WorldWideScience

Sample records for chrysurus linnaeus actinopterygii

  1. Glicosaminoglicanos isolados da pele de palombeta (Chloroscombrus chrysurus e guaiúba (Ocyurus chrysurus: características e implicações biológicas - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.6056 Glycosaminoglycans isolated from the skin of ‘palombeta’ (Chloroscombrus chrysurus and ‘guaiúba’ (Ocyurus chrysurus: features and biological implications - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.6056

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Maria Barros Benevides

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil abriga uma das maiores biodiversidades marinhas do mundo, favorecendo a descoberta de fontes alternativas de compostos farmacológicos. Desta forma, objetivou-se avaliar o potencial anticoagulante de glicosaminoglicanos (GAGs isolados das peles da palombeta (Chloroscombrus chrysurus e guaiúba (Ocyurus chrysurus. Os GAGs foram extraídos com papaína bruta em tampão acetato de sódio 0,1 M (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína 5 mM e EDTA 5 mM, seguido por cromatografia de troca iônica do extrato total em coluna de DEAE-celulose. As frações obtidas foram analisadas quanto à composição química (proteínas contaminantes e carboidratos totais e os GAGs identificados por eletroforese em gel de agarose a 0,5%. Os ensaios de atividade anticoagulante foram realizados por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA usando plasma humano normal e heparina-padrão (193,00 UI mg-1. O procedimento de obtenção e fracionamento dos GAGs mostrou-se eficiente, indicando semelhantes perfis cromatográficos entre as espécies avaliadas e, revelando para C. chrysurus, bandas com mobilidades semelhantes ao dermatam sulfato e com atividade de apenas 3,30 UI mg-1.A great number of pharmacological compounds is found in the Brazilian marine diversity. This study evaluated the anticoagulant potential of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs isolated from the skin of ‘palombeta’ Chloroscombrus chrysurus and ‘guaiúba’ Ocyurus chrysurus. GAGs were extracted with crude papain in 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing 5 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA, followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column. The chemical composition (contaminant proteins and total carbohydrates and the analysis by 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions were also determined. Anticoagulant assays were performed by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and standard heparin (193.00 IU mg-1. The obtaining and fractionation procedures

  2. Linnaeus in Uppsala, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Paul; Cohen, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Presents a brief life history of Carl Linnaeus, a professor of medicine and botany in Uppsala, Sweden. Highlights his work in developing a classification system for plants and animals, and his botanical lectures and demonstrations. (JRH)

  3. Carl Linnaeus: pictures and propaganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-03-01

    How do scientists become famous? Carl Linnaeus was an expert at self-promotion who used portraits to gain patronage and consolidate his reputation. His sexualized classification system was hugely controversial, yet his successors celebrated him as a great hero of botany.

  4. 'Fish' (Actinopterygii and Elasmobranchii) diversification patterns through deep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Guillaume; Cavin, Lionel

    2016-11-01

    Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) and Elasmobranchii (sharks, skates and rays) represent more than half of today's vertebrate taxic diversity (approximately 33000 species) and form the largest component of vertebrate diversity in extant aquatic ecosystems. Yet, patterns of 'fish' evolutionary history remain insufficiently understood and previous studies generally treated each group independently mainly because of their contrasting fossil record composition and corresponding sampling strategies. Because direct reading of palaeodiversity curves is affected by several biases affecting the fossil record, analytical approaches are needed to correct for these biases. In this review, we propose a comprehensive analysis based on comparison of large data sets related to competing phylogenies (including all Recent and fossil taxa) and the fossil record for both groups during the Mesozoic-Cainozoic interval. This approach provides information on the 'fish' fossil record quality and on the corrected 'fish' deep-time phylogenetic palaeodiversity signals, with special emphasis on diversification events. Because taxonomic information is preserved after analytical treatment, identified palaeodiversity events are considered both quantitatively and qualitatively and put within corresponding palaeoenvironmental and biological settings. Results indicate a better fossil record quality for elasmobranchs due to their microfossil-like fossil distribution and their very low diversity in freshwater systems, whereas freshwater actinopterygians are diverse in this realm with lower preservation potential. Several important diversification events are identified at familial and generic levels for elasmobranchs, and marine and freshwater actinopterygians, namely in the Early-Middle Jurassic (elasmobranchs), Late Jurassic (actinopterygians), Early Cretaceous (elasmobranchs, freshwater actinopterygians), Cenomanian (all groups) and the Paleocene-Eocene interval (all groups), the latter two

  5. Bad math in Linnaeus' Philosophia Botanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podani, János; Szilágyi, András

    2016-09-01

    In Philosophia Botanica (1751), Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) presented a calculation of the number of plant genera that may be distinguished based on his taxonomic concepts. In order to derive that number, he relied upon the organs of fructification, which represent the flower and the fruit, by selecting over 30 elements from them, and then assuming that each could vary by four dimensions. However, while Linnaeus was good in counting stamens and pistils, he and many of his followers who edited or translated Philosophia Botanica were less careful, basing their calculations of the number of possible genera on flawed assumptions, or even introducing basic arithmetic errors. Furthermore, although mathematics was quite advanced in the eighteenth century, the gap between combinatorial and botanical thinking was too deep, preventing Linnaeus to seek a reasonable solution to the problem he raised. The authors demonstrate this by a historical analysis of 15 editions of Philosophia Botanica, plus many references to it, and conclude that the desired number almost always appeared in error during the past 265 years. The German botanist J. G. Gleditsch (1714-1786) was the most successful with respect to Linnaeus' original intention. Elementary mathematics demonstrates that if Linnaeus' assumptions were taken seriously, then the possible number of genera would be astronomical. The practice he followed in Genera Plantarum (1754) shows, however, that the fructification dimensions served as a universal set for Linnaeus from which he chose only the relevant ones for describing a particular genus empirically. Based on the corrections and modifications implemented in reworked editions, we suggest an evolutionary network for the historical and modern versions or translations of Philosophia Botanica.

  6. Bibliographie der Flussperlmuschel Margaritifera Margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungbluth, J.H.; Coomans, H.E.; Grohs, H.

    1985-01-01

    Bibliography of the freshwater Pearlmussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mollusca: Pelecypoda] The freshwater pearlmussel, described by Linnaeus as Mya margaritifera is one of the most important molluscs existing. It belongs with only a few congeneric fossil and recent species to the

  7. Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield among ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... Jatropha curcas yields substantial quantity of seed oil and is growing in importance as a source of biodiesel.

  8. Isopods (Isopoda: Aegidae, Cymothoidae, Gnathiidae associated with Venezuelan marine fishes (Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Bunkley-Williams

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic isopod fauna of fishes in the southern Caribbean is poorly known. In examinations of 12 639 specimens of 187 species of Venezuelan fishes, the authors found 10 species in three families of isopods (Gnathiids, Gnathia spp. from Diplectrum radiale *, Heteropriacanthus cruentatus *, Orthopristis ruber * and Trachinotus carolinus *; two aegids, Rocinela signata from Dasyatis guttata *, H. cruentatus *, Haemulon aurolineatum *, H. steindachneri * and O. ruber ; and Rocinela sp. from Epinephelus flavolimbatus *; five cymothoids: Anilocra haemuli from Haemulon boschmae *, H. flavolineatum * and H. steindachneri *; Anilocra cf haemuli from Heteropriacanthus cruentatus *; Haemulon bonariense*, O. ruber*, Cymothoa excisa in H. cruentatus *; Cymothoa oestrum in Chloroscombrus chrysurus, H. cruentatus* and Priacanthus arenatus ; Cymothoa sp. in O. ruber; Livoneca sp. from H. cruentatus *; and Nerocila fluviatilis from H. cruentatus * and P. arenatus *. The Rocinela sp. and A. cf haemuli in the southern Caribbean could represent new species. The abundance of A. cf haemuli appears to have drastically reduced from 1994 to 1999 in the Gulf of Cariaco. The Cymothoa sp. represents an undescribed species that is apparently host specific to O. ruber . It does not occur in the Gulf of Cariaco, but is relatively abundant on the Caribbean coast of Sucre State, Venezuela. The Livoneca sp. is an undescribed species host specific to Diapterus rhombeus, Cymothoa excisa and C. oestrum were thought to have distinct host preferences, but both infected the Heteropriacanthus cruentatus in the present study.Gnathia spp. are reported from Venezuelan waters for the first time. Twenty new host records* are noted. The fish-associated isopod fauna is much more extensive and important than has previously been suspected. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (Suppl. 3: 175-188. Epub 2007 Jan. 15.Se conoce muy poco acerca de la fauna de isópodos parásitos de peces en el Caribe Sur. Tras

  9. LINNAEUS: A species name identification system for biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenadic Goran

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The task of recognizing and identifying species names in biomedical literature has recently been regarded as critical for a number of applications in text and data mining, including gene name recognition, species-specific document retrieval, and semantic enrichment of biomedical articles. Results In this paper we describe an open-source species name recognition and normalization software system, LINNAEUS, and evaluate its performance relative to several automatically generated biomedical corpora, as well as a novel corpus of full-text documents manually annotated for species mentions. LINNAEUS uses a dictionary-based approach (implemented as an efficient deterministic finite-state automaton to identify species names and a set of heuristics to resolve ambiguous mentions. When compared against our manually annotated corpus, LINNAEUS performs with 94% recall and 97% precision at the mention level, and 98% recall and 90% precision at the document level. Our system successfully solves the problem of disambiguating uncertain species mentions, with 97% of all mentions in PubMed Central full-text documents resolved to unambiguous NCBI taxonomy identifiers. Conclusions LINNAEUS is an open source, stand-alone software system capable of recognizing and normalizing species name mentions with speed and accuracy, and can therefore be integrated into a range of bioinformatics and text-mining applications. The software and manually annotated corpus can be downloaded freely at http://linnaeus.sourceforge.net/.

  10. Carolus Linnaeus and the Edible Dormouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Violani

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carolus Linnaeus was totally unacquainted with the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis (L., a species not found in Sweden: while describing Mus Rattus in the 10th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1758, the Swedish naturalist confessed his ignorance concerning the "Glis" of the ancients and suggested that it might have been the marmot or the hamster. Thanks to written information received from his correspondent in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linnaeus was able to include the new species Sciurus Glis in his 12th Edition of the "Systema Naturae" (1766, reporting almost verbatim a summary of Scopoli's description of the rodent. Scopoli's letter is still preserved in the Library of the Linnean Society of London. The Linnean type locality "Habitat in Europa australi" for the Edible Dormouse Myoxus glis glis must therefore be restricted to "Southern Carniola, Slovenia", contra "Germany" as stated, for instance, by Miller (1912, Toschi (1965, Corbet (1978 and Storch (1978. A new name is required for the continental European form, for which M. glis germanicus ssp. nov. is here proposed. Some information on the appreciation of Myoxus glis as a delicacy ("carnes avide eduntur" in Linnaeus' words conclude the paper. Riassunto Carlo Linneo ed il Ghiro - Dopo aver descritto Mus Rattus nella decima edizione del "Systema Naturae" (1758 il naturalista svedese Carlo Linneo confessava di non essere a conoscenza del "Glis" degli antichi autori e ne suggeriva l'identificazione con la Marmotta o con il Criceto comune; è infatti noto che Myoxus glis non è diffuso in Svezia. In base ad una lettera ricevuta dal suo corrispondente in Slovenia, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Linneo fu in grado di descrivere questa nuova specie come Sciurus Glis nella dodicesima edizione del "Systema

  11. Clio pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767 forma convexa (Boas, 1886) (Mollusca, Pteropoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoel, van der S.

    1973-01-01

    The pelagic fauna of the Red Sea shows special variation induced by its isolated character (Van der Spoel, 1971). Clio pyramidata from the Red Sea is usually incorrectly referred to as the tropical forma lanceolata (Lesueur, 1813) or the typical forma pyramidata Linnaeus, 1767. Some large samples

  12. Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the results of experiments to test the effect of the larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on the immune systems of mice. Mice were given a decoction of T. molitor in water at doses of 1.87, 3.75 and 7.50 g/kg/d for four weeks, after which their immune function was studied. The results indicate that T. molitor ...

  13. A new species of parasitic copepod, Sarcotretes umitakae sp. n. (Siphonostomatoida, Pennellidae, on the rattail (Actinopterygii, Macrouridae from the East China Sea, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Uyeno

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of copepod, Sarcotretes umitakae sp. n., of the siphonostomatoid family Pennellidae is described based on female specimens from the rattail Coelorinchus jordani Smith and Pope (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Macrouridae caught in the East China Sea. This species is characterized by exhibiting the following characters: the large proboscis projects strongly; the head bears paired lateral processes which are bulbous and taper into a slender horn; the twisting neck is significantly longer than the trunk; and the trunk bears an anterior constriction with a reduced abdomen.

  14. Boom and bust: ancient and recent diversification in bichirs (Polypteridae: Actinopterygii), a relictual lineage of ray-finned fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Tokita, Masayoshi; Suzuki, Dai; Brandley, Matthew C; Friedman, Matt

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the history that underlies patterns of species richness across the Tree of Life requires an investigation of the mechanisms that not only generate young species-rich clades, but also those that maintain species-poor lineages over long stretches of evolutionary time. However, diversification dynamics that underlie ancient species-poor lineages are often hidden due to a lack of fossil evidence. Using information from the fossil record and time calibrated molecular phylogenies, we investigate the history of lineage diversification in Polypteridae, which is the sister lineage of all other ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Despite originating at least 390 million years (Myr) ago, molecular timetrees support a Neogene origin for the living polypterid species. Our analyses demonstrate polypterids are exceptionally species depauperate with a stem lineage duration that exceeds 380 million years (Ma) and is significantly longer than the stem lineage durations observed in other ray-finned fish lineages. Analyses of the fossil record show an early Late Cretaceous (100.5-83.6 Ma) peak in polypterid genus richness, followed by 60 Ma of low richness. The Neogene species radiation and evidence for high-diversity intervals in the geological past suggest a "boom and bust" pattern of diversification that contrasts with common perceptions of relative evolutionary stasis in so-called "living fossils." © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Sobre o lectótipo de Papilio bixae Linnaeus e a designação do lectótipo de Papilio proteus Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf H. H. Mielke

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available The lectotype of Papilo bixae Linnaeus, designated by Hemming (1964 based on the figure of Merian (1705, was found in the Wiesbaden Museum, and here with considered as such. It corresponds to Pyrrhopyge phidias bixae; Evans (1951. Two syntypes of Papilo proteus Linnaeus, 1758, were also found in the same Museum and one of them was selected as lectotype. These lectotypes are figured for the first time.

  16. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  17. Attempted eradication of Porphyrio porphyrio Linnaeus in the Florida Everglades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave EGGEMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrio porphyrio (Fulica porphyrio Linnaeus was reported to the South Florida Water Management District in a Water Conservation Area and in constructed wetlands in the Everglades in 2006. A rapid assessment, including casual observations and surveys of land managers, indicated a limited number of P. porphyrio (~300 birds was present, and an eradication attempt was initiated. From 2006 – 2008, more than 3100 P. porphyrio were killed by shotgun from airboats during 73 hunts, suggesting the initial population assessment was severely underestimated. After removing nearly 1500 P. porphyrio in 2008, we concluded that eradication was not possible. Failure of this eradication attempt is attributed to P. porphyrio’s affinity with dense emergent vegetation, which greatly limited shooting effectiveness. Further, the failed eradication underscores the importance of a reporting network to improve early detection and the chance to eliminate naturalized or feral populations of non‐native species.

  18. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  19. Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro; Tharlianne Alici M. de Souza; Priscilla Rosa Q. Ribeiro; Lázaro A. dos Santos; Daniela Cristina de O. Silva; Frederico O. Carneiro e Silva; Roseâmely Angélica C. Barros; Renata Graciele Zanon

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Ribeiro L.A., Souza T.A.M., Ribeiro P.R.Q., Santos L.A., Silva D.C.O., Carneiro e Silva F.O., Barros R.A.C. & Zanon R.G. [Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758.] Topografia do cone medular do Tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758). Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4):353-358, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias e Zootecnia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Fe...

  20. A Non-Proteinaceious Toxin from the Venomous Spines of the Lionfish Pterois Volitans (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Spines of the Lionfish Pterois Volitans (Linnaeus) 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(a) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Nair, M.S.R. Cheung, P...and Identify by block number) Tinon Lionfish , Non-Proteinaceous Toxin, Ichthyotoxin 20. A9ST’ACT ? ( mt.e ,vmM N , mid ify by block nusmber) "!;The...COMMUNICATIONS A NON-PROTEINACEOUS TOXIN FROM THE VENOMOUS SPINES OF THE LIONFISH PTEROIS VOLITANS (LINNAEUS) 2 20 M. S. R. NAIR,’ PAUL CHEUNG, INA

  1. Histological description of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla P. Rocha

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The massive agricultural expansion converted the Cerdocyon thous, a South American native predator, in vulnerable specie. Basic data, such as histological description, are important to raise awareness on animal species, helping on preservation strategies. Considering the difficult in obtain samples, as the euthanasia of wild animals for this purpose is not allowed, data on histology are very scarce or inexistent. The objective of this paper was to provide a detailed histological description of the trachea and bronchial tree of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766. The specimens (one adult male and one adult female used were provided by the Federal University of Pelotas (Pelotas, RS, Brazil Rehabilitation Center of Wild Fauna (NURFS. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formalin and included in paraffin. After slicing, samples were stained with HE (hematoxylin and eosin, PAS (periodic acid-Schiff and resorcin fuchsin. Trachea had an average diameter of 7.87mm, and approximately 57% of the mucosa ciliated pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium was composed of goblet cells, mostly in the dorsal region. Bronchia and bronchioles had a mucosal fold with higher number of goblet cells. Using all these techniques there is no great remarkable differences from C. thous trachea and lung, when compared with the previous described structures for carnivores and most mammals, except for the goblet cells “regionalization”. Described results are important to understand the animal physiological and behavioral habits, allowing the development of preservation and protection strategies.

  2. Homage to Linnaeus: How many parasites? How many hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Andy; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Jetz, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of the total number of species that inhabit the Earth have increased significantly since Linnaeus's initial catalog of 20,000 species. The best recent estimates suggest that there are ≈6 million species. More emphasis has been placed on counts of free-living species than on parasitic species. We rectify this by quantifying the numbers and proportion of parasitic species. We estimate that there are between 75,000 and 300,000 helminth species parasitizing the vertebrates. We have no credible way of estimating how many parasitic protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses exist. We estimate that between 3% and 5% of parasitic helminths are threatened with extinction in the next 50 to 100 years. Because patterns of parasite diversity do not clearly map onto patterns of host diversity, we can make very little prediction about geographical patterns of threat to parasites. If the threats reflect those experienced by avian hosts, then we expect climate change to be a major threat to the relatively small proportion of parasite diversity that lives in the polar and temperate regions, whereas habitat destruction will be the major threat to tropical parasite diversity. Recent studies of food webs suggest that ≈75% of the links in food webs involve a parasitic species; these links are vital for regulation of host abundance and potentially for reducing the impact of toxic pollutants. This implies that parasite extinctions may have unforeseen costs that impact the health and abundance of a large number of free-living species.

  3. A New Maximum Length Record of the Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) for Turkey Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Özgür

    2014-01-01

    One specimen of the bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) with 76.5 cm in total length and 4800.0 g in total weight was photographed in the Çanakkale Fish Market. The given length is second maximum length record of the bluefish for Turkish waters

  4. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753)

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Am?lia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 pi...

  5. Eighteenth century classification of mental illness: Linnaeus, de Sauvages, Vogel, and Cullen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsche, Heather; Whitaker, Harry A

    2012-12-01

    Classification was an important aspect of the 17th and 18th century development of Western science, epitomized by Linnaeus's 1735 Systema Naturae (Nature's System), in which he divided each kingdom of nature into classes, orders, and species. Linnaeus, a physician in addition to being a renowned taxonomist, endeavored to classify all known human diseases, largely on the basis of symptoms, in his 1759 Genera Morborum (Varieties of Diseases). We focus on his classification of mental disorders, a large subset of the Genera Morborum. We compare and contrast the Linnaean system with François Boissier de Sauvages's 1772 Nosologie méthodique (A Systematic Nosology) and Rudolph Augustin Vogel's 1764 Generum Morborum (Varieties of Diseases). We consider the impact of these nosologies on William Cullen's (1769/1800) Nosology, a popular system of disease classification that persisted through much of the 19th century.

  6. An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Salinas-Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An unusual food plant for Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae in Mexico. Larvae of Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus, 1758 were discovered on floral cones of Magnolia schiedeana (Schltdl, 1864 near the natural reserve of La Martinica, Veracruz, México. Magnolia represents an unusual host for this moth species, which is known throughout the world as the "codling moth", a serious pest of fruits of Rosaceae, especially apples. The larvae were identified using taxonomic keys, and identification was corroborated using molecular markers. Further sampling resulted in no additional larvae, hence, the observation was probably that of an ovipositional error by the female, and M. schiedeana is not at risk of attack by this important moth pest.

  7. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  8. Linnaeus' restless system: translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it. By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage. This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.

  9. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Belém-Costa,Andréa; Cyrino,José Eurico Possebon

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887) and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, i...

  10. Identity, biology and bionomics of the Common Mime Chilasa clytia Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Revathy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were made on the identity, biology and bionomics of the Common Mime Chilasa clytia Linnaeus.  Morphological details of the external genitalia were found to be useful in segregating the two forms clytia and dissimilis belonging to this species.  The biology took 32–36 days for completion.  Besides the host plants already recorded, Litsea coriacea was recorded as a new larval host plant of this butterfly.  

  11. Early Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction event: evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Sebastian; Ansorge, Jörg; Pfaff, Cathrin; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-07-04

    A new genus and species of pycnodontiform fishes, Grimmenodon aureum , from marginal marine, marine-brackish lower Toarcian ( Harpoceras exaratum ammonite subzone) clay deposits of Grimmen in northeastern Germany is described. The single specimen represents a diagnostic left prearticular dentition characterized by unique tooth arrangement and ornamentation patterns. Grimmenodon aureum , gen. et sp. nov., is the second unambiguously identified pycnodontiform species from the Early Jurassic, in addition to Eomesodon liassicus from the early Lower Jurassic of western Europe. We also report an indeterminate pycnodontiform tooth crown from the upper Pliensbachian ( Pleuroceras apyrenum ammonite subzone) of the same site. The material expands the Early Jurassic range of pycnodontiforms significantly northwards and confirms their presence before and immediately following the onset of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) in the marginal marine ecosystems south of the Fennoscandian Shield. Moreover, the new records indicate that the Early Jurassic diversity of pycnodontiform fishes was greater than previously assumed and probably equaled that of the Late Triassic. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction event did not affect pycnodontiform fishes significantly. Micro-computed tomography was used to study the internal anatomy of the prearticular of Grimmenodon aureum , gen. et sp. nov. Our results show that no replacement teeth were formed within the tooth-bearing bone but rather were added posteriorly to functional teeth. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A56BDE9C-40C4-4CFA-9C2E-F5FA35A66F2 Citation for this article: Stumpf, S., J. Ansorge, C. Pfaff, and J. Kriwet. 2017. Early Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction event: Evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum . Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2017.1344679.

  12. Occurrence of the Leech, Pontobdella muricata Linnaeus, on Elasmobranch Species in the Northern and Central Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, Luca; Leoni, Simone; Polidori, Piero; Grati, Fabio; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Pellini, Giulio; Domenichetti, Filippo; Ferrà, Carmen; Fabi, Gianna

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a parasitological analysis of the elasmobranch species caught in the northern and central Adriatic Sea. Sixty-two marine leeches were recorded on 747 individuals of Raja clavata Linnaeus, 1758 (thornback ray), Myliobatis aquila Linnaeus, 1758 (common eagle ray), and Torpedo marmorata Risso, 1810 (marbled torpedo ray) caught in 56 hauls over a 5 yr period. All leeches were identified as Pontobdella muricata, which is a typical ectoparasite of benthic elasmobranchs. The prevalence of infection ranged from 7.11% on R. clavata to 12.00% on M. aquila. The intensity of infection, the preferential sites of attachment to the host, and the periodicity of infection were evaluated.

  13. Biologia reprodutiva da cobra-coral Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae, no Sudeste do Brasil Reproductive biology of the coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus (Colubridae in the Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio A.V. Marques

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissection of 286 specimens of the "false" coral snake Erythrolamprus aesculapii Linnaeus, 1766, combined with data on captive individuais, provided information on the reproductive biology of this colubrid snake. Adult females (x snout-vent length = 74.5cm attain larger body size than males (x SVL = 62.6. Clutch size ranged from one to eight eggs and was correlated with maternal body size. Neonates measured 20.2-22.5cm SVL and weighed 5.1-5.8g. Males attain sexual maturity earlier than females. Reproduction seems to be aseasonal, with vitellogenesis occurring throughout the year. Apparently the growth rate of folheies decreases in the dry season, possibly due to lower tempeiatures during this period. Multiple clutches were recorded in captive snakes. Foraging strategies and availability of prey may explain continuous reproduction in E. aesculapii. However, data for other related snakes suggest that continuous reproduction is conservative in the Xenodontini.

  14. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766)

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo M. Leal; Rafaela M. de Sá; Fabricio S. de Oliveira; Tais H.C. Sasahara; Bruno W. Minto; Marcia R.F. Machado

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766), mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inse...

  15. Loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae, as a new host of Monticellius indicum Mehra, 1939 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae and associated lesiond to spirorchiid eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present note describes the occurrence of Monticellius indicum Mehra, 1939 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae in an adult loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758, found on the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Pathological changes due to spirorchiid eggs (type 1 and 3 were found in gastrointestinal system, endocrine system, and heart. This parasite has previously been described in the green turtle, Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758, from Pakistan, Brazil and Costa Rica as well as in the hawksbill sea turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766, in Brazil. This note reports the loggerhead turtle as a new host for M. indicum.

  16. Composição em tamanho dos peixes (Actinopterygii, Teleostei de ribeirões da bacia do rio Tibagi, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibatta Oscar A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard length of 7610 specimens of 43 species from eight streams of rio Tibagi basin was obtained in order to analyze the means of fish sizes. The higher mean size was observed in Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus, 1758 (165,5 mm and the smaller, in Phalloceros caudimaculatus (Hensel, 1868 (16,25 mm. Some fish like Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Reinhardt, 1874, Leporinus obtusidens (Valenciennes, 1836, Gymnotus carapo Linneus, 1758 and Synbranchus marmoratus Bloch, 1795 can reach big or medium size when adults but were collected only young, evidencing they use some streams in beginning of life. The mean size of total species was 49,81mm, what shows the small size composition of fishes in the streams. The Kolmogov-Smirnov test comparing the mean size of all streams showed significant similar size both in upstream and downstream regions, independent to the different environmental conditions.

  17. Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus, 1758 (Proboscidea, Elephantidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Gentry, A.; Palkopoulou, E.

    2014-01-01

    .maximus, a complete foetus preserved in ethanol, is actually an African elephant, genus Loxodonta. We further discovered that an additional E.maximus syntype, mentioned in a description by John Ray (1693) cited by Linnaeus, has been preserved as an almost complete skeleton at the Natural History Museum...

  18. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  19. First data of Iberian Nematomorpha, with redescription of Gordius aquaticus Linnaeus, G. plicatulus Heinze, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villalobos, de Leonor Cristina; Ribera, Ignacio; Bilton, David T.

    2001-01-01

    Four species of Nematomorpha are recorded from NE Spain, representing the first reliable data on the group in the Iberian peninsula. Gordius aquations Linnaeus, 1758, G. plicatulus Heinze, 1937, Gordionus wolterstorffii (Camerano, 1888) and Paragordius tricuspidatus (Dufour, 1828) are redescribed

  20. Pengelolaan Lingkungan dalam Rangka Mengantisipasi Perkembangan Hama Belalang Nomadacris succincta Linnaeus (Orthoptera: Acrididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Suharni Siwi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Swarming grasshopper Nomadacris succincta (Linnaeus, sinonim: Patanga succincta (L. was one of the dominant species attacked corn and soybean plantations at Jeneponto District, South Sulawesi in early 2005. The species has been identified for a long time occurred in that environment, although has never been reported before as pest of farmer's crops. For a basis of the capability in controlling the swarm grasshopper in the field, changed of increasing population hould be monitored regularly to prevent future outbreak. Information on taxonomic and ecology research of N. succincta are needed for environmental management efforts, such as change in morphology, physiology and behavior, change in host's preferences of gregarious adult, and environmental conditions i.e. climate, cultural techniques, and the death of natural enemies in the field.

  1. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CERTAIN BIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF A LADYBEETLE COCCINELLA SEPTEMPUNCTA TA LINNAEUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShefaliSrivastava; Dmkar

    2003-01-01

    Influence of temperature on certain biological attributes of an aphidophagous ladybeetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, feeding on mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), at five different temperatures, viz. 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35℃ was investigated. Its developmental period was shortest (11.7±0.09days) at 35℃ and longest (20.6±0.35 days) at 20℃. Developmental rate increased with increase in temperature. Hatching percent, larval survival, adult emergence and growth index were maximum at 30℃ and minimumat 20℃. Oviposition period and fecundity were highest at 30℃ and lowest at 20℃. A positive linear relationship exists between temperature and developmental rate and negative correlation between the duration of immature life stages and temperature. The proportion of developmental period allocated to each immature stage was found to be similar at each temperature regime. Thus, 30℃ was found as the most suitable for C. septempunctata amongst the five temperatures tested.

  3. Solid state characterization of α-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffman, Jessica D.; Schauer, Caroline L.

    2009-01-01

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell (α-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei (β-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of α-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  4. Solid state characterization of {alpha}-chitin from Vanessa cardui Linnaeus wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Jessica D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Schauer, Caroline L., E-mail: cschauer@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-05-05

    Material properties of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui Linnaeus were investigated using typical material science techniques. The examined butterflies were raised and hatched from the larvae stage and their chemical and crystalline structure evaluated and compared to that of crab shell ({alpha}-chitin) and squid pens from Notodarus sloanii and Loligo pealei ({beta}-chitin). Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the painted lady butterflies are composed of {alpha}-chitin. Additionally, macro- and microstructure characterization of the chitins was conducted utilizing digital photography and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). This work demonstrates that common characterization techniques combined with simple sample preparation of biological materials can yield successful material characterization, which could aide the fabrication of biomimetic materials.

  5. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  6. Idades e crescimento da cioba, Ocyururs chrysurus, da Costa Central do Brasil Age and growth of yellowtail snapper, Ocyururs chrysurus, from Central Coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Neves de Araújo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A idade e o crescimento da cioba da costa central do Brasil foram estudados a partir de leituras de otólitos obtidos em amostragens mensais de desembarques comerciais, realizados nas cidades de Vitória e Vila Velha, entre os anos de 1998 e 1999. Através da análise do incremento marginal, foi verificada a formação anual de uma zona translúcida a partir do final do outono e durante o inverno. Foram observadas ciobas de 2 a 19 anos. Os comprimentos furcais (CF médios retrocalculados variaram de 108 mm para idade 1 a 524 mm para idade 19. A equação de Von Bertalanffy ajustada aos CF médios retrocalculados foi CFt = 567,1 (1 - e -0.130 (t + 0.773. A relação comprimento peso foi P = 2,68x10-5CF2.914, onde P = peso total em gramas. O crescimento é lento, com os incrementos anuais em peso aumentando gradativamente até atingir o máximo de 164 g entre as idades 7 e 8 anos. Os resultados deste trabalho indicam que a cioba tem longa expectativa de vida e baixas taxas de crescimento somático, características das espécies mais sensíveis à exploração pesqueira.To age and study the growth of yellowtail snapper, we analyzed readings of otoliths obtained in monthly samplings from commercial landings in the cities of Vitória and Vila Velha, from 1998 to 1999. Marginal increment analysis showed that the formation of a translucent zone occurred in the early fall and during the winter. The observed ages range from 2 to 19 years. Mean back-calculated fork lengths (FL range from 108 mm for age 1 to 524 mm for age 19. The Von Bertalanffy growth equation fitted to the mean back-calculated FL was FLt = 567,1 (1 - e -0.130 (t + 0.773, The length-weight relationship was W= 2,68x10-5FL2.914, where W = whole weight in grams. Yellowtail snapper has a slow growth with annual growth increments in weight raising progressively to the maximum of 164 g between the 7 and 8 years. The yellowtail snapper has long lifespan and slow growth rates, features of species that are very sensitive to overfishing.

  7. Infestasi Pinjal dan Infeksi Dipylidium Caninum Linnaeus pada Kucing Liar di Lingkungan Kampus Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kecamatan Dramaga

    OpenAIRE

    Bashofi, Aulia Syifak; Soviana, Susi; Ridwan, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate flea infestation and Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus 1758) infection on stray cat on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. Thirty stray cats were collected from various places around on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. The stray cats that showed clinical signs of pruritus and alopecia were collected purposively. The whole body was powdered by gamexan powder, after that the fleas were collected by manual and examined microscopically. The totals of 30...

  8. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae), terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco)

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih; Ramauli Agustina Sihit

    2015-01-01

    The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse). Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical) insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that w...

  9. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Ewers-Saucedo, Christine; Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, su...

  10. Reprodução de Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus in the Santa Catarina's coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O savacu Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie de hábitos crepusculares e noturnos, com ampla distribuição geográfica. Sua biologia reprodutiva tem sido intensivamente estudada nos países de ocorrência, entretanto, no Brasil, é comumente citada nos levantamentos de ornitólogos, mas não existem informações disponíveis sobre seu ciclo de vida. Esse trabalho objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie no litoral catarinense. As amostragens foram realizadas nos anos de 2000 a 2002 na Ilha dos Pássaros e de 2002 na Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. As maiores abundâncias de exemplares e ninhos com ovos ocorreram em outubro, sendo que o comprimento médio dos ovos variou entre 5,02 ± 0,23 a 5,07 ± 0,21 cm e o volume 31,71 ± 2,64 a 35,92 ± 3,47 cm³ e as maiores freqüências de filhotes em novembro, culminando o abandono da colônia em meados de janeiro. Foram identificados sete itens nos regurgitos dos filhotes, sendo que os peixes marinhos representaram 44,4% da massa total. O principal predador na colônia foi o urubu-comum, que atuou sobre os ovos no início da temporada e os filhotes no final.The black-crowned night heron N. nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 is a aquatic bird with twilight and night habits, with wide geographical distribution. His reproductive biology has been studied intensively at the occurrence countries, however, in Brazil, it is mentioned commonly in the ornithologists' risings, but available information don't exist on his life cycle. This work aims to contribute for the knowledge of the reproductive biology of that species in the Santa Catarina coast. The samplings were accomplished in the years from 2000 to 2002 in the Ilha dos Pássaros and of 2002 in the Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. The largest abundances of individuals and nests with eggs happened in October, and the medium length of the eggs varied between 5.02 ± 0.23 to 5.07 ± 0.21 cm and the volume 31

  11. Ontogenia do fruto em desenvolvimento de Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae Ontogeny of fruits of Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Carvalho Harthman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternanthera tenella Colla e Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus são espécies invasoras que ocorrem em culturas e terrenos baldios na região de Maringá, Paraná. O trabalho teve por objetivo a análise morfoanatômica dos frutos em desenvolvimento e estruturas não pericárpicas dessas duas espécies, com a finalidade de contribuir com informações estruturais para identificação das espécies, classificação dos frutos e investigações ecológicas. Flores e frutos foram coletados no campus da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, fixados em Glutaraldeído, secionados em micrótomo de rotação e corados com a azul de Toluidina. As bractéolas e perigônio são persistentes nos frutos e têm estrutura diferente nas duas espécies. O aquênio de Alternanthera tenella mantém o mesmo número de estratos celulares que o ovário, que sofrem colapso na fase madura, exceto o mesocarpo interno que se mantém com espessamento parietal em U e cristais. O utrículo de Amaranthus blitum é semelhante ao ovário em número de camadas celulares e apresenta aerênquima quando maduro. As sementes maduras são exotestais, com mesotesta e endotesta colapsadas, e embrião curvo. Nesse estudo, foram registrados alguns caracteres estruturais dos perigônios e dos frutos que são potencialmente significativos para caracterização e separação das espécies, ao contrário das sementes que são muito semelhantes.Alternanthera tenella Colla and Amaranthus blitum Linnaeus are weeds that occur in crops and uncultivated areas in the Maringá region of Paraná. In this study, a morphoanatomical analysis of fruit development and the pericarp of A. tenella and A. blitum was made in order to contribute structural information for species identification, fruit classification, and ecological investigations. Flowers and fruits were collected at the campus of the State University of Maringá, Paraná, fixed in glutaraldehyde, sectioned with a rotary microtome and stained with

  12. Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isai Jorge de Castro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.

  13. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  14. Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Assis Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ribeiro L.A., Souza T.A.M., Ribeiro P.R.Q., Santos L.A., Silva D.C.O., Carneiro e Silva F.O., Barros R.A.C. & Zanon R.G. [Topography of the medullar cone in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758.] Topografia do cone medular do Tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:353-358, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias e Zootecnia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Rua João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG 38408-100, Brasil. E-mail: lucasassis83@yahoo.com.br The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is a representative of the Order Hairy, belonging to the family Myrmecophagidae. General approaches on the behavior, ecology and physical abilities of this animal are available in the literature. However, information regarding different aspects of the anatomy of the nervous system giant anteater are sparsely found. Therefore, the morphological knowledge of the relationship between the spinal cord and vertebral column is of great importance to the scientific, as in the various species of animals, whether domestic or not, the relations of the caudal spinal differ. This difference comes out to meet the interests of wild animal medicine, especially as support for the practice of epidural anesthesia. Thus, the objective was to describe the topography of the conus M. tridactyla, providing anatomical data as a basis for the practice of epidural anesthesia. For this study we used three specimens of giant anteater, prepared by the usual techniques in Macroscopic Anatomy, which had three sacral vertebrae and 4. Sendo que a base do cone medular foi registrada ao nível da terceira vértebra lombar (L3, com comprimento variando entre 3,5cm e 4,5cm e ápice localizando-se ao nível da segunda vértebra sacral (S2. These anatomical findings may point out as a safe place to perform epidural anesthesia

  15. The Mediterranean stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) as habitat provider for molluscs: colony size effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitacco, Valentina; Crocetta, Fabio; Orlando-Bonaca, Martina; Mavrič, Borut; Lipej, Lovrenc

    2017-11-01

    The stony coral Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767) is an important Mediterranean habitat builder, whose survival is now being threatened by human activities and possibly natural events such as mass mortality and bleaching. We characterized the mollusc assemblage associated with colonies in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea) and then tested whether the number of mollusc species increases in relation with colony size, following a Species-Area Relationship (SAR) model. At least 62 taxa were found in association with coral colonies, with bivalves constituting the dominant group. More than half of the 3034 specimens encountered were juveniles. Mollusc taxa richness increased with increasing C. caespitosa colony size according to the power-function model, whilst the analyses of trophic and functional groups supports the hypothesis of at least two factors underlying SAR (area per se and habitat diversity). Our results confirmed the importance of C. caespitosa for benthic communities, indicating that larger colonies support higher biodiversity, and suggesting that C. caespitosa is the most important habit builder among Mediterranean cnidarians, having also an influential function as a natural nursery ground. These results underline the necessity of new investigations aimed at filling gaps in our knowledge and planning new measures to protect the species.

  16. The Aggregation of Boron on the Tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Okan Genç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aimed to determine the water-borne and food-borne boron accumulation in the liver and muscle tissues of Gold Fish (Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758. For each treatment, 12 individuals were. The water-borne boron treatments were applied as boron acid concentration of 1 mg/L, 10 mg/L and 20 mg/L in the aquarium water, while the food-borne boron treatments were prepared food contained the defined levels of boron (1 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg as boric acid. The boron levels in the tissues were determined by an ICP-MS procedure. The maximum boron concentration was found in the 20mg/L water borne boron treatment in the liver tissue (1.78±0.02 mg/kg. In the water-borne boron treatments, the maximum Transfer Factor (TF was found in the 20mg/L boron concentration, and TF values were increased when the boron concentrations were decreasing. In the 1 mg/kg food-borne boron treatment, TF was found as 0, and increasing concentration of boron in the food caused an increase in TF reached about 0.06. This study suggested that the target organ for boron accumulation is the liver rather than the muscles and the accumulation of food-borne boron is lower when comparing water-borne boron.

  17. Post-embrionic development of the digestive tube of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus (Diptera, Cuterebridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Vieira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The digestive tube of 2nd and 3rd instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 was studied anatomically. The specimens were dissected in buffer saline under a stereomicroscope, and the digestive tubes were placed on slides and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Each tube was measured using a micrometric eye piece, and drawings were made with camera lucida. The results showed that the midgut, the hindgut and the Malpighian tubules with their ducts grow gradually during the larval development. The oesophagus and the salivary glands with their ducts grow only during the moult from the 2nd to the 3rd instar. In the pupal period, salivary glands grow gradually but disappeared after the 20th day. After metamorphosis the digestive tube regressed. This is expected since adult D. hominis lives about nine days without feeding. This fly, similar to other calyptratae muscoid flies shows no vestige of a crop during all post-embrionic development, and the adult has no salivary glands.

  18. Miologia do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo M. Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Objetivam-se descrever os músculos do membro pélvico da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766, mediante dissecção anatômica dessa região. Foram utilizadas dez Cuniculus paca adultas, machos e fêmeas, pesando entre cinco e 10 kg do plantel de pacas do setor de Animais Silvestres da FCAV, Unesp, Jaboticabal/SP. Os animais foram fixados em formaldeído 10% e conservados em solução salina a 30% para dissecação anatômica da musculatura da pelve, coxa e perna, identificando-se a origem e inserção de cada músculo. Os resultados foram fotodocumentados e discutidos com base na literatura sobre animais domésticos, ratos e cobaias. Salvo algumas variâncias na origem e inserção de cada músculo e na fusão dos ventres de alguns grupos musculares, de forma geral, a musculatura da paca assemelha-se a dos animais domésticos e a de outros roedores.

  19. Population size structure indices and growth standards for Salmo (trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1758 in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedicillo G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to provide reference data on the growth and population structure of brown trout Salmo (trutta trutta Linnaeus, in Central Italy. Standards for growth (percentiles and a standard growth model were developed from the von Bertalanffy growth model by using length-at-age data obtained from 122 sampling sites in the River Tiber basin. Length-frequency indices provide a numeric estimation for deviations of the population structure from a balanced population. We adapted the traditional North American Relative Stock Density (RSD and Proportional Stock Density (PSD indices to brown trout populations in Central Italy by means of two methods. In the first method, the benchmarks of length categories were established by using percentages applied to the largest individual in the dataset. In the second method, asymptotic length and size at maturity were used to define the length categories for index calculation. Both methods were tested on length-frequency data from 263 sampling sites in the River Tiber basin. The results showed that the PSD calculated by the first method provided a better insight into the population structures of brown trout. These results provide tools that will help ichthyologists and fish managers to compare the growth and population structure of brown trout throughout Central Italy.

  20. Molecular studies with Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), mosquito transmitting the dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Araruna, Felipe Bastos; de Andrade, Marcelo Souza; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho; Borges, Antônio Carlos Romão; do Rêgo Barros Pires Leal, Emygdia Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Dengue is an infectious viral disease, which can present a wide clinical picture, ranging from oligo or asymptomatic forms, to bleeding and shock, and can progress to death. The disease problem has increased in recent years, especially in urban and suburban areas of tropical and subtropical regions. There are five dengue viruses, called serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, DEN-4, and DEN-5), which belong to the Flaviviridae family and are transmitted to humans through infected mosquito bites, with the main vector the Aedes aegypti mosquito (Linnaeus, 1762). Studies performed with Ae. aegypti, aimed at their identification and analysis of their population structure, are fundamental to improve understanding of the epidemiology of dengue, as well for the definition of strategic actions that reduce the transmission of this disease. Therefore, considering the importance of such research to the development of programs to combat dengue, the present review considers the techniques used for the molecular identification, and evaluation of the genetic variability of Ae. aegypti.

  1. Antimicrobial and Anti-Proliferative Effects of Skin Mucus Derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Fuochi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to chemotherapy occurs in various diseases (i.e., cancer and infection, and for this reason, both are very difficult to treat. Therefore, novel antimicrobial and chemotherapic drugs are needed for effective antibiotic therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative effects of skin mucus derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758. Our results showed that skin mucus exhibited a significant and specific antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria but not against Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, we also observed a significant antifungal activity against some strains of Candida spp. Concerning anti-proliferative activity, we showed that fish mucus was specifically toxic for acute leukemia cells (HL60 with an inhibition of proliferation in a dose dependent manner (about 52% at 1000 μg/mL of fish skin mucous, FSM. Moreover, we did not observe effects in healthy cells, in neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y, and multiple myeloma cell lines (MM1, U266. Finally, it exhibited strong expression and activity of chitinase which may be responsible, at least in part, for the aforementioned results.

  2. Locomotion of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus (Gastropoda, Muricidae on a mixed shore of rocks and sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos G. Papp

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed shores of rocks and sand are appropriate systems for the study of limitations that the isolation of rocks may impose for gastropods that typically inhabit rocky shores. We marked 52 Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 snails on a mixed shore and found that 34 of them moved between rocks one to four times during 15 surveys in a period of 72 days. In the experiments, the snails moved on rock by continuous, direct, ditaxic, alternate undulations of the foot sole but on submerged sand they used slower arrhythmic discontinuous contractions of the foot sole. They switched between modes of locomotion in response to the type and topography of the substrate and possibly to water dynamics. In nature, snails moved between rocks forming aggregations where they oviposited. This may have masked other causes of movement, such as availability of prey. Most snails burrowed into the sand when the rocks became exposed during low tides. Further experiments are needed to explicitly address the possible causes of movements among rocks and burial.

  3. Mortality of red mullet (Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758 on the Montenegrin shelf (South Adriatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mullet, Mullus barbatus Linnaeus, 1758, is an economically very important species in trawl fisheries in the Adriatic Sea. Material for analysis was collected from October 2002 until May 2004 with a bottom trawl net from commercial trawlers on the Montenegrin shelf. Mortality of this species was analyzed for the first time in this area, sepa­rately for males and females and for both sexes together. Until now, only the spatial distribution and catch per unit of effort (CPUE of Mullus barbatus have been studied in Montenegrin waters. Estimated total mortality rates were Zmales = 0.653 and Zfemales = 0.712. The average mortality rate for both sexes was Z m+f = 0.749, while the natural mortality rate was Mm+f = 0.342. Values of Z in the Montenegrin shelf area are considerably lower than Z values for the Croatian and Italian parts of the Adriatic Sea, indicating that on the Montenegrin shelf fishing of this species is significantly less intensive than in other trawl-fishing areas of the Adriatic Sea.

  4. Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Roveré Franz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects of essential plant oils in adult Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Stored grains are subject to losses in quality nutritional value and in sanitation from the time they are stored to the time they are consumed. Botanical insecticides may offer an alternative solution for pest control. The objective was to test the insecticidal properties of the essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (leaf, Zingiber officinale (root and Mentha sp. (leaf. The efficacy of these oils was tested to control the rice weevil, S. oryzae, using hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis of the essential oils was carried out by gas chromatography. Major components of C. citratus were geranial (48% and neral (31%, of Z. officinale were α-zingibereno (13%, geranial (16%, neral (10% and α-farneseno (5% and of Mentha sp. was menthol (92%. Bioassays were carried out by fumigation and topical application. In topical application assays, the essential oil of C. citratus had greater toxicity (LC50 0.027 µL mL-1 and shorter exposure time than the oils of the other two plants. After 24 h and 48 h, 70% and 100% mortality of S. oryzae occurred, respectively. In fumigation assays, essential oil of Z. officinale had a lower LC50 (1.18 µL cm-2 and 70% mortality after 24 h exposure. Therefore, we recommend the use of essential oils of C. citratus and Z. officinale to control the rice weevil S. oryzae.

  5. A note on captive breeding and reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin, Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhua Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758 is a critically endangered species, and documents on its captive breeding and reproductive parameters are scarce. MP8, kept in the Pangolin Research Base for Artificial Rescue and Conservation Breeding of South China Normal University (the PRB-SCNU, gave birth to a male offspring (MP86 on 19 October 2011. The baby pangolin was well developed, with a weight of 120 g and a total length of 23.2 cm. The gestation length of MP8 was estimated to be from 182 to 225d. Reproductive parameters of the Chinese pangolin are discussed based on collected data about this species. The Chinese pangolin has an obvious reproductive seasonality and its gestation length is typically six to seven months. In this observation, estrus and mating principally occurred in a one-year period from February to July. Parturition principally took place from September to February of the next year. Chinese pangolins usually give birth to one offspring at a time (n = 27. Sex ratio at birth was 0.71:1 (♀:♂, n = 12. Average weight for the reproducible females was 3.57 ± 1.38 kg (2.14–6.8 kg, n = 15. We estimated that Chinese pangolins could reach sexual maturity before they were one year old.

  6. Growth Parameters and Mortality of Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix Linnaeus, 1766) from Gallipoli Peninsula and Dardanelles (Northeastern Mediterranean, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Cengiz, Özgür; Özekinci, Uğur; Öztekin, Alkan; Kumaova, Can Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the growth parameters of the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), were studied in Gallipoli Peninsula and Dardanelles (northeastern Mediterranean, Turkey) between November 2008 and October 2009. The length-weight relationship was calculated as W=0.0082TL3.02 for females, W=0.0081TL3.03 for males and W=0.0081TL3.03 for all samples. Growth parameters of the populations were L∞= 86.8 cm, k=0.15 year-1, t0=-1.40 for females; L∞=89.1 cm, k=0.16 year-1, t0=-1.46 for males...

  7. The discovery of Caligus temnodontis Brian, 1924 (Copepoda: Caligidae) from the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus) in the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozak, Argun A; El-Rashidy, Hoda H; Demirkale, Ibrahim; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2010-07-01

    The temnodontis variety of Caligus mauritanicus Brian, 1924 described by Brian (1924) is a valid species known only from a single host species, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus). New material of this species has been examined from the same host fish caught from Abuqir Bay, Alexandria (Egypt), from Iskenderun Bay (Turkey) and from off the coast of South Africa. Using this material, C. temnodontis Brian, 1924 is redescribed and compared with related species. It is most closely related to the Indo-Pacific species C. pagrosomi Yamaguti, 1939.

  8. Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infecting a Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 from Brazil Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infectando uma tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Werneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2 and liver (n=3, and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the second report of members of the Spirorchiidae family in that region. In addition, E. imbricata is a new host recorded for C. stunkardi.Relata-se a ocorrência de Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 e Carettacola stunkardi Martin e Bamberger 1952, em um exemplar juvenil de tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil. Foram coletados cinco trematódeos da espécie A. caborojoensis, dois no intestino delgado e três no fígado e dois exemplares adultos de C. stunkardi no lavado corporal. Destes apenas a espécie A. caborojoensis já tinha sido relatada como parasita dessa espécie de quelônio marinho. Esta é a primeira descrição de parasitas em E. imbricata em águas brasileiras e na área do Atlântico Sul Ocidental, e o segundo relato de membros da família Spirorchiidae na mesma região.

  9. Predation on Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae by Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae Predação em Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera (Primates, Atelidae por Leopardus pordalis (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Felidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. D. Miranda

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a few studies about predation on primates. Howler monkeys, being relatively large animals, were believed to be preyed on successfully only by medium to large-sized carnivores and large birds of prey. Our study took place at Chácara Payquerê, which is situated in the municipality of Balsa Nova, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Fingers and nails from Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 were founded in two faecal samples from Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758. With our documentation large howler monkey remains in faeces, the possibility of ocelot being a potential predator of all Neotropical primates should be taken into consideration.São poucos os estudos sobre a predação de primatas. Sendo os bugios animais relativamente grandes, acredita-se que somente médios e grandes carnívoros e grandes rapineiros possam lograr sucesso em sua predação. O estudo foi realizado na Chácara Payquerê, situada no município de Balsa Nova, Estado do Paraná, sul do Brasil. Dedos e unhas de Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 foram encontradas em duas amostras fecais de Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758 que foram coletadas. Com este registro de grande primata em fezes, a possibilidade de a jaguatirica ser um potencial predador de todos os primatas neotropicais pode ser levada em consideração.

  10. Coexistence of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) and blue mussels Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 on a sheltered intertidal bivalve bed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, M.W.; Davids, J.K.; Dolmer, Per

    2016-01-01

    The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 was introduced in Denmark for aquaculture in the 1970s. Presently, feral populations are found in many parts of the country, with the largest populations established on existing beds of blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758...

  11. EXPLORATORY CELIOTOMY IN GREEN IGUANA (IGUANA IGUANA, LINNAEUS 1758 SHOWING SIGNS OF URINARY OBSTRUCTION IN THE CITY OF CUIABÁ - MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Angeli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the therapeutic and surgical protocols adopted during the clinical management of a wild green iguana (Iguana iguana iguana,Linnaeus 1758 presented for lethargy, anorexy and clinical signs of urinary obstruction. There were also explored general aspects of the species, as well as the main impairments of health and their respective diagnosis and treatment.

  12. The eye-catching cicada Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. n. in Indonesia and the Pacific: taxonomie status, synonymy, and distribution (Homoptera, Cicadoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The new combination Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus) is proposed for a cicada species widely distributed in Maluku ( = Moluccas), Timor, Banda, Kei and Banggai Islands, the Philippines, and the Palau group of the Caroline Islands. The synonymy of five species, treated in the literature as junior synonyms

  13. A new species of Agonopterix feeding on giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) in the Caucasus, with a discussion of the nomenclature of A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Depressariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsholt, Ole; Lvovsky, Alexandr L.; Nielsen, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    in the umbels of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Lévier Apiaceae) giant hogweed), an invasive weed in Europe, which is moreover toxic to human skin. The complicated and controversial nomenclature of the related A. heracliana (Linnaeus) (Phalaena (Tortrix)) is discussed, as is that of Depressaria heracliana...

  14. Microorganismos patógenos en Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. Estrategias potenciales para su manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alonso

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (piñón botija, considerada la gran promesa verde para el biodiesel, es una planta de la que existen considerables incógnitas en el ámbito científico desde el punto de vista agronómico, sobre todo en lo referente a los microorganismos causantes de enfermedades, entre las que sobresale la conocida como damping off (estrangulamiento de las plántulas que es provocada por varias especies de hongos. Por ello, el objetivo de este artículo es compilar la mayor cantidad de información sobre los principales microorganismos fitopatógenos que afectan a J. curcas, así como las posibles estrategias para su manejo, con el fin de obtener rendimientos eficientes y rentables de este cultivo energético en Cuba. Se encontraron 48 agentes causales de enfermedades; los más representativos fueron los hongos, entre los que predominan los que producen la roya y el mildiu polvoso, fundamentalmente. En cuanto al manejo fitosanitario, se citan las medidas culturales preventivas y las químicas, como curativas. De ahí que en Cuba, al igual que en otros países donde se cultiva el piñón botija, sea imprescindible conocer los fitopatógenos que pueden reducir los rendimientos de dicha planta, para después implementar un sistema de manejo fitosanitario que contribuya a evitar pérdidas considerables en la producción de biodiesel como producto final.

  15. Artrópodos asociados a Jatropha curcas Linnaeus. Funciones y estrategia para su manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alonso

    Full Text Available En la actualidad, Jatropha curcas Linnaeus constituye una de las plantas más investigadas a nivel mundial debido a su potencial como productora de aceite, el cual se puede transformar en biodiesel. Sin embargo, aún no se dispone de suficiente información sobre sus interacciones ecológicas con otros vegetales y animales; por lo que el conocimiento referente a los artrópodos asociados al piñón nombre común por el que se le conoce» es un requisito indispensable para el manejo adecuado del cultivo. El objetivo de este artículo es exponer los resultados de una recopilación realizada acerca de dichos organismos (insectos, ácaros y arañas, fundamentalmente, para lograr una mejor explotación de las plantaciones de este cultivo energético en Cuba. Dentro del grupo de los fitófagos se encontraron 151 especies de insectos, entre las que sobresalen las del orden Hemiptera, por ejemplo: Pachycoris klugii Burmeister (Scutelleridae y Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas; además de cuatro de ácaros. Entre los benéficos se hallaron 90 especies de insectos, cinco de ácaros y 13 de arañas depredadoras. En cuanto a las estrategias de manejo de plagas, se hace un mayor énfasis en las medidas de control químico y en algunas acciones de tipo cultural. Teniendo en cuenta estos antecedentes, en Cuba es imprescindible conocer los principales organismos asociados a dicha planta, con vistas a incorporar con mayor precisión el componente agroecológico en el manejo de las plagas, y con ello contribuir al mantenimiento de las capacidades productivas de los agroecosistemas y a su resiliencia.

  16. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Luís Artico

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus, meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa.

  17. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Leonardo Luís; Mazzocato, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Juliano Lino; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2017-01-01

    Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus , meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length) and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa.

  18. Hematological importance of pseudoeosinophilic granulocytes in acclimation of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Suljevic

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation mechanisms as response to water content, oxygen level and pollutants are very important and they can be interpreted by hematological analysis. The aim of this study was the analysis of hematological and immune adaptations of common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 to thermal stress. All specimens were divided into a control and experimental group. The control group of fish was exposed to a constant water temperature of 10°C. We induced thermal stress in experimental fish by gradually heating water to 28°C, held for 30 minutes and then comparing the obtained results with the control fish. Short-term hyperthermia lead to an increase of the number of leukocytes, especially pseudoeosinophilic granulocytes and monocytes, while the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes was reduced. The analysis of the leukocyte number and differential blood count in the control group showed high individual variation of segmented granulocytes, monocytes and pseudoeosinophilic granulocytes. Statistically significant differences (p=0.00 were found for the white blood cells, nonsegmented neutrophils and pseudoeosinophils between the control and experimental group. The experimental group of males had an increased number of white blood cells, monocytes and pseudoeosinophils, where significant differences were found for nonsegmented and total neutrophils and also for pseudoeosinophils (p=0.00, lymphocytes (p=0.01 and monocytes (p=0.03. Females had an increased total number of white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and pseudoeosinophils, while significant differences (p=0.00 were obtained in the number of white blood cells, non segmented and total neutrophils and pseudoeosinophils between the control and experimental group. Adaptation mechanisms in carp after water temperature heating are mostly reflected in the increase of pseudoeosinophils and the decrease of neutrophils.

  19. Uptake, retention and organ/tissue distribution of 137Cs by Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, M.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    The work describes the uptake, retention/biological elimination and organ/tissue distribution of 137 Cs by freshwater Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) under laboratory conditions. The fish were divided into three groups based on their size and age and reared in 137 Cs-spiked water. The concentration of 137 Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured at regular intervals up to 60 days. A significant accumulation of 137 Cs was found, but a steady state condition was not achieved by the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factors at steady state and the required time to reach steady state were estimated to be 1.55 and 255 days, 1.76 and 180 days and 1.99 and 160 days for large, medium and small size fish, respectively. To determine the effective half-life of 137 Cs, the fish were transferred and reared in the non-contaminated host water. The concentration of the remaining 137 Cs in the whole body of the live fish was measured up to 66 days. The average effective half-life of 137 Cs in the fish species was found to be ∼142 days for fish of all sizes. The distribution of 137 Cs in different organs/tissues of the fish was determined. Accumulation of 137 Cs in muscle/flesh of the fish was found to be ∼75% of whole body accumulation. The uptake rate and the retention capability of juvenile fish were found to be higher and therefore, these were more susceptible to 137 Cs than adult and old fish, and could be an important source of 137 Cs in the human food chain

  20. Determination of oral bioavailability of curcuminoid dispersions and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei Shan; Inbaraj, Baskaran Stephen; Chen, Bing Huei

    2018-01-01

    Curcuminoid from Curcuma longa Linnaeus has been demonstrated to be effective in anti-cancer and anti-inflammation. The objectives of the present study were to prepare curcuminoid dispersion and nanoemulsion from C. longa and determine their oral bioavailabilities in rats. After curcuminoid extraction using 99.5% ethanol, bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), demethoxycurcumin (DMC) and curcumin were separated within 10 min by high-performance liquid chromatography using an Eclipse XDB-C18 column (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile, with a flow rate of 1 mL min -1 , column temperature of 35 °C and detection wavelength of 425 nm. Curcuminoid nanoemulsion at a particle size of 12.1 nm and encapsulation efficiency 98.8% was prepared using lecithin, Tween 80 and water. A pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed that the parameters including T max , C max , t 1/2 and the area under the curve were higher for curcuminoid nanoemulsions than for curcuminoid dispersion at the same dose employed for gavage administration, whereas, for intravenous injection, an opposite trend was shown. The oral bioavailabilities of BDMC, DMC, curcumin and total curcuminoids in nanoemulsion and dispersion were 34.39 and 4.65%, 39.93 and 5.49%, 47.82 and 9.38%, and 46 and 8.7%, respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate a higher oral bioavailability after incorporation of curcuminoid into nanoemulsion, facilitating its application as a botanic drug. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium.

  2. Meiotic behaviour and its implication on species inter-relationship in the genus Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 (Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mary Lamo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, detailed meiotic analysis was investigated in seven species of Curcuma (Linnaeus, 1753 which can contribute significantly to our understanding about species inter-relationship, speciation and evolution. The species were divided into two groups viz., Group I having 2n = 42 (C. comosa Roxburgh, 1810, C. haritha Mangaly & M.Sabu, 1993, C. mangga Valeton & Zijp, 1917, and C. motana Roxburgh, 1800 and Group II with 2n = 63 (C. caesia Roxburgh, 1810, C. longa Linnaeus, 1753 and C. sylvatica Valeton, 1918. Both groups display varying degree of chromosome associations. Group I species showed the prevalence of bivalents, however occasional quadrivalents besides univalents were also encountered. About 48% of the PMCs analyzed in C. mangga showed 21 bivalents (II meiotic configurations, 32% in C. comosa and 16% in C. haritha. Group II species as expected showed the presence of trivalents besides bivalents, univalents and quadrivalents. About 32% of the PMCs analyzed at MI in C. sylvatica showed 21 trivalents (III meiotic configurations, 24% in C. longa and 8% in C. caesia. Overall, low frequency of multivalent associations as compared to bivalents indicates that Curcuma is an allopolyploid complex. Moreover, x = 21 is too high a basic number, therefore, we suggest that the genus Curcuma has evolved by hybridization of species with different chromosome numbers of 2n = 24 and 18, resulting in a dibasic amphidiploid species.

  3. Environmental influences on distribution of four Sciaenidae species (Actinopterygii, Perciformes in a tropical bay at Southeastern Brazil Influências ambientais na distribuição de quatro espécies de Sciaenidae (Actinopterygii, Perciformes numa baía tropical do sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco G. Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available We sampled fish and measured environmental variables in the Sepetiba Bay, a tropical embayment at Southeastern Brazil. The aim was to assess environmental influences on distribution of four abundant species of Sciaenidae Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar, 1919, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier, 1830 and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 to test the habitat partition hypothesis. Samples were taken between June 1993 and July 1996, at three bay zones (outer, central and inner. Depth was the most important environmental variable to influence fish distribution, followed by transparency. M. furnieri showed significant negative correlation to depth, transparency and salinity, while C. gracilicirrhus showed the opposite situation. The highest densities of C. leiarchus occurred in the lowest temperature, while M. americanus did not showed preferences for any of the examined environmental variables. Spatial separation, mainly between M. furnieri and C. gracilicirrhus, seems to be the strategy developed to coexist in the Sepetiba Bay, with M. furnieri being more adapted to copy with harsh environmental conditions of the inner bay. The other three species, which use mostly the outer bay zone, seem to be restricted to more stable conditions, where influences from oceanic waters are more intense.Foram coletados peixes e medidas as variáveis ambientais na Baía de Sepetiba, uma baía tropical do Sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo foi determinar influências ambientais na distribuição de quatro espécies abundantes de Sciaenidae Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Ctenosciaena gracilicirrhus (Metzelaar,1919, Cynoscion leiarchus (Cuvier,1830 and Menticirrhus americanus (Linnaeus, 1758 para testar a hipótese de partição do hábitat. Amostragens foram feitas entre Junho de 1993 e Julho de 1996 em três zonas da baía (externa, central e interna. A profundidade foi a mais importante variável ambiental que

  4. Morfologia do estômago e do duodeno da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.F. Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a importância da paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766, tanto como fonte proteica alternativa para a população quanto pela possibilidade de vir a se tornar um animal de experimentação e pela falta de informações sobre a sua anatomia, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia macroscópica e histológica do estômago e do duodeno desse roedor, reconhecendo as relações, forma e posição que esses órgãos estabelecem entre si e com outros órgãos. O estômago da paca é unicavitário, está no plano médio mais voltado para o antímero esquerdo, transversalmente, na região hipocôndrica em posição ventrocaudal, interposto entre o esôfago e o duodeno. O duodeno da paca se inicia em sequência ao estômago, segue caudalmente até o nível da quinta ou sexta vértebra lombar, na altura das quais se curva e toma direção cranial, dirigindo-se até o nível da transição entre a última vértebra torácica e a primeira vértebra lombar, onde se continua como jejuno. Histologicamente, o estômago e o duodeno da paca possuem o padrão característico da arquitetura dos órgãos ocos, apresentando as seguintes túnicas: mucosa, submucosa, muscular e serosa. Da forma que se conduziu este estudo, conclui-se que o estômago e duodeno da paca, de forma geral, possuem características morfológicas macroscópicas e histológicas semelhantes às dos animais domésticos e de outros roedores selvagens.

  5. Histologia do fígado de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Saviani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A criação de avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758 é uma atividade de grande potencial, porém não existem padrões definidos sobre a histologia do seu fígado, que é um órgão de grande importância no metabolismo. O conhecimento de sua histologia pode contribuir para a detecção de doenças e deficiências nutricionais no animal. Para este estudo foram utilizados 24 avestruzes com idades entre 12 e 18 meses (com peso médio em torno de 80 a 100 kg, provenientes do abatedouro Don Pig, em Botucatu no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria, as amostras do fígado foram processadas e observadas em microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão (MET. A hematoxilina e eosina (H.E, picrossírius, Gordon e Sweets, Sudan black e o ácido peródico de Schiff (PAS são colorações usadas respectivamente para observar a morfologia do fígado, colágeno, fibras reticulares, gordura e glicogênio. Foram encontrados os espaços portahepáticos.O glicogênio mostrou média de 5,68%, o conteúdo lipídico, média de 9,83%, o colágeno média de 14,71% e as fibras reticulares média de 5,96%. Quanto à MET notou-se no citoplasma dos hepatócitos, numerosas mitocôndrias, glicogênio, muitas gotas de gordura, alguns lisossomos, retículo endoplasmático granular ao redor das mitocôndrias, algumas células estreladas, célula em degeneração e o canalículo biliar ao centro. Provavelmente o quadro sugestivo de esteatose é resultante do estado nutricional dos animais. Estes resultados demonstraram que os hepatócitos dos avestruzes são muito similares às outras aves, como também muito semelhantes à estrutura e ultraestrutura das células do fígado de mamíferos.

  6. Diet of the fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera in a mangrove area of southern Brazil Dieta do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Chiroptera em uma área de manguezal do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From January to December 1999, the diet of Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 was determined in a salt-water ecosystem, by analysing the feces of bats captured in mist nets. Of the 61 samples analyzed, most contained remains of fish (90.2%, followed by insects (70.5% and crustaceous (29.5%. The most frequent fishes species were: silversides Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, anchovies Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 and scaly sardines Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. The most frequent insects were moths (Saturniidae and beetles (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae and Coccinellidae, as well as two species of bat ectoparasites (Streblidae. Among the crustaceous the shrimp (Palaemonidae and crabs (Gecarcinidae are was present. The consumption of fish, insects and crustaceans was different for the males and females throughout the year.De janeiro a dezembro de 1999, foi estudada a dieta de Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 em um ecossistema de manguezal, através da análise das fezes de morcegos capturados com redes-neblina. Das 61 amostras analisadas, a maioria continha fragmentos de peixes (90.2%, seguido de insetos (70.5% e crustáceos (29,5%. As espécies de peixes mais freqüentes foram: peixe-rei Atherinella brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825, manjuba Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier, 1829 e sardinha Ophisthonema oglinum (Lesueur, 1818. Os insetos mais freqüentes foram mariposas (Saturniidae e besouros (Cerambycidae, Scarabaeidae e Coccinellidae, além de duas espécies de ectoparasitas (Streblidae. Entre os crustáceos, houve a presença apenas de camarões (Palaemonidae e siris (Gecarcinidae. O consumo de peixes, insetos e crustáceos foi diferente para machos e fêmeas ao longo do ano.

  7. Infestasi pinjal dan infeksi Dipylidium caninum Linnaeus pada kucing liar di lingkungan kampus Institut Pertanian Bogor, Kecamatan Dramaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Syifak Bashofi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate flea infestation and Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus 1758 infection on stray cat on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. Thirty stray cats were collected from various places around on Bogor Agricultural University Dramaga. The stray cats that showed clinical signs of pruritus and alopecia were collected purposively. The whole body was powdered by gamexan powder, after that the fleas were collected by manual and examined microscopically. The totals of 30 fecal stray cat samples collected and examined toward D. caninum used Mcmaster methode, flotation methode, and saw the existence of proglottid. The result of identification showed that there was found one species of flea, namely Ctenocephalides felis (Bouche 1835, while on faeces was not found D. caninum. Twenty one stray cats were infected by the flea with density average of fleas per cat was 3.8 ± 1.9 individual.

  8. Ultrastructure of Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) (Nematoda: Ascaridida) from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen-Ting; Guo, Yan-Ning; Zhang, Lu-Ping; Li, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ascaridia galli (Schrank, 1788) is a common parasite of various galliform birds worldwide. Although A. galli has been extensively studied by many author, knowledge of the morphology of this species in detail is still insufficient. In the present paper, the detailed morphology of A. galli was further studied using light and scanning electron microscopy, based on specimens collected from the endangered green peafowl Pavo muticus Linnaeus (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in China. The results revealed some erroneous and previously unreported morphological features, including the lips lacking real denticles, the lateral alae beginning at some distance posterior to the base of the ventrolateral lips and the caudal papillae with 4 different morphotypes. The present morphological and morphometric data complement previous descriptions and enable us to recognize this species more precisely.

  9. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL LIMITATIVE FACTORS FOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN EXTENSIVELY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. DIMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and most common method of increasing fish is a fish breeding ponds in which the supervision of nutrition and growth of biological material. Sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus ruthenus Linnaeus 1785 is the 4th of sturgeon scale and economic importance as a share of production of these fish .Monitoring of physicochemical parameters of sturgeons ponds has a crucial role to obtain satisfactory yields both in qualitative and quantitative. Chemical characteristics of water were determined in laboratory ecosystems Chemistry of the Institute of Research and Development for Ecology Aquaculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture Galaţi for the samples have been taken of the total water. Determination of the chemical characteristics was performed by standardized methods. Physic-chemical parameters of water were determined according to norm on the classification of surface water quality in order to establish the ecological status of water (Order no. 161/2006, for Class II of quality.

  10. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ewers-Saucedo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758. Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria.

  11. Microsatellite loci discovery from next-generation sequencing data and loci characterization in the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardus, John D.; Wares, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Microsatellite markers remain an important tool for ecological and evolutionary research, but are unavailable for many non-model organisms. One such organism with rare ecological and evolutionary features is the epizoic barnacle Chelonibia testudinaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Chelonibia testudinaria appears to be a host generalist, and has an unusual sexual system, androdioecy. Genetic studies on host specificity and mating behavior are impeded by the lack of fine-scale, highly variable markers, such as microsatellite markers. In the present study, we discovered thousands of new microsatellite loci from next-generation sequencing data, and characterized 12 loci thoroughly. We conclude that 11 of these loci will be useful markers in future ecological and evolutionary studies on C. testudinaria. PMID:27231653

  12. Nesting and diet of Harpia harpyjaLinnaeus in the Native Community of Infi erno, Made de Dios, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Piana, Renzo P.

    2013-01-01

    El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus) es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indica...

  13. Anidamiento y dieta de Harpia harpyjaLinnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Piana, Renzo

    2007-01-01

    El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus) es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indicarían u...

  14. Impact of elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and herbivory on flavonoids of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Bridget F; Zangerl, Arthur R; Dermody, Orla; Bilgin, Damla D; Casteel, Clare L; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H; Berenbaum, May R

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid content was examined in foliage of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and subjected to damage by herbivores in three feeding guilds: leaf skeletonizer (Popillia japonica Newman), leaf chewer (Vanessa cardui Linnaeus), and phloem feeder (Aphis glycines Matsumura). Flavonoid content also was examined in foliage of soybean grown under ambient and elevated levels of O3 and subjected to damage by the leaf skeletonizer P. japonica. The presence of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was confirmed in all plants examined, as were their glycosides. All compounds significantly increased in concentration as the growing season progressed. Concentrations of quercetin glycosides were higher in plants grown under elevated levels of CO2. The majority of compounds in foliage were induced in response to leaf skeletonization damage but remained unchanged in response to non-skeletonizing feeding or phloem-feeding. Most compounds increased in concentration in plants grown under elevated levels of O3. Insects feeding on G. max foliage growing under elevated levels of CO2 may derive additional antioxidant benefits from their host plants as a consequence of the change in ratios of flavonoid classes. This nutritional benefit could lead to increased herbivore longevity and increased damage to soybean (and perhaps other crop plants) in the future.

  15. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  16. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene c. carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1950-01-01

    SUMMARY: A population study of the box turtle (Terrapene c. carolina Linnaeus) was made during the years 1944 to 1947 at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland. A thirty acre area in well drained bottomland forest on the flood plain of the Patuxent River was selected for intensive study. Similarly forested land extended in all directions from the study plot. Markers were established at eighty-three foot intervals over the study plot for reference in recording locality data. Individuals were marked by filing notches in the marginal scutes according to a code system. There were 2109 collections of study area turtles. Records of collecting sites and turtle behavior showed that in the bottomlands habitat cover is utilized extensively during the day as well as at night. Turtles not actively moving about are almost always found in or around brush piles, heaps of debris, and tangles of vines and briars. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Turtles are occasionally found in the mud or water of the gullies. The commonest type of night retreat is a cavity constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. These cavities, termed 'forms,' may be used only once, but are sometimes used repeatedly, often at intervals of several days or more. Different turtles sometimes use the same form on successive nights. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. The most unfavorable influences are low temperatures and drought. On most summer days there are some active turtles but individual turtles are not active every day. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet even in favorable weather. This behavior is most pronounced in early spring and late fall when inactive days are often more numerous than active ones. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. The turtles living in the study plot retained their ranges even through a flood that completely

  17. Populations and home range relationships of the box turtle, Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1949-01-01

    A population study of Terrapene carolina (Linnaeus) was made at the Patuxent Research Refuge, Maryland, from 1944 to 1947. A thirty acre area in bottomland forest was selected for intensive study. Turtles were marked by filing notches in marginal scutes according to a code. Turtles make extensive use of brushy shelter during the day as well.as at night. Gully banks and woods openings are used for sunning. Nights are usually spent in a 'form,' constructed by the turtle in leaves, debris, or earth. A form may be used once or it may be used repeatedly by the same or different turtles. Weather conditions most favorable to turtle activity are high humidity, warm sunny days, and frequent rains. Periods of activity are alternated with periods of quiet, even in favorable weather. There is no evidence for territorialism. Ranges of turtles of all ages and both sexes overlap grossly. Turtles are frequently found near each other but no antagonistic behavior has been observed. Adult turtles occupy specific home ranges which they maintain from year to year. Turtles retained their ranges even though a flood that completely covered the study area. Maximum home range diameters were determined by measurements of the mapped ranges of individual turtles. There was no significant difference between sizes of male and female ranges: males 33O+ 26 feet, females 37O+29 feet. A trail-laying device was used in following travel routes for 456 turtle days. Normal movements within the home range are characterized by (1) turns, doublings, detours, and criss-crossing paths, (2) interspersion of fairly direct traverses of the home range, (3) frequently repeated travels over certain routes. Maximum limits of the home range are ordinarily reached within a few days or weeks, although some turtles cover only one portion of the range at a time. Some turtles have two home ranges. One of these turtles was followed with a trailer for 161 days in 1946 and 1947. Trips outside the home range are made by

  18. THE NUTRITION OF A PIKEPERCH, Stizostedion lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758 in THE RIVER NERETVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadbera Trožić-Borovac

    2007-04-01

    ., 1976; T r o ž i ć – B o r o v a c, 2002a, it could be concluded that a pikeperch has no competitor. The other fish species have fed on the invertebrates and plants of benthos, accept a rare lake trout Salmo trutta m. lacustris Linnaeus, 1758 specimens which have shown tendency to the greedy way of the nutrition. This paper is the contribution to the knowledge of a pikeperch nutrition in the river Neretva accumulations that is, beside the reproduction, the important character of population growth control of this greedy animal, and in the aim of the survival of the autochthonous ichthyopopulations in the river Neretva system.

  19. Antibiotic resistence of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 Resistência de Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 a antibióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Belém-Costa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems involving treatments with antibiotics against Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fishes is that antibiotic resistance develops readily. The antimicrobial activity of chemotherapeutants in isolates from pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk method, over Mueller-Hinton surface agar previously inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspensions. After regular incubation, isolates from tilapia and pacu were uniformly resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, lincomycin, novobiocin, oxacillin, penicillin, and trimetoprim+sulfametoxazole. The A. hydrophila type strain presented resistance to the same antimicrobial substances and also against rifampicin; the bacterial isolate from pacu were the only strain resistant to tetracyclin. Isolates from both pacu and tilapia had intermediate reaction with erytromycin. The use of drugs in commercial fish farms in Brazil can favor the development of resistant bacterial strains in native fish species as already observed for exotic species, commercially produced for longer time.Um dos maiores problemas envolvendo o tratamento com antibióticos contra Aeromonas hydrophila isolada de peixes confinados é a rápida resistência ao antibiótico desenvolvida pela bactéria. A atividade antimicrobiana de quimioterapêuticos em isolados a partir de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e tilápia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 foi verificada pelo método de difusão de antibiótico em discos de Kirby-Bauer, sobre uma superfície de Agar Mueller-Hinton previamente inoculada com 100 µL de suspensão bacteriana. Após o período de incubação, os isolados de tilápia e pacu foram uniformemente resistentes a amoxicilina, ampicilina, lincomicina, novobiocina, oxacilina, penicilina e trimetoprim+sulfametoxazol. A cepa tipo para A. hydrophila apresentou resistência às mesmas subst

  20. Fishery biology of the swordfish (Xiphias gladius, Linnaeus 1758 caught by surface longliners based in Itajaí, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lia Campos Quaggio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758 data used in the present study were obtained from commercial fishing cruises of the pelagic longline fleet based in Itajaí, operating in the Southwest Atlantic. For the Covariance models, fishing effort (number of hooks and catches (kg were pooled and categorized into the following groups: (1 year (1997, 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2007; (2 lunar phase; and (3 seasons, fishing effort being the covariate. The highest mean swordfish catch (kg occurred during the waxing crescent moon and during wintertime. The Mantel-Haenszel procedure was applied to compare the efficiency of the two hooks tested, and showed that the "J" hook type (J 9/0 10º offset, traditionally used by the fleet, catches 1.2-fold more Xiphias gladius than the circle hook (18/0 10º offset, used as an optional device to reduce sea turtle bycatch. The conversion of individual dressed weight (kg into total length (cm from 2000 to 2002, showed that sub-adults represented 66% of the total catch.No presente estudo foram analisados os dados obtidos para Xiphias gladius (Linnaeus, 1758 através de observadores, mapas de bordo e fichas de desembarque de carcaças, coletadas pela frota de espinhel-de-superfície sediada em Itajaí (SC. Modelos de análise de covariância (ANCOVA foram aplicados aos dados de captura (peso em kg do espadarte, tendo como efeitos: (1 anos de 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002 e 2007 (2 fases lunares e (3 épocas do ano. A covariável foi o esforço de pesca (n° de anzóis. As maiores médias de captura ocorreram durante as fases de lua crescente e no inverno. O procedimento estatístico de Mantel-Haenszel foi utilizado para comparar as capturas do espadarte no anzol tipo "Jota" (J 9/0 10º offset, comumente utilizado pela frota, com o anzol tipo "circular" (18/0 10º offset, este último oferecido como alternativa mitigadora à captura de tartarugas marinhas. O teste M-H mostrou que o anzol "Jota" apresentou 1,2 mais chances de capturar

  1. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  2. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the

  3. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino médio de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae midgut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy de Lello

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, 1781 midgut is internally lined by an epithelium of polytenic cells, some low others prismatic with well developed brush border. Their apical portion are enlarged by secretory vesicles, forming button-like structures that are pinched off to the lumen, some accompained by the nucleus characterizing apocrine and holocrine secretions. This epithelium is gradually renewed by small, non polytenic regenerative cells, found scattered at its basal portion. At the end of the third instar the metamorphosis begins. The epithelial cells present signs of degeneration and at the first day of pupation the regenerative cells increase in number. By the 5th day of pupation these regenerative cells, besides being increased in number, differentiate themselves into two layers: one similar to the dense conective tissue that sustainning the larval epithelium is pinched off to the midgut lumen forming the "yellow bodies"; the other, develops right under it as the imaginal epitelium. The disorganized muscles bundles of the midgut wall, are invaded by phagocytes. At the end of pupation the midgut has a low prismatic epithelium with brush-border. In the adult, the torax portion of the midgut has prismatic homogeneously basophilic epithelium while in the abdominal portion the epithelium is made of high prismatic cells full of small vacuoles. The larval midgut epithelium suffers programmed cell death non compatible with apoptose. During the metamorphosis the midgut lenght diminishes from 31mm in the larva to 14mm in the adult.

  4. Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário do intestino anterior de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae Post-embryonic development of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr. (Diptera, Cuterebridae foregut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Vieira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foregut in D. hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 as the majority of the larval Diptera somatic tissue, is made up of polytenic cells, and grows at the expenses of the polytenization of its nuclei followed by the increase in size of each cell. The oesophagus, of ectodermic origem, is interiorly covered by a chitinous squamous epithelium that rests upon a very thin basal lamina. This sheet is surrounded by thick muscle bundles. The oesophagus intussuscepts the midgut forming the cardia. The cardia, with three epithelial layers: two internal ones, of ectodermal origin and one external of endodermic origin. At the anterior portion of the cardia, between these two types of epithelium, there is a cluster of small, non polytenic cells, forming the imaginal disk of the foregut. Metamoiphosis begins at the end of the larval period with signs of nuclear degeneration of all the polytenic cells, as well as the increase in number of the imaginal disk ones. The oesophagic portion intussuscepted into the cardia, everts; its cells suffer apoptosis and are replaced by the new cells growing from the imaginal disk. The external layer cells also degenerate and are pinched off into the lumen of the very anterior portion of the midgut. The newly formed oesophagus intussuscepts "de novo" to form the two internal layers of the adult cardia. At the same time the midgut regenerative cells grow anteriorly to form the new external layer of the adult cardia.

  5. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands - A controlled mesocosm experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@biology-research.co [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Department of Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Brussels (Belgium); Bartolini, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Limbu, Samwel [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Cannicci, Stefano [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Mgaya, Yunus [University of Dar es Salaam, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, P.O. Box 35064, Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kristensen, Erik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Paula, Jose [Centro de Oceanografia - Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Na, Senhora do Cabo 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2010-01-15

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential. - Terebralia palustris high ecosystem engineering potential in constructed mangrove wetlands.

  6. Perbedaan respon Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae, terhadap paparan anti nyamuk bakar dan bunga keluwih (Artocarpus camansi, Blanco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Endah Wahyuningsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF it is important to control the vector, i.e. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Ae. albopictus (Skuse. Usually, controls of these vectors are done using chemical insecticides. Research on mosquito resistance has been done, but the impact of mosquitoes that survive after synthetic (chemical insecticides application has not been studied. The aim of this research was to analyze the differences of fecundity, fertility and vitality rate of mosquitoes that were exposed to natural insecticides i.e with burned breadnut flowers and mosquito coils containing transflutrin and d-aletrin. Mosquito samples were taken from field eggs which were exposed with synthetic and natural insecticides. Mosquitoes that remainder alive after 24 hours exposure were mated and each group were put in 2 cages, each repetition were repeated 3 times. The mosquito eggs were observed until adult mosquitoes die. Then, the fecundity, fertility and vitality rate were compared. Based on our analysis, there were no differences on fecundity rate, between control and mosquitoes that were exposed to natural insecticides, but there were significant differences between the control and the synthetic insecticides. Natural insecticides do not increase the rate of fecundity but synthetic insecticides may increase the rate of fecundity and number of mosquitoes and causes the mosquito lifespan longer than the control and natural insecticide treatment.

  7. GRAMÍNEAS TROPICALES EN EL ENGORDE DE CUYES MEJORADOS SEXADOS (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus EN LA ZONA DE LA MANÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Sánchez Laiño

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available La investigación de gramíneas tropicales en el engorde de cuyes en la zona de La Maná. La misma que persiguió los siguientes objetivos: Incrementar los índices productivos en cuyes (Cavia porcellus Linnaeus peruanos mejorados bajo el efecto del consumo del pasto saboya (Panicum maximun Jack, hojas de maíz (Zea mays y caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L en la zona de La Maná, y determinar la rentabilidad de los tratamientos. Se utilizaron 48 cuyes peruanos mejorados sexados de 35 días de edad con un peso promedio de 305 g. Se aplicó un arreglo factorial 2 (sexo x 3 (gramíneas con cuatro repeticiones, dentro de un (DBCA. Para las comparaciones entre medidas se utilizó la prueba de Tukey al 0.05% de probabilidad. Para obtener la rentabilidad de los tratamientos se utilizó la Relación Beneficio–Costo. Se evaluó el: consumo de gramíneas (g, consumo de alimento (g, ganancia de peso (g, conversión alimenticia, peso vivo (g y rendimiento a la canal (%. Los cuyes machos presentaron el mayor (P0.05 no se vio afectado por el efecto del consumo de gramíneas. La mayor rentabilidad la registraron los cuyes machos alimentados con hoja de maíz + balanceado (52.4%.

  8. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20–40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control. PMID:28425475

  9. First isolation and RFLP genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous-Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jonatas Campos; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Morais Pedrosa, Camila; da Silva Santos, Marcelo; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Garcia, João Luis; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2017-05-01

    Wild animals may play an important role in the transmission and maintenance of Toxoplasma gondii in the environment. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and genotype T. gondii from a free-ranging crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous-Linnaeus, 1766). A crab-eating fox in critical health condition was attended in a veterinary hospital in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The animal died despite emergency treatment. The brain was collected aseptically and destined for mouse bioassay. One isolate of T. gondii was obtained, and Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to assess genetic variability at 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2, altSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c228, c292, L358, PK1 and APICO). A murine model was used to assess the virulence of the isolate. Using the PCR-RFLP, genotype ToxoDB #13 was identified, which is considered an atypical strain. The isolate was classified as avirulent in the murine model. This is the first study to report T. gondii infection in the crab-eating fox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of culture conditions on the growth and reproduction of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus (Ulvales, Chlorophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rapeeporn Ruangchuay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultivation of Gut Weed, Ulva intestinalis Linnaeus, was experimentally studied to support its near optimalfarming, with potential impact in Thailand on its direct use as human food or its co-cultures in shrimp farming.Germling clusters (2 weeks old and 7.50±2.98 mm long were seeded into 500 mL flasks and biomass growth rateoptimized with respect to the main controllable factors; seedling density, salinity, light intensity, and temperature. These factorswere assumed to each have an optimal value independent of the others, and the factors were optimized one at a time. Themaximum growth at three to four weeks of cultivation was obtained at the factor levels of 0.05 gL-1, 20 ppt, 80 mol photonm-2s-1 and 25°C. Early zoosporangia were obtained from 2nd to 4th weeks. The relative growth rate ranged from 9.47 to 22.18 %day-1, and only asexual reproduction of U. intestinalis was observed under these culture conditions.

  11. Spatial distribution and esterase activity in populations of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae resistant to temephos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Porto Tito Gambarra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The need for studies that describe the resistance patterns in populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus in function of their region of origin justified this research, which aimed to characterize the resistance to temephos and to obtain information on esterase activity in populations of Aedes aegypti collected in municipalities of the State of Paraíba. METHODS: Resistance to temephos was evaluated and characterized from the diagnostic dose of 0.352mg i.a./L and multiple concentrations that caused mortalities between 5% and 99%. Electrophoresis of isoenzymes was used to verify the patterns of esterase activity among populations of the vector. RESULTS: All populations of Aedes aegypti were resistant to temephos, presenting a resistance rate (RR greater than 20. The greatest lethal dose 50% of the sample (CL50 was found for the municipality of Lagoa Seca, approximately forty-one times the value of CL50 for the Rockefeller population. The populations characterized as resistant showed two to six regions of α and β-esterase, called EST-1 to EST-6, while the susceptible population was only seen in one region of activity. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes aegypti is widely distributed and shows a high degree of resistance to temephos in all municipalities studied. In all cases, esterases are involved in the metabolism and, consequently, in the resistance to temephos.

  12. Anidamientoydieta de Harpia harpyja Linnaeus en la Comunidad Nativa de Infierno, Madre de Dios, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo P. Piana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El Águila Arpía (Harpia harpyja Linnaeus es la rapaz de mayor tamaño que habita los bosques amazónicos, sin embargo en el Perú, es muy poco lo que se sabe de esta especie. Desde 1996 a 2001, realizó una investigación en la Comunidad Nativa de Infi erno para obtener información sobre la biología de la especie mediante la localización y observación de nidos activos y abandonados. La investigación permitió encontrar los primeros nidos activos descritos para el Águila Arpía en Perú e indicarían una cierta preferencia para anidar en castañales. Así mismo, la información recogida ha permitido establecer que el área de anidamiento de una pareja de Águilas Arpía en la zona de estudio es de aproximadamente 4300 hectáreas. El análisis de los restos de las presas consumidas y de las egagrópilas recolectadas dentro y alrededor de la base de los nidos nos han permitido hacer una primera descripción de la dieta de la especie, la cual está compuesta principalmente por mamíferos arbóreos.

  13. Insecticidal activity of garlic essential oil and their constituents against the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Santos, Marcelo Henrique Dos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Soares, Marcus Alvarenga; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2017-04-20

    This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of garlic, Allium sativum Linnaeus (Amaryllidaceae) essential oil and their principal constituents on Tenebrio molitor. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide, and diallyl sulfide oil were used to compare the lethal and repellent effects on larvae, pupae and adults of T. molitor. Six concentrations of garlic essential oil and their principal constituents were topically applied onto larvae, pupae and adults of this insect. Repellent effect and respiration rate of each constituent was evaluated. The chemical composition of garlic essential oil was also determined and primary compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (19.86%), diallyl disulfide (18.62%), diallyl sulfide (12.67%), diallyl tetrasulfide (11.34%), and 3-vinyl-[4H]-1,2-dithiin (10.11%). Garlic essential oil was toxic to T. molitor larva, followed by pupa and adult. In toxic compounds, diallyl disulfide was the most toxic than diallyl sulfide for pupa > larva > adult respectively and showing lethal effects at different time points. Garlic essential oil, diallyl disulfide and diallyl sulfide induced symptoms of intoxication and necrosis in larva, pupa, and adult of T. molitor between 20-40 h after exposure. Garlic essential oil and their compounds caused lethal and sublethal effects on T. molitor and, therefore, have the potential for pest control.

  14. Susceptibility of larvae of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae to entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. PESCHIUTTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae es vector de los agentes etiológicos de la fiebre amarilla y del dengue. Una alternativa al control químico de este vector es el uso de agentes biológicos. Los nematodos entomopatógenos son efectivos en el control de plagas. La infectividad y el ciclo de vida de un aislado argentino de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae en larvas de A. aegypti se registró por primera vez bajo condiciones de laborato - rio. Para cada unidad experimental, 30 larvas de mosquito de segundo estadio fueron expuestas a 8 dosis del nematodo (0:1, 1:1, 5:1, 15:1, 100:1, 500:1, 750:1, 1500:1. Los juveniles infectivos (JIs utilizados fueron multiplicados sobre Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. La continuidad infectiva de los JIs obtenidos de A. aegypti fue probada aplicándolos en una dosis de 100:1 sobre larvas del mosquito . Las tasas de mortalidad fueron de 0% a 84%. El número de nematodos desarrollados dentro de la larva de mosquito, la mortalidad larval y los nuevos JIs se incrementaron con el aumento de la dosis de nematodos. Los resultados indican que H. bacteriophora es capaz de infectar larvas de A. aegypti , se desarrolla y produce nuevos JIs, permitiendo la continuidad de su ciclo de vida.

  15. Inhibition of Various Cancer Cells Proliferation of Bornyl Acetate and Essential Oil from Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunay Karan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inula species are medicinal and aromatic plants used for folk medicine extensively. In this work, hydrodistilled essential oil of Inula graveolens (Linnaeus Desf. analyzed by GC-MS which revealed that bornyl acetate was the major product (69.15%. Camphene was the second major compound (11.11%. Antiproliferative activity of the essential oil and bornyl acetate was investigated on HeLa (human cervix carcinoma, HT29 (human colon carcinoma , A549 (human lung carcinoma, MCF7 ( human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cells and FL (human amnion cells normal cells. The cytotoxicity was executed by a Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH Cytotoxicity Detection Kit. Essential oil and bornyl acetate displayed the outstanding activities on HeLa (IC 50, 64.1, 72.0 µg/mL, HT29 (IC 50, 24.6, 60.5 µg/mL, A549 (IC 50, 28.3, 44.1 µg/mL, MCF-7 (IC 50, 66.5, 85.6 µg/mL, and FL (IC 50, 42.1, 50.6 µg/mL cell lines respectively.

  16. The gold tegu, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758) sensu lato (Squamata: Teiidae): evidence for an established population in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jake R.; Ketterlin, Jennifer K.; Rochford, Michael R.; Irwin, Rodney; Krysko, Kenneth L.; Duquesnel, James G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Reed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Gold tegus, Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758), are generalist predators from South America and are ecologically similar to Argentine black and white tegus (Salvator merianae), a successful invader in Florida. We trapped gold tegus in Broward and Miami-Dade counties, Florida, USA. In Miami-Dade County, collection occurred from 2008 through 2016. We combined new trapping records with previous literature records. Ten gold tegus of both sexes and multiple size classes over a nine year period indicate a reproducing population in Miami-Dade County. Tupinambis teguixin is the sixth established non-native teiid species in Florida. Additionally, we report Tupinambis teguixin from Sarasota and Lee counties, Florida, USA. Determining population status in those counties requires further study. It is critical to differentiate this species fromSalvator merianae during removal efforts. The possibility of eradicating Tupinambis teguixin exists if proper identification enables reliable monitoring of the populations.

  17. Modeling suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in North and South America’s coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Paul H.; Young, Nicholas E.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    We used two common correlative species-distribution models to predict suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) model were applied using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling. We compared models developed using native occurrences, using non-native occurrences, and using both native and non-native occurrences. Models were trained using occurrence data collected before 2010 and evaluated with occurrence data collected from the invaded range during or after 2010. We considered a total of 22 marine environmental variables. Models built with non-native only or both native and non-native occurrence data outperformed those that used only native occurrences. Evaluation metrics based on the independent test data were highest for models that used both native and non-native occurrences. Bathymetry was the strongest environmental predictor for all models and showed increasing suitability as ocean floor depth decreased, with salinity ranking the second strongest predictor for models that used native and both native and non-native occurrences, indicating low habitat suitability for salinities lionfish could continue to invade southern latitudes in the western Atlantic Ocean and may establish localized populations in the eastern Pacific Ocean. We reiterate the importance in the choice of the training data source (native, non-native, or native/non-native) used to develop correlative species distribution models for invasive species.

  18. Temperature induced variation in oxygen consumption of juvenile and adult stage of the dog conch Laevistrombus canarium (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wan Nurul Husna Wan; Amin, S. M. Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2015-09-01

    Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the important edible sea snail within the western Johor Straits, Malaysia. In this study, the impact of temperature on oxygen consumption (MO2) of L. canarium based on their ontogenetic changes (juvenile and adult) was measured in the laboratory condition at 22.0, 26.0, 30.0 and 34.0°C. Measurement of MO2 were taken every 1 s for 60 min on 4.20 - 34.00 g dog conch using respirometry chamber. All experiments were carried out in static conditions in five replicates with one snail per chambers. The results of oxygen consumption showed that juvenile dog conch respired at the rate of 0.163 ml h-1 and adult respired at the rate of 0.119 ml h-1. Consequently, the oxygen consumption in juvenile and adult dog conch was expressed as a total energy spends. The results indicates that total energy spend for oxygen consumed (ml h-1) of L. canarium at different temperature regimes (22.0 to 34.0°C) slightly increased over time period (0.63 ± 0.12 to 3.24 ± 0.05 J h-1) respectively. This finding of the present study suggested L. canarium is well adapted for life in high temperature environment.

  19. Size differences in the Dufour gland of Apis mellifera Linnaeus (Hymenoptera, Apidae between and within the female castes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camargo Abdalla

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Dufour gland is found closely associated with the sting apparatus of all hymenopteran females, playing multiple roles among bees. In Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 the gland is connected to the dorsal vaginal wall and, in queens, it produces egg-marking pheromones. In workers the function of this gland is unknown, except by its capacity to mimic the queen secretion in egg-laying workers. In an attempt to understand the development and to substantiate the present knowledge about the Dufour gland in A. mellifera, a morphometric study of the gland between and within the female castes was made. Glands of workers and queens with different ages and life stages were dissected and measured with an ocular micrometer adapted to a stereoscope. The results showed that the Dufour gland is larger in queens than in workers, and that among workers, the gland is larger in egg-laying and foragers than it is in newly emerged and nurse workers. The larger size of the gland in egg-laying queens and workers is in accordance with its role in reproduction. In forager workers the larger size of the gland suggest that, as happens in some species of bees, the gland may participate in pheromone production for nest-mate or nest-entrance recognition.

  20. INVAZIA GHIDRINULUI – GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 ÎN FLUVIUL NISTRU (LIMITELE REPUBLICII MOLDOVA ŞI FACTORII DETERMINANŢI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru BULAT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available În condiţiile intensificării presingului antropic în ecosistemele acvatice din Republica Moldova majoritatea speciilor stenobionte au devenit ameninţate cu dispariţia, însă unele, cu potenţial adaptiv înalt, dimpotrivă, pe fonul eliberării nişe­lor spaţiale, pot prolifera în exces şi chiar provoca efect invaziv. Pentru fluviul Nistru (limitele Republicii Moldova un exemplu elocvent este ghidrinul Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 care, după construcţia hidrocentralei dela Novodnestrovsk (1981 a devenit o specie multidominantă, formând până la or. Soroca o populaţie locală deosebit de numeroasă.În lucrare sunt analizate particularităţile bioecologice ale ghidrinului şi sunt evidenţiaţi factorii de mediu ce au con­tribuit la invazia taxonului în fl. Nistru (limitele Republicii Moldova.THE INVASION OF THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK – GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 IN DNIESTER RIVER (LIMITS OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA AND ITS DETERINANT FACTORS Under the intensification of anthropogenic pressure in aquatic ecosystems of Republic of Moldova, most of stenobionte species became threatened with extinction, but some species, potentially high adaptive, contrast, in present demonstrates an evident biological progression, in some hydrobiotops causing a stressed invasive effect. For Dniester River (limits of Republic of Moldova three-spined stickleback – Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758 is a good example, after the construction of Novodnestrovsk hydropower (1981 became a multidominate species forming to Soroca city a particularly large local population.In this paper are analyzed bio- ecological peculiarities of three-spined stickleback and are highlighted environmental factors that contributed to taxon invasion in Dniester River (limits of Republic of Moldova.

  1. Effects of Feeding Frequency on Growth, Feed Consumption, and Body Composition in Juvenile Turbot (Psetta maxima Linnaeus, 1758) at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRKER, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile turbot Psetta maxima (Linnaeus, 1758) (15.23 ± 2.99 g) were fed to satiation with a commercial extruded feed over a 60-day period. Feeding regimens were twice a day (TD), every other day (EOD), and 2-day intervals (TDI). Fish were kept in seawater (18 ppt) at 5-7.5 °C from January 21 to March 23, 2004. Feed conversion rate (FCR) and the protein efficiency ratios (PER) were within the ranges of 1.12-1.14 and 2.26-2.29, respectively. While the maximum relative growth rate (RGR), weight...

  2. Report of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae in a green turtle Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 (Testudines, Cheloniidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the occurrence of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 found on the coast of Brazil. This parasite has been described in Caretta caretta from Egypt, France, the Mediterranean Sea, the Madeira Archipelago, the Adriatic Sea and the USA, in C. mydas from Egypt and the USA, in Eretmochelys imbricata from Cuba, in Lepidochelys olivacea from Mexico and Costa Rica and in Lepidochelys kempii from USA. This note represents the first report of E. megachondus in a green sea turtle in the South-West Atlantic Ocean.

  3. Confirmation of the presence of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae and Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 (Pomacanthidae in Iraqi marine waters, Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad, L. A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two specimens (116,119 mm TL of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and four specimens (171–190 mm TL of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 were collected from Iraqi marine waters of the Arabian Gulf. These findings confirm the presence of H. acuminatus and establish the first record of P. maculosus from Iraqi waters. The samples were captured by hook and line off the coasts of Al–Fao City Peninsula, southern Iraq. Arabian Gulf. morphometric and meristic data are provided and compared with data from other parts of the world.

  4. Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus) (Carnivora, Canidae), em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pedó, Ezequiel; Tomazzoni, Ana C.; Hartz, Sandra M.; Christoff, Alexandre U.

    2006-01-01

    The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766), is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trai...

  5. Diet of crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, in a suburban area of southern Brazil Dieta de graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnivora, Canidae, em uma região suburbana do sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Pedó

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a small canid with twilight and nocturnal habits from savannas and forests of South America. In this study, we seasonally determined and quantified the diet of C. thous in Lami Biological Reserve, a conservation unit with 179.78ha situated in a suburban area in the municipality of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. During the year 2000, we collected 80 fecal samples - 20 for each season - in two or three week sampling intervals, along trails inside the Reserve. Samples were dried in an oven for 24h at 60ºC, immersed in 70% alcohol, and prey items were identified using a stereomicroscope. The diet of the crab-eating fox was essentially carnivorous (87.62% composed by vertebrates, with seasonal variation (p = 0.0009 and absence of fruits. Small non-flying mammals and birds were the most frequent prey, being proportionally more preyed in autumn and summer, respectively. Arthropods were more preyed in winter and spring and bird/reptile eggs only in summer and spring, in the reproduction period of these groups.O graxaim-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766, é um canídeo de pequeno porte de hábito crepuscular e noturno que ocorre nas savanas e florestas da América do Sul. Neste estudo foi avaliada a sazonalidade e a dieta de C. thous na Reserva Biológica do Lami, uma unidade de conservação com 179,78ha, situada na região suburbana do município de Porto Alegre, no sul do Brasil. Durante o ano de 2000 foram coletadas 80 amostras fecais - 20 por estação do ano - em coletas realizadas a cada duas ou três semanas, percorrendo as trilhas existentes na Reserva. As amostras foram desidratadas em estufa por 24h a 60ºC, imersas em álcool a 70%, e as presas foram identificadas com auxílio de estereomicroscópio. A dieta do graxaim-do-mato apresentou-se essencialmente carnívora (87,62% composta por vertebrados, com variação sazonal (p = 0,0009 e ausência de frutos. Pequenos mamíferos n

  6. Behavioural responses of captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submitted to antipredator training Respostas comportamentais de emas cativas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae submetidas a treinamentoanti-predação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have been diminishing greater rhea Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 populations throughout their natural distribution. The reintroductions of captive-born greater rheas have been tried but without success; since the individuals reintroduced were killed by predators. Captive-born animals that have been isolated from predators for many generations can lose their predator recognition abilities. To enhance the survival rates of the reintroduced animals, researchers are now using antipredator training techniques. We studied the response of 15 zoo-borne greater rheas to antipredator training. The animals were divided into three groups: two test groups and one control group. We ran 15 antipredator tests and four control testes with each group. Antipredator tests consisted of pairing a taxidermized predator model or a real predator (domestic dog with a simulation of a capture procedure. Control tests consisted of presenting the predator model (jaguar to the birds, after training but not associating it with an aversive event and recording behavioural responses. All tests were video-recorded and analysed a posteriori. Results showed that the trained rheas responded appropriately to the predators, becoming more vigilant and that there was considerable individual differences in response to antipredator training. The results demonstrated that antipredator training is effective and therefore an invaluable tool for reintroduction projects involving greater rheas. Furthermore, the methods employed in this research project should be applicable to other species of flightless birds.As atividades humanas têm diminuído as populações de emas Rhea americana (Linnaeus, 1758 por toda sua área de distribuição. Reintroduções de emas nascidas em cativeiro têm sido tentadas, mas sem sucesso, uma vez que os indivíduos reintroduzidos são mortos por predadores. Animais nascidos em cativeiro que foram isolados de seus predadores por várias gera

  7. Viabilidade econômica do cultivo de carpa comum (cyprinus carpio linnaeus, 1758 em monocultivo em densidades diferentes Economical viability of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 cultivation in monocultivations in different densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Graeff

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa estudar o efeito econômico do povoamento de alevinos I de carpa comum (Cyprinus carpio LINNAEUS, 1758 com densidade diferenciada e com alimentação artificial e adubação química. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos (1; 0,5 e 0,33 peixes/m² avaliados ao longo do tempo e três repetições. Os peixes foram estocados com peso e comprimento médios de 2,40 g e 5,35; 5,40 e 5,39 cm, respectivamente, nos tratamentos, e com 45 dias de idade. As dietas foram formuladas com 27% de PB e 2925 Kcal/Kg de ração, sendo fornecidas diariamente na quantidade de 3% do peso vivo. Os resultados para o comprimento e peso dos peixes foram 25,68; 28,66 e 31,21 cm e 255,00; 424,00 e 519,66 g, respectivamente. A analise econômica foi estudada por meio de planilha de custo. Na produção total, os resultados foram 1882; 1513 e 1367 kg/hectare em um ciclo. Em condições similares, pode-se recomendar zootecnicamente todas as densidades estudadas e, economicamente, a lucratividade da atividade é crescente com o aumento da densidade, havendo diminuição do custo médio ou unitário.This research aimed at studying the economical effect of common carp (Cyprinus carpio LINNAEUS, 1758 settling of fingerlings with differenciated density and with artificial feeding and chemical fertilization. The design was entirely randomized with three treatments (1; 0.5 and 0.33 fishes/m² evaluated along the time and 3 repetitions. The fish were stocked with medium weight and mediun length of 2.40 g and 5.35; 5.40 and 5.39 cm, respectively, in the treatments, and 45 days old. The diets were formulated with 27% PB and 2.925 kcal/kg of ration, being given daily in the quantities of 3% of living weight. The results for the length and weight of the fishes were 25.68; 28.66 and 31.21 cm and 255.00; 424.00 and 519.66 g, respectively. The economical analisys was studied through cost planning. In the total production, the results

  8. Fertilidade do caranguejo de mangue Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, em Iguape (São Paulo, Brasil Fertility of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae, at Iguape (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Yomar Hattori

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 58 Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 ovigerous females in final embryonic stage were collected in mangrove forest at Iguape (São Paulo. Each female were kept in laboratory until the larvae hatching and had their carapace width (CW measured with caliper (0.05 mm and the larval number (LN calculated by volumetric method. The hatching rates (HR were calculated for each animal's size class (5 mm. The values of LN and CW obtained were subjected to regression analyses and the best fitting model was chosen by comparing the obtained determination coefficients (R². The fertility varied from 71,200 to 220,800 larvae (147,169 ± 32,070 larvae, corresponding to 41.7 to 76.8 mm CW (63.7±7.9 mm, respectively. The relationship LNxCW was expressed by the equation LN = 284.1CW1.5º¹ (N = 58; R² = 0.74; p < 0.01, that showed a positive correlation between the variables. Most part of ovigerous females (89.7% showed their hatching during the nightly period. A negative correlation between HR and CW was observed in these animals (p < 0.05, probably due to reduction of spermatophores in the seminal receptacle (multiparous females or due to senility in the females with large size. The biological studies of U. cordatus are very important for practices adoption that preserve and make the rational use of this recourse in Brazilian's mangrove forests.

  9. Primera cita y confirmación de reproducción de Gomphus vulgatissimus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Odonata: Gomphidae en Gipuzkoa (País Vasco, España.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leire Paz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Con la detección en 2016 de una larva de Gomphus vulgatisimus (Linnaeus, 1758 en el río Araxes se cita la especie por primera vez en el Territorio Histórico de Gipuzkoa (N Península Ibérica, confirmándose asimismo su reproducción en este enclave.

  10. Evaluation of architectural and histopathological biomarkers in the intestine of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) challenged with environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barišić, Josip; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Mijošek, Tatjana; Čož-Rakovac, Rozelindra; Dragun, Zrinka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Kružlicová, Dáša; Erk, Marijana

    2018-06-14

    In the present study novel histopathological approach, using fish intestine as a sensitive bioindicator organ of pollution impact in the freshwater ecosystem, was proposed. Histopathological alterations were compared between native brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758) from the reference (Krka River spring) and pollution impacted location (influence of technological/municipal wastewaters and agricultural runoff near the Town of Knin) of the karst Krka River in Croatia. In brown trout from both locations, severe parasitic infestation with acanthocephalan species Dentitruncus trutae was found, enabling evaluation of acanthocephalan infestation histopathology, which indicated parasite tissue reaction in a form of inflammatory, necrotic and hyperplastic response that extended throughout lamina epithelialis mucosae, lamina propria, and lamina muscularis mucosae. New semi-quantitative histological approach was proposed in order to foresee alterations classified in three reaction patterns: control tissue appearance, moderate (progressive) tissue impairment and severe (regressive and inflammatory) tissue damage. The most frequent progressive alteration was hyperplasia of epithelium on the reference site, whereas the most frequent regressive alterations were atrophy and necrosis seen on the polluted site. Furthermore, histopathological approach was combined with micromorphological and macromorphological assessment as an additional indicator of pollution impact. Among 15 observed intestinal measures, two biomarkers of intestinal tissue damage were indicated as significant, height of supranuclear space (hSN) and number of mucous cells over 100 μm fold distance of intestinal mucosa (nM), which measures were significantly lower in fish from polluted area compared to the reference site. Obtained results indicated that combined histological and morphological approach on fish intestinal tissue might be used as a valuable biological tool for assessing pollution impact on

  11. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively. During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. RESULTS: During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970 and 48.5% (n = 1,836 of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973 and 85.6% (n = 900 of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342. The highest number of positives (70 was recorded in May, mostly (94% in storage containers. CONCLUSIONS: Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  12. Variation in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Culicidae) infestation in artificial containers in Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-da-Silva, Joelma; Ibiapina, Sebastiana Silva; Bezerra, Juliana Maria Trindade; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Pinheiro, Valéria Cristina Soares

    2012-01-01

    Dengue is a serious public health problem worldwide, with cases reported annually in tropical and subtropical regions. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), the main vector of dengue, is a domiciliary species with high dispersal and survival capacities and can use various artificial containers as breeding sites. We assessed potential container breeding sites of A. aegypti in the municipality of Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil. In the initial phase, we analyzed 900 properties in 3 neighborhoods during the dry and rainy seasons (August-October 2005 and February-April 2006, respectively). During the second sampling period, September 2006-August 2007, we used 5 assessment cycles for 300 properties in a single neighborhood. During the dry and rainy seasons, water-storage containers comprised 55.7% (n = 1,970) and 48.5% (n = 1,836) of the total containers inspected, and showed the highest productivity of immature A. aegypti; we found 23.7 and 106.1 individuals/container, respectively, in peridomicile sites. In intradomicile sites, water-storage containers were also the most important breeding sites with 86.4% (n = 973) and 85.6% (n = 900) of all containers and a mean of 7.9 and 108.3 individuals/container in the dry and rainy seaso-October 2006 (1,342). The highest number of positives (70) was recorded in May, mostly (94%) in storage containers. Storage containers are the principal and most productive A. aegypti breeding sites and are a major contributing factor to the maintenance of this vector in Caxias.

  13. DYNAMICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 AGE STRUCTURE IN THE DNIEPER LOWER REACHES IN CONNECTION WITH FISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the dynamics of pike (Esox luceus Linnaeus, 1758 age structure of the Dnieper lower reaches in conditions of the modification of fishing pressure. Methodology. An analysis of fishing situation has been performed based on data of official fishery statistics. Fish sampling was done at control-observation posts of the Institute of Fisheries of the NAAS of Ukraine and directly in the fishery. Juvenile fish yield was determined using a complex of fry fishing gears using a stationary net-station. Field and cameral processing of the material was performed using generally accepted methods. Findings. A retrospective analysis of the situation in the Dnieper-Bug lower reach system clearly indicates on the presence of continuous tendency of catch decline of representative of native fish fauna – pike. With relatively uniform indices of the “yield” of its juveniles before Dnieper flow impoundment and in conditions of present time, its commercial catches significantly dropped. The dynamics of pike current age structure indicates on an increase of relative density of age groups, which form the recruitment of the commercial portion of the population (1-1+ and a decrease of importance of the component of the right side of age series. A discrepancy between the observed changes of the age group and commercial harvest quantities indicates on increased human pressure on this species. Originality. For the first, we analyzed the dynamics of fish juvenile “yield” and age structure of pike commercial stock of the Dnieper lower reaches in the river flow transformation process. Practical value. A decrease of the ichthyomass of piscivorous fishes in the Dnieper lower reaches results in changes of fish populations of littoral biotopes towards the prevalence of the dominance of coarse species that lead to a deterioration of forage availability for a number of valuable commercial species. An increase of the number of pike can regulate the strain

  14. Esterase-D and chromosome patterns in Central Amazon piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 from Lake Catalão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents additional genetic data on piranha (Serrasalmus rhombeus Linnaeus, 1766 complex previously diagnosed due to the presence of distinct cytotypes 2n = 58 and 2n = 60. Three esterase-D enzyme loci (Est-D1, Est-D2 and Est-D3 were examined and complemented with chromosomal data from 66 piranha specimens collected from Lake Catalão. For all specimens the Est-D1 and Est-D2 loci were monomorphic. In contrast, the Est-D3 locus was polymorphic with genotypes and alleles being differentially distributed in the previously described cytotypes and served as the basis for detecting a new cytotype (2n = 60 B. In cytotype 2n = 58 the Est-D3 locus was also polymorphic and presented Mendelian allelic segregation with four genotypes (Est-D3(11, Est-D3(12, Est-D3(22 and Est-D3(33 out of six theoretically possible genotypes, presumably encoded by alleles Est-D3¹ (frequency = 0.237, EsT-D3² (0.710 and Est-D3³ (0.053. A Chi-squared (chi2 test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was applied to the Est-D3 locus and revealed a genetic unbalance in cytotype 2n = 58, indicating the probable existence in the surveyed area of different stocks for that karyotypic structure. A silent null allele (Est-D3(0 with a high frequency (0.959 occurred exclusively in the 2n = 60 cytotype. On the other hand, the new cytotype 2n = 60 B described here for the first time was monomorphic for the presumably fixed Est-D3³ allele. The data as a whole should contribute to the better understanding the rhombeus complex taxonomic status definition in the Central Amazon.

  15. The genome structure of Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753 and an induced Arachis allotetraploid revealed by molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza F. de M. B. do Nascimento

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peanut, Arachis hypogaea (Linnaeus, 1753 is an allotetraploid cultivated plant with two subgenomes derived from the hybridization between two diploid wild species, A. duranensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994 and A. ipaensis (Krapovickas & W. C. Gregory, 1994, followed by spontaneous chromosomal duplication. To understand genome changes following polyploidy, the chromosomes of A. hypogaea, IpaDur1, an induced allotetraploid (A. ipaensis × A. duranensis4x and the diploid progenitor species were cytogenetically compared. The karyotypes of the allotetraploids share the number and general morphology of chromosomes; DAPI+ bands pattern and number of 5S rDNA loci. However, one 5S rDNA locus presents a heteromorphic FISH signal in both allotetraploids, relative to corresponding progenitor. Whilst for A. hypogaea the number of 45S rDNA loci was equivalent to the sum of those present in the diploid species, in IpaDur1, two loci have not been detected. Overall distribution of repetitive DNA sequences was similar in both allotetraploids, although A. hypogaea had additional CMA3+ bands and few slight differences in the LTR-retrotransposons distribution compared to IpaDur1. GISH showed that the chromosomes of both allotetraploids had preferential hybridization to their corresponding diploid genomes. Nevertheless, at least one pair of IpaDur1 chromosomes had a clear mosaic hybridization pattern indicating recombination between the subgenomes, clear evidence that the genome of IpaDur1 shows some instability comparing to the genome of A. hypogaea that shows no mosaic of subgenomes, although both allotetraploids derive from the same progenitor species. For some reasons, the chromosome structure of A. hypogaea is inherently more stable, or, it has been at least, partially stabilized through genetic changes and selection.

  16. Environmental influences on the Indo-Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Sonia J; Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo-Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippurisLinnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests-but does not confirm-that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulataNutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblastaZou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the Isididae is in

  17. Induction of gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid and doubled haploid development in the brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, O; Dobosz, S; Zalewski, T; Sapota, M; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-04-01

    Gynogenetic and androgenetic brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus 1758) haploids (Hs) and doubled haploids (DHs) were produced in the present research. Haploid development was induced by radiation-induced genetic inactivation of spermatozoa (gynogenesis) or eggs (androgenesis) before insemination. To provide DHs, gynogenetic and androgenetic haploid zygotes were subjected to the high pressure shock to suppress the first mitotic cleavage. Among haploids, gynogenetic embryos were showing lower mortality when compared to the androgenetic embryos; however, most of them die before the first feeding stage. Gynogenetic doubled haploids provided in the course of the brown trout eggs activation performed by homologous and heterologous sperm (rainbow trout) were developing equally showing hatching rates of 14.76 ± 2.4% and 16.14 ± 2.90% and the survival rates at the first feeding stage of 10.48 ± 3.48% and 12.78 ± 2.18%, respectively. Significantly, lower survival rate was observed among androgenetic progenies from the diploid groups with only few specimens that survived to the first feeding stage. Cytogenetic survey showed that among embryos from the diploid variants of the research, only gynogenetic individuals possessed doubled sets of chromosomes. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that radiation employed for the genetic inactivation of the brown trout eggs misaligned mechanism responsible for the cell divisions and might have delayed or even arrested the first mitotic cleavage in the androgenetic brown trout zygotes. Moreover, protocol for the radiation-induced inactivation of the paternal and maternal genome should be adjusted as some of the cytogenetically surveyed gynogenetic and androgenetic embryos exhibited fragments of the irradiated chromosomes. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Cs-134 transfer from water or food to the Ciprinid Tinca tinca Linnaeus: uptake and loss kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corisco, J.A.G.; Carreiro, M.C.V.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments with 134 Cs and the fish Tinca tinca Linnaeus (fam. Cyprinidae), as a part of a more extensive work, concerning a simplified freshwater trophic chain using water from Fratel dam, (at Tejo River), were undertaken. Direct uptake from water, during a period of about 30 days, leads to a kinetics expressed by the power function: CF (t) = 0.58 t 0.781 (t in days), the concentration factor (CF) referred to wet weight. Retention study, showed the existence of two biological half-lives, Tb 1 = 7 days and Tb 2 = 87 days, which might concern respectively, the 134 Cs desorption from the transit organs and the loss of the assimilated isotope from the storage organs. In the accumulation through the food chain, using planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera) as prey, a transfer factor (TF) related to wet weight of both fish and prey, is estimated through the power function: TF (t) = 0.022 t 0.578 (t in days). Finally, the retention study following the food pathway contamination, stresses the existence of one long term component, with half-life Tb = 61 days. The transfer factor kinetics seems to point out to a rather slow process, leading to lower 134 Cs concentration values, than the contamination through the water. The loss of the assimilated 134 Cs, uptaken through both pathways, water or food, is a slow process. The longer biological half-life is very important in Radiological Protection, once it may be attributed to the radionuclide loss from the muscular mass. (author)

  19. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae): genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochon, Xavier; Watling, Les

    2015-01-01

    As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan) octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP), Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001). This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991), questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed axis of the

  20. Environmental influences on the Indo–Pacific octocoral Isis hippuris Linnaeus 1758 (Alcyonacea: Isididae: genetic fixation or phenotypic plasticity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J. Rowley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As conspicuous modular components of benthic marine habitats, gorgonian (sea fan octocorals have perplexed taxonomists for centuries through their shear diversity, particularly throughout the Indo–Pacific. Phenotypic incongruence within and between seemingly unitary lineages across contrasting environments can provide the raw material to investigate processes of disruptive selection. Two distinct phenotypes of the Isidid Isis hippuris Linnaeus, 1758 partition between differing reef environments: long-branched bushy colonies on degraded reefs, and short-branched multi/planar colonies on healthy reefs within the Wakatobi Marine National Park (WMNP, Indonesia. Multivariate analyses reveal phenotypic traits between morphotypes were likely integrated primarily at the colony level with increased polyp density and consistently smaller sclerite dimensions at the degraded site. Sediment load and turbidity, hence light availability, primarily influenced phenotypic differences between the two sites. This distinct morphological dissimilarity between the two sites is a reliable indicator of reef health; selection primarily acting on colony morphology, porosity through branching structure, as well as sclerite diversity and size. ITS2 sequence and predicted RNA secondary structure further revealed intraspecific variation between I. hippuris morphotypes relative to such environments (ΦST = 0.7683, P < 0.001. This evidence suggests—but does not confirm—that I. hippuris morphotypes within the WMNP are two separate species; however, to what extent and taxonomic assignment requires further investigation across its full geographic distribution. Incongruence between colonies present in the WMNP with tenuously described Isis alternatives (Isis reticulata Nutting, 1910, Isis minorbrachyblasta Zou, Huang & Wang, 1991, questions the validity of such assignments. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses confirm early taxonomic suggestion that the characteristic jointed

  1. The formulation of the essential oil of Piper aduncum Linnaeus (Piperales: Piperaceae) increases its efficacy as an insect repellent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamood, S N H; Hidayatulfathi, O; Budin, S B; Ahmad Rohi, G; Zulfakar, M H

    2017-02-01

    The essential oil (EO) of Piper aduncum Linnaeus, known as 'sireh lada' to locals Malaysian, has the potential to be used as an alternative to synthetic insect repellents such as N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide. However, the EO's efficacy as a repellent decreases after application due to the high volatility of its active ingredients. A number of studies have showed that optimizing the formulation of plant-based EOs can improve their efficacy as repellents. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of 10% P. aduncum EO in ethanol and in three different semisolid formulations: ointment, cream and gel. These formulations were tested on Aedes aegypti under laboratory conditions. Each formulation was applied to the subject's hands, which were then inserted into a cage containing 25 nulliparous A. aegypti. The number of mosquitoes landing on or biting each subject's hand was recorded, and the repellency percentage, landing/biting percentage and protection time for each of the formulations were compared. There were no statistically significant differences between the semisolid EO formulations with regards to the repellency percentage and the landing/biting percentage at 4 h post-application. All three semisolid EO formulations were able to repel >65% of the A. aegypti at 4 h post-application. The EO ointment formulation provided a protection time (182.5 ± 16.01 min) that was statistically significantly longer than that associated with the EO gel formulation (97.5 ± 14.93 min). Meanwhile, the EO cream formulation provided a protection time of 162.5 ± 6.29 min. As the EO cream and ointment formulations displayed better repellent properties than the EO gel formulation, they appear to be the most promising P. aduncum EO formulations to be developed and commercialized as alternatives to synthetic repellents.

  2. Spatially explicit genetic structure in the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759 within the framework of the monopolisation hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Lucentini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An apparent paradox is known for crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans living in inland small water bodies: a potential for wide distribution due to the presence of resting stages is coupled with marked genetic differences between nearby water bodies, with enclave distributions masking clear phylogeographic patterns. According to the monopolisation hypothesis, this is due to the accumulation of resting stages, monopolising each water body. Freshwater sponges could represent a useful system to assess the generality of the mo- nopolisation hypothesis: these organisms i live in the same habitats as crustaceans, rotifers and bryozoans, ii produce resting stages that can accumulate, and iii have indeed a wide distribution. Currently, no studies on spatially explicit genetic differentiation on fresh- water sponges are available. The aim of the present study is to provide additional empirical evidence in support of the generality of the scenario for small aquatic animals with resting stages by analysing genetic diversity at different spatial scales for an additional model system, the freshwater sponge ephydatia fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1759. We expected that system genetic variability would follow enclave distributions, no clear phylogeographical patterns would be present, and nearby unconnected water bodies would show markedly different populations for this new model too. We analysed the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions 5.8S-ITS2-28S, the D3 domain of 28S subunit, the mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI and ten specific microsatellite markers of nine Italian and one Hungarian populations. Mitochondrial and nuclear sequences showed no or very low genetic polymorphism, whereas high levels of differentiation among populations and a significant polymorphism were observed using microsatellites. Microsatellite loci also showed a high proportion of private alleles for each population and an overall correlation between geographic and genetic

  3. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  4. Size and quality of wood used by Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in beech woodlands of Gipuzkoa (northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASTRO, A., MARTINEZ DE MURGUIA, L., FERNANDEZ, J., CASIS, A., MOLINO-OLMEDO, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la especie saproxilófaga legalmente protegida Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 en los hayedos de Europa conlleva una gestión adecuada de los árboles muertos y moribundos. Sin embargo, los parámetros de los árboles preferidos (tamaño y calidad de la madera permanecen aún poco conocidos. En esta contribución se analizan los datos de distribución procedentes de seis años de trabajo en cuatro Lugares de Interés Comunitario de la provincia de Gipuzkoa (norte de España. Los individuos vivos de R. alpina y sus orificios de emergencia fueron registrados exclusivamente en hayas. 72 individuos vivos y 520 orificios fueron registrados en 77 árboles. Las evidencias de ocupación (presencia de individuos vivos o de orificios o de ambos fueron más frecuentes en troncos Ø > 25 cm de hayas en pie (tanto aún vivas como muertas que en ramas y árboles caídos y más delgados. Sin embargo, el número de orificios no mostró diferencias entre las clases de tamaño y la calidad de la madera de los troncos principales. Las ramas más gruesas (Ø > 15 cm registraron mayores tasas de presencia y número de orificios que las más finas. Conociendo los tipos de árboles más seleccionados, se sugiere la elaboración de un mapa regional de disponibilidad de hábitat como herramienta práctica para planificar estrategias de conservación.

  5. Um caso de albinismo em Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae na Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná A case of albinism in Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae in Serra do Mar, São José dos Pinhais, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Veiga

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Described herein is a case of alhinism in lhe Peccary Tayassu tajacu Linnaeus. 1758 (Artiodaclyla. Tayassuidae. which was observed in Colônia Castelhanos. São José dos Pinhais. Paraná, in lhe Southern Bra/il. The specimen was caplured when very young. The normal peccary (Tayassu tajacu is a dark-gray animal wilh a while hand across the ehest from shoulder Io shoulder. This animal have while skin. hlued eyes bul has pigmented feet.

  6. Activities of tabanids (Diptera, Tabanidae attacking domestic duck-Cairina moschata (Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduced in a forest area in the Central Amazon, Manaus, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. M. Ferreira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Presented here are the feeding habits, attack behavior, daily and annual activity of adult of Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedeman, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 and Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787, while biting a domestic duck, Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. The last two species were recorded for the first time attacking birds. This study comprehended monthly observations of two consecutive days from April/97 to March/98 between 5:30 a.m. and 6:30 p.m. at the Army Instructional Base ((BI-2/CIGS near Manaus. Annual occurrence of P. cinereus was from July to September, with a daily occurrence between 9:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. and highest activity at 12:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. C. laetus ocurred from June to October; with a daily occurrence between 8:00 a.m. and 3 p.m. and highest activity at 11:00 and 12:00 a.m. Occurrence of P. cajennensis with one specimen only, was in July between 10:00 and 11:00 a.m.Atividades de tabanídeos (Diptera, Tabanidae atacando pato doméstico Cairina moschata Linnaeus (Aves, Anatidae, introduzido em área de floresta na Amazônia Central, Manaus, Brasil. São apresentados o hábito alimentar, comportamento de ataque, atividade diária e anual de adultos de Phorcotabanus cinereus (Wiedemann, 1821, Chrysops laetus (Fabricius, 1805 e Phaeotabanus cajennensis (Fabricius, 1787 atacando pato doméstico - Cairina moschata (Linnaeus, 1758. As últimas duas últimas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez atacando aves. O estudo compreendeu observações mensais durante dois dias consecutivos de Abril/97 a Março/98, entre 5:30 e 18:30 h, na base de instrução 2 do Centro de Instrução de Guerra na Selva (BI-2/CIGS, Manaus. A ocorrência anual de P. cinereus, foi de julho a setembro, com atividade diária entre 9:00 e 17:00 horas, com maior abundância entre 12:00 e 14:00 horas. C. laetus, ocorreu de junho a outubro, com atividade diária entre 8:00 e 15:00 horas, e maior abundância entre 11:00 e 12

  7. Water ferns Azolla spp. (Azollaceae as new host plants for the small China-mark moth, Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Acentropinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atousa Farahpour-Haghani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water ferns (Azolla spp., Azollaceae are reported for the first time as host plants for the larvae of the small China-mark moth Cataclysta lemnata (Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae: Acentropinae in rice fields and waterways of northern Iran. Cataclysta lemnata is a semi-aquatic species that has been recorded to feed on Lemnaceae and a few other aquatic plants. However, it has not been reported before on Azolla spp. Larvae use water fern as food source and shelter and, at high population density in the laboratory, they completely wiped water fern from the water surface. Feeding was confirmed after rearing more than eight continual generations of C. lemnata on water fern in the laboratory. Adults obtained this way are darker and have darker fuscous markings in both sexes compared with specimens previously reported and the pattern remains unchanged after several generations.

  8. The availability of Piperaceae and the search for this resource by Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae, Carolliinae in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Passos de Lima

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A study about the species of Piperaceae that are consumed by a colony of Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 in Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72 ha was carried out. Five available species of Piperaceae were found in the park: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth and Piper sp. C. perspicillata fed on all of these species. During the spring, the most abundant item was P. amalago, but the consumption of P. aduncum was the highest. At the beginning of the summer, P. crassinervium was the most abundant and most consumed item. At the end of the summer and during the fall, P. gaudichaudianum was the most abundant and consumed item, even in May, when P. amalago was the most abundant item. During the winter, the most highly available items were P. aduncum, Piper sp. and P. amalago, and the ones that were consumed the most were Piper sp., P. gaudichaudianum and P. aduncum. The results have shown that the preferences of C. perspicillata in the park are related to the greater abundance or the higher energetic value of the available Piperaceae. The greater search for the most energetic and least abundant species, which happened in the spring and winter, is related to the energy gain, that is, the species searches for food that will provide a greater quantity of energy per unit of consumption; and the greater search for the most abundant item, which occurred in the summer and fall, is related to saving the energy used in the search for food.Estudou-se quais espécies de piperáceas são consumidas por uma colônia de Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 localizada do Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas (82,72ha. Foram encontradas no parque: Piper aduncum Linnaeus, Piper amalago (Jacq. Yuncker, Piper crassinervium H.B.K., Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth e Piper sp. C. perspicillata alimentou-se de todas essas espécies. Durante a primavera, o item mais abundante foi P. amalago, porém o

  9. Bioekologi vektor demam berdarah dengue (DBD serta deteksi virus dengue pada Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus dan Ae. albopictus (Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae di kelurahan endemik DBD Bantarjati, Kota Bogor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahara Fadilla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF is a viral disease that threatened community health in Indonesia. As part of an eradication program, it is important to learn the behavioral aspect of the disease vector. The aims of this study were to detect the presence of dengue virus in Aedes spp., at Bantarjati Village, Bogor City and to learn to bioecology of. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus. Detection of dengue virus in Aedes spp. were done by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR technique that consist of two phase were synthesis phase and cDNA amplification and dengue virus serotipe characterization. The Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (Skuse mosquitoes were collected using the landing and resting moquito collection technique booth indoors and outdoors. The highest density of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were found in April and the peak activity was occurred at 10:00-11:00 am. Dengue virus was not detected in female mosquitoes Aedes spp.

  10. Chemical Modification of Oryza sativa Linnaeus Husk with Urea for Removal of Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide Dyes from Water by Adsorption in Environmentally Benign Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Mahmud, T.; Kanwal, F.; Aslam, M.N.; Nisar, H.

    2013-01-01

    Oryza sativa Linnaeus is an important food item all around the world. Due to its huge consumption, a large amount of rice husk is generated as agrowaste which can be used for water treatment by adsorption. Its adsorption capacity further can be enhanced by chemical medication. In the present study, urea modified rice husk has been used for removing Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide form water in an efficient way. After optimizing operating conditions, isothermal and thermodynamical studies were carried out, which showed that maximum adsorption capacity of urea modified rice husk for removing Brilliant Vital Red and Murexide dyes were 28.93 and 30.74 mg.g/sup -1/. Adsorbent characterization was carried out by recording its FT-IR spectra. (author)

  11. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  12. Agonistic and reproductive behaviors in males of red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APT Medeiros

    Full Text Available The red hybrid tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758 x O. mossambicus (Peters, 1852 is a fertile hybrid used in the semi-intensive level of fish culture in the Northeast of Brazil. It is a territorial cichlid and is highly aggressive towards conspecifics during the breeding season. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the aggressive behaviour displayed by the males of this hybrid in non-reproductive and reproductive contexts. Behavioural observations revealed that aggression displayed by the reproductive males of red hybrid tilapia included threatening, undulation, parallel, lateral and frontal attacks, chasing, escape and submission. Possession of a territory influenced male aggressiveness, which was more intense in their own territory than that observed in a neutral situation. The males built nests, irrespective of female presence. All the behavioural patterns were in accordance with those previously described for one parental species, the Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

  13. SEROLOGIC RESPONSE TO CANINE DISTEMPER VACCINATION IN CAPTIVE LINNAEUS'S TWO-TOED SLOTHS ( CHOLOEPUS DIDACTYLUS) AFTER A FATAL CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS OUTBREAK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie D; Cushing, Andrew C; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Anis, Eman; Dubovi, Edward J

    2017-12-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in Xenarthra. Paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. CDV infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive Linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( Choloepus didactylus) in eastern Tennessee are reported. Clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction. Viral sequencing identified the strain to be consistent with a new CDV lineage currently affecting domestic dogs and wildlife in Tennessee. Seven sloths were examined and vaccinated using a recombinant CDV vaccine on days 0 and 21. Subsequent blood samples showed increased titers in 3/4 sloths. Based on the outbreak and serologic findings postvaccination without adverse effects, the authors recommend recombinant CDV vaccination in sloths exposed to known carriers of CDV.

  14. Castosyringophilus meropis sp. n. (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) - a new quill mite species parasitising the world population of Merops apiaster Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Meropidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Hromada, Martin; Sikora, Bozena

    2017-07-26

    A new species, Castosyringophilus meropis sp. n., found in quills of feathers of the European bee-eater Merops apiaster Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Meropidae) is described. This new species is close to C. claravis Skoracki et Glowska, 2008 and differs, in females, by the presence apunctate coxal fields (vs sparsely punctate in C. claravis) and by the lengths of setae d1 145-180 µm, f2 170-185 µm and ag3 190-215 µm (vs d1 200-220 µm, f2 230-250 µm and ag3 150-170 µm). We present a vast mite material collected from bee-eaters originated from different localities in Europe, Asia and Africa, both breeding and wintering grounds of this bird. It indicates that the whole world population of the European bee-eater is parasitised by this quill mite species.

  15. The morphology and histology of the male reproductive system in Dolycoris baccarum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)--light and scanning electron micoscope studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2013-01-01

    The male reproductive system of Dolycoris baccarum (Linnaeus 1758) is studied morphologically and histologically using both light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). The reproductive system of the male D. baccarum consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands (mesadenia, ectadenia), a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The number of testicular follicles varies from four to six. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles, which are fine-long and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius which is balloon-shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which connected to the aedeagus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Infracommunities of intestinal helminths of the Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 from Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Di Cerbo

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Vulpes vulpes (Linnaeus, 1758 is one of the most common carnivore in Italy and its spread includes almost the whole national territory. The species shows an high ecological plasticity and a variable diet composition connected in part to human sources. This high adaptability permits the red foxes to colonize different habitats like the suburbs of large cities as well as the small villages located in mountain areas. On the other hand, the tourism pressure seems to assume a great importance in the Alps, also in those areas where the foxes live. So, indirect interactions could take place between these animals and the humans. The role of V. vulpes in the zoonoses has not to be understated since this carnivore could transmit parasitic diseases that are able to cause serious pathologies in humans. This study aims just to investigate on intestinal communities of helmiths of V. vulpes in order to make progress in current knowledge on epidemiological situation in Italian Alps. During 1998-2003, we have examined 450 foxes from Trentino Alto Adige, Veneto, Lombardia and Valle d'Aosta. The specimens collected were found dead or have been hunted (according to national law n. 157/92 in localities situated between 170 and 2200 m a.s.l. The carcasses were carried to the provincial sections of Zooprofilattici Institutes, where the intestine was drawn by each sample and all the material was sent to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Milan. Parasitological examination of the small intestines was performed by the analysis of the whole sediment and counting technique (SCT. Parasites were preserved in alcohol 70° before to be clarified or stained and identified by microscope (Zeiss Axioscop. Mean abundance, mean intensity and prevalence were calculated for each taxon of helminth. Dates of sampling were grouped within the four seasons. Statistic tests were performed with software package SPSS rel. 11.5 and spatial analysis with the

  17. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F

    2008-01-01

    Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.

  18. Descripción osteológica del rorcual común (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Description of the skeleton of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, Linnaeus, 1758 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona We describe the osteology of the fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus, L., registration code MZB 83-308 at the Natural History Museum of Barcelona. The specimen was stranded and died on a beach in Llançà (Girona, Spain in 1862. The skeleton weighed 1,161.59 kg and measured 14. 6 m, although the live animal would have been longer because the invertebral tissue was not included in the length originally stated. The newly reconstructed skeleton includes the invertebral discs and is 17.5 m long. The skull weighs 484 kg and the condilobasal length is 431 cm ( 24. 84% of the total length, corresponding to the mean length of specimens in the Mediterranean. The vertebral column has 58 vertebra structured following the formula: C7 T14 L14 Cd23. It is 10.29 m long and weighs 470.95 kg. All the cervical vertebra are free and show dorsoventral compression, differing from the thoracic, lumbar and first caudal vertebra that are relatively uniform, and rounded. From Cd14 se onwards, the vertebra vary in shape and the relationship between width and height is greater than 1, indicating lateral compression. The lack of suture lines in the epiphysis of the ulna and radius indicates the specimen is an adult that has reached ossification maturation.

  19. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p < 0.05) of ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity in the fish exposed to vessel noise for 10 days. This study clearly highlights that anthropogenic noise negatively affects fish, and they are valuable targets for detailed investigations into the effects of this global pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon.

  20. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; Luo, Lingyan; Karthi, Sengodan; Zhang, Ke; Luo, Jianjun; Hu, Qiongbo; Weng, Qunfang

    2018-04-26

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60 Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella . The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were decreased in 12⁻24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps) gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60 Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  1. Effects of 200 Gy 60Co-γ Radiation on the Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes, Hsp70 Genes, and Serum Molecules of Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is one of the notorious pests causing substantial loses to many cruciferous vegetables across the nations. The effects of 60Co-γ radiation on physiology of P. xylostella were investigated and the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. First, in our research, we detected Oxidase system and stress response mechanism of irradiated pupae, the results displayed that 200 Gy irradiation significantly alters the antioxidant enzyme regulation in six-day-old male pupae of P. xylostella. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT were increased significantly in contrast the level of peroxidase (POD and glutathione S-transferase (GST were decreased in 12–24 h post-treatment. The heat shock proteins (Hsps gene expression level was significant increasing, maximum > 2-folds upregulation of genes were observed in peak. However, they also had a trend of gradual recovery with development. Second, we detected the testis lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and acid phosphatase (ACP activity found that in male adults testis they increased significantly than control during its development. Thus the present research investigation highlights that the 60Co-γ radiation treatments alters the physiological development of diamondback moth. The results showed that 200 Gy dosage resulted in stress damage to the body and reproductive system of the diamondback moth.

  2. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko

    2009-01-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  3. Gastrintestinal helminths Of Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 -Smith, 1839 from the caatinga area of the Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto César Lima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 – Smith, 1839, is a medium sized canid which is found in almost every region of Brazil. It is the only registered native canid specie to be found in the semi-arid Northeastern region of the country. This study had as its objectives: the identification of the helminth fauna common to Cerdocyon thous found in the Caatinga of the state of Paraíba; and the determination of the ecological indications of helminthic infection, hoping to make a favourable addition to the understanding of this little known biome. In this study, 58 animals that were found as ‘roadkill’ on the highways in the municipality of Patos were used. The gastrointestinal helminths from these animals were colected. All the animals in this study were infected with helminths. 16 species of helminths were identified, two being trematodes, one being a cestode, one being an acanthocephalus, and the remaining twelve being nematodes. In this study a new specie, named Pterygodermatites pluripectinata n. sp. Was discovered and its host and location described.

  4. Some aspects on the reproductive cycle of European conger eel, Conger conger (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Anguilliformes, Congridae captured from Western Algerian coasts: a histological description of spermatogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi-ayad Sidi-Mohammed El-Amine

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the annual reproductive cycle of European conger eel (Conger conger,Linnaeus, 1758 through analysis and description of spermatogenesis. A sample of 168 males was capturedbetween September 2008 and August 2009 from the Western coast of Algeria, from Béni Saf. Fish length andweight varied between 26.20-112 cm and 0.45-3.44 kg, respectively.Condition factors (K, gonadosomatic index (G.S.I. and hepatosomatic index (H.S.I. were calculatedmonthly. Factor K reached the minimum in August/September (0.10% corresponding to reproductive periodand a maximum in January (0.18%. Although G.S.I. values revealed to be statistically not significant, therewere two peaks for G.S.I., the first in March, denoting the beginning of spermatogenesis, and the second inAugust/September, indicating the reproduction period. H.S.I. reached a peak in December (1.90%, then thevalue decreased to a minimum in April.Histological analysis of testis allowed us to distinguish 5 stages summarized as follows: Stage 1:Spermatogonia A; Stage 2: Spermatogonia B; Stage 3: Spermatocytes and spermatids; Stage 4: Spermatocytes,spermatids and spermatozoa (cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa; Stage 5: Spermatozoa(spermiogenesis or cytodifferentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa.

  5. Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.40±0.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( Pcobia.

  6. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetité, Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Júnior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2008-08-01

    The uranium mining at Caetité (Uranium Concentrate Unit—URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5×103 μGy y-1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51×100 μGy y-1, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  7. Anthelmintic efficacy of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) on ostrich gastrointestinal nematodes in a semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Dantas, Elaine Silva; Vieira, Vanessa Diniz; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the in vivo effectiveness of pumpkin seed (Curcubita pepo Linnaeus, 1753) in naturally infected ostriches in the Cariri zone, semiarid region of Paraíba State, Brazil. Forty-eight ostriches were used, African Black breed, of 14 to 36 months old, naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes. These animals were divided into four groups of 12 ostriches. Group 1 consists of animals treated with 0.5 g/kg live weight (l. w.) of pumpkin seed meal; group 2 received 1 g/kg l. w. of pumpkin seed meal; group 3 was treated with Albendazole 5 %, at the dosage of 1 mL/10 kg l. w.; and Group 4 was the control group and do not received treatment. Groups 1 and 2 received the treatment for three consecutive days, orally, at intervals of 7 days, totaling nine administrations. The Albendazole 5 % was administered one time, at the beginning of the experiment, according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The groups treated with pumpkin seed showed a significant decrease in egg counts per gram of feces (EPG), wherein group 2 (1 g/kg l. w.) was the most effective. The control and drug groups showed no reduction in EPG. The results of the present study demonstrate that the administration of pumpkin seed was effective in controlling gastrointestinal helminths in naturally infected ostriches.

  8. Study on trace element determination in liver samples of great-white-egret Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758 (Ardeidae, Aves) for environmental contamination biomionitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rita de Cassia A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: rcsilva@ipen.b, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predatory birds such as herons have been used as bioindicators of pollution since they are at the top of their food webs. The tissues of these animals are analyzed for assessing environmental pollution caused by toxic elements. In the present study, adequate experimental conditions were established for determination of trace elements concentrations in the liver samples of Great-white-egret (Ardea alba Linnaeus, 1758) for further application of this specimens as a bioindicator of environmental contamination. Four liver samples were collected from Greatwhite- egrets found in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo and were they analyzed by the method of neutron activation analysis (NAA). Concentrations of the elements Br, Co, Cs, Fe, Na, Rb, Se and Zn were measured in these liver tissues. The findings of this present study demonstrated that the established procedure for liver sample treatment was appropriate to obtain a homogeneous sample. The method of neutron activation analysis (NAA) was very promising for liver sample analysis for evaluation of environmental contamination. (author)

  9. Larvicidal Potential of the Halogenated Sesquiterpene (+)-Obtusol, Isolated from the Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh (Ceramiales: Rhodomelaceae), against the Dengue Vector Mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Neto, Orlando; Gomes, Simone Azevedo; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Machado, Fernanda Lacerda da Silva; Samuels, Richard Ian; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Moraes, Jorge Luiz da Cunha; Campos, Eldo; Mury, Flávia Borges; Silva, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is considered a serious public health problem in many tropical regions of the world including Brazil. At the moment, there is no viable alternative to reduce dengue infections other than controlling the insect vector, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. In the continuing search for new sources of chemicals targeted at vector control, natural products are a promising alternative to synthetic pesticides. In our work, we investigated the toxicity of a bioactive compound extracted from the red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh. The initial results demonstrated that crude extracts, at a concentration of 5 ppm, caused pronounced mortality of second instar A. aegypti larvae. Two molecules, identified as (−)-elatol and (+)-obtusol were subsequently isolated from crude extract and further evaluated. Assays with (−)-elatol showed moderate larvicidal activity, whereas (+)-obtusol presented higher toxic activity than (−)-elatol, with a LC50 value of 3.5 ppm. Histological analysis of the larvae exposed to (+)-obtusol revealed damage to the intestinal epithelium. Moreover, (+)-obtusol-treated larvae incubated with 2 µM CM-H2DCFDA showed the presence of reactive oxygen species, leading us to suggest that epithelial damage might be related to redox imbalance. These results demonstrate the potential of (+)-obtusol as a larvicide for use against A. aegypti and the possible mode of action of this compound. PMID:26821032

  10. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de; Kelecom, Alphonse; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo

    2007-01-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10 3 μGy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10 0 μGy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  11. Absorbed dose rate due to intake of natural radionuclides by Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) estimated near uranium anomaly at Santa Quiteria, Ceara, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios], E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.br; Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Caetite, BA (Brazil). Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica. Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio], E-mail: Delcy@inb.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    The uranium mining at Santa Quiteria (Santa Quiteria Unit - USQ) is in its environmental licensing phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the USQ, a monitoring program is underway. However, radioprotection of biota is not explicitly mentioned in Brazilian norms. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to behave in a pro-active way as expected by licensing organs, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology, based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected biomarker was the fish tilapia (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). Since there are no exposition limits for biota, in Brazil, the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5 x 10{sup 3} {mu}Gy/y has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for tilapia was 2.76 x 10{sup 0} {mu}Gy/y, that is less than 0.1 % of the limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was U-238, with 99% of the absorbed dose rate. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that in pre-operational conditions analyzed natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to the biota. (author)

  12. Circulating Hemocytes from Larvae of the Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle Allomyrina dichotoma (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and the Cellular Immune Response to Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sejung; Bang, Kyeongrin; Lee, Jiae; Cho, Saeyoull

    2015-01-01

    Hemocytes of the last larva of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle A. dichotoma (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) were classified as granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. Among these cell types, only the granulocytes became immunologically activated with obvious morphological changes, displaying large amoeba-like, lobopodia-like, and fan-like structures. In addition, their cytoplasmic granules became larger and greatly increased in number. To explore whether these granules could be immunologically generated as phagosomes, total hemocytes were stained with LysoTracker. Greater than 90% of the granulocytes retained the LysoTracker dye at 4 h post-bacterial infection. In flow cytometry analysis, the red fluorescent signal was highly increased at 4 h post-bacterial infection (60.36%) compared to controls (5.08%), as was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. After 12 h post-infection, these signals returned to basal levels. The uptake of pathogens by granulocytes rapidly triggered the translocation of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) to the phagosome, which may result in enhanced pathogen killing.

  13. Circulating Hemocytes from Larvae of the Japanese Rhinoceros Beetle Allomyrina dichotoma (Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and the Cellular Immune Response to Microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejung Hwang

    Full Text Available Hemocytes of the last larva of the Japanese rhinoceros beetle A. dichotoma (Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae were classified as granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. Among these cell types, only the granulocytes became immunologically activated with obvious morphological changes, displaying large amoeba-like, lobopodia-like, and fan-like structures. In addition, their cytoplasmic granules became larger and greatly increased in number. To explore whether these granules could be immunologically generated as phagosomes, total hemocytes were stained with LysoTracker. Greater than 90% of the granulocytes retained the LysoTracker dye at 4 h post-bacterial infection. In flow cytometry analysis, the red fluorescent signal was highly increased at 4 h post-bacterial infection (60.36% compared to controls (5.08%, as was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. After 12 h post-infection, these signals returned to basal levels. The uptake of pathogens by granulocytes rapidly triggered the translocation of the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3 to the phagosome, which may result in enhanced pathogen killing.

  14. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wagner de S; Kelecom, Alphonse; Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de

    2008-01-01

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10 3 μGy y -1 has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10 0 μGy y -1 , that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota

  15. Estudio genético de la estructura poblacional y conectividad de dos corales endémicos del Mediterráneo: Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767)

    OpenAIRE

    Casado-Amezúa, P.

    2012-01-01

    [ES] El objetivo general de la presente tesis es determinar la estructura genética y el alcance de la conectividad de las poblaciones de dos corales escleractinios del Mediterráneo, Astroides calycularis (Pallas, 1766) y Cladocora caespitosa (Linnaeus, 1767). Estos procesos están generalmente ligados a diferentes características biológicas de las especies, tales como la densidad y distribución de las poblaciones, la fecundidad, el éxito reproductor, el tipo de desarrollo larvario, la capacida...

  16. Ultraestrutura do espermatozóide de Ucides cordatus Linnaeus (Crustacea, Ocypodidae do litoral norte do Brasil Ultrastructure of spermatozoon of the crab Ucides cordatus Linaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda of the northern littoral of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Matos

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of the crab Ucides cordatus Linnaeus, 1763 is described and illustrated. Three parts can be distinguished: 1. the elongate-ovoid acrosome located anteriorly; 2. the cytoplasmic region; and 3. the nuclear region. The acrosome is composed of a thick electron-dense wall and a less electron-dense subacrosomal space. The cytoplasm region connects the acrosome with the nucleus, and three arms filled with microtubules arise from this region. The nucleus is polymorphous. The spermatozoon of Ucides cordatus follows the general pattern described for other Decapods.

  17. On mysterious occurrence of butterflies in the genus Delias at Jinmen Islands, with clarification on the nomenclature of D. pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and D. acalis (Godart, 1819) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Feng; Huang, Hang-Chi; Lu, Chen-Chih

    2017-06-11

    In recent years, a considerable number of pierid butterflies of the genus Delias have been found from Jinmen Islands, where no available hostplants grow, rendering a proof of cross sea water migration of these butterflies. It is suggested here that these butterflies come from nearby continent of eastern China, visiting the islands for nectar acquisition in seasons when nectar is in short supply because they mostly show up in autumn months. Samples obtained during the survey contained two species, namely Delias pasithoe (Linnaeus, 1767) and Delias acalis (Godart, 1819). Subspecific names applied to both species in eastern China appear to involve nomenclatural problems, with erroneous usage in recent literature.

  18. Una nueva especie de Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 del suroeste de Marruecos incluida en el grupo de M. (Eurymeloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 (Coleoptera: Meloidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz, José L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific collections of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid hold an extense set of entomological materials collected in Morocco along the first decades of the XXth century by the preeminent naturalist M. Martínez de la Escalera. Morphological studies of the specimens of the genus Meloe Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Meloidae reveals the existence of populations morphologically differentiated along the coastal regions of Essaouira and Ifni. These populations are included within the Meloe rugosus Marsham, 1802 species group in the subgenus Eurymeloe Reitter, 1911. Their differential traits with respect to all other North African and European species of the Meloe rugosus species group are constant, and permit considering these populations as a taxonomic independent unit described herein, Meloe baamarani n. sp. This new species is characterized by having a black, opaque, general coloration all over the body and appendages; black short vestiture; broad head with broadly rounded temples, without median longitudinal groove; long antennae, with segments III to VIII subcylindrical and longer than wide; pronotum transverse, with convergent sides toward the base, without median groove; head and pronotum punctuation dense; aedeagus narrow, median lobe wide and strong, dorsally sinuous, with ventral hooks close to the apex. Meloe baamarani can be only confused on the western regions of northern Africa with Meloe mediterraneus Müller, 1925. This species shares a general appearance with M. baamarani, but differs in many morphological traits. Among those, tegument micro-reticulation, absence of median groove along the head, pronotum morphology and macrosculpture, and configuration of the male genitalia, are included.Las colecciones científicas del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN-CSIC, Madrid albergan un extenso material entomológico recogido en Marruecos a principios del siglo XX por el insigne naturalista M. Mart

  19. Teknik budi daya larva Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus (Diptera: Stratiomyidae sebagai sumber protein pakan ternak melalui biokonversi limbah loading ramp dari pabrik CPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Zarkani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Larvae of Hermetia illucens fly (Linnaeus is an important source of alternative protein and can be used as pellets for feeds. Currently the production of H. illucens larvae is still limited because its rearing depends on palm kernel meal. The objective of the research is to explore alternative media for rearing, i.e. using loading ramp waste from crude palm oil factory. The study was conducted using physical-chemical analysis of the media. Evaluation of potential rearing media of loading ramp was done by studying the suitability of loading ramp fermented by EM4®, rumen microbes, and organic liquid fertilizer and without fermentation. Treatment media was develop with an enrichment ratio of 1 : 0.25, 1 : 05, and 1 : 1 (v/v for bran and husk, and 1.25, 2.5, and 5% (w/w for coconut sugar. Each experiment was arranged in complete randomized design using 20 larva of the 2nd instar. Larvas were incubated in plastic with tube with diameter of 10 cm and 20 cm in height containing of media 300 g. Response differences in growth and mortality were analyzed by ANOVA and least significant differences test at 0.05 levels. Preference and analysis suitability of the media were conducted using material enrichment. Results show that the loading ramp waste contain 9.80% protein and 10.32% fat. Although the media are could support growth and development of the larvae at different degree, media from waste fermentation POC loading ramp with bran enrichment 1 : 0.5 (v/v is the best media for rearing larva.

  20. Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) from the karstic Croatian river Krka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Valić, Damir; Žunić, Jakov; Kapetanović, Damir; Smrzlić, Irena Vardić; Redžović, Zuzana; Grgić, Ivana; Erk, Marijana

    2018-01-01

    Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) were studied in the period from April 2015 to May 2016 at two sampling sites on Croatian river Krka, to establish if river water contamination with metals/metalloids downstream of Knin town has influenced metal bioaccumulation in S. trutta liver. Differences were observed between two sites, with higher concentrations of several elements (Ag, As, Ca, Co, Na, Se, Sr, V) found downstream of Knin town, whereas few others (Cd, Cs, Mo, Tl) were, unexpectedly, increased at the Krka River spring. However, total metal/metalloid concentrations in the liver of S. trutta from both sites of the Krka River were still mainly below previously reported levels for pristine freshwaters worldwide. The analysis of seasonal changes of metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver and their association with fish sex and size mostly indicated their independence of fish physiology, making them good indicators of water contamination and exposure level. Metal/metalloid concentrations in the metabolically available hepatic cytosolic fractions reported in this study are the first data of that kind for S. trutta liver, and the majority of analyzed elements were present in the cytosol in the quantity higher than 50% of their total concentrations, thus indicating their possible availability for toxic effects. However, the special attention should be directed to As, Cd, Cs, and Tl, which under the conditions of increased exposure tended to accumulate more within the cytosol. Although metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver were still rather low, monitoring of the Krka River water quality and of the health status of its biota is essential due to a trend of higher metal/metalloid bioaccumulation downstream of Knin town, especially taking into consideration the proximity of National Park Krka and the need for its conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanivarsanthe Leelesh Ramya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diamondback moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus, is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n = 13 and adults (n = 12 of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%, followed by bacilli (15.4%. Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%, bacilli (16.7% and flavobacteria (16.7%. Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32 µmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus – KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans – KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26 µmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM.

  3. A morphohistological and histochemical study of hatchery-reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecitho-exotrophic larval phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan B. Ortiz-Delgado

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The larval development of reared European hake, Merluccius merluccius (Linnaeus, 1758, during the lecithotrophic phase, from hatching until 5 days post-hatching (dph, and throughout the endo-exotrophic feeding phase (6-10 dph was studied by histology and histochemistry. Many crucial morphological, cellular and tissular changes were observed during both feeding phases, mostly those related to digestive and visual ontogenetic events, such as differentiation of buccopharyngeal cavity and eye development (at hatching; pigmentation and differentiation of cone-photoreceptors (4 dph; opening of the mouth and anus, appearance of intestinal valves (5-6 dph; presence of buccopharyngo-esophageal (5-6 dph and intestinal (9 dph mucous cells; folding of intestinal mucosa (6 dph; development of regional specific digestive musculature (6 dph; typical structure and functionality of the liver (sinusoids, biliary and pancreatic ducts, glycogen, protein and lipid reserves (4-6 dph; and characteristic acinar distribution pattern of eosinophilic zymogen granules of the exocrine pancreas (6 dph. Between 9 and 10 dph, the hake larvae showed evident signs of lipid absorption within enterocytes of the anterior intestinal region and a remarkable process of pynocitosis and intracellular digestion was detected in the posterior intestine (supranuclear inclusions or acidophilic protein vesicles. In hake larvae at 10 dph, a proliferation of renal tubules, spleen differentiation and gill development, as well as the presence of the first thyroid follicle, were clearly distinguished. At this time, stomach gastric gland differentiation was not detected and endocrine pancreas and gill lamellae were not evidenced. However, and interestingly, swim bladder and eyes (developing rods were well differentiated in larval development from 9 dph onwards. In summary, in European hake larval development during the endo-exogenous feeding phase and especially at 9 to 10 dph, most systems, organs

  4. Anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig em final de gestação (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Toledo Barbino

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p97 Desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de descrever a anatomia do fígado de fetos de Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus [Linnaeus, 1758] em final de gestação e obter caracterizações anatômicas que possam fundamentar e auxiliar na compreensão da fisiologia da circulação fetal. Coletou-se os fetos de 3 fêmeas em final de gestação, os quais foram dissecados e retirado o fígado. Estes foram analisados, descritos e fotodocumentados macroscopicamente, por microscopia de luz em coloração HE e por microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O fígado dos fetos apresenta coloração castanho avermelhada e sua divisão em lobos é nitidamente observada, assim como a presença da vesícula biliar.  O fígado divide-se em lobo lateral esquerdo, lobo medial esquerdo, lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado e lobo caudado com processos papilar e caudado Através da microscopia de luz, observa-se o tecido intensamente vascularizado sendo que, a porção esquerda do fígado recebe o sangue oriundo da placenta pela veia umbilical, e a porção direita é irrigada pela veia porta. Através desses resultados pode-se concluir que os fetos de Guinea pig possuem estruturas semelhantes anatomicamente aos de outras espécies de mamíferos.

  5. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-03-03

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known.

  6. O mexilhão Perna perna (Linnaeus (Bivalvia, Mytilidae em cultivo na Armação do Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brasil The mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus (Bivalvia, Mytilidae in culture at the Armação of the Itapocoroy, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano W. C. Marenzi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a viabilidade do cultivo do mexilhão, P. perna (Linnaeus, 1758 no sul do Brasil, duas experiências foram executadas na Armação de Itapocoroy. Das variáveis físicas e químicas foram analisadas a salinidade, temperatura e o oxigênio, que se mostraram ideais para esta espécie e, os macronutrientes também dentro dos níveis esperados para a região, não indicando poluição orgânica no local. O crescimento médio foi de 0,58 cm/mês e o aumento do peso foi de 2,57 g/mês. Curvas de crescimento e engordas foram elaboradas tendo como base a produção biológica após 6,7 meses de cultivo. A sobrevivência após oito meses foi de 79,2% e os valores os mais elevados do índice gônodo-somático foram detectados na primavera.To verify the viability of the culture of the mussel, P. perna (Linnaeus, 1758, in the south of Brazil, two experiences had been executed in the Armação do Itapocoroy. The averages of the salinity, temperature and the oxygen had shown ideals for this species and the macronutrients are inside of the natural levels for coast areas, not indicate organic pollution in the place. The average growth was of 0,58 cm/month and the increase of the weight was of 2.57 g/month. Curves of growth and fattening had been elaborated having for result the greater biological production after 6.7 months of culture. The survival after eight months was 79.2% and the most raised values of the gonad-somatic index were detected in the spring.

  7. Padrão de atividade e comportamento de forrageamento do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae na Baía de Guaratuba, Paraná, Brasil Activity pattern and foraging behavior of bulldog-bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, (Chiroptera, Noctilionidae in Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo O. Bordignon

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre 18 de janeiro a 16 de dezembro de 1999 foi estudado o comportamento de forrageamento e o padrão de atividade do morcego-pescador Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, em uma área de manguezal na Baía de Guaratuba, Sul do Brasil. Os grupos de N. leporinus observados permaneceram em atividade ao longo de todo o período noturno, mas com um aparente padrão bimodal. Durante os meses de abril a setembro, N. leporinus inicia a sua atividade geralmente às 18:00 h, uma hora mais cedo do que durante os meses de outubro a março, quando inicia sua atividade geralmente às 19:00 h. O comportamento de predação sobre os cardumes de peixes mostrou variações quanto ao local de forrageamento ao longo do período de atividade. Em baixos níveis de maré, os grupos de morcegos pescaram longe da margem em águas mais profundas, mas nos níveis de maré alta os grupos de morcegos permaneceram pescando sempre junto à margem, em águas mais rasas. Este padrão de comportamento em N. leporinus parece ser determinado pelo padrão de deslocamento dos cardumes de peixes na área de estudo.From January 18 to December 16 of 1999 the foraging behavior and activity pattern of fishing bat Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758 were studied in mangrove ecosystem of Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil. The groups of N. leporinus observed remained active during all nightly period but showed an apparent bimodal pattern. During April and September N. leporinus generally begin their activity at 18:00h, one hour earlier than October to March months, when their activity started at 19:00 h. The foraging behavior on fish shoal varied spatially along all the activity period. During low tide level the bat groups remained fishing distant from margin on deeper water, but during high tide level the bats were always observed fishing close to the margin on flat water. This pattern in foraging behavior of N. leporinus appears to be determined by the fish shoal displacement pattern in

  8. Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle linnaeus, en la región de Santa Marta, caribe colombiano Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, en la región de Santa Marta, caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Rosalba

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative and quantitative study of the community of macro invertebrates associated to the submerged stilt roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753, was carried out trimonthly between December 1988 and September 1989, in three stations at the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM and three at the Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahia de Chengue, Bahia de Nenguange, Colombian Caribbean. 181 species were determined: 99 crustaceans, 50 molluscs and 32 annellids. Most of the 26.729 individuals counted were crustaceans (12.213 moluscs (11.635 and annellids (2.881. The lowest diversity and evenness values, and the highest dominance values were found at the CGSM, while the opposite occurred at the PNNT. Moreover, cluster analysis showed that at the CGSM temporal variations in community composition were greater than spatial ones, while at the PNNT spatial differences were stronger. Other factors that could be importantin determinig community structure were detected, such as vecinity to other ecosystems and/or species- specific biological aspects as adaptations to fluctuating conditions, reproductive acti vities, feeding habits and migration to protected and shaded habitats. Se realizó un estudio trimestral cualitativo y cuantitativo de la comunidad de moluscos, anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces sumergidas del mangle rojo, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, entre diciembre de 1988 y septiembre de 1989, en tres estaciones en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM y tres en el Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahía de Chengue y Bahía de Nenguange, Caribe colombiano. Se determinaron 181 especies: 99 crustáceos, 50 moluscos y 32 anélidos. En total se contaron 26.729 individuos: 12.213 crustáceos, 11.635 moluscos y 2.881 anélidos. Los valores más bajos de diversidad y equitatividad, y los mayores valores de dominancia, se encontraron en la CGSM, mientras que lo opuesto ocurrió en el PNNT. El análisis de

  9. Temporal variation in the reproductive success of Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus (Aves, Icterinae in an Atlantic Forest reserve in Southeast Brazil Variação temporal no sucesso reprodutivo de Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus (Aves, Icterinae em uma reserva de Floresta Atlântica no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Duca

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available For colonial bird species, egg hatching synchrony has been considered an important factor in their reproductive success. The Red-rumped Cacique, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766, is a Passeriformes species (Icterinae that reproduces in colonies in which groups of females lay their eggs at different periods during the reproductive season. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there was a variation in the reproductive success among C. haemorrhous females groups that lay eggs in different periods along the reproductive season. A total of 192 nests from four colonies were monitored at Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and used to calculate the nest survival probability in different periods (early and late of the 2001 reproductive season. The results showed that females that reproduced at the beginning of the reproductive period had higher reproductive success than those that reproduced later. Predation was the main cause of nests loss (48,4%, and an increase in predation rate was observed as the reproductive period advanced.Para espécies de aves coloniais a sincronia de eclosão dos ovos tem sido considerada um fator que influencia o sucesso reprodutivo. O Guaxe, Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766, é uma espécie de Passeriformes (Icterinae que se reproduz em colônias com grupos de fêmeas fazendo a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se há uma variação no sucesso reprodutivo de C. haemorrhous entre esses grupos de fêmeas que fazem a postura em diferentes períodos ao longo da estação reprodutiva. Quatro colônias totalizando 192 ninhos foram monitoradas no Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil, calculando-se a probabilidade de sobrevivência dos ninhos em relação a diferentes períodos (cedo e tardio ao longo da estação reprodutiva de 2001. Constatou-se que fêmeas que reproduziram mais cedo na estação reprodutiva

  10. Synthèses enzymatiques de néoglucoconjugués catalysées par l'alpha-glucosidase purifiée de la blatte Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamenan A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic synthesis of neoglucoconjugates by purified α-glucosidase from cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus contains in his digestive tract an acid (pH 5,0 and mesophile (50°C α-glucosidase. This enzyme, purified to homogeneity, hydrolyses highly maltose, sucrose and p-nitrophenyl-α-Dglucopyranoside. The ability of α-glucosidase from cockroach purified to homogeneity to catalyse transglucosylation reactions was tested using maltose and saccharose as glucosyl donors and 2-phenylethanol and phenol as acceptors. The experimental conditions were optimized in relation to the time course of the reaction, pH and concentrations of glucosyl donors and acceptors. The yields in transglucosylation reactions at 37 °C were very high and could attain 67% and 48% with 2-phenylethanol and phenol respectively as glucosyl acceptors. This α-glucosidase hydrolyzed the products formed. It seems that the products formed were the phenylethyl-α-D-glucoside and phenyl-α-D-glucoside. These results suggest that α- glucosidase from cockroach is an exoglucosidase which catalyse the splitting of the α-glucosyl residue from the non reducing terminal of the substrate to liberate α-glucose. This comportment indicates that this enzyme operated by a mechanism involving the retention of the anomeric configuration. On the basis of this work, α-glucosidase from P. americana appears to be a valuable tool for the preparation of α-neoglucoconjugates.

  11. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae): physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchetti, Priscilla Cardim; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3) and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences) cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (Gymnotus sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, Gymnotus inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, Gymnotus pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758) from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. Gymnotus sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st), Gymnotus pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st), while Gymnotus inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a)and Gymnotus cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st) presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in Gymnotus inaequilabiatus, Gymnotus cf. carapo,and Gymnotus pantherinus, and on pair 2 in Gymnotus sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in Gymnotus sylvius and Gymnotus pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in Gymnotus sylvius and two pairs in Gymnotus pantherinus; Gymnotus inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and Gymnotus cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of Gymnotus inaequilabiatus and Gymnotus cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of Gymnotus sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGG)n indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present

  12. Karyotypic diversity in four species of the genus Gymnotus Linnaeus, 1758 (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes, Gymnotidae: physical mapping of ribosomal genes and telomeric sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Scacchetti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional (Giemsa, C-Banding, Ag-NORs, CMA3 and molecular (5S rDNA, 18S rDNA, telomeric sequences cytogenetic studies were carried out in specimens of ten distinct fish populations of the genus Gymnotus (G. sylvius Albert and Fernandes-Matioli, 1999, G. inaequilabiatus Valenciennes, 1839, G. pantherinus Steindachner, 1908, and G. cf. carapo Linnaeus, 1758 from different Brazilian hydrographic basins. G. sylvius presented a diploid number of 40 chromosomes (22m+12sm+6st, G. pantherinus presented 52 chromosomes (32m+18sm+2st, while G. inaequilabiatus (42m+10sm+2a and G. cf. carapo (38m+12sm+4st presented 54 chromosomes. The C-banding technique revealed centromeric marks in all chromosomes of all species. Besides that, conspicuous blocks of heterochromatin were found interstitially on the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus. All four species showed single nucleolus organizing regions confirmed by results obtained through Ag-NORs and FISH experiments using 18S rDNA probes, which showed the NORs localized on the first chromosome pair in G. inaequilabiatus, G. cf. carapo, and G. pantherinus, and on pair 2 in G. sylvius. CMA3 staining revealed additional unrelated NORs marks in G. sylvius and G. pantherinus. The 5S rDNA probes revealed signals on one pair in G. sylvius and two pairs in G. pantherinus; G. inaequilabiatus had about seventeen pairs marked, and G. cf. carapo had about fifteen pairs marked. It is considered that the high amount of heterochromatin identified in the chromosomes of G. inaequilabiatus and G. cf. carapo could have facilitated the dispersion of 5S rDNA in these species. Interstitial signals were detected on the first metacentric pair of G. sylvius by telomeric probes (TTAGGGn indicating the possible occurrence of chromosomal fusions in this species. The present study reveals valuable cytotaxonomic markers for this group and allows a more precise evaluation of the processes involved in the

  13. Quadro citológico vaginal, concentração plasmática de progesterona durante a gestação e medidas fetais em paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 Vaginal citology, serum progesterone concentration during pregnancy and fetal measurements in paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria França Ribeiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Em 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 objetivou-se descrever aos 30, 60 e 90 dias (D de prenhez diagnosticada por ultrassonografia (US, os tipos celulares do epitélio vaginal em esfregaços vaginais, relatar as condições de abertura da vulva e as características do muco vaginal, determinar a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 por radioimunoensaio, e ainda, mensurar por ultrassonografia (US o diâmetro biparietal (DBP fetal aos 60 e 90 dias de prenhez. No D30, 40% das amostras exibiram células (com características estrogênicas superficiais e presença de núcleos nus. Nos D60 e D90, células parabasais, intermediárias, superficiais e naviculares estavam presentes nas mesmas proporções, mas células endocervicais foram descritas em apenas 73,9% e 69% das amostras daqueles dias, respectivamente. No D30 a maior proporção de células naviculares e superficiais diferiu (p The objective of this work was to describe in 27 pacas (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 at 30, 60 and 90 days (D of pregnancy diagnosed by ultrasonography (U.S. the cell types of the vaginal epithelium by vaginal smears, to report the vulva opening condition and the characteristics of vaginal mucus, to determine the progesterone (P4 serum concentration by radioimmunoassay, and also measure by ultrasound (U.S. the fetuses biparietal diameter (BPD at 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. At D30, 40% of the smears exhibited surface cells (with estrogenic characteristics and of naked nuclei. At D60 and D90, parabasal, intermediate, superficial, and navicular cells were present in the same proportions, but endocervical cells were described in only 73.9% and 69% of those day's smears, respectively. At D30 the highest proportion of navicular and surface cells differed (p < 0.05 compared with other cell types. The vaginal mucus was crystalline and fluid in 100% and 70% of females at D30 and D60, respectively. It was observed the vaginal vestibule open in around 50% of

  14. Antibacterial activity of GUAVA, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, leaf extracts on diarrhea-causing enteric bacteria isolated from Seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de extrato de folhas de goiabeira, Psidium guajava Linnaeus, sobre bactérias entéricas diarreiogênicas, isoladas de camarão sete-barbas, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia A. Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.O chá de folhas de goiaba Psidium guajava Linnaeus é comumente usado como remédio nas gastrenterites e diarréias infantis por aqueles que não têm acesso a antibióticos. Esta pesquisa estudou o efeito antibacteriano sobre bactérias causadoras de diarréias, do óleo essencial e do extrato de folhas de goiabeira usando como diluente: metanol, hexano e acetato de etila. Os extratos foram testados sobre Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. e Escherichia coli. As bactérias testadas foram isoladas de camarão sete-barbas Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller usando-se como controle cepas padrão, de cada espécie. Das bactérias testadas, o melhor efeito inibitório foi

  15. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae = Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gandolfo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de umorganismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida emlaboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliaçõesda sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatiorapresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido ‘Minikuro Kowishiki’ de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as abiological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf

  16. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  17. Eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 no controle da traça da cera Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner, 1915 for control of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deodoro Magno Brighenti

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência do Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner no controle de Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, a 28±2ºC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Aplicou-se formulação comercial de B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki por meio de pulverização, imersão dos favos e também foi incorporada à dieta artificial fornecida às lagartas de terceiro ínstar da traça da cera. A aplicação do produto fitossanitário por meio da pulverização dos favos mostrou-se eficiente no controle de lagartas, atingindo níveis iguais ou superiores a 85% de mortalidade quando foram utilizados 5 g/100 mL de água. Na aplicação por imersão dos favos, todas as dosagens testadas foram eficientes atingindo até 100% de mortalidade. Adicionada à dieta artificial, a concentração com maior porcentagem de mortalidade foi de 10g/60g de dieta. Sintomas de infecção pelo B. thuringiensis foram identificados nas lagartas e o isolamento da bactéria, por meio de uma cultura de Bacillus, comprovou a causa da morte desses insetos em todas as dosagens da formulação comercial do B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki utilizadas.This research aim at evaluating the efficiency of Bacillus thruringiensis var. kurstaki (Berliner in the control of Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus.The experiments were conducted in the Insect Biology Laboratory of the Entomology Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA, Lavras, MG, Brazil, at 28±2ºC, RH 70±10% and 12-hour photophase. Commercial formulation of B. thuringiensis. var. kurstaki was applied through spraying, comb soaking and also incorporated into the artificial diet fed to third instar caterpillars of the greater wax moth. Application of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki through the spraying of the combs was efficient for control, reaching levels

  18. Dieta e dispersão de sementes por Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus (Carnívora, Canidae, em um fragmento florestal no Paraná, Brasil Diet and seed dispersal by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus in a forest fragment in Paraná (Carnivora, Canidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlamir J. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o cachorro-do-mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, seja um Canidae relativamente comum, não há muita informação sobre sua dieta e seu papel como dispersor de sementes nos diferentes habitats onde ocorre. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de reportar a dieta de C. thous e sua importância como dispersor e/ou predador de sementes, e ainda testar a taxa de germinação de sementes após passar pelo trato digestório do animal. O estudo foi realizado em um fragmento (680 ha de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, o Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy, localizado na cidade de Londrina, Paraná, sul do Brasil. A metodologia consistiu de coletas de fezes de C. thous, as quais foram analisadas em laboratório para identificar os itens consumidos. Nos testes de germinação, as sementes foram dispostas para germinar em placas de Petri com algodão umedecido em água. Noventa e três amostras fecais com 219 itens de origem vegetal e animal foram registradas, sendo 36,52% contendo restos de pequenos roedores, 24,19% de gramíneas, 13,24% de aves, 10,47% de insetos, 6,39% de Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Glassm., 4,6% de outros itens de origem animal e 4,54% de outros itens de origem vegetal. Ainda, C. thous dispersou nove espécies de plantas, com relevante importância para a germinação de algumas sementes que passaram pelo trato digestório do animal, exceto para S. romanzoffiana, cujas sementes não germinaram nas condições de laboratório. Conclui-se que, C. thous apresentou uma dieta generalista e oportunista, sobrevivendo em áreas degradadas e antrópicas, e agindo como dispersor de sementes nestes locais.Although the crab eating fox, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1706, is a relatively common Canidae, there isn't much information about its diet and its role as a seed disperser in the different habitats where it occurs. The aim of this work was to report the diet of the C. thous and its importance as a seed disperser and / or a seed predator and

  19. Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus) (Aves, Accipitridae), in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    OpenAIRE

    Srbek-Araujo, Ana C.; Chiarello, Adriano G.

    2006-01-01

    A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758), na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD), região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mat...

  20. Ovitrampas para Avaliação da Presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus e Aedes albopictus (Skuse no Município de Vassouras, Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Oliveira

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus (Skuse are vectors of many arboviruses including urban yellow fever and dengue, the latter being one of the biggest problems in the world in cities that have hot and humid climate. Having the consecutive cases of dengue in Vassouras, RJ it was important to ascertain the presence and behavior of the vector in different seasons of year and their predominance in the city. In this study we observed the presence of 10.44% Ae. aegypti and 89.56% Ae. albopictus of the 364 viable eggs and being the Matadouro neighborhood (point 4, the local with the largest presence of these culicids. These data showed that Ae. albopictus is ever more present in urban areas.

  1. Estimación de los principales parámetros reproductivos y productivos del Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 pecari de collar o sajino en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Rengifo Pinedo, Martha Estela

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal El presente estudio estimación de los parámetros reproductivos y productivos de Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus, 1758 “pecari de collar” o “sajino” en cautiverio (Loreto, Perú), se llevó a cabo en el Centro Piloto de Zoocria para la Amazonía – UNAP, ubicado en la Región Loreto, Provincia de Maynas, Perú. La investigación es básica descriptiva ex post facto, que consistió en obtener información de los registr...

  2. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  3. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da anchova Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of metazoan parasites of bluefish Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus (Osteichthyes, Pomatomidae from the littoral of State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Luque

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-five specimens of bluefish, Pomatomus saltator (Linnaeus, 1766, collected at Cabo Frio (23ºS, 42ºW, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 1995 and November 1995, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Sixteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. All fish were parasitized by one or more metazoan. The digeneans were the majority of the parasite specimens collected, with 44.2%, followed by the helminth larval stages (cestodes, acanthocephalans, and nematodes with 40.6%. The Simpson index for all parasite species was 0.097, indicating lack of dominance by any species in the parasite community. Microcotyle pomatomi Goto, 1899 showed the higher frequency of dominance and mean relative dominance. The parasite species of P. saltator showed the typical overdispersed pattern of distribution. The majority of parasite species showed positive correlation between the host's total body length and prevalence or parasite abundance. Two species, Brachyphallus parvus (Manter, 1947 and Phocanema sp. have differences in their prevalences and abundances in relation to sex of the hosts. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of P. saltator was H'=1.243±0.521, with correlation with the host's total length and without difference between male and female fish. The components of the parasite community of P. saltator showed overall positive association. All pairs confonned by ectoparasites and adult endoparasites species showed signiticant positive association or covariation between their abundances. Five pairs of endoparasites larval species showed positive association or covariation, and two pairs, showed negative association and covariation. The parasite community of P. saltator was dominated by species with high prevalence values, that composed a high number of associations, thus, is considered closer to the interactive type.

  4. Registro recente de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, na Mata Atlântica da Reserva Natural Vale do Rio Doce, Linhares, Espírito Santo e implicações para a conservação regional da espécie Recent record of harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus (Aves, Accipitridae, in Atlantic forest of Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil and implications for the regional conservation of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Srbek-Araujo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente comunicação reporta o registro de um macho adulto de harpia, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, na Reserva Natural da Vale do Rio Doce (RNVRD, região norte do Espírito Santo, em agosto de 2005. A análise deste e de registros históricos da espécie nesta reserva indica a presença de uma população residente na região compreendida pela RNVRD e pela Reserva Biológica de Sooretama. Estas duas reservas, contíguas entre si, compreendem cerca de 46250 ha de Floresta Atlântica de baixada (Mata de Tabuleiro, na sua maior parte bem conservada. Além da grande extensão de floresta, a rica e densa fauna de mamíferos presente nestas reservas contribuem para a permanência das harpias na região.The present communication reports an observation occurred in August 2005 of the harpy eagle, Harpia harpyja (Linnaeus, 1758, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve (VRDNR, located in northern Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. The analysis of this and past records of the species in this reserve indicates the presence of a resident population in the region encompassed by the VRDNR and the Sooretama Biological Reserve. These two reserves total circa 46,250 ha of lowland Atlantic forest (Tabuleiros forest, which are mostly well preserved. Besides the great extension of forests, the rich and abundant mammal fauna present in these two reserves contribute to the regional permanence of the harpy eagle.

  5. The dynamicity of the mesonephros microstructure in bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 of the Dnieper-Bug estuary system in relation to spawning migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Heina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze the mesonephros structure in the bream (Abramis brama Linnaeus, 1758 during its spawning migration, to determine the perspective of the use of microanatomical monitoring data in fisheries practice for assessing the functional status of fish. Methodology. Collection of ichthyological material was carried out using permit documents of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine, while their processing was done at the Department of Aquatic Bioresources and Aquaculture of the Kherson State Agricultural University. Ichthyological material was collected using gill nets, fyke nets, beach seines. Monitoring stations were located along the spawning migration run of the bream from the Dnieper lagoon to the plavni system of the Dnieper River. Field and laboratory processing of the material was done using author’s equipment and original methods specially designed for histological diagnostics of tissues of aquatic animals. Findings. The basis of the adaptation of bream kidneys to waters of different salinities us structural irregularity of nephrons expressed in the size and structure of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules. Significant fluctuations of osmolarity parameters within the lower Dnieper area have significant effects on changes in the structure and function of nephrogenic tissue in form of the reduction in the diameter of Boumen-Shumliansky capsule by 9.0 µm. Changes of the Boumen-Shumliansky capsule diameter in fish with moderate mineralization is the range of 6.0 and 4.0 µm. The reduction in the height of epitheliocytes of proximal convoluted tubules by 3.0; 2.0 and 4.0 µm also indicate on the reduction of the functional activity of the convolute. The fluctuations of nephrogenic and homeopathic tissue ratio have a balance nature that can be related to the redistribution of these components due to the appearance of an adaptation under the effect of chloride-ions. The dislocation of ion-transporting cells near the blood

  6. Avaliação da integridade cromatínica de espermatozóides de galos (Gallus gallus, Linnaeus, 1758 de linhagem pesada em duas idades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Melo Soares

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Na avicultura, a avaliação de fertilidade em machos é de extrema importância, para garantir uma melhor produção de ovos férteis. As técnicas para avaliação de fertilidade em galos são pouco exploradas, sendo que na maioria das vezes, a avaliação é feita por amostragem e levando em consideração, apenas fatores morfofisiológicos, diretamente relacionados com o espermatozóide. Mas é sabido que, em outras espécies, além dos fatores morfofisiológicos, existem problemas intrínsecos ao espermatozóide, como a baixa compactação da cromatina, que pode levar a disturbios de fertilidade, que na maioria das vezes não são diagnosticados. O objetivo desse trabalho foi a adaptação de técnicas de avaliação da cromatina, já descritas em outras espécies, para aves de linhagem pesada (Gallus gallus, Linnaeus, 1758, correlacionando as alterações cromatínicas com as alterações morfológicas e com a fertilidade. Para tanto, sêmen de galo com diferentes níveis de fertilidade, foram utilizados em diferentes métodos para identificação de alterações na cromatina, utilizando os corantes azul de toluidina e alaranjado de acridina. As avaliações demonstraram que esfregaços de sêmen fresco de galo com posterior fixação geram artefatos que levam a alterações na forma da cabeça e na integridade da cromatina, não sendo indicados em métodos de avaliação de fertilidade. Apesar de todos os métodos testados apresentarem falhas metodológicas e um certo grau de subjetividade, o método que gerou melhores resultados foi a mistura de uma gota de sêmen conservado em formol salina e uma gota do alaranjado de acridina sobre lâmina de microscopia, com posterior secagem e observação em microscopia de fluorescência com filtro de excitação azul. Pelo método verificou-se que alterações na compactação da cromatina de espermatozóides de galo geralmente não são acompanhadas por alterações morfológicas e que geralmente

  7. Phenology of Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae under laboratory conditions Fenologia de Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae em pupas de Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera, Muscidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Furtado de Araújo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the phenology of Spalangia endius Walker in pupae of Musca domestica Linnaeus under laboratory conditions. In order to understand the developmental cycle of Spalangia endius under laboratory conditions, 360 Musca domestica pupae aged from 24 to 48 hours were exposed to 15 S. endius pairs for a period of 24 hours at 26 ± 2ºC. These pupae were kept in a BOD incubator at the same temperature, with a relative humidity of Objetivando conhecer o ciclo de desenvolvimento de Spalangia endius sob condições de laboratório, 360 pupas de Musca domestica com idade de 24 a 48 horas foram expostas a 15 casais de S. endius por um período de 48 horas a 26 ± 2ºC. Estas pupas foram mantidas em BOD. Com mesma temperatura, umidade relativa <70% e com fotofase de 12 horas, onde diariamente dissecava-se 15 espécimes para avaliar o estágio e tempo de desenvolvimento do himenóptero. A fenologia permite concluir que S. endius apresenta um ciclo de desenvolvimento de 19 dias, cujo período de incubação foi de 24 horas, o desenvolvimento de larvas de S. endius ocorreu nos oito dias subsequentes nos quais uma série de alterações morfológicas foi observada. O estágio de pré-pupa deu-se no décimo dia onde cessa a movimentação e inicia a eliminação de mecônio. O estágio pupal ocorreu do décimo primeiro dia ao décimo nono, momento da emergência dos primeiros machos, já as fêmeas iniciaram a emergência aproximadamente 24 horas após. Estes resultados permitem avaliar aspectos da bionomia pormenorizada do desenvolvimento de S. endius para armazenar e programar a produção deste parasitóide, otimizando sua utilização como agente de controle biológico.

  8. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae e Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae em trigo armazenado Efficacy of insecticides to control Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae in stored wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui S. Furiatti

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae was determined exposing them to treated wheat in laboratory. Each plot, which was composed by 1.2 kg of wheat grain, was treated with 5 ml of the concentration/kg of wheat using a propelling air atomizer. Fifteen days after treatment 50 g samples of the grain were taken, from each plot, placed in plastic jars into which 10 adult insects of each species were released. This was repeated every 30 days until 165 days after treatment. The number of dead insects was counted 15 days after each infestation thus the evaluations were made at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the insecticide application. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,375+7,5+3,0 and 0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfen-valerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t and fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t were effective against Sitophilus oryzae until 180 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfenvalerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t were effective against R. dominica until 180 days after treatment. Synergised deltamethrin (0,375 g a.i./t was effective against S. oryzae until 150 days and against R. dominica until 120 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate (0,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against S. oryzae and effective until 60 days after treatment against R. dominica. Fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against R. dominica. The use of mixtures of organophosphorus plus pyrethroids were more effective against S. oryzae and R. dominica when compared with these insecticides used alone.

  9. Evolutionary Trends of the Pharyngeal Dentition in Cypriniformes (Actinopterygii: Ostariophysi)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasco-Viel, Emmanuel; Charles, Cyril; Chevret, Pascale; Semon, Marie; Tafforeau, Paul; Viriot, Laurent; Laudet, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background : The fish order Cypriniformes is one of the most diverse ray-finned fish groups in the world with more than 3000 recognized species. Cypriniformes are characterized by a striking distribution of their dentition: namely the absence of oral teeth and presence of pharyngeal teeth on the last gill arch (fifth ceratobranchial). Despite this limited localisation, the diversity of tooth patterns in Cypriniformes is astonishing. Here we provide a further description of this diversity usin...

  10. Evolutionary trends of the pharyngeal dentition in Cypriniformes (Actinopterygii: Ostariophysi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Pasco-Viel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fish order Cypriniformes is one of the most diverse ray-finned fish groups in the world with more than 3000 recognized species. Cypriniformes are characterized by a striking distribution of their dentition: namely the absence of oral teeth and presence of pharyngeal teeth on the last gill arch (fifth ceratobranchial. Despite this limited localisation, the diversity of tooth patterns in Cypriniformes is astonishing. Here we provide a further description of this diversity using X-ray microtomography and we map the resulting dental characters on a phylogenetic tree to explore evolutionary trends. RESULTS: We performed a pilot survey of dental formulae and individual tooth shapes in 34 adult species of Cypriniformes by X-ray microtomography (using either conventional X-ray machine, or synchrotron microtomography when necessary or by dissecting. By mapping morphological results in a phylogenetic tree, it emerges that the two super-families Cobitoidea and Cyprinoidea have followed two distinct evolutionary pathways. Furthermore, our analysis supports the hypothesis of a three-row dentition as ancestral for Cyprinoidea and a general trend in tooth row reduction in most derived lineages. Yet, this general scheme must be considered with caution as several events of tooth row gain and loss have occurred during evolutionary history of Cyprinoidea. SIGNIFICANCE: Dentition diversity in Cypriniformes constitutes an excellent model to study the evolution of complex morphological structures. This morphological survey clearly advocates for extending the use of X-ray microtomography to study tooth morphology in Cypriniformes. Yet, our survey also underlines that improved knowledge of Cypriniformes life traits, such as feeding habits, is required as current knowledge is not sufficient to conclude on the link between diet and dental morphology.

  11. Polypteridae (Actinopterygii: Cladistia) and DANA-SINEs insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morescalchi, Maria Alessandra; Barucca, Marco; Stingo, Vincenzo; Capriglione, Teresa

    2010-06-01

    SINE sequences are interspersed throughout virtually all eukaryotic genomes and greatly outnumber the other repetitive elements. These sequences are of increasing interest for phylogenetic studies because of their diagnostic power for establishing common ancestry among taxa, once properly characterized. We identified and characterized a peculiar family of composite tRNA-derived short interspersed SINEs, DANA-SINEs, associated with mutational activities in Danio rerio, in a group of species belonging to one of the most basal bony fish families, the Polypteridae, in order to investigate their own inner specific phylogenetic relationships. DANA sequences were identified, sequenced and then localized, by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in six Polypteridae species (Polypterus delhezi, P. ornatipinnis, P. palmas, P. buettikoferi P. senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus) After cloning, the sequences obtained were aligned for phylogenetic analysis, comparing them with three Dipnoan lungfish species (Protopterus annectens, P. aethiopicus, Lepidosiren paradoxa), and Lethenteron reissneri (Petromyzontidae)was used as outgroup. The obtained overlapping MP, ML and NJ tree clustered together the species belonging to the two taxonomically different Osteichthyans groups: the Polypteridae, by one side, and the Protopteridae by the other, with the monotypic genus Erpetoichthys more distantly related to the Polypterus genus comprising three distinct groups: P. palmas and P. buettikoferi, P. delhezi and P. ornatipinnis and P. senegalus. In situ hybridization with DANA probes marked along the whole chromosome arms in the metaphases of all the Polypteridae species examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efeitos do endosulfano em concentrações subletais em carpas (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758: Análises morfométricas, histológicas e ultraestrutural e avaliação da atividade da colinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Maria Salvo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, has been banned by most developed countries, although it is still produced, sold and used in developing countries. Used for control in crops, as well as for insect control in public health programs in some countries, its effects on the environment and its toxicity are still in discussion. For some researchers, its bioaccumulation in terrestrial organisms is considered irrelevant but for aquatic life it should be considered carefully. The present research work was to carry out an study on the effects of sublethal concentrations of endosulfan on the fresh water fish carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758. The fishes were exposed during 15 days to 0.001 mg/L of endosulfan using dimethylsulfoxide 0.1% (DMSO as solvent. The acetylcholinesterase activity on the brain and axial muscle, as well as liver morphometric, histopathologic and ultrastructural analysis were studied. The hepatic somatic index and the livers weight showed smaller values when compared with the control groups, besides being also observed histopathological and ultrastructural alterations. It has not been observed significant alterations in the cholinesterase activity of both brain and striated muscle. These results suggest that the organochloride endosulfan caused toxic effects in the hepatic metabolism of the fish exposed to it in sub lethal doses.

  13. Mersin Bölgesinde Yetiştiriciliği Yapılan Bazı Akvaryum Balıkları (POECİLİDAE'nda Rastlanılan Lernea cyprinaceae (Linnaeus, 1758 Enfeksiyonu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Erkin Koyuncu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırma Nisan - Ağustos 2002 tarihleri arasında Mersin Bölgesi’nde bir akvaryum işletmesinde Poecilidae familyasına ait balıklarda görülen ani ölümlerin nedenini ortaya koymak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Balıkların deri, yüzgeç ve solungaç dokularından alınan parazitler laboratuvarda incelenmesi sonucunda ölümlere neden olan etmenin Lernaea cyprinacea (Linnaeus, 1758 olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmada 110 adet balık incelenmiş olup, bunlardan 49 adetinin parazit ile enfeste olduğu saptanmıştır. Ayrıca parazitin morfolojik özellikleri ve balıklarda oluşturduğu semptomlar incelenmiştir. Balıklar Kloramin T (10 ppm / 1 saat / 3 gün kullanılarak tedavi edilmiştir

  14. Distribución y estado de conservación de los galápagos autóctonos, Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758 y Mauremys leprosa (Schweigger, 1812, en Castilla y León.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALARCOS, G., FLECHOSO, F., LIZANA, M., MADRIGAL, J., ALVAREZ, F.

    2013-01-01

    (Schweigger, 1812 como de Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758. A pesar del aparente buen estado de alguna de estas poblaciones, se ha observado el declive en las zonas limítrofes de sus áreas de distribución. En otras provincias la presencia es anecdótica y casi residual. Cuando valoramos el estado de conservación regional obtuvimos que el galápago europeo se presenta como Vulnerable VUA3ceE y el galápago leproso como Casi Amenazado NT. Como principales factores del declive se señalan la desaparición de numerosos medios acuáticos, los cambios en el uso agrícola y la captura en nasas cangrejeras. Finalmente, se sugiere la realización de estudios específicos sobre poblaciones aisladas para determinar la necesidad de reproducción en cautividad para reforzarlas y conectarlas, y realizar estudios genéticos con el fin de valorar su origen como poblaciones introducidas o autóctonas. En obras o actuaciones sobre medios de presencia potencial realizar estudios específicos para minimizar los impactos negativos. También es importante realizar campañas de concienciación y buenas prácticas a determinados sectores, como el de los pescadores de cangrejos de río, que pueden afectar de forma directa y muy negativamente a las poblaciones.

  15. Avaliação hematológica e dosagem bioquímica de ALT, AST e creatinina em elefante-marinho-do-sul, Mirounga leonina (linnaeus, 1758, encontrado no litoral de Salvador, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes Bastos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999 the Aquatic Mammals Rescue Center - AMRC has been working in the rescue and rehabilitation of stranded cetaceans and pinnipeds on the coast of Bahia, Brazil. This paper presents and analyses the blood cells count and clinical chemistry of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatinine of a southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina (LINNAEUS, 1758, found on February the 11th at Barra Beach, Salvador, BA. The specimen was an orphan male calf, with 137cm of length and estimated weight of 49kg. It presented bad nutritional conditions and a shark bite on the right shoulder area. Clinical management was performed for 56 days, anthelmintic Febendazole was utilized, and the bite was treated with iodined alcohol, Nitrofurazone solution and Kethanserin, simultaneously with Enrofloxacin 10%, Potenay®, Vitamin B Complex and Benerva®. On the 16th the animal presented a right unilateral conjuntivitis, treated with Cloranphenicol oftalmic pomade until the end of its stay in the captive. During this period a total of six blood samples were collected, three for total blood counts and the others for the biochemistry determination of ALT, AST and creatinine. According to the haematological analysis the seal developed an anaemia which was classified as microcytic and normochromic. Lymphopenia, eosinopenia and monocytopenia were also observed, possibly due to its handling and stress conditions. The clinical chemistry presented low values for AST and creatinine, although this did not represent the existence of any pathologic context or disease with clinical significance.

  16. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms

  17. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos teores de Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn e V em mexilhoes Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) coletados no litoral do estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-07-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of Sao Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in Sao Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 37'S - 45 Degree-Sign 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 57'S - 46 Masculine-Ordinal-Indicator 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all

  18. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus- PI e região metropolitana do Recife- PE, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Jamile Prado dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    A Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC) no Brasil é causada por Leishmania infantum a qual é relatada em várias regiões. O objetivo desta pesquisafoi verificar aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e laboratoriais da leishmaniose visceral em cães (Canis familiaris) (Linnaeus, 1758) provenientes da zona urbana do município de Bom Jesus PI e Região Metropolitana de Recife - PE, Brasil. Cães do município de Bom Jesus, Piauí, e do bairro de Muribeca, município de Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco...

  19. Mode d'exploitation et durabilité de la pêche de Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 et Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 dans le lac de barrage du Sourou (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dialla, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mode of Operation and Sustainability of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 and Gymnarchus niloticus (Cuvier, 1829 Fisheries in the Sourou Dam Lake (Burkina Faso. This research on fishery exploitation in the Sourou dam raises the issue of sustainable management of common property. The central hypothesis is that the effectiveness of co-management for sustainable fishing practices is related to the level of ownership of that management and actors' games by fishing communities. In analysing co-management induced effects on fishing practices and exploitation of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus species, related to its implementation in Sourou fishery, a research methodology that combines qualitative and quantitative methods is used. Socio-economic surveys were conducted with 30 fishermen in three villages bordering the fishery. Biological surveys were also conducted with catches of C. gariepinus, O. niloticus and G. niloticus of these fishermen,. The results indicate a weak ownership of the co-management model by fishermen and the strategies of actors that consist to minimize the costs of the sustainable management of fisheries resources at individual level. Indeed, even when informed of fisheries regulations, fishermen use prohibited fishing equipment (54.1% of the catches of studied species, and fishi illegally (43.3% of the fishermen. Furthermore, significant proportions of each studied species are captured before their first maturity sizes (52.2% of C. gariepinus, 15.8% of G. niloticus and 14.3% of O. niloticus. So, the central hypothesis is verified because the weak ownership of co-management by fishing communities and the actors' strategies do not encourage them to develop a responsible behavior for sustainable fishing.

  20. How nest translocation-time, clutch size and presence of yolkless eggs affected hatching success in Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudines: Dermochelyidae, at Projeto Tamar-Ibama, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Pont Morisso, Eduardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se analizó el manejo de los nidos de la especie Dermochelys coriacea, utilizados por el Proyecto Tamar-Ibama entre las temporadas reproductivas de 1989/1990 a 1998/1999, para verificación del éxito de la eclosión en relación a los tiempos de traslación. El estudio se realizó en el litoral norte del Estado de Espírito Santo. Existió tendencia a que el tiempo de traslación influencie el éxito de eclosión de los nidos. Los nidos trasladados entre 6 y más de 24 horas presentaron mayor cantidad de huevos sin desarrollo embrionario. No se encontró relación entre el número de huevos inviables trasladados y el tamaño de la postura, con el porcentual de eclosión. Se sugiere que la traslación sea realizada hasta las 6 horas, o 15 días después de la oviposición. The results of managing Dermochelys coriacea (Linnaeus, 1766 nests by Projeto TAMAR - IBAMA, in Northern Espírito Santo, Brazil, during the nesting seasons from 1989/90 to 1998/99 are analyzed. The influence of the translocation time on hatching success of the studied nests is discussed. The time translocation, in relation to natural oviposition, seems to increase the number of non-developed eggs found in each nest if translocated between 6 hours and 15 days post egg-laying. There was no relationship established between either the number of yolkless eggs in a translocated nest or the clutch size, with hatching success. The translocation of Dermochelys nests either within 6 hours or after 15 days from natural oviposition is recommended.

  1. Influência do período de quiescência dos ovos sobre o ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.

  2. Preferência alimentar de adultos de Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae por diferentes híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5874 Feeding preference of adults of Metriona elatior Klug (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae for different hybrids of Solanum melogena Linnaeus (Solanaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.5874

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Antonio Pitelli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Metriona elatior Klug é potencial candidato para o controle biológico de Solanum viarum Dunal (joá-bravo, pois as larvas e adultos se alimentam de suas folhas e têm baixa taxa de dispersão. A especificidade é um forte requisito para a adequabilidade de um organismo como agente de controle biológico, especialmente pela estratégia inundativa. Desse modo, a preferência alimentar do adulto desse inseto em laboratório foi avaliada em 14 híbridos de Solanum melogena Linnaeus (berinjela. A criação estoque foi mantida em laboratório, com os indivíduos se alimentando de folhas do joá-bravo. O estudo foi realizado utilizando-se testes de dupla e múltipla escolha, em períodos de alimentação de 24 e 48h, oferecendo-se discos de tecido foliar, em condições de placas de Petri. As avaliações da sobrevivência e consumo foliar dos insetos adultos recém-emergidos foram realizadas em folhas de joá-bravo e dos híbridos de berinjela, mantidas túrgidas pela imersão do pecíolo em água. A área foliar foi medida antes e após quatro dias de exposição ao inseto. M. elatior apresentou preferência para alimentação, sobrevivência e consumo na planta daninha. A preferência do crisomelídeo foi maior para o híbrido Minikuro Kowishiki de berinjela.Metriona elatior Klug is a potential biocontrol agent for Solanum viarum Dunal (tropical soda apple, because larvae and adults feed on its leaves and this species shows a low dispersion rate. Specificity plays a major role in the feasibility of an organism as a biological control agent, especially in the inundative strategy. The feeding preference of M. elatior adults was evaluated to 14 eggplant (Solanum melogena Linnaeus hybrids. Mass rearing was carried out under lab conditions, with the insect feeding directly on S. viarum leaves. The study started with dual and multiple choice tests in 24 and 48 hour feeding times, by offering leaf disks in Petri dish conditions. Survival and leaf

  3. Bark consumption by the spiny rat Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer (Echimyidae on a Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae plantation in South Brazil Consumo de Pinus taeda (Pinaceae pelo rato-de-espinho Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer (Echimyidae em plantações no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene L. Gonçalves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Feeding damage caused by Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 (Echimyidae is documented for a Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae plantation located in Cambará do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Under laboratory conditions, feeding acceptance of P. taeda trunk sections was tested with positive results for E. spinosus, but not for other three co-occurring sigmodontine rodents: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818 and Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872.Esse estudo documenta os danos causados por Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 em plantações de Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae localizadas em Cambará do Sul, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em laboratório foi testada positivamente a utilização de troncos de Pinus como recurso por E. spinosus, mas não para os outros roedores sigmodontíneos ocorrentes na área: Akodon montensis Thomas, 1913, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818 e Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872.

  4. Karamık Gölü (Afyonkarahisar'deki Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (Sazan'nun Metazoon Parazitleri Üzerinde Anatomik, Morfolojik ve Ekolojik Bir Araştırma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Levent Kutlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 13 Mart 2004 ile 28 Mayıs 2005 tarihleri arasında yapılan bu araştırmada, Karamık Gölü (Afyonkarahisar’nden yakalanan 71 Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 (sazan’nun metazoon parazitleri üzerinde incelemeler yapılmıştır. Konak balıkta üç parazit türü tanımlanmıştır: Gyrodactylus elegans, Nordmann, 1832; Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller ve Van Cleave, 1932 (Monogenoidea, Plathelmintes; Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, Yamaguti, 1934 (Cestoidea, Plathelmintes. Bu türlerden G. elegans 16 balığın yüzgeçlerinde (% 22,5; 7,6 parazit/balık ve 2 balığın solungaçlarında (% 2,8; 5,0 parazit/balık, D. extensus 65 balığın solungaçlarında (% 91,5; 22,1 parazit/balık, B. acheilognathi ise 10 balığın bağırsaklarında (% 14,0; 10,8 parazit/balık görülmüştür. Konak balıktaki dominant parazit türü D. extensus’tur. İlgili parazite ait en yüksek enfeksiyon oranına ve parazit sayısına kış aylarında, en düşük değerlere ise ilkbahar ve yaz aylarında rastlanılmıştır. D. extensus ile enfekte olma oranı küçük boylu sazanlarda büyüklere göre daha fazladır. G. elegans, orta boylu sazanların yüzgeçlerinde ilkbaharda, solungaçlarında ise kış aylarında kaydedilmiştir. Küçük ve orta boylu sazanlarda görülen B. acheilognathi enfeksiyonu kış aylarında yüksek, ilkbahar ve yaz aylarında ise düşük bulunmuştur

  5. Evaluation of the levels of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca Bivalvia) collected in the coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    The coastal environment has been heavily altered by multiple environmental impacts of human activities, such as disposal of sewage from urban areas, the release of numerous chemical industries, agriculture and the flow of vessels, which can lead to accidental spills of oil and oil products, fuels and other products transported by sea. In this context, a means of determining concentrations of these potentially toxic substances in the sea water is the biomonitoring by means of different types of bivalves, which have been used by various researchers, in Brazil and other countries. With regard to bivalve mollusks, particularly mussels, their use in monitoring the marine contamination is mainly due to their wide geographic distribution, sessile habit and ability to concentrate toxic metals to 102-105 times in relation to the concentrations detected in water. In the present study, we employed the passive biomonitoring using the Perna perna bivalve mollusk with respect to the elements Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V. These elements were chosen since they can be determined by INAA method (Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis), by means of short irradiation which provides faster analyzes and also due to their importance from the standpoint of environmental or nutritional studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of Br, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and V in samples of Perna perna mussels (Linnaeus, 1758: Mollusca, Bivalvia) collected in coastal regions of São Paulo subject to anthropogenic contamination (Ponta de Itaipu and Palmas Island, in Santos), comparing the values obtained in sites potentially impacted with the values of the control site in Praia da Cocanha, in Caraguatatuba. The collection points located in São Paulo coast are located in the geographical areas 23º 37'S - 45° 24' W (Caraguatatuba) and 23º 57'S - 46º 20' W (Santos). The collection of organisms was performed in all seasons of the year, beginning in spring 2008 and ending in winter 2009. The samples

  6. C. Linnaeus' ideas concerning retribution and fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rob. V. Wikman

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available Linnæus' Nemesis divina has been interpreted in different ways. Crucial is its central problem: the ideas of fate and retribution, but these are, in turn, dependent on Linnæus' conception of God and nature and not least on his opinions concerning the unity and coherence of the natural and ethical order of the world. From whatever sources Linnæus may have derived his religious ideas and whatever changes they may have undergone, his religious attitude in face of the works of nature remained unshaken. But Linnæus' religion, as we find it fragmentarily in these literary sources, was entirely undogmatic, untheological and, from a Christian point of view, even heterodox. Partly, this was in accord with his belief in the necessary immanent coherence in the processes of nature and the concomitant idea of the righteous divine order of the world.

  7. Iguana iguana (Linnaeus 1758 (Squamata: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Tres ejemplares fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia, y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas. Localidad El Tigre, 11º58'15.7"S, 68º00'22.5"W; 162 msnm. Fecha de colecta: 11 julio 2010. Hora: 9:27 AM. Colectores: Alvaro J. Aguilar Kirigin y Wilson Bani Rivero. Colectado en bajíos herbáceos inundables, a orillas del río Madre de Dios.

  8. An Update on the Invasion of Weakfish Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (Actinopterygii: Sciaenidae into Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Morais

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available New information on weakfish introduction vectors, its invasive status, distribution, and use as a fishing resource arose after the publication of “The transatlantic introduction of weakfish Cynoscion regalis (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 (Sciaenidae, Pisces into Europe” by Morais and Teodósio (2016. Currently, the first known report of weakfish in Europe dates back to September 2009, with a specimen captured in the Schelde estuary (Belgium/The Netherlands. This fact suggests that weakfish could have been introduced into Europe via multiple and independent ballast water introduction events, and not through a point-source introduction event with subsequent dispersion as previously hypothesized. It is also unlikely that Schelde weakfish migrated southwards to colonize Iberian aquatic ecosystems. Weakfish have established a population in the Gulf of Cádiz region and have already reached an invasive status in the Sado estuary (Portugal. Weakfish were also captured in several other locations along the Portuguese coast, including the Tagus and Mira estuaries at least since 2013 or 2014, and the Ria Formosa lagoon in 2017. Tagus anglers caught weakfish specimens of ~1 kg and ~40 cm in November 2016, which corresponds to fish of 3+ years of age in the native range. The presence of weakfish in the Tagus estuary is still fairly unknown to local anglers. Sado weakfish has already been sold in local fish markets in southern Portugal for 3 to 10 € kg−1. However, we consider that the weakfish sale price is underrated in comparison with other wild species (e.g., meagre, seabass, gilthead seabream. Increasing sale price will convince fishers to use weakfish as a new fishing resource; however, it is necessary to promote the species among consumers and evaluate consumers’ preference in respect to other species. A putative biological threat might turn into a new valuable fishing resource by implementing adequate management solutions.

  9. Distribution and size of the mojarra Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii, Gerreidae in a Southeastern Brazilian bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Rodrigues da Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diapterus rhombeus is one of the most abundant fish species in the Sepetiba bay, which is a 520 km² semi-closed coastal area in Southeastern Brazil. The size and distribution of this species have been described in order to assess the use of the area as a rearing ground in both spatial and temporal (seasonal dimensions. A fish sampling program was conducted monthly by using an otter trawl between October 1998 and September 1999, in three bay zones (outer, middle and inner, defined according to depth and salinity gradient. Highly significant differences were found for CPUEs (number and biomass among seasons and zones. Size ranged from 50 to 230 mm TL, and three size-groups were defined according to a maturation scale (n = 1435: 1 - immature ( 100 mm TL. Immature and L50 individuals were more abundant (number and biomass during Autumn in the inner zone, while adults (L100 predominated during Summer in the outer zone. Evidences of movements of young-of-the-year (50-90 mm TL individuals from the inner to the outer zone were detected as they reach larger sizes (180 mm TL in the second year of life. Condition (k was higher in larger sized individuals in the outer zone during Spring, when they are apt to start the reproductive process. Two cohorts were detected according to modal progression: the first (smaller size showing faster growth than the second, evidencing a slower growth rate as they reach larger size. Distinct size classes occupying different bay zones suggest that the age-groups optimize their coexistence by partitioning the available resources, avoiding intra-specific competition.Diapterus rhombeus é uma das espécies de peixes mais abundantes na Baia de Sepetiba, ambiente costeiro de 520 km² de área semifechada no sudoeste do Brasil. O tamanho e distribuição dos indivíduos desta espécie foram descritos com o objetivo de determinar o uso das áreas de criação numa dimensão espacial e temporal (sazonal. Um programa de amostragem de arrasto de fundo foi conduzido mensalmente entre outubro 1998 a setembro 1999, em três zonas da baía (externa, central, interna, definidas através de gradientes de profundidade e salinidade. Diferenças altamente significativas foram encontradas para CPUEs (número e biomassa entre estações do ano e zonas. O comprimento variou de 50 a 230 mm CT. Três grupos de tamanhos foram definidos de acordo com uma escala de maturação gonadal (n = 1435: 1 - imaturo ( 100 mm CT. Imaturos e indivíduos L50 foram abundantes (número e biomassa durante o outono na zona interna, enquanto adultos (L100 predominaram durante o verão na zona externa. Evidências de movimento de indivíduos jovens (50-90 mm CT da zona interna para zona externa foram detectadas conforme os animais foram atingindo maiores tamanhos (180 mm CT, no segundo ano de vida. A condição (k aumentou em indivíduos maiores na zona externa durante a primavera, quando estes se tornam aptos a iniciar o processo reprodutivo. Duas coortes foram detectadas de acordo com a progressão modal: a primeira (menores tamanhos mostrando crescimento mais rápido do que a segunda, evidenciando uma taxa menor de crescimento a medida que atingem maiores tamanhos. Diferentes classes de comprimento ocupando diferentes zonas da baía sugerem que grupos de idades otimizam sua coexistência compartilhando os recursos disponíveis e evitando competição intra-especifica.

  10. Distribution and size of the mojarra Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii, Gerreidae) in a Southeastern Brazilian bay

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Marcus Rodrigues da; Albieri,Rafael Jardim; Neves,Leonardo Mitrano; Santos,Alex Braz Lacone; Araujo,Francisco Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Diapterus rhombeus is one of the most abundant fish species in the Sepetiba bay, which is a 520 km² semi-closed coastal area in Southeastern Brazil. The size and distribution of this species have been described in order to assess the use of the area as a rearing ground in both spatial and temporal (seasonal) dimensions. A fish sampling program was conducted monthly by using an otter trawl between October 1998 and September 1999, in three bay zones (outer, middle and inner), defined according ...

  11. Astyanax intermedius Eigenmann, 1908 (Actinopterygii: Characiformes: Characidae): Distribution extension in eastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lezama, Antônio; Triques, Mauro; Queiroz, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Astyanax intermedius is known to occur at Paraíba do Sul River basin and coastal rivers of Rio de Janeiro state. A detailed study is presented in order to clearly assign the species to the Doce River basin, in Minas Gerais state.

  12. A new species of dwarf sea bass, genus Serranus (Serranidae: Actinopterygii, from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Carvalho Filho

    Full Text Available Serranus aliceae n. sp. is described from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo States, southeastern Brazilian coast. The species is readily distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: scales around the caudal peduncle 20 or 21; total gill rakers on first branchial arch 23-29; cheek-scales rows 5 or 6; and by the coloration of live specimens, which are reddish with a broad, conspicuous, white stripe from post-orbital region to the caudal-fin base and a white abdomen. The new species apparently inhabits the deeper (30 or more meters portions of reef environments along the subtropical Brazilian coast, and is possibly associated with upwelling cold-water masses. The species was observed hovering above rocky bottoms, feeding on micro-crustaceans, squid larvae, and zooplankton. This new species increases to eight the number of valid Serranus species recorded in the southwestern Atlantic.

  13. Parasites as biological tags of divergence in Central European gudgeon populations (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae: Gobioninae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Bryjová, Anna; Jurajda, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 6 (2017), s. 671-679 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gobio * Romanogobio * sympatric species * parasite community * biological tags Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  14. The parasite community of gobiid fishes (Actinopterygii: Gobiidae) from the Lower Volga River region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Boldyrev, V.; Lohner, R.; Stepien, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 7 (2015), s. 948-957 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gobiidae * parasites * Volga River * Caspian Sea * introduced species Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.719, year: 2015

  15. Intraspecific ecomorphological variations in Poecilia reticulata (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontiformes: comparing populations of distinct environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio T. Mise

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphological variations, according to the principles of ecomorphology, can be related to different aspects of the organism way of life, such as occupation of habitats and feeding behavior. The present study sought to examine the intraspecific variation in two populations of Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, that occur in two types of environments, a lotic (Maringá Stream and a lentic (Jaboti Lake. Due to a marked sexual dimorphism, males and females were analyzed separately. Thus, the proposed hypotheses were that the populations that occur in distinct environments present morphological differences. The morphological variables were obtained using morphometric measurements and the ecomorphological indexes. The data were summarized in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (Manova was made to verify significant differences in morphology between the populations. Males and females showed similar ecomorphological patterns according to the environment they occur. In general the population from Maringá Stream had fins with major areas, and the Jaboti Lake population eyes located more dorsally. Additionally, others morphological differences such as wider mouth of the males from Maringá Stream, wider heads on Jaboti Lake females and more protractible mouths on males from Jaboti Lake suggest a set of environmental variables that can possibly influence the ecomorphological patterns of the populations, as the water current, availability of food resources and predation. In summary, the initial hypotheses could be confirmed, evidencing the occurrence of distinct ecomorphotypes in the same species according to the environment type.

  16. Population ecology and habitat preferences of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (Actinopterygii: Pleuronectidae) in a temperate estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Allan T.; Dias, Ester; Nogueira, Ana; Campos, Joana; Marques, João C.; Martins, Irene

    2013-05-01

    The European flounder Platichthys flesus is a widely distributed epibenthic species and an important component of demersal fish assemblages in the European Atlantic coastal waters. In Portuguese estuaries, this species reaches high densities, especially in Minho estuary (NW Iberian Peninsula, Europe), potentially playing an important role in the system's ecology. In this context, the population structure, production and the habitat use of juvenile P. flesus were investigated. Sampling took place monthly, from February 2009 until July 2010 along the entire estuarine gradient (5 sampling stations distributed in the first 29 km from the river mouth, with S1 located near the river mouth, S2 inside a salt marsh, S3 in a salinity transition zone, while S4 and S5 were located in the upper estuary). Flounder's density varied significantly among sampling stations and seasons (two-way PERMANOVA: p PERMANOVA: p < 0.001), with larger fishes being found in S1 during the autumn (168.50 ± 59.50 mm) and the smallest in S4 during the spring (33.80 ± 3.12 mm). Size classes associated differently with environmental variables, with larger juveniles being more abundant in the downstream areas of the estuary, whereas smaller juveniles were related to higher water temperatures, suggesting a habitat segregation of P. flesus of different sizes. The fish condition of P. flesus in Minho estuary was higher than in other systems, probably due to the dominance of juveniles on the population. Also, the densities found in this estuary were up to 32 times higher than in other locations, suggesting that Minho estuary is an important nursery area for the species. The estimated secondary production of P. flesus was lower than previous studies acknowledged in the system (0.037 g.WWm- 2.year- 1), indicating that the production estimates of this species in estuaries can vary considerably depending on of several factors such as the sampling year and strategy, population and fish size.

  17. West Pike Story: a dated phylogeography of Esox spp. (Actinopterygii, Esocidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gael P. J. Denys

    2015-11-01

    The results distinguish the 3 pike species as well as the 3 lineages of E. lucius from Skog et al. (2014. The presence of individuals from the South-European and circumpolar lineages might result from stocking operations. Finally, molecular dating with reanalysis old fossil calibrations places the European pikes diversification during the late Miocene (E. aquitanicus vs. the others, the late Pliocene (E. cisalpinus vs. E. lucius, and the Pleistocene ice ages (E. lucius lineages. Pike restocking should take into account the genetics of the fish in order to preserve these species with high economical and patrimonial value.

  18. A new saurichthyiform (Actinopterygii with a crushing feeding mechanism from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou (China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feixiang Wu

    Full Text Available Equipped with an effective predatory feeding mechanism enhanced by large and sharp teeth, pointed snout and elongate body, saurichthyiform fishes are considered common fish-eaters in the early Mesozoic aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, because of the similar body plan across species, saurichthyiforms are also regarded evolutionally conservative, with few morphological and ecological changes during their long history. However, their phylogenetic affinity remains unclear as to whether they are chondrostean, neopterygian or stem-actinopteran, and likewise the intrarelationships of the group have rarely been explored.Here we report a new saurichthyiform from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou, China, based on the well-preserved specimens including a 3-D braincase. The new taxon, Yelangichthys macrocephalus gen. et sp. nov., is unique among saurichthyiforms in having a peculiar neurocranium with a broad orbital tectum, paired posterior myodomes, a deep, transverse fossa in the posterodorsal part of the orbit, and a feeding mechanism structured for durophagy. Phylogenetic analysis places Yelangichthys gen. nov. at the most basal position in the Saurichthyiformes as the sister to Saurichthyidae, and a new family Yelangichthyidae is erected to include only Y. macrocephalus gen. et sp. nov. The monophyly of the Chondrostei comprising [Saurichthyiformes + Acipenseriformes] Birgeriiformes is supported, but not the monophyly of Saurichthys, the type genus of Saurichthyidae. With its outstanding osteological details, Yelangichthys gen. nov. greatly increases the neurocranial variations in saurichthyiforms, and its novel feeding structure suggests the consumption of hard-preys instead of fishes.Our findings highlight the detailed osteology of a saurichthyiform braincase and its feeding design. We suggest that saurichthyiforms are closely allied to the Acipenseriformes. Saurichthyiforms were very diverse in the cranial osteology and they might have undergone a rapid evolutionary radiation via, for the new material here, transforming the feeding mechanism and thus exploiting the food resources unsuitable for other saurichthyiforms.

  19. A New Saurichthyiform (Actinopterygii) with a Crushing Feeding Mechanism from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feixiang; Chang, Mee-mann; Sun, Yuanlin; Xu, Guanghui

    2013-01-01

    Background Equipped with an effective predatory feeding mechanism enhanced by large and sharp teeth, pointed snout and elongate body, saurichthyiform fishes are considered common fish-eaters in the early Mesozoic aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, because of the similar body plan across species, saurichthyiforms are also regarded evolutionally conservative, with few morphological and ecological changes during their long history. However, their phylogenetic affinity remains unclear as to whether they are chondrostean, neopterygian or stem-actinopteran, and likewise the intrarelationships of the group have rarely been explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a new saurichthyiform from the Middle Triassic of Guizhou, China, based on the well-preserved specimens including a 3-D braincase. The new taxon, Yelangichthys macrocephalus gen. et sp. nov., is unique among saurichthyiforms in having a peculiar neurocranium with a broad orbital tectum, paired posterior myodomes, a deep, transverse fossa in the posterodorsal part of the orbit, and a feeding mechanism structured for durophagy. Phylogenetic analysis places Yelangichthys gen. nov. at the most basal position in the Saurichthyiformes as the sister to Saurichthyidae, and a new family Yelangichthyidae is erected to include only Y. macrocephalus gen. et sp. nov. The monophyly of the Chondrostei comprising [Saurichthyiformes + Acipenseriformes] Birgeriiformes is supported, but not the monophyly of Saurichthys, the type genus of Saurichthyidae. With its outstanding osteological details, Yelangichthys gen. nov. greatly increases the neurocranial variations in saurichthyiforms, and its novel feeding structure suggests the consumption of hard-preys instead of fishes. Conclusions/Significance Our findings highlight the detailed osteology of a saurichthyiform braincase and its feeding design. We suggest that saurichthyiforms are closely allied to the Acipenseriformes. Saurichthyiforms were very diverse in the cranial osteology and they might have undergone a rapid evolutionary radiation via, for the new material here, transforming the feeding mechanism and thus exploiting the food resources unsuitable for other saurichthyiforms. PMID:24324657

  20. A new pachyrhizodontid fish (Actinopterygii, Teleostei from the Muhi Quarry (Albian-Cenomanian, Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arratia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and species – Motlayoichthys sergioi (ZooBank registration: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2C503741-2362-4234-8CE0-BB7D8BE5A236, urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:EF5040FD-F306-4C0F-B9DA-2CC696CA349D – from the Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian of the Muhi Quarry, Hidalgo, central Mexico is assigned to the family Pachyrhizodontidae based on the presence of the inner premaxillary tooth and a few other cranial characters. Its unique suite of characters, that includes several autapomorphies supports its assignment as a new genus and species, such as the presence of a triangular head with three sides of similar lengths and with its deepest part at the level of the supraoccipital region; the lower jaw projecting anterior to the premaxilla; the ornamentation of cranial bones – especially those of the cheek region – consisting of fine longitudinal crests densely covering the bony surfaces; one or a few deep grooves on the mandibular teeth, which in addition bear acrodin tips ornamented with fine parallel striae; and the position of the dorsal fin, near the posterior margin of the cranium. Motlayoichthys n. gen., together with Michin, Pachyrhizodus, Rhacolepis, and Notelops, is part of the early radiation of pachyrhizodontoids during Albian times.

  1. Using mariculture as a breeding site: reproduction of Hypleurochilus fissicornis (Actinopterygii: Blenniidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Possamai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture in estuaries provides substrate for colonization by fouling organisms, thus attracting small cryptic fish species hitherto unknown in this environment. The blenny Hypleurochilus fissicornis is one of the species that is associated with this new system and is found in high abundance in bivalve farming. To understand the reproductive strategy that this species uses in this new environment, we collected specimens monthly in a mariculture on the southern coast of Paraná State (Brazil. After obtaining morphometric data, we removed gonads to determine sex and maturity stage. Gonads were weighed and analysed histologically. Oogenesis showed the same pattern as in other teleosts, but spermatogenesis showed a very complex dynamics. The spawning is multiple and synchronous between sexes, lasting eight months (May to December and peaking in winter. Hypleurochilus fissicornis was reproductively successful using the mariculture as a breeding site. The species has a variety of tactics to protect its offspring (e.g. batch spawning, long reproductive period, reduced L50, parental care and a reproductive peak in winter.

  2. The food of roach, Rutilus rutilus (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae), in a biomanipulated water supply reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapletal, T.; Mareš, J.; Jurajda, Pavel; Všetičková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2014), s. 15-22 ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : diet analysis * gut * biomanipulation * age groups Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.577, year: 2014 http://www.aiep.pl/volumes/2010/5_1/pdf/03_1421_F1.pdf

  3. A NEW SAURICHTHYS (ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE SPATHIAN (EARLY TRIASSIC OF CHAOHU (ANHUI PROVINCE, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA TINTORI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Saurichthys, S. majiashanensis , is described. It comes from a series of marine vertebrate-bearing beds of the upper member of the Nanlinghu Formation outcropping in the large quarry at the top of Majiashan (Majia Hill near Chaohu (Hefei City, Anhui Province, China. Its age is Middle Spathian (Olenekian, Early Triassic. This new species deeply differs from the several pre-Spathian species of Saurichthys mainly for having only two longitudinal scale rows together with a reduced grid-like structure for the neural elements in the vertebral column. Further derived characters are in the endoskeleton of the dorsal and anal fin, where radials articulate only to anterior lepidotrichia, the posterior ones being supported by the first scale from the caudal pedicle mid-dorsal and mid-ventral rows, deeply imbedded in the body. In addition, the haemal spines of the caudal region are much enlarged and reversed, with their distal parts pointing forwards. Though the skull is lacking, postcranial characters are enough to justify the erection of a new species. This new Saurichthys species, together with other few actinopterygians, can be considered as the oldest assemblage of the Triassic Middle Fish Fauna, which bloomed probably in the early Anisian and widespread especially all over the Tethys for the Middle Triassic and at least the Carnian in the Late Triassic. This new fish assemblage, together with some of the oldest marine reptiles, is considered as the beginning of the actual Triassic recovery among marine vertebrates.

  4. A new species of the genus Salaria Forsskål, 1775 (Actinopterygii, Blennidae in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahyaoui, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The North African freshwater fish fauna is scarce compared to other regions of the world, probably due to historical and climatic factors. The western part of North Africa is more diverse than central or eastern areas. Populations of freshwater blennids that have been traditionally ascribed to the species Salaria fluviatilis nowadays inhabit the Sebou basin in Morocco. In this study we demonstrated morphologically and molecularly that these Moroccan populations constitute a new species, for which we provide a formal description. The following diagnostic characters distinguish the newly described species from other freshwater blennids: head without diagonal rows of dark dots or blotches on cheeks; supra-ocular tentacle thick and simple (not branched; 13-15 teeth on the upper jaw and 14-16 on the lower jaw; 16-17 soft anal fin rays; short pre-orbital distance (cephalic index: 2.9-3.8; height of the anterior (spiny part of the dorsal fin short (dorsal fin index: 0.8-1.3 and 34 vertebrae. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic distances between the new Salaria species and either S. economidisi or S. fluviatilis are high, especially in the mitochondrial control region (18%, while these genetic distances range from 2 to 3% when the nuclear S7 marker is compared. These morphological and molecular characters differentiate the new species from the remaining freshwater species of the genus (Salaria economidisi and S. fluviatilis. The new species is confined to a small restricted area of the Sebou basin in Morocco and should be considered endangered (EN according to the IUCN Red List.La fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África es escasa comparada con otras regiones del mundo debido fundamentalmente a factores históricos y climáticos. El oeste del norte de África es más diverso que las regiones del centro y del este. En la cuenca del río Sebou habitan actualmente poblaciones de blenios de agua dulce que han sido tradicionalmente adscritas a la especie Salaria fluviatilis. En este estudio demostramos morfológica y molecularmente que estas poblaciones marroquíes constituyen una nueva especie, para la cual proveemos una descripción formal. Los siguientes caracteres diagnósticos distinguen a la nueva especie descrita del resto de especies de blenios de agua dulce: cabeza sin una fila diagonal de puntos oscuros o manchas en las mejillas; tentáculo supraocular grueso y simple (no ramificado; 13-15 dientes en la mandíbula superior y 14-16 en la inferior; 16-17 radios blandos en la aleta anal; distancia preorbital corta (índice cefálico: 2.9-3.8; altura de la region anterior de la aleta dorsal corta (índice dorsal: 0.8-1.3 y 34 vértebras. Las distancias genéticas mitocondriales y nuclear entre la nueva especie de Salaria y las otras dos especies son altas, especialmente en la región control (18%, mientras que estas distancias genéticas variaron entre 2-3% para el gen nuclear S7. Estos caracteres morfológicos y moleculares diferencian a la nueva especie del resto de blenios de agua dulce del género (Salaria fluviatilis y S. economidisi. La nueva especie está confinada a la cuenca del río Sebou en Marruecos y debería ser considerada como En Peligro (EN de acuerdo a las categorías de la lista roja.

  5. From Late Miocene to Holocene: processes of differentiation within the Telestes genus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Dubut

    Full Text Available Investigating processes and timing of differentiation of organisms is critical in the understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms involved in microevolution, speciation, and macroevolution that generated the extant biodiversity. From this perspective, the Telestes genus is of special interest: the Telestes species have a wide distribution range across Europe (from the Danubian district to Mediterranean districts and have not been prone to translocation. Molecular data (mtDNA: 1,232 bp including the entire Cyt b gene; nuclear genome: 11 microsatellites were gathered from 34 populations of the Telestes genus, almost encompassing the entire geographic range. Using several phylogenetic and molecular dating methods interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimatic and geomorphologic evidence, we investigated the processes and timing of differentiation of the Telestes lineages. The observed genetic structure and diversity were largely congruent between mtDNA and microsatellites. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (Late Miocene seems to have played a major role in the speciation processes of the genus. Focusing on T. souffia, a species occurring in the Danube and Rhone drainages, we were able to point out several specific events from the Pleistocene to the Holocene that have likely driven the differentiation and the historical demography of this taxon. This study provides support for an evolutionary history of dispersal and vicariance with unprecedented resolution for any freshwater fish in this region.

  6. Fish, Actinopterygii, Perciformes, Gobiidae, Amblyeleotris rubrimarginata Mohlmann and Randall, 2002: range gap filled in northern Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Ditch

    2010-01-01

    The present work reports the shrimp goby Amblyeleotris rubrimarginata Mohlmann and Randall, 2002 in coral sand habitats off three different islands within the Tunku Abdul Rahman marine Park (TARP) off western Sabah in northern Borneo.

  7. Preliminary list of endangered fish species (Pisces, Elasmobranchii , Actinopterygii) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Ricardo S; Menezes, Naércio A

    1996-01-01

    The Brazilian fish fauna is still poorly known with respect to its diversity and conservation status, particularly of freshwater species. Human activities and population growth are rapidly impacting this fauna to an unchecked extent, so that many fish species are presently threatened. Also, some areas have been so critically altered that their fish fauna can no longer be properly inventoried. There is an urgent need to evaluate the conservation status of Brazilian fish species, since none are...

  8. Testicular maturation of Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii, Characidae in a brazilian tropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Santos

    Full Text Available Six reproductive classes of male Oligosarcus hepsetus (Cuvier, 1829, a medium-sized carnivorous Characiform species, are described based on macroscopic and histological techniques. A total of 175 individuals were caught monthly between April 2001 and June 2002 in the Lajes Reservoir, Brazil, one of the largest impoundment areas in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The reproductive classes were based upon changes in the testicular morphology and stages of germinative cells, i.e., resting, early maturing, late maturing, mature, partially spent and totally spent. Fish in the resting class showed testes with spermatogonia and spermatocytes along the wall of seminal lobules, while spermatids were present in the lumina of the lobules. During early maturing, active spermatogenesis occurs throughout the testis; in the late maturing and mature classes, the lobules are swollen with sperm that are typical of fish in breeding condition. Spent testes presented seminal lobules with residual spermatozoa, coinciding with decreasing GSI and greatly reduced sperm production. Overall, the testicular morphology and class of maturity development of O. hepsetus in the Lajes reservoir did not differ significantly from those of closely related species in other lentic environments. Lower GSI values in the oligotrophic Lajes reservoir than in other eutrophic natural lakes suggest that this species may be modifying this aspect of its reproductive strategy in response to the artificial environment.

  9. The South American freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus (Actinopterygii: Characiformes: Prochilodontidae): new species in Vietnamese aquaculture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, L.; Bui, A.T.; Petrtýl, M.; Bohlen, Jörg; Chaloupková, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 6 (2012), 955-958 ISSN 1355-557X Grant - others:MZe(CZ) 29/MZe/B/08-10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : exotic species * aquaculture * Prochilodus lineatus Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2012

  10. Comparative Ultrastructure of Langerhans-Like Cells in Spleens of Ray-Finned Fishes (Actinopterygii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lovy, J.; Wright, G. M.; Speare, D. J.; Tyml, Tomáš; Dyková, Iva

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 10 (2010), s. 1229-1239 ISSN 0362-2525 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : fish * cyprinidae * halibut * dendritic cells * Langerhans cell * Birbeck granules * ultrastructure Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.773, year: 2010

  11. Mitochondrial DNA reveals unexpected diversity of chubs (genus Squalius; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Squalius comprises more than 40 species inhabiting various freshwater habitats. They are distributed in Europe and Asia, with particularly high diversity recorded in the Mediterranean area. The taxonomic status of many populations is still matter of debate. With this investigation we aimed to help in resolving taxonomic uncertainties of the chubs distributed in the Adriatic basin in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on mitochondrial gene for cytochrome b revealed high diversity of chubs in the investigated area. Two evolutionary independent lineages are revealed: the first one comprising species Sq. svallize, Sq. tenellus, Sq. illyricus and Sq. zrmanjae; whereas the second lineage corresponds with Sq. squalus. High intraspecific structuring of Sq. squalus was detected, implying necessity of taxonomic revision of that species. Based on the obtained results, most important aspects of the evolutionary history of the genus Squalius in the Adriatic basin will be discussed and evolutionary significant units identified.

  12. Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897 (Actinopterygii, Acipenseridae during early development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Eagderi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological development and allometric growth patterns of reared Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, were studied from hatching to 50 days post-hatching (dph. The larvae were sampled, their left sides photographed and seven morphometric characters, including total length, head length, tail length, trunk length, snout length, caudal peduncle and predorsal length were measured. Allometric growth patterns were calculated as a power function of total length and described using the growth coefficient to find important steps in early life history. The total length of the newly hatched larvae and fry were 10.59±0.8 and 38.8±2.9 mm at 1 and 50 dph, respectively. Morphogenesis and differentiation were the highest rates during the first 11 days of early development, i.e. endogenous feeding period. There were higher growth rate of head, snout and tail regions compared with those of other organs from the hatch up to yolk sac absorption, followed by positive or almost isometric patterns, after the begin of exogenous feeding, showing priority to enhance the feeding and swimming capabilities. This study confirmed that most of morphological changes of this species are occurred from hatching until the onset of exogenous feeding i.e. during the lecithotrophic phase.

  13. Fine structure and development of the collar enamel in gars, Lepisosteus oculatus, Actinopterygii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Ichiro; Ishiyama, Mikio; Yokosuka, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Masato

    2008-06-01

    The fine structure of collar enamel and the cells constituting the enamel organ during amelogenesis in Lepisosteus oculatus was observed by light, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. In the enamel, slender crystals were arranged perpendicular to the surface and the stripes that were parallel to the surface were observed, suggesting that the enamel in Lepisosteus shares common morphological features with that in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians. Ameloblasts containing developed Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) and secretory granules were found in the secretory stage. In the maturation stage, a ruffled border was not seen at the distal end of the ameloblasts, while many mitochondria and lysosome-like granules were obvious in the distal cytoplasm. The enamel organ consisted of the outer dental epithelial cells, stratum reticulum cells and ameloblasts, but there was no stratum intermedium. It is likely that the ameloblasts have less absorptive function in comparison with the inner dental epithelial cells facing cap enameloid.

  14. Соматические клетки мужской половой системы Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Игнатьев, Г.; Рахимов, И.; Салахов, Н.

    2014-01-01

    Введение. Изучено развитие органа движения хвоста церкарии Fasciolahepatica Linnaeus,1758 на эмбриональной стадииразвития, последующих трех днях активной части жизни и четвертого-пятого дня малоподвижного и неподвижного периода жизни. У печеночной фасциолы на стадии церкарии первыми появляются зачатки органа движения и выделительной системы....

  15. Distribución, ecología y origen de las poblaciones de Vitrina pellucida (O. F. Müller, 1774 y Cepaea nemoralis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora en las Cordilleras Béticas Orientales (Andalucía, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arrebola, J. R.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the chorology and ecology of the andalusian terrestrial malacofauna (South of the Iberian Peninsula, has showed the presence of a group of climatic relicts characteristics from the Eurosiberian region, in the Eastern Betics Mountains Chains. The ecology and distribution of two of these species (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Millier, 1774: and Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeus, 1758 is exposed, being the main limiting factor the typical mediterranean summer drought. The adaptative response of these species against the scarcity of water depends on its different ecophysiologies. Vitrina pellucida (eurithermic lives in low-lands where the availability of water along the year is constant, as well as in dry soils of high mountains because of the cold weather. Cepaea nemoralis (stenothermic lives only in habitats with wet soils and heavy vegetal cover placed below 1500 m. The absence of similar vegetation over this altitude and the extreme climate conditions of the High Mediterranean Mountains prevents its appearance, contrarily to the High Eurosiberian Mountains.

    [fr]
    L'étude de la chorologie et de l'écologie de la malacofaune terrestre d'Andalousie (sud de la Péninsule Ibérique, a permis de déterminer la présence, dans les cordillères Bétiques Orientales, d'un groupe de reliques climatiques propres à la région Euro-sibérienne. L'écologie et la distribution de deux de ces espèces (Vitrina pellucida O. F. Müller, 1774 et Cepaea nemoralis Linnaeux, 1758 sont exposées ici, et on montre que le principal facteur limitant est la sécheresse estivale caractéristique du climat méditerranéen. La réponse adaptative de dex deux espèces face à la rareté de l'eau durant l'été est déterminée par leurs écophysiologies différentes, Vitrina pellucida (eurytherme utilise aussi bien les écosystèmes des terres basses là où la disponibilité en eau est constante tout au long de l

  16. The feeding ecology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus) from a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diet of the grey mullet (Mugil cephalus L.) was investigated in the Lagos Lagoon (high brackish) habitat in Nigeria from February 2004 – January 2006. The highest number of empty stomachs was recorded in October 2004, while the lowest was in December 2005. The highest number of empty stomachs was recorded ...

  17. Age and growth of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1958) (Perciformes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    apra.v3i3.36389 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES.

  18. Topografia vertebromedular de irara (Eira barbara Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Adami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Um cadáver macho, adulto de irara (Eira barbara foi cedido pelo Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres (Cetas, localizado em Salvador/Bahia, ao Setor de Anatomia Veterinária da Escola de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade Federal da Bahia. Trata-se de um mamífero carnívoro que pertence à Família Mustelidae e Subfamília Mustelinae que contém o Gênero Eira, representado apenas pela Espécie Eira barbara. Objetivamos a investigação da topografia vertebromedular do espécime e assim verificar a relação da medula espinal com o canal vertebral; a identificação, origem, emergência e quantificação dos nervos espinhais relacionados com a medula espinal. Pesquisa número 43245-1 autorizada pelo Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade (Sisbio-ICMBio/IBAMA. O exemplar foi fixado em solução de formaldeído a 10% e posteriormente dissecado e radiografado. Foram identificados oito pares de nervos espinhais cervicais, quatorze torácicos e na porção lombossacral da medula espinhal seis nervos espinais lombares, três sacrais e mais de três nervos espinhais caudais. O término da medula espinal ocorreu no nível quinta vértebra lombar. Os oito segmentos medulares cervicais localizaram-se entre a primeira e sétima vértebras cervicais. Os quatorze nervos espinais torácicos originaram-se na porção cranial das vértebras respectivas. Os segmentos medulares lombares, sacrais e caudais restringiram-se à região lombar da coluna vertebral. O deslocamento cranial dos segmentos medulares foi observado no oitavo cervical, terceiro, quarto e quinto lombares e todos os segmentos sacrais e caudais. As informações obtidas poderão ser utilizadas para análises comparativas com as demais espécies e com a adoção de medidas que visem proporcionar o bem-estar animal e a preservação da espécie.

  19. THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE CAPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all species of Patella,. and its colour varies according to the colour of the limpet. ...... A comparable situation exists on the Pacific coast of North America, where .... freshwater and positively to sea water, so that rainwater pools will be avoided. R.

  20. Simulated migration of European eel (Anguilla anguilla, Linnaeus 1758)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.

    2006-01-01

    The European eel ( Anguillaanguilla L.) is a catadromic fish species with its spawning grounds thousands of kilometers away in the ocean, possibly theSargasso Sea. The objective of this study was to elucidate this oceanic phase of migration

  1. Topografia do cone medular da paca (Agouti paca, Linnaeus - 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Regina Freixo Scavone

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos neste trabalho determinar a esqueletopia da terminação do cone medular da paca relacionando com as vértebras lombares e sacrais, visando assim estabelecer parâmetros morfométricos e topográficos do cone medular nesta espécie. Para tanto, procedemos à dissecação, mediante incisão, rebatimento da pele, da tela subcutânea e da musculatura da região dorsal à coluna vertebral, com posterior secção e remoção dos arcos vertebrais para melhor visualização da medula espinhal. Após a individualização do cone medular, registramos os aspectos anatômicos de interesse, enfatizando seu início (base e seu término (ápice em relação às vértebras, e a partir de então efetuamos suas medidas com o auxílio de paquímetro; visando documentar nossos achados, realizamos fotografias e esquemas dos espécimes estudados.

  2. Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758): bioindicator of marine radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Gouvea, R. de C. dos; Santos, P.L. dos; Azevedo Gouvea, V. de

    The kinetic of uptake and loss of radionuclides in Perna perna in laboratory conditions were studied aiming to use this eatables pelecipoda as a bioindicator of radioactive pollution in marine environment. The radionuclides 137 Cs, 131 I, 133 Ba, 51 Cr, 60 Co and 65 Zn were used from 3,7 to 37,0 kBq/aquarium concentrations. The tests 'in acquaria' were made with the following parameters: the concentration velocity, concentration factor and biological half-life. (M.A.C.) [pt

  3. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Cristina Macedo; Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos Melo; Teresa Cristina Sauer Ávila-Pires; Elane Guerreiro Giese; Jeannie Nascimento dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetolog...

  4. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Teiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Cristina Macedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the “Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha” Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  5. Threatened fishes of the world: Misgurnus fossilis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartvich, P.; Lusk, Stanislav; Rutkayová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0378-1909 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : threatened fishes * Europe * Cobitidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2010

  6. The coronary arteries of the agouti (Agouti paca, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the coronary arteries in the agouti. Twelve hearts set, in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution, were used. The presence of left and right coronary arteries was observed in all hearts. The fi rst arose from the aorta, between the left auricle and the pulmonary trunk, and gave off into a circumfl ex branch, whichever was directed to the right surface of this viscerae, and an interventricular paraconal branch that went through the cardiac apex, on the left atrioventricular sulcus. In 91.6% of the cases, at its origin, the paraconal branch gave off a thick side branch to the left ventricle wall, and in 100% of the cases, went deep, characterizing a large myocardial bridge. In 8.4% of the cases, this thick side branch to the left ventricle wall originated directly from the left coronary artery and not from the paraconal branch, and alterations such those to the circumfl ex branch did not occur. Regarding the right coronary artery, the origin of this vessel was from the aorta, on the atrial surface, in the direction of the right ventricular border, going through the subsinuous interventricular sulcus as an interventricular subsinuous branch.

  7. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  8. Morfologia do figado da paca (Cuniculus Paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luis Martins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p109 Foram observados os elementos referentes à morfologia do fígado da paca (Cuniculus paca, segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira que apresenta alto potencial zootécnico. Utilizaram-se oito animais provenientes do setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - Campus de Jaboticabal - UNESP, devidamente credenciado pelo IBAMA como criatório experimental. Mediante procedimento de dissecação verificou-se que o fígado da paca localiza-se na porção cranial do abdome, imediatamente depois do diafragma, ao qual se prende pelos ligamentos triangulares, coronários e falciforme, com sua maior parte localizada à direita do plano médio. O fígado desse roedor apresenta a seguinte lobação: lobo lateral direito, lobo medial direito, lobo quadrado, lobo medial esquerdo e lobo lateral esquerdo, além do lobo caudado formado pelo processo papilar do lobo caudado e processo caudado do lobo caudado. A vesícula biliar encontra-se entre os lobos quadrado e medial direito. Fragmentos desse órgão foram colhidos, fixados e preparadas histologicamente, sendo as amostras analisadas à microscopia de luz. Microscopicamente observou-se que o tecido conjuntivo intralobular é escasso,sua constituição básica de hepatócitos poliédricos organizados em cordões se interpõem por sinusóides e na periferia do lóbulo encontram-se as tríades portais, constituídas pela veia porta, arteria hepática e ducto biliar.

  9. Morphology of the paca liver (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Esper Gomes de Figueiredo Carvalho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The elements related to the morphology of the liver of paca (Cuniculus paca, the second largest rodent of the Brazilian fauna, were observed; this species present zootechnical potential. Eight animals from the animals sector of Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias – Campus of Jaboticabal – UNESP, which is duly certified by IBAMA as an experimental breeding institute, were used. Through a dissection procedure, it was found that the liver of the paca is located in the cranial portion of the abdomen, immediately after the diaphragm, to which it is connected by the triangular, coronary, and falciform ligaments, having its bigger part located right to the medium plan. The liver of this rodent presents the following lobation: right lateral lobe, right medial lobe, quadrate lobe, left medial lobe, and left lateral lobe, besides the caudate lobe formed by the papillary process of caudate lobe and the caudate process of caudate lobe. Gallbladder is located between the quadrate and right medial lobes. Fragments of this organ were collected, fixed, and histologically prepared, being the samples analyzed through light microscopy. It was microscopically observed that intralobular connective tissue is scarce, basically it consists polyhedral hepatocytes organized into cords interposed between sinusoids and the portal triads are found in the lobe, consisting of the portal vein, hepatic artery, and biliary duct.

  10. Regulatory effects of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus on immunological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... Abbreviations: SRBC, sheep red blood cells; HC50, half of hemolysis ... housed, five per cage, and maintained on 12 h day and night cycle. .... therapy, useful in cancer treatment, were found to deteriorate the immunity. The yellow mealworm, as an important food supplement, contains abundant active.

  11. Performance of Solanum incunum Linnaeus as natural coagulant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2- concentrations for the treated water conforms to the Tanzanian Standards and WHO guidelines for drinking ... that S. incunum is promising as coagulant and disinfectant product for water purification. Key words: .... light greenish blue-grey.

  12. The feeding ecology of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus) from a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... ... Olufemi Olukolajo. Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. ... algae and microscopic invertebrates which they filter from mud and sand through ... freshwater lagoons and rivers (K. Kusemiju and B.E.. Emmanuel ..... disgorged their food following capture. Consequently, the.

  13. The Habitat of Yellow Mouth Turban Turbo Chrysostomus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekendarsi, E.

    2018-03-01

    In general, yellow mouth turban snail Turbo chrysostomus L. 1758 was found in intertidal and coral reef area. This animal is active at night (nocturnal) and settles the coral reef-flats area to do its activity as substrate. In doing its activity, yellow mouth turban snail can be found in the depth of 50 cm until 4 m of tidal area. The adult yellow mouth turban snails are found in great number at intertidal area’s border and at coastal area of coral reef-flats. Methodology that was used in this study is visual analysis (descriptive method), and divided into two parameters which were observed, i.e. abiotic and biotic. Abiotic components that were measured are; Oxygen (ppm), pH, Water Temperature (°C), Salinity (ppm), Ammonia (mg/L), Nitrate (mg/L), Nitrite (mg/L), and Calsium Carbonat (mg/L).Whereas, biotic components that were measured are; substrates, seaweeds, other organisms, and epilithon. The observation’s result of yellow mouth turban snail’s environmental condition showed: abiotic condition of the waters consists of oxygen 3-5 ppm, seawater pH 7-8, seawater temperature 23-26°C, and the salinity of 32-33 ppm. The Habitat of yellow mouth turban snail settled the reef-flats area that is overgrown covered by seaweed Sargassum sp. as the place to do its activity.

  14. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seabirds are important in the dynamics of marine ecosystems because they recycle important biomass of lower trophic level organisms. Their faeces and carcasses provide important food sources for terrestrial and benthic scavengers. As a result of the abundance of food resources along the coast of Ghana, common terns ...

  15. Status of windowpane oyster Placuna placenta (Linnaeus) population in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Clemente, S.

    from the vari- laysia, the major producing country is the Philippines, ety ofcurios available in the local market (PL.65). Even which exported US$36 million worth of Kapis prod- though the meat content is very less. it is of superior ucts during 1986... to the lack of knowledge about its edibility as ies Profile 1991). Major markets include U.S.A. Ja- well as non- availability in the local markets. pan, Germany and the most of Europe. Kapis shells are gathered from the wild by hand, diving and dredg...

  16. Histologia do intestino do avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Saviani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de o avestruz (Struthio camelus compartilhar muitas adaptações evolucionárias presentes em outras aves, estes animais apresentam algumas características anatômicas peculiares, como é o caso do seu tubo digestivo em que o cólon é maior que o ceco. Há algum tempo, essa ave tem sido explorada econômicamente e principalmente como fonte alternativa de proteína animal na alimentação humana. O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos histológicos do intestino de avestruzes produzidos em boas condições de manejo ambiental e nutricional. Foram utilizados 13 avestruzes, com 18 a 30 meses de idade, provenientes da empresa Brasil Ostrich, e encaminhados para o abate no Abatedouro Escola da Universidade de São Paulo, Campus Administrativo de Pirassununga. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria e evisceração, foram colhidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do intestino: duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco duplo. Os materiais foram processados, corados pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (H-E e examinados em microscopia de campo claro. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as vilosidades estão presentes no duodeno, porém, não existem no ceco. Dos quatro segmentos intestinais examinados, o ceco foi o que apresentou maior número de células caliciformes. Os nódulos linfáticos e os linfócitos foram observados em todos os segmentos examinados. No ceco, os nódulos linfáticos se agregam para constituir a placa de Peyer. O plano histológico dos segmentos intestinais examinados seguiu o padrão observado nos mamíferos domésticos e em outras aves. O conhecimento da histologia dos intestinos desses animais pode oferecer subsídios para a avaliação comparativa de procedimentos de manejo ambiental e nutricional que possam aumentar os níveis de produção e produtividade dessa atividade pecuária.

  17. Food preferences of the common tern, sterna hirundo (Linnaeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While earlier studies of food habits of seabirds worldwide used examination of ... birds included marine and fresh or brackish water fish, crustaceans and worms. ... showed that S. hirundo utilized the Panbros lagoon fish resource in feeding, ...

  18. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa in cobia, Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Krishnamoorthy; Selvakumar, Narasimman; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2018-02-01

    Ultrastructure and development of spermatozoa in cobia, Rachycentron canadum are described. Sections through the testis show different developmental stages viz, Spermatocytes, spermatids and sperm. Spermatozoa of R. canadum exhibit the configuration of uniflagellated, anacrosomal Type I aquasperm, typical for externally fertilizing fish. Mature spermatozoon is seen with a prominent head and long cylindrical flagellum. Ultrastructure of sperm shows invaginated 'U' shaped nucleus and other organelles. The mitochondrial matrix is electron-dense with irregular arrangement of the cristae. The nucleus reveals a deep invagination (nuclear fossa) in which the centriolar complex is located. The centriolar complex lies inside the nuclear fossa and is composed of a proximal and a distal centriole. The two centrioles are placed perpendicular to each other. The flagellum has a typical eukaryotic organization (microtubule doublets 9 + 2 pattern) and measures around 36.21 ± 0.42 μm in length. This study for the first time provides a comprehensive detail on the ultrastructure and developmental process of sperm in cobia, R. canadum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. THE ECOLOGY OF PATELLA LINNAEUS FROM THE CAPE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Patella comprises intertidal and infratidal animals, which- are important not only because of their relative abundance on most shores, but because of the marked effect they may have on the ecology of these shores. Despite this, little is known about their detailed ecology in South Africa. The present paper is an ...

  20. Identification of Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isoelectric focusing methodology using LKB 2117 Multiphor 11 electrofocusing apparatus was used for electofocusing and identification of Oreochromis niloticus and Tilapia zilli. The electrographs of the two species suggest clear protein differences producing species specific patterns. There were variations in the protein ...

  1. NILOTICUS (LINNAEUS, 1758) EFFETS DE L'HORMONE : 17-A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets de l'hormone sur les performances zootechniques des souches ... et de Biologie Aquatique (LEBA), UFR des Sciences et Gestion de .... Des pêches de contrôle hebdomadaire de croissance ... chaque happa ont fait l'objet de mesure de.

  2. [Digenea of Haliaeetus albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) from middle and north-western Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisińska, Elzbieta; Rzad, Izabella; Sitko, Jilji; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Królaczyk, Katarzyna; Budis, Halina

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-2008 eight white-tailed eagles and two ospreys from middle and north-western Poland were examined for the presence of parasites. Nine birds were infected with 5 digenean species: Conodiplostomum perlatum, Paracoenogonimus ovatus, Strigeafalconis, Metorchis crassiusculus and Nematostrigea serpens. M. crassiusculus was found for the first time in an eagle from Poland.

  3. A new species of Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae from the Ameca River basin, in Central Mexico Una especie nueva de Algansea (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae en la cuenca del río Ameca en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Pérez-Rodríguez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A morphological comparative analysis was performed among different populations of the cyprinid Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 from the Lerma-Chapala and Ameca River basins in central Mexico. A new species, Algansea amecae n. sp. is described from individuals collected from small tributary in the headwaters of the Ameca basin. The new species differs from Lerma-Chapala populations of A. tincella by having a lower number of transversal scales, a lower number of infraorbital pores, a prominent dark lateral stripe along the body, a black caudal spot extending onto the medial caudal inter-radial membranes, and a pigmented ("dotted" lateral line. This new species increases the high level of endemism in the freshwater ichthyofauna of the Ameca basin. It appears to be most closely related to populations in the Lerma-Chapala-Santiago system, as is the case for several other species in the Ameca basin. This pattern of relationship provides evidence for a historical connection between the 2 basins, and implies that a vicariance event led to the isolation of populations and a subsequent speciation event. Due to the limited distributional range of Algansea amecae n. sp., and the environmental deterioration of the Ameca River, we propose that this new species should be designated as a protected species under Mexican law.Se realizó un análisis morfológico comparando diferentes poblaciones del ciprínido Algansea tincella Valenciennes, 1844 correspondientes a los sistemas hidrológicos Lerma-Chapala y cuenca del río Ameca. Con base en este análisis se describe una nueva especie, Algansea amecae n. sp. a partir de los individuos recolectados en un pequeño afluente del alto Ameca, en el centro de México. La nueva especie difiere de las poblaciones de A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago por presentar un menor número de escamas transversales, un menor número de poros infraorbitales, una franja obscura lateral muy marcada a lo largo del cuerpo, un punto negro presente en la base de la aleta caudal que se extiende hasta las membranas interradiales, y por presentar la línea lateral pigmentada. Esta nueva especie incrementa nuestro conocimiento de la diversidad de la ictiofauna endémica de la cuenca del río Ameca, y queda manifiesto su parentesco cercano con la especie A. tincella del sistema Lerma-Chapala-Santiago, lo cual refleja una conexión histórica entre ambos sistemas hidrológicos que posteriormente fue interrumpida por un evento vicariante que produjo el aislamiento de las poblaciones y con ello el evento de especiación. Debido a la limitada distribución del nuevo taxón y al deterioro ambiental del río Ameca, se recomienda designarla como una especie protegida dentro de la Norma Oficial Mexicana.

  4. Relação preliminar das espécies de peixes (Pisces, Elasmobranchii, Actinopterygii ameaçadas no Brasil Preliminary list of endangered fish species (Pisces, Elasmobranchii , Actinopterygii in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S Rosa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian fish fauna is still poorly known with respect to its diversity and conservation status, particularly of freshwater species. Human activities and population growth are rapidly impacting this fauna to an unchecked extent, so that many fish species are presently threatened. Also, some areas have been so critically altered that their fish fauna can no longer be properly inventoried. There is an urgent need to evaluate the conservation status of Brazilian fish species, since none are presently listed as endangered by federal legislation. Based on a literature search and a survey directed to the Neotropical ichthyologists, we present an unofficial list including a total of 78 threatened fish species (12 elasmobranchs and 66 actinopterygians. Of these, sixteen actinopterygian species are listed as endangered, three elasmobranchs and nine actinopterygians as vulnerable, and seven actinopterygians as rare; 40 species either have indeterminate status or are data deficient to yield an adequate assessment, and three species are listed as extinct or possibly extinct.

  5. Taxonomic review of the genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from northwestern Morocco with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casal-Lopez, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus in Morocco presents high diversification, in contrast to the generally impoverished freshwater fish fauna from North Africa. Within Morocco the northern area is one of the least studied territories, due to both its historical background and the limited accessibility of many regions. Previous phylogenetic studies identified Luciobarbus populations that are morphologically and genetically differentiated, to the same extent as others already recognized as separate species. The aim of this work is to describe these populations as distinct species, based on morphological, meristic, and genetic traits. urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8FC4B423-104C-4097-A468-ED3D2664A15AEn Marruecos el género Luciobarbus está altamente diversificado, en comparación con la empobrecida fauna de peces de agua dulce del norte de África. Dentro de Marruecos la región norte es una de las áreas menos estudiadas, por motivos históricos y también por la poca accesibilidad en algunas de sus regiones. Los estudios filogenéticos previos para esta área han señalado la existencia de poblaciones pertenecientes al género Luciobarbus tan diferenciadas morfológica y genéticamente como otras que ya habían sido reconocidas como diferentes especies. En este trabajo describimos estas poblaciones como diferentes taxa, en base a caracteres morfológicos, merísticos y genéticos.

  6. Taxonomy of rheophilic Luciobarbus Heckel, 1842 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae from Morocco with the description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doadrio, I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 is characterized by medium to large fish species occurring in large rivers and downstream zones with slow-moving waters. Remarkably also rheophilic Luciobarbus occur in Morocco, which are of small size and exhibit distinct morphological traits as well as different habitat requirements. These rheophilic species have traditionally been assigned to Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 and L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919, although some authors consider L. magniatlant as a junior synonym of L. nasus. This lack of consensus on the taxonomy of rheophilic barbs is constrained by limited population studies that do not encompass their entire distribution range. Using molecular, morphometric, and osteological data we studied populations of rheophilic barbs of three drainage basins in which they are currently present: Tensift, Moulouya and Oum er Rbia. Our results clearly identified the rheophilic barbs of each basin as different species. The species Luciobarbus magniatlantis is a well-recognized species endemic to Tensift Basin. In contrast, the investigated populations from the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins could not be assigned to any previously described species. Consequently, we describe two new Luciobarbus species in the Moulouya and Oum er Rbia basins.El género Luciobarbus Heckel, 1843 se caracteriza por presentar especies de medio y gran tamaño que viven en las zonas bajas de grandes ríos con aguas lentas. Singularmente, en Marruecos también existen especies reófilas del género Luciobarbus de pequeño tamaño y que presentan diferentes caracteres morfológicos y distintos requerimientos de hábitat. Estas especies reófilas han sido tradicionalmente asignadas a Luciobarbus nasus (Günther, 1874 y L. magniatlantis (Pellegrin, 1919 aunque algunos autores consideran a L. magniatlantis como un sinónimo de L. nasus. Esta falta de consenso en la taxonomía de los barbos reófilos está limitada por los escasos estudios poblacionales realizados que no abarcan la totalidad del área de distribución de estos barbos. Nosotros, usando datos moleculares, morfométricos y osteológicos, estudiamos las poblaciones de los barbos reófilos de tres cuencas hidrográficas, en las cuales están actualmente presentes: Tensift, Moulouya y Oum er Rbia. Nuestros resultados claramente identifican a los barbos reófilos de cada una de estas cuencas como diferentes especies. La especie L. magniatlantis es una especie bien definida y endémica de la cuenca del Tensift. En contraste, las poblaciones analizadas de las cuencas del Moulouya y Oum er Rbia no pudieron ser asignadas a ninguna especie previamente descrita. Consecuentemente, nosotros describimos dos nuevas especies de Luciobarbus en las cuencas del Moulouya y del Oum er Rbia.

  7. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Teimori

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensis sp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10–12 anal fin rays, 28–32 lateral line scales, 10–13 caudal peduncle scales, 8–10 gill rakers, 12–19, commonly 15–16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the middle and posterior flank segments in females, a short but high antirostrum of the otolith that has a wide excisura, and a ventral rim with some small, drop-like processes, and 19 molecular apomorphies (17 transitions, two transversions in the cytochrome b gene. It was suggested based on the phylogenetic analysis that the new species is sister to A. sophiae from the Kor River and that A. farsicus from the Maharlu Lake basin is sister to A. arakensis plus A. sophiae. A noticeable feature of the Aphanius diversity in Iran is the conservatism of the external morphology as well as morphometric and meristic characters, while distinctive differences are present in genetic characters, otolith morphology, and male color pattern. Transformation of the latter was probably driven by sexual selection.

  8. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae) from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimori, Azad; Esmaeili, Hamid Reza; Gholami, Zeinab; Zarei, Neda; Reichenbacher, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensissp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10-12 anal fin rays, 28-32 lateral line scales, 10-13 caudal peduncle scales, 8-10 gill rakers, 12-19, commonly 15-16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the middle and posterior flank segments in females, a short but high antirostrum of the otolith that has a wide excisura, and a ventral rim with some small, drop-like processes, and 19 molecular apomorphies (17 transitions, two transversions) in the cytochrome b gene. It was suggested based on the phylogenetic analysis that the new species is sister to Aphanius sophiae from the Kor River and that Aphanius farsicus from the Maharlu Lake basin is sister to Aphanius arakensis plus Aphanius sophiae. A noticeable feature of the Aphanius diversity in Iran is the conservatism of the external morphology as well as morphometric and meristic characters, while distinctive differences are present in genetic characters, otolith morphology, and male color pattern. Transformation of the latter was probably driven by sexual selection.

  9. Aphanius arakensis, a new species of tooth-carp (Actinopterygii, Cyprinodontidae) from the endorheic Namak Lake basin in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Teimori,Azad; Esmaeili,Hamid; Gholami,Zeinab; Zarei,Neda; Reichenbacher,Bettina

    2012-01-01

    A new species of tooth-carp, Aphanius arakensis sp. n., is described from the Namak Lake basin in Iran. The new species is distinguished by the congeners distributed in Iran by the following combination of characters: 10–12 anal fin rays, 28–32 lateral line scales, 10–13 caudal peduncle scales, 8–10 gill rakers, 12–19, commonly 15–16, clearly defined flank bars in males, a more prominent pigmentation along the flank added by relatively big blotches in the m...

  10. Activity, habitat use, feeding behavior, and diet of four sympatric species of Serranidae (Actinopterygii: Perciformes in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    Full Text Available Diplectrum formosum (the sand perch, Diplectrum radiale (the aquavina, Epinephelus marginatus (the dusky grouper and Mycteroperca acutirostris (the comb grouper are four sympatric serranid of remarkable ecological and commercial importance. This study investigated the feeding of these four species in the São Sebastião Channel, São Paulo State (southeastern Brazil, comparing their diet, habitat utilization and morphological features related to foraging. These four serranids are opportunistic visual predators that use a total of nine different tactics to capture their preys, feed mostly on crustaceans during the day and twilight, and keep stationary and quiescent at night. The ecomorphological study was conducted to test its predictive value to infer lifestyles. It was verified that such analysis should be used carefully and must be complemented by field observations. Although morphologically and behaviorally very similar, D. formosum and D. radiale showed different preferences to the substratum type used by large individuals, which are exclusively sit-and-wait predators. On the other hand, E. marginatus displayed more sedentary habits than M. acutirostris, the most versatile predator from the studied species. The studied species of Diplectrum and E. marginatus can be regarded as benthic serranids, while M. acutirostris could be viewed as a nektobenthic species.

  11. Spatial structure of helminth communities in the golden grey mullet, Liza aurata (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae), from the Western Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Pardo-Carranza, Trinidad V; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Balbuena, Juan Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Ecological investigations regarding the parasite fauna of grey mullets are scarce. The present study provides a detailed description of the helminth communities of Liza aurata in the Spanish western Mediterranean and analyzes the role of spatial, temporal, and host variables in shaping the infracommunities. In total, 204 fish were collected in 2 localities, situated ca. 290 km apart, in spring and fall of 2004 and 2005. A non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to visualize an ordination of the infracommunities according to their relative similarities in parasite abundances. The relationship between infracommunity composition and explanatory variables (host size, locality, year, and season of harvest) was examined by permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) applied to species abundances. Permutational tests for homogeneity of multivariate dispersion were used to test the null hypothesis of no differences in dispersion among groups formed by the factors whose effects were significant in PERMANOVA. A total of 33,241 helminth parasites, belonging to 18 species, was collected, i.e., 12 species of adult digeneans (23% of the parasite specimens), 3 digeneans as metacercariae (68%), 1 acanthocephalan (2.1%), and 2 monogeneans (6.5%). An important part of this helminth fauna is specialized to grey mullets, with a sizable portion of the component community restricted to the Mediterranean and northeast Atlantic. The NMDS ordination indicated high heterogeneity among infrapopulations. However, most differences at both the component and infracommunity level were related to geographic locality. In fact, the PERMANOVA showed that, among the explanatory variables considered, sampling locality accounted for the largest share of variation. The geographical differences observed may be related to local environmental characteristics or to the limited spatial dispersal of the species forming the component community. The latter was supported by the significant portion of variation explained by a 3-way interaction term. Thus, the spatial structure of our helminth infracommunities seems to be determined by a combination of differences in local environmental conditions and the transmission ability of each species at small local and time scales.

  12. First record of the Alboran dragonet, Protogrammus alboranensis (Actinopterygii: Callionymiformes: Callionymidae), from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Fricke, R. (Ronald); Ordines, F. (Francesc)

    2017-01-01

    The Alboran dragonet, Protogrammus alboranensis Fricke, Ordines, Farias et García-Ruiz, 2016, was originally described based on four specimens from Alboran Island, Spain, south-western Mediterranean, collected in 2014 and 2015. This species was previously considered to be endemic to Alboran Island. A surprising new record of this rare species from the Balearic Islands is reported here Versión del editor

  13. A NEW EARLY SEMIONOTIDAE (SEMIONOTIFORMES, ACTINOPTERYGII FROM THE UPPER LADINIAN OF MONTE SAN GIORGIO AREA SOUTHERN SWITZERLAND AND NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA TINTORI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The early history of the Semionotiformes is still scarcely known as, apart from the Permian Acentrophorus, most of the Early and Middle Triassic taxa traditionally ascribed to this order are often poorly known and/or they actually belong to other groups. Sangiorgioichthys aldae gen. n. sp. n. is described from the Upper Ladinian Kalkschieferzone (Upper Meride Limestone of the Monte San Giorgio area on specimens coming from both Italy and Switzerland. The new genus is ascribed to the family Semionotidae as it shows several of the characters usually considered as diagnostic of the family itself, even if no real synapomorphies have been so far proposed for it. As a Semionotidae, Sangiorgioichthys gen. n. has an almost complete circumorbital series, large ascending process of the premaxilla, rostral and nasals almost tube-like, short maxilla, several suborbital bones posterior and ventral to the infraorbitals, long antero-dorsal process of the suboperculum, sensory canal system very rich in pores, mid dorsal ridge scales with an incipient spine. Peculiar characters of the new genus are dermal skull bones completely covered by ganoine, a very large ventral infraorbital almost attaining the anterior edge of the preoperculum, two ‘ventral’ suborbitals, very elongate anterior supraorbital bone,  dentition made of a number of tiny pencil-like teeth, anterior and posterior lateral line scales differentiated. 

  14. Reproduction of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Gadidae), in the Gotland Basin: Causes of annual variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plikshs, Maris; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Elferts, D.

    2015-01-01

    observations during 1969–1995 on four stations in each of two transects. The oceanographic monitoring and demersal trawl research survey data from 1974–2012 have been used in analyses. Results. The sufficient reproduction conditions in the southern Gotland Basin persisted only until 1981. In later decades...... reproduction volume concept can be used as an ecological indicator for egg survival probability in the Gotland Basin. However, it is too premature to re-define the concept of the suitable reproduction volume because it is applicable only to the Gotland spawning ground...

  15. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Maria Luiza Chiste Flaquer da; Dias, June Ferraz; Dias, Johnny Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  16. Moderate pathogenic effect of Ligophorus uruguayense (Monogenoidea, Ancyrocephalidae in juvenile mullet Mugil liza (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO PAHOR-FILHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monogenoidea pathogenic activity can elicit various histological responses in fish. Species of Ligophorus are specific parasites of mullets, and its relationship with host fish may result in a moderate pathogenic action. In order to ascertain this relationship, estuarine mullets (Mugil liza were collected in an estuary, reared in laboratory, for three weeks, and forwarded for histological and parasitological analyses. Ligophorus uruguayense (Monogenoidea infestation in the gills of the mullets was identified. The severe infestation by only one species of Monogenoidea may result from the specificity of these parasites to mullets. Mullets submitted to histological analysis exhibited respiratory epithelium detachment; mild, moderate and severe hyperplasia of the respiratory epithelium; atrophy; and telangiectasia of the gills. This is the first study reporting that mullets highly infested by Monogenoidea can show mild (100% to severe (20% gill changes with a distinct frequency of occurrence. Because of the high prevalence of mild alterations observed, it is possible to accept that L. uruguayense is moderately pathogenic to M. liza, even during high prevalence and intensity of infestation, as a result of its specificity.

  17. Four new species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on Mugil liza (Actinopterygii: Mugilidae) from Guandu River, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Vanessa D; de Azevedo, Rodney K; Luque, José L

    2009-08-01

    Four species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae), i.e., L. tainhae n. sp., L. brasiliensis n. sp., L. guanduensis n. sp., and L. lizae n. sp., are described. The specimens were collected from the gills of Mugil liza (Mugilidae) from the Guandu River (22 degrees 48'32"S, 43 degrees 37'35"W), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January 2008 and March 2008. The male copulatory organ of L. tainhae n. sp. differs from the all known species of this genus in having the largest accessory piece, the length of accessory piece exceeding the length of the copulatory organ tube, and the distal tip of the lower lobe crossing the upper lobe. Ligophorus brasiliensis n. sp. and L. guanduensis n. sp. have a similar shape of the accessory piece, but in L. guanduensis n. sp. the lower lobe is larger than the upper lobe (as opposed to L. brasiliensis n. sp.), the ratio between length of upper lobe and the length of the proximal part of the accessory piece before the bifurcation is shorter and the distal tip of the lower lobe extends to the level of the upper lobe (in L. brasiliensis n. sp. the distal tip of lower lobe crossing the upper lobe). In L. lizae n. sp., the terminal bifurcations of the accessory piece are equal in length and unequal in the other 3 new species. Species of Ligophorus are recorded for the first time from Brazil.

  18. Moderate pathogenic effect of Ligophorus uruguayense (Monogenoidea, Ancyrocephalidae) in juvenile mullet Mugil liza (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor-Filho, Eduardo; Klosterhoff, Marta C; Marchiori, Natalia C; Pereira, Joaber

    2017-01-01

    Monogenoidea pathogenic activity can elicit various histological responses in fish. Species of Ligophorus are specific parasites of mullets, and its relationship with host fish may result in a moderate pathogenic action. In order to ascertain this relationship, estuarine mullets (Mugil liza) were collected in an estuary, reared in laboratory, for three weeks, and forwarded for histological and parasitological analyses. Ligophorus uruguayense (Monogenoidea) infestation in the gills of the mullets was identified. The severe infestation by only one species of Monogenoidea may result from the specificity of these parasites to mullets. Mullets submitted to histological analysis exhibited respiratory epithelium detachment; mild, moderate and severe hyperplasia of the respiratory epithelium; atrophy; and telangiectasia of the gills. This is the first study reporting that mullets highly infested by Monogenoidea can show mild (100%) to severe (20%) gill changes with a distinct frequency of occurrence. Because of the high prevalence of mild alterations observed, it is possible to accept that L. uruguayense is moderately pathogenic to M. liza, even during high prevalence and intensity of infestation, as a result of its specificity.

  19. The parasite community of round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) (Actinopterygii: Gobiidae) newly introduced into the upper Elbe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Ondračková, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 418, April (2017), č. článku 19. ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : enemy release hypothesis * Neogobius melanostomus * North Sea basin * parasite spillback * Pomphorhynchus tereticollis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology Impact factor: 1.217, year: 2016

  20. Ancient connections among the European rivers and watersheds revealed from the evolutionary history of the genus Telestes (Actinopterygii; Cypriniformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available In order to better understand the complex geologic history of the Mediterranean area, we have analysed evolutionary history, phylogeographic structure and molecular diversity of freshwater fishes belonging to the genus Telestes. As primary freshwater fishes distributed largely in the Mediterranean basin, this genus represents a suitable model system for investigating the historical biogeography of freshwater drainage systems in southern Europe. In this investigation we have included samples representing all Telestes species and based our analyses on one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. We have investigated phylogenetic structure inside the genus Telestes, estimated divergence times, reconstructed ancestral distribution ranges and described intraspecific molecular diversity. Diversification of Telestes started in the Early Miocene, when the ancestors of T. souffia, lineage comprising T. croaticus and T. fontinalis, and the one comprising T. pleurobipunctatus and T. beoticus got isolated. The remaining species are genetically more closely related and form a common cluster in the recovered phylogenetic trees. Complex geological history of southern Europe, including formation of continental bridges, fragmentation of landmass, closing of the sea corridor, local tectonic activities, led to complicated biogeographical pattern of this genus, caused by multiple colonization events and passovers between ancient rivers and water basins. Especially pronounced diversity of Telestes found in the Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is a consequence of a triple colonization of this area by different lineages, which led to an existence of genetically distinct species in neighboring areas. Significant intraspecific structuring is present in T. souffia, T. muticellus, T. croaticus and T. pleurobipunctatus. Besides in well-structured species, elevated levels of genetic polymorphism were found inside T. turskyi and T. ukliva, as a consequence of their old origin and unconstrained evolutionary history.

  1. Ancient connections among the European rivers and watersheds revealed from the evolutionary history of the genus Telestes (Actinopterygii; Cypriniformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Šanda, Radek; Geiger, Matthias F.; Freyhof, Jörg; Machordom, Annie; Vukić, Jasna

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the complex geologic history of the Mediterranean area, we have analysed evolutionary history, phylogeographic structure and molecular diversity of freshwater fishes belonging to the genus Telestes. As primary freshwater fishes distributed largely in the Mediterranean basin, this genus represents a suitable model system for investigating the historical biogeography of freshwater drainage systems in southern Europe. In this investigation we have included samples representing all Telestes species and based our analyses on one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. We have investigated phylogenetic structure inside the genus Telestes, estimated divergence times, reconstructed ancestral distribution ranges and described intraspecific molecular diversity. Diversification of Telestes started in the Early Miocene, when the ancestors of T. souffia, lineage comprising T. croaticus and T. fontinalis, and the one comprising T. pleurobipunctatus and T. beoticus got isolated. The remaining species are genetically more closely related and form a common cluster in the recovered phylogenetic trees. Complex geological history of southern Europe, including formation of continental bridges, fragmentation of landmass, closing of the sea corridor, local tectonic activities, led to complicated biogeographical pattern of this genus, caused by multiple colonization events and passovers between ancient rivers and water basins. Especially pronounced diversity of Telestes found in the Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is a consequence of a triple colonization of this area by different lineages, which led to an existence of genetically distinct species in neighboring areas. Significant intraspecific structuring is present in T. souffia, T. muticellus, T. croaticus and T. pleurobipunctatus. Besides in well-structured species, elevated levels of genetic polymorphism were found inside T. turskyi and T. ukliva, as a consequence of their old origin and unconstrained evolutionary history. PMID:29227999

  2. Pelagic occurrence and diet of invasive round goby Neogobius melanostomus (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae) juveniles in deep well-mixed European reservoirs.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jůza, Tomáš; Zemanová, Jana; Tušer, Michal; Sajdlová, Zuzana; Baran, Roman; Vašek, Mojmír; Ricard, Daniel; Blabolil, Petr; Wagenvoort, A. J.; Ketelaars, H. A. M.; Kubečka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 768, č. 1 (2016), s. 197-209 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0204; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Biesbosch reservoirs * fish community composition changes * invasive species * vertical distribution * length distribution * fry trawling Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  3. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Maria Luiza Chiste Flaquer da; Dias, June Ferraz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecologia Reprodutiva e do Recrutamento de Organismos Marinhos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, ES (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  4. A practical approach to phylogenomics: the phylogeny of ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Gong

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular systematics occupies one of the central stages in biology in the genomic era, ushered in by unprecedented progress in DNA technology. The inference of organismal phylogeny is now based on many independent genetic loci, a widely accepted approach to assemble the tree of life. Surprisingly, this approach is hindered by lack of appropriate nuclear gene markers for many taxonomic groups especially at high taxonomic level, partially due to the lack of tools for efficiently developing new phylogenetic makers. We report here a genome-comparison strategy to identifying nuclear gene markers for phylogenetic inference and apply it to the ray-finned fishes – the largest vertebrate clade in need of phylogenetic resolution. Results A total of 154 candidate molecular markers – relatively well conserved, putatively single-copy gene fragments with long, uninterrupted exons – were obtained by comparing whole genome sequences of two model organisms, Danio rerio and Takifugu rubripes. Experimental tests of 15 of these (randomly picked markers on 36 taxa (representing two-thirds of the ray-finned fish orders demonstrate the feasibility of amplifying by PCR and directly sequencing most of these candidates from whole genomic DNA in a vast diversity of fish species. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses of sequence data obtained for 14 taxa and 10 markers (total of 7,872 bp for each species are encouraging, suggesting that the markers obtained will make significant contributions to future fish phylogenetic studies. Conclusion We present a practical approach that systematically compares whole genome sequences to identify single-copy nuclear gene markers for inferring phylogeny. Our method is an improvement over traditional approaches (e.g., manually picking genes for testing because it uses genomic information and automates the process to identify large numbers of candidate makers. This approach is shown here to be successful for fishes, but also could be applied to other groups of organisms for which two or more complete genome sequences exist, which has important implications for assembling the tree of life.

  5. Parasite communities and infection levels of the invasive Chinese sleeper Perccottus glenii (Actinopterygii: Odontobutidae) from the Naab river basin, Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Janáč, Michal; Nehring, S.; Ondračková, Markéta; Jurajda, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 6 (2017), s. 703-710 ISSN 0022-149X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amur sleeper * Baltic Sea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.420, year: 2016

  6. Fish, Actinopterygii, Perciformes, Gobiidae, Amblyeleotris rubrimarginata Mohlmann and Randall, 2002: Range gap filled in northern Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, D.

    2010-01-01

    The present work reports the shrimp goby Amblyeleotris rubrimarginata Mohlmann and Randall, 2002 in coralsand habitats off three different islands within the Tunku Abdul Rahman marine Park (TARP) off western Sabah in northernBorneo.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Torini Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) from the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkenhagen, Kai

    2017-02-22

    Freshwater fishes of the cyprinid tribe Torini are widespread in Africa the Middle East and Indomalaya. The relationships of Middle-Eastern Torini are analysed based on mitochondrial markers (Cyt b, ND4) of the majority of relevant species. I present a larely well resolved phylogeny, which confirms the validity of the morphologically defined genera Arabibarbus, Carasobarbus, Mesopotamichthys and Pterocapoeta. The Torini originated in Indomalaya and colonised Africa via the Middle East. Morocco was colonised two times independently, first from sub-Saharan Africa and secondly along the southern margin of the Mediterranean Sea. The Tigris-Euphrates system is an important crossroad for the colonisation of the Jordan River, the Orontes River and the watercourses of the Arabian Peninsula by freshwater fishes. The Jordan lost its connection to the Euphrates earlier than the Orontes. The Arabian Peninsula was colonised from the Tigris-Euphrates system in at least two independent events.

  8. Population structure, condition, and reproduction characteristics of native monkey goby, Neogobius fluviatilis (Actinopterygii: Perciformes Gobiidae), in the Bulgarian Danube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, Markéta; Jurajda, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 4 (2012), s. 321-327 ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/11/1768 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : monkey goby * invasion * Bulgaria * Danube, condition * GSI * ovary structure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.606, year: 2012

  9. SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF HELMINTH COMMUNITIES IN THE GOLDEN GREY MULLET, LIZA AURATA (ACTINOPTERYGII: MUGILIDAE), FROM THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Míguez-Lozano, R.; Pardo-Carranza, T.V.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Balbuena, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 5 (2012), s. 904-912 ISSN 0022-3395 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 1914 DIGENEA HAPLOPORIDAE * PARASITE SPECIES RICHNESS * N. SP MONOGENEA * MARINE FISHES * ENVIRONMENTAL COMPONENTS * LIGOPHORUS MONOGENEA * SATURNIUS MANTER * BETA DIVERSITY * DISTANCE DECAY * BLACK-SEA Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2012 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1645/GE-2897.1#fn2

  10. Evolutionary history of the fish genus Astyanax Baird & Girard (1854 (Actinopterygii, Characidae in Mesoamerica reveals multiple morphological homoplasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doadrio Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesoamerica is one of the world's most complex biogeographical regions, mostly due to its complex geological history. This complexity has led to interesting biogeographical processes that have resulted in the current diversity and distribution of fauna in the region. The fish genus Astyanax represents a useful model to assess biogeographical hypotheses due to it being one of the most diverse and widely distributed freshwater fish species in the New World. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to evaluate phylogenetic relationships within the genus in Mesoamerica, and to develop historical biogeographical hypotheses to explain its current distribution. Results Analysis of the entire mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb gene in 208 individuals from 147 localities and of a subset of individuals for three mitochondrial genes (Cytb, 16 S, and COI and a single nuclear gene (RAG1 yielded similar topologies, recovering six major groups with significant phylogeographic structure. Populations from North America and Upper Central America formed a monophyletic group, while Middle Central America showed evidence of rapid radiation with incompletely resolved relationships. Lower Central America lineages showed a fragmented structure, with geographically restricted taxa showing high levels of molecular divergence. All Bramocharax samples grouped with their sympatric Astyanax lineages (in some cases even with allopatric Astyanax populations, with less than 1% divergence between them. These results suggest a homoplasic nature to the trophic specializations associated with Bramocharax ecomorphs, which seem to have arisen independently in different Astyanax lineages. We observed higher taxonomic diversity compared to previous phylogenetic studies of the Astyanax genus. Colonization of Mesoamerica by Astyanax before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (3.3 Mya explains the deep level of divergence detected in Lower Central America. The colonization of Upper Mesoamerica apparently occurred by two independent routes, with lineage turnover over a large part of the region. Conclusion Our results support multiple, independent origins of morphological traits in Astyanax, whereby the morphotype associated with Bramocharax represents a recurrent trophic adaptation. Molecular clock estimates indicate that Astyanax was present in Mesoamerica during the Miocene (~8 Mya, which implies the existence of an incipient land-bridge connecting South America and Central America before the final closure of the Isthmus of Panama (~3.3 Mya.

  11. Morphometric variation between two morphotypes within the Astyanax Baird and Girard, 1854 (Actinopterygii: Characidae) genus, from a Mexican tropical lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-García, Claudia P; Bastir, Markus; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Phenotypic variation is important for evolutionary processes because it can allow local adaptation, promote genetic segregation, and ultimately give rise to speciation. Lacustrine systems provide a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which sister species can co-occur by means of ecological segregation. The fish genus Astyanax is characterized by high levels of phenotypic variability, providing an excellent model for the study of local specialization. Here, we analyze the morphological specializations through geometric morphometrics of two sympatric species described as different genera: Bramocharax caballeroi endemic to Lake Catemaco, and the widely distributed Astyanax aeneus. Additionally, we assess the correlation between phenotypic and genetic structure, and the phylogenetic signal of morphological variation. We examined body size and shape variation in 196 individuals and analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences in 298 individuals. Our results confirm the striking morphological divergence among the sympatric characids. Differences between them were mainly found in the body depth and profile and orientation of the head, where B. caballeroi in contrast with the A. aeneus, presented a fusiform body and an upward mouth. Moreover, different growth trajectories were observed among morphotypes, suggesting that a heterochronic process could be involved in the diversification of our study system. Morphological differences did not correspond with the molecular differentiation, suggesting high levels of homoplasy among the lineages of B. caballeroi morphs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A new grenadier of the genus Hymenocephalus from Tosa Bay, southern Japan (Actinopterygii: Gadiformes: Macrouridae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakayama, Naohide; Endo, Hiromitsu; Schwarzhans, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Hymenocephalus yamasakiorum, a new species of grenadier fishes, is described from a single specimen collected from Tosa Bay off Aki, Kochi, Japan, at a depth of 320–400 m. The species is distinguished from its 26 known congeners in having the following combination of features: pelvic-fin rays nine......; pectoral-fin rays i16–i17; first dorsal-fin rays II, 10; chin barbel 55 % of head length (HL), its tip extending beyond the hind margin of orbit when laid back; snout moderately high, not depressed, length 28 % HL; orbit diameter 33 % HL; interorbital width 24 % HL; gill rakers on first arch (outer...

  13. РЕПРОДУКТИВНАЯ СПОСОБНОСТЬ САМОК GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 СРЕДНЕГО ДНЕСТРА

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нина ФУЛГА

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available В условиях Среднего Днестра самки трехиглой колюшки выметывают три порции икры. Овуляция четвертой генерации яйцеклеток текущего сезона размножения не происходит из-за отсутствия условий для завершения накопления в них трофических веществ. Перед выметом очередной генерации яйцеклеток величина гонадо­соматического индекса достоверно уменьшается (Р≥0,95, что свидетельствует об уменьшении относительной массы яичников и количества желтковых ооцитов, формирующих вторую и третью генерации яйцеклеток дан­ного сезона размножения. Величина абсолютной плодовитости самок достоверно возрастает при увеличении длины и массы тела рыбы (Р≥0,95, тогда как значения относительной плодовитости достоверно уменьшаются с увеличением возраста производителей (Р≥0,99.REPRODUCTIVE CAPACITE OF GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS LINNAEUS, 1758 FEMALES FROM MIDDLE NISTRU In the context of middleDniesterthe three-spined stickleback female spawn three portions of eggs. The ovulation of the fourth generation of eggs in the current breeding season does not occur due to the lack of conditions for the completion of trophic substances accumulation. Before sweeping the next generation oocytes the value of gonadosomatic index is significantly decreasing (P≥0.95, which indicates a decrease in the relative weight of the ovaries and in the number of yolk oocytes

  14. COMPARISON OF CHITIN STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THREE COMMON WASP SPECIES (Vespa crabro LINNAEUS, 1758, Vespa orientalis LINNAEUS, 1771 and Vespula germanica (FABRICIUS, 1793)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Murat; Bağrıaçık, Nil; Seyyar, Osman; Baran, Talat

    2015-08-01

    There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Identification of bester hybrid and its parental species (♀ Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758 and ♂ Acipenser ruthenus Linnaeus, 1758 by nuclear markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, sturgeon farming is gaining advance, different species being raised for commercial purposes and for restocking activities. A correct identification of individuals is imposed since severe ecological damages might occur if non-native species or hybrids are used for restocking. Such identification is required also for commercial reasons, the meat and caviar from different species having different prices. The aim of our study was to analyze two sturgeon species, Huso huso and Acipenser ruthenus and their interspecific hybrid - bester, using nuclear markers, in order to set up a molecular method for their accurate identification. The genetic pattern of the species was inferred from the analysis of nine microsatellite loci (LS19, LS34, LS39, LS54, AoxD234, AnacC11, LS68, Aox45 and Aox27 amplified by multiplex PCR reactions. The genotype data were analyzed with GENETIX v4.05 and STRUCTURE. The FCA analysis grouped the individuals in three distinct clusters corresponding to each of the pure species and to the interspecific hybrids. The admixture analysis performed in STRUCTURE also assigned three groups, confirming the results highlighted by FCA. We can conclude that the selected microsatellite markers allow the unambiguously identification of the bester hybrid and its genitor species from Romanian farms.

  16. Evidence for an autumn downstream migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) and brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus) parr to the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Imre; Kesler, Martin; Saks, Lauri; Rohtla, Mehis; Verliin, Aare; Svirgsden, Roland; Jürgens, Kristiina; Vetemaa, Markus; Saat, Toomas

    2014-06-01

    In the eastern Baltic rivers, anadromous salmonid parr are known to smoltify and migrate to the sea from March until June, depending on latitude, climate and hydrological conditions. In this study, we present the first records of autumn descent of brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar from the Baltic Sea Basin. Otolith microchemistry analyses revealed that these individuals hatched in freshwater and had migrated to the brackish water shortly prior to capture. The fish were collected in 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2013 from Eru Bay (surface salinity 4.5-6.5 ‰), Gulf of Finland. This relatively wide temporal range of observations indicates that the autumn descent of anadromous salmonids is not a random event. These results imply that autumn descent needs more consideration in the context of the effective stock management, assessment and restoration of Baltic salmonid populations and their habitats.

  17. BIOMETRY OF PACA NEWBORNS BRED IN CAPTIVITY(AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766 NOTA CIENTÍFICA: BIOMETRIA DOS NEONATOS DE PACA CRIADOS EM CATIVEIRO (AGOUTI PACA, LINNAEUS, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Carlos Canola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Biometry provides important data on weight and length of wild animal newborns. After ultrasound pregnancy detection, 22 female pacas were separated in individual bails and kept until weaning of newborns. Newborns were measured with a metric tape (between the tips of the muzzle rostrally and the tail distally and weighted in a digital weight scale. Considering males and females, the average newborn length (average length ± standard deviation was 33.37 ± 0.57cm. Among males, the average weight was 33.30 ± 0.52 cm and among females 33.45 ± 0.62cm. Considering males and females, newborns weighted (average weight ± standard deviation 741.14 ± 51.23g. Among males, average weight was 717.75 ± 49.06g and among females 764.53 ± 53.40g. Female newborns are higher and heavier than males, but averages of weight and length of males and females did not differ themselves by the Tukey test (P<0.05.

    Key-words: Agouti paca, biometry, newborns.

    A biometria proporciona dados importantes no peso e comprimento de neonatos de animais selvagens. Após detecção ultra-sonográfica da prenhez, 22 pacas fêmeas foram separadas em baias individuais e mantidas até o desmame dos filhotes. Os neonatos eram medidos com uma fita métrica flexível (entre as extremidades do focinho e da caudal e então pesados em balança digital de precisão. Considerando-se machos e fêmeas, o comprimento dos neonatos (comprimento ± desvio padrão foi 33,37 ± 0,57 cm. Entre os machos, o comprimento médio foi 33,30 ± 0,52 cm e entre as fêmeas foi de 33,45 ± 0,62 cm. Em relação ao peso e considerando-se machos e fêmeas, os neonatos pesavam (peso ± desvio padrão 741,14 ± 51,23g. Entre os machos, o peso médio foi 717,75 ± 49,06g e entre as fêmeas 764,53 ± 53,40g. Os neonatos fêmeas são maiores e mais pesados que os neonatos machos de paca, mas as médias de peso e de comprimento de machos e fêmeas não diferiram entre si, pelo teste de Tukey (P<0.05.

    Palavras-chaves: Biometria, neonatos, agouti paca.

  18. Evaluación larvicida de suspensiones acuosas de Annona muricata Linnaeus «guanábana» sobre Aedes aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bobadilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available EL presente trabajo evaluó la toxicidad larvicida de suspensiones acuosas provenientes de extractos etanólicos de las semillas, flores, hojas, corteza de ramas y corteza de raíces de Annona muricata L. «guanábana» sobre larvas del IV estadio de Aedes aegypti para determinar de esta manera los niveles de susceptibilidad. El mayor efecto tóxico correspondió a la suspensión de las semillas con un 100% de mortalidad a las 24 horas a 0,5 mg/mL, seguidos por las flores a las 48 horas a 10 mg/mL y hojas a las 36 horas a 100 mg/mL. En semillas, las concentraciones letales al 50% (CL50 y 90% (CL90 a las 48 horas de exposición fueron 0,02 mg/mL y 0,11 mg/mL, en flores 3,33 y 12,16 mg/mL, en hojas 8,25 y 26,87 mg/mL y en corteza de ramas 19,21 y 97,23 mg/mL, respectivamente. Los resultados de las rectas probit-logarítmicas indicaron susceptibilidad de los individuos a cada suspensión, gracias a la acción de diversos principios activos distribuidos en todo el árbol.

  19. Mammalia, Myrmecophagidae, Myrmecophaga tridactyla (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cervidae, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758): contribution to the knowledge of the historical distribution in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Tortato, Fernando; Althoff, Sérgio

    2011-01-01

    The present study reports historical records of Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the north plateau of Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil, thus contributing to the knowledge about the distribution of these species. The possible causes of the extinction of Ozotoceros bezoarticus are also discussed as well as management tactics to conserve these species in southern Brazil.

  20. Descriptive macroscopic anatomy of the central nervous system six-banded armadillo (Euphractus sexcintus, Linnaeus, 1758 and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Silva Araújo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Armadillos of the species Dasypus novemcinctus and Euphractus sexcintus are xenarthrico is a mammal that inhabits fields and has several eating habits. This study proposes to analise the macroscopic anatomy of the nervous system of the armadillo peba, enabling comparisons with other mammals. Three animals of each species were to donated ICMBio - Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity, the Serra da Capivara National Park, authorized by SISBIO 22826-01, victims of poaching and they had died. The animals were stored in Histology and Embryology Laboratory of the Morphology Department of Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Piauí. Initially, they were fixed with 10% buffered formalin for 24 hours and then dissected for observation of the organs forming the central nervous system. The central nervous system Armadillo consists of the brain and spinal cord. The macroscopic morphology, the central nervous system Armadillo resembles those of other mammals, however, anatomical features found in the brain and spinal cord suggest a higher olfactory expression and motor skills.

  1. Variation in life-history traits between a newly established and long-established population of non-native pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Centrarchidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečná, Markéta; Janáč, Michal; Roche, Kevin Francis; Jurajda, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2015), s. 385-392 ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : freshwater fish * alien species * introduced species * date of introduction * size-at-maturity * fecundity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.622, year: 2015

  2. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences among closely located and related species and estimate extinction risk even more accurately than currently applied IUCN criteria.

  3. Comparison of the bioaccumulation from seawater and depuration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the spotted dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula (Chondrichthys) and the turbot Psetta maxima (Actinopterygii: Teleostei)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffree, Ross A.; Warnau, Michel; Teyssie, Jean-Louis; Markich, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals and radionuclides ( 241 Am, 109 Cd, 57 Co, 51 Cr, 134 Cs, 54 Mn and 65 Zn) from seawater was experimentally compared in the Chondrichthyan Scyliorhinus canicula (spotted dogfish) and the Actinopterygian Teleost Psetta maxima (turbot), of comparable size, age and benthic feeding habits. The speciation of these elements in seawater (salinity 38 per mille , pH 8.1, temperature 16.5 deg. C) was also calculated to determine their potential bioavailability. The uptake rates, measured over 14 days, varied greatly among isotopes and between species. Concentration factors (CFs) in P. maxima varied 5-fold between ca. 0.2 for 51 Cr and 2.5 for 65 Zn and 134 Cs, whereas in S. canicula they varied by a much greater factor of 350, with CFs for 51 Cr and 241 Am ranging from ca. 0.4 to 140, respectively. With the exception of 134 Cs, all radiotracers were accumulated at a faster rate in S. canicula than in P. maxima, particularly for 241 Am and 65 Zn where the CFs attained during the uptake phase were, two and one order of magnitude greater in S. canicula, respectively. In contrast, 134 Cs reached a CF of about 2.5 in P. maxima, which was 5-fold greater than in S. canicula. Patterns of loss from the experimental depuration phase over 29 days showed greater similarities between species, compared to the uptake phase that highlighted the greater differences between elements. The distributions of these seven radioisotopes among six body components indicated that between the two species the skin of the dogfish displayed a greater bioaccumulation potential, particularly for 241 Am, 57 Co and 65 Zn. However 65 Zn was also distinctive from 241 Am and 57 Co in its pattern of bioaccumulation in dogfish, with its other body components attaining concentrations of 65 Zn that were comparable to the levels found in its skin. The heightened uptake of 134 Cs in turbot was characterised by a more even percentage distribution among its tissues compared to 241 Am and 57 Co, but every tissue of turbot had a higher concentration of 134 Cs, compared to dogfish, particularly the muscle and liver. The elevated uptake rates and higher CFs for most radioisotopes indicate that S. canicula is more susceptible than P. maxima to exposure and contamination by these metals and radionuclides in seawater. These experimentally-determined differences between dogfish and turbot in their bioaccumulation characteristics were assessed against a set of criteria erected to evaluate the working hypothesis that they were taxonomically based. The outcomes of this initial assessment were supportive of this hypothesis that warrants further investigation

  4. First record of the silver-cheeked toad fish Lagocephalus scleratus (Gmelin, 1789 (Actinopterygii: Tetraodontidae from Chennai coastal waters, Southeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Silambarasan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The silver-cheeked toad fish, Lagocephalus scleratus, was recorded for the first time on 25 September 2014. Two specimens of this fish species were collected from the by-catch landed by a commercial deep-sea trawler at Kasimedu Fishing Harbour, Chennai coast, Southeast India. The morphometric and meristic characters of the recorded specimens are described and discussed. The specimen was compared with earlier reports.

  5. Age, growth, and reproductive aspects of the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata (Actinopterygii: Epinephelidae in a man-made rocky habitat in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Seyboth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dusky grouper, Mycteroperca marginata, is an important commercial marine fish that is currently considered an endangered species worldwide and listed as overexploited in Brazil. Although its reproductive biology has been studied elsewhere, no information is available for populations in its southernmost distribution limit on the Brazilian coast. The present work investigates age structure, growth and reproduction of individuals inhabiting a pair of rocky jetties, about 4.5 km long each, located in the mouth of Patos Lagoon in the municipality of Rio Grande, in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. A total of 130 individuals obtained between February 2007 and May 2009 were analyzed, with total length ranging from 260 to 800 mm. The growth coefficient found in the present study (K: 0.069 was lower than values reported for dusky grouper populations from the Mediterranean Sea (0.087 and southeast Africa (0.09. This difference could be related to higher average water temperatures in these regions compared to the current study site or due to poorer habitat quality in terms of the shelters available for dusky grouper individuals to establish their territories. Microscopic ovarian analyses of individuals during three years of sampling revealed only the occurrence of immature and resting females. The absence of ripe or post-spawning individuals, associated with low GSI values (A garoupa-verdadeira, Mycteroperca marginata, é uma espécie de importância comercial que atualmente é considerada como ameaçada mundialmente e sobre-explotada no Brasil. Embora sua biologia reprodutiva tenha sido estudada em outras regiões, nenhuma informação está disponível sobre populações que habitam o extremo sul da sua distribuição na costa brasileira. O presente trabalho investiga a estrutura de idade, crescimento e reprodução de indivíduos que habitam dois molhes de pedra, com cerca de 4,5 km de extensão cada, localizados na desembocadura da laguna dos Patos no município de Rio Grande, no Atlântico Sudoeste. Foram analisados 130 indivíduos obtidos entre fevereiro de 2007 e maio de 2009, com comprimento total entre 260 e 800 mm. O coeficiente de crescimento no presente estudo (K: 0,069 foi inferior aos valores reportados para oMediterrâneo (0,087 e sudeste da África (0,09. Essa diferença pode estar relacionada a temperaturas médias maiores nessas regiões comparadas ao presente local de estudo ou devido a menor qualidade de habitat em termo de abrigos para os indivíduos de garoupa-verdadeira estabelecerem seus territórios. Análises microscópicas dos ovários dos indivíduos durante esses três anos de amostragens revelaram somente a ocorrência de indivíduos imaturos e fêmeas em repouso. A ausência de indivíduos ovados ou em pós-desova, associada com baixos valores do IGS (<0,2, ao longo de todos os meses de coleta, indica que a garoupa-verdadeira não utiliza esse substrato rochoso construído pelo homem como um local de desova. A estimativa de um L50 de 451,3 mm indica que a maioria dos indivíduos capturados nessa região é imatura. Pressão de pesca sobre indivíduos imaturos, associada com a sua lenta taxa de crescimento e complexo modo reprodutivo, ameaça a sustentabilidade da atual pesca da garoupa-verdadeira na área de estudo.

  6. Role of the invasive Chinese sleeper Perccottus glenii (Actinopterygii: Odontobutidae) in the distribution of fish parasites in Europe: New data and a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Kutsokon, Y.; Stepien, C. A.; Markovych, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 8 (2016), s. 941-951 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chinese sleeper * enemy release hypothesis * invasive species * parasites * Perccottus glenii Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.759, year: 2016

  7. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, W.S., E-mail: fernandez@usp.br [Graduate Program in Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, J.F. [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g{sup −1} for Fe to 7 μg g{sup −1} for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  8. [THE MICROSPORIDIUM GLUGEA GASTEROSTEI VORONIN 1974 (MICROSPORIDIA: MARINOSPORIDIA) FROM THE THREE-SPINED STICKLEBACK GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS (ACTINOPTERYGII: GASTEROSTEIFORMES) AS AN INDEPENDENT SPECIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarev, Y S; Voronin, V N; Senderskiy, I V; Issi, I V

    2015-01-01

    The microsporidium Glugea gasterostei from the three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus was described as an independent species basing upon morphological and ecological traits of the parasite (Voronin, 1974), further supported by ultrastructural characters of its spores (Voronin, 1983). During the revision of microsporidia of the genus Glugea (Canning, Lom, 1986; Lom, 2002), the validity of this species was doubted and it was synonymized with G. anomala. Nevertheless, the molecular phylogenetic analysis performed in the present study showed the unique molecular haplotype of small subunit rRNA gene of G. gasterostei (Genbank accession number KM977990) and its close relatedness to G. anomala, G. atherinae and G. hertwigi (sequence similarity of 99.7 %). One of typical characters of G. gasterostei, as opposed to G. anomala, is the formation of xenomas on inner tissues and not on the surface of infected fishes. This feature is retained even after the infection of different host species. Taken together, these data confirm the validity of G. gasterostei as a separate species among closely related taxa that had diverged comparatively recently.

  9. First record of the Chinese sleeper, Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877 (Actinopterygii: Odontobutidae) in the Dnieper Estuary, southern Ukraine (Black Sea drainage)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kvach, Yuriy; Dykyy, I.; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2016), s. 285-290 E-ISSN 2242-1300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : invasive species * new finding * Dnieper Estuary * Ukraine Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.835, year: 2016 http://www.reabic.net/journals/bir/2016/4/BIR_2016_Kvach_etal.pdf

  10. Coeficientes de digestibilidad aparente de harina de pescado peruana y maíz amarillo duro para Colossoma macropomum (Actinopterygii, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Walter Gutierrez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Coeficientes de Digestibilidad Aparente (CDA de la materia seca (MS, proteína cruda (PC, lípido crudo(LC y energía bruta (EB de los ingredientes alimenticios harina de pescado peruana (HPP y de maíz amarillo duro (MAD fueron determinados en juveniles de Colossoma macropomum (150,0 ± 25,5 g. En el experimento la dieta de referencia se mezcló con cada uno de los ingredientes prueba en una relación de 70:30. El óxido crómico se usó como indicador inerte. La dieta de referencia y las dietas prueba fueron suministradas a C. macropomum, criada a 27 ºC, 7 mg/L de oxígeno disuelto y pH entre 7,5. Las muestras fecales fueron colectadas por sifoneo. Los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB de la HPP fueron de 88,06 ± 0,83%, 87,08 ± 1,34%, 85,87 ± 2,69 y 87,29 ± 1,57% respectivamente. Igualmente los CDA para MS, PC, LC y EB del MAD fueron de 82,38 ± 1,02%, 75,46 ± 1,53%, 76,17 ± 2,43% y 75,04 ± 1,80% respectivamente. La energía digestible aparente calculada fue de 3950 Kcal/kg para la HPP y 2830 kcal/kg para el MAD. Se concluye que C. macropomum digiere mejor las fracciones proteicas y energéticas de la HPP. Al mismo tiempo muestra que digiere también la fracción energética del MAD, proveniente de los carbohidratos solubles.

  11. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, W. S.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g-1 for Fe to 7 μg g-1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA).

  12. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, W.S.; Dias, J.F.; Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g −1 for Fe to 7 μg g −1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  13. Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events in southern Iberian Peninsula: Implications for the evolutionary history of freshwater fish of the genus Squalius (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Silvia; Cobo-Simon, Marta; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    Southern Iberian freshwater ecosystems located at the border between the European and African plates represent a tectonically complex region spanning several geological ages, from the uplifting of the Betic Mountains in the Serravalian-Tortonian periods to the present. This area has also been subjected to the influence of changing climate conditions since the Middle-Upper Pliocene when seasonal weather patterns were established. Consequently, the ichthyofauna of southern Iberia is an interesting model system for analyzing the influence of Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events on its evolutionary history. The cyprinids Squalius malacitanus and Squalius pyrenaicus are allopatrically distributed in southern Iberia and their evolutionary history may have been defined by Cenozoic tectonic and climatic events. We analyzed MT-CYB (510 specimens) and RAG1 (140 specimens) genes of both species to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and to estimate divergence times and ancestral distribution ranges of the species and their populations. We also assessed their levels of genetic structure and diversity as well as the amount of gene flow between populations. To investigate recent paleogeographical and climatic factors in southern Iberia, we modeled changes-through-time in sea level from the LGM to the present. Phylogenetic, geographic and population structure analyses revealed two well-supported species (S. malacitanus and S. pyrenaicus) in southern Iberia and two subclades (Atlantic and Mediterranean) within S. malacitanus. The origin of S. malacitanus and the separation of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations occurred during the Serravalian-Tortonian and Miocene-Pliocene periods, respectively. These divergence events occurred in the Middle Pliocene and Pleistocene in S. pyrenaicus. In both species, Atlantic basins possessed populations with higher genetic diversity than Mediterranean, which may be explained by the Janda Lagoon. The isolation of S. malacitanus was earlier and related to the rising of the Betic Mountains. Divergence of its Atlantic and Mediterranean populations was associated with the creation of the freshwater systems of southern Iberia close to the Gibraltar Strait. The presence of S. pyrenaicus in southern Iberia may be the result of recent colonization associated with river capture, as demonstrated our biogeographic reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes) and an alternative pattern of mitogenomic evolution in vertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xuzhen; Wang, Jun; He, Shunping

    2007-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes, and a no......The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Chinese hook snout carp, Opsariichthys bidens, was newly determined using the long and accurate polymerase chain reaction method. The 16,611-nucleotide mitogenome contains 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes (12S, 16S), 22 tRNA genes...

  15. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  16. Normal axial skeleton structure in common roach Rutilus rutilus (Actinopterygii: Cyprinidae) and malformations due to radiation contamination in the area of the Mayak (Chelyabinsk Province, Russia) nuclear plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogutskaya, N G; Zuykov, M A; Naseka, A M; Anderson, E B

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to describe normal axial skeletal structure in common roach Rutilus rutilus from putative unaffected environmental conditions, and the occurrence of skeletal malformations in the fish from an area under radiation contamination. Specimens were collected from water bodies of the Techa Cascade Reservoirs located near the Mayak atomic industry plant in the River Ob' drainage, Chelyabinsk Province, Russia. One sample was collected from Lake Irtyash, a reservoir of drinkable water, supplying the town of Ozersk, and the other one from a technical reservoir which is a storage of liquid radioactive waste from Mayak and characterized by high radioactive contamination (mostly (90)Sr and (137)Cs). A comparison was made with historical material collected from the River Ob' before the middle of the 20th century, i.e. before the environment became affected by radioactive contamination. A high number of abnormalities of the axial skeleton were detected in both Mayak samples, in 94 and 97% of examined specimens, in contrast to about 20% in the historical specimens. The abnormalities were in both the unpaired fins and the vertebral column, including the caudal complex and included supernumerary elements, fusions, deformities and displacement of the elements. Most axial skeleton abnormalities, however, were minor, such as splitting, shortening or deformation of spines. Severe defects, such as extensive scolioses, lordoses and kyphoses, were not found. The causes of the abnormalities were not identified in this study, but the high incidence of malformations may be attributed to genetically determined imbalance during development. The almost equal distribution of abnormalities among the fish from non-contaminated and radioactive contaminated reservoirs may be explained by either recent gene flow within the population of R. rutilus in the River Techa system or the effect of unknown unfavourable environmental factors such as chemical pollution. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. A revision of the Australian species of Trimma (Actinopterygii, Gobiidae), with descriptions of six new species and redescriptions of twenty-three valid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterbottom, Richard; Hoese, Douglass F

    2015-03-17

    The gobiid genus Trimma currently contains 75 valid species, with another 20-30 known but undescribed species. There are 29 species in Australian waters (six undescribed). This paper describes the six new species, and provides redescriptions of most of the 23 previously described species known from the region, as well as a key for all the species. The six new species are: T. insularum (endemic to Cocos (Keeling) Islands), T. kitrinum (Fiji to Great Barrier Reef), T. meristum (Cape York to the Bismark Archipelago and Fiji), T. pentherum (Great Barrier Reef to Fiji and the South-West Islands of Palau), T. readerae (Australia to Japan), and T. xanthum (Palau to Fiji, Great Barrier Reef to Christmas Island). The following 23 species have been recorded from Australian waters, and most are redescribed here: T. anaima (Comores to Fiji), T. annosum (Maldives to the Phoenix Islands, Taiwan to the southern Great Barrier Reef), T. benjamini (southern Vietnam to the Marshall Islands, Samoa and southern Barrier Reef), T. caesiura (Ryukyus through the Marshall Islands to Samoa and Elizabeth Reef on the Lord Howe Rise), T. capostriatum (New Caledonia to eastern Australia and Papua New Guinea), T. maiandros (Java to the Ryukyus, Marshalls to Great Barrier Reef), T. emeryi (Comores to Ryukyus and Samoa), T. fangi (western South China Sea through to the Solomons), T. flavatrum (Ryukyu Islands to Western Australia and Samoa), T. hoesei (Chagos Archipelago, central Indian Ocean to Palau and Solomons), T. lantana (Australia, Solomons, northern New Guinea, South-West Islands of Palau), T. macrophthalmus (Ryukyu Islands to Cocos (Keeling) Islands and Samoa), T. milta (Taiwan to Western Australia, Society Islands and Hawaii), T. nasa (Sumbawa, Indonesia to Fiji), T. necopinum (northern tip of Cape York to Sydney), T. nomurai (Japan to northern Australia and New Caledonia), T. okinawae (western Thailand to Japan and the Phoenix Islands, north-west Australia to the Great Barrier Reef), T. preclarum (Palau to Fiji, Great Barrier Reef), T. stobbsi (Maldives to New Caledonia), T. striatum (Maldives to Palau, to northern Australia), T. taylori (Red Sea to Hawaii and Society Islands), T. tevegae (Red Sea to Ryukyu Islands, Marshall Islands to Samoa), and T. unisquame (Comores to Hawaii and Easter Island).

  18. Topological congruence between phylogenies of Anacanthorus spp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) and their Characiformes (Actinopterygii) hosts: A case of host-parasite cospeciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Graça, Rodrigo J; Fabrin, Thomaz M C; Gasques, Luciano S; Prioli, Sônia M A P; Balbuena, Juan A; Prioli, Alberto J; Takemoto, Ricardo M

    2018-01-01

    Cophylogenetic studies aim at testing specific hypotheses to understand the nature of coevolving associations between sets of organisms, such as host and parasites. Monogeneans and their hosts provide and interesting platform for these studies due to their high host specificity. In this context, the objective of the present study was to establish whether the relationship between Anacanthorus spp. with their hosts from the upper Paraná River and its tributaries can be explained by means of cospeciation processes. Nine fish species and 14 monogenean species, most of them host specific, were studied. Partial DNA sequences of the genes RAG1, 16S and COI of the fish hosts and of the genes ITS2, COI and 5.8S of the parasite species were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees of the host and parasite species were built and used for analyses of topological congruence with PACo and ParaFit. The program Jane was used to estimate the nature of cospeciation events. The comparison of the two phylogenies revealed high topological congruence between them. Both PACo and ParaFit supported the hypothesis of global cospeciation. Results from Jane pointed to duplications as the most frequent coevolutionary event, followed by cospeciation, whereas duplications followed by host-switching were the least common event in Anacanthorus spp. studied. Host-sharing (spreading) was also identified but only between congeneric host species.

  19. Growth differences in different biotypes of the hybrid complex of Cobitis elongatoides x Cobitis tanaitica (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) in the Okna River (Danube River basin), Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorčák, J.; Koščo, J.; Halačka, Karel; Manko, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 125-132 ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : annulus * back-calculated length * loach * clone * polyploidy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.670, year: 2016

  20. Ecological traits of Squalius lucumonis (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae and main differences with those of Squalius squalus in the Tiber River Basin (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannetto D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Squalius lucumonis (Bianco, 1983 is an endemic species restricted to three river basins in central Italy and listed as endangered according to IUCN Red List. The aim of this research was to increase the information on ecological preferences of this species and to focus on its differences with S. squalus (Bonaparte, 1837. Data collected in 86 different watercourses throughout Tiber River basin were analysed in the research. For each of the 368 river sectors examined, the main environmental parameters and the fish community were considered. The information were analysed by means of the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA while the differences in ecological traits between S. lucumonis and S. squalus were compared by ANOVA. The results of the study showed significant differences in the ecological preferences of the two species: the S. lucumonis showed predilection for smaller watercourses characterised by a lower number of species and a higher degree of integrity of fish community than S. squalus This information allowed to increase the basic knowledge on population biology and ecology of S. lucumonis that could be very useful for the management and conservation of this Italian endemic species.

  1. First records of scale deformities in seven freshwater fish species (Actinopterygii: Percidae and Cyprinidae) collected from three ponds in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rutkayová, J.; Jawad, L.; Nebesářová, Jana; Beneš, K.; Petrášková, E.; Näslund, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2016), s. 225-238 ISSN 0137-1592 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : fish * scale abnormality * adverse environment * Cyprinidae * Percidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.670, year: 2016

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular and morphological data highlights uncertainty in the relationships of fossil and living species of Elopomorpha (Actinopterygii: Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornburg, Alex; Friedman, Matt; Near, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Elopomorpha is one of the three main clades of living teleost fishes and includes a range of disparate lineages including eels, tarpons, bonefishes, and halosaurs. Elopomorphs were among the first groups of fishes investigated using Hennigian phylogenetic methods and continue to be the object of intense phylogenetic scrutiny due to their economic significance, diversity, and crucial evolutionary status as the sister group of all other teleosts. While portions of the phylogenetic backbone for Elopomorpha are consistent between studies, the relationships among Albula, Pterothrissus, Notacanthiformes, and Anguilliformes remain contentious and difficult to evaluate. This lack of phylogenetic resolution is problematic as fossil lineages are often described and placed taxonomically based on an assumed sister group relationship between Albula and Pterothrissus. In addition, phylogenetic studies using morphological data that sample elopomorph fossil lineages often do not include notacanthiform or anguilliform lineages, potentially introducing a bias toward interpreting fossils as members of the common stem of Pterothrissus and Albula. Here we provide a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear genes that include representative taxa from Albula, Pterothrissus, Notacanthiformes and Anguilliformes. We integrate our molecular dataset with a morphological character matrix that spans both living and fossil elopomorph lineages. Our results reveal substantial uncertainty in the placement of Pterothrissus as well as all sampled fossil lineages, questioning the stability of the taxonomy of fossil Elopomorpha. However, despite topological uncertainty, our integration of fossil lineages into a Bayesian time calibrated framework provides divergence time estimates for the clade that are consistent with previously published age estimates based on the elopomorph fossil record and molecular estimates resulting from traditional node-dating methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The phylogenetic intrarelationships of spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha, Teleostei, Actinopterygii: fossil taxa increase the congruence of morphology with molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davesne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acanthomorpha (spiny-rayed fishes is a clade of teleosts that includes more than 15 000 extant species. Their deep phylogenetic intrarelationships, first reconstructed using morphological characters, have been extensively revised with molecular data. Moreover, the deep branches of the acanthomorph tree are still largely unresolved, with strong disagreement between studies. Here, we review the historical propositions for acanthomorph deep intrarelationships and attempt to resolve their earliest branching patterns using a new morphological data matrix compiling and revising characters from previous studies. The taxon sampling we use constitutes a first attempt to test all previous hypotheses (molecular and morphological alike with morphological data only. Our sampling also includes Late Cretaceous fossil taxa, which yield new character state combinations that are absent in extant taxa. Analysis of the complete morphological data matrix yields a new topology that shows remarkable congruence with the well-supported molecular results. Lampridiformes (oarfishes and allies are the sister to all other acanthomorphs. Gadiformes (cods and allies and Zeiformes (dories form a clade with Percopsiformes (trout-perches and the enigmatic Polymixia (beardfish and Stylephorus (tube-eye. Ophidiiformes (cusk-eels and allies and Batrachoidiformes (toadfishes are nested within Percomorpha, the clade that includes most of modern acanthomorph diversity. These results provide morphological synapomorphies and independent corroboration of clades previously only recovered from molecular data, thereby suggesting the emergence of a congruent picture of acanthomorph deep intrarelationships. Fossil taxa play a critical role in achieving this congruence, since a very different topology is found when they are excluded from the analysis.

  4. Finding of Pseudobacciger harengulae (Digenea, Faustulidae) in the Mediterranean Horse Mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus (Actinopterygii, Carangidae), from the Gulf of Odessa, Black Sea, Ukraine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hulak, B.; Kvach, Yuriy

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2018), s. 47-52 ISSN 0084-5604 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Black Sea * Digenea * Pseudobacciger * Trachurus * new records * new host Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology

  5. Topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766): relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro, Luane Lopes; Lima, Ana Rita de; Souza, Ana Carla Barros de; Pereira, Luiza Corrêa; Branco, Érika Renata

    2011-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p129 O cachorro-do-mato é o canídeo mais comum do continente sul-americano. De modo geral, tem sua dieta variada conforme a época do ano e a região habitada, o que permite a este uma ampla distribuição geográfica. Junto ao interesse na anatomia comparativa objetivou-se descrever a topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato com intuito de oferecer informações que possam dar subsídios para a prática de anestesia epidural, cuja eficiência depe...

  6. Topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato (Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane Lopes Pinheiro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p129 O cachorro-do-mato é o canídeo mais comum do continente sul-americano. De modo geral, tem sua dieta variada conforme a época do ano e a região habitada, o que permite a este uma ampla distribuição geográfica. Junto ao interesse na anatomia comparativa objetivou-se descrever a topografia do cone medular do cachorro-do-mato com intuito de oferecer informações que possam dar subsídios para a prática de anestesia epidural, cuja eficiência depende do conhecimento da anatomia desta região. Foi utilizado um exemplar, macho, adulto, proveniente da Mina de Bauxita - Paragominas-PA, o qual foi dissecado na região lombo-sacral. O cone medular do cachorro-do-mato apresentou base ao nível de L6 e ápice em S3, apresentando comprimento de 10,13cm. Concluímos que a região sacrococcígea é a mais indicada para a anestesia epidural, considerando que o exemplar em estudo apresentou nove vértebras lombares e quatro vértebras sacrais.

  7. Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 of the brazilian cerrado: hematology and storage effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla is a vulnerable species because of progressive habitat destruction, mostly affected by wildfires and car accidents. The increasing number of animals that are attended by wildlife rescue centres reinforces the need of knowledge about haematological parameters, especially for those that inhabit Brazilian cerrado biome. For this purpose and in order to establish reference values for this species and also to compare them with previous studies, haematological analysis of captive giant anteaters from Brazilian cerrado were performed. Moreover, the alterations of blood samples after 24 and 48 hours of storage at refrigeration temperatures (4oC and preserved with two different EDTA concentrations (5% and 10% were studied. Means and standard deviations of haematological parameters analysed immediately after collection were: RBC: 2,07 x106/μL ± 0,40; hematocrit: 38,08%± 5,93; haemoglobin: 11.33g/dL±2.15; MCV:186.52 fL±21.72; MCHC: 29.68g/dL±2.56; MCH: 55.08pcg±5,94; total leucocytes: 8.142/μL±2.441; neutrophils: 5.913/μL±2.168; lymphocytes: 1.460/μL±740; eosinophil: 522/μL±385; monocytes: 247/μL±176; thrombocytes: 123.458/μL±31.362 and total plasma protein: 6.23g/dL±0.49. This data shows evidence of the existence of important differences between these values and others from other areas, either from Brazil or from other South American countries. Those variations might be connected to environment, genetic, nutritional and/or management factors. Regarding the storage effect analysis, it can be concluded that in giant anteaters, haematological analysis can be performed until 24h after collection without any significant alterations on the haematological parameters, except for thrombocytes. Concerning the different EDTA concentrations, it can be concluded that there are no quantitative differences in haematological variables. Nevertheless, relevant morphologic alterations in blood cells can be observed after a 24h storage period, being most noticeable in the leucocytes. Those alterations can lead to misinterpretation of the results, interfering diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

  8. Trophic discrimination factor and the significance of mangrove litter to benthic detritivorous gastropod, Ellobium aurisjudae (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Hong Wooi; Sasekumar, A.; Ismail, Mohamad Hanif; Chong, Ving Ching

    2018-01-01

    In stable isotope analysis, the estimation of proportional contribution of carbon and nitrogen from mangrove to benthic invertebrates requires knowledge of the food-consumer trophic discrimination factor (Δ δ13C and Δ δ15N). This study tested the hypothesis that the mangrove gastropod Ellobium aurisjudae can assimilate low quality refractory mangrove litter and aimed to determine the trophic discrimination values (TDV) of C and N isotopes between gastropod and the mangrove producer. The mean Δ δ13C for gastropods fed senescent leaves of the mangrove Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb) Wight & Arn and decomposing mangrove (unknown species from the same site) wood were estimated at 5.3 ± 0.3‰ and 3.2 ± 0.5‰ respectively, whereas for Δ δ15N, these values were 4.2 ± 0.2‰ and 6.0 ± 0.2‰ respectively. The gastropod assimilated refractory carbon from mangrove leaf and wood litter with 49% and 18% efficiency respectively. Rearing experiment of gastropods (n = 25) fed only mangrove wood litter over 5months in the laboratory, showed mean weight increments of 14.8-74.4% depending on the initial animal weight. Significant deviation of the TDVs for E. aurisjudae from the generalized discrimination values for herbivory underscores the need to use specific TDV for the detritivory link.

  9. Physiological responses of reared sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758) to an Amyloodinium ocellatum outbreak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, M.; Schrama, D.; Soares, F.

    2017-01-01

    mortalities are usually attributed to anoxia, associated with serious gill hyperplasia, inflammation, haemorrhage and necrosis in heavy infestations; or with osmoregulatory impairment and secondary microbial infections due to severe epithelial damage in mild infestation. However, physiological information...

  10. Revising the phylogenetic position of the extinct Mascarene Parrot Mascarinus mascarin (Linnaeus 1771) (Aves: Psittaciformes: Psittacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlowski, Lars; Gamauf, Anita; Töpfer, Till

    2017-02-01

    The phylogenetic position of the extinct Mascarene Parrot Mascarinus mascarin from La Réunion has been unresolved for centuries. A recent molecular study unexpectedly placed M. mascarin within the clade of phenotypically very different Vasa parrots Coracopsis. Based on DNA extracted from the only other preserved Mascarinus specimen, we show that the previously obtained cytb sequence is probably an artificial composite of partial sequences from two other parrot species and that M. mascarin is indeed a part of the Psittacula diversification, placed close to P. eupatria and P. wardi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  12. Seminal plasma and sperm proteome of ring-tailed coatis (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus, 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Herlon Victor Rodrigues; Rodriguez-Villamil, Paula; Magalhães, Francisco Felipe de; Nunes, Thalles Gothardo Pereira; Freitas, Luana Azevedo de; Ribeiro, Leandro Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; Moura, Arlindo A; Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado da

    2018-04-15

    Ring-tailed coati is listed as a species of least concern in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, however, there has been a sharp decline in their population. The present study was conducted to evaluate the major proteins of both seminal plasma and sperm in ring-tailed coatis. Semen sample was collected from three adult coatis and evaluated for their morphological characteristics. Further, the sample was centrifuged to separate spermatozoa from seminal plasma, and then stored in liquid nitrogen. The seminal plasma and sperm proteins were subjected to one-dimensional (1-D) sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and identified by mass spectrometry. Gene ontology and protein networks were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. Based on sperm concentration and average protein content of the semen, the concentration of protein/spermatozoon was found to be 104.69 ± 44.43 μg. The analysis of SDS-PAGE gels showed 20.3 ± 3.1 and 17 ± 2 protein bands/lane for seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. In-gel protein digestion and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry revealed 238 and 246 proteins in the seminal plasma and sperm, respectively. The gene ontology analysis revealed that the proteins of seminal plasma mainly participated in cellular (35%) and regulatory (21%) processes. According to their cellular localization, seminal plasma proteins were categorized as structural (18%), extracellular (17%), and nuclear (14%) proteins with molecular functions, such as catalytic activity (43%) and binding (43%). The sperm proteins were also involved in cellular (38%) and regulatory (23%) processes, and mainly categorized as extracellular (17%), nuclear (13%), and cytoplasmic (10%) proteins. The major molecular functions of the sperm proteins were catalytic activity (44%) and binding (42%). These results indicated that the seminal plasma of ring-tailed coati has an array of proteins that can potentially modulate several sperm functions, from sperm protection to oocyte binding. However, further studies are necessary to interpret the roles of these major seminal plasma proteins in coatis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The lumbosacral plexus of the red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Caviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-rumped agouti is a small-sized wild rodent, belonging to the Dasyproctidae family, with great zootechnical potential, and it adapts well to captivity. In order to contribute to the species biology, this study describes the origin of the nerves forming the lumbosacral plexus. Twelve animals (six males and six females were used, from previous experiments. The animals were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and eviscerated after 72 hours. Then, the major and minor psoas muscles were retracted, exposing the nerves forming the plexus. Cotton soaked with 20-volume hydrogen peroxide was placed on these nerves, remaining for 12 hours straight for bleaching and subsequent dissection. The topographical relations of the lumbosacral plexus were grouped into tables and arranged in terms of simple percentage. In 7 cases (58.34%, the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti stemmed from the ventral roots of the last 4 lumbar nerves and the first 3 sacral nerves (Type I – L4-S3, in 4 animals (33.33% it stemmed from L5-S3 (Type II, and in 1 case (8.33% it stemmed from L5-S4 (Type III. The nerves participating of the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti were: lateral femoral cutaneous, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, sciatic, cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, and pudendal nerve. The origin of the lumbosacral plexus and the spinal nerves making up this plexus in red-rumped agoutis were similar to that described in other rodents, such as rock cavy, lowland paca and spix's yellow-toothed cavy.

  14. Morphological variations and sexual dimorphism in Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824 and Chelonoidis denticulata (Linnaeus, 1766 (Testudinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Barros

    Full Text Available Chelonoidis Dcarbonaria and C. denticulata are two tortoises which are widely distributed Brazil. Although they occur sympatrically in different areas, C. carbonaria prefers open areas, while C. denticulata chooses forest areas. Significant morphological variations can be observed in these species due to the fact that they occupy a vast and environmentally diverse area. Data on shell shape of captive individuals reveal important differences between the two species, mainly in the plastron scutes, carapace width, and head length. Variation in shape is greater in C. carbonaria than in C. denticulata, which may be associated to a more elaborate and complex mating ritual. The shell shape in C. denticulata is more elongated than in C. carbonaria due to ecological habits. These aspects lead to a greater restriction in shape, limiting variation and dimorphism. In C. carbonaria, the shell opening is larger than in C. denticulata, which affords greater variation in shape. A more elongated shell facilitates movements of C. denticulata in densely forested areas. Yet, this characteristic reduces shell opening, lessening the possibilities of variation in form.

  15. Duplicación de miembro anterior en Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758: registro de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Germán Cupul-Magaña

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota registra el caso de polimelia en una hembra juvenil de iguana verde o Iguana iguana (Squamata: Iguanidae de entre cinco y seis meses de edad (camada del 2012, con talla de 43 cm y peso de 60 g.

  16. Histology and ultrastructure of the integumental chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) (Linnaeus, 1758) skin

    OpenAIRE

    Szyd?owski, Pawe?; Madej, Jan Pawe?; Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the arrangement of dermal chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) skin and the formation of wild-type colouration, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of chromatophores. The samples of the tokay gecko skin were collected from wild-type colouration adult specimens. Morphology and distribution of chromatophores was determined by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The present study revealed that orange/red coloured skin ...

  17. Histology and ultrastructure of the integumental chromatophores in tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) (Linnaeus, 1758) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowski, Paweł; Madej, Jan Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Kania, Marta

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between the arrangement of dermal chromatophores in tokay gecko ( Gekko gecko ) skin and the formation of wild-type colouration, with emphasis on the ultrastructure of chromatophores. The samples of the tokay gecko skin were collected from wild-type colouration adult specimens. Morphology and distribution of chromatophores was determined by using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The present study revealed that orange/red coloured skin of G. gecko contained erythrophores, which were located under basement membrane, and usually comprised deeper situated iridophores and melanophores which were form single layer with iridophores or were occupying the deepest region of dermis. In orange/red coloured skin, erythrophores were the predominant chromatophores. However in blue areas these cells occurred in small numbers or were not noticed at all. In blue pigmented areas predominated iridophores and melanophores. Iridophores were found just under basement membrane, but this superficial location of iridophores occured only in areas without erythrophores. Distribution of erythrophores, melanophores, and iridophores determines the characteristic blue colour of the tokay gecko skin with orange/red dots on the whole body.

  18. Oocyte adhesiveness and embryonic development of Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, André Alberto; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2013-05-01

    This study shows for the first time the presence of a jelly coat on oocytes of neotropical Characiformes fish. This structure could be responsible for the adhesiveness of Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes, a species widely distributed in South America including in the São Francisco River basin in Brazil. Adult specimens of A. bimaculatus were submitted to artificial reproduction in order to analyse the egg morphology and embryonic development. The eggs were fertilised and kept in incubators with a water temperature of 24°C so that embryogenesis could be monitored. Ovulated and unfertilised oocytes were also collected and submitted to routine histological techniques. Astyanax bimaculatus oocytes were found to be spherical, yellowish, and covered by a thin jelly coat with a slightly adhesive surface. The mean oocyte diameter was 1.03 ± 0.03 mm, the perivitelline space was 0.21 ± 0.02 mm and the jelly coat's thickness was 0.04 ± 0.01 mm. Positive periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain and Alcian blue stain pH 2.5 indicated the presence of neutral glycoproteins, and carboxylated acid glycoconjugates on the jelly coat that formed mucosubstances that may be associated with egg adhesiveness. At a water temperature of 24°C, blastopore closure and hatching occurred at 5 h and 17 h after fertilisation, respectively. The results of this study provide essential information for phylogenetic studies and for a better understanding of the reproductive strategy of A. bimaculatus, currently included in the incertae sedis group of the Characidae family due to the lack of monophyly among the families of the group.

  19. Red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) as biological indicator for environmental pollution in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltai, Miklós; Markov, Georgi

    2012-10-01

    Our aim were to establish the metal (Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, and Pb) levels of red fox liver and the kidney samples (n = 10) deriving from central part of Hungary and compare the results with other countries' data. According to our results the concentrations of residues of the targeted elements (mg/kg dry weight) in liver and kidney samples were, respectively in liver: Cu: 21.418, Zn: 156.928, Ni: 2.079, Co: 1.611, Pb: 1.678 and Cd: 0.499; and kidney samples: Cu: 9.236; Zn: 87.159; Ni: 2.514; Co: 2.455; Pb: 2.63 and Cd: 0.818. Pb levels of Hungarian red fox liver samples significantly exceed the values of Italian specimens' samples, whilst the same element's concentrations of Hungarian red fox kidney samples were higher than the results published in Germany.

  20. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by 60CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Gisela A.; Pusceddu, Fabio H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to 60 Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  1. Adulticidal activity of some Malaysian plant extracts against Aedes aegypti Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayatulfathi, O; Sallehuddin, S; Ibrahim, J

    2004-12-01

    The adulticidal activity of methanol extracts from three Malaysian plants namely Acorus calamus Linn., Litsea elliptica Blume and Piper aduncum Linn. against adult of Aedes aegypti (L.) were studied. Standard WHO bioassay tests were used to evaluate the effectiveness of these plant extracts. The hexane fraction from methanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizome was the most effective, exhibiting LC50 and LC90 values of 0.04 mgcm(-2) and 0.09 mgcm(-2) respectively. For L. elliptica, the methanol fraction also displayed good adulticidal property with the LC50 and LC90 values of 0.11 mgcm(-2) and 6.08 mgcm(-2) respectively. It is found that hexane fraction of the P. aduncum crude extract was the least effective among the three plants showing LC50 and LC90 values of 0.20 mgcm(-2) and 5.32 mgcm(-2), respectively. However, although A. calamus showed lowest LC values, the LT50 results indicated that the methanol fraction of L. elliptica was most potent extract among the extracts tested.

  2. Sertoli cell index and spermatic reserves in adult captive African lions (Panthera leo, Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, João Bosco Gonçalves; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Fonseca, Cláudio César; Leite, Flaviana Lima Guião; Rossi, João Luiz; de Oliveira, Priscila Carvalho; da Costa, Eduardo Paulino

    2007-12-01

    The intrinsic yield of spermatogenesis and the supporting indexes of the Sertoli cells are the best indicators for the spermatic production capacity in a species. The aim of the present study was to quantify the intrinsic yield of the spermatogenetic process, as well as the Sertoli cell index and spermatic reserves. Testicular fragments of five adult African lions was fixed in 4% glutaric aldehyde, dehydrated at increasing alcohol concentrations, included into hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and were cut into 4 microm thickness. In the seminiferous epithelium of the African lions, 10.3 primary spermatocytes at pre-leptotene phase are produced by the type-A spermatogonia. During meiotic divisions, only 2.7 spermatids were produced from the primary spermatocytes. The general spermatogenesis production in the African lions was approximately 22.1 cells, and each Sertoli cell was able to sustain and maintain approximately 14.9 cells of the germinative line, from which 7.9 are round spermatids. A total of 103x10(6) spermatozoa are produced by each testis gram at each cycle of the seminiferous epithelium. The spermatic reserve of lion is below the amplitude observed in mammals.

  3. Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the Scotia Arc, South Atlantic Ocean. I. The genus Alcyonium Linnaeus, 1758

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casas, C.; Ramil, F.; Ofwegen, van L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Three new species of Alcyonium collected by the Spanish Antarctic Expeditions "Antártida 8611" and "Bentart 95" are described and figured: Alcyonium paucilobulatum, A. grandis and A. southgeorgiensis. Another two species, A. antarcticum Wright & Studer, 1889, and Alcyonium sollasi Wright & Studer,

  4. Sub-lethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos on Common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758: Biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide, is widely used to control pests in agriculture farms and orchards of fruit trees. In this study, the fish were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos which were determined based on numerical value of 96 h LC50. Blood was sampled after 10, 20 and 30 days and biochemical parameters including glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and acetylcholinsetrase (AChE activities were measured. Behavioral changes in the fish were also recorded during the experiment. Unbalanced swimming, swimming in the surface water and hyperglycemia, increased blood triglyceride, and increased levels of AST, LDH and CK activities as well as decreased levels of AChE activity were important changes that were observed in the specimens exposed to chlorpyrifos during experimental periods. The most important alterations in the blood biochemical parameters were measured in the specimens exposed to 40 µg/L chlorpyrifos on the 20th and 30th day of the trial. In conclusion, results of the present study indicated that exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos as low as 40 µg/L may cause biochemical and behavioral changes in Cyprinus carpio.

  5. Mating behaviour and gamete release in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758) held in captivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z.; Duncan, N.

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to describe the reproductive behaviour of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) in captivity. Twenty-four mature gilthead seabream, divided in two tanks, were utilized for the present study. Reproductive behaviour was recorded using submersibles cameras. A total of 67 spawning events were analysed. The mean duration time that gilthead seabream spent spawning was 54 ± 4 min/day, during which mean number of individual spawning events was 5.6 ± 0.2. The mean volume of eggs produced by both broodstocks was 405 ± 13.4 mL with a fertilization rate of 91.6 ± 0.4%. The reproductive behaviour began with a schooling behaviour and then forming light aggregations. From an aggregation or an encounter while swimming freely a female initiated a spawning rush followed by one or more males to gametes liberation. The spawning rush was brief, 1.6 ± 0.5 sec, over an approximately 1.7 ± 0.2 m distance from the tank bottom to the water surface. Pair spawning, between a single female and male, was the most common (71.6%). Group spawning was less common and involved a single female spawning with two males (22.5%) or three males (4.9%). Spawning rushes involving more than one female were not observed. Gilthead seabream in the present study presented a tendency to pair spawn and eggs collected as a “spawn” were actually the sum of many separate spawning events over a short time period. This is the first description of gilthead seabream spawning and the findings help to understand microsatellite based observations of spawning kinetics. (Author)

  6. Effects of glyphosate herbicide on the gastrointestinal microflora of Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Ronald P; McDermid, Karla J; Muehlstein, Lisa; Balazs, George H

    2018-02-01

    In Hawaii, glyphosate-based herbicides frequently sprayed near shorelines may be affecting non-target marine species. Glyphosate inhibits aromatic amino acid biosynthesis (shikimate pathway), and is toxic to beneficial gut bacteria in cattle and chickens. Effects of glyphosate on gut bacteria in marine herbivorous turtles were assessed in vitro. When cultures of mixed bacterial communities from gastrointestinal tracts of freshly euthanized green turtles (Chelonia mydas), were exposed for 24h to six glyphosate concentrations (plus deionized water control), bacterial density was significantly lower at glyphosate concentrations≥2.2×10 -4 gL -1 (absorbance measured at 600nm wavelength). Using a modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay, the growth of four bacterial isolates (Pantoea, Proteus, Shigella, and Staphylococcus) was significantly inhibited by glyphosate concentrations≥1.76×10 -3 gL -1 . Reduced growth or lower survival of gut bacteria in green turtles exposed to glyphosate could have adverse effects on turtle digestion and overall health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  8. Myxomatosis: population dynamics of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) and ecological effects in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, J R; Trout, R C; Ross, J

    1992-12-01

    In 1953-1955, myxomatosis spread among rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the United Kingdom, causing 99% mortality. Subsequently, there was a gradual increase in rabbit numbers. By 1955, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) had already found attenuated strains of myxoma virus. By 1970, genetic resistance had appeared. In the 1970s, mortality declined to 47-69% with only approximately 25% of rabbits infected, giving a field mortality of 12-19%. However, myxomatosis is persistent, generally showing a major prevalence peak in autumn and often a minor peak in spring. An eight-year MAFF experiment in which prevalence of the disease was artificially reduced indicates that myxomatosis remains a significant factor in population regulation. After rabbit numbers fell in the 1950s, important ecological changes took place: vegetation altered due to reduced grazing pressure, predators were affected by the reduction of a major prey species and these changes also affected many other animals. Currently, rabbit numbers have returned to approximately one-third of pre-myxomatosis levels and this is causing damage to farm and conservation habitats.

  9. Otoliths of the wolf-fishes (genus Anarrhichas Linnaeus, 1758) from the Northern Atlantic (Pisces, Perciformes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, H.

    1964-01-01

    While working at the Rijksinstituut voor Visserijonderzoek (R.V.I.O.) at IJmuiden, I received through the courtesy of Mr. C. van Delft some specimens of the three northern Atlantic species of wolf-fishes. At IJmuiden they are brought in by commercial trawlers. The only data in the literature known

  10. Sexual dimorphisms in the dermal denticles of the lesser-spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula (Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Crooks

    Full Text Available The dermal layers of several elasmobranch species have been shown to be sexually dimorphic. Generally, when this occurs the females have thicker dermal layers compared to those of males. This sexual dimorphism has been suggested to occur as a response to male biting during mating. Although male biting as a copulatory behaviour in Scyliorhinus canicula has been widely speculated to occur, only relatively recently has this behaviour been observed. Male S. canicula use their mouths to bite the female's pectoral and caudal fins as part of their pre-copulatory behaviour and to grasp females during copulation. Previous work has shown that female S. canicula have a thicker epidermis compared to that of males. The structure of the dermal denticles in females may also differ from that of males in order to protect against male biting or to provide a greater degree of friction in order to allow the male more purchase. This study reveals that the length, width and density of the dermal denticles of mature male and female S. canicula are sexually dimorphic across the integument in areas where males have been observed to bite and wrap themselves around females (pectoral fin, area posterior to the pectoral fin, caudal fin, and pelvic girdle. No significant differences in the dermal denticle dimensions were found in other body areas examined (head, dorsal skin and caudal peduncle. Sexually dimorphic dermal denticles in mature S. canicula could be a response to male biting/wrapping as part of the copulatory process.

  11. On the Status of Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus 1758 in Lake Bracciano, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakshi Sharda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For many species, the Mediterranean region harbors distinct lineages that are of conservation concerns. However, many of these are threatened by habitat degradation and by the introduction of non-native species. Here, we assess the status of the native threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Lake Bracciano region in Italy, where stickleback have been historically present. During a dedicated sampling campaign in summer 2015, surveying the potential habitats that sticklebacks commonly occupy, we could not confirm the presence of this species but found introduced species to be often most abundant. Stickleback are thus likely to either have become extinct over the last decades or be on the verge to extinction in the Lake Bracciano region.

  12. Bioactivity of Sweet Flag (Acorus calamus Linnaeus Essential Oils against Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Melani

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to determine the chemical compounds, toxicity, and antifeedant activity of sweet flag (Acorus calamus essential oils against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. The study was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD using various concentration of the essential oils (103, 2 × 103, 3 × 103, 4 × 103, 5 × 103 ppm. Mortality and antifeedant activity was observed 24 hours after treatment.  Toxicity and antifeedant activity values were 92.5% and 79.3%, respectively, with an LC50 value 586.96 ppm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that essential oil of A. calamus consists of five chemical compounds: methyl isoeugenol, 3.9-decadien-ol-1,3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl, 4-pentyl-1-(4propylcyclohexyl1cyclohexene, γ-asarone and β asarone.

  13. Monogenean parasites of Lepomis gibbosus Linnaeus introduced into the River Durance, France

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlátová, Lucie; Ondračková, Markéta; Přikrylová, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2015), s. 323-330 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : non-native fish * invasive species * parasites * sunfish * Monogenea * host introductions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2015

  14. Gross morphology and anatomy of the large intestine of the paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Paes Bürger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploring the potential of using the paca as livestock involves understanding the morphophysiology of its digestive tract so its nutrition can be properly managed. The morphological and anatomical aspects of the large intestine of this species were investigated by inspecting material that was fresh and fixed in an aqueous solution of 10% formaldehyde. The material was provided by the Setor de Animais Selvagens do Departamento de Zootecnia da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal – UNESP (FCAV – UNESP. The large intestine of the paca is formed by cecum, colon and rectum, and is located in the abdominal and pelvic cavity near the third or fourth lumbar vertebrae. It was found, in the 10 samples analyzed, that there was no change in the pattern of this arrangement and that this pattern resembles that of mammals in general.

  15. Origem e distribuição do plexo lombossacral da paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela de Oliveira Tonini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n2p157 Considerando a importância da paca como fonte proteica alternativa à população e, em especial, por apresentar características adequadas à pesquisa como modelo experimental, objetiva-se descrever a origem e a distribuição do plexo lombossacral da paca, visando colaborar com o melhor conhecimento de sua morfologia, cuja descrição é escassa na literatura. Foram utilizadas oito pacas adultas (Cuniculus paca de ambos os sexos, provenientes do criatório do Setor de Animais Silvestres da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp em Jaboticabal; após o óbito, os animais foram fixadas em paraformaldeído 10% e dissecadas para identificação do plexo lombossacral. Este, em 7 pacas analisadas (87,5%, originou-se dos ramos ventrais dos nervos espinhais lombares L4, L5, L6 e L7 e dos nervos espinhais sacrais S1, S2 e S3; e em 1 espécime (12,5% o plexo lombossacral originou-se de L5, L6, L7, S1, S2 e S3, sem a participação de ramo proveniente de L4. Conclui-se que os nervos que contribuem para formação desse plexo são: nervo genitofemoral, nervo cutâneo femoral lateral, nervo femoral, nervo glúteo cranial, nervo obturatório, nervo isquiático, nervo glúteo caudal, nervo pudendo e nervo cutâneo femoral caudal.

  16. Morfologia e topografia do baço da paca ( Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella F. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A paca é um grande roedor, presente em parte do território brasileiro e na América Latina, cuja importância está na crescente produção comercial de carne exótica e na pesquisa científica como um promissor modelo experimental. Assim, este trabalho objetivou-se descrever a morfologia e a topografia do baço da paca (Cuniculus paca. Foram utilizadas cinco pacas adultas, machos e fêmeas, fixadas em formaldeído a 10% e armazenados em solução salina a 30% para sua conservação. Na paca, o baço tem sua localização relacionada ao estômago, ao fígado, ao rim esquerdo, ao pâncreas e ao omento maior. Possui forma irregular, sendo mais longo do que largo, possui coloração avermelhada-escura e textura lisa. Quanto à descrição histológica, apresenta cápsula de tecido conjuntivo denso que emitiu trabéculas que se projetam no parênquima. A cápsula e as trabéculas apresentam fibras musculares lisas. O parênquima è composto pela polpa branca e polpa vermelha, esta última formada por seios e cordões esplênicos.

  17. Anatomia microscópica e ultraestrutura do joelho da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Silva

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A paca (Cuniculus paca, um dos maiores roedores da fauna brasileira, possui características inerentes à sua espécie que podem contribuir como uma nova opção de animal experimental; assim, considerando-se que há crescente busca por modelos experimentais apropriados para ortopedia e pesquisas cirúrgicas, foram analisados e descritos em detalhes a anatomia microscópica e ultraestrutural do joelho desse roedor. Os ligamentos colaterais são constituídos por feixes de fibras colágenas arranjadas paralelamente e com trajeto ondulado. Os fibroblastos formavam fileiras paralelas às fibras colágenas; quanto aos ligamentos colaterais, estes apresentaram citoplasma imperceptível à avaliação por microscopia de luz, entretanto, em análise ultraestrutural verificou-se vários prolongamentos citoplasmáticos. Microscopicamente, as estruturas presentes no joelho da paca assemelham-se às dos animais domésticos, roedores e lagomorfos.

  18. Morphology and topography of the external male genital organs of spotted paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spotted paca (Cuniculus paca is a rodent species from the family Cuniculidae, found in South America, from the Orinoco River Basin to Paraguay. Although widely studied with regard to its morphological and reproductive aspects, still there’re no records on the morphology of the male reproductive system in this species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate not only the macro and microscopic anatomy of the external genital organs in this species, but also their topography. We studied the external genital organs of 10 adult spotted pacas; 5 specimens, fixed in a 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution, were macroscopically studied and from 5 specimens we collected fragments from the reproductive system, for microscopic analysis. The testicles showed a parenchyma structured in seminiferous tubules and the germinal epithelium rested on its basal membrane. These organs were located in the abdominal cavity, the inguinal path, or within the scrotum. Penis, fibroelastic, was located in the pubic region, in caudal direction. Its glans, coated by keratinized epithelium, were covered by the prepuce and, below this, we identified a slender cartilaginous structure with serrated edges. A couple of bone spurs was located into a bag ventral to the urethra, whose mucosa was lined by transitional epithelium. The epididymal duct was balled up in the head, had a body and tail, and its head was lined by pseudo-stratified stereociliated epithelium, and the tail by simple cubic epithelium; from this, the deferent duct stemmed, lined by columnar stratified epithelium.

  19. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da veia cava de paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A paca (Cuniculus paca é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Animais Silvestres do Departamento de Zootecnia da FCAV-Unesp. Os segmentos venosos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram mensuradas as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia e analisou-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva, teste "T" pareado (p<0,05. Em relação à espessura das túnicas estudadas, comprovou-se que os valores da espessura das túnicas íntima, média e adventícia, para todos os animais, foram significativamente maiores no segmento cranial. As camadas das paredes dos vasos apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente devido a uma adaptação à exigência funcional.

  20. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  1. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da veia cava de paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766) criada em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Pinter Garcia Filho; Leandro Luís Martins; Ana Carolina Gonçalves dos Reis; Maria Rita Pacheco; Márcia Rita Fernandes Machado

    2013-01-01

    A paca (Cuniculus paca) é o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira. Apresenta carne de excelente qualidade, o que incentiva a criação comercial. Além disso, este animal pode tornar-se uma opção válida em experimentação embora poucas sejam as informações detalhadas sobre sua morfologia. Assim, objetivou-se descrever a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções cranial e caudal da veia cava de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca) adultas excedentes do plantel do Setor de Anima...

  2. Morfologia, ultraestrutura e morfometria do tegumento da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G.M.P. Isola

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a falta de informações detalhadas sobre a morfologia da paca, sendo o segundo maior roedor da fauna brasileira, de excelente qualidade de carne e, dada a importância do tegumento comum, inclusive para o bom manejo em cativeiro, e até mesmo estudos como uma opção de animal de experimentação, descreveu-se a morfologia, morfometria e a ultraestrutura da pele de oito pacas (Cuniculus paca machos e fêmeas, mediante a análise comparativa de segmentos cutâneos das regiões cervical, dorsal e medial do carpo. Observaram-se macroscopicamente as características da pelagem. Parte dos segmentos das regiões cutâneas foi analisada à microscopia de luz e parte, à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras da derme, epiderme, camada córnea, perfis das fibras de colágeno da derme reticular e a área dos perfis das células das glândulas sebáceas repletas. Analisaram-se os resultados pela estatística descritiva e teste "T" (p<0,001. A coloração da pelagem da paca é castanho avermelhado com cerdas organizadas em grupos. A arquitetura da cútis e os anexos cutâneos se assemelham aos dos mamíferos em geral, embora haja ausência de glândulas sudoríparas. De acordo com a analise morfométrica, pôde-se inferir que a arquitetura da cútis de pacas machos e fêmeas apresenta diferenças quando comparada entre os sexos e também em um mesmo animal, diferenciando-se entre diversas regiões corpóreas.

  3. Macroscopic description of thoracic member musculature in Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia, Cuniculidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gomes de Souza

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2017v30n2p43 Cuniculus paca (Mammalia: Cuniculidae, or ‘paca’ is a rodent species in great demand for its meat, which has led to domestication and development of paca farms in the Brazilian Amazon region, as well as in other states. Despite the growing consumption of paca meat, knowledge on muscle anatomy is still scarce. An anatomical description of paca forelimbs will form the basis for future zootechnical and veterinary studies, enabling the development of sustainable production in the Amazon region, as well as the preservation of the species. We studied forelimb anatomy in four (04 adult pacas from the Caboclinho Project of Catuaba Experimental Farm (UFAC under IBAMA authorization n°509309. Specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and thoracic limbs were dissected, after which anatomical descriptions and photographic records were generated. We found that paca forelimb musculature is similar to that of other groups of domestic animals with regard to the origin and muscle insertion.

  4. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da aorta de paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766) criada em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Filho,S.P.; Martins,L.L.; Reis,A.C.G.; Pacheco,M.R.; Machado,M.R.F.

    2012-01-01

    Descreveram-se a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções torácica e abdominal da aorta de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca) adultas. Os segmentos aórticos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia. Os valores referentes à espessura do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média da aorta torácica cranial foram significativamente ma...

  5. Macroscopic description of the external and middle ear of paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro L. Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Paca (Cuniculus paca, one of the largest rodents of the Brazilian fauna, has inherent characteristics of its species which can conribute as a new option for animal experimantation. As there is a growing demand for suitable experimental models in audiologic and otologic surgical research, the gross anatomy and ultrastructural ear of this rodent have been analyzed and described in detail. Fifteen adult pacas from the Wild Animals Sector herd of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Jaboticabal, were used in this study. After anesthesia and euthanasia, we evaluated the entire composition of the external ear, registering and ddescribing the details; the temporal region was often dissected for a better view and detailing of the tympanic bulla which was removed and opened to expose the ear structures analyzed mascroscopically and ultrastructurally. The ear pinna has a triangular and concave shape with irregular ridges and sharp apex. The external auditory canal is winding in its path to the tympanic mebrane. The tympanic bulla is is on the back-bottom of the skull. The middle ear is formed by a cavity region filled with bone and membranous structures bounded by the tympanic membrane and the oval and round windows. The tympanic membrane is flat and seals the ear canal. The anatomy of the paca ear is similar to the guinea pig and from the viewpoint of experimental model has major advantages compared with the mouse ear.

  6. The Hindlimb Arterial Vessels in Lowland paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, L M; de Freitas, H M G; Sasahara, T H C; Machado, M R F

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to describe the origin and distribution of the hindlimb arterial vessels. Five adult lowland pacas (Cuniculus paca) were used. Stained and diluted latex was injected, caudally to the aorta. After fixation in 10% paraformaldehyde for 72 h, we dissected to visualize and identify the vessels. It was found out that the vascularization of the hindlimb in lowland paca derives from the terminal branch of the abdominal aorta. The common iliac artery divides into external iliac and internal iliac. The external iliac artery emits the deep iliac circumflex artery, the pudendal epigastric trunk, the deep femoral artery; the femoral artery originates the saphenous artery, it bifurcates into cranial and caudal saphenous arteries. Immediately after the knee joint, the femoral artery is called popliteal artery, which divides into tibial cranial and tibial caudal arteries at the level of the crural inter-osseous space. The origin and distribution of arteries in the hindlimb of lowland paca resembles that in other wild rodents, as well as in the domestic mammals. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Estrutura, ultraestrutura e morfometria da aorta de paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766 criada em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Garcia Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Descreveram-se a morfologia, morfometria e ultraestrutura de segmentos das porções torácica e abdominal da aorta de quatro pacas (Cuniculus paca adultas. Os segmentos aórticos foram analisados à microscopia de luz e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Mensuraram-se as espessuras do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média, além da túnica adventícia. Os valores referentes à espessura do complexo formado pelas túnicas íntima e média da aorta torácica cranial foram significativamente maiores (média: 702,19µm que os valores de outros segmentos aórticos analisados (médias: 354,18µm; 243,55µm. As camadas das paredes do vaso apresentaram variações entre si quanto à estrutura e espessura, supostamente em razão de adaptação à exigência funcional.

  8. Ground temperatures in ice-cemented ground at Linnaeus Terrace, Dry Valleys, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Soil temperatures were measured with Campbell 107 soil thermistors. Thermistors were placed at 0, 17, 23 (just above the ice-cemented permafrost) and 40 cm depth. To...

  9. Gross morphology and morphometry of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758 female genital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Branco

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The gross anatomy of the genital organs of four specimens of young female of Saimiri sciureus was investigated. The animals were bred in captivity at the Centro Nacional de Primatas and had died from natural causes. The vulva was limited by the labium minus and presented a well-developed clitoris which seemed to represent a rudimentary penis. The vaginal vestibule was the first cavity and was very short, presenting a thick muscular wall which extended from the vulva comissure to the vaginal ostium. The vagina was constituted by an elongated and dorsally flattened muscular tube with a thin wall between the vaginal vestibule and cervix. The cervix was short with well-developed musculature. The uterus was simple, presenting a global fundus located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. The uterine tubes were elongated and rectilinear, connected to the ovaries which were large, ellipsoid in shape, and presented a smooth surface.

  10. High exposure to Tunga penetrans (Linnaeus, 1758 correlates with intensity of infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Feldmeier

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Tungiasis is a parasitic skin disease widespread in resource-poor urban and rural communities in Brazil. Inhabitants of an urban slum in Northeast Brazil were examined for the presence of tungiasis lesions and followed-up twice a week for a period of three weeks. Each time the number, stages, and topographic localization of lesions were recorded on a documentation sheet. The infestation rate (number of newly embedded sand fleas per individual and day remained stable during the observation period. The infestation rate was significantly related to the intensity of infestation (total number of lesions present (rho = 0.70, p < 0.0001 and the proportion of viable lesions (rho = 0.28, p < 0.0001. The results indicate that in an endemic area the infestation intensity and the proportion of viable lesions can be used as a proxy to assess the exposure of individuals at risk for tungiasis. Persistently high infestation rates during the transmission season favour the use of prevention measures against invading sand fleas (such as a repellent rather than a drug to kill already embedded parasites.

  11. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  12. Age, growth, reproduction, and food of the burbot, Lota lota (Linnaeus), in southwestern Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Merryll M.

    1972-01-01

    This study was based on 1,285 burbot (Lota lota) collected in three areas in southwestern Lake Superior in 1966-69. Age was determined from otoliths, the marginal zones of which were opaque from December to May and translucent from June to November. Average lengths of the age groups and annual increments were measured from a curve fitted by inspection to point estimates of lengths at capture. Burbot grew 5.7 inches during the first year of life and 4.3 inches during the second. Later annual increments through the twelfth year ranged from 1.2 to 2.6 inches. Average total lengths and calculated weights were 16.1 inches and 1.1 pounds at age V and 23.4 inches and 3.2 pounds at age X. First maturity was at age I, at a total length of 9.7 inches for males and 10.7 inches for females; all fish were mature at age V and at lengths greater than 16.4 inches (males) and 15.9 inches (females). Most burbot collected near shore in the Apostle Islands area in late January and February were spent, but none collected in offshore areas during January and March had spawned. The estimated number of eggs in the ovaries of eight burbot 14.7-21.3 inches long ranged from about 268,800 to 1,154,000 and averaged about 812,300. Burbot of all sizes fed on fish and crustaceans. Fish heavily predominated in the food of large burbot taken during the winter (99.6% of the volume) but crustaceans (Mysis and Pontoporeia) became increasingly important during the summer and fall (when they contributed more than 73% of the volume). Due to the wide variety and large volume of food consumed, the burbot is probably a significant competitor of many other species.

  13. Chemical identification of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) essential oil and its acaricidal effect on ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Lopes, Rosângela da Silva; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The control of tick species that affect animal production is vital for the economic welfare of the cattle industry. This study focused on testing the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves and stems of Tagetes minuta against several Brazilian tick species, including Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma cajennense and Argas miniatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by chromatography and spectroscopy analyses, which revealed the presence of monoterpenes. The adult immersion test (AIT) and the larval packet test (LPT) were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. minuta essential oil in tick management at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40%. The results demonstrated that the T. minuta essential oil had over 95% efficacy against four species of ticks at a concentration of 20%. These results suggest that the essential oil of T. minuta could be used as an environmentally friendly acaricide.

  14. Arterial anatomosurgical segments of the mammary glands in dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, C.R.; Miglino, M.A.; Santos, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty mammary complexes (sixty antimers) from cross bred multiparous bitches, were injected with latex and then studied by means of radiology and dissection. The different anatomo-surgical arterial segments thus obtained were identified and designated according to the anatomical zone of irrigation of each mammary gland as follows: 1. Thoracic segment, by means of the fourth and fifth perforant arteries, penetrates the first mammary gland in 85% of the cases; 2. Thoracoabdominal segment, by means of the sixth and seventh perforant arteries, penetrates the second mammary gland in 48.33 % of the cases. This segment can also be divided as follows: 2.1. Retrograde branches of the cranial superficial epigastric artery that penetrates the second mammary gland in about 51.66% of the cases, as the toracoabdominal cranial segment; 2.2. Terminal branches of the last artery penetrate the third mammary gland in 73.32% of the cases, as the toracoabdominal caudal segment. 3. Inguinoabdominal segment may also possess two sub-- segments: 3.1. Caudal superficial epigastric artery with primary branches penetrating the fourth mamma and the ventral labial branches, penetrating the fifth mamma in 96.66% of the cases, as inguinoabdomninal caudal segment. 3.2. Terminal branches of the caudal superficial epigastric artery penetrates the third mamma in 51.66% of the cases as inguinoabdominal cranial segment. The anastomosis observed in 78.33% of the cases may not have significance in mastectomy [pt

  15. Partição de recursos florais de espécies de Sida Linnaeus e Malvastrum coromandelianum (Linnaeus Garcke (Malvaceae entre Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae e Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Eucerini Floral resource partitioning on Sida Linnaeus and Malvastrum coromandelianum (Linnaeus Garcke (Malvaceae between Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira (Hymenoptera, Andrenidae, Panurginae and Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Eucerini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Ferreira Morato

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The flowering pattern and the visiting bee species on Sida spp. and Malvastrum coromandelianum (L. Garcke were studied in a restricted area at the campus of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. There were differences among plant species but not among individuals in relation to the flowering time along the day and the time at which the flowers were visited by bees. Melissoptila cnecomala (Moure, 1944 and Cephalurgus anomalus Moure & Oliveira, 1962 were the most frequent visitors. Both species foraged on flowers for nectar and pollen. C. anomalus visited mainly plants with anthesis in the morning and M. cnecomala plants with anthesis in the afternoon. This fact sugests that those species of bees may be showing contrasting foraging strategies and can share the floral resources of Sida and Malvastrum. The males of C. anomalus mate on flowers of Sida and exhibit a behavior known as rendevouz pollination.

  16. External Morphology of Adult Citrus Butterfly, Papilio memnon (Linnaeus, 1758) and Seasonal Abundance of the Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Ni Win

    2005-10-01

    Sexual dimorphism is obvious in Papilio memnon. The female adult resembles that of Papilio polytes another citrus butterfly species. However, marked difference is observed in the size and red spots on the base of the forewing. The adult male P. memnon is blue black in colour and red spots are present on the base of the underside of both for and hind wings. The win span of sexes ranges from 120mm to 150mm. The breeding season is from end of June to early part of January, the peak being in the month of November. The recorded diagnostic external features of this studied species are described supported by scaled photographs. Seasonal abundance of this species is also mentioned. It is learnt through the internet that a mounted specimen of this species fetched $2.95 in Malaysia. It is therefore concluded that successful rearing of this species in captivity could be of benefit to the country.

  17. Inorganic, organic, and encapsulated minerals in vegetable meal based diets for Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Domínguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Substituting fishmeal (FM with vegetable meal (VM can markedly affect the mineral composition of feeds, and may require additional mineral supplementation. Their bioavailability and optimal supplementation levels depend also on the form of delivery of minerals. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different delivery forms of three major trace elements (Zn, Mn and Se in a marine teleost. Gilthead sea bream juveniles of 22.5 g were fed a VM-based diet for 12 weeks that was either not supplemented with these minerals or supplemented with inorganic, organic, or encapsulated inorganic forms of minerals in triplicate and compared to a FM-based diet. Our results showed that mineral delivery form significantly affected the biochemical composition and morphology of posterior vertebrae. Supplementation of VM-based diets with inorganic forms of the target minerals significantly promoted growth, increased the vertebral weight and content of ash and Zn, enhanced bone mineralization and affected the vertebral shape. Conversely, encapsulation of inorganic minerals reduced fish growth and vertebral mineral content, whereas supplementation of organic minerals, enhanced bone osteogenesis by upregulating bone morphogenetic protein 2 (bmp2 gene and produced vertebrae with a larger length in relation to height. Furthermore, organic mineral forms of delivery downregulated the expression of oxidative stress related genes, such as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn sod and glutathione peroxidase 1 (gpx-1, suggesting thus that dietary minerals supplemented in the organic form could be reasonably considered more effective than the inorganic and encapsulated forms of supply.

  18. Inorganic, organic, and encapsulated minerals in vegetable meal based diets for Sparus aurata (Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez, David; Rimoldi, Simona; Robaina, Lidia E.; Torrecillas, Silvia; Terova, Genciana; Zamorano, María J.; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hamre, Kristin; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2017-01-01

    Substituting fishmeal (FM) with vegetable meal (VM) can markedly affect the mineral composition of feeds, and may require additional mineral supplementation. Their bioavailability and optimal supplementation levels depend also on the form of delivery of minerals. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different delivery forms of three major trace elements (Zn, Mn and Se) in a marine teleost. Gilthead sea bream juveniles of 22.5 g were fed a VM-based diet for 12 weeks that was eit...

  19. Morfologia do sistema genital feminino da paca (Cuniculus paca, Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Gonçalves dos Reis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi caracterizada a morfologia macroscópica do genital feminino, de seis exemplares adultos de paca (Cuniculus paca, mediante dissecação das cavidades abdominal e pélvica imediatamente após o óbito. Os ovários apresentam forma ovoide, achatados dorso-ventralmente, de coloração amarela esbranquiçada com pequenos pontos avermelhados em sua superfície; têm localização sublombar, caudal aos rins; estão envoltos por uma rasa bolsa ovárica e fixados pelo mesovário; a tuba uterina é um órgão par, de aspecto sinuoso, contínua aos ovários, estando inserida na mesossalpinge e se estendendo até o início de cada corno uterino correspondente. Os cornos uterinos retilíneos fixam-se à parede abdominal pelo mesométrio e se unem pelo ligamento intercornual na altura da entrada da pelve, onde se posicionam dorsalmente à vesícula urinária; duas cevices estão presentes, embora o septo uterino que as separa seja incompleto, caracterizando presença de dois óstios uterinos internos e um único óstio uterino externo, considerando-se este útero como duplo incompleto. A vagina é um órgão tubular que se posiciona ventral ao reto e dorsal à vesícula urinária e à uretra, não se verificou a presença de vestíbulo e a vagina e a uretra não possuem ponto comum de convergência, abrindo-se, cada uma delas, diretamente na região vulvar, que se apresenta plana, com reduzidos lábios vulvares, apenas o clitóris de forma cônica é pouco proeminente e apresenta duas estruturas pontiagudas em sua região distal. Não se verificaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas mensurações realizadas nos ovários, tubas uterinas e cornos uterinos, ao se comparar os antímeros direito e esquerdo.

  20. Eryx jaculus (Linnaeus, 1758: a new species for the Italian herpetofauna (Squamata: Erycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Insacco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a population of the Javelin sand boa Eryx jaculus in Sicilia is here reported for the first time. Observations of live snakes and road-killed individuals have been obtained from the region of Licata (Province of Agrigento, in the southern part of Sicily. Data on the distribution and pholidosis from four specimens are presented. The large area of occurrence of the snake in Sicily, that bears also a local vernacular name suggests an ancient origin of the colonization. The presence of this species, increases the numbers of snakes living in Italy.

  1. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedà, Cristina; Caccamo, Letteria; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gai, Francesco; Andaloro, Franco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Perdichizzi, Anna; Romeo, Teresa; Maricchiolo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p < 0.05) to different exposure times. These first results underline the need to assess the impact of increasing microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web. - Highlights: • Data on microplastics ingestion in European sea bass are reported. • After 60 and 90 days severe histological changes in distal intestine were observed. • Results suggest that the ingestion of microplastics alters intestinal tissues. • Plastics ingestion in fish represents a hazard for the effects on marine ecosystem. - Alterations in intestines of European sea bass exposed to microplastics.

  2. Anatomy of the nasal cavity of nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Braga Soares Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus stands out for its adaptability in different environments, a fact that requires the species, an olfactory capacity developed with a keen sense and related organs potentially evolved. Five specimens of nine banded armadillo were submitted to anatomic dissection with occipital disconnection and isolation of part of the skull in order to obtain a hemi-skull to view the arrangement of internal structures of the nasal cavity. The obtained specimens were identified and photographed with the assist of digital camera. The nine-banded armadillo nose is incorporated into the face of the skeleton located in nasal plan with the triangular shape and facing forward. The nostrils are separated by the nasal septum. Paranasal sinuses, two (frontal and parietal, resemble diverticula of the nasal cavity. The nine-banded armadillo nasal shells are presented divided into three: the ethmoid shell, the dorsal nasal shell and the ventral nasal shell. The shells are delimited dorsal and ventral nasal meatus by. The respiratory system of nine-banded armadillo presented features anatomical that justify their behavior in the nature, as their olfactory ability for hunting. Thus, the development of the nasal shell, especially, ethmoid shells check the animal facility in the searching for subterranean food.

  3. DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS IN BLUE-FRONTED PARROT (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa Marley Nóbrega da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic procedures are commonly used in domestic and wild birds, because of its low cost and fast induction, as long as applied with great precision, which requires specific anatomical knowledge of the site of incision. This study aimed to establish the origin and distribution of the brachial plexus of the Blue-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva by anatomic dissection of the skin and musculature of 22 specimens (17 males and 5 females from the Wild Animals Screening Center of the Federal District after death by natural causes. The dissection work promoted the isolation of the forming roots of the brachial plexus, as well as its ramifications. The brachial plexus was formed by four trunks, including the ventral spinal cord rami segments from C9 to C10, C10 to C11, C11 to T1 and T1 to T2, which joined into a short common trunk, branched into dorsal and ventral cords. The thin nerves subcoracoideus and subscapularis and the branch to the scapulohumeralis muscle originated from the common trunk. The dorsal cord originated the anconeal, axillaris and radialis nerves, while the ventral cord gave origin for the pectoralis cranialis, pectoralis caudalis, coracobrachialis and medianoulnaris. These branches innervated the muscles of the extensor and flexor compartments of the forelimb, pectoral muscles and overlying skin.

  4. Anatomy of the nasal cavity of nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Braga Soares Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus stands out for its adaptability in different environments, a fact that requires the species, an olfactory capacity developed with a keen sense and related organs potentially evolved. Five specimens of nine banded armadillo were submitted to anatomic dissection with occipital disconnection and isolation of part of the skull in order to obtain a hemi-skull to view the arrangement of internal structures of the nasal cavity. The obtained specimens were identified and photographed with the assist of digital camera. The nine-banded armadillo nose is incorporated into the face of the skeleton located in nasal plan with the triangular shape and facing forward. The nostrils are separated by the nasal septum. Paranasal sinuses, two (frontal and parietal, resemble diverticula of the nasal cavity. The nine-banded armadillo nasal shells are presented divided into three: the ethmoid shell, the dorsal nasal shell and the ventral nasal shell. The shells are delimited dorsal and ventral nasal meatus by. The respiratory system of nine-banded armadillo presented features anatomical that justify their behavior in the nature, as their olfactory ability for hunting. Thus, the development of the nasal shell, especially, ethmoid shells check the animal facility in the searching for subterranean food

  5. Utilization of shrimp industry waste in the formulation of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Cavalheiro, José Marcelino; Oliveira de Souza, Erivelto; Bora, Pushkar Singh

    2007-02-01

    A rapid expansion of fisheries is demanding an adequate supply of efficient, nutritious and inexpensive fish feed, because feed contributes highly to the cost of fish production. Shrimp head, a waste product from the shrimp export industry qualifies as an economical, abundant and good quality protein source for fish feeds. In the present work, shrimp head silage powder, which contained approximately 40% protein, was used as a substitute for fish flour. Four feeds, in the form of pellets, were prepared by substituting shrimp head silage for fish flour at 0%, 33.3%, 66.6% and 100% dietary levels. Other ingredients such as corn, soy, bovine blood, cassava and corn cob flours, soy oil, vitamin premix, salt, and other components also were used in the formulation. A commercial fish feed was used as the control. The proximate composition of these feeds did not differ significantly at p>0.05, except for the protein content of the control feed, which was about 30.6% versus 35.4-36.9% protein in the other diets. No significant differences (p>0.05 level) in weight and length of juveniles fed with the different feeds during a period of 60 days were observed. In all cases, an excellent correlation (0.9950-0.9996) between weight and length of juveniles was observed. No significant difference in growth of juveniles fed on R1, R2, R3, or R4, or the control feed, was observed. Similarly, the proximate analyses of the flesh of juveniles did not present significant differences (p>0.05). The result of the study indicates that the shrimp head silage could replace fish flour as an ingredient in tilapia feed with economic advantages and without sacrificing the quality of the feed.

  6. Rearing of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817, intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Cecília Pereira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica, Lymnaea columella, collected in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was reared in our laboratory. The aim of the current study was to standardize a rearing and maintenance technique. Two kinds of diet were tested: fresh lettuce (A and rodent ration + 10% CaCO3 plus fresh lettuce (B. The age for the beginning of oviposition ranged from 27 to 57 days. Ten days after oviposition at 24.7°C, 100% eclosion occurred. The complete life cycle varied from 37 to 67 days. The average numbers of eggs per egg mass were 26.3 and 31.1 with diets (A and (B, respectively. The lettuce and ration fed snails presented a increased growth although the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. The mortality rate varied from 40 to 64% after 90 days. The maximum longevity was 183 days, 21.5 mm length and 11 mm wide. The methodology to mass breed and maintain these snails was found to be suitable in the laboratory

  7. Population Biology of Tripneustes gratilla (Linnaeus (Echinodermata in Seagrass Beds of Southern Guimaras, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Militar Regalado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla is a major grazer found in seagrass beds of southern Guimaras, Philippines. Monthly length-frequency data from January 2008 to June 2009 were used to estimate the growth, recruitment pattern and mortality rate with the use of FiSAT II. The estimated values for the Von Bertalanffy growth parameters L(n/k(asymptotic length and K (growth coefficient were 114.2 mm and 1.08 respectively. Monthly densities ranged from 0.06 to 0.58 per m² with a mean value of 0.26 per m². Monthly biomass ranged from 4.1 to 49.5 grams per m² with a mean value of 21.15 grams per m². T. gratilla density and biomass were observed to be highest during the month of November 2008. The recruitment pattern showed a major broad peak and a minor peak separated by four months. Total mortality (Z from the length-converted catch curve was computed to be 4.74 per year.

  8. Jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758 roadkill in Brazilian Atlantic Forest and implications for species conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AC Srbek-Araujo

    Full Text Available AbstractWe report the roadkill of a jaguar in one of the longest highways in Brazil (BR-101, in the stretch where this road crosses one of the most important Atlantic Forest remnants in the country: the Linhares-Sooretama block. The jaguar population present in this area represents the very last in entire Espírito Santo state. There is an approved project to the lines duplication of the entire BR-101 Highway and the company responsible by the work has already started the first activities in the state. However, there is no environmental impact assessment already done neither planning for the implementation of measures to avoid or reduce the roadkill risk in the region. Thus, to minimize the impacts associated with the BR-101, we do not recommend its lines duplication along the 15 km stretch traversing the Linhares-Sooretama block. In addition, alternatively, we suggest the deviation of the current route of the BR-101 Highway or the construction of overpasses to fauna in the most critical points, interspersing these overpasses with electronic speed monitoring devices and warning and educational plates.

  9. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral susceptibility of Singapore Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus to Zika virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MeiZhi Irene Li

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is a little known flavivirus that caused a major outbreak in 2007, in the South-western Pacific Island of Yap. It causes dengue-like syndromes but with milder symptoms. In Africa, where it was first isolated, ZIKV is mainly transmitted by sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes. The virus has also been isolated from Ae. aegypti and it is considered to be the vector involved in the urban transmission of the virus. Transmission of the virus by an African strain of Ae. aegypti has also been demonstrated under laboratory conditions. The aim of the present study is to describe the oral susceptibility of a Singapore strain of Ae. aegypti to ZIKV, under conditions that simulate local climate.To assess the receptivity of Singapore's Ae. aegypti to the virus, we orally exposed a local mosquito strain to a Ugandan strain of ZIKV. Upon exposure, fully engorged mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 29 °C and 70-75% RH. Eight mosquitoes were then sampled daily from day 1 to day 7, and subsequently on days 10 and 14 post exposure (pe. The virus titer of the midgut and salivary glands of each mosquito were determined using a tissue culture infectious dose(50 (TCID(50 assay. High midgut infection and salivary gland dissemination rates were observed. By day 5 after the infectious blood meal, ZIKV was found in the salivary glands of more than half of the mosquitoes tested (62%; and by day 10, all mosquitoes were potentially infective.This study showed that Singapore's urban Ae. aegypti are susceptible and are potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV. The virus could be established in Singapore should it be introduced. Nevertheless, Singapore's current dengue control strategy is applicable to control ZIKV.

  11. Role of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in local dengue epidemics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pui-Jen; Teng, Hwa-Jen

    2016-11-09

    Aedes mosquitoes in Taiwan mainly comprise Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. However, the species contributing to autochthonous dengue spread and the extent at which it occurs remain unclear. Thus, in this study, we spatially analyzed real data to determine spatial features related to local dengue incidence and mosquito density, particularly that of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti. We used bivariate Moran's I statistic and geographically weighted regression (GWR) spatial methods to analyze the globally spatial dependence and locally regressed relationship between (1) imported dengue incidences and Breteau indices (BIs) of Ae. albopictus, (2) imported dengue incidences and BI of Ae. aegypti, (3) autochthonous dengue incidences and BI of Ae. albopictus, (4) autochthonous dengue incidences and BI of Ae. aegypti, (5) all dengue incidences and BI of Ae. albopictus, (6) all dengue incidences and BI of Ae. aegypti, (7) BI of Ae. albopictus and human population density, and (8) BI of Ae. aegypti and human population density in 348 townships in Taiwan. In the GWR models, regression coefficients of spatially regressed relationships between the incidence of autochthonous dengue and vector density of Ae. aegypti were significant and positive in most townships in Taiwan. However, Ae. albopictus had significant but negative regression coefficients in clusters of dengue epidemics. In the global bivariate Moran's index, spatial dependence between the incidence of autochthonous dengue and vector density of Ae. aegypti was significant and exhibited positive correlation in Taiwan (bivariate Moran's index = 0.51). However, Ae. albopictus exhibited positively significant but low correlation (bivariate Moran's index = 0.06). Similar results were observed in the two spatial methods between all dengue incidences and Aedes mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). The regression coefficients of spatially regressed relationships between imported dengue cases and Aedes mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) were significant in 348 townships in Taiwan. The results indicated that local Aedes mosquitoes do not contribute to the dengue incidence of imported cases. The density of Ae. aegypti positively correlated with the density of human population. By contrast, the density of Ae. albopictus negatively correlated with the density of human population in the areas of southern Taiwan. The results indicated that Ae. aegypti has more opportunities for human-mosquito contact in dengue endemic areas in southern Taiwan. Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus, and human population density in southern Taiwan are closely associated with an increased risk of autochthonous dengue incidence.

  12. The recent population expansion of boarfish, Capros aper (Linnaeus, 1758): Interactions of climate, growth and recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Julie Olivia; Hüssy, Karin; Farrell, E.D.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether temperature changes in the Northeast Atlantic influence the growth and recruitment dynamics of boarfish, Capros aper. Two geographically separate areas were examined, 'north' at the northern distribution range west of Ireland and 'south......' on the main fishing grounds south of Ireland. No significant differences in length-at-age were observed between the two areas. Interannual otolith growth patterns were similar between the two areas with distinct years of faster and slower growth. In the 'north', no significant relationship between adult...... growth and temperature was observed, while growth in the 'south' was positively related to temperature up to approximately 16°C growth rates were suppressed in the years with temperatures above that. Recruitment showed a positive correlation with adult growth the previous year for the Spanish recruitment...

  13. Origins, distributions, and ramifications of the femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseâmely Angélica de Carvalho-Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of nerves making up the lumbosacral plexus is extremely important, because it relates the various evolutionary aspects of animals’ posture and locomotion. Taking into account that the femoral nerve is the largest one in the cranial part of the lumbosacral plexus, one aimed to describe the origins, distributions, and ramifications of femoral nerves in giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, comparing them to the literature describing domestic and wild animals, in order to establish correlations of morphological similarities and provide the related areas with means. One used three specimens, prepared through an injection of 10% aqueous formaldehyde solution via femoral artery, for their conservation and posterior dissection. The origins in the right and left antimeres took place in the ventral braches of lumbar spinal nerves 1, 2, and 3. The distributions and ramifications were observed for the major and minor psoas, lateral and medial iliac, pectineus, adductor magnus, sartorius, and femoral quadriceps muscles. Having the origins of the M. tridactyla femoral nerves as a basis, a reframing was observed due to the variance in the number of lumbar vertebrae (L1, L2, and L3. However, a partial morphological similarity was kept with regard to the distributions and ramifications, when compared to the domestic and wild animals taken into account in this study.

  14. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassiuscarassius (Linnaeus 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    Olsén, K Håkan; Lundh, Torbjörn

    2016-01-01

    Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds o...

  15. Feeding stimulants in an omnivorous species, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Håkan Olsén

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many fish are during feeding dependent on both an olfactory and gustatory sense. Olfaction that acts as the distance sense induces arousal, food search behaviour and attraction to the source, followed by examination of food items by the gustatory sense. During buccal handling the fish decide if the feed will be rejected or swallowed. Amino acids are often stimulatory to the gustatory sense and can act as feeding stimulants. There are, however, inter-species differences concerning what kinds of amino acids act as feeding stimulants or deterrents. The species differences are probably dependent on the natural food choice. As feeding stimulating molecules increase feeding and growth, but deterrents have the reverse effect, it is important to know what kind of molecules have either effect. In the present study we record mouth handling time in the omnivorous crucian carp, Carassius carassius, of agar pellets containing water extracts of meal consisting of ordinary food pellets, blue mussels or a commercial carp attractant. These tests were followed by testing with agar pellets with synthetic amino acids, based on the content of the water extracts of the food pellets that was the only feeding stimulant. Neither extracts of mussel meal or of commercial carp attractants had a stimulating effect, i.e. no significant difference in handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. A mixture of five of the major amino acids in the food pellet extract (40 mM alanine, 20 mM glycine, 20 mM arginine, 8 mM serine, 8 mM leucin gave a significant longer handling time compared to agar pellets with only water. The handling time was also longer for the three amino acids that had the highest concentrations (40 mM Ala, 20 mM Gly, 20 mM Arg and finally with only alanine (128 mM. Agar pellets with only Ala gave, however, a significant shorter handling time compared to agar pellets with food pellet extract. The mussel meal extract had the same content of free amino acids and their ranking order was the same as in extracts of food pellets, but at much higher concentrations. Based on the free amino acid content, the mussel extract should have stimulated feeding. This indicates that the mussel extract contained compounds that acted as feeding deterrents in omnivorous crucian carp that do not feed on blue mussels in their natural environment. Previous studies have shown that blue mussel extracts act as feeding stimulants in several bottom feeding carnivorous fish. We finally tested betaine (100 mM but the molecule had no significant stimulating effect that has been observed in some other fish species.

  16. The investigation of biometric characteristics of seahorse species [Hippocampus hippocampus (Linnaeus,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Gürkan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma, İzmir Körfezi’nde dağılım gösteren Syngnathidae familyasına ait denizatı türlerini ve bu türlerin biyometrik özelliklerini belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Şubat 2000 tarihinde bölgede avlanan balıkçılardan 29 adet Hippocampus hippocampus, ve 200 adet Hippocampus guttulatus örneği temin edilmiştir. Elde edilen örneklerin metrik ve meristik özellikleri ve boy-ağırlık ilişkileri ile boy ve ağırlık frekans değerleri verilmiştir

  17. Hematological and biochemical characters of monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus, 1758 cultivated using methyltestosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Din H. Sayed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of steroid-treated feeds as 17 α-methyltestosterone for the production of all-male populations is widespread in tilapia aquaculture. The aim of the present study was to investigate the misuse effects of methyltestosterone on monosex farmed Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus by evaluation of hematological and biochemical values. The fishes were obtained from four localities (Assiut as a control, Beheira, Alexandria and Kafr el-Sheikh: three farms from each governorate as farmed monosex produced using methyltestosterone. The total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin rate, hematocrit percentage, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, white blood cell count, blood platelets, lymphocyte, monocyte, neutrophils and basophils were determined. The results showed that there were changes in the erythrocytic series and in the defense white blood cells. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, glucose, cholesterol, total protein, uric acid and creatinine were determined for biochemical study. These alterations are considered an indication for performance and health of fish in the monosex culture medium indicating the side effects of overdose induction of MT.

  18. A case of partial melanism in Lacerta agilis (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smolinský, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 29, 1-2 (2016), s. 110-112 ISSN 1013-4425 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Lacerta agilis * partial melanism * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2016

  19. Manganese effects on haematopoietic cells and circulating coelomocytes of Asterias rubens (Linnaeus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oweson, Carolina; Skoeld, Helen; Pinsino, Annalisa; Matranga, Valeria; Hernroth, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a naturally abundant metal in marine sediments where it mainly occurs as MnO 2 . During hypoxic conditions it is converted into a bioavailable state, Mn 2+ , and can reach levels that previously have shown effects on immune competent cells of the crustacean, Nephrops norvegicus. Here we investigated if Mn also affects circulating coelomocytes and their renewal in the common sea star, Asterias rubens, when exposed to concentrations of Mn that can be found in nature. When the sea stars were exposed to Mn it accumulated in the coelomic fluid and the number of circulating coelomocytes, in contrast to what was recorded in Nephrops, increased significantly. By using the substitute nucleotide, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, BrdU, for tracing cell division and by recording mitotic index by nuclei staining, we found that Mn induced proliferation of cells from a putative haematopoietic tissue, the coelomic epithelium. In addition, the haematopoietic tissue and coelomocytes showed stress response in terms of changes in HSP70 levels and protein carbonyls, as judged by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Measurement of dehydrogenase activity, using MTS/PMS, revealed that Mn showed cytotoxic properties. We also found that the phagocytotic capacity of coelomocytes was significantly inhibited by Mn. It was concluded that the exposure of A. rubens to Mn induced renewal of coelomocytes and impaired their immune response

  20. Retention and removal 137Cs in Japanese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) in dressing and cooking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, M.A.; Nakahara, N.; Nakamura, R.

    2004-01-01

    Japanese catfish contaminated by 137 Cs have been used to investigate how the dressing and cook-ing method affect the removal of radioactivity from the fish. During the dressing, 6.0% of the initial 137 Cs activity was removed by washing the live fish, further 30.3% of the activity relative to washed fish was removed by discarding the non-edible body parts (skeletons, fins, visceral mass, liver, kidney etc.) and washing the chopped fish. Fish curry was cooked using various spices, green-stuffs and vegetable oil following a method commonly used in South East and East Asian countries. The cooking process removed a further 61.6% of the 137 Cs activity relative to the activity in dressed fish. Taken together, this normal domestic fish dressing and culinary process removed 74.7% of the initial 137 Cs activity present in the live fish. During the cook-ing, the radioactivity removed from the fish pieces was found to distributed over the ingredients of the curry. The cooked fish pieces retained an average, 38.5% of the radioactivity present in the dressed raw fish pieces. Among the ingredients, the gravy was found to contain an average of 34.8% of the activity of the dressed fish. The activity in green-stuffs was found to vary from 4.0% (in cauliflower) to 7.2% (in potato). It may be concluded that normal home preparation and culinary processes removed the radio-activity from the fish to a great extent. In addition, discarding the gravy and green-stuffs of the curry further reduce the radioactivity intake into the human body. (author)

  1. Ultrassonografia abdominal de tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758 mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika R. Lopes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A ultrassonografia é um método de imagem não invasivo e uma ferramenta importante para o diagnóstico de uma variedade de enfermidades de animais. Neste trabalho foi realizada a técnica de ultrassonografia transabdominal em cinco tamanduás-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, dois machos e três fêmeas, pertencentes ao Zoológico da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso e acompanhada a necrópsia de um animal morto de causas naturais. Os animais do zoológico foram anestesiados com Tiletamina e Zolazepam (Zoletil® e mantidos em plano anestésico com Isofluorano. Foram realizadas varreduras com transdutor linear (LA332 multifrequencial de 3,0 a 11 MHz do fígado, vesícula biliar, estômago, baço, rins, bexiga e testículos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que existem semelhanças entre a arquitetura esplênica, a textura e ecogenicidade hepática, a posição e a aparência ultrassonográfica da vesícula biliar quando comparado com a dos caninos. Existem diferenças como localização renal, localização dos testículos, espessura da parede do estômago e presença de liquido livre anecóico entre o estômago, baço e rim esquerdo em todos os animais estudados.

  2. Anatomy description of cervical region and hyoid apparatus in living giant anteaters Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naida C. Borges

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The giant anteater has specific anatomical adaptations resulting from its ant and termite feeding habits. The unique arrangement of its hyoid apparatus is essential for the ingestion of food. However, its description in the literature is based on fragments and fossils, making it difficult to determine existing anatomical details in live animals. Imaging techniques, which enable the topographical anatomy of animals to be examined noninvasively, provide essential information for the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. The aim of this study is to describe the bone contours in the hyoid apparatus of the giant anteater by means of radiographic and tomographic images. Giant anteaters of varying ages from the Wild Animal Screening Center (CETAS-GO were used, seven for X-ray exams and two adults for CT exams. The hyoid elements in all the animals were evaluated using the two imaging techniques, and were visualized in the cervical region of C2 to C6, which comprises three paired bones (stylohyoid, epihyoid, ceratohyoid and one unpaired bone (basihyoid. The presence of air in the oropharynx enabled the assessment of soft tissue structures in this region, such as the epiglottis and the soft palate. CT axial sections are of limited usefulness for evaluating the hyoid bones, but enable assessments of the basihyoid bone and its characteristic V-shape. Thus, to analyze the hyoid region in anteaters based on radiographic and tomographic images, one must keep in mind that the stylohyoid, epihyoid and ceratohyoid bones are situated ventrally to the C2 to C5 vertebrae and that the basihyoid at the level of C5-C6 demarcates the transition between the nasopharynx and the trachea. The nasopharynx and oropharynx extend from C1 to C5, and the trachea begins at the level of C6.

  3. [Species of the genus Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus, 1758) in captivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Fagner Luiz da C; Almeida, Katyane de S; Zanetti, André S; do Nascimento, Adjair A; Machado, Cé Lio R; Machado, Rosangela Z

    2006-01-01

    The parasitism of the two giant anteaters adults (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), one male and one female, infected naturally with Eimeria escomeli, E. tamanduae e E. marajoensis was related in the present research. In E. escomeli oocysts were 23.9 +/- 1.89 by 19.7 +/- 1.60 microm and its sporocysts were 11.47 +/- 1.25 by 6.48 +/- 0.80 microm. In E. tamanduae oocysts were 23.52 +/- 0.95 by 20.59 +/- 0.92 microm and its sporocysts were 12.19 +/- 0.65 by 7.15 +/- 0.55 microm. In E. marajoensis oocysts were 13.5 +/- 1.7 by 13.1 +/- 1.8 microm and its sporocysts were 7.4 +/- 0.58 by 5.4 +/- 0.8 microm. Eimeria escomeli was described before parasitizing giants anteater from Bolivia, and it was point out as the first time in Brazil. The presence of E. tamanduae and E. marajoensis parasitizing giant anteaters indicate the possibility of having co-infection of them among animals of the family Myrmecophagidae.

  4. Influence of recovery method and centrifugation on epididymal sperm from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; da Silva, Andréia Maria; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; da Silva, Mariana de Araújo; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation.

  5. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHF Bortoluci

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the behaviour of “Cebus” shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG, Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG and Slow Twitc (SO. In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities.

  6. Histochemistry profile of the biceps brachii muscle fibres of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella, Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluci, C H F; Simionato, L H; Rosa Junior, G M; Oliveira, J A; Lauris, J R P; Moraes, L H R; Rodrigues, A C; Andreo, J C

    2014-08-01

    A general analysis of the behaviour of "Cebus" shows that when this primate moves position to feed or perform another activity, it presents different ways of locomotion. This information shows that the brachial biceps muscle of this animal is frequently used in their locomotion activities, but it should also be remembered that this muscle is also used for other development activities like hiding, searching for objects, searching out in the woods, and digging in the soil. Considering the above, it was decided to research the histoenzimologic characteristics of the brachial biceps muscle to observe whether it is better adpted to postural or phasic function. To that end, samples were taken from the superficial and deep regions, the inserts proximal (medial and lateral) and distal brachial biceps six capuchin monkeys male and adult, which were subjected to the reactions of m-ATPase, NADH-Tr. Based on the results of these reactions fibres were classified as in Fast Twitch Glycolitic (FG), Fast Twitch Oxidative Glycolitic (FOG) and Slow Twitc (SO). In general, the results, considering the muscle as a whole, show a trend of frequency FOG> FG> SO. The data on the frequency were studied on three superficial regions FOG=FG>SO; the deep regions of the inserts proximal FOG=FG=SO and inserting the distal FOG>FG=SO. In conclusion, the biceps brachii of the capuchin monkey is well adapted for both postural and phasic activities.

  7. The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio Linnaeus) observed in mangroves in St. John, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C.S.; Pietsch, T.W.; Randall, J.E.; Arnold, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Sargassum Frogfish (Histrio histrio), the only pelagic member of the frogfish family Antennariidae, is considered an obligate associate of floating mats of the brown algae Sargassum natans and S. fluitans (Adams 1960; Dooley 1972; Pietsch and Grobecker 1987). Between February and April 2010, 20 of these fish were observed in three mangrove-fringed bays in Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, St. John, US Virgin Islands. All of them were clinging to clumps of the red alga Acanthophora spicifera growing on the submerged prop roots of red mangrove trees (Rhizophora mangle) distributed along an estimated total of 2,160 mof shoreline (Fig. 1). All of the fish were at a depth of less than 0.5 meters. Two individuals were seen on one prop root, but the other 18 were solitary. Their estimated standard lengths ranged from about 20 to 100 mm. Littler and Littler (2000, p. 295) published a photograph of one individual in blades of the green alga Ulva lactuca growing on a prop root in Belize. This is the first report of the Sargassum Frogfish living in association with attached algae.

  8. ALIMENTACIÓN DE BUFO MARINUS (LINNAEUS, 1758 (BUFONIDAE: ANURA, EN UNA LOCALIDAD DE SUCRE, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampedro Alcides

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron recolectas nocturnas de Bufo marinus en una localidad del departamento de Sucre. Se recolectaron 197 ejemplares, de los cuales 128 fueron hembras y 69 machos. Los ejemplares fueron medidos y pesados y se les practicó una disección para extraer el estómago y determinar aspectos cualitativos (tipo de presas y cuantitativos (número y tamaño de presas. Insectos del orden Hymenoptera fueron las presas de mayor importancia. Los individuos de mayor tamaño ingieren presas más grandes y en menor cantidad mientras que los de menor talla, presas pequeñas, pero en mayor cantidad. La proporción del peso del contenido estomacal en relación con el peso corporal, tanto para hembras como para machos fue similar (6%. Esta especie no parece representar un peligro para la fauna nativa en el departamento de Sucre.

  9. Prevalence of Cercariae Infection in Lymnaea auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758 in NorthWest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Imani-Baran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The pond snail Lymnaea auricularia serves as an intermediate host for many digenian species. In West Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran, the cercariae infection investigation was undertaken in L. auricularia from May to November 2010. Of 6759 collected Lymnaeid snails, 370(5.5% L. auricularia snails were identified. Cercariae infection was found in a number of 276 (74.56 % snails. The results showed that removed cercariae from L. auricularia belonged to Echinostomcercariae (96.38 % and Furcocercariae (3.62 % which were found in two out of 28 sites during the course of study. In summer and fall, the highest prevalence of cercariae infection was recorded for both identified cercariae. It is concluded that L. auricularia could be an important intermediate host of large group digenian trematodes in the region, which is necessary to take consideration in the control program of trematode infection.

  10. ARIES: an expert system supporting legislative tasks. Identifying animal materials using the Linnaeus II software

    OpenAIRE

    van Raamsdonk, Leo W.D.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad cow disease) is generally considered to be caused by recycling animal by-products as ingredient in animal, especially ruminant, feed. Feed bans were enforced to minimize the risk on infections, and monitoring programs are effectuated for controlling the ban. The only official detection method is visual (microscopic) examination of the presence of primarily bone fragments, but muscle fibres, hairs, feather filaments, and fish bones a...

  11. Granulomas caused by Mycobacterium sp. in farmed Turbot Scopthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. JERONIMO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbot, Scophthlalmus maximus, is a Pleuronectiformes fish that occurs in northeast Atlantic along the European coast and in the Mediterranean Sea and is produced in aquaculture since the last quarter of the twentieth century. During a survey conducted in a turbot fish farm nodular formations were occasionally observed in several organs, especially in the kidney and in the spleen. Microscopic observations showed that these nodules contained acid-fast bacilli. The molecular identification of the isolated bacteria conducted to the Mycobacterium genus. Although no abnormal mortalities were evident morbidity was observed. The normal development and welfare of infected fish decrease and the condition factor, the haematocrit and the haemoglobin concentration in blood decreases significantly with the increase of nodules abundance.

  12. Distribution, taxonomy and ecology of cinclus cinclus(Linnaeus,1758) in the European North of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    ESTAFYEV A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The work is devoted to a usual for the European North of Russia nesting and wintering water bird species, the dipper C. c. cinclus L. 1758. The anthropogenic load on water ecosystems in the region largely increases negatively affecting the population density of this bird. The paper reviews the population status of dipper since the XX century using the author’s data (1965-2014) and literature materials. The number of species remains high in natural habitats. Log drifting was not organized at t...

  13. Morphology and morphometry of the reproductive system of female Saguinus midas (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Nathaly Cristine Da Silva; De Lima, Ana Rita; De Carvalho, Ana Flávia; De Carvalho Garcia, Rafael; Therrier, Joanne; Souza, Ana Carla Barros; Pereira, Luiza Correia; Branco, Erika

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the reproductive system's morphology of three young animals of the species Saguinus midas, from the bauxite mine in Paragominas, is described. The specimens were fixed and preserved in a solution of 10% aqueous formaldehyde, followed by dissection, measurement of the genital organs (uterus, vagina, ovaries, and uterine tubes), and histological processing. The vulva is delimited by the labia, with a clitoris. It is lined by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium with sebaceous glands of holocrine secretion. The vagina is an elongated tube with an average length of 26 mm and diameter of 1 mm, presenting a non-keratinized squamous epithelium, disposed between the vestibule of the vagina and cervix, the latter being relatively short. The uterus is simple, has globular shape and is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity, with an average length of 14 mm and average width of 7 mm. It is formed by vascular and serous layers of muscles, and undergoes a bifurcation to form two structures on the bottom of blind sac. The uterine tubes are long and convoluted with an average length of 35 mm (right) and 36 mm (left), consisting of loose connective tissue and muscle layer lined by simple ciliated columnar epithelium. The ovaries are large and ellipsoid with smooth surface. Histologically, one animal showed ovulation fosse. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Perkembangan dan Kandungan Nutrisi Larva Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus (Diptera: Stratiomyidae pada Bungkil Kelapa Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RACHMAWATI RACHMAWATI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hermetia illucens, is used as a reducing agent of palm kernel meal (PKM, as well as one of alternative protein sources for aquaculture purposes. Information about biology of H. illucens is absolutely required in mass production. The objectives of these researches were to study the development of H. illucens including the effect of supplementary food to the adult, and nutrient content of the immature stage. The sample of 20 larvae from each 3 replicates were measured and weighed on 0-19th day (larva and 24th day (pupa from egg hatching. H. illucens adults were fed by water and honey 5% (v/v. Eggs were collected and counted. Nutrient content of immature stage: 5, 10, 15, 20 days old (larvae, and 25 days old (prepupae reared on PKM were analyzed proximately. Dry matter was determined by weight loss on drying at 105 oC during overnight. Crude protein was determined by Kjeldahl procedure (N x 6.25, crude fat by soxhlet (ether extract, crude ash by determining the residue after heating at 550 oC for 4–5 h. Data were analyzed descriptively by average from triplicate. The development of H. illucens was shorter than those in previous studies as the differences of abiotical factor. PKM was a suitable medium for development. It was better, however, to fed the adult with honey since it could enhance the fecundity. The young larva certainly contained the best quality of nutrition. To meet the quantity of mass production, however, the use of the elder larva (bigger was suggested.

  15. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  16. Modeling the effect of climate change to the potential invasion range of Piper aduncum Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Paquit

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential effect of invasive plant species on biodiversity is one of most important subject of inquiry at present. In many parts of the world, the alarming spread of these plants has been documented. Knowing that climate exerts a dominant control over the distribution of plant species, predictions can therefore be made to determine which areas the species would likely spread under a climate change scenario and that is what this study aims to tackle. In the current study, a total of 211 species occurrence points were used to model the current and projected suitability of Piper aduncum in Bukidnon, Philippines using Maxent. Results revealed that the suitability of the species was determined primarily by climatic factors with Bio 18 (precipitation of the warmest quarter as the strongest influencing variable with a mean percent contribution of 22.1%. The resulting model was highly accurate based on its mean test Area Under Curve that is equal to 0.917. Current prediction shows that suitable areas for Piper are concentrated along the southern portion of Bukidnon. Only 9% of the province is suitable for the species at present but is predicted to increase to 27% because of climate change. The central and southwestern parts of the province are the areas of high threat for invasion by Piper.

  17. The blunt-headed vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa (Linnaeus, 1758, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Caldeira Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The blunt-headed vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa, has a large distribution, occurring from the east coast of Mexico to Argentina. In Brazil, it is found from the Amazon in the north, to Santa Catarina in the south. In the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, there are only two records of I. cenchoa in the literature. In the present study, a search for I. cenchoa from Minas Gerais was conducted in the main Brazilian herpetological collections, revealing a total of 13 localities with records of this species.

  18. TOPOGRAFIA VÉRTEBRO-MEDULAR EM SAGUI-DE-TUFO-BRANCO (Callithrix jacchus, LINNAEUS 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Célia Stunitz da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of spinal cord morphological studies, their applicability in clinical veterinary during cerebrospinal fluid punction, location of nervous injuries in spinal levels, and epidural anesthesia, this study aimed at analyzing and describing the spinal cord and vertebral-medullary topography in the primate Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset. Ten adult specimens, 5 females and 5 males, with 170g-300g were used. The animals came from a wildlife breeding center and died of natural causes. After fixation in 10% formaldehyde solution, the animals were incised at the dorsal midline, from foramen magnum to the tail base, with removal of epaxial muscles and vertebral arches to expose the spinal cord. Total length measurements from the spinal cord, medullary cone and cervical and lumbar intumescences were performed, as well as skeletopie of all structures. Based on the analyzed material and the technique apllied we concluded that the spine of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus presents standard morphometric and morphological characteristic, and through the medullary cone morphological description, between L2-L5, we suggest that epidural anesthesia in this species should be performed at lumbosacral region.

  19. A new species of Aphis Linnaeus, 1758 (Hem. Aphididae collected on Gymnophyton Clos (Apiaceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. López Ciruelos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aphis cuyana López Ciruelos & Ortego, sp. n. (Aphididae, Aphidinae is described from apterous and alate viviparous females collected on Gymnophyton polycephalum (Apiaceae in localities of the Argentinean provinces of La Rioja, San Juan and Mendoza. A table with differences of the apterous viviparous females of the new species from the species of Aphis and its close genera Andinaphis and Protaphis known in South America is presented. http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4834FEF4-171C-4EBD-BF91-2137B517491E

  20. Macroparasites and their communities of the European eel Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, JUN 30 2015 (2015), 033 ISSN 1803-6465 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Central Europe * Danube River basin * Elbe River basin * Oder River basin * fish * host specificity * parasite fauna * species diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.271, year: 2015

  1. Elusive Parnassius mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae: habitat selection, sex determination and sex ratio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlašánek, Petr; Bartoňová, Alena; Marec, František; Konvička, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 180 (2017), s. 561-569 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/2167; GA AV ČR IAA600960925; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-13713S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 669609 - Diversity6continents Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Papilionidae * habitat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2016

  2. Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV) in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Karan S; Evans, Elizabeth C; Pizzorno, Marie C

    2009-10-30

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present and that the virus is actively replicating in these regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that in bees infected with DWV the virus is replicating in critical regions of the brain, including the neuropils responsible for vision and olfaction. Therefore DWV infection of the brain could adversely affect critical sensory functions and alter normal bee behavior.

  3. Localization of deformed wing virus (DWV in the brains of the honeybee, Apis mellifera Linnaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Elizabeth C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deformed wing virus (DWV is a positive-strand RNA virus that infects European honeybees (Apis mellifera L. and has been isolated from the brains of aggressive bees in Japan. DWV is known to be transmitted both vertically and horizontally between bees in a colony and can lead to both symptomatic and asymptomatic infections in bees. In environmentally stressful conditions, DWV can contribute to the demise of a honeybee colony. The purpose of the current study is to identify regions within the brains of honeybees where DWV replicates using in-situ hybridization. Results In-situ hybridizations were conducted with both sense and antisense probes on the brains of honeybees that were positive for DWV as measured by real-time RT-PCR. The visual neuropils demonstrated detectable levels of the DWV positive-strand genome. The mushroom bodies and antenna lobe neuropils also showed the presence of the viral genome. Weaker staining with the sense probe in the same regions demonstrates that the antigenome is also present and that the virus is actively replicating in these regions of the brain. Conclusion These results demonstrate that in bees infected with DWV the virus is replicating in critical regions of the brain, including the neuropils responsible for vision and olfaction. Therefore DWV infection of the brain could adversely affect critical sensory functions and alter normal bee behavior.

  4. Reproductive behaviour repertoire of semi-captive lowland tapir Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Brusius

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive behaviour of five male and two female semi-captive Tapirus terrestris was investigated for two years without interruption. They were fenced in a 160 hectare area, in Santa Catarina State, South of Brazil. Data was collected whenever an animal exhibited reproductive behaviour. Seven behaviours, observed in eleven reproductive events, were divided into three categories: courtship, copulation and post-copulation. The tapirs displayed stereotypical patterns of sexual behaviour. No kind of audible vocalization was recorded during the reproductive period. All reproductive activity began in the second quarter of July and continued up to the first half of October, in both years of observation, pointing towards the existence of a reproductive season, corroborated by two births after expected gestation period from copula.

  5. Ultraestructura de esporofitos jovenes de Macrocystis pyrifera (Linnaeus C. Agardh (Phaeophyceae, Laminariales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Córdova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el desarrollo anatómico de esporofitos jóvenes de Macrocystis pyrifera obtenidos a partir de cigotos en cultivos de laboratorio. Los talos eran monostromáticos luego de dos semanas de crecimiento y las células eran similares entre sí, fotosintéticas y conectadas por campos de puntuación primarios. A las cinco semanas, los talos eran poliestromáticos y estaban diferenciados internamente en meristodermo, corteza y médula. Filamentos cribosos longitudinales aparecieron en la médula, desarrollándose de la corteza interna y rodeados por una matriz intercelular. Cada elemento criboso presentaba un núcleo, cloroplastos y varios plasmodesmos, los cuales estaban distribuidos más o menos al azar en paredes transversales o agrupados en campos de puntuación primarios en paredes longitudinales. Luego de nueve semanas, los talos eran más gruesos y estaban diferenciados morfológicamente en una lámina, estípite y grampón rizoidal. Además de los filamentos cribosos, aparecieron filamentos menores o «hifas» en la médula. Se discute el desarrollo del esporofito joven y la relación de nuestras observaciones con estudios en otras algas pardas.

  6. Karyotype and chromosome banding of endangered crucian carp, carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knytl, M.; Kalous, L.; Ráb, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2013), s. 205-215 ISSN 1993-0771 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP506/11/P596 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : fish cytogenetics * paleotetraploid * heterochromatin * metaphase chromosomes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.211, year: 2013

  7. Mercury in the sea turtle Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1958 from Ceará coast, NE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés F. Bezerra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercury concentrations in carapace fragments of the green turtle Chelonia mydas from the Ceará coast in NE Brazil are reported. Concentrations varied from As concentrações de Hg em fragmentos de carapaça de Chelonia mydas no litoral do Ceará, nordeste do Brasil, são reportadas. Concentrações variaram de <0,34 a 856,6 ng.g -1 em peso seco, e foram maiores (média de 154,8 ng.g -1 em peso seco em indivíduos juvenis (n = 22, enquanto que as menores concentrações (média de 2,5 ng.g -1 em peso seco foram observadas em indivíduos adultos/sub-adultos (n = 3. Houve uma correlação negativa significativa entre tamanho do animal e concentração de Hg provavelmente devido a diferença de dieta entre juvenis e sub-adultos/adultos. Fragmentos de carapaça, que constituem substratos não-invasivos e não letais, podem ser importantes para fins de monitoramento ambiental dessas espécies ameaçadas de extinção.

  8. B chromosome in Plantago lagopus Linnaeus, 1753 shows preferential transmission and accumulation through unusual processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Manoj K.; Kour, Gurmeet; Kaul, Sanjana

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Plantago lagopus is a diploid (2n = 2x =12) weed belonging to family Plantaginaceae. We reported a novel B chromosome in this species composed of 5S and 45S ribosomal DNA and other repetitive elements. In the present work, presence of B chromosome(s) was confirmed through FISH on root tip and pollen mother cells. Several experiments were done to determine the transmission of B chromosome through male and female sex tracks. Progenies derived from the reciprocal crosses between plants with (1B) and without (0B) B chromosomes were studied. The frequency of B chromosome bearing plants was significantly higher than expected, in the progeny of 1B female × 0B male. Thus, the B chromosome seems to have preferential transmission through the female sex track, which may be due to meiotic drive. One of the most intriguing aspects of the present study was the recovery of plants having more chromosomes than the standard complement of 12 chromosomes. Such plants were isolated from the progenies of B chromosome carrying plants. The origin of these plants can be explained on the basis of a two step process; formation of unreduced gametes in 1B plants and fusion of unreduced gametes with the normal gametes or other unreduced gametes. Several molecular techniques were used which unequivocally confirmed similar genetic constitution of 1B (parent) and plants with higher number of chromosomes. PMID:28919970

  9. Identification of lysozyme activity from two edible bivalves - Perna viridis (Linnaeus) and Meretrix casta (Chemnitz)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, S.; Tanu; Chatterji, A.

    on the column. Fractions of 1 ml each were collected. The absorbance of these fractions was also monitored at 280 nm. The lysozyme activity was checked against Micrococcus luteus. Ion exchange chromatography - The lyophilized active samples (McL2 and PvL2... in the case of M. casta – McL1, McL2 (fr 7), McL3, McL4, McL5 and McL6, and 7 in the case of P. viridis - PvL1, PvL2 (fr 5), PvL3, PvL4, PvL5, PvL6, PvL 7. Fig. 2: Absorbance of Sephadex fractions of M. casta at 280 nm Absorbance at 280 nm Fig. 3...

  10. Oxygen dynamics around buried lesser sandeels Ammodytes tobianus (Linnaeus 1785): mode of ventilation and oxygen requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Jane W; Stahl, Henrik J; Steffensen, John F

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen environment around buried sandeels (Ammodytes tobianus) was monitored by planar optodes. The oxygen penetration depth at the sediment interface was only a few mm. Thus fish, typically buried at 1-4 cm depth, were generally in anoxic sediment. However, they induced an advective transport...... down along the body, referred to as ;plume ventilation'. Yet, within approximately 30 min the oxic plume was replenished by oxygen-depleted water from the gills. The potential for cutaneous respiration by the buried fish was thus of no quantitative importance. Calculations derived by three independent...... methods (each with N=3) revealed that the oxygen uptake of sandeel buried for 6-7 h was 40-50% of previous estimates on resting respirometry of non-buried fish, indicating lower O(2) requirements during burial on a diurnal timescale. Buried fish exposed to decreasing oxygen tensions gradually approached...

  11. Normal sonographic anatomy of the abdomen of coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus 1766).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rejane G; Costa, Ana Paula A; Bragato, Nathália; Fonseca, Angela M; Duque, Juan C M; Prado, Tales D; Silva, Andrea C R; Borges, Naida C

    2013-06-23

    The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections. The medullary rim sign was visualized in the left kidney of two coatis. The liver had homogeneous texture and was in the cranial abdomen under the rib cage. The gallbladder, rounded and filled with anechoic content was visualized in all coatis, to the right of the midline. The spleen was identified in the left cranial abdomen following the greater curvature of the stomach. The parenchyma was homogeneous and hyperechogenic compared to the liver and kidney cortex. The stomach was in the cranial abdomen, limited cranially by the liver and caudo-laterally by the spleen. The left adrenal glands of five coatis were seen in the cranial pole of the left kidney showing hypoechogenic parenchyma without distinction of cortex and medulla. The pancreas was visualized in only two coatis. The left ovary (0.92 cm x 0.56 cm) was visualized on a single coati in the caudal pole of the kidney. The uterus, right adrenal, right ovary and intestines were not visualized. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen of coatis may be accomplished by following the recommendations for dogs and cats. It is possible to evaluate the anatomical and topographical relationships of the abdominal organs together with the knowledge of the peculiarities of parenchymal echogenicity and echotexture of the viscera.

  12. Gross Anatomy of Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758) Mouth and Pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the mouth and pharynx of the pampas deer, and to consider its evolutionary feeding niche according to those characteristics. Gross dissections of the mouth and pharynx were performed in 15 animals, 10 adult females and five young animals under 1 year (three males and two females), all dead by causes unrelated to this anatomical region. The upper lip entered in the constitution of a pigmented nasolabial plane. The masseter muscles weighed 43.8 ± 3.5 g and represented 0.23% of body weight, which corresponds to ruminants of feeders intermediate to grazers and browsers. Parotid glands represented 0.08% of the body weight, characteristic that also categorize the pampas deer as belonging to the intermediate feeding group. The dental formula was the same of the domestic ruminants. The upper incisors and canines were absent, and instead of them, there was a dental pad (Pulvinus dentalis). The upper canine teeth were present only in the deciduous dentition. The existence of a brachydont dentition turns Ozotoceros very vulnerable to continuous use as there is no compensatory teeth growth. The particular anatomy of the mouth and lips of this animal was adapted to a very selective feeding, taking highly nutritious sprouts beyond plant category. In conclusion and in addition to previous studies of anatomy of the digestive organs in this species, pampas deer may be categorized as belonging to the intermediate type of feeding. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Removal of Pb (II Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus Hoek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Jafari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of Pb(II using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (2=0.984 demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter RL is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0<<1, which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C–H stretching vibrations of –CH3 and –CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II.

  14. Removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solutions by Cladophora rivularis (Linnaeus) Hoek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Naser; Senobari, Zoreh

    2012-01-01

    Biosorption of Pb(II) using Cladophora rivularis was examined as a function of initial pH heavy metal concentration and temperature. The optimum pH value for the biosorption of lead was 4.0. The adsorption equilibriums were well described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models and it was implied by the results that the C. rivularis biomass is suitable for the development of efficient biosorbent in order to remove Pb(II) from wastewater and to recover it. The high values of correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.984) demonstrate equilibrium data concerning algal biomass, which is well fitted in Freundlich isotherms model equations. The dimensionless parameter R(L) is found in the range of 0.0639 to 0.1925 (0 < R(L) < 1), which confirms the favorable biosorption process. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy of C. rivularis was used to reveal the main function groups of biosorption, which were hydroxyl, amine groups, C-H stretching vibrations of -CH3 and -CH2, and complexation with functional groups. All these results suggest that C. rivularis can be used effectively for removal of Pb(II).

  15. Parasites and pathological condition in Green mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus, 1758 from western Johor Straits, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur-Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2018-04-01

    This study describes the parasites and pathological condition of infected organ of the green mussel Perna viridis from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly in November and December 2013. Histopathology techniques using Masson's Trichrome staining protocol were performed and the thin sections were observed under light microscope. Result showed that gonad was the most infected organ followed by the digestive tubule, adductor muscle, intestine and mantle tissue. The parasites (apicomplexa) such as spore-like Nematopsis, macrogamont-like coccidian, mature oocyst-like coccidian, unidentified coccidian and protozoan were found in the adductor muscle, gonad and mantle. Meanwhile, the pathological conditions were found in all infected organs except the gill, such as particular melanin deposits in cytoplasm, Rickettsia-like or Chlamydiae organism and bacteria-like inclusions. Haemocytic infiltrations were found in the surrounding connective tissues of all infected organs. However, these light infections are not causing morbidity and mortalityof the green mussel P.viridis. This study provides baseline information on health profile of the green mussel P.viridis. Further investigations are needed particularly on parasite species identification and their ecology. Understanding of the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  16. A non-proteinaceous toxin from the venomous spines of the lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, M S; Cheung, P; Leong, I; Ruggieri, G D

    1985-01-01

    The venomous spines of P. volitans contain a non-proteinaceous ichthyotoxin of low molecular weight. This toxin could be isolated only from spines excised from the living fish; the toxin is apparently destroyed following death, as the extracts of the spines of the dead fish were non-toxic.

  17. First record red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1785 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt Gürlek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A single male specimen of red lionfish Pterois volitans was recorded for the first time in 13 May 2016 from the Iskenderun Bay, North-eastern Mediterranean, Turkey. The present paper also reports the first record of the red lionfish P. volitans along the Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Westward Extension of the Lionfish Pterois volitans Linnaeus, 1758 along the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gokoglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One red lionfish (Pterois volitans was caught in the Gulf of Antalya on October 15th 2016. The present study, seconf record of P. volitans was reported in the coast of the Antalya Bay, Turkey. Our study shows that P. volitans westward extension along to Turkey Mediterranean coasts.

  19. Lionfish, Pterois volitans Linnaeus 1758, the complete mitochondrial DNA of an invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Vargas-Peralta, Carmen E; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Hénaut, Yann; García-De-León, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans, native from the Indo-Pacific, has been found in Atlantic and Caribbean waters and is considered as an invasive species. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ739816), which has a total length of 16,500 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Pteroinae subfamily (family Scorpaenidae). This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic and population genetic studies of this invasive species.

  20. Anatomy and morphometric aspects of the trachea of Saimiri sciureus Linnaeus, 1758: knowledge for emergency procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane L. Pinheiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the morphological characteristics of the trachea of Saimiri sciureus through quantification and measurement of the cartilaginous rings, providing information to facilitate the election of more appropriate endotracheal tube, laryngeal mask or tracheostomy tube for anesthetic and emergency procedures, as it is a species of Neotropical primates most commonly used as biological models, and little is known about their morphology. Nine animals were investigated, being 4 adults and 5 young acquired from the Centro Nacional de Primatas (National Primate Center - CENP - Ananindeua - PA, which died from natural causes and then fixed in aqueous buffered formalin 10%. Saimiri sciureus trachea comprises an average of 32.8 incomplete rings and an average length of 3.74 cm in young animals, while in adults it demonstrated an average of 30.25 rings and average length of 3.67 cm. The shape of the light and its proportion varied along the trachea. Endotracheal tube with a diameter the 2.0 - 2.5mm, laryngeal mask number 1.0 or tracheostomy tube neonatal Shiley number 3.0, can be placed in animals weighing 600g - 1.2 Kg. Given the great importance of the species studied, which is widely used as a biological model, the detailing on the morphology and morphometry of tracheal animal studies provides new approaches needed in respiratory emergency, as well as, facilitates the development of future anesthetic protocols.Estudou-se as características morfológicas da traqueia do Saimiri sciureus através da quantificação e mensuração dos anéis cartilaginosos, a fim de fornecer informações que facilitem a eleição mais adequada de sonda endotraqueal, máscara laríngea ou cânula de trasqueostomia para procedimentos anestésicos e de emergência, visto que é uma das espécies de primatas neotropicais mais comumente utilizadas como modelos biológicos e pouco se sabe sobre sua morfologia. Foram utilizados nove animais, sendo quatro adultos e cinco jovens, oriundos do Centro Nacional de Primatas (CENP - Ananindeua - PA, os quais vieram a óbito por causas naturais e, posteriormente, foram fixados em solução aquosa de formol tamponado a 10%. A traqueia do Saimiri sciureus é composta por uma média de 32, 8 anéis incompletos nos animais jovens e comprimento médio de 3, 74cm, já os adultos apresentam uma média de 30, 25 anéis e comprimento médio de 3, 67cm. A forma da luz e suas proporções variaram ao longo da traqueia. Sonda endotraqueal com diâmetro de 2, 0 - 2, 5mm, máscara laríngea número 1, 0 ou cânula de traqueostomia neonatal Shiley número 3, 0, podem ser colocados em animais pesando 600g - 1, 2 K. Dada a grande importância da espécie estudada, que é amplamente utilizada como modelo biológico, o detalhamento sobre o estudo da morfologia e morfometria traqueal animal, fornece novas abordagens necessárias em emergência respiratória, bem como facilita o desenvolvimento de futuros protocolos anestésicos.

  1. First record of Ligia oceanica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Isopoda: Ligiidae) in the Canary Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Rubén; Riera, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first record of L. oceanica in the Canary Islands. Additionally, body features between L. oceanica and Ligia italica Fabricius, 1798, the other sea-slater inhabiting the Archipelago, were compared.

  2. In vitro exposure of Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta) to gasoline - Biochemical and morphological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilatti, Fernanda Kokowicz; Ramlov, Fernanda; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Débora Tomazi; Costa, Christopher; de Oliveira, Eva Regina; Bauer, Cláudia M; Rocha, Miguel; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-08-01

    Refined fuels have considerable share of pollution of marine ecosystems. Gasoline is one of the most consumed fuel worldwide, but its effects on marine benthic primary producers are poorly investigated. In this study, Ulva lactuca was chosen as a biological model due to its cosmopolitan nature and tolerance to high levels and wide range of xenobiotics and our goal was to evaluate the effects of gasoline on ultrastructure and metabolism of that seaweed. The experimental design consisted of in vitro exposure of U. lactuca to four concentrations of gasoline (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0%, v/v) over 30 min, 1 h, 12 h, and 24 h, followed by cytochemical, SEM, and biochemical analysis. Increase in the number of cytoplasmic granules, loss of cell turgor, cytoplasmic shrinkage, and alterations in the mucilage were some of the ultrastructural alterations observed in thalli exposed to gasoline. Decrease in carotenoid and polyphenol contents, as well as increase of soluble sugars and starch contents were associated with the time of exposure to the xenobiotic. In combination, the results revealed important morphological and biochemical alterations in the phenotype of U. lactuca upon acute exposure to gasoline. This seaweed contain certain metabolites assigned as candidates to biomarkers of the environmental stress investigated and it is thought to be a promise species for usage in coastal ecosystems perturbation monitoring system. In addition, the findings suggest that U. lactuca is able to metabolize gasoline hydrocarbons and use them as energy source, acting as bioremediator of marine waters contaminated by petroleum derivatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pertumbuhan dan perkembangan larva Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae dalam beberapa jenis kotoran ternak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Eka Putra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available House fly (Musca domestica is an important urban insect that can transmit various infectious diseases. This insect usually utilized organic wastes as nutrition source for their larvae. One of the main sources of organic wastes is livestock manure produced by animal farming located near human dwelling area. Thus, appropriate house fly population control program at animal farm is needed,based on information on the house fly’s life history. The research is focused on the development of house fly larvae reared with different livestock manures, such as cow, chicken, and horse. As comparison, rice bran were used as control. Results showed that larvae reared with horse manure has the shortest development time (5 days, with lowest larval survival rate (30%, pupal weight (6.8 ± 0.141 g, and weight of female imago (4.9 ± 0.14 g. This finding indicates the lowest nutrition value of horse manure for house flies larvae. Further research is needed to find the effect of manure to variables that directly influence population growth, such as fecundity of female flies and egg survivorship. These additional information on life history will help the design of appropriate house fly population management program for animal farm.

  4. Identification key to species of the flying lizard genus Draco Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Agamidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawut Srichairat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A species identification key of flying lizards in the genus Draco from Thailand was constructed based on 521 preserved specimens from collections during 1967–2012 in the Natural History Museum (THNHM, National Science Museum, Technopolis, Pathum Thani, Thailand. Regardless of sexual characters, four characters were used to identify Draco spp. lizards: 1 nostril direction; 2 type of tympanum; 3 pattern of patagium; and 4 snout with or without a series of scales forming a Y-shaped figure. The specimens were identified into nine species—Draco blanfordii, Draco fimbriatus, Draco maculatus, Draco maximus, Draco melanopogon, Draco obscurus, Draco quinquefasciatus, Draco taeniopterus and Draco volans.

  5. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayayee, Paul A; Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host's demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ (13)CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ(13)C) between cockroach (δ (13)CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ (13)CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using (13)C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ (13)CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency.

  6. New metacestodes of gryporhynchid tapeworms (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from carp (Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758) from Mozambique, Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Boane, C.; Saraiva, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 2 (2008), s. 315-320 ISSN 1525-2647 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522; GA ČR GA524/08/0885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : cestode larvae * Gryporhynchidae * morphology * freshwater fish Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.477, year: 2008

  7. Modification of saltwater stress response in Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) pre-exposed to pesticide indoxacarb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelichpour, Melika; Taheri Mirghaed, Ali; Mirzargar, Seyed Saeed; Joshaghani, Hamidreza; Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Hoseinali

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of indoxacarb on saltwater stress response in Cyprinus carpio, the fish were pre-exposed to indoxacarb (0, 0.75, 1.5 and 3mg/L denoted as CP, 0.75IT, 1.5IT and 3IT, respectively) for 21 days and then released to saltwater. A negative control (CN) group was included (the fish were held in indoxacarb-free water for the entire experiment). The fish were sampled immediately (0h) and 24, 48 and 72h after the salinity exposure for the analysis of plasma cortisol, glucose and sodium, chloride, potassium and calcium levels. All fish pre-exposed to 3mg/L indoxacarb, died after the first day of salinity challenge. CP showed typical cortisol response after the salinity challenge, but, cortisol response of the fish pre-exposed to indoxacarb (0.75IT and 1.5IT) was blocked. Plasma glucose increased significantly in all groups compared to the CN; however, this elevation had no consistent trend in 0.75IT and 1.5IT which indicated interference in glucose response due to indoxacarb exposure. Plasma sodium increased (compared to CN) in all groups after the salinity challenge. However, elevation in plasma chloride and potassium was significantly different among the groups and the indoxacarb-treated fish showed slightly sooner ionic disturbance. The results clearly indicate that indoxacarb impairs stress response of C. carpio and the fish may not be able to respond normally to additional stressors, which threatens their survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The draft genome of the transgenic tropical fruit tree papaya (Carica papaya Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Ray; Hou, Shaobin; Feng, Yun; Yu, Qingyi; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Saw, Jimmy H; Senin, Pavel; Wang, Wei; Ly, Benjamin V; Lewis, Kanako L T; Salzberg, Steven L; Feng, Lu; Jones, Meghan R; Skelton, Rachel L; Murray, Jan E; Chen, Cuixia; Qian, Wubin; Shen, Junguo; Du, Peng; Eustice, Moriah; Tong, Eric; Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Paull, Robert E; Michael, Todd P; Wall, Kerr; Rice, Danny W; Albert, Henrik; Wang, Ming-Li; Zhu, Yun J; Schatz, Michael; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Acob, Ricelle A; Guan, Peizhu; Blas, Andrea; Wai, Ching Man; Ackerman, Christine M; Ren, Yan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Shakirov, Eugene V; Haas, Brian; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Nelson, David; Wang, Xiyin; Bowers, John E; Gschwend, Andrea R; Delcher, Arthur L; Singh, Ratnesh; Suzuki, Jon Y; Tripathi, Savarni; Neupane, Kabi; Wei, Hairong; Irikura, Beth; Paidi, Maya; Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Wenli; Presting, Gernot; Windsor, Aaron; Navajas-Pérez, Rafael; Torres, Manuel J; Feltus, F Alex; Porter, Brad; Li, Yingjun; Burroughs, A Max; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Liu, Lei; Christopher, David A; Mount, Stephen M; Moore, Paul H; Sugimura, Tak; Jiang, Jiming; Schuler, Mary A; Friedman, Vikki; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Shippen, Dorothy E; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Freeling, Michael; Paterson, Andrew H; Gonsalves, Dennis; Wang, Lei; Alam, Maqsudul

    2008-04-24

    Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.

  9. Perna perna (LINNAEUS, 1758) mussels irradiated by {sup 60}CO gamma rays cytotoxicity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martini, Gisela A.; Pusceddu, Fabio H.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto, E-mail: gisela.martini@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the present work was the study of ionizing radiation effects on aquatic biota regarding the location of nuclear facilities nearby coastal areas assuming the risk of leaks and nuclear accidents. Bivalve mollusks have been widely used in the monitoring of aquatic environment studies mainly for their sessile habit and pollutants bioconcentration ability. So marine mussel Perna perna (Bivalvia: Mytilidae) was used as organism test in this study. The study of radioactive toxicity was performed by cytotoxicity test exposing the organisms to 11Gy gamma radiation dose. After radiation the neutral red retention assay evaluated the lysosomal membrane integrity in the mussel hemocytes. 50% lethal dose assay (LD50) of gamma radiation on Perna perna mussels was carried out by exposure the organisms to {sup 60}Co gamma rays at doses ranging from 0 to 3000 Gy. The result of gamma radiation LD50 for these mussels was 1068 Gy and the neutral red retention time of irradiated organisms was about 47% lower than the control, non irradiated organisms. With the obtained results is expected to contribute in the study to identify the range of ionizing radiation doses which can cause toxic effects in marine invertebrates. (author)

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758 Living in San Carlos (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Eduardo Troncoso Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Chile; therefore, this article aims to determine seroprevalence in cats in the district of San Carlos, by ELISA Immuno- Comb® serological technique, and, at the same time, to examine association with variables of sex, age, diet, and habitat. To the effect, 60 cats over 2 months old were randomly sampled. Sera were analyzed using the ELISA ImmunoComb® Biogal Toxo & Chlamydia test kit, which detects specific immunoglobulin G-type antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 100%. The study evidenced that 29 individuals were positive (48.3% seroprevalence; when broken down by gender this corresponded to 9 males and 20 females (39.1% and 54%, respectively. By age, seropositivity was higher in the “Adult” group (76.7%, followed by groups “Over 7 years” (50% and “Young” (25%. With respect to diet, higher seropositivity was obtained in animals fed on mixed diet, as opposed to commercial diet (60% vs. 47.2%. By variable habitat, 16 indoor and 13 outdoor cats were positive (45.7% and 52%, showing statistically significant difference only for the variable age (p < 0.05. Finally, through relating age with seropositivity, a negative correlation was evidenced (r = –0.3, indicating that older individuals had lower seroprevalence. The results show the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats.

  11. Preparation and characterization of a Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758) mussel reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Edson Goncalves

    2010-01-01

    The use of certified reference materials in chemical analysis is an important requirement in quality assurance systems, as it allows the validation of analytical methods and the realization of the metrological traceability of results. Then, it is possible to obtain valid and comparable results not only in space, but also in time. In this study, all the steps for the preparation of a national mussel reference material were attained, from the collection of the bulk material to processing steps such as freeze-drying, grinding, bottling and sterilization. Internationally accepted principles were applied for the homogeneity and stability assessment of the material, using instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry as analytical techniques. By means of a collaborative program with participation of Brazilian and foreign laboratories, the chemical characterization of the material was performed. Element content in the mass percentage to mg kg -1 range was determined for 47 elements and some radionuclides, naturally present in the material. With the application of suitable statistical treatment to the data, it was considered that the content of 11 of those elements may be certified: As, Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Th and Zn. This study may be considered an important step in the national metrological development, as it shows that the production and characterization of biological reference materials, mussel in particular, is feasible in Brazil, as a tool for quality assurance of environmental and nutritional studies performed in the country. (author)

  12. DIFFERENTIAL BLOOD COUNT OF TENCH Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758 IN CONDITIONS OF THERMAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edhem Hasković

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Defining the physiological feature provides an understanding of functional adaptation of species to its ecological niche as well as the various forms of stress factors. This paper gives an overview of changes in certain forms of leukocytes (WBC differential under the influence of thermal stress (increased temperature. In our experiment, we used 46 specimens of tench (Tinca tinca fished in the Jablanica Lake reservoir. Specimens had previously been adapted in specially prepared tanks for 20 days.  The control group of animals (16 was exposed to constant water temperature of 10 0C, while in the treated groups (30, the water temperature was gradually risen to 28 0C and, as such, held for 30 minutes. All specimens were aged 2+ and 3+.It was found that the thermal regime change causes adaptive response of tench specimens by increasing the number of neutrophils and pseudoeosinophils but reduction in the number of lymphocytes. Observed were statistically significant differences in the number of segmented granulocytes, pseudoeosinophils and lymphocytes between the control and the experimental group. However, a significantly higher number of segmented granulocytes and pseudoeosinophils was at the experimental group, while in the control group a number of lymphocytes was significantly higher compared with the experimental group. Neither form of leukocytes showed any significant difference between males and females of the experimental group. It is interesting to note that among individuals from both the control and experimental group, eosinophils and monocytes were rarely noticed, while basophils were not found at all. Key words: thermal stress, tench, Tinca tinca, pseudoeosinophils

  13. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1987-01-01

    12 new species and 3 new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards from Greece and Turkey are described or defined. The new taxa are: T. (L.) montifer tasucuensis, T. (L.) musensis, T. (L.) vermooleni, T. (L.) lyrion, Tipula (Lunatipula) paravelox, T. (L.) soosi izmirensis, T. (L.) brinki, T. (L.)

  14. Neue Taxa von Lunatipula Edwards aus der mediterranen Subregion der Palaearktis (Diptera, Tipulidae, Tipula Linnaeus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theischinger, Günther

    1979-01-01

    Eight new species and three new subspecies of Lunatipula Edwards are described and their affinities are discussed. The new taxa are: Tipula (Lunatipula) rocina from Spain, T. (L.) antichasia, T. (L.) hera, T. (L.) klytaimnestra, T. (L.) pythia. T. (L.) caudispina parnonensis, T. (L.) penelope

  15. Primera cita del desarrollo de Aleyrodes proletella (Linnaeus, 1758) en plantas de tomate bajo condiciones controladas

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, D.; Gómez, Azahara A.; Nombela, Gloria; Muñiz, Mariano

    2007-01-01

    La mosca blanca de la col, Aleyrodes proletella, causa graves daños en cultivos de brassicas pero no existen referencias hasta la fecha sobre su desarrollo eficaz y continuado en tomate. Tras la observación de la presencia accidental de adultos de esta especie en plantas de tomate (cv Moneymaker), se realizaron dos experimentos en condiciones controladas de laboratorio para analizar su desarrollo en estas plantas. En uno de ellos se introdujeron hembras fértiles de A. proletella en "cajas-pin...

  16. Seasonal food habits of brown bear (Ursus arctos syriacus Linnaeus, 1758 in Cenral Alborz Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Nezami Balouchi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountains of Central Alborz Protected Area hold a big population of brown bear, the largest varnivore species in Iran. Understanding food habits is crucial to understanding the ecology of the species. Diet influences many ecological and life-history traits, such as spatial distribution, social and foraging behavior, body mass and reproduction. Therefore, during Jun 2006 to May 2007 we had a comprehensive study on brown bear food habits, as the largest omnivorous of the country in Central Alborz Protected Area. Our investigation showed that plant materials composed the main proportion of food items of the brown bears in the spring until mid-summer. Insects, especially ants were predominantly eaten in the first half of summer. As approaching to hibernation period in late autumn, fruits played the main role of bear food items having high fat content. We never witnessed bear attack on wild herbivores. Furthermore, we never found remains of wild herbivores except a few livestock remains in brown bear scats during our survey period. Accordingly, we concluded that brown bears were almost herbivorous in the Central Alborz Protected Area. We never found any bear scats or fresh signs in three consecutive years, between first of December until mid of March. Also, no direct sighting of brown bear was reported to us by local people and game keepers within the mentioned period. Accordingly, it can be concluded that the brown bears hibernate for a period of 3-3.5 months in winter in the Central Alborz Protected Area.

  17. Fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Lake Trasimeno (Umbria, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzoni M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fishery biology of the goldfish Carassius auratus was studied in Lake Trasimeno by analysing the selectivity of the equipment that can be used to control this invasive species. Sampling was conducted monthly from February 2003 to January 2004 by means of electrofishing, fyke-nets and gill-nets of different-sized mesh (22, 25, 28, 35, 40, 50, 70 and 80 mm. The average value of the CPUEs of goldfish caught was 10175.48 g·10−2·m−2 for gill-nets, 246.97 g·h−1 for fyke-nets and 606.50 g·min−1 for electrofishing. The efficiency of electrofishing was not uniform in all periods of the year, the mean CPUEs being highest in spring, when specimens of reproductive age were preferentially caught. Gill-nets yielded abundant catches of goldfish in all seasons, and displayed good sampling efficiency even in winter. With regard to the selectivity of gill-nets, estimated optimum selection lengths for each mesh size were: 11.92 cm, 13.55 cm, 15.18 cm, 18.97 cm, 21.68 cm, 27.10 cm, 37.94 cm and 43.36 cm. The results of this research demonstrate that the various fishing techniques can be effectively combined with the aim of controlling the goldfish population in Lake Trasimeno.

  18. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PIKE (ESOX LUCIUS LINNAEUS, 1758 OF THE LOWER DNIEPER RIVER IN CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Geina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze major biological characteristics of pike (Esox lucius L., 1758 stock in the lower Dnieper River in the conditions of transformed flow. Methodology. Collection of the ichthyological material was carried out in the lower Dnieper River from commercial fishing gears, including beach seines, drag seines, fyke-nets. Field, laboratory processing of samples and mathematical analysis of the obtained results were carried out according to generally accepted methods and guidelines with some assumptions regarding the duration of pike fattening directly in the lower Dnieper River. Findings. Recent years, there is an increase in the specific weight of younger age groups in the pike stock in the lower Dnieper River. Analysis of linear growth indicates on satisfactory environmental conditions for pike. Current commercial contingent of pike is based on size classes of 46–50 cm versus 22–32 cm in the first half of the last century. Reproductive properties of pike, in particular fecundity, egg size and maturity coefficients did not virtually change compared to those of the last century. Depending on linear sizes, the absolute fecundity is 32.3–155.8 thousand eggs and the maturation coefficient is 11.1–15.7%. Morphologic variability of pike in the lower Dnieper River during the period from 1980s to the present time was observed for plastic features, which characterized fin sizes. Sexual dimorphism in current conditions was observed only for maximum body depth. No significant differences for other plastic features between males and females of pike in the lower Dnieper River. Originality. The data on biological characteristics of pike stock from the lower Dnieper River have been updated. Current fecundity of females of different size groups recorded in commercial catches was been determined. An analysis of morphological variability of major plastic features of pike in the process of the transformation of the Dnieper River flow has been carried out. Practical value. The determined peculiarities of pike linear growth will allow optimizing commercial harvest for preserving the most productive part of the stock. Such measures will contribute to an increase in the commercial stock of this valuable predatory fish of the Dnieper-Bug mouth system that in turn will ensure appropriate regulation of the number of coarse non-commercial fish. This is highly important for the balanced trophic strain for valuable commercial species at early stages of their development.

  19. Distribuição espacial e temporal de Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii, Engraulidae na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Spatial and temporal distribution of Cetengraulis edentulus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii-Engraulidae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Araújo Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Anchovies are members of the Engraulidae family, characterized to present coastal pelagic habits, concentrating in large schoolings distributed among the continental shelf and semi-closed environment, like bays, where they are target of heavy fisheries. The present study aims to describe spatial and temporal distribution of Cetengraulis edentulous (Cuvier, 1828 in the Sepetiba bay (22º54'-23º04'S, 43º34'-44º10'W and to assess influences of environmental variables on fish occurrence. A monthly sampling programme was carried out between October 1998 and September 1999, to take both, fish and environmental information on temperature, salinity and depth. Three bay zones were established based on spatial gradient of salinity and depth. Adults C. edentulus were more abundant in the inner bay zone; seasonally, larger size groups (total length > 16 cm occurred in spring/summer. Significant negative correlations were found between fish abundance and salinity and depth. The close relationship of this species to innermost areas in bays, and the absence of juveniles in sandy beaches, suggest that young-of-the-year use mangrove areas as recruitment sites.

  20. História natural dos amborés e peixes-macaco (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei do Parque Nacional Marinho do Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha, sob um enfoque comportamental Natural history focus blennies and gobis behaviour (Actinopterygii, Blennioidei, Gobioidei from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana de F. Mendes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os amborês e peixes-macaco, como são popularmente conhecidos gobiídeos e bleniídeos, são elementos dominantes da fauna de pequenos peixes bentônicos e litorâneos que habitam recifes tropicais, compondo grande parte da alta diversidade das espécies de pequeno porte encontrada no Atlântico ocidental. O estudo da distribuição e história natural dos gobióides e blenióides de Fernando de Noronha foi desenvolvido através de observações de campo. Além da descrição dos hábitats preferenciais foram abordados aspectos sociais tais como, habitat preferencial, interações intra- e interespecíficas, comportamento domiciliar e territorial, e comportamento reprodutivo. A maioria das espécies em foco apresenta distribuição principalmente litorânea, são gregárias, com áreas domiciliares relativamente pequenas em torno de 2 x 2 m², pouco agressivas, tendo sido ocasionalmente registradas curtas perseguições intra- e interespecíficas. A baixa agressividade registrada, em comparação com outros peixes é provavelmente associada à adaptação à ocupação de pequenas áreas, como é o caso das poças de marés, pois um grande número de interações agressivas representaria um gasto de energia desnecessário. No geral, as espécies possuem coloração críptica, associada à evitação de predadores. Apenas nestas épocas de reprodução foi observada a intensificação da agressividade, com comportamento territorial - defesa de território incluindo mordidas e perseguições.The gobis and blenis (Gobiidae and Bleniidae are the most important group of small benthic littoral fishes in tropical reefs, representing most of the high number of small fish species found in Western Atlantic. The natural history of gobiid and bleniid fish from Fernando de Noronha was assessed by means observation sessions using both snorkelling and scuba diving. Most of these observations were aimed at social behaviour, such as intra and interespecific interactions, territorial and reproductive behaviour. In general, these fish from Fernando de Noronha occurs in intertidal zone, are gregarious, with small home ranges of near 2 x 2 m², and show low agressivity towards other fish. Occasionally, some chasing was recorded between individuals of the same or distinct species. Low agressivity is probably associated to the occupation of small areas (e.g. tide pools, as a high degree of agressivity may represent an unnecessary [excessive] waste of energy. Most of the studied species presents cryptic coloration, associated to the avoidance of predators, but some males showed conspicuous coloration and intense aggressive behaviour, mainly during the reproductive season. It was only during this occasion that territorial behaviour, chasing and bites were recorded.

  1. Territorial hypothesis predicts the trade-off between reproductive opportunities and parental care in three species of damselfishes (Pomacentridae: Actinopterygii La hipótesis territorial predice la compensación entre las oportunidades reproductivas y el cuidado parental en tres especies de peces damisela (Pomacentridae: Actinopterygii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Bessa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Paternal care is rare in most animals, but common in fishes, including Pomacentridae. One way of explaining it is through the territorial hypothesis, which predicts that paternal care may evolve when caring for a territory with eggs will not cost more than territories without eggs. Here we describe the reproductive behavior of three pomacentrids from São Paulo, Brazil, and evaluate if the territorial hypothesis explains their behavioral variation through five predictions. We checked if females have multiple spawns (prediction 1, if they forage more (prediction 2 and if territory defence demands more when eggs are present (prediction 3. We also described how visible eggs are (prediction 4 and how available nesting sites are (prediction 5. Chromis multilineata differed from Abudefduf saxatilis and Stegastes fuscus by not guarding the eggs, spending less time with territoriality and fanning eggs; and more time feeding and foraging. Females of the three species are iteroparous. Females' A. saxatilis and S. fuscus foraged more than males, which spent the same amount of time in territorial defence before and after eggs were delivered. These two species also have very conspicuous egg clutches on clean rock surfaces defended by them. On the other hand, males and females of C. multilineata spent the same time foraging, while territoriality took more effort after eggs were present and it spawns cryptic eggs amid Sargassum, a common and disperse micro-environment in São Paulo rocky shores. Territorial hypothesis explains why paternal care by A. saxatilis and S. fuscus lasts longer than by C. multilineata.El cuidado paterno es raro en la mayoría de los animales, pero común en los peces, incluyendo los Pomacentridae. Una forma de explicar este fenómeno es la hipótesis territorial, que predice que el cuidado paterno puede evolucionar cuando la protección de un territorio con huevos no cuesta más que la de territorios sin huevos. Aquí se describe el comportamiento reproductivo de tres pomacentrídios de São Paulo, Brasil, y se evalúa si la hipótesis territorial explica la variación de su comportamiento a través de cinco predicciones. Se analizó si las hembras tienen múltiples desoves (predicción 1, si forrajean más (predicción 2 y si la defensa del territorio es mayor cuando los huevos están presentes (predicción 3. También se evaluó si los huevos eran visibles (predicción 4 y cuán disponibles eran los sitios de anidación (predicción 5. Chromis multilineata difería de Abudefduf saxatilis y Stegastes fuscus por no proteger a sus huevos, dedicar menos tiempo a la territorialidad y ventilación de sus huevos, y más tiempo para la alimentación y forrajeo. Las hembras de las tres especies son iteróparas. Las hembras de A. saxatilis y S. fuscus forrajean más que los machos, que gastan la misma cantidad de tiempo en la defensa territorial antes y después de liberar los huevos. Estas dos especies también defienden a desoves muy conspicuos adheridos en superficies de roca limpia. Por otra parte, las hembras y machos de C. multilineata pasaron el mismo tiempo forrajeando, mientras la territorialidad tomó más esfuerzo después, con los huevos presentes, y los desoves estaban escondidos en medio de Sargassum, un ambiente común y disperso en micro-ambientes de las costas rocosas de São Paulo. La hipótesis territorial explica el motivo por el cual el cuidado paterno de A. saxatilis y S. fuscus es más prolongado que el de C. multilineata.

  2. Nuevo registro de Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae) en la desembocadura del río Coahuayana, Coahuayana, Michoacán, México New record of Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae) in the mouth of Coahuayana River, Coahuayana, Michoacán, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Raúl Sandoval-Huerta; Xavier Madrigal-Guridi; Adrián García-Meraz; Néstor Irepani Dimas-Mora; Omar Domínguez-Domínguez

    2012-01-01

    En la desembocadura del río Coahuayana, al noroeste del estado de Michoacán fue registrada la presencia del plecostoma rayado, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Loricariidae). Se describe e ilustra un ejemplar adulto de sexo indeterminado, con longitud total de 386 mm, recolectado el 4 de julio de 2010.Vermiculated Salifin Catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Loricariidae), is reported at the mouth of the river Coahuayana, northwest of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. On July 4, 2010, an adult ...

  3. Nuevo registro de Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae en la desembocadura del río Coahuayana, Coahuayana, Michoacán, México New record of Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Actinopterygii: Loricariidae in the mouth of Coahuayana River, Coahuayana, Michoacán, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Raúl Sandoval-Huerta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En la desembocadura del río Coahuayana, al noroeste del estado de Michoacán fue registrada la presencia del plecostoma rayado, Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Loricariidae. Se describe e ilustra un ejemplar adulto de sexo indeterminado, con longitud total de 386 mm, recolectado el 4 de julio de 2010.Vermiculated Salifin Catfish Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Loricariidae, is reported at the mouth of the river Coahuayana, northwest of the state of Michoacán, Mexico. On July 4, 2010, an adult specimen of this species was collected. The specimen measured 386 mm and sex was not determined. The specimen is described and illustrated.

  4. Human pseudomyiasis caused by Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae in Goiás Pseudomiíase humana causada por Eristalis tenax (Linnaeus (Diptera: Syrphidae em Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tulio A. Garcia-Zapata

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to register the first proven cases of human pseudomyiasis due to Eristalis tenax in Goiás State, Brazil, underscoring their clinical manifestations and direct relationship with hygiene. The taxonomic identification of the instars was done according to the descriptions and keys presented by James (1947, Hartley (1961 and Guimarães & Papavero (1999. Two cases were observed. In both cases there was no evidence of apparent mental disturbance. The clinical picture of these cases was self limited. The water supply, sewer system, socioeconomic level and habits of the suspect species of the flies are criteria that should be investigated.O presente trabalho visa registrar os primeiros casos evidenciados de pseudomiíases humanos por Eristalis tenax no estado de Goiás, Brasil, destacando suas manifestações clínicas e suas relações diretas com os hábitos higiênicos. A identificação taxonômica das larvas foi realizada com base nas descrições e chaves apresentadas por James (1947, Hartley (1961 e Guimarães & Papavero (1999. Observaram-se dois casos. Em ambos não havia evidência de pertubações mentais claras. O quadro clínico de ambos os casos era mesmo limitado. O abastecimento de água, o nível sócio-econômico e o hábito das espécies das moscas são critérios que devem ser considerados na investigação.

  5. ANÁLISE DA ORIGEM E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DOS NERVOS PERIFÉRICOS DO PLEXO BRAQUIAL DA PACA (Agouti paca, LINNAEUS, 1766 ORIGIN AND DITRIBUTION ANALYSIS OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS PERIPHERAL NERVES OF PACA (Agouti paca, LINNAEUS, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Helena Brendolan Gerbasi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O plexo braquial é um conjunto de nervos que surge na região medular cervicotorácica e que se distribui pelos membros torácicos e porção interna do tórax. O plexo braquial de oito pacas foi dissecado para evidenciação da origem e distribuição de seus nervos. O nervo supraescapular distribuía-se para os músculos supra e infra-espinhal, e o subescapular para o músculo subescapular. O nervo axilar ramificava-se para os músculos redondo maior, subescapular, redondo menor e deltóide. Os nervos ulnar e mediano ramificavam-se para a musculatura do antebraço, e o musculocutâneo para os músculos coracobraquial, bíceps braquial e braquial. O nervo radial abrangia o músculo tríceps braquial, tensor da fáscia do antebraço e ancôneo. O nervo torácico longo e o toracodorsal emitiam ramos para o músculo grande dorsal, e o torácico lateral para o músculo cutâneo do tronco. Os nervos peitorais craniais ramificavam-se no músculo peitoral profundo, e os nervos peitorais caudais distribuíam-se para o músculo peitoral superficial. O plexo braquial da paca é formado por doze pares de nervos com origens distintas, os quais surgem do quinto par de nervos cervicais até o segundo par de nervos torácicos, não havendo troncos ou cordões na formação destes.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Agouti paca, distribuição, plexo braquial, sistema nervoso. The brachial plexus is a set of nerves originated in the cervicothoracic medular region and distributed in the thoracic limbs and inner thorax. The brachial plexus of eight pacas was dissected for study on the nerves origin and distribution. The suprascapular nerve went through the supra and infraspinal muscles and the subscapular gave off on the subscapular muscle. The axilar nerve was distributed on the teres major, subscapular, teres minor and deltoid muscles. The ulnar and the median nerves branched off on the forearm musculature, and the musculocutaneous branched on the coracobrachial, biceps brachial and brachial muscles. The radial nerve went through the triceps brachial, tensor fasciae latae and anconeus muscles. The long thoracic and the thoracodorsal nerves branched on the latissimus dorsi muscle, and the lateral thoracic gave off on the trunk cutaneous muscle. The cranial pectoral nerves branched on the deep pectoral muscle and the caudal pectoral nerves gave off on the superficial pectoral muscle. The brachial plexus of pacas is formed by 12 pairs of nerves presenting different origins, which arose from ventral roots from the fifth pair of cervical to the second pair of thoracic nerves, not occurring trunks or cords in those formation.
    KEY  WORDS: Agouti paca, brachial plexus, distribution, nervous system.

  6. Variação geográfica de caracteres quantitativos em Ogcocephalus vespertilio (Linnaeus (Teleostei, Lophiiformes, Ogcocephalidae Geographic variation of morphometric characters in Ogcocephalus vespertilio (Linnaeus (Teleostei, Lophiiformes, Ogcocephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro José Cavalcanti

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of geographic variation in 10 morphometric characters were analyzed in a sample of 91 specimens of the batfish, Ogcocephalus vespertilio (L., from the NE and SE Brazilian coast, using multivariate statistics and randomization tests. The specimens were ordinated by principal components analysis in two groups corresponding to the regions north and south of the 23ºC isotherm, and size variation was found to account for 70.3%, whereas shape differences accounted for 23.6% of the total variation in morphometric characters. The two groups were different at the 1% significance level by multivariate analysis of variance based on the Wilk's criterion, tested by a randomization procedure. Width of illicial cavity and distance from anus to anal fin were the characters most contributing to the differentiation of the population samples.

  7. TOPOGRAFIA DAS INTUMESCÊNCIAS CERVICAL E LOMBAR EM GATOS SEM RAÇA DEFINIDA (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE CERVICAL AND LUMBAR INTUMESCENSES IN THE DOMESTIC WITHOUT RACE CAT (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marques Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram obtidas informações sobre as intumescências cervical (IC e lombar (IL de gatos sem raça definida, analisando trinta animais, post-mortem, adultos. Removeram-se a pele e a musculatura dorsal da coluna vertebral para expor a medula espinhal e seus envoltórios por meio de secção dos arcos vertebrais, evidenciando-se a IC e a IL. Fez-se a mensuração da IC e IL e sua relação com as vértebras cervicais (C, torácicas (T e lombares (L para obter a esqueletopia. A IC apresentou-se com o tamanho variando de 3,30-8,00 cm, sendo que em nove animais (30,00 ± 8,36% este foi entre 5,00-5,50 cm. A IL apresentou-se com o tamanho variando de 2,90-5,70 cm, e em 21 animais (70,00 ± 8,36% este foi de 3,00-4,50 cm. A esqueletopia dessas estruturas foi variável: em dezesseis animais (53,33 ± 9,10% a IC iniciou-se na vértebra C3 e a IL, em 23 animais (76,67 ± 7,72% na L4. Os finais da IC e da IL ocorriam em doze animais (40,00 ± 8,94% na vértebra T1 e em 24 (80,00 ± 7,30% ao nível da vértebra L6, respectivamente.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Gatos, medula espinhal, intumescência, topografia There were analyzed the cervical (CI and lumbar intumescences (IL of 30 post mortem domestic without race cats of both sexes. The dorsal skin and muscles from the vertebral column were removed to expose the spinal cord and its wrappers were visualized when the vertebral arcs were sectioned, exposing the CI and LI. The CI and LI where measured up and their relationship with cervical (C, thoracic (T and lumbar (L vertebrae were analyzed to get their skeletopy. The length of the CI presented a variation from 3.30-8.00 cm, with a higher frequency of 9 animals (30.00 ± 8.36% presenting 5.00-5.50 cm. The length of the LI presented a variation from 2.90-5.70 and the higher frequency observed was 21 animals (70.00 ± 8.36% presenting 3.00-4.50 cm. Their skeletopy were also variable: in 16 animals (53.33 ± 9.10% the CI began at the C3 and the LI began at the L4 in 23 animals (76.67 ± 7.72%. Their ends were also variable, since the CI and the LI ended in 12 animals (40.00 ± 8.94% the T1 and in 24 (80.00 ± 7.30% at the L6 vertebrae, respectively.

    KEY WORDS: Cats, intumescences, spinal cord, topography.

  8. Fauna associada ao fital Halimeda opuntia (Linnaeus Lamouroux (Chlorophyta do Recife da Ponta Verde, Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil Associated fauna of the phytal Halimeda opuntia (Linnaeus Lamouroux (Chlorophyta on Ponta Verde reef in Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardeluzia Guilherme dos Santos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The bell quadrai lecnique were used lo oblain Rve bimestral samples during 1992. Fifteen laxoiioinic groups were found and Amphipoda had numerical dominante, Polychaeta and Decapoda are als

  9. Habitat use and relative abundance of the Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus, 1766 (Rodentia: Cuniculidae and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae in Guatopo National Park, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinor Jax

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spotted Paca Cuniculus paca and the Red-rumped Agouti Dasyprocta leporina are affected by habitat loss and hunting.  In Venezuela, their conservation status is unknown, even within protected areas.  The objective of this study was to estimate the relative abundance, activity patterns, habitat use, and effect of human activities on these species in Venezuela.  To achieve this, 26 camera-trap stations (20.8km2 were established in Guatopo National Park between February and April 2011, characterization of the habitat was undertaken and occupancy models were created.  The relative abundance of the Spotted Paca was 1.62 captures/100trap-nights, with a fully nocturnal activity pattern.  The relative abundance of the Red-rumped Agouti was 2.32 captures/100trap-nights, with a pronounced diurnal activity pattern. The occupation probability of the Red-rumped Agouti (0.61 SE 0.02 was higher than that of the Spotted Paca (0.27 SE 0.02. Spotted Pacas were mainly found in areas with mature forest and high tree density, whereas the  Red-rumped Agoutis were most frequently found in valleys with little disturbed forest.  A positive correlation was found between illegal hunting activities and areas occupied by the Spotted Paca.  It is important to strengthen the park control measurements to reduce illegal hunting of Spotted Pacas.

  10. TRIPS (THYSANOPTERA ASOCIADOS A AGALLAS DE Ficus benjamina (LINNAEUS, 1767 (MORACEAE EN LA REGIÓN CENTRAL DE COLOMBIA GALL THRIPS (THYSANOPTERA OF Ficus benjamina (LINNAEUS, 1767 (MORACEAE IN CENTRAL REGION OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sepúlveda Cano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia han sido utilizados ampliamente árboles de Ficus benjamina como ornamentales en zonas verdes urbanas. En los últimos años, se ha observado en estas plantas un incremento en los síntomas de ataque de trips (hojas plegadas y necrosadas; pero a pesar de ello, es poco lo que se conoce sobre las especies que se encuentran presentes. Por esta razón, se realizó un reconocimiento de la entomofauna en varias ciudades del país, encontrando las especies de trips Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi Retana, 2006 (fitófago y Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, 1896 (depredador, ambas reportadas por primera vez para Colombia. Adicionalmente, se recolectó el chinche depredador Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton asociado a estas agallas. Se presentan las diagnosis de las dos especies de trips apoyadas en fotografías de microscopía electrónica, con el ánimo de mostrar en detalle la morfología de estos insectosThe ficus tree Ficus benjamina has been introduced in Colombia as an ornamental in urban settings. In the last years an increment on symptoms of thrips attack (rolled and necrotic leaves have been more evident; however, little is known about the species of thrips causing such damage. This work is a preliminary survey in several cities of Colombia. The species of thrips resgistered were: Gynaikothrips garitacambroneroi Retana, 2006 (phytophagous and Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, 1896 (predator. Also was found a predatory true bug Montandoniola moraguesi (Puton associated with the galls produced by thrips. Some SEM photographs are present to show morphology details of two species of thrips associated with this tree.

  11. Bioquímica plasmática de cascavéis (Caudisona durissa LINNAEUS, 1758 em cativeiro Blood biochemical parameters from captivity rattlesnake (Caudisona durissa LINNAEUS, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acidentes com seres humanos envolvendo a espécie Caudisona durissa possuem a mais alta taxa de letalidade dentre os viperídeos brasileiros. Ressalta-se então a importância para a saúde pública da criação dessa espécie em cativeiro para produção de soro antiofídico. No entanto, essa atividade ainda hoje encontra alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel, evidenciando a importância de estudos sobre a fisiologia de serpentes. Dessa forma, foram realizadas análises de bioquímica plasmática em 53 serpentes da espécie Caudisona durissa, mantidas em cativeiro. Foram utilizadas amostras de plasma com heparina e as dosagens bioquímicas realizadas em aparelho automatizado (Ciba Corning - Express Plus®. Os resultados e seus respectivos desvios-padrões foram: uréia -1,32mg dL-1 (±1,1; ácido úrico - 2,08mg dL-1 (±1,4; creatinina - 0,52mg dL-1 (±0,2; proteína total - 3,7g dL-1 (±0,7; albumina - 1,62g dL-1 (±0,4; globulinas - 2,08g dL-1 (±0,5; cálcio - 15,25mg dL-1 (±2,8; fósforo - 4,61mg dL-1 (±1,9; colesterol - 171,58mg dL-1 (±52,7; triglicerídeos - 19,29mg dL-1 (±14,3; fosfatase alcalina - 31,04U L-1 (±12,4; aspartato aminotransferase (AST - 22,25U L-1 (±11,4; alanina aminotransferase (ALT - 7,11U L-1 (±5,4 e Amilase - 1385,23U L-1 (±568,7. Foram calculados os seguintes índices: relação uréia/creatinina - 2,5 e relação cálcio/fósforo - 3,3. O conjunto de resultados das análises bioquímicas do sangue das cascavéis em cativeiro pode servir como referência para apoio diagnóstico na espécie estudada e para outros trabalhos com o mesmo caráter de observação.Human accidents involving rattlesnake Caudisona durissa have the highest fatality rate among the Brazilian Viperidae family. Breeding this specie in captivity in order to produce antivenoms is very important to public health. Nevertheless, there are some challenges that this activity must face, like the onset of diseases on the breeding stock, justifying the importance of studying these snakes' physiology. Blood biochemical analysis of 53 Caudisona durissa was performed using plasma samples in an automated equipment (Ciba Corning - Express Plus®. Mean values and its respective Standard deviations are: blood urea nitrogen (BUN -1.32mg dL-1 (±1.1; uric acid - 2.08mg dL-1 (±1.4; creatinine - 0.52mg dL-1 (±0.2; total protein - 3.7g dL-1 (±0.7; albumin - 1.62g dL-1 (±0.4; globulins - 2.08g dL-1 (±0.5; calcium - 15.25mg dL-1 (±2.8; phosphorus - 4.61mg dL-1 (±1.9; cholesterol - 171.58mg dL-1 (±52.7; triglycerides - 19.29mg dL-1 (±14.3; alkaline phosfatase - 31.04U L-1 (±12.4; aspartate aminotransferase (AST - 22.25U L-1 (±11.4; alanin aminotransferase (ALT 7.11U L-1 (±5.4; amylases - 1385.23U L-1 (±568.7. The following indexes were calculated: BUN/creatinine ratio - 2.5 and calcium/phosphorus ratio -3.3. Rattlesnake blood biochemical results above could be used as reference in clinical evaluation for captivity C. durissa.

  12. Primer registro de Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758 para el departamento de La Paz, Bolivia. Comentarios sobre la extensión de la distribución geográfica para Plica umbra (Linnaeus 1758, (Squamata: Tropiduridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Kirigin, Alvaro J.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Siete ejemplares de la especie Plica plica y tres de Plica umbra fueron colectados en la República de Bolivia y depositados en la Colección Boliviana de Fauna (CBF, La Paz, Bolivia. Todos los registros se realizaron en el Departamento de La Paz, Provincia Abel Iturralde, Capital de Provincia Ixiamas, Sección Primera, Municipio Ixiamas, Cantón Ixiamas, Capital de Cantón Tahua.

  13. Criadouros de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 em bromélias nativas na Cidade de Vitória, ES Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 breeding sites in native bromeliads in Vitória City, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Benedito Malta Varejão

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Alguns insetos transmissores de doenças procriam exclusivamente nas proximidades das residências. O Aedes aegypti, responsável por epidemias de dengue em cidades brasileiras, representa sério risco também para a febre amarela. Com o insucesso da campanha de erradicação do inseto, justifica-se a busca de criadouros fora do alcance das medidas de controle atualmente adotadas. Na Cidade de Vitória, ES, investigou-se a ocorrência de criadouros de Aedes aegypti na água coletada em bromélias nativas, sobre as rochas. Paralelamente, avaliou-se a infestação predial nas áreas urbanas contíguas. Em quatro das cinco áreas investigadas foram encontradas larvas de culicídeos nas bromélias, sendo que em duas foi identificado Aedes aegypti. A presença dos criadouros em bromélias não guardou relação com a infestação predial nas áreas próximas. Torna-se necessário definir se os criadouros em bromélias constituem focos primários do Aedes aegypti, ou se representam uma conseqüência da elevada infestação urbana.Some insects that are vectors of human diseases have accompanied man in his migrations throughout the world and breed exclusively in the proximity of human dwellings. The mosquito Aedes aegypti has been responsible for epidemics of dengue in Brazil and its presence also constitutes a serious risk for future outbreaks of urban yellow fever. The failure of campaigns to eradicate this species justifies the search for alternative breeding sites, which may be beyond the reach of present control measures. In this study the occurrence of Aedes aegypti breeding sites in native bromeliads on rocky slopes was investigated in five areas of Vitória, capital of the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo, ES. Water contained in the bromeliads was collected with the aid of a suction apparatus to search for culicid larvae. The degree of infestation of buildings in adjacent urban areas was evaluated simultaneously. Culicid larvae were found in bromeliads in four of the five areas investigated, Aedes aegypti being present in two areas. The presence of breeding sites in bromeliads was not related to indices of infestation of buildings in adjacent areas. Further studies are necessary to define whether breeding sites in bromeliads constitute primary foci of Aedes aegypti, or are a consequence of high infestation levels in urban areas.

  14. A brief note on the sleeping habits of the giant anteater - Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus (Xenarthra, Myrmecophagidae Breve nota sobre hábitos de dormir do tamanduá-bandeira - Myrmecophaga tridactyla Linnaeus (Xenarthra, Myrmecophagidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Meri Medri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The scientific literature on giant anteaters states that the animal sleeps with its tail folded over its body to conserve body temperature. However, observations of this species in natural habitats indicate variations in this behavior, depending on the ambient temperature.A literatura científica sobre tamanduá-bandeira afirma que o animal dorme com sua cauda dobrada sobre o corpo para conservar a temperatura corporal. Entretanto, observações desta espécie em hábitats naturais indicam variações neste comportamento, dependendo da temperatura ambiente.

  15. Avaliação da resposta inflamatória hematológica em cascavéis (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758 inoculadas com BCG Assessment of blood inflammatory response in BCG stimulated rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bandeira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação de serpentes peçonhentas em cativeiro para produção de soros antipeçonhas possui crescente importância para a saúde pública devido ao aumento do número de notificações de acidentes ofídicos a cada ano no Brasil. Iniciado no século XX, ainda hoje essa atividade apresenta alguns desafios como a instalação de doenças no plantel. O hemograma é um exame de triagem clínica que auxilia no diagnóstico de diversas moléstias que acometem diferentes espécies de animais, no entanto ainda pouco estudado em serpentes. A caracterização das alterações hematológicas em cascavéis inoculadas experimentalmente com BCG pode servir de base na utilização deste exame no auxílio ao diagnóstico de infecções bacterianas na espécie. Dessa forma, foram realizados exames hematológicos em 10 serpentes da espécie Crotalus durissus pertencentes ao plantel da Divisão de Herpetologia do Instituto Vital Brazil. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos (Grupos 1 e 2, homogêneos entre si em relação ao peso e proporção sexual. Os dois grupos foram inoculados com BCG e submetidos à coleta de sangue antes da inoculação e em três momentos pós-inoculação (3º, 5º, e 7º dias para o Grupo 1 e 11º, 17º e 21º dias para o Grupo 2. O hemograma foi realizado por método semidireto pela utilização de líquido de Natt e Herrick e as lâminas foram coradas pelo Giemsa. Observou-se anemia discreta, com redução dos valores de concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média e da hemoglobina globular média no Grupo 1 que foi relacionada à doença inflamatória. A trombocitopenia observada no Grupo 2 sugeriu a atuação deste tipo celular em processos inflamatórios. Um único animal do Grupo 1 apresentou granulocitose e alguns animais apresentaram discreta azurofilia. Observaram-se alterações morfológicas nos leucócitos. Os granulócitos apresentaram granulações grosseiras e os azurófilos apresentaram aumento de tamanho e grandes vacúolos. De forma geral, a inoculação de BCG em cascavéis desencadeia respostas inflamatórias hematológicas caracterizadas pela participação de trombócitos, granulócitos e azurófilos.The high demand for anti-venom production in response to the increased number of cases of snakebite envenomation highlights the importance of raising and breeding venomous snakes in captivity. Knowledge of types of venoms and anti-venoms is of great interest to public health. The maintenance of venomous serpents in captivity started in the early twentieth century, but still nowadays it is a challenge to manage and prevent diseases in captive fauna. Hematology is commonly used for general health assessment and illness detection. However, data on serpent blood analysis are still scarce. Alterations in hematological parameters were experimentally induced in rattlesnakes by the inoculation of BCG. Based on this, hemograms can be used as a health auxiliary diagnosis method for bacterial diseases in this species. In this study, blood samples were taken from 10 healthy specimens of rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus born and bred in captivity in the Herpetological Division of Vital Brazil Institute. Animals were divided into two groups (group 1 and 2 with similar live weight and sex proportion, and were then inoculated subcutaneously with BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Blood samples were taken before and after inoculation at three experimental times (days 3, 5 and 7 for group 1 and days 11, 17 and 21 for group 2. Hematological analysis was performed through semi-direct technique, blood samples were diluted in Natt and Herrick solution and smears were stained by Giemsa. Serpents from group 1 developed discrete anemia due to the inflammatory syndrome, and showed significant decrease of MCH and MCHC. Granulocytes were characterized by the presence of rough granules. The azurophils varied in shape and size and showed large amount of cytoplasmic vacuoles. The thrombocytopenia observed in group 2 suggests that these cells participate in the inflammatory process. A single individual from group 1 showed granulocytosis and a few animals showed a discrete azurophilia. In general, BCG inoculation unleashes hematological inflammatory responses characterized by the presence of thrombocytes, azurophils and granulocytes cells.

  16. Do captive-born greater rheas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae remember antipredator training? Emas Rhea americana Linnaeus (Rheiformes, Rheidae se lembram do treinamento anti-predação?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano S. de Azevedo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The antipredator training is a powerful tool now being used to help the reintroduced animals to recognise and escape from their predators. Testing the memory capacity of the animals after antipredator training is important to evaluate if the application of the training is worthwhile. A group of 15 captive-born greater rheas was studied at Belo Horizonte Zoo. Eight birds were antipredator trained and seven birds were not. After the end of the antipredator training sessions, we run four memory tests at 40, 55, 70 and 88 days after training was completed. The memory tests consisted of showing a predator model to the rheas and recording their behavioural responses. It was measured the capacity of antipredator information storage, the influence of the group size on the behaviour of the birds and the influence of the antipredator training on the elicitation of the correct behavioural responses of the birds when confronted by a predator. The results showed that the rheas retained predator recognition for almost three months, that the group size affected the responses of the birds (more defence behaviours expressed when tested alone and that the antipredator training is essential to elicit the adequate antipredatory responses, since untrained birds behaved in a tranquil manner when confronted by a predator model. We concluded that antipredator training is worthwhile for future reintroduction programs for greater rheas, since their memory capacity is considerable.O treinamento anti-predação é uma ferramenta poderosa usada atualmente para ajudar os animais reintroduzidos a reconhecer e escapar de seus predadores. Testar a capacidade de memória dos animais após o treinamento é importante para se avaliar a validade de sua aplicação. Um grupo de 15 emas nascidas em cativeiro foi estudado no zoológico de Belo Horizonte. Oito aves foram treinadas contra predadores e sete não. Após o término dos treinamentos, foram realizados quatro testes de memória após 40, 55, 70 e 88 dias. Os testes de memória consistiam em apresentar um modelo de predador para as emas e anotar as respostas comportamentais exibidas. Foram medidas a capacidade de memória das aves, a influência do tamanho do grupo no comportamento das aves e a influência do treinamento anti-predação na estimulação de respostas comportamentais adequadas. Os resultados mostraram que as emas retiveram a capacidade de reconhecimento do predador por quase três meses após o término dos treinamentos, que o tamanho do grupo afeta as respostas das aves (mais comportamentos de defesa quando sozinhas e que o treinamento anti-predação é essencial para estimular uma resposta comportamental adequada, uma vez que o grupo não treinado se comportou tranqüilamente perante o predador. Conclui-se que o treinamento anti-predação é válido para futuros programas de reintrodução de emas, uma vez que a capacidade de memória dessas aves é considerável.

  17. Comportamentos interespecíficos entre Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus (Primates, Callitrichidae e algumas aves de Mata Atlântica, Pernambuco, Brasil Interspecific behaviour between Callithrix jacchus (Linnaeus (Callitrichidae, Primates and some birds of the Atlantic forest, Pernanbuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. de Lyra-Neves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As observações ocorreram no período de dois anos, monitorando grupos marcados de sagüis durante oito horas por dia. Foram registrados seis tipos de eventos: predação de sagüis; predação de aves, disputa de área de forrageio e recurso alimentar; compartilhamento de área de forrageio e recurso alimentar; perseguição branda e utilização de ninho de ave como local de pernoite dos sagüis. Os eventos agrupados obtiveram diferenças significativas entre as estações do ano e os estratos ocupados.The observations cover a period of two years, monitoring groups of marked common marmosets in eight hour/day periods. Six types of events were recorded: marmoset predation; bird predation; foraging competition; food sharing; use of avian nest for nocturnal marmoset rest and mutual pursuit. All pooled events showed highly significant differences between season and vegetation strata.

  18. Otolith morphometry and population parameters of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus, 1758 in Saros Bay (North Aegean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İşmen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Kuzey Ege Denizi’nde (Saroz Körfezi Fangri balığının toplam boy (TL ile toplam ağırlık (TW arasındaki ilişki, yaş, büyüme ve otolit boyu (OL - otolit ağırlığı (OW, balık boyu (TL - otolit boyu (OL, balık ağırlığı (TW - otolit boyu (OL, otolit boyu (OL - otolit genişliği (OWi arasındaki morfometrik ilişkiler incelenmiştir. Toplam 100 adet balık üzerinde yapılan ölçümlerde minimum boy 9,6 cm, maksimum boy 44,4 cm; minimum ağırlık 17,1 g, maksimum ağırlık 1372,5 g olarak tespit edilmiştir. Otolit ağırlığı minimum 0,0181 g, maksimum 0,1456 g; otolit boyu minimum 0,52 cm, maksimum 1,17 cm olarak ölçülmüştür. Boy-ağırlık ilişkisi TW=0,021*TL2,885 (r2=0,98, otolit boyu - otolit ağırlığı OW=0,105*OL2,609 (r2=0,92, toplam boy - otolit boyu OL=0,024*TL+0,249 (r2=0,83 otolit boyu - toplam ağırlık OL=0,235*TW0,237 (r2=0,81 otolit boyu - otolit genişliği OWi=0.501*OL+0.116 (r2=0.832 ilişkileri tespit edilmiştir. En büyük yaş 9 olarak belirlenmiş, von Bertalanffy büyüme parametreleri L∞=51,59 cm, K=0,12 yıl-1ve t0= -1,13 yıl olarak hesaplanmıştır

  19. Melatonin Induced Changes in Specific Growth Rate, Gonadal Maturity, Lipid and Protein Production in Nile Tilapia (Linnaeus 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of melatonin (MLT on specific growth rate (SGR% day−1, condition factor (k, gonado-somatic-index (GSI, histological structures of gonads, serum as well as gonadal protein and lipid in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. MLT treatment in the dose of 25 μg/L for three weeks reduced SGR% day−1 (0.9±0.04 as compared to control (1.23±0.026. The GSI value was significantly (p<0.05 reduced to 1.77±0.253 from control where it was 2.56±0.25. Serum protein level increased from 9.33±2.90 mg/ml (control to 11.67±1.45 mg/ml after MLT treatment while there was depressed serum triglycerides (86.16±1.078 mg/dl and cholesterol (126.66±0.88 mg/dl as compared to control values where these were 123.0±1.23 mg/dl and 132.0±1.65 mg/dl respectively. Histological structure of ovary showed small eggs of early perinucleolus stage after MLT treatment while testicular structure of control and MLT treated fish was more or less similar. It is concluded that exogenous melatonin suppressed SGR% day−1, GSI, ovarian cellular activity, protein and lipid biosynthesis, in tilapia suggesting that melatonin is useful in manipulating the gonadal maturity in fishes.

  20. Population Structure and Growth of the Threatened Pen Shell, Pinna rudis (Linnaeus, 1758 in a Western Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. NEBOT COLOMER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are being extensively degraded by human activities. Benthic, slow-growing and long-lived species are highly vulnerable to these impacts. Marine protected areas might avoid biodiversity losses through habitat protection. The pen shell Pinna rudis is a protected species, but scarce data are available on its ecology and biology. The present study is a comprehensive ecological study encompassing several unknown aspects of the growth and inner record in relation to habitat types, density and size distribution. A total of 418 strip transects were conducted by scuba diving in the Marine Protected Area of Cabrera National Park (39.14° N, 2.96° E, during the summers of 2011, 2012 and 2013. Sampling was conducted across different habitats and depths exploring 152,146.35 m2 in total. Densities varied spatially within the park (from 0 to 6.89 ind./100 m2 corresponding to a wide range of sizes and ages. Most pen shells were patchily distributed and mainly concentrated in caves. Two hotspots with high densities represent the highest densities ever recorded worldwide, showing a possible link to high larval accumulation and settlement. The population size structure showed a unimodal distribution with shell width ranging from 6.2 to 25.0 cm, with an average shell width of 16.0 ± 3.4 cm. The absolute growth was asymptotic, with a maximum age and length of 28-31 years and 45 cm, respectively. This study on the biology and ecology of a well-established population of Pinna rudis in the Western Mediterranean could set a baseline for the conservation of this species in other areas.