact and damage to Taiwan. Since TVG is located within the Yangmingshan National Park, any artificial seismic source is not allowed to estimate possible eruption site and the degree of volcanic disaster. Instead, we use natural seismic waves generated by earthquakes to image the possible velocity anomaly of magma chamber and/or hydrothermal system beneath TVG. We systematically compare the differences of arrival times generated by some local earthquakes and recorded at 42 seismic stations in 2014 for finding any low-velocity zone within the crust. The results show that the arrival times always appeared significant delay at some particular seismic stations, such as Chi-Hsin-Shan (CHS), Siao-You-Keng (SYK) and some other stations at TVG, no matter where the earthquakes occurred. It implies that possible low-velocity zones, which could be the location of magma chamber and/or active hydrothermal system, exist beneath the CHS and SYK areas. This feature is generally consistent with the clustered micro-earthquakes in the shallow crust beneath the CHS area in the last decade.

  7. Functional conservation analysis and expression modes of grape anthocyanin synthesis genes responsive to low temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Jia, Haifeng; Wu, Weimin; Wang, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui; Wang, Chen

    2015-12-10

    In grape cultivation, low temperature generally increases the expression of genes involved in synthesis of anthocyanin. In this study, multi-type structural analysis of the proteins encoded by five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes VvF3H, VvPAL, VvCHS3, VvCHS2 and VvLDOX, in addition to nine of their homologous genes revealed that proteins in grapevine shared a high similarity with that in kiwi, red orange and some other species in which the biosynthesis of anthocyanin significantly influenced by low temperature as proved by previous studies. Low temperature regulatory elements were also found in the promoter region of the grapevine genes VvCHS2, VvPAL and VvF3H. These findings indicate that the functions of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in grapevine are conservative and might be sensitive to low temperature. In order to identify the specific expression patterns of the five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes and the changes of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids under low temperature stress. The transcription analysis of the five genes and the content of polyphenols, anthocyanins and flavonoids in grape skins were examined, by using Vitis vinifera L. cv. 'Yongyou 1' and 'Juxing' berries as experimental material and treated at 4°C and 25°C for 24h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. The results showed that low temperature greatly enhanced the expression of the five anthocyanin biosynthesis genes. Low temperature greatly slowed down the decomposition of polyphenol, anthocyanin, and flavonoid in grape skins. Our study also found that cv. 'Juxing' responded more sensitively to low temperature than cv. 'Yongyou 1'. All the findings would provide a basis for further study on the mechanism of anthocyanin biosynthesis under environmental stress. PMID:26253159

  8. Production behavior of methane hydrate in porous media using huff and puff method in a novel three-dimensional simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas production behavior of methane hydrate in porous media using the huff and puff method was investigated in the Cubic Hydrate Simulator (CHS), a novel developed three-dimensional 5.8-L cubic pressure vessel. Three horizontal layers equally divide the CHS into four regions. A 9-spot distribution of the vertical wells, a single horizontal well and a 25-spot distribution of the thermometers are arranged on each layer, respectively. The vertical wells at the axis of the CHS were used as the injection and production wells. The huff and puff method includes the injection, soaking and production stages. The amount of water injected and produced, the gas production rate, the percentage of the hydrate dissociation and the gas-to-water ratio were evaluated. Under the thermodynamic conditions in this work, the gas production from the sediment in this work using the huff and puff method is economically profitable from the relative criterion point of view. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the dependence of the gas production on the initial hydrate saturation, and the temperature and the injection rate of the injected hot water. -- Highlights: → We develop a novel three-dimensional 5.8-L cubic pressure vessel. → We study gas production of hydrate in porous media with huff and puff method. → Vertical wells are used as the injection and production wells. → Water/gas production rate and gas-to-water ratio are evaluated. → Sensitivities of initial hydrate saturation, hot water injection rate and duration are analyzed.

  9. Arctic mustard flower color polymorphism controlled by petal-specific downregulation at the threshold of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A Dick

    Full Text Available Intra- and interspecific variation in flower color is a hallmark of angiosperm diversity. The evolutionary forces underlying the variety of flower colors can be nearly as diverse as the colors themselves. In addition to pollinator preferences, non-pollinator agents of selection can have a major influence on the evolution of flower color polymorphisms, especially when the pigments in question are also expressed in vegetative tissues. In such cases, identifying the target(s of selection starts with determining the biochemical and molecular basis for the flower color variation and examining any pleiotropic effects manifested in vegetative tissues. Herein, we describe a widespread purple-white flower color polymorphism in the mustard Parrya nudicaulis spanning Alaska. The frequency of white-flowered individuals increases with increasing growing-season temperature, consistent with the role of anthocyanin pigments in stress tolerance. White petals fail to produce the stress responsive flavonoid intermediates in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP, suggesting an early pathway blockage. Petal cDNA sequences did not reveal blockages in any of the eight enzyme-coding genes in white-flowered individuals, nor any color differentiating SNPs. A qRT-PCR analysis of white petals identified a 24-fold reduction in chalcone synthase (CHS at the threshold of the ABP, but no change in CHS expression in leaves and sepals. This arctic species has avoided the deleterious effects associated with the loss of flavonoid intermediates in vegetative tissues by decoupling CHS expression in petals and leaves, yet the correlation of flower color and climate suggests that the loss of flavonoids in the petals alone may affect the tolerance of white-flowered individuals to colder environments.

  10. Situational analysis of teaching and learning of medicine and nursing students at Makerere University College of Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiguli Juliet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Makerere University College of Health Sciences (MakCHS in Uganda is undergoing a major reform to become a more influential force in society. It is important that its medicine and nursing graduates are equipped to best address the priority health needs of the Ugandan population, as outlined in the government’s Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP. The assessment identifies critical gaps in the core competencies of the MakCHS medicine and nursing and ways to overcome them in order to achieve HSSP goals. Methods Documents from the Uganda Ministry of Health were reviewed, and medicine and nursing curricula were analyzed. Nineteen key informant interviews (KII and seven focus group discussions (FGD with stakeholders were conducted. The data were manually analyzed for emerging themes and sub-themes. The study team subsequently used the checklists to create matrices summarizing the findings from the KIIs, FGDs, and curricula analysis. Validation of findings was done by triangulating information from the different data collection methods. Results The core competencies that medicine and nursing students are expected to achieve by the end of their education were outlined for both programs. The curricula are in the process of reform towards competency-based education, and on the surface, are well aligned with the strategic needs of the country. But implementation is inadequate, and can be changed: • Learning objectives need to be more applicable to achieving competencies. • Learning experiences need to be more relevant for competencies and setting in which students will work after graduation (i.e. not just clinical care in a tertiary care facility. • Student evaluation needs to be better designed for assessing these competencies. Conclusion MakCHS has made a significant attempt to produce relevant, competent nursing and medicine graduates to meet the community needs. Ways to make them more effective though deliberate efforts to

  11. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population. PMID:26952571

  12. Mycelial development preceding basidioma formation in Moniliophthora perniciosa is associated to chitin, sugar and nutrient metabolism alterations involving autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dayane Santos; Lopes, Maíza Alves; Menezes, Sara Pereira; Ribeiro, Lidiane Figueredo; Dias, Cristiano Villela; Andrade, Bruno Silva; de Jesus, Raildo Mota; Pires, Acassia Benjamin Leal; Goes-Neto, Aristóteles; Micheli, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We identified and characterized two chitinases, named MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2, from the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa - the etiologic agent of witches' broom disease in cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.) - during its development, mainly in the mycelia phases preceding the basidioma formation. The expression of MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2, together with MpCHS and MpATG8 (chitin synthase and autophagy genes, respectively), was analyzed during the M. perniciosa growth and development on bran-based solid medium as well as in liquid medium containing H2O2 or rapamycin (oxidative and nutritional related-autophagy stress agents, respectively). In order to link the expression of chitin metabolism-related genes to nutritional composition influencing fungus development, we also quantified total and reduced sugars, as well as macro- and micronutrients in the bran-based solid medium. The expression analysis showed that the MpCHS expression increased through mycelial development and then decreased in the primordium and basidioma phases, while the expression of MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2 was higher in basidioma and primordium phases, respectively. Moreover, the expression pattern of MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2 is distinct, the second correlated with the MpATG8 expression pattern and possibly with autophagy process, while the first may be related to the basidioma formation. The quantification of total and reduced sugars, as well as macro- and micronutrients supported the idea that the cell wall restructuration due to MpCHS, MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2 is related to stress and fungal nutrient reallocation, allowing the formation and development of the basidioma. Experiments involving M. perniciosa growth on liquid medium containing H2O2 or rapamycin showed that MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2 were over-expressed in response to oxidative but also to nutritional related-autophagy stresses. Interestingly, the expression level of MpCHS, MpCHIT1 and MpCHIT2 in presence of rapamycin is similar to the one observed in the primordium

  13. Undesired small RNAs originate from an artificial microRNA precursor in transgenic petunia (Petunia hybrida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Guo

    Full Text Available Although artificial microRNA (amiRNA technology has been used frequently in gene silencing in plants, little research has been devoted to investigating the accuracy of amiRNA precursor processing. In this work, amiRNAchs1 (amiRchs1, based on the Arabidopsis miR319a precursor, was expressed in order to suppress the expression of CHS genes in petunia. The transgenic plants showed the CHS gene-silencing phenotype. A modified 5' RACE technique was used to map small-RNA-directed cleavage sites and to detect processing intermediates of the amiRchs1 precursor. The results showed that the target CHS mRNAs were cut at the expected sites and that the amiRchs1 precursor was processed from loop to base. The accumulation of small RNAs in amiRchs1 transgenic petunia petals was analyzed using the deep-sequencing technique. The results showed that, alongside the accumulation of the desired artificial microRNAs, additional small RNAs that originated from other regions of the amiRNA precursor were also accumulated at high frequency. Some of these had previously been found to be accumulated at low frequency in the products of ath-miR319a precursor processing and some of them were accompanied by 3'-tailing variant. Potential targets of the undesired small RNAs were discovered in petunia and other Solanaceae plants. The findings draw attention to the potential occurrence of undesired target silencing induced by such additional small RNAs when amiRNA technology is used. No appreciable production of secondary small RNAs occurred, despite the fact that amiRchs1 was designed to have perfect complementarity to its CHS-J target. This confirmed that perfect pairing between an amiRNA and its targets is not the trigger for secondary small RNA production. In conjunction with the observation that amiRNAs with perfect complementarity to their target genes show high efficiency and specificity in gene silencing, this finding has an important bearing on future applications of ami

  14. 冰岛刺参岩藻糖基化硫酸软骨素降血糖及改善胰岛素抵抗的研究%Study of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from Cucumaria frondosa on hyperglycemic effects and insulin resistance improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田迎樱; 胡世伟; 薛长湖; 李兆杰

    2014-01-01

    以高脂高糖饲料(high-fat high-sucrose,HFSD)饲喂法建立胰岛素抵抗小鼠模型.研究了冰岛刺参岩藻糖基化硫酸软骨素(fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa,Cf-CHS)对胰岛素抵抗小鼠的降血糖及改善胰岛素抵抗作用.雄性C57BL/6J小鼠随机分为正常对照(标准饲料)、模型对照(HFSD)、阳性对照(HFSD+ rosiglitazone (RSG),1 mg·(kg·d)-)、Cf-CHS组(HFSD+ Cf-CHS,80mg·(kg· d)-)及Cf-CHS+ RSG组(HFSD+ Cf-CHS+ RSG,80+ 1mg·(kg·d)-1).各组小鼠自由摄食摄水19周.实验结束后,称重小鼠白色脂肪质量,检测空腹血糖、血清胰岛素及血清脂联素、抵抗素、瘦素、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)水平.实验结果表明:Cf-CHS可显著降低胰岛素抵抗小鼠的脂肪积累(p<0.01),降低血糖(p<0.01)和胰岛素(p<0.05)水平,改善胰岛素抵抗(p<0.05),提高血清脂联素含量(p<0.05),降低抵抗素(p<0.01)、瘦素(p<0.01)和TNF-α (p <0.05)含量.Cf-CHS与RSG复配使用,效果更显著(p <0.05,p<0.01).Cf-CHS能显著改善胰岛素抵抗小鼠的高血糖症状及胰岛素抵抗程度,其作用机制可能与改善肥胖引起的脂肪细胞因子的分泌紊乱有关.

  15. Das offene Selbstgespräch des Teampartners - Einfluss auf die wahrgenommene Kompetenz und die eigene Anstrengungsbereitschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, David; Lier, Florian; Seiler, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Einleitung und Fragestellung In der Forschung zum Selbstgespräch im Sport dominiert die Frage nach dessen Wir-kung auf die Leistung. Der Einfluss des während der Leistungserbringung geäußerten Selbstgesprächs auf (un-)beteiligte Personen (z.B. Zuschauer, Gegenspieler oder Dop-pelpartner) wurde bislang kaum untersucht. Van Raalte, Brewer, Cornelius und Petitpas (2006) konnten immerhin zeigen, dass Zuschauer einen Tennisspieler als kompetenter einschätzen, wenn er in einem Laborexperiment mi...

  16. Assay of insulator enhancer-blocking activity with the use of transient transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, N A; Didych, D A; Akopov, S B; Nikolaev, L G; Sverdlov, E D

    2013-08-01

    We used a transient transfection of cultured cells with linearized plasmids to analyze the enhancer-blocking activity of potential insulators including the standard cHS4 chicken beta-globin insulator and several DNA fragments selected from the human genome sequence. About 60-80% of the potential insulators do reveal the enhancer-blocking activity when probed by the transient transfection assay. The activity of different sequences is characterized by certain tissue specificity and by dependence on the orientation of the fragments relative to the promoter. Thus, the transfection model may be used for quantitative analysis of the enhancer-blocking activity of the potential insulators. PMID:24228877

  17. Strength enhancements in cold-formed structural sections - Part I: Material testing

    OpenAIRE

    Afshan, S; B. ROSSI; Gardner, L

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a material test programme carried out as part of an extensive study into the prediction of strength enhancements in cold-formed structural sections. The experiments cover a wide range of cross-section geometries – twelve Square Hollow Sections (SHS), five Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) and one Circular Hollow Section (CHS), and materials – austenitic (EN 1.4301, 1.4571 and 1.4404), ferritic (EN 1.4509 and 1.4003), duplex (EN 1.4462) and lean duplex (EN 1.4162) stainles...

  18. Changes in phytochemical synthesis, chalcone synthase activity and pharmaceutical qualities of sabah snake grass (Clinacanthus nutans L.) in relation to plant age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Nasiri, Alireza; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Baghdadi, Ali; Ahmad, Izham

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old). The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74) was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF) production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest contents of TF (6.32 mg/g dry weight [DW]) and total phenolic (TP) (18.21 mg/g DW) were recorded in 6-month-old buds. Among the flavonoids isolated in this study the most important ones based on concentration were from high to low as follows: catechin > quercetin > kaempferol > luteolin. Production of phenolic acids increased from 1 to 6 months, but after 6 months up to 1 year of age, they decreased significantly. The highest contents of caffeic acid (0.307 mg/g DW) and gallic acid (5.96 mg/g DW) were recorded in 1-year and 6-month-old buds, respectively. The lowest and highest activity of CHS was recorded in 1-month and 6-month-old buds with values of 3.6 and 9.5 nkat/mg protein, respectively. These results indicate that the increment in flavonoids and phenolic acids in 6-month-old buds can be attributed to an increase in CHS activity. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity was observed in the extract of 1-year-old buds followed by 6-month-old buds, with 50% of free radical scavenging (IC50) values of 64.6 and 73.5 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay showed a higher activity in 6-month-old buds (488 μM of Fe(II)/g) than in 1-year-old buds (453 μM of Fe(II)/g), in contrast to the DPPH result. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between CHS enzyme activity and FRAP activity, TF, catechin, and kaempferol content. Extracts of 6-month-old bud exhibited a significant in vitro anticancer activity against

  19. Effect of deletion of chitin synthase genes on mycelial morphology and culture viscosity in Aspergillus oryzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Christian; Hansen, K.; Szabo, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    .4-22.5 g kg(-1) biomass) and the power-law model adequately described the rheological properties. In the cultivations there were pellets, clumps, and freely dispersed hyphal elements. The different morphological fractions were quantified using image analysis. The apparent viscosity of the fermentation...... broth was significantly affected by the biomass concentration, the morphology, and also by pH. The chsB disruption strain had lower consistency index K values for all biomass concentrations investigated, which is a desirable trait for industrial Aspergillus fermentations. (C) 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  20. Rieselfelder Kairo

    OpenAIRE

    Abo el Abas, Yosry M.

    2001-01-01

    Die Rieselfelder Gabal el Asfar und Abo Rawash bei Kairo wurden 1915 und 1936 aus hygienischen und wirtschaftlichen Gründen angelegt. Da die Rieselfelder in früheren Stadien mit ungeklärtem Abwasser und zur Zeit mit geklärtem Abwasser berieselt werden, könnten die mit dem Abwasser aufgebrachten und von anderen Rieselfeldern bekannten Schadstoffe das Ökosystem Boden/Grundwasser/Pflanze und Menschen gefährden. Auch die zusätzlichen eingebrachten Salze könnten den Boden und den Pflanzenwüchs unt...

  1. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14089-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available klvkkkrkhhhn qqkilmkfqtkyfkhqlknirqkikikifeiihqniyfekn*tfltyvgkshvvsf*crl kns*tyfksqv*kfsivk Frame C: xxxqef....7 1 ( EI218483 ) OR__Ba0009K06.f OR__Ba Oryza rufipogon genomic cl... 44 7.7 1 ( AL193930 ) Tetraodon nigro... 7.7 1 ( CF474987 ) RTWW2_5_F12.b1_A021 Well-watered loblolly pine ro... 44 7.7 1 ( CF394031 ) RTDS2_2_F07.g1_A021 Drought...190 Effective search space used: 85568799190 Neighboring words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1...sikifnskk Frame B: xxxtgi*l*snssiillpkrk*kknqlsgrmhgi*qlfqfl*iitnvy*chs*kllmrmk mig

  2. Chitin synthases from Saprolegnia are involved in tip growth and represent a potential target for anti-oomycete drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea Guerriero

    Full Text Available Oomycetes represent some of the most devastating plant and animal pathogens. Typical examples are Phytophthora infestans, which causes potato and tomato late blight, and Saprolegnia parasitica, responsible for fish diseases. Despite the economical and environmental importance of oomycete diseases, their control is difficult, particularly in the aquaculture industry. Carbohydrate synthases are vital for hyphal growth and represent interesting targets for tackling the pathogens. The existence of 2 different chitin synthase genes (SmChs1 and SmChs2 in Saprolegnia monoica was demonstrated using bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. The function of SmCHS2 was unequivocally demonstrated by showing its catalytic activity in vitro after expression in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant SmCHS1 protein did not exhibit any activity in vitro, suggesting that it requires other partners or effectors to be active, or that it is involved in a different process than chitin biosynthesis. Both proteins contained N-terminal Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking domains, which have never been reported in any other known carbohydrate synthases. These domains are involved in protein recycling by endocytosis. Enzyme kinetics revealed that Saprolegnia chitin synthases are competitively inhibited by nikkomycin Z and quantitative PCR showed that their expression is higher in presence of the inhibitor. The use of nikkomycin Z combined with microscopy showed that chitin synthases are active essentially at the hyphal tips, which burst in the presence of the inhibitor, leading to cell death. S. parasitica was more sensitive to nikkomycin Z than S. monoica. In conclusion, chitin synthases with species-specific characteristics are involved in tip growth in Saprolegnia species and chitin is vital for the micro-organisms despite its very low abundance in the cell walls. Chitin is most likely synthesized transiently at the apex of the cells before cellulose, the major

  3. On the structure and the behaviour of Collatz 3n + 1 sequences - Finite subsequences and the role of the Fibonacci sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, Mike

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that every Collatz sequence $C(s)$ consists only of same structured finite subsequences $C^h(s)$ for $s\\equiv9\\ (mod\\ 12)$ or $C^t(s)$ for $s\\equiv3,7\\ (mod\\ 12)$. For starting numbers of specific residue classes ($mod\\ 12\\cdot2^h$) or ($mod\\ 12\\cdot2^{t+1}$) the finite subsequences have the same length $h,t$. It is conjectured that for each $h,t\\geq2$ the number of all admissible residue classes is given exactly by the Fibonacci sequence. This has been proved for $2\\leq h,t\\leq50...

  4. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere VI. Helium in the Chromosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen and hydrides have recently been advanced as vital agents in the generation of emission spectra in the chromosphere. This is a result of the role they play in the formation of condensed hydrogen structures (CHS) within the chromosphere (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, 15–21). Next to hydrogen, helium is perhaps the most intriguing component in this region ...

  5. The impact of social franchising on the use of reproductive health and family planning services at public commune health stations in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Van

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Service franchising is a business model that involves building a network of outlets (franchisees that are locally owned, but act in coordinated manner with the guidance of a central headquarters (franchisor. The franchisor maintains quality standards, provides managerial training, conducts centralized purchasing and promotes a common brand. Research indicates that franchising private reproductive health and family planning (RHFP services in developing countries improves quality and utilization. However, there is very little evidence that franchising improves RHFP services delivered through community-based public health clinics. This study evaluates behavioral outcomes associated with a new approach - the Government Social Franchise (GSF model - developed to improve RHFP service quality and capacity in Vietnam's commune health stations (CHSs. Methods The project involved networking and branding 36 commune health station (CHS clinics in two central provinces of Da Nang and Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. A quasi-experimental design with 36 control CHSs assessed GSF model effects on client use as measured by: 1 clinic-reported client volume; 2 the proportion of self-reported RHFP service users at participating CHS clinics over the total sample of respondents; and 3 self-reported RHFP service use frequency. Monthly clinic records were analyzed. In addition, household surveys of 1,181 CHS users and potential users were conducted prior to launch and then 6 and 12 months after implementing the GSF network. Regression analyses controlled for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. Results CHS franchise membership was significantly associated with a 40% plus increase in clinic-reported client volumes for both reproductive and general health services. A 45% increase in clinic-reported family planning service clients related to GSF membership was marginally significant (p = 0.05. Self-reported frequency of RHFP service use

  6. Examples of digital simulation of AC-DC power converter with the Electromagnetic Transients Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives a practical guidance for analysis of power converter circuits using the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP). First how to use the program is shown with two simple examples; (1) a power supply with three-phase diode bridge and (2) a feedback system for current control. Then its application to more complicated system is shown with an example of a power supply for Compact Helical System (CHS), where a hybrid power supply with multi-phase diode and thyristor bridges, and two three-phase thyristor converters are driven by an AC generator. (author)

  7. Changes in Phytochemical Synthesis, Chalcone Synthase Activity and Pharmaceutical Qualities of Sabah Snake Grass (Clinacanthus nutans L. in Relation to Plant Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, changes in secondary metabolite synthesis and the pharmaceutical quality of sabah snake grass leaves and buds were considered in relation to plant age (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year old. The activity of the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS, EC 2.3.1.74 was measured, as it is a key enzyme for flavonoid production. Significant differences in total flavonoid (TF production were observed between the three plant growth periods and the different plant parts. The highest contents of TF (6.32 mg/g dry weight [DW] and total phenolic (TP (18.21 mg/g DW were recorded in 6-month-old buds. Among the flavonoids isolated in this study the most important ones based on concentration were from high to low as follows: catechin > quercetin > kaempferol > luteolin. Production of phenolic acids increased from 1 to 6 months, but after 6 months up to 1 year of age, they decreased significantly. The highest contents of caffeic acid (0.307 mg/g DW and gallic acid (5.96 mg/g DW were recorded in 1-year and 6-month-old buds, respectively. The lowest and highest activity of CHS was recorded in 1-month and 6-month-old buds with values of 3.6 and 9.5 nkat/mg protein, respectively. These results indicate that the increment in flavonoids and phenolic acids in 6-month-old buds can be attributed to an increase in CHS activity. The highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH activity was observed in the extract of 1-year-old buds followed by 6-month-old buds, with 50% of free radical scavenging (IC50 values of 64.6 and 73.5 µg/mL, respectively. Interestingly, a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay showed a higher activity in 6-month-old buds (488 μM of Fe(II/g than in 1-year-old buds (453 μM of Fe(II/g, in contrast to the DPPH result. Significant correlations (p < 0.05 were observed between CHS enzyme activity and FRAP activity, TF, catechin, and kaempferol content. Extracts of 6-month-old bud exhibited a significant in vitro anticancer activity

  8. A 22-nt artificial microRNA mediates widespread RNA silencing in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Marcus; Eamens, Andrew L.; Finnegan, E Jean; Waterhouse, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    It is known that 22-nucleotide (nt) microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from asymmetric duplexes trigger phased small-interfering RNA (phasiRNA) production from complementary targets. Here we investigate the efficacy of 22-nt artificial miRNA (amiRNA)-mediated RNA silencing relative to conventional hairpin RNA (hpRNA) and 21-nt amiRNA-mediated RNA silencing. CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS) was selected as a target in Arabidopsis thaliana due to the obvious and non-lethal loss of anthocyanin accumulation upon ...

  9. Cannabinoid hyper-emesis syndrome: An enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Marijuana is one of the most frequently abused illicit substances in the world especially Australia. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS is characterized by a triad of symptoms: Cyclic vomiting, chronic marijuana use, and compulsive bathing. It involves recurrent episodes of self-limited nausea and vomiting lasting several days and patients are asymptomatic between episodes. We believe that Cannabinoid Hyper emesis Syndrome is much more common than currently recognized. We present a unique case with an apparent positive family history of the same clinical entity.

  10. AcEST: DK955758 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0023_P08 559 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0023_P08. 5' end sequence...antum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0023_P08. 5' end sequence. Accession DK955...809,765 total letters Searching..................................................done Score E Sequences producin...'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesteras... 32 2.8 sp|P30589|CHS2_NEUCR Chitin synthase 2 OS=Neurospora crass...TX 2.2.19 [Nov-02-2008] Reference: Altschul, Stephen F., Thomas L. Madden, Alejandro A. Schaffer, Jinghui Zhang, Zhen

  11. Combined effect of CO2 enrichment and foliar application of salicylic acid on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemzadeh Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration caused by climate change and agricultural practices is likely to affect biota by producing changes in plant growth, allocation and chemical composition. This study was conducted to evaluate the combined effect of the application of salicylic acid (SA, at two levels: 0 and 10-3 M and CO2 enrichment (at two levels: 400 and 800 μmol·mol−1 on the production and antioxidant activities of anthocyanin, flavonoids and isoflavonoids from two Malaysian ginger varieties, namely Halia Bentong and Halia Bara. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry was employed to identify and quantify the flavonoids and anthocyanins in the ginger extracts. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extracts was determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and thiobarbituric acid (TBA assays. The substrate specificity of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis, was investigated using the chalcone synthase (CHS assay. Results CO2 levels of 800 μmol·mol−1 significantly increased anthocyanin, rutin, naringenin, myricetin, apigenin, fisetin and morin contents in ginger leaves. Meanwhile, the combined effect of SA and CO2 enrichment enhanced anthocyanin and flavonoid production compared with single treatment effects. High anthocyanin content was observed in H Bara leaves treated with elevated CO2 and SA. The highest chalcone synthase (CHS activity was observed in plants treated with SA and CO2 enrichment. Plants not treated with SA and kept under ambient CO2 conditions showed the lowest CHS activity. The highest free radical scavenging activity corresponded to H Bara treated with SA under high CO2 conditions, while the lowest activity corresponded to H Bentong without SA treatment and under atmospheric CO2 levels. As the level of CO2 increased, the DPPH activity increased. Higher TBA activity was also recorded in the

  12. Cine-Therapie / Film-Therapie : eine erste Bibliographie

    OpenAIRE

    Amann, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Darüber können viele, die in der Bildungsarbeit der Akademien versuchen, mit allgemeinem Publikum über Themen ins Gespräch zu kommen, die tabuisiert, traumatisiert, intimisiert oder sonstwie blockiert sind, berichten: Setzt man Filme als Katalysatoren des Gesprächs ein, wird es vielen möglich, über Dinge zu sprechen, die ihnen sonst unzugänglich sind. Und sie können anders darüber sprechen, als ermögliche der Film eine Spiegelung und dadurch eine Abmilderung der eigenen Behinderungen im Umgan...

  13. A new method for measuring phase shift in heterodyne interferometric measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for analysing the phase shift of heterodyne interferometric beat is developed. The phase shift is obtained directly from the change in the probe beat period without comparing with reference beat. According to this method an electric circuit system has been designed, combined with an HCN laser or microwave interferometer for the measurement of line-integrated electron density of plasma in Compact Helical System (CHS). The experimental results show that this method is effective. The minimum measurable phase shift is determined by the ratio of beat frequency to the counting clock frequency, and the maximum measurable phase shift is infinite in principle. (author)

  14. Problematizando o conceito de risco em diretrizes éticas para pesquisas em ciências humanas e sociais na Saúde Coletiva

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lúcia Magalhães Bosi

    2015-01-01

    ResumoEste artigo problematiza o emprego do conceito de risco em diretrizes éticas direcionadas às pesquisas em ciências humanas e sociais (CHS) em saúde (coletiva), notadamente, aquelas orientadas pelo enfoque qualitativo. Na Saúde Coletiva (SC), risco assume uma semântica peculiar, vinculada a cálculos e previsibilidade, consoante às bases disciplinares que o sustentam. Tal circunstância torna incongruente o seu uso em construções justificadas pelas distinções entre as modalidades de pesqui...

  15. Feasibility and sustainability of an interactive team-based learning method for medical education during a severe faculty shortage in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Jacob; Fana, Golden T; Campbell, Thomas B.; Hakim, James G.; Borok, Margaret Z; Aagaard, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010, in the midst of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Zimbabwe, 69% of faculty positions in the Department of Medicine of the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZ-CHS) were vacant. To address the ongoing need to train highly skilled HIV clinicians with only a limited number of faculty, we developed and implemented a course for final-year medical students focused on HIV care using team-based learning (TBL) methods. Methods A competency-based HI...

  16. AcEST: DK954229 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TST39A01NGRL0019_O06 618 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: TST39A01NGRL0019_O06. 5' end seq ... 8NJ48_9ASCO Chitin synthase OS=ericoid mycorrhizal fungus ... PSIV Align length 41 Score (bit) 36.2 E-value 1.6 ... 8NJ48_9ASCO Chitin synthase OS=ericoid mycorrhizal fungus ... PSIV GN=chs PE=3 SV=1 Length = 1087 Score = 36.2 b ...

  17. Polimorfismo de los genes k-caseina, β-lactoglobulina y α-lactoalbumina en razas bovinas criollas colombianas.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosero Alpala, Jaime Anibal

    2009-01-01

    Se tomaron 354 muestras de sangre de ocho razas bovinas criollas (30 individuos por raza): Blanco Orejinegro (BON), Caqueteño (CQT), Casanareño (CAS), Costeño con Cuernos (CCC), Chino Santandereano (ChS), Hartón del Valle (HV), Romosinuano (ROMO) y Sanmartinero (SM), dos colombianas Lucerna (LUC) y Velásquez (VEL) y dos controles Brahman (BRAH) y Holstein (HOLS). Con el fin de estimar la frecuencia, parámetros poblacionales mediante los genes de las proteínas de la leche: k-caseína, β -lactog...

  18. Progress of confinement physics study in compact helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large progress in the confinement improvement study in CHS was made for the internal transport barrier (ITB) and H-mode discharges with the edge transport barrier (ETB). For ITB, precise measurement of ion temperature gradient profile and the direct measurement of turbulent particle flux were made. For ETB study, edge fluctuations were measured with four different diagnostics and it was confirmed that the turbulence was suppressed by the ETB formation. The poloidal flow was measured and the creation of the strong electric field was confirmed for the H-mode discharges. H-mode with a high plasma density was developed with the reheat mode operation technique. (author)

  19. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Choroidal Hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Taek; Kang, Se Woong [Department of Ophthalmology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Il, E-mail: jilee@skku.edu [Department of Neurosurgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Patients with choroidal hemangioma (CH), a benign ocular hamartoma, frequently presents with visual disturbance as a result of exudative retinal detachment (RD), which originates in subretinal fluid accumulation. We report our experience using the Leksell Gamma Knife in the management of symptomatic CH. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with symptomatic CH (circumscribed form in 3 patients and diffuse form in 4) were treated with the Leksell Gamma Knife at our institution during a 7-year period. All patients presented with exudative RD involving the macula that resulted in severe visual deterioration. The prescription dose to the target margin was 10 Gy in all cases. The mean tumor volume receiving the prescription dose was 536 mm{sup 3} (range, 151-1,057). The clinical data were analyzed in a retrospective fashion after a mean follow-up of 34.4 months (range, 9-76). Results: The resolution of exudative RD was achieved within 6 months, and the visual acuity of the affected eye had improved at the latest follow-up examination (p = .018) in all patients. No recurrence of exudative RD occurred. Thinning of the CHs was observed in most patients; however, symptomatic radiation toxicity had not developed in any of the patients. Conclusion: Symptomatic CHs can be safely and effectively managed with Gamma Knife radiosurgery using a marginal dose of 10 Gy.

  20. Mechanism of systemic immune suppression by UV irradiation in vivo. II. The UV effects on number and morphology of epidermal Langerhans cells and UV-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity have different wavelength dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors previously reported that broad band UV radiation or narrow bands of UV (Hbw 3 nm) of wavelengths 250 to 320 nm cause a systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in mice, observed when the contact sensitizer is applied to a nonirradiated site. To determine if this effect is associated with UV-induced alterations in epidermal Langerhans cell (LC) numbers and morphology, they performed the following study. LC were identified by ATPase staining of EDTA-separated epidermal sheets. Electron microscopy studies confirmed that this method was a satisfactory indicator of the presence of LC. Mice were irradiated on the back with narrow band UV of peak wavelength 270, 290, or 320 nm. The irradiated skin was excised 24 hr later and was stained as described. They found that UV radiation of 270 or 290 nm caused (1) an alteration in LC morphology (loss of dendrites) and (2) a decrease in the total number of epidermal LC. Both effects occurred in a dose-dependent fashion. A dose of 320 nm UV that caused 50% systemic suppression of CHS had no effect on either the number or the morphology of LC at the site of irradiation. In addition, the number and morphology of LC were unaffected in the ventral epidermis (site of contact sensitization) of mice that had been previously irradiated on the back with a systemically suppressive dose of UV