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Sample records for chrysomya megacephala fabricius

  1. Growth of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) maggots in a morgue cooler.

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    Thevan, Kumara; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Singh, Bhupinder

    2010-11-01

    In estimating the postmortem interval (PMI) using maggots obtained during autopsy, the forensic entomologist makes decisions regarding the effects of low-temperature storage of the body on the insects. In this case report, a corpse was found in an abandoned house in the residential area of Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia. The maggots were found to be alive inside the mouth of the deceased although the corpse had been in the morgue cooler for 12 days. The maggots were reared and identified as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). The emerged adult flies were kept as a stock colony, and the duration of development under the indoor fluctuating temperature regime was studied. The total duration of developmental process of this species was 9.5 ± 0.5 days, and the PMI estimated was 3.2 ± 0.6 days. This case report demonstrates the survival of Ch. megacephala maggots for 12 days and their growth inside the morgue cooler.

  2. Analysis of the Transcriptome of Blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) Larvae in Responses to Different Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Min Zhang; Hao Yu; Yanyan Yang; Chao Song; Xinjun Hu; Guren Zhang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), a prevalent necrophagous blowfly that is easily mass reared, is noted for being a mechanical vector of pathogenic microorganisms, a pollinator of numerous crops, and a resource insect in forensic investigation in the postmortem interval. In the present study, in order to comprehensively understand the physiological and biochemical functions of C. megacephala, we performed RNA-sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling using Solexa/Ill...

  3. Analysis of the transcriptome of blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius larvae in responses to different edible oils.

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    Min Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, a prevalent necrophagous blowfly that is easily mass reared, is noted for being a mechanical vector of pathogenic microorganisms, a pollinator of numerous crops, and a resource insect in forensic investigation in the postmortem interval. In the present study, in order to comprehensively understand the physiological and biochemical functions of C. megacephala, we performed RNA-sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE profiling using Solexa/Illumina sequencing technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 39,098,662 clean reads were assembled into 27,588 unigenes with a mean length of 768 nt. All unigenes were searched against the Nt database, Nr database, Swiss-Prot, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG with the BLASTn or BLASTx algorithm (E-value<0.00001 for annotations. In total, 7,081 unigenes and 14,099 unigenes were functionally classified into 25 COG categories and 240 KEGG pathways, respectively. Furthermore, 20,216 unigenes were grouped into 48 sub-categories belonging to 3 main Gene Ontology (GO categories (ontologies. Using the transcriptome data as references, we analyzed the differential gene expressions between a soybean oil-fed group (SOF and a lard oil-fed group (LOF, compared to the negative control group (NC, using the DGE approach. We finally obtained 1,566 differentially expressed genes in SOF/NC, and 1,099 genes in LOF/NC. For further analysis, GO and KEGG functional enrichment were performed on all differentially expressed genes, and a group of differentially expressed candidate genes related to lipometabolism were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides a global survey of C. megacephala and provides the basis for further research on the functional genomics of this insect.

  4. MOSCAS SINANTROPICAS PERJUDICIALES, UN DESAFÍO ACTUAL: Musca domestica L. (MUSCIDAE Y Chrysomya megacephala (FABRICIUS (CALLIPHORIDAE

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    Priscila Maria da Silva Gomes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The synanthropic animals of a particular locality corresponds to some species of wild native fauna that have adapted either temporary or permanently, the new environment modified by human action. Musca domestica and Chrysomya megacephala have a eusinantropico behavior, or their life cycle occurs in anthropized environment. So the article aims to contribute to the characterization of Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae among the main species of harmful synanthropic flies food health importance. The control populations of harmful synanthropic species requires knowledge of the bionomics of the species. The adoption of advertising campaigns, environmental and health education projects, citizenship, to the biological vector control should be focused on: food waste reduction; Promotion programs (and expansion of existing ones of basic separation of organic waste, inorganic and risk of domestic origin, commercial and various public and private service activities; Mapping of special areas of risk to public health, especially areas with most polluting activity by human excreta and secretions and domestic animals, organic waste and wastewater focuses exposed to open air, aimed at implementing a continuous system of hygiene and sanitation, integrating the activities of various sectors of society in these areas DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12957/sustinere.2015.20002

  5. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

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    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  6. Some gamma radiation (60Co) effects on Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptira-Calliphoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different gama radiation (60Co) doses on Chrysomya megcephala (Fabricius) have been studied under laboratory conditions, in the Entomology Section of Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-USP), Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. The insects were collected close to sucking animals brooding areas, identified and reared on artificial diet, being kept in a temperature (26 +- 20C) and humidity (66 +- 9%) controlled room, with 12L:12D photopheriod. A Gammabeam type 650 Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation source was used, with 28, 196x1010 Bq activity at the beginning of the experiment. The pupae were submitted to increasing gamma radiation doses. To determine lethal doses, treatments were carried out at four different ages and to determine the sterilizing doses two-three day pupae were used. It was noted pupae radiosensitivity decreased with age, LD50 varying from 14 - 513 Gy. The sterilizing dose for males was 40 Gy and for females 30 Gy. During the individuals life cycle, it was noted that there was a decrease in life expectancy (exo) of adults when the gamma radiation dose was increased. Treated males were more sensitive than females (Crossed with ''normals''), there occurring a marked reduction in the number of eggs and their viability when the used gamma radiation dose was increased. (author)

  7. Radiolabelling of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) and rearing of Belonuchus rufipennis (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on eggs of this fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of the radiolabelling method for Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) was studied. Five males from 0 to 16 hours of age proceeding from artificial rearing, were labelled through its diet. The radioisotope used was Phosphorus-32, in the chemical form of sodium phosphate (Na2 H32 P O4), mixed into a sucrose solution of 10% sugar. After 25 hours of labelling and feeding period, each male was placed into a cage together with 20 females of the same age, for mating. The radioactivity of each male and of the genitalia of each female was verified through liquid scintillation counting. It was observed that the males showed high activity levels, above 1,7 x 106 counts per minute at an average of 3,1 x 106 cpm. Much smaller and more variable was the activity showed by the genitalia of the females: between 123 and 35.323 cpm, at an average of 2.986 cpm. As a conclusion it could be observed that the methodology of tagging this species of flies with radioactive phosphorus is perfectly suitable for ecological and behavioural studies. During the experiments of radiolabelling it could be observed that the predator Belonuchus rufipennis (Fabr., 1801) (Col., Staphylinidae) caused severe attack to recently laid eggs of the flies. To verify the possibility of rearing this insect in the laboratory, adults of the predator were maintained into Petri dishes containing eggs and water. Eggs of the predator, newly hatched larvae, pupae and adults were transferred separately into other Petri dishes for daily observations. As results it could be observed that the egg phase of the predator was two days. The development of the larvae is 10,7 days, and 5,9 days of the pupae. As a remark it could be observed that the eggs of the flies were well accepted by the predator even if dead, after maintenance into a freezer. As a final conclusion it could be confirmed that rearing of Belonuchus rufipennis is perfectly feasible under laboratory conditions using as

  8. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  9. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

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    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. PMID:26779962

  10. Estudo da dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar em Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Gomes Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for sites to pupate or to additional food source, process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some of the most important aspects of this process were investigated in Chrysomya megacephala, utilizing a circular arena to permit the radial dispersion of larvae from the center. To determinate the localization of each pupa, the arena was split in 72 equal sectors from the center. For each pupa, distance from the center of arena, weight and depth were determined. Statistical tests were performed to verify the relation among weight, depth and distance of burying for pupation. It was verified that the larvae that disperse farther are those with higher weights. The majority of individuals reached the depth of burying for pupation between 7 and 18 cm. The study of this process of dispersion can be utilized in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI for human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.

  11. Ocorrência de multiparasitismo em larvas de terceiro ínstar e pupas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius em condições de campo Occurrence of multiparasitism in third instar larvae and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius in field conditions

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    Alessandra Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante experimento de pesquisa envolvendo o parasitismo de larvas de terceiro ínstar e pupas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 em dois locais da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, observou-se a ocorrência de multiparasitismo em 1,83% das pupas expostas no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC e em 2,16% expostas no Jardim Zoológico (ZOO. O experimento foi conduzido semanalmente de agosto de 1999 a julho de 2000. Em ambos os locais, houve a co-ocorrência de duas espécies por pupa e os parasitóides encontrados foram os himenópteros Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 e Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836. 72,73% do multiparasitismo ocorreu no ZOO em julho de 2000. Em condições de multiparasitismo, T. zealandicus e P. vindemiae mantiveram seu hábito gregário e solitário, respectivamente, mas N. vitripennis foi encontrado solitário em algumas pupas.During research experiment involving parasitism of third instar larvae and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, it was found 1.83% of multiparasited pupae in Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC and 2.16% in Jardim Zoológico (ZOO. The exposition were conducted weekly from August 1999 to July 2000. The multiparasited pupae contained two Hymenoptera parasitoids species [Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 and either Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 or Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836]. 72.73% of the multiparasitism occurred at ZOO in July. T. zealandicus and P. vindemiae supported their respective gregarious and solitary natural conditions, respectively, but N. vitripennis sometimes behaved as solitary.

  12. Dinâmica populacional e parasitismo de Himenópteros parasitóides de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae, no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Population dynamics and parasitism of hymenopterans parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

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    Alessandra Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no período de agosto de 1999 a julho de 2000 com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera, Calliphoridae e avaliar sua dinâmica populacional no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC/ FIOCRUZ e Jardim Zoológico, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. As coletas foram realizadas semanalmente através da exposição de larvas de terceiro instar da mosca e seu substrato de criação, carne bovina moída em putrefação. Foram identificadas três espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 (Encyrtidae, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 (Pteromalidae and Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 (Pteromalidae. Nos dois locais, T. zealandicus foi a espécie com maior taxa de parasitismo de C. megacephala, seguida por P. vindemiae e N. vitripennis. A população de parasitóides diminuiu drasticamente no verão (temperatura média = 28°C; precipitação = 6,5 mm.O pico populacional desses insetos foi verificado no final do outono e durante todo o inverno. No Jardim Zoológico, o lixo acumulado no local de coleta exerceu forte influência na dinâmica populacional dos himenópteros parasitóides identificados nesse estudo e o pico populacional de parasitismo foi verificado em junho e julho de 2000.This study was carried out from August 1999 to July 2000 to evaluate the population dynamics and to know the parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC/ FIOCRUZ and Jardim Zoológico, in Rio de Janeiro City. Samplings were conducted weekly with third instar larvae of the fly and putrefying ground beef. It was identified three species of hymenopterans parasitoids: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 (Encyrtidae, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 (Pteromalidae and Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 (Pteromalidae. In both sampling areas, T. zealandicus was the species with the highest parasitism rate of C

  13. Study of the combined radial post-feeding dispersion of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius and C. albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Estudo da dispersão radial combinada de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius e C. albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Leonardo Gomes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies use discrete and ephemeral substrates to feed their larvae. After they run out of food, the larvae begin to disperse in order to find adequate places for pupation or additional food sources, a process named post-feeding larval dispersion. Some important aspects of this process were studied in a circular arena allowing the combined radial post-feeding dispersion from the center of the arena of C. albiceps and C. megacephala larvae. To determine the location of each pupa, the arena was divided in 72 identical sections starting from the center. The distance from the center, the depth and weight of each pupa were evaluated. Statistical tests were done to verify the relation between weight, depth and distance for pupation. From the total an average of 976 larvae released (488 for each species were collected considering both experiments 456 C. megacephala pupae and 488 of C. albiceps. This demonstrates that C. albiceps probably preyed on 32 C. megacephala larvae during post-feeding dispersion. The study of this dispersion process can be used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI of human cadavers in legal medicine.As moscas- varejeiras utilizam-se de substratos discretos e efêmeros para alimentar suas larvas. Após deixarem o substrato alimentar, as larvas começam a dispersar em busca de locais adequados para pupação e fontes adicionais de alimento, um processo denominado dispersão larval pós-alimentar. Alguns aspectos importantes desse processo foram estudados em uma arena permitindo a dispersão radial combinada de larvas de C. megacephala e C. albiceps. Para determinar a localização de cada pupa, a arena foi dividida em 72 setores iguais começando do centro. A distância a partir do centro, a profundidade e o peso de cada pupa foram determinados. Testes estatísticos foram feitos para verificar a relação entre peso, profundidade e distância para pupação. De um total em média de 976 larvas soltas (488 de cada esp

  14. The Effect of Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(®) ) on the Development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and its Implications for Forensic Entomology.

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    Baia, Tainá Costa; Campos, Alessandra; Wanderley, Bruno Mattos Silva; Gama, Renata Antonaci

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of flunitrazepam (known as "date rape drug") on the developmental cycle of Chrysomya megacephala, an important forensic species, and their possible implications for the calculation of the PMI. A 1050 C. megacephala eggs were divided into five groups with seven replications each. The eggs were placed on artificial diet prepared with four drug concentrations of flunitrazepam (4, 8, 16, and 32 ng/g), besides the control group (prepared with water). Were evaluated the potential effects on development time, weight gain, and mortality during the cycles. The drug had no significant effect on development time or mortality although it did affect the weight of the pupae and adults (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The result can be deduced that the determination of the postmortem interval is not affected. PMID:27143233

  15. Effects of human contraceptive on reproduction and offspring in Chrysomya megacephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarinee Chaiwong; Kabkaew L Sukontason; Urai Chaisri; Hiromu Kurahashi; Michelle Sanford; Kom Sukontason

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of human contraceptive(HC) as ability to suppress the reproductive success of blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius)(C. megacephala)and offspring under controlled laboratory conditions.Methods: AdultC. megacephala were fed with low (0.036 mg/mL) and high dose (0.072mg/mL)HC (Microgest®, Thailand), containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol, in their drinking water for7 days. Three experiments were set; experiment I with fed only in parental males, experiment II with fed only in parental females and experiment III with fed in both males and females. All experiments were then maintained for 3 generations after crossing and inbreeding.Results: A lower ovariole production and less fully mature ovarioles were evident inF1, F2 andF3 than control when parent males, females and both had been fed with high doseHC. Cellular changes during spermatogenesis inF1, F2 and F3 testes was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy(TEM), showing the low level of condensed chromatin, necrotic chromatin, irregularities and degenerated nuclear envelope in the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, mitochondrial swelling, rough endoplasmic reticulum swelling as well as vacuolated cytoplasm were noticed. As for the spermper se, we found the degenerated nuclei and/or incomplete mitochondrial derivative, axoneme and vacuolated flagella. Regarding deformity in F1, F2andF3 ovariole, ultrastructural alteration observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)included malformations involving fragile enveloping peritoneal sheath, cracked ovarioles, peel away chorion, crumbled eggshell and incomplete development; whereasTEM presented malformed and disorganized mass of cells, proteic yolk granules and vacuolated vesicles. Conclusions: Administer ofHC to adultC. megacephala caused ovariole reduction, less matured ovariole and affected cellular changes in testes and ovariole of offspring up to F3.

  16. Morphology and developmental rate of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology.

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    Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2008-05-01

    The larval morphology and developmental rate of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the two most forensically important blowfly species in Thailand, are presented. Morphological comparison of the third instar of both species revealed different characteristics (e.g., body appearance, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal cuticular spines between the prothorax and mesothorax, and feature of the posterior spiracle), thereby, allowing correct identification. A data analysis was conducted in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand during 2000-2001 on the developmental rate of both flies under natural ambient temperature and a natural light-dark photoperiod. The results indicated that larvae of C. megacephala developed more rapidly in April, pupariation initiated at 84 h at temperatures averaging 31.4 degrees C, and the larvae grew slower in the rainy season and winter. Similarly, rapid development of C. rufifacies larvae appeared in the summer, with a pupariation period as short as 96 h in June (average temperature 27.4 degrees C). Analysis of the median body length of C. megacephala and C. rufifacies larvae in different seasons of the years 2000-2001 in Thailand revealed that both species developed rapidly in the summer; pupariation of C. rufifacies initiated at 144 h, while C. megacephala initiated pupariation at 156 h. This information is potentially useful for estimating the postmortem interval of a corpse in forensic investigations, where the corpse becomes infesting with these fly species.

  17. Behavior of the combined radial post-feeding larval dispersal of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae and implications for forensic entomology

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    Leonardo Gomes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work was to study the life stages of Chrysomya megacephala in a circular arena allowing the combined radial post-feeding dispersal from the center of the arena of C. albiceps and C. megacephala larvae. To determine the location of each pupa, the distance from the center, the depth and weight of each pupa formed were analyzed. For the larvae of C. albiceps, females released buried deeper than males, reaching an average depth of 10.74 cm and C. megacephala larvae presented greater average results than C. albiceps for all variables, particularly distance, which was 16.02 cm for this species and 12.30 cm for C. albiceps. C. albiceps larvae preyed on 30 C. megacephala larvae in both experiments. These results could be used in forensic entomology because the evaluation of Post Mortem Interval (PMI was one of the most important aspects of legal medicine, and it could be underestimated if the older dispersing larvae or those that dispersed longer and faster or deeper, were not taken into account.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar estágios de vida de Chrysomya megacephala em uma arena circular permitindo a dispersão larval pós-alimentar combinada a partir do centro das larvas de C. megacephala e C. albiceps. Para determinar a localização de cada pupa a distância a partir do centro, a profundidade e o peso foram coletados. Do total de larvas soltas as fêmeas de C. albiceps se enterraram mais profundamente que os machos, alcançando uma profundidade de 10,74 cm. Apesar dessa diferença, as larvas de C. megacephala apresentaram resultado em média maiores para todas a variáveis, particularmente a distância, a qual foi 16,02 cm para essa espécie e 12,30 para C. albiceps. Além disso, as larvas de C. albiceps predaram 30 larvas de C. megacphala durante esse processo em ambos os experimentos. Esses estudos podem ser utilizados em Entomologia forense porque a estimativa do Intervalo Pós Morte (IPM é um dos aspectos mais

  18. Effects on microhymenopteran progeny of different host exposure periods (Chrysomya megacephala, Calliphoridae to the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

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    Renata da Silva Mello

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To test the assumption that exposure of the host to parasitoid for long periods could provoke superparasitism, the aim of this work was to test the consequences on the immature development time, productivity of parasitoids per pupa, sex ratio and rate of parasitism of Nasonia vitripennis bred in Chrysomya megacephala pupae. Each individual pupa was placed in a glass tube with one parasitoid female for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h period of exposure, under controlled laboratory conditions. Twenty replicates of each period were performed. ANOVA with a 5% significance level was applied. The 72 h exposure caused the immature development time to increase. The mean parasitoids emergence per pupa did not vary significantly with the time of exposure. There were a significantly higher number of females than males and a trend in sex ratio deviation towards the females in all of the treatments. An increase in the number of unviable pupae rates were observed with increased exposure time.Para testar a hipótese que longos períodos de exposição do hospedeiro ao parasitóide podem ocasionar o superparasitismo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo testar as conseqüências sobre o tempo de desenvolvimento do imaturo, a produtividade de parasitóides, razão sexual e taxa de parasitismo de Nasonia vitripennis criadas em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala. Cada pupa foi individualizada e alocada em um tudo de ensaio com uma fêmea de N. vitripennis por 24, 48, 72 ou 96 h, sob condições laboratoriais controladas. Foram realizadas 20 réplicas para cada período de exposição. ANOVA com significância de 5 % foi aplicada. A exposição de 72 h causou um aumento no tempo desenvolvimento. A média de emergência de parasitóides não variou significativamente entre os tempos de exposição. Houve um número significativamente maior de fêmeas e uma tendência ao desvio da razão sexual para fêmeas em todos os tratamentos. Foi verificado um aumento no número de pupas invi

  19. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

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    Worachote Boonsriwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae, was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly.

  20. In vitro repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) oils on Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Radavelli, W M; Volpato, A; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C V; Vaucher, R A; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L; Da Silva, A S

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) essential oils on two species of flies (Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala). For the in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To verify the repellency effect, an apparatus was constructed where H. irritans and C. megacephala were exposed to andiroba and tea tree oils (5.0%), as well as to a known repellent (citronella, 5.0%) to validate the test. The study demonstrated that all three oils used showed in vitro repellent effect against both species of flies. It is possible to conclude that the essential oils (tea tree and andiroba) have repellent effect on these species of flies used in this study. PMID:25801266

  1. Advances in research on Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricuis) in China%我国法医昆虫大头金蝇的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少英; 胡萌; 汤清波

    2012-01-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricuis) belong to Diptera, Calliphoridae, Chrysomyinae, Chrysomya, commonly known as Oriental toilet fly. It is one of the important forensic insects, resource insects and vector insects. This article summarizes the biological features, experimental ecology and feeding of C. megacephala (Fabricuis) and its control measures and application. The focus of research in this field is discussed to guide further study in the future.%大头金蝇属于节肢动物门有颚亚门昆虫纲双翅目、丽蝇科、金蝇亚科、金蝇属,属嗜尸性昆虫,是重要的法医昆虫、资源昆虫和媒介昆虫.现就国内外关于大头金蝇的饲养、生物学特性、实验生态学、防治和应用等方面的研究进行概述,并探讨大头金蝇的研究方向,以期为进一步研究大头金蝇提供帮助.

  2. Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Little is known about the morphology of the chitinized structures of the spermathecae of the Calliphoridae. In this work, the spermathecae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 and C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 are described and illustrated. The occurrence in one species of four spermathecae, an atypical form for blow flies, was recorded for the first time. The analysis of these structures will allow a better understanding of this group as well as provide taxonomic characters for future phylogenetic studies.Morfologia comparada das espermatecas de espécies de Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy e Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Pouco se conhece sobre a morfologia das estruturas quitinizadas das espermatecas de Calliphoridae. Nesse trabalho as espermatecas de Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 e C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 são descritas e ilustradas. Foi registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência em uma espécie com quatro espermatecas, uma forma atípica em califorídeos. A análise dessas estruturas possibilitará uma melhor compreensão do grupo e fornecerá caracteres taxonômicos para futuros estudos filogenéticos.

  3. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann and Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cecília Kosmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann and Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The corpse of a man was found in a Brazilian highland savanna (cerrado in the state of Minas Gerais. Fly larvae were collected at the crime scene and arrived at the laboratory three days afterwards. From the eight pre-pupae, seven adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 emerged and, from the two larvae, two adults of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 were obtained. As necrophagous insects use corpses as a feeding resource, their development rate can be used as a tool to estimate the postmortem interval. The post-embryonary development stage of the immature collected on the body was estimated as the difference between the total development time and the time required for them to become adults in the lab. The estimated age of the maggots from both species and the minimum postmortem interval were four days. This is the first time that H. segmentaria is used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case.

  4. Abundância e flutuação populacional das espécies de Chrysomya (Diptera, Calliphoridae em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Abundance and populational fluctuation of Chrysomya (Diptera, Calliphoridae species, in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Élvia E. S. Vianna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the populational fluctuation of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 species and the relation of populational abundance around, six wind oriented trap (WOT were placed in three distinct ecological areas (urban, rural and wild in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from February/1993 to January/1995. The flies were weekly collected. Captured species were Chrysomya albiceps Wiedmann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794 and C. putoria Wiedmann, 1830 with respective abundance of 64.5%, 19.7% and 0.9%, representing a total of 85.0% of 409,920 specimens of Calliphoridae. The three species demonstrated similarity in the populational fluctuation, except in the abundance. The populational peak ocurred in autum when the temperature decreases. In the months of July to November no fly was collected, recomposing the population in December, when the temperature surpassed 20ºC.

  5. 家蝇和大头金蝇在麦麸和猪瘦肉上的产卵选择和发育差异%Difference in oviposition preference and development between Musca Domestica (Diptera:Muscidae)and Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera:Calliphoridae) on wheat bran and pork muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王争艳; 莫建初

    2009-01-01

    In many areas in China, Chrysomya megacephala F. Has gradually invaded the ecological niches occupied by Musca domestica L. And become the dominant species at garbage sites in the urban areas. To explore the influence of foods on the development of M. Domestica and C. Megacephala larvae when theywere reared solely or jointly, the oviposition preference and life history of the F, generation of wild blowfly C. Megacephala and housefly M. Domestica on wet wheat bran, pork muscle and their mixture were observed in the laboratory. The results showed that: (1) Blowflies preferred to lay their eggs on substrates containing pork muscle while houseflies preferred to lay their eggs on substrates containing wheat bran. (2) Newly-hatched housefly and blowfly larvae could reach adulthood on diets containing pork muscle. When raised on wheat bran, newly-hatched housefly larvae could reach adulthood while newly-hatched and 2nd instar blowfly larvae all died before entering into the next instar, but some 3rd instar blowfly larvae could reach adulthood. (3) When the same number of newly-hatched housefly and blowfly larvae grew mixedly on diets containing pork muscle, blowflies exhibited shorter developmental duration and higher survival rate than houseflies. When reared mixedly with houseflies on wheat bran, blowflies showed shorter developmental duration and higher survival rate than the same instar blowflies that grew solely on wheat bran. These results suggest that in coexistence the housefly can promote the utilization of the vegetable resource by the blowfly. This might be one of important reasons why the blowfly can invade successfully the ecological niches occupied dominantly by the housefly.%在中国许多地区,大头金蝇 Chrysomya megacephala F.已侵入过去由家蝇Musca domestica L.占绝对优势的垃圾生态位,逐渐成为城市蝇类的优势种.为了解单独和混合饲养时食物种类对家蝇和大头金蝇幼虫生长发育的影响,在室内观察

  6. Chrysomya Bezziana oral myiasis

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    G S Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly.

  7. Spatio-temporal dynamics and transition from asymptotic equilibrium to bounded oscillations in Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae

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    Wesley Augusto Conde Godoy

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of parameters that govern the stability of population size in Chrysomya albiceps and describe its spatial dynamics was evaluated in this study. The dynamics was modeled using a density-dependent model of population growth. Our simulations show that variation in fecundity and mainly in survival has marked effect on the dynamics and indicates the possibility of transitions from one-point equilibrium to bounded oscillations. C. albiceps exhibits a two-point limit cycle, but the introduction of diffusive dispersal induces an evident qualitative shift from two-point limit cycle to a one fixed-point dynamics. Population dynamics of C. albiceps is here compared to dynamics of Cochliomyia macellaria, C. megacephala and C. putoria.

  8. Oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana

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    Sankari Leena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of certain dipteran flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. Herein, a case of oral myiasis in the maxillary anterior region of a 14-year-old mentally challenged boy is being reported. The myiasis was caused by the larvae of Chrysomya bezziana species. The clinical findings are presented. Etiology and the importance of oral health in special people are also discussed.

  9. Ocorrência e Sazonalidade de Muscóides (Diptera, Calliphoridae de Importância Sanitária no Município de Itaboraí, RJ, Brasil

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    José Batista-da-Silva

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. This work was carried out to contribute to the knowledge of Calliphoridae flies (Diptera in Itaboraí, RJ, Brazil and quantify the predominant species of health importance. The flies were captured in eight different points in the city over a one year period, always using fish as bait, separated by species and kept properly in an entomological box in the Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose (Setor de Entomologia Médica e Forense - IOC / FIOCRUZ, RJ. A total of 1792 Calliphoridae flies were captured, belonging to seven (7 species: Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy (0.11%, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (87.94%, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (6.70%, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1.23%, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (0.56%, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (0.33%, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (3.13%.

  10. The Tortricidae described by J. C. Fabricius (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baixeras, Joaquin; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The identity and nomenclature of the 88 species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) described by J. C. Fabricius are reviewed. Type material deposited in the Natural History Museum Denmark is illustrated. Lectotypes for Tinea compositella (Fabricius, 1775), Pyralis rivellana (Fabricius, 1775) and P....... strigana (Fabricius, 1775) are designated. Two new synonymies are proposed: Pyralis marmorana (Fabricius, 1798), syn. n., of Ancylis achatana (Denis and Schiffermüller, 1775), and P. rusticana (Fabricius, 1794), syn. n., of Epinotia solandriana (Linnaeus, 1758). In an appendix, the identity...... and nomenclature of the 49 species of non-Tortricidae described by Fabricius in the genus Pyralis Linnaeus, 1758 are reviewed. According to provisions of Article 23.9 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, suppression of priority of Pyralis obscurana Fabricius, 1798 over Eucosma aspidiscana (Hübner...

  11. Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of diarrheal diseases.

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    Steven W Lindsay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chrysomya spp are common blowflies in Africa, Asia and parts of South America and some species can reproduce in prodigious numbers in pit latrines. Because of their strong association with human feces and their synanthropic nature, we examined whether these flies are likely to be vectors of diarrheal pathogens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Flies were sampled using exit traps placed over the drop holes of latrines in Gambian villages. Odor-baited fly traps were used to determine the relative attractiveness of different breeding and feeding media. The presence of bacteria on flies was confirmed by culture and bacterial DNA identified using PCR. A median of 7.00 flies/latrine/day (IQR = 0.0-25.25 was collected, of which 95% were Chrysomya spp, and of these nearly all were Chrysomya putoria (99%. More flies were collected from traps with feces from young children (median = 3.0, IQR = 1.75-10.75 and dogs (median = 1.50, IQR = 0.0-13.25 than from herbivores (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0-0.0; goat, horse, cow and calf; p<0.001. Flies were strongly attracted to raw meat (median = 44.5, IQR = 26.25-143.00 compared with fish (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0-19.75, ns, cooked and uncooked rice, and mangoes (median = 0.0, IQR = 0.0-0.0; p<0.001. Escherichia coli were cultured from the surface of 21% (15/72 agar plates of Chrysomya spp and 10% of these were enterotoxigenic. Enteroaggregative E. coli were identified by PCR in 2% of homogenized Chrysomya spp, Shigella spp in 1.4% and Salmonella spp in 0.6% of samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large numbers of C. putoria that can emerge from pit latrines, the presence of enteric pathogens on flies, and their strong attraction to raw meat and fish suggests these flies may be common vectors of diarrheal diseases in Africa.

  12. Oral Myiasis Caused by Chrysomya bezziana in Anterior Maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ankur; Daniel, M Jonathan; Shetty, Raju Singam; Kumar, Boddu Naresh; Sumalatha, C H; Srikanth, E; Rai, Shalu; Malik, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, and severe halitosis. It arises from invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals by maggots or larvae of certain dipterian flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. We hereby report a rare case of oral myiasis in a 70-year-old female with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which numerous live maggots (larvae) and seen emerging out and discuss the definition, etiology, predisposing factors, classification, and management of the same. Furthermore, the life cycle of the causative organism in the present case, that is, Chrysomya bezziana, has also been discussed. PMID:24872898

  13. Oral Myiasis Caused by Chrysomya bezziana in Anterior Maxilla

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    Ankur Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, and severe halitosis. It arises from invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals by maggots or larvae of certain dipterian flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. We hereby report a rare case of oral myiasis in a 70-year-old female with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which numerous live maggots (larvae and seen emerging out and discuss the definition, etiology, predisposing factors, classification, and management of the same. Furthermore, the life cycle of the causative organism in the present case, that is, Chrysomya bezziana, has also been discussed.

  14. On Stenocorus vittatus Fabricius, 1801 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae)

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIO SANTOS-SILVA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTA forgotten synonymy betweenStenocorus vittatus Fabricius, 1801 andCerambyx globosus Olivier, 1795 (=Xystrocera globosa ) is corroborated. Consequently, the former is removed fromAlloesia Chevrolat, 1862, and formally excluded from the Brazilian fauna.

  15. On Stenocorus vittatus Fabricius, 1801 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae

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    ANTONIO SANTOS-SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA forgotten synonymy betweenStenocorus vittatus Fabricius, 1801 andCerambyx globosus Olivier, 1795 (=Xystrocera globosa is corroborated. Consequently, the former is removed fromAlloesia Chevrolat, 1862, and formally excluded from the Brazilian fauna.

  16. Ocorrência e Sazonalidade de Muscóides (Diptera, Calliphoridae de Importância Sanitária no Município de Itaboraí, RJ, Brasil

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    José Antonio Batista-da-Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo contribuir com o conhecimento da entomofauna de Calliphoridae (Diptera no município de Itaboraí, RJ, Brasil e quantificar as espécies mais predominantes de importância sanitária. As moscas foram capturadas em oito diferentes pontos no período de um ano, usando sempre isca de peixe. Após triagem, as espécies foram separadas por espécie e inseridas na coleção entomológica do Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose (Setor de Entomologia Médica e Forense do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - IOC/FIOCRUZ. Foram capturadas 1792 moscas pertencentes a sete (7 espécies da família Calliphoridae: Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy (0,11%, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (87,94%, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (6,70%, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1,23%, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (0,56%, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (0,33%, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (3,13%.Occurrence and seasonality of muscoid (Diptera, Calliphoridae of public healthimportance in Itaboraí (RJ, BrazilAbstract. This work was carried out to contribute to the knowledge of Calliphoridae flies (Diptera in Itaboraí, RJ, Brazil and quantify the predominant species of health importance. The flies were captured in eight different points in the city over a one year period, always using fish as bait, separated by species and kept properly in an entomological box in the Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose (Setor de Entomologia Médica e Forense - IOC / FIOCRUZ, RJ. A total of 1792 Calliphoridae flies were captured, belonging to seven (7 species: Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy (0.11%, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (87.94%, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (6.70%, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1.23%, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (0.56%, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (0.33%, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (3.13%.

  17. First Record of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart (Diptera, Calliphoridae in Southeastern Brazil

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    Antonia Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Resumo. A presente nota relata o primeiro registro da espécie Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, no Sudeste do Brasil, no Município de Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro. As coletas foram realizadas com auxílio de armadilhas para dípteros e a isca utilizada foi peixe fresco.

  18. Isolations of enteric pathogens from synanthropic flies trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, S; Othman, M Z; Aziz, A H

    2000-06-01

    Four species of synanthropic flies were trapped in downtown Kuala Lumpur: Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the organism causing melioidosis, was the dominant bacteria isolated from Chrysomya megacephala. Klebsiella oxytoca, commonly associated with nosocomial infections, was commonly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala, Musca domestica, and Musca sorbens. Aeromonas hydrophila, the bacteria causing gastroenteritis, was predominantly isolated from Chrysomya megacephala and also from Musca domestica and Musca sorbens. A total of 18 bacterial species was isolated from the synanthropic flies trapped. Burkholderia pseudomallei had been reported for the first time.

  19. Localization of the glycoprotein Cb42 in larvae of the screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creig Eisemanni

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein Cb-peritrophin-42 was localized in third instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana using primary antibodies raised against a non-glycosylated bacterial recombinant form of this protein. Both immunofluorescent antibody techniques on unfixed whole mounts of gut tissues and immunogold electron microscopy techniques on ultra-thin sections of fixed and embedded tissues were employed. The protein was shown to be exposed over the whole of both surfaces of the peritrophic membrane and to occur throughout its thickness. Immunogold labelling indicated that Cb-peritrophin-42 was expressed in the peritrophic membrane-secreting cells of the cardia, a specialized peritrophic membrane-forming organ situated at the junction of the foregut and midgut. The accessibility of Cb-peritrophin-42 present in intact peritrophic membrane to the primary antibodies used in the immunofluorescent antibody localization indicates that this glycoprotein is a potential molecular target for vaccination of host animals against larvae of Chrysomya bezziana.

  20. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, A; Rasekhi, AR; Kalantari, M; Hatam, GR

    2009-01-01

    Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The various forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two different regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this province. PMID:22808374

  1. Larra bicolor Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): its distribution throughout Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, J. Howard; Leppla, Norman C.; Sprenkel, Richard K.; Blount, Ann C.; Mizell, Russ F.

    2009-01-01

    We document the presence of Larra bicolor Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in 46 of Florida's 67 counties. The species is represented by two stocks. The first (released in 1981) originated in Pará, Brazil, but was obtained from Puerto Rico, and became established in Broward County in southern Florida. The second (released in 1988) originated in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, and became established in Alachua County in northern Florida. The Bolivian stock, aided by additional satellite ...

  2. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  3. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  4. Records of Chrysomya albiceps in Northern Italy: an ecological and forensic perspective

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    S Vanin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the carrion-breeding insects present at a local level is important and necessary for defining the post-mortem interval. Climate changes and globalisation are affecting species ranges and population dynamics. In this note, we report the incidence of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae on dead human bodies and carrion in Northern Italy. These data confirm the spread of this species in the Northern regions. The partial sequencing of a 583-bp region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of an Adriatic population did not reveal any difference compared to the same genomic region in the African and South American populations of this species.

  5. Postfeeding radial dispersal in larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae): implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Zuben, Claudio José Von

    2005-12-01

    Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral breeding sites for larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, larvae begin dispersing in search of sites to pupate or additional food sources, a process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some of the most important aspects of this process were investigated in the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps, employing a circular arena to allow radial dispersion of larvae from the center. The results showed a positive correlation between burial depth and distance, and a negative correlation between distance and pupal weight. These results can be used in forensic entomology for the postmortem interval estimation of human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.

  6. cDNA library construction and isolation of genes for candidate vaccine antigens from Chrysomya bezziana (the Old World Screwworm fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Voucolo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of cDNA libraries for the isolation of genes encoding candidate antigens for use in a recombinant vaccine against Chrysomya bezziana is described. RNA was isolated and mRNA purified from first and third instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana and used in the synthesis of two cDNA libraries in the bacteriophage vector λ ZAP express®. These libraries were screened using Digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes obtained from two independent approaches. First, a homolog approach used probes designed from previously characterized peritrophic membrane genes identified from the related myiasis fly, Lucilia cuprina. Secondly, a de novo approach used amino-terminal and internal peptide sequence information derived from purified Chrysomya bezziana peritrophic membrane proteins to generate DNA probes. Three peritrophic membrane genes were identified and characterized. Chrysomya bezziana peritrophin-48 was identified using the homolog approach and, Chrysomya bezziana peritrophin-15 and Chrysomya bezziana peritrophin-42 were identified using the de novo approach. The identification of these genes as encoding candidate antigens against Chrysomya bezziana has allowed the production of recombinant proteins for use in vaccination trials

  7. Effects of Senna occidentalis on chick bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tereza C; Gorniak, Silvana L; Oloris, Silvia C S; Raspantini, Paulo C; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Dagli, Maria L Z

    2003-12-01

    Senna occidentalis (L) Link (formerly called Cassia occidentalis) is a toxic leguminous plant found ubiquitously as a contaminant of crops. All parts of the plant are toxic, but most of the S. occidentalis toxicity is found in the seeds. S. occidentalis has been shown to be toxic to several animal species, causing degenerative lesions mainly in muscles. This is the first report describing alterations in chick lymphoid organs caused by S. occidentalis seeds. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of the treatment with seeds and its fraction external tegument (TE) on the development of chicks and their lymphoid organs bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Chicks that received a commercial ration with 1% TE had reduced body and lymphoid organ weights. The bursa of Fabricius presented reduction in the diameters of the follicles, and in the thickness of the cortical and medullary regions. The spleen presented depleted lymphoid tissue in the white pulp. These results indicate that the active principle of S. occidentalis is more concentrated on its TE fraction, and that it can cause weight loss as well as alterations in the lymphoid organs in chicks. The consequences of these alterations should be further investigated.

  8. Would Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae be a beneficial species? Seria Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae uma espécie benéfica?

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    N.G. Madeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya albiceps (Widemann develops on animal carcasses and may cause secondary myiases. An adult female Merino sheep presented a lesion of roughly circular shape with a 7.5cm radius in the anterior part of the thorax. A large number of second-instar larvae was removed from the lesion in addition to first-instar larvae from the wool. A third-instar larva was also obtained from the same lesion site and in the laboratory gave origin to a Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel adult insect. The larvae retrieved from the lesion were nurtured in laboratory. Pairs consisting of 100 individuals were formed with the adult specimens obtained from the larvae and kept in two cages. In all of the 800 adults reared in the laboratory and examined (100 per generation the propisternal seta was absent in the spiracle on both sides, this trait was highly stable. The 200 larvae examined, 15 per generation, did not present spines in the column of the ventral process of the penultimate abdominal segment and the column of the ventral process was triangular and the apex of the column process presented numerous spines. These characteristics allowed identifying these specimens as C. albiceps. However, since C. albiceps has the ability to damage intact tissues, it may be causing relevant aggravation when associated with C. hominivorax and can not be considered innocuous.Chrysomya albiceps (Widemann é uma mosca que se desenvolve em carcaças e opcionalmente pode causar miíase secundária. Larvas de segundo estádio foram removidas de uma lesão existente em uma ovelha da raça Merino em Botucatu. Entre a lã, ao redor da lesão, foram encontradas larvas de primeiro estádio. Também no interior da lesão foi obtida uma larva de terceiro estádio. As larvas foram mantidas em laboratório e delas obtidos insetos adultos, com 50 casais formados e mantidos em gaiolas por oito gerações. De cada geração, 100 adultos eram sacrificados e examinados morfologicamente, com os

  9. Incidence of Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Old World screw-worm fly (OWSWF), Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve, is a member of the insect family Calliphoridae and is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals in the tropics and sub-tropics (Norris and Murray 1964). Flies lay their eggs on the edge of wounds or body orifices; the resulting larvae invade the host tissues and produce lesions and infertility if the genitals become infested (Humphrey et al. 1980). Recorded hosts include cattle (Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Caprus hircus), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus) and man (Homo sapiens) (Patton 1920, 1922, Stoddar and Peck 1962, Norris and Murray 1964). This investigation describes the incidence of myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iraq from September 1996 to March 1998

  10. Morphology and identification of first instar larvae of Australian blowflies of the genus Chrysomya of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Wallman, James F

    2016-10-01

    Light microscopy photographs, line illustrations and scanning electron microscopy micrographs are provided for first instar larvae of six Australian species of Chrysomya. All species have confirmed or potential in forensic investigations given their carrion-breeding habits. Morphology of the first instar larvae of Ch. nigripes, Ch. rufifacies, Ch. saffranea and Ch. varipes is revised, while larvae of Ch. incisularis and Ch. latifrons are described for the first time. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, facial mask, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles and cephaloskeleton. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. Verification of earlier descriptions revealed major discrepancies between published data, especially in the case of Ch. nigripes. The present results allow clarification, correction and, especially, complementation of the existing information provided by numerous authors. Finally, an identification key for first instar larvae of Australian necrophagous Chrysomya is presented. PMID:27282097

  11. Espécies novas de Anthidium Fabricius do Chile, Argentina e Peru (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera New species of Anthidium Fabricius from Chile, Argentina and Peru (Megachilidac, Hymenoptera

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    Danúncia Urban

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available New species of Anthidium Fabricius, 1804 are described: Anthidium danieli sp. n. from Argentina; Anthidium toro sp. n. from Chile; Anthidium alsinai sp. n., Anthidium luizae sp. n., Anthidium igori sp. n., Anthidium masunariae sp. n., Anthidium rafaeli sp. n., Anthidium rozeni sp. n. and Anthidium tarsoi sp. n. from Peru.

  12. Espécies novas de Anthidium Fabricius do Chile, Argentina e Peru (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera) New species of Anthidium Fabricius from Chile, Argentina and Peru (Megachilidac, Hymenoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Danúncia Urban

    2001-01-01

    New species of Anthidium Fabricius, 1804 are described: Anthidium danieli sp. n. from Argentina; Anthidium toro sp. n. from Chile; Anthidium alsinai sp. n., Anthidium luizae sp. n., Anthidium igori sp. n., Anthidium masunariae sp. n., Anthidium rafaeli sp. n., Anthidium rozeni sp. n. and Anthidium tarsoi sp. n. from Peru.

  13. Uma nova espécie de Centris Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Anthophoridae do Nordeste do Brasil A new species of Centris Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Anthophoridae from Northeastern Brazil

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    Jesus Santiago Moure

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Centris Fabricius, 1804 is described as C. xanthomelaena (body size 15 mm, forewing length 10.33 mm, head width 5.25 mm, second abdominal tergum width 5.75 mm. The specimens were captured when visiting the yellow flowers of Chamaecrista amiciela (I. & B. I. & B., Caesalpiniaceae and of Stimaphyllom auriculatum (Cav. Adr. Juss, Malpighiaceae.

  14. Descrição da larva de Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae Description of the larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae

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    N.D. Santos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius, 1775 is described and figured based on exuviae of last instar of reared specimes collected on still waters in São João river, Silva Jardim (22º38' - 42º18', Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The relationship among the larva of D. obscura and larvae of Celithemis are discussed.

  15. Effects of the Antibiotics Gentamicin on the Postembryonic Development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; Silva, Débora C.; Figueiredo, Adriana L.; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G.; Aguiar, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:25527588

  16. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  17. Induced Cannibalism in Experimental Populations of the Forensic Indicator Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botteon, V W; Fernandes, F S; Godoy, W A C

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the behavior of third-instars of Chrysomya putoria as potential cannibals in experimental populations. Cannibalism rates were evaluated in three settings observed for 3, 6, 9, and 24 h, placing injured and uninjured larvae of C. putoria together. Our data heavily support that C. putoria larvae behave as cannibals when induced by a wound in another larva, and also after starving for 24 h. The probability of cannibalism increased as a function of time, both in no-choice and in choice experiments evidencing that time is a determining factor for cannibalism induction in C. putoria. However, the treatment combining injured with uninjured larvae showed the highest probability of cannibalism. These results suggest that C. putoria larvae may cannibalize under scarcity of food over long time or the presence of injured larvae. This study is useful to understand the behavior of C. putoria feeding on ephemeral substrates such as carrion or corpses and brings relevant and significant contribution to population ecology of blowflies and also forensic entomology. PMID:26698866

  18. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

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    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  19. Identification of volatile compounds from myiasis wounds and its responsesfor Chrysomya bezziana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of attractant for screwworm fly was required in myiasis control on livestock. The purpose of this study is to identify of volatile compounds from myiasis wound infested with Chrysomya bezziana larvae including to assess their responses in both cage and room assays. Both Friesian-Holstein heifer (FH (animal 1 and Bali cattle (animal 2 were used as myiasis model. The artificial wounds (8-10 cm were conducted on the rump of both animals and infested with about 200 eggs of C.bezziana. Odours from the infested wound were collected on day 1 and 3 for animal1 and day 3 and 5 for animal 2, post C. bezziana larvae infestation. Two different collection devices were used: firstly, absorption onto Tenax kept in steel tubes, whichwas attached to a collected bowl. The volatile organic compounds were collected from the wound and the surrounding animal hide by flowins the air through the inlet and outlet. Secondly, a solid phase micro extraction (SPME device was inserted into bowl with passive (no air flow odour collection. Gass chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to identify volatile compounds from wound. The compounds of the wound on animal 1, collected on day 1, produced only minor quantities of compounds (nonanal, decanal, hexanal and heptanal. Minor components such as DMDS and DMTS were only detected on day 3. The compounds of the wound on animal 2 was more varied and had a peculiar strike-like smell on day 3 and 5. They included indole, phenol, acetone, various sulfides (DMS, DMDS, DMTS, alcohols (butanol, 3-methylbutanol, aldehydes and acids. These compounds were selected and formulated into attractant (B92 then tested in both cage and room assays using SL-2 as control. Respond of flies was analyzed by ANOVA 5% (cage assay and T test 5% (room assay. The result showed that the fly response to B92 was very low compared to SL-2 in cage assays (P0.05.

  20. Technique development of attractant test for Chrysomya bezziana in laboratory and semi-field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Swormlure (SL-2, synthetic attractant for the New World Screwworm Fly (NWSF, Cochliomya hominivorax, have been developed and used in the America. The effectiveness of swormlure in attracting the Old World Screwworm Fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana is not well defined. The aim of the study was to provide suitable condition of the attractant in trapping the higher number at the OWSF in laboratory (cage assay and semi-field (room assay conditions. The cage assay to screen responses olfactory stimuli of OWSF was developed to asses the fly responses to lights, exhaust fan (on or off, the flies’ physiological status and whether there was any bias between cages or trap positions. Modifications were made to provide suitable physical and environmental conditions for candidate attractant. These included darkening all windows with paper, the construction of support for the fly cages and installation of additional lights centred above the fly cages. The room assay was used as an intermediate step between the cage assay and the field experiment. The number of entered flies into the trap indicated flies respond to SL-2. The data of cage assay was analysed by ANOVA and data of room assay was analysed by T test (5%. The results showed that standard experimental conditions for the cage assay: two lights above the cages on and the central lights off, covering fluorescent lights with oil paper, the jar trap positions on the centre line parallel to the lights and exhaust fan was turned off (no air flow during the session but was turned on in between sessions to reduce the odour from SL-2 in laboratory (p>0.05. The standard experimental conditions for the room assay used four fluorescents tubes, exhaust fan turned off during the replicates but turned on after replicated 3 and 6 for 15 minutes. Yellow half-size sticky was used as standard target (p>0.05.

  1. Atratividade de diferentes iscas e sua relação com as fases de desenvolvimento ovariano em calliphoridae e sarcophagidae (insecta, diptera Attractiveness of differents baits and its relation with ovarian development fases in Calliphoridae ano Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mario d'Almeida

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Attrativeness of differents baits (fish, faeces and banana upon ovarian development fases of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae was evaluated. The insects were captured in Distrito Federal (urban area and Rio de Janeiro city (beach, zoological garden, urban area and Tijuca forest. The most frequent species captured were: Calliphoridae - Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 78,9% and Chtysomya puloria (Wiedemann, 1818 5,4% - and Sarcophagidae - Sarcophagula Wulp, 1887 2,3% and Peckya chrysostoma (Wiedemann. 1830 2,2%. Fish was more attractive to females of Calliphoridae flies in intense ovarian vitelogenesis, although banana atracted more flies with mature eggs. Faeces and fish were more atractive for Sarcophagidae in the beggining of vitelogenesis.

  2. Cryptosporidium spp. in bursa of Fabricius of broiler chickens from Uruguay

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    Susana Casanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in broiler chickens of 32-40 days of age, colonizing the bursa of Fabricius. The histologic study with haematoxylin and eosin staining was done on specimens of trachea, complete intestinal tract and bursa. Samples of intestinal content were also studied using Kinyoun staining technique. All birds with signs of illness were positive to the presence of parasite, showing a hypertrophic bursa of Fabricius, filled with caseous content. The bursal epithelial cells were full of different developmental stages of Cryptosporidium spp. This note describing the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in industrial flocks of broiler chickens, is the first report of this parasite in Uruguay

  3. Aspectos da biologia do camarão Plesionika narval (Fabricius, 1787) nos Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Graça, Gonçalo Nuno Santos Neto da

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação mest., Biologia Marinha, Universidade do Algarve, 2008 In this study, have been approached some aspects of the biology of Plesionika narval (Fabricius, 1787) around Azores Islands, with the purpose of deepening biological knowledge on the species. Data from 3 research cruises made between 1998 and 2006 in the central group of the archipelago and Princesa Alice’s sea bank were used. These surveys have used 5 different types of traps, some lying on the bottom and othe...

  4. Specific detection of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in bulk fly trap catches using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, S; Morgan, J A T; Wlodek, B M; Brown, G W; Urech, R; Green, P E; Lew-Tabor, A E

    2010-09-01

    The Old World screwworm fly (OWS), Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a myiasis-causing blowfly of major concern for both animals and humans. Surveillance traps are used in several countries for early detection of incursions and to monitor control strategies. Examination of surveillance trap catches is time-consuming and is complicated by the presence of morphologically similar flies that are difficult to differentiate from Ch. bezziana, especially when the condition of specimens is poor. A molecular-based method to confirm or refute the presence of Ch. bezziana in trap catches would greatly simplify monitoring programmes. A species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to target the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA ITS1) of Ch. bezziana. The assay uses both species-specific primers and an OWS-specific Taqman((R)) MGB probe. Specificity was confirmed against morphologically similar and related Chrysomya and Cochliomyia species. An optimal extraction protocol was developed to process trap catches of up to 1000 flies and the assay is sensitive enough to detect one Ch. bezziana in a sample of 1000 non-target species. Blind testing of 29 trap catches from Australia and Malaysia detected Ch. bezziana with 100% accuracy. The probability of detecting OWS in a trap catch of 50 000 flies when the OWS population prevalence is low (one in 1000 flies) is 63.6% for one extraction. For three extractions (3000 flies), the probability of detection increases to 95.5%. The real-time PCR assay, used in conjunction with morphology, will greatly increase screening capabilities in surveillance areas where OWS prevalence is low. PMID:20497318

  5. Effect of Lunar Phases, Tides, and Wind Speed on the Abundance of Diptera Calliphoridae in a Mangrove Swamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-da-Silva, J A

    2014-02-01

    Abiotic factors, such as lunar phases and tides, have a significant effect on insect development. Reproduction and immature development are usually interlinked to these abiotic factors. The tide is at its highest levels at full moon or new moon, hindering the feeding of the immature or causing their drowning. The oviposition by adult females is also compromised on these days because much of the available food is submerged. Another important abiotic factor is the wind, which displaces odoriferous particles in the air. Wind speed and direction are important elements to indicate potential sources of food for insects. I report on the effects of lunar phases, tides, and wind speed on the Calliphoridae fauna in mangrove swamps. The different species collected were identified, and the predominant species in the area were quantified. A total of 1,710 flies were collected over a 1-year period. Six Calliphoridae flies, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) were collected. Data indicated that lunar phases have a significant effect on the abundance of C. albiceps (r = 0.39, p < 0.01), and that the variation of the tides also affected the abundance of C. putoria (r = 0.40, p < 0.00), C. macellaria (r = 0.41, p < 0.00), and C. idioidea (r = 0.31, p < 0.04). The wind speed, however, did not affect these species.

  6. Histomorphology of bursa of Fabricius: effects of stock densities on commercial broilers

    OpenAIRE

    EC Muniz; VB Fascina; PP Pires; AS Carrijo; EB Guimarães

    2006-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been considerable interest on the effects of stocking density on broiler behavior and immunity. Stress may cause immunodeficiency by affecting cell and humoral responses, as well as body weight decrease, and foot-pad dermatitis. The aim of this study was to study histomorphological changes of the bursa of Fabricius in broilers submitted to three different stocking densities (10, 15, and 20 birds/m²) from one to 42 days of age. Three birds from each group w...

  7. Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius, 1792) in North America, benign or malign? (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebriini)

    OpenAIRE

    James LaBonte

    2011-01-01

    Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius) is one of the most frequently encountered and widely distributed carabid beetles in Europe. Until recently, the only North American records were based on two single specimens, both from the 1930’s in southeastern Canada. In 2008, this species was found at thirteen different sites in five counties in northwestern Oregon. As of the end of 2010, it has been found in thirty-four different sites in ten Oregon counties, with a north-south range of ~150 km and an...

  8. [Burn treatment in the renaissance by Fabricius Hildanus--a historical appraisal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennekampff, H-O

    2009-12-01

    A first comprehensive textbook on burns treatment was written in 1607 by Fabry of Hilden (Fabricius Hildanus). This monograph describes cause, diagnosis, treatment, and complications of burn injuries. Besides a variety of topical ointments with promising herbal ingredients like onion and camphor, surgical procedures like necrectomies, escharotomies and syndactely treatment are described for the first time ever. Scar management including splinting devices is another interesting topic. Some of the therapeutic procedures are still valid today. Thus this renaissance piece of medical writing belongs to the pedigree of surgery. PMID:20017089

  9. Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto da Silva Camargo; Juliane F. S. Lopes; Luiz Carlos Forti

    2013-01-01

    Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius). During nest excavation, leaf-cutting ant workers undergo reduction in their body reserve, particularly carbohydrates. In order to estimate the energetic cost of digging, groups of 30 workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens were sealed in a hermetic chamber for 24, 48 and 72 hours, with and without soil for digging, and had the CO2 concentration measured using respirometric chambers as well as ...

  10. mRNA expression in different developmental stages of the chicken bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Fubo; Shan, Hu; Wang, Shu-Bai; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2016-08-01

    The bursa of Fabricius, the central humoral immune organ unique to birds, plays an important role in B-lymphocyte differentiation. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of critical biological processes like B-cell immigration, differentiation, and final emigration, the transcriptional changes during embryonic and posthatch development of this organ were investigated. We generated a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from 3 representative developmental stages (embryonic day [ED] 10, posthatch d 2 and d 21). We generated over 70 million high-quality reads from the cDNA library by using deep sequencing. The uniquely mapped sequences of ED 10, d 2 and d 21 were 71087280, 59167491 and 70263675 respectively. All of the differential expressed genes were involved in Vitamin A metabolism, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Wnt signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The RNA-seq analysis provides a powerful method for analyzing the transcriptome and investigating the transcriptional changes of different development stages of bursa of Fabricius. The assembled bursa transcriptome provides an essential resource for future investigations about chicken Bursa development. PMID:26994188

  11. Description of the immature instars of three species of Podium Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae from Brazil

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    Sandor Christiano Buys

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Immature instars of three species of the neotropical cockroach-hunting genus Podium Fabricius, 1804 are described. All larval instars and the cocoon of P. denticulatum Smith, 1856; the last instar and the cocoon of P. aureosericeum Kohl, 1902 and the last instar larva of P. fumigatum (Perty, 1833 were treated. The last larval instar of P. denticulatum is distinct from those of other species by lacking cephalic rugosity and spinning cocoons tapered in the posterior extremity. P. aureosericeum and P. fumigatum are unique in bearing small lamellae between mandibular teeth.São descritos estádios imaturos de três espécies do gênero neotropical caçador de baratas Podium Fabricius, 1804. Todos os estádios e o casulo de P. denticulatum Smith, 1856; a larva de último estádio e o casulo de P. aureosericeum Kohl, 1902 e a larva de último estádio de P. fumigatum (Perty, 1833 são tratados. A larva de último estádio de P. denticulatum é distinta da de outras espécies pela falta de rugosidade cefálica e por tecer casulos afilados na extremidade posterior. P. aureosericeum e P. fumigatum são únicos em possuir pequenas lamelas entre dentes mandibulares.

  12. Pathology of Bursae of Fabricius in Methionine-Deficient Broiler Chickens

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    Xiaodong Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this 42-day study was to investigate the effects of methionine (Met deficiency on immune function by determining the relative weight, morphological and ultrastructural changes of bursae of Fabricius, cell cycle, and apoptosis of bursa cells. One hundred and twenty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into two groups and fed on a control diet (starter diet, Met 0.50%; grower diet, Met 0.40% and Met-deficient diet (starter diet, Met 0.26%; grower diet, Met 0.28% for six weeks. The relative weight of bursae was decreased with Met deficiency when compared to that of the control group. Lesions were also observed in the Met-deficient group. Histopathologically, the numbers of lymphocytes in the follicles were decreased. Ultrastructurally, the mitochondria of lymphocytes were swollen in the Met-deficient group. As measured by flow cytometry, bursal cells in the G0G1 phase were significantly higher (P < 0.01, and bursal cells in the S, G2M phases and proliferating index were obviously lower (P < 0.01 with Met deficiency than in the control group. Moreover, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the bursae were significantly increased in Met-deficient birds (P < 0.01. It was concluded that Met deficiency restrained the development of the bursae of Fabricius and affected the humoral immunity of the chickens.

  13. Description of the pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Anthracinae)

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    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    The pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston, 1970 are described and illustrated. Eleven species of four Hymenoptera families (Apidae, Eumenidae, Megachilidae and Sphecidae) are recorded as hosts of the immature stages of A. o. oedipus and A. o. aquilus.

  14. Description of the pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Anthracinae

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    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston, 1970 are described and illustrated. Eleven species of four Hymenoptera families (Apidae, Eumenidae, Megachilidae and Sphecidae are recorded as hosts of the immature stages of A. o. oedipus and A. o. aquilus.

  15. Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), an Old World flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) newly discovered in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Old World aradid Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), belonging to the subfamily Mezirinae, is reported for the first time from the Western Hemisphere. Since 2005, eight specimens have been intercepted at United States ports-of-entry in international commerce from Costa Rica, Dominican Repub...

  16. Efeito da escopolamina sobre o desenvolvimento de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) e sua importância para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Jacqueline Thyssen; Maicon Diego Grella

    2011-01-01

    A presença de drogas nos tecidos de um corpo pode afetar o desenvolvimento de larvas de moscas necrófagas que são encontradas alimentando-se neste substrato. Essa observação já foi constatada para várias drogas tais como heroína, cocaína, certos analgésicos, e compostos anfetamínicos e benzodiazepínicos, entre outras. Assim, neste estudo investigamos o efeito da escopolamina – uma droga amplamente usada como analgésico – sobre a taxa de desenvolvimento de larvas de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera:...

  17. Study of some biological aspects of the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Layla A.H. Al-Shareef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We reared Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 unadult stages (first larval instar, second larval instar, third larval instar and pupal stage under four constant temperatures. Results proved that increasing temperature from 20 to 25, 30 and 35 °C reduced total larval stage duration (9–6, 4.83 and 4.75 days, respectively and pupal duration (7, 5.5, 4 and 1.5 days, respectively. C. albiceps larvae at first instar reached adult stage in the longest time at 20 °C (16 days, and in the shortest time at 35 °C (6.25 days. The accumulation degree-day (ADD at 20, 25, 30, 35 °C for first larval instar were 8.86, 13.86, 18.86, 23.86 DD, for second larval instar were 10.5, 12, 17, 22 DD and for third larval instar were 35.88, 42.08, 43.97, 56.43 DD. Heat requirements for larval stage at different temperatures; 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C (49.68, 63.12, 75.01 and 97.47 DD were more than the pupal requirements at the same temperatures (39.78, 58.76, 62.73 and 31.02 DD. Total heat requirements for C. albiceps to develop from the first larval instar to adult eclosion were the lowest at 20 °C (89.46 DD and the highest at 30 °C (129.138 DD. Decreasing of temperature increased larval body length at the same age. The development curves for C. albiceps were established at four constant temperatures using larval length and the time since egg hatching.

  18. Evaluation of the influence of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in the development of an Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya putoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C P; Dallavecchia, Daniele L; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; da Silva Filho, Renato Geraldo; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chloridrate. Each concentration of the antibiotic tested (3.33 µg/mL, 6.66 µg/mL, and 13.33 µg/mL) and the control (no antibiotic) were replicated four times (40 maggots/replication). The control received distilled water instead of the antibiotic. Maggots were kept in an acclimatized chamber at 30° C during the day and 28° C at night, with 70 + 10% RH and a 14:10 L:D photoperiod. They were weighed in batches of five and stored in test tubes sealed with nylon fabric and elastic. Microsoft Excel and STAT were used for the analysis. The variation among the maggot weight means and the duration of the maggot stage, pupal stage, and time to total development (neolarvae to adult) were analyzed by Student's t-test (α= 5%). The viabilities and the normality rates were compared using ANOVA, and the expected sex ratio frequency was tested by the chisquared test (χ(2)). There was no significant difference among the four treatments regarding mean individual maggot weight, mean duration of the maggot inoculation until abandonment, the duration of the maggot and pupal stages, and the total duration of all stages. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from the expected. Only treatment 2 (6.66 µg/mL concentration of ciprofloxacin) differed significantly from the control in maggot and total viability. The antibiotic did not seem to alter C. putoria development in the postembryonic period.

  19. Forensic entomology of high-rise buildings in Malaysia: Three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsa, R A; Omar, B; Zuha, R M; Faridah, M N; Swarhib, M S; Hidayatulfathi, O; Shahrom, A W

    2015-06-01

    The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.

  20. Diversity and synanthropy of Calliphoridae (Diptera) in the region of Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, C R; Zuben, C J V

    2012-06-01

    Dipteran blowflies (Calliphoridae) are of great medical and hygienic importance as vectors of pathogens and as parasites of living and dead tissue, and their association with carrion allows their use in forensic entomology. The objective of this study was to determine the synanthropic index of adult Calliphoridae (Diptera) collected in Rio Claro, São Paulo. Sampling occurred between September 2009 and August 2010. Traps baited with sardines, beef liver, and minced meat were assessed for five consecutive days per month in three distinct ecological areas representing urban, rural, and forest environments. The most abundant species was Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann), followed by Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius). Lucilia eximia was the only species present in all seasons and the only species collected during the winter. The season with the lowest abundance was winter, with 69 (5.5%) specimens, and spring was the season with the greatest number of specimens collected (774-61.8%). The only species found outside inhabited areas (synanthropic) was Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), with a synanthropy index (SI) value of +5.7. The SI values for the other species were negative, showing a preference for uninhabited areas. The rural and urban areas were most similar in terms of species composition as were the beef and sardine baits. Among the baits used, liver attracted the greatest abundance of calliphorids, whereas minced meat attracted the greatest diversity.

  1. Development of a dry artificial diet for Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Priscila; Parra, Jose R.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Magro, Sandra R. [Faculdade Integrada de Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil); Panizzi, Antonio R. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2006-09-15

    Artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 {+-} 1 deg C), RH (60 {+-} 10%), and photophase (14h). Three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit (Oleaceae)]. All three artificial diets allowed full development. The diet containing sunflower oil was the most suitable for N. viridula while E. heros developed better on a diet composed of soybean oil. Data indicated that the artificial diets were inferior to the natural diet. The artificial diets were more adequate for E. heros. (author)

  2. Bioactivity of Lantana camara L. essential oil against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius Bioactividad de aceite esencial de Lantana camara L. contra Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius

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    Nooshin Zandi-Sohani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lantana camara L. is a widespread plant species mostly native to subtropical and tropical regions of the world. In this study, insecticidal and repellent activities of L. camara essential oil were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Col: Bruchidae. Analysis of chemical composition by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS showed high amounts of sesquiterpenes, mainly α-humelene (23.3% and cis-caryophyllene (16.2%. The results showed that the essential oil of L. camara has strong repellent activity against adults of C. maculatus at all tested concentrations. After 2 and 4 h, 97.4 and 100% repellency was seen at highest concentrations of 0.4 μL cm-2, respectively. Moreover, the oil was found to be toxic to adults when applied by fumigation. Responses varied with the gender of insect and exposure time. The LC50 values were 282.7 and 187.9 μL L-1 for females and males, respectively. An increase in the exposure time from 3 to 24 h caused increasing in mortality from 23.6 to 100% in males and from 14.1 to 97.1% in females, at highest concentration (1160 μL L-1. According to these results, L. camara essential oil may be useful as an alternative for bean protection against C. maculatus.Lantana camara L. es una especie vegetal nativa de las regiones subtropicales y tropicales del mundo. En este estudio se evaluaron las actividades insecticida y repelente del aceite esencial de L. camara contra Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius. El análisis de la composición volátil de este aceite esencial mediante cromatografía de gas/ espectrometría de masa (GC/MS demostró la presencia de elevadas cantidades de sesquiterpenos, principalmente α-humuleno (23.3% y ci's-cariofileno (16.2%. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el aceite esencial de L. camara tiene una elevada actividad repelente contra los adultos de C. maculatus a todas las concentraciones ensayadas. Después de 2 y 4 h la concentración de 0.4 μL cm-2 causó 97

  3. Description of the last instar larva of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae from Brazil Descrição da larva de último estágio de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor C. Buys

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The last instar larva of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius, 1804 is described and illustrated, based on one specimen collected in southeastern Brazil. This larva can be distinguished from other described larvae of the subgenus Trypargilum Richards, 1934 for the following combination of features: integument of the body with spines; labrum and epipharynx with sensillae; medio-apical and latero-basal portions of the epipharynx devoid of spines.A larva de último estádio de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius, 1804 é descrita e ilustrada, com base em um exemplar coletado do sudeste do Brasil. Esta larva pode ser distinta de outras larvas do subgênero Trypargilum Richards, 1934 descritas pela seguinte combinação de caracteres: tegumento do corpo com espinhos; labro e epifaringe com sensilas; porções medio-apical e latero-basal da epifarge sem espinhos.

  4. Gambaran Patologi Bursa Fabricius Embrio Ayam Pascavaksinasi Gumboro Secara In Ovo Menggunakan Vaksin Lokal dan Komersial (PATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION OF BURSA FABRICIUS CHICKEN EMBYROS AFTER IN OVO VACCINATED WITH LOCAL AND COMMERSIAL GUMBORO VACCINES

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    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bursa Fabricius is a target organ of gumboro virus infection which is often damaged after vaccinationusing hot intermediate gumboro live vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess pathologic effect oflocal and commercial gumboro vaccines . As many as 45 embryo chicken eggs at nine day old were used inthis research, then grouped into three groups of 15 embryos chicken eggs each, these were: Embryo chickeneggs without vaccination (Group I, vaccinated with IBD intermediate plus commercial vaccine (Group IIand IBD intermediate plus local vaccine (Group III. Vaccinations were done at 14 days old. All groups thenterminated each three embryos at 12 hours, 1, 2, 3 days post vaccination. The results showed that pathologicanatomic lesions could not be detected. Whereas pathologic lesions were detected in the group that werevaccinated with intermediate plus local IBD observed more severe than in the group that vaccinated withintermediate plus commercial IBD. Lesions such as edema, hemorrhages, necrosis of lymphoid cells wereobserved microscopically in embryo at 12 hours, 1, 2 and 3 days post vaccination in Group II and group III.The lesions were more severe at two days post vaccination causing some lymphoid follicles disappeared at three days post vaccination. However, they were not detected again in the bursa Fabricius three days afterhatching. Cells containing antigens of gumboro were detected in the bursa Fabricius of chicken embryo atone day until three days post vaccination, then disappeared after three days post hatch. It was concludedthat pathologic description of bursa fabricius showed that virus vaccines used for vaccinated IBD in ovowere still virulent, that can cause histopathologic lesions. The viruses are suggested to be more attenuatedbefore using as vaccine in ovo.

  5. Gambaran Patologi Bursa Fabricius Embrio Ayam Pascavaksinasi Gumboro Secara In Ovo Menggunakan Vaksin Lokal dan Komersial (PATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION OF BURSA FABRICIUS CHICKEN EMBYROS AFTER IN OVO VACCINATED WITH LOCAL AND COMMERSIAL GUMBORO VACCINES)

    OpenAIRE

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani; Dewi Ratih Agung Priyono; Wasmen Manalu

    2015-01-01

    Bursa Fabricius is a target organ of gumboro virus infection which is often damaged after vaccinationusing hot intermediate gumboro live vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess pathologic effect oflocal and commercial gumboro vaccines . As many as 45 embryo chicken eggs at nine day old were used inthis research, then grouped into three groups of 15 embryos chicken eggs each, these were: Embryo chickeneggs without vaccination (Group I), vaccinated with IBD intermediate plus commercial...

  6. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

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    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  7. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Joost Van Itterbeeck; Niane Sivongxay; Bounthob Praxaysombath; Arnold van Huis

    2014-01-01

    Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-)cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed ...

  8. Evaluation of the Influence of the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin in the Development of an Old World Screwworm Fly, Chrysomya putoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Filho, Renato Geraldo da Silva; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chloridrate. Each concentration of the antibiotic tested (3.33 µg/mL, 6.66 µg/mL, and 13.33 µg/mL) and the control (no antibiotic) were replicated four times (40 maggots/ replication). The control received distilled water instead of the antibiotic. Maggots were kept in an acclimatized chamber at 30° C during the day and 28° C at night, with 70 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 L:D photoperiod. They were weighed in batches of five and stored in test tubes sealed with nylon fabric and elastic. Microsoft Excel and STAT were used for the analysis. The variation among the maggot weight means and the duration of the maggot stage, pupal stage, and time to total development (neo-larvae to adult) were analyzed by Student's t-test (α = 5%). The viabilities and the normality rates were compared using ANOVA, and the expected sex ratio frequency was tested by the chi-squared test (χ2). There was no significant difference among the four treatments regarding mean individual maggot weight, mean duration of the maggot inoculation until abandonment, the duration of the maggot and pupal stages, and the total duration of all stages. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from the expected. Only treatment 2 (6.66 µg/mL concentration of ciprofloxacin) differed significantly from the control in maggot and total viability. The antibiotic did not seem to alter C. putoria development in the post-embryonic period. PMID:25373150

  9. First identification of nanoparticles on thorax, abdomen and wings of the worker bee Apis dorsata Fabricius

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    Bhattacharyya Atanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nanoparticles on the body of the honeybee Apis dorsata Fabricius, was investigated for the first time to better understand the bee’s behaviour. These have been observed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Our study clearly denotes that the Indian rock honey bee Apis dorsata possess calcium silicate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles on its body surface of 5-50 nm in diameter. In particular, the nanoparticles on the abdomen and thorax of A. dorsata have an average diameter of about 10 nanometers and they are smaller than those found on wings of the same bees which are about 20 nanometers. The nanoparticles found are different of the ones previously observed on honey bees or other insects. The origin and role of these natural nanoparticles on the body of the Indian rock bee need to be to be further investigated; more research in the subject might raise important aspects in relation to the conservation of these unique pollinators.

  10. Pollination of Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter (Orchidaceae by Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Gilson R.P Moreira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the pollination of a poorly known, terrestrial orchid, Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter, 1921 (Orchidaceae by a passion vine butterfly, Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae is reported. Number of pollinia-carrying individuals was determined on a population of H. erato phyllis in Horto Florestal Barba Negra, Barra do Ribeiro County, Rio Grande do Sul State. The pollination mechanism was described under laboratory conditions, in association with the butterfly feeding habit and the orchid flower morphology. Habenaria pleiophylla pollinia are cemented during nectar feeding on the ventral portion of the compound eyes near H. erato phyllis proboscis base. The pollinia are transferred to the stigma of other flowers during subsequent visits. Both males and females of H. eralo phyllis frequently visit H. pleiophylla flowers in the Barba Negra Forest. About forty percent of field collected adults had attached pollinia, ranging in number from one to 19 per individual. Thus, H. eralo phyllis may play an important role in the reproductive biology of this H. pleiophylla population.

  11. Effects of dietary nickel on detoxification enzyme activities in the midgut of Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN HongXia; ZHOU Qiang; TANG WenCheng; SHU YingHua; ZHANG GuRen

    2008-01-01

    Nickel accumulated in midugt of Spodoptera litura Fabricius could induce the expression of metal-Iothionein, one of the most important detoxification proteins in organisms. In the present study, the effects of dietary nickel on the activities of detoxification enzymes, such as carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the midgut of S. litura larvae have been studied to get an un-derstanding of the detoxification mechanisms of S. litura larvae to excessive nickel. Results showed that CarE activities in the midgut of the 5th instar larvae decreased at lower levels of nickel (≤5 mg/kg), while increased with increasing nickel doses at higher levels of nickel (≥10 mg/kg) exposure in suc-cessive 3 generations. CarE activities of the 6th instar larvae were also characterized as inhibited at low levels of nickel exposure, and improved at higher levels in the 1st generation. CarE activities of 6th instar larvae in the 2rid and 3rd generations were all lower than that in control. However, GST activities in the midgut of the 5th and 6th instar larvae all increased with increasing nickel doses (1-20 mg/kg) in diets.

  12. Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius

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    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius. During nest excavation, leaf-cutting ant workers undergo reduction in their body reserve, particularly carbohydrates. In order to estimate the energetic cost of digging, groups of 30 workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens were sealed in a hermetic chamber for 24, 48 and 72 hours, with and without soil for digging, and had the CO2 concentration measured using respirometric chambers as well as volume of soil excavated (g. As expected, the worker groups that carried out soil excavation expelled more carbon dioxide than the groups that did not excavate. Therefore, a worker with body mass of 9.65 ± 1.50 mg dug in average 0.85 ± 0.27 g of soil for 24 hours, consuming ca. 0.58 ± 0.23 J. In this study, we calculate that the energetic cost of excavation per worker per day in the experimental set-up was ca. 0.58 J.

  13. Cryptosporidium sp. em intestinos, bursa de Fabricius e traquéia de frangos (Gallus gallus sp Cryptosporidium sp. in intestines, bursa of Fabricius and poultry trachea (Gallus gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Jacobsen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitas do gênero Cryptosporidium infectam várias espécies de animais, e a enfermidade resultante é a criptosporidiose, importante zoonose de distribuição mundial. Em aves, a infecção tem sido reportada em várias espécies. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a presença do parasita em 208 amostras de bursa de Fabricius, 208 amostras de intestino e 208 de traquéia, coletadas de frangos (Gallus gallus sp de diferentes idades, abatidos em três propriedades rurais do município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram feitas três impressões de cada amostra em lâminas para microscopia, coradas pelas técnicas de Ziehl Neelsen modificada com Dimetil Sulfóxido (DMSO, Ziehl Neelsen modificada por Henriksen e Pohlens (HP, Ziehl Neelsen (ZN e Kinyoun (K, perfazendo 1872 impressões analisadas em microscopia óptica (1000 x. Neste total, nas diferentes colorações empregadas, oocistos do parasita Cryptosporidium sp. foram visualizados em 18 impressões de traquéia, 42 de bursa de Fabricius e 29 de intestino, resultando positivas, portanto, 89 impressões. Destas, 44 foram identificadas pela técnica de DMSO, 32 por HP, três por ZN e 10 por K. Pode-se concluir que os oocistos do parasita Cryptosporidium sp. foram visualizados com maior freqüência nas impressões de bursa de Fabricius, e que o método de coloração, dentre os utilizados, que proporcionou a maior visualização dos oocistos foi o DMSO.Parasites of the gennus Cryptosporidium infect several animal species.The disease resultant is the criptosporidiosis, an important zoonosis spreaded worldwide. In poultry, the infection has been reported in several species. This study goal was to identify the parasite presence in 208 bursa of Fabricius samples, 208 intestine and 208 of trachea, collected at chicks (Gallus gallus sp of different ages, killed at three farms in Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Three printings of each sample were done,on glass slides colored through the

  14. Histomorphology of bursa of Fabricius: effects of stock densities on commercial broilers

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    EC Muniz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been considerable interest on the effects of stocking density on broiler behavior and immunity. Stress may cause immunodeficiency by affecting cell and humoral responses, as well as body weight decrease, and foot-pad dermatitis. The aim of this study was to study histomorphological changes of the bursa of Fabricius in broilers submitted to three different stocking densities (10, 15, and 20 birds/m² from one to 42 days of age. Three birds from each group were sacrifieced on days 7 and 42. The bursa was collected, fixed, and processed for histomorphometric assessment using a Kontrom KS 400 image analyzer. Data were analyzed by Biostat 3.0 (Tukey Test. The results of average cortical area percentage in bursal follicles of 6-week-old birds were 45.12a (10 birds/m², 30.43b (15 birds/m², and 23.77b (20 birds/m². Average body weight was 2.58a kg (10 birds/m², 2.56a Kg (15 birds/m², and 2.47b Kg (20 birds/m², respectively. The percentage of foot-pad dermatitis in 6-week-old birds was 3.33a (10 birds/m², 17.76b (15 birds/m², and 49.17c (20 birds/m². These differences were statistically significant at a P<0.05 level. Under these experimental conditions,, it was concluded that the best stocking density to produce broilers is between 10-15 birds per square meter.

  15. Experimental evidence for the ectodermal origin of the epithelial anlage of the chicken bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Nándor; Oláh, Imre

    2010-09-01

    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is a central lymphoid organ of birds responsible for B-cell maturation within bursal follicles of epithelial origin. Despite the fundamental importance of the BF to the birth of B lymphocytes in the immune system, the embryological origin of the epithelial component of the BF remains unknown. The BF arises in the tail bud, caudal to the cloaca and in close association with the cloacal membrane, where the anal invagination (anal sinus) of ectoderm and the caudal endodermal wall of the cloaca are juxtaposed. Serial semi-thin sections of the tail bud show that the anal sinus gradually transforms into the bursal duct and proctodeum, which joins the distal part of the cloaca during late embryogenesis. These anatomical findings raise the possibility that the ectoderm may contribute to the epithelial anlage of the BF. The expression of sonic hedgehog and its receptor in the embryonic gut, but not in the BF, further supports an ectodermal origin for the bursal rudiment. Using chick-quail chimeras, quail tail bud ectoderm was homotopically transplanted into ectoderm-ablated chick, resulting in quail-derived bursal follicle formation. Chimeric bursal anlagen were generated in vitro by recombining chick bursal mesenchyme with quail ectoderm or endoderm and grafting the recombination into the chick coelomic cavity. After hematopoietic cell colonization, bursal follicles formed only in grafts containing BF mesenchyme and tail bud ectoderm. These results strongly support the central role of the ectoderm in the development of the bursal epithelium and hence in the maturation of B lymphocytes.

  16. Feeding Habits of Phyllotreta striolata(Fabricius)%黄曲条跳甲食性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟坚

    2002-01-01

    According to reports, Phyllortreta striolata (Fabricius) is a polyphagous insect.Its meal scope includs 19 species of plants in 8 families,some of which are from very far away branch of families.With the non-selectivity trial,the results indicate that SFB is an oligophagous insect.Its food is limited to the plants which contain glucosinolates belonging to Capparales Order in the Takhtajan or Cronquist plant system.Its food source has also been found in other plants that also contain glucosinates such as Tropaeolum majus.

  17. Bursa of Fabricius--mitotic index in the follicles of immunized and non-immunized chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, F; Borella, M I

    1979-01-01

    The mitotic index in the cortical compartment of the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius from chicks immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) is always higher when compaired with non-immunized ones. This mitotic index reachs its maximum 6 days after the SRBC injection, coincident with the highest serum antibody titer. The mitotic activity in the cortex of the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius is always higher than that of the medulla during the postembryonic development of chickens (PROCHAZKA, RODAK, KREJCI 1967). Otherwise it is almost established that the cortex is a zone of continuous lymphocyte proliferation, not occuring the same with the medulla. In addition these bursal histological structures are considered as 2 distinct compartments (GROSSI et al. 1974). The purpose of this paper is to study the response in the mitotic index of the cortical and medullary compartments of the follicles of the bursa of immunized and non-immunized chicks. To correlate possible changes in the mitotic index with circulating antibody levels, the serum antibody titer from the same birds was also recorded.

  18. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

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    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae, furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Section of Entomology and Nematology. In this study, pear shoot sawfly in Eastern Slavonia occurred in the period of four weeks, starting from the third decade of April with the peak population at the beginning of the May. Adults flight is the most intensive during warm and sunny days, when temperatures are above 14°C. Adult sawflies are characterized by elongated body and antennae, usually 7-12 mm long and sexual dimorphism is present. Pest is univoltine. Basic colour of adult sawfly is black. Antennae are moniliform and consist of 20 (male - 22 (female segments. Females have red or dark red colored abdomen, while males have yellow or orange one. Eggs are cylindrically shaped, 0.8-1.0 mm long. Female lays approximately 30 eggs. Embryonic development of pear shoot sawfly eggs lasts from 11 to 14 days. Larvae are 8-10 mm long, white or pale yellow. Larvae molt three times. Pear shoot sawfly larvae were parasitized by insects from Hymenoptera order, from five identified and one unidentified genera. Level of parasitism by genera is as follows: Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae – 9.83%, Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – 2.01%, Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae – 1.66%, Pteromalus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae – 0.55%, Ichneumonida sp. (Hymenoptera: Pimplinae – 0.35% and unidentified genera – 0.62%. Plant parasitic species Metopoplax origani (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae was found in 1.80% of analyzed shoots. Larvae were

  19. Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius, 1792) in North America, benign or malign? (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebriini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBonte, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius) is one of the most frequently encountered and widely distributed carabid beetles in Europe. Until recently, the only North American records were based on two single specimens, both from the 1930’s in southeastern Canada. In 2008, this species was found at thirteen different sites in five counties in northwestern Oregon. As of the end of 2010, it has been found in thirty-four different sites in ten Oregon counties, with a north-south range of ~150 km and an east-west range of ~90 km. It was also detected in 2010 in southwestern Washington (Vancouver), just north of Portland and the Columbia River. The ecological amplitude of Nebria brevicollis in Oregon rivals that of the most eurytopic native carabid species, e.g., Pterostichus algidus LeConte and Scaphinotus marginatus (Fischer von Waldheim). It has been found in highly degraded heavy industrial sites, agricultural fields, city parks, gardens, second growth woodlands, mature conifer forests, montane rock gardens, and otherwise pristine stands of old growth noble fir, with elevations ranging from essentially sea level to 1,249 meters. Climates at these locales vary from that of the Mediterranean Willamette Valley floor, where snow rarely occurs and summers are hot and dry, to the summit of the Oregon Coast Range, where deep snow may be present from November through April and summers are cool. The carabid communities in which Nebria brevicollis has been found range from those predominantly of fellow exotic species, e.g., at heavily perturbed sites, to those where it is the only exotic species, such as at the Coast Range summit. Nebria brevicollis is clearly an invasive species in that it is not restricted to anthropogenic habitats, is rapidly expanding its North American range, and can be abundant in essentially pristine settings. What is not yet clear is whether it is or will become a damaging species. Although it is already the most abundant carabid species in some

  20. Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius, 1792 in North America, benign or malign? (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Nebriini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James LaBonte

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius is one of the most frequently encountered and widely distributed carabid beetles in Europe. Until recently, the only North American records were based on two single specimens, both from the 1930’s in southeastern Canada. In 2008, this species was found at thirteen different sites in five counties in northwestern Oregon. As of the end of 2010, it has been found in thirty-four different sites in ten Oregon counties, with a north-south range of ~150 km and an east-west range of ~90 km. It was also detected in 2010 in southwestern Washington (Vancouver, just north of Portland and the Columbia River.The ecological amplitude of N. brevicollis in Oregon rivals that of the most eurytopic native carabid species, e.g., Pterostichus algidus LeConte and Scaphinotus marginatus (Fischer von Waldheim. It has been found in highly degraded heavy industrial sites, agricultural fields, city parks, gardens, second growth woodlands, mature conifer forests, montane rock gardens, and otherwise pristine stands of old growth noble fir, with elevations ranging from essentially sea level to 1,249 meters. Climates at these locales vary from that of the Mediterranean Willamette Valley floor, where snow rarely occurs and summers are hot and dry, to the summit of the Oregon Coast Range, where deep snow may be present from November through April and summers are cool. The carabid communities in which N. brevicollis has been found range from those predominantly of fellow exotic species, e.g., at heavily perturbed sites, to those where it is the only exotic species, such as at the Coast Range summit.Nebria brevicollis is clearly an invasive species in that it is not restricted to anthropogenic habitats, is rapidly expanding its North American range, and can be abundant in essentially pristine settings. What is not yet clear is whether it is or will become a damaging species. Although it is already the most abundant carabid species in some settings

  1. Use of wing morphometrics to identify populations of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae): a preliminary study of the utility of museum specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M J R; MacLeod, N; Wardhana, A H

    2014-10-01

    The Old World screwworm (OWS) fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a major economic and welfare problem for humans and animals in the Old World tropics. Using a bootstrapped log likelihood ratio test of the output of Procrustes principal components and canonical variates analyses for a small sample of museum specimens from which 19 2D wing landmarks had been collected: (1) a consistent and statistically significant difference exists between landmark configurations derived from wings of pinned specimens and those removed from the body and mounted on slides; (2) a highly statistically significant sexual dimorphism in wing morphometry was identified; and (3) a highly statistically significant difference in wing morphometry between populations of the OWS fly from Africa (Tanzania, South Africa Sudan, Zaire, Zimbabwe,) and Asia (Sumba, Indonesia) exists. These results show that wing orientation and gender must be considered when conducting morphometric investigations of OWS fly wings. The latter result is also consistent with results from previous molecular and morphological studies, which indicate there are two distinct genetic lineages within this species. Wing morphometry holds great promise as a practical tool to aid in identification of the geographical origin of introductions of this important pest species, by providing diagnostic markers to distinguish geographical populations and complement molecular diagnostics.

  2. Morphology and identification of fly eggs: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanit, S; Sribanditmongkol, P; Sukontason, K L; Moophayak, K; Klong-Klaew, T; Yasanga, T; Sukontason, K

    2013-06-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be used as entomological evidence in forensic investigation. This study aims to investigate the morphology of forensically important fly eggs. Eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya nigripes, Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia porphyrina and Musca domestica were examined using 1% potassium permanganate solution for 1 min. Morphometric analysis revealed that the mean length of Hy. tumrasvini (1.63 mm) and C. pinguis (1.65 mm) eggs was the longest, followed by that of L. porphyrina (1.45 mm), C. rufifacies (1.34 mm). The egg length, width of median area and darkness staining of hatching pleats were distinctive features. Four categories of median area were proposed, based on width; (1) distinctly wide (Megaselia scalaris, Synthesiomyia nudiseta); (2) wide (C. nigripes, M. domestica); (3) slightly widening (Hy. tumrasvini, L. cuprina, L. porphyrina); and (4) narrow (C. rufifacies, C. albiceps, C. megacephala, C. pinguis). Four species were examined using SEM, i.e., C. megacephala, C. pinguis, Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina. The eggs of C. megacephala demonstrated swollen hatching pleats. Inside, the hexagon of the chorion appeared as a sponging bumpy feature. The egg of C. pinguis was similar to C. megacephala, except for the sponging bumpy feature on the outer surface of the hatching pleats. Regarding Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina, their island structure was apparent at the inner surface of the upright hatching pleats. The key for identifying these eggs together with other reported species in Thailand has been updated.

  3. Growth and nutritional indices of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) as altered by gamma irradiation for pest management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation mediated changes in nutritional profile of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) were evaluated in relation to sublethal gamma doses causing partial to complete sterilization. Spodoptera larvae in the first, third and sixth instars were exposed to various gamma doses ranging from 0 to 7 Krad. The effects were more pronounced in the insect treated in their younger stages; the radiosensitivity declined with advanced age at irradiation. Consumption index (CI), for instance was 3.29 in control, but was reduced to 1.62, 1.75 and 1.91 at 4 Krad dose given to first, third and sixth instars, respectively. A sterilizing dose induced > 40 per cent reduction in AD in relation to control. Irradiation increased the net growth efficiency (ECD) but had no significant effect on gross growth efficiency (ECI). (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Concurrent Fowlpox and Candidiasis Diseases in Backyard Chickens with Unusual Pox Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Fusae; Yamamoto, Yu; Sato, Yasuo; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Goto, Makiko; Murakami, Ryukoh

    2016-09-01

    Concurrent fowlpox and candidiasis diseases occurred in a backyard chicken flock. Four deceased chickens (one Nagoya breed and three white silkie chickens) were examined for diagnosis. At necropsy, white curd-like plaques were observed in the crop. Fungal elements that stained positive for Candida albicans with immunohistochemistry were distributed throughout the tongue, choanal mucosa, esophagus, and crop. Typical fowlpox lesions, composed of proliferating epithelial cells with ballooning degeneration and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions, were observed in the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and skin around the cloaca. Interestingly, hyperplastic interfollicular epithelium with rare virus inclusions was observed in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Some bursal follicles were replaced by proliferating epithelial cells. These proliferating cells immunohistochemically stained positive for cytokeratin. PCR and subsequent genetic sequencing detected the C. albicans gene in the crop, and fowlpox virus genes in the BF. These results indicate that this outbreak was a rare presentation of fowlpox in spontaneously infected chickens, with unusual pox lesions in the BF. PMID:27610735

  5. Effect of dietary pigment on growth performance and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius

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    Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary pigment on survival and disease (white spot syndrome virus: WSSV resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius (PL15 for a 30-day period were studied. The results showed that not only was mean survival of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed with supplementation of Lucarotene or Betatene at 125 mg/kg diet significantly higher (P<0.05 but also the body color was increased. There were no effects of dietary pigment on mean weight, percent weight gain and WSSV resistance. However, mean WSSV resistance of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed diet containing Lucantin pink 50 mg/kg diet, Spirulina 30 g/kg diet or Betatene 125 mg/kg diet was higher than that of control.

  6. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, Carabobo - Venezuela

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    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se colectaron 13 590 insectos, de los cuales 14,8% correspondieron a cadáveres y 85,2% a bandejas. El orden Diptera fue el más abundante (94,2% seguido por Coleóptera e Hymenóptera (0,2%. Las especies de Diptéra más importantes fueron: Calliphoridae: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann y C. megacephala (Fabricius; y Muscidae: Musca domestica Linnaeus. También se encontraron algunos coleópteros como Dermestes ater DeGeer (Dermestidae y Staphylinidae. Conclusiones: La equidad y diversidad fue baja, debido a la dominancia de especies, y la poca sensibilidad de los índices de diversidad a la presencia de especies raras. Se observó la sucesión de especies en donde L. cluvia se relaciona con los primeros días, seguida por C. albiceps y C. megacephala. Se recomienda continuar con estudios relacionados, para su uso como herramienta de ayuda en la medicina legal en Venezuela.

  7. Laboratory Assessment for the Efficacy of Some botanical oils to Prevent Animal Wound Myiasis by Flesh Fly Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of certain plant oils (thyme, ginger, cloves, jojoba, marjoram and cinnamon) each applied at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40% as protectants of meat from myiasis caused by Chrysomya albiceps was studied. Experiments conducted revealed that at a concentration of 20% cinnamon oil with an exposure period of three days were more efficient than jojoba, thyme, ginger and marjoram oils at the highest concentration 40% with exposure period 7 days of treated meat against the larvae. Most treatments caused high mortality within exposure period of one week, while both cinnamon and jojoba oils caused 100% larval mortality at concentration 40% with exposure period 3 and 7 days which leads to zero % infestation. It is clear that there was a latent effect of the six tested oils applied at all concentrations on the reduction of adult emergence. No adult emergence of C. albiceps was occurred from meat treated with cinnamon or jojoba oil at concentrations of 10 and 20%, respectively. Percent malformation increased by increasing the concentration of tested oils where, the highest percent malformation was obtained at concentration 40% of thyme oil and at concentration 10% of jojoba, being 86.66 and 66.66 %, respectively. The sex ratio was in favor of males in the most tested oils at all levels of treated meat. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed a variable number of electrophoretic protein bands in the whole body tissue of third instar larvae exposed to untreated meat (control) and meat treated with tested plant oils (thyme, ginger, cloves, jojoba and cinnamon) at concentration 40%. Fourteen bands were separated and their molecular weight ranged between 15.85 and 104.0 KDa. The appearance of new protein band might be due to increasing of protein synthesis while the disappearance of other could be attributed to their breakdown as a result of toxicity of oils

  8. The Nearctic-Caribbean species Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, 1801: Larval descriptions with a diagnosis of immature Ctenodactylini and natural history notes on the genus and tribe (Coleoptera, Carabidae

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    Terry Erwin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults and larvae of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, the Sugarcane Savior Beetle, live in association with grasses, the larvae in the appressed leaf axils. Both adult and larval L. dorsalis eat larvae of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, and perhaps other insects living in the confines of the leaf sheaths of that and other grass-like species. The geographic range of L. dorsalis extends from Kansas in the west to the Atlantic seaboard, north as far as Ontario, Canada and south to Cuba; it is an eastern species of North America and the Caribbean. Larval character attributes that are shared with a related ctenodactyline, Askalaphium depressum (Bates, provide a preliminary basis for characterization of the immatures of tribe Ctenodactylini.

  9. Histologic Lesions of Thymus and Bursa of Fabricius in Commercial Broiler Chickens Inoculated with H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

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    M.M. Hadipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2 is of major concern for the poultry industry especially in Iran, as the virus can spread rapidly in and between flocks, causing high mortality and severe economic losses. The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza virus in thymus and bursa of Fabricius of commercial broiler chickens, so we studied the histologic lesions of this isolate in these organs following intranasal (IN inoculation. Twenty-four 3-week-old chickens were inoculated with 106 EID50 per bird with H9N2 avian influenza virus. Then on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-inoculation (PI, samples of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius were collected for histopathological studies. In inoculated chickens, lymphocyte depletion in the thymus, follicular atrophy and cystic follicles in the bursa of Fabricius were seen. The results indicated that the H9N2 has some immunosuppressive effects on chicken lymphoid organs.

  10. Temperature-dependent development and the significance for estimating postmortem interval of Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, a new forensically important species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Jiangfeng; Ma, Mengyun; Lai, Yue

    2016-09-01

    In forensic entomology, the developmental duration and larval body length of sarcosaprophagous flies are presently the two major approaches to estimate minimal postmortem interval (PMImin). A full characterization of the developmental stages of Calliphoridae, a predominating species on corpses, is especially important for PMI estimation. Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, which appears on the corpse mainly during the decay and the post-decay stages, is of significant value for PMImin estimation. However, there are limited detailed reports on the development of such species. Hence, this study was conducted to address the development pattern of C. nigripes, in order to provide the basic data related to PMI estimation. In this study, the larvae of C. nigripes were collected from pig carcasses that were placed in the field. The colonies were cultured at constant temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 (±1) °C. The biological features of C. nigripes, the developmental pattern, and the body length with time at different temperatures were studied. The results showed that the average developmental duration of the C. nigripes larvae at 20, 24, 28, and 32 (±1) °C were 608.0 ± 68.0 h, 327.0 ± 53.8 h, 254.0 ± 36.5 h, and 217.0 ± 28.0 h, respectively. There were two phases of body length increment with developmental time: growing phase and plateau phase. The maximal body length was 11-12 mm, and the relationship between body length and developmental time can be simulated using the following equation: L = a + bT + cT(2) + dT(3). The data for developmental duration and larval body length at 16 °C were not obtained. In summary, this study comprehensively studied the developmental biology of C. nigripes, which has a significant value for estimating PMI from highly decayed carcasses. PMID:26872466

  11. Effect of gamma rays on adult flight agility and distribution of Old World screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana, irradiated at the pupal stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The larvae of Old World screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana were reared on a meat-based diet containing: lean minced beef (54%), fresh blood (15% containing 10% EDTA), water (30%) and formalin (0.2%). The developed pupae were separated in plastic containers containing vermiculite or corncob grits and incubated for adult emergence under 28 deg. C and 70% relative humidity. The emerged adults were transferred into the adult cages (made from cloth tissue, black or white), provided with water, honey and sugar. Radiation Treatments: At the 5th day of female age, egging dishes were prepared from ground meat, clotted blood or pieces of liver, oviposition stimulants deg. Cntaining spent medium immersed inside the dish. All the contents were warmed on a hotplate to 37 - 39 deg. C. The egging dishes were provided daily for two hours inside the cage for egg deposition. Egg masses and newly hatched larvae were taken for establishing the laboratory colony. The average larval period was 6.8 days, rate of pupation 93.2%, pupal period 7.6 days and rate of pupal development 79%. Pupae at 2-5 days were irradiated with a Gammacell 220. Percentage pupal development to adults decreased from 82% for non-irradiated pupae, to 3%, 12%, 29% and 22% for pupae irradiated with a dose of 90 Gy at 2, 3, 4 and 6 days age. The lifespan of adults emerged from irradiated pupae decreased with increasing gamma dose. Sixty Gy or less did not have an effect on the ovarian development. No egg hatch resulted from the crosses between treatments of 60 to 90 Gy. Egg hatch was observed only in normal adult crosses or in normal females mated with males emerged from 45 Gy irradiated pupae. Flight Agility Test: A small cylinder was made from transparent paper (10 cm long X 10 cm diameter) and lined by baby powder to avoid adults walking out of the cylinder. A group of adults (newly emerged from irradiated pupae) were left inside each cylinder under appropriate temperature and humidity. Adults with flight ability

  12. Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their Dufour gland secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindis, Yolanda; Gomez y Gomez, Beningno; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico); Lachaud, Jean P. [Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA), CNRS-UMR5169, Toulouse (France). Univ. Paul-Sabatier

    2008-03-15

    Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. (author)

  13. Nickel accumulation and its effects on the survival rate of Spodoptera litura Fabricius under continuous nickel stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN HongXia; SHU YingHua; TANG WenCheng; WANG Qi; ZHOU Qiang; ZHANG GuRen

    2007-01-01

    The artificial diets mixed with various concentrations of nickel were offered to the larvae of the phytophagous insect Spodoptera litura Fabricius for 3 generations. Nickel accumulations in the 6th instar larvae, pupae and newly emerged adults of the corresponding generations of S. litura were investigated by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), and the effects of nickel accumulations on the survival rate of S. litura were also evaluated by individual rearing. The results showed that nickel accumulated in the 6th instar larvae, pupae and adults of S. litura, and the accumulated nickel in all the tested developmental stages within a generation increased with the increase of the nickel doses in the treated diets and showed significant dose-dependent relationship with the nickel doses in the artificial diets. The results also indicated that the nickel accumulations in the 6th instar larvae, pupae, and newly emerged adults from the 3rd generation were higher than those from the 2nd generation, which were also higher than those from the 1st generation. Nickel concentrations in pupae and adults were significantly lower than those in larvae, which indicated that the excessive nickel might be excreted during metamorphosis. Furthermore, larval survival rate, pupation rate and eclosion rate of S. litura in the tested three generations all decreased with the increase of the nickel doses in the treated diets.

  14. Metallothionein expression induced by nickel accumulation in the midgut of Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae exposed to nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Metallothionein expression induced by nickel accumulation in the midgut of Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae was investigated by exposing S. litura larvae to the artificial diets amended with different doses of nickel for 3 generations. Nickel accumulations in the midgut of 6th instar larvae were detected by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), and the induced metallothionein expression in the midgut of 5th and 6th instar larvae in 120 h were quantified using cadmium-hemoglobin total saturation methods. The accumulated nickel in the midgut of the 6th instar larvae within a generation increased with the increase of the nickel doses in the treated diets and showed significant dose-dependence with the nickel doses in diets. Metallothioneins induced by nickel accumulated in the larval midgut also increased with nickel doses in diets and with the increasing stressing time in a generation. Results also suggested that the metallothionein expression was different with the time of S. litura larvae stressed by nickel.

  15. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Van Itterbeeck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed in Thailand and the Lao PDR, is believed to have the potential to act as flagship/umbrella species in forest conservation and management, to be incorporated simultaneously as biological control agent and direct source of human food in agroforestry practices, and to be (semi-cultivated. We provide a detailed account of indigenous knowledge of O. smaragdina and ant brood collection practices from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR, through focus group discussions and participant observations, and then reflect on sustainability and conservation issues, and on semi-cultivating constraints and possibilities embedded in indigenous knowledge and ant brood collection practices. 

  16. Forensic entomology cases in Thailand: a review of cases from 2000 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Bhoopat, Tanin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Piangjai, Somsak; Bunchu, Nophawan; Vongvivach, Somsak; Samai, Wirachai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Methanitikorn, Rungkanta; Ngern-Klun, Rachadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Srimuangwong, Chaowakit; Hanterdsith, Boonsak; Chaiwan, Khankam; Srisuwan, Chalard; Upakut, Surasak; Moopayak, Kittikhun; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents and discusses 30 cases of cadavers that had been transferred for forensic entomology investigations to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, northern Thailand, from 2000 to 2006. Variable death scenes were determined, including forested area and suburban and urban outdoor and indoor environments. The fly specimens found in the corpses obtained were the most commonly of the blow fly of family Calliphoridae, and consisted of Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), and two unknown species. Flies of the family Muscidae [Hydrotaea spinigera Stein, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp)], Piophilidae [Piophila casei (L.)], Phoridae [Megaselia scalaris (Loew)], Sarcophagidae [Parasarcophaga ruficornis (F.) and three unknown species], and Stratiomyiidae (Sargus sp.) were also collected from these human remains. Larvae and adults of the beetle, Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), were also found in some cases. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats associated with both urban and forested areas, while C. nigripes was commonly discovered in forested places. S. nudiseta was collected only from corpses found in an indoor death scene.

  17. Invasão de áreas de savana intra-amazônicas por Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Invasion of intra-Amazonian savannas by the dung beetle Digintonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto Matavelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi avaliada a invasão da comunidade de Scarabaeinae detritívoros de uma savana amazônica pela espécie africana Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius 1787. O estudo foi realizado nas proximidades da vila de Alter do Chão (2º 31' S e 55º 00' W, localizada a aproximadamente 36 km a sudoeste de Santarém, Pará, Brasil. Vinte e duas áreas de savanas de 3,75 ha (250 x 150 m distribuídas em 30.000 ha foram amostradas, no período de 21 de julho a 13 de agosto de 2003, utilizando 66 armadilhas de queda com três tipos de iscas (fezes bovinas, fezes humanas e carcaças. Foram encontrados indivíduos de D. gazella em quatro das vinte e duas áreas amostradas. Procurou-se explicar a presença da espécie nas áreas de savana através de análises de regressão logística, onde as variáveis explicativas foram: ocorrência de queimada nos últimos seis anos, diversidade e abundância total de Scarabaeidae nativos presentes na área, abundância de Canthon sp.1, (espécie de Scarabaeidae mais abundante na região. Exceto pela abundância total de indivíduos de Scarabaeidae nativos, nenhuma das variáveis bióticas e abióticas tiveram efeito estatisticamente significativo na presença do D. gazella. Estes resultados podem ser explicados por: (a algum fator ainda não analisado, relacionado à invasão da área pelo D. gazella; (b Não houve tempo para a dispersão e estabelecimento da espécie em todas as áreas; (c A comunidade nativa de Scarabaeinae apresenta resistência à invasão pelo D. gazella.This work aimed to verify the invasion of the dung beetles community from intra-Amazonian savanna by the African species Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius 1787. The research was carried out near Alter do Chão village (2º 31' S; 55º 00' W, 36 Km Southwest of Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Twenty two areas were sampled, from 21 July to 13 August 2003, using 66 baited pitfall traps (cattle dung, human faeces and carcass bait. D. gazella

  18. Efeito do tipo de substrato para pupação na dispersão larval pós-alimentar de Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae Effect of the substrate for pupation in the postfeeding larval dispersal of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    Full Text Available As moscas-varejeiras utilizam substratos discretos e efêmeros para posturas dos ovos e para alimentação das larvas. Após a exaustão de recursos, as larvas começam a procurar por um sítio de pupação no habitat ou por mais fonte de alimento adicional (dispersão larval pós-alimentar. No entanto, o tipo de substrato de dispersão pode afetar este processo; assim, procurou-se avaliar o comportamento de dispersão de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 por meio da localização das pupas em arenas circulares preenchidas com vermiculita, comparando-se com outros estudos feitos em serragem. As arenas foram dividas em 72 setores iguais a partir do centro de dispersão para facilitar a localização das pupas no substrato. A massa, a distância de dispersão do centro de arena, e a profundidade de cada pupa foram determinadas e verificou-se a relação entre peso, profundidade e distância do centro de dispersão. Pôde-se constatar que as larvas com menor massa foram as que percorreram maior distância do centro de dispersão, como também foi observado em estudos anteriores que empregaram outros substratos. O sítio de pupação da maioria dos indivíduos foi entre 2 e 8 cm de profundidade (média 4,96±2,97 cm. Tal estudo do processo de dispersão pode ser útil na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM para corpos humanos em investigações médico-criminais.Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for pupation sites or for additional food sources, a process referred to as postfeeding larval dispersal. However the nature of the substrate can affect this process. Some of the most important aspects of this behavior were here investigated in Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, utilizing a circular arena covered with vermiculite allowing the post-feeding larval dispersal from the center and to comparing with others studies that used

  19. Pentatomidae bugs associated with sunflower crops in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul state and the action of Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae on sunfl ower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Sivori Silva dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to identify the species of bugs attacking sunflowers in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul state and to estimate the damage caused during the R6 and R8 stages. The bugs present in ten sunflower crops were collected, and their feeding sites were determined. The species Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 was used to determine the damage by individualizing the capitula using mesh cages in the R6 and R8 stages. Each caged capitulum was infested with one, two, or four bugs. Besides E. heros (47.67%, Dichelops furcatus (Fabricius, 1775 (44.18%, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, 1837 (4.65% and Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794 (3.48% were found. There were no significant differences among the treatments regarding the yield components (weight of 1000 sunflower seeds, germination power, oil and protein content. The tetrazolio test indicated that the bugs fed on the sunflower seeds.

  20. Optimized sample preparation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soluble proteins from chicken bursa of Fabricius

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    Zheng Xiaojuan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE is a powerful method to study protein expression and function in living organisms and diseases. This technique, however, has not been applied to avian bursa of Fabricius (BF, a central immune organ. Here, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were constructed for the chicken BF tissue. Using the optimized protocol, we performed further 2-DE analysis on a soluble protein extract from the BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins, several differentially expressed protein spots selected were cut from 2-DE gels and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results An extraction buffer containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 2% (w/v 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS, 50 mM dithiothreitol (DTT, 0.2% Bio-Lyte 3/10, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, 20 U/ml Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I, and 0.25 mg/ml Ribonuclease A (RNase A, combined with sonication and vortex, yielded the best 2-DE data. Relative to non-frozen immobilized pH gradient (IPG strips, frozen IPG strips did not result in significant changes in the 2-DE patterns after isoelectric focusing (IEF. When the optimized protocol was used to analyze the spleen and thymus, as well as avibirnavirus-infected bursa, high quality 2-DE protein expression profiles were obtained. 2-DE maps of BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus were visibly different and many differentially expressed proteins were found. Conclusion These results showed that method C, in concert extraction buffer IV, was the most favorable for preparing samples for IEF and subsequent protein separation and yielded the best quality 2-DE patterns. The optimized protocol is a useful sample preparation method for comparative proteomics analysis of chicken BF tissues.

  1. Effect of morphine on the growth rate of Calliphora stygia (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and possible implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Green, Lauren M; Conlan, Xavier A; Toop, Tes

    2009-12-15

    Insect specimens collected from decomposing bodies enable forensic entomologists to estimate the minimum post-mortem interval (PMI). Drugs and toxins within a corpse may affect the development rate of insects that feed on them and it is vital to quantify these effects to accurately calculate minimum PMI. This study investigated the effects of morphine on growth rates of the native Australian blowfly, Calliphora stygia (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Several morphine concentrations were incorporated into pet mince to simulate post-mortem concentrations in morphine, codeine and/or heroin-dosed corpses. There were four treatments for feeding larvae; T 1: control (no morphine); T 2: 2 microg/g morphine; T 3: 10 microg/g morphine; and T 4: 20 microg/g morphine. Ten replicates of 50 larvae were grown at 22 degrees C for each treatment and their development was compared at four comparison intervals; CI 1: 4-day-old larvae; CI 2: 7-day-old larvae; CI 3: pupae; and CI 4: adults. Length and width were measured for larvae and pupae, and costae and tibiae were measured for adults. Additionally, day of pupariation, day of adult eclosion, and survivorship were calculated for each replicate. The continued presence of morphine in meat was qualitatively verified using high-performance liquid chromatography with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection. Growth rates of C. stygia fed on morphine-spiked mince did not differ significantly from those fed on control mince for any comparison interval or parameter measured. This suggests that C. stygia is a reliable model to use to accurately age a corpse containing morphine at any of the concentrations investigated.

  2. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of Autographa gamma (L.) and Trichoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius) (Lep., Noctuidae) from São Miguel (Azores)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Michael; Tavares, João; Vieira, Virgílio

    1995-01-01

    A dinâmica do estado adulto de Autographa gamma (L.) e Trichoplusia orichalcea (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) foi estudada entre Julho de 1988 e Dezembro de 1989, através de armadilhas luminosas do tipo pensilvânia instaladas em três localidades da ilha de São Miguel (Ribeira Grande, Arribanas e Lagoa do Congro). Para as três localidades, foram evidenciadas flutuações de densidade consideráveis. A. gamma foi observada continuamente nas três localidades, enquanto T. orichalcea foi captur...

  3. 斜纹夜蛾雌蛾生殖系统发育的形态变化%Morphological Change on the Development of Female Reproductive System in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武怀恒; 万鹏; 黄民松

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the grades of female reproductive system in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), the development of female reproductive system in S. litura (Fabricius) was studied, including fat bodies, ovarian development, mating status and endocrine system. Meanwhile, the female reproductive system from the sky in S. litura (Fabricius) was studied too. Based on the results, ovarian development was divided into five grades.%为探讨能供预测应用的斜纹夜蛾[Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)]雌蛾生殖系统发育调查分级,研究了室内饲养的斜纹夜蛾雌蛾的生殖系统发育形态变化,着重对脂肪体、卵巢小管、交配囊和中输卵管进行了观察和拍照,同时对高空诱集的斜纹夜蛾雌蛾卵巢进行了研究.基于研究结果,建议把雌蛾的卵巢发育分为5个级别.

  4. On the reliability of a simple method for scoring phenotypes to estimate heritability: A case study with pupal color in Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Adriano Andrejew Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two methods for assessing the degree of melanization of pupal exuviae from the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiini are compared. In the first method, which was qualitative, the exuviae were classified by scoring the degree of melanization, whereas in the second method, which was quantitative, the exuviae were classified by optical density followed by analysis with appropriate software. The heritability (h 2 of the degree of melanization was estimated by regression and analysis of variance. The estimates of h 2 were similar with both methods, indicating that the qualitative method could be particularly suitable for field work. The low estimates obtained for heritability may have resulted from the small sample size ( n = 7-18 broods, including the parents or from the allocation-priority hypothesis in which pupal color would be a lower priority trait compared to morphological traits and adequate larval development.

  5. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne;

    2007-01-01

    or F52/70 inoculation were detected as virus positive at day I post inoculation (p.i.). The D78 viral load peaked at day 4 and day 8 p.i., while the DK01 and F52/70 viral load showed relatively high levels at day 2 p.i. In cloacal swabs, viruses detectable were at day 2 p.i. for DK01 and F52/70, day 8......In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...

  6. Nuevos datos sobre la distribución de Stenostoma rostratum (Fabricius, 1787 en Cataluña (nordeste de la península Ibérica (Coleoptera, Oedemeridae

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    Agulló, J.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available New data on the distribution of Stenostoma rostratum (Fabricius, 1787 in Catalonia (northeastern Iberian peninsula (Coleoptera, Oedemeridae Distribution of Stenostoma rostratum (Fabricius, 1787 in Catalonia is updated. New data were obtained from recent prospecting at two natural reserves on the Mediterranean coast, the Espais Naturals del Delta de Llobregat (province of Barcelona and the Parc Natural de les Illes Medes, Massís del Montgrí i Plana del Baix Ter (province of Girona. The species was found exclusively in sand dunes, occupying a limited area on the Catalan coast. Stenostoma rostratum is considered a threatened species in Catalonia. The latest previous records were published 40 years ago. Remarks about its habitat, ecology and conservation in both protected areas are also provided.

  7. Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

    2013-09-01

    Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are

  8. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION PATTERN OF THE INSECT SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CARCASS OF THE FREE-RANGING URBAN DOG, Canis domesticus (L.: A TOOL FOR FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZANA PERVEEN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The free-ranging urban dog, Canis domesticus (L. carcass decomposition in tropical region, i.e., Takht-i-Bahi, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 15-25 May 2011 was characterized by 5 stages, i.e., fresh (12 h, bloated (13-48 h, active (49-96 h, advanced (97-144 h and dry (145-265 h and the ecological succession pattern of insect species collected were identified into 11 species of 3 orders. The insect species associated with the carcass of C. domesticus found that the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart and house fly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 were found in the fresh, bloat and active decay stages. However, the blow fly, C. megacephala (Fabricius; flesh fly, Parasarcophaga ruficornis (Meigen and the hornet wasp, Vespa orientalis (Linnaeus were existed in the fresh and bloat stages. Moreover, cheese fly, Piophila casei (Linnaeus was found bloat and active decay stages. Further, the hide beetle, Dermestes maculates (Geer, clown beetle, Hister sp. (Gullenhal; ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (Fabricus and skin beetle, Trox sp. (Harold completed their life cycle in active decay, advance decay and dry stages. Furthermore, the jummper ant, Myrmecia pilosula (Smith was collected from only fresh stage. The specimens of insect species were collected minimum 0.8% of V. orientalis and maximum 21.3% of 2 species, i.e., C. rufifacies and M. domestica. The temperature, humidity and rainfalls were found affected insect larvae, pupae and adults, and rate of decomposition of C. domesticus. The average temperature, humidity and rainfalls were 35.34±1.54, 38.8% and 3.8 mm, respectively, of 11 experimental days. This research will be helpful for forensic entomologist for a case study of death to investigate of crimes in tropical region of Pakistan.

  9. Estudo comparativo do aspecto da hemolinfa de algumas espécies de carrapatos (Acari, Ixodidae: descrição da variação hemocitária de adultos de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius Koch Comparative study of the hemolymph aspect from a few ticks species (Acari, Ixodidae: description of the hemocyte variation of adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Carneiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The hemocyte composition of adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 Koch, 1844 adults consisted of three basic cellular types: prahemocyte I (PR I, plasmatocyte (PL and spherulocyte (ES II. Among the ixodids observed (A. cajennense; A. dissimile Koch, 1844; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806; Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Schulze, 1937; Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 and Haemaphysalis sp. only A. cajennense was different in the adult hemolymph colour. It changed from amber to deep blue as the ixodid age advanced. This fact could be associated with the presence of hemocyanin in the hemolymph and points out the need to develop further investigations about the Ixodidae hemolymph pratein composition as well as the function of all the types found in it. This information could aid the studies on ticks control.

  10. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  11. Advantages of using development models of the carrion beetles Thanatophilus micans (Fabricius) and T. mutilatus (Castelneau) (Coleoptera: Silphidae) for estimating minimum post mortem intervals, verified with case data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, J A; Midgley, J M; Collett, I J; Villet, M H

    2014-01-01

    Some beetles are as useful as blow flies for estimating the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) or time since death. Examples include Thanatophilus micans (Fabricius) and Thanatophilus mutilatus (Castelneau), two geographically and ecologically overlapping African beetles. Molecular means of identifying these species, descriptions of their natural history, thermal summation models for the development of each species, and a case in which T. micans was recovered are presented. These beetles colonise bodies soon after death, their development spans more time than that of flies, and they may be little affected by maggot-generated heat. From an experimental perspective, they can be reared individually, which allows the identification of sick individuals and has analytical advantages relative to fly larvae that must be reared in groups. Estimating minimum post mortem intervals for both species using the case data strongly suggests that developmental models parameterised for one species should not be used to make forensic estimates for closely related species for which no specific model is available and emphasises the need for correct identifications.

  12. Sublethal effects of diazinon, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos on the functional response of predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hem.: Pentatomidae in the laboratory conditions

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    Moloud GholamzadehChitgar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sublethal effects of diazinon, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos on the functional response of predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hem.: Pentatomidae, a potential biological control agent, were studied on 5th-instar nymphs. The experiment was conducted in varying densities (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 of last instars larvae of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae as prey at 25 ± 2 °C, 60% ± 10% relative humidity (RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L: D. The results of logistic regressions revealed a type II functional response in the control and all insecticide treatments. Comparison of functional response curves revealed that tested insecticides markedly decreased the mean of preys consumed by A. spinidens. Among them, functional response curve of A. spinidens in chlorpyrifos treatment was significantly lower than the other treatments. In this study, application of insecticides caused a decrease in the attack rate and an increase in the handling time of exposed bugs compared with the control. The longest handling time (3.97 ± 0.62 and the lowest attack rate (0.023 ± 0.007 were observed in chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion treatments, respectively. The results suggested that the adverse effect of these insecticides on A. spinidens should be considered in integrated pest management programs (IPM.

  13. Parasitoids of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with description of a new species of Agiommatus Crawford, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) from India with notes on biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M

    2016-07-01

    In rearing of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from Karnataka and Goa, India, six species of parasitoids were observed. One new species of parasitic wasp is described and illustrated: Agiommatus thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a solitary parasitoid reared from the egg of G. thyrsis on the natural host plant Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf. Three additional species of parasitic wasps were also reared: Anastatus ramakrishnai (Mani, 1935) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a solitary hyperparasitoid of A. thyrsisae n. sp.; Sympiesis thyrsisae Gupta, Gawas & Bhambure (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of G. thyrsis on the host plant Cocos nucifera L., and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) reared from pupa of G. thyrsis on the host plant D. lutescens. Additionally, two species of tachinid flies were also reared from the pupae of G. thyrsis: Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann, 1830) and an innominate species close to Blepharella spp. Gangara thyrsis is a new host record for the genus Agiommatus and for A. ramakrishnai and B. lasus. The mean percent parasitism in G. thyrsis eggs was 26.58% with an incubation period of 6-7 days. Amongst the egg parasitoids, 57.14-73.08% were females and 23.08% were males. Hyperparasitism ranged from 3.85 to 42.86%. Dypsis lutescens, a member of Arecaceae, is a new host plant record for G. thyrsis. PMID:27307173

  14. A second New World hoverfly, Toxomerus floralis (Fabricius) (Diptera: Syrphidae), recorded from the Old World, with description of larval pollen-feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaens, Kurt; Goergen, Georg; Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H; Vokaer, Audrey; Backeljau, Thierry; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Recently (2013-2014), several hoverfly specimens from two localities in Benin and Cameroon (West and Central Africa) were caught from a species that we could not identify using existing identification keys for Afrotropical Syrphidae. Specific identification as Toxomerus floralis (Fabricius) was accomplished using morphology and various Neotropical identification keys. Corroboration of this identification was made by sequencing of the standard COI barcode region and a subsequent BLAST-IDS in BOLD that revealed a 100% sequence similarity with Toxomerus floralis from Suriname (South America). Species identification was further supported by sequencing parts of the nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA genes. The species is widespread in Togo, Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon, and eggs, larvae and adults are abundant at several localities. Yet, the full extent of its geographic distribution within tropical Africa remains to be determined. This is only the second known established introduction of a non-African hoverfly species in the Afrotropics. Interestingly, the larvae of the species have been reported as predators of Aphididae and Delphacidae but we found them to be pollenivorous, which is a rare feeding mode within the subfamily Syrphinae. Moreover, it is the only known Syrphinae species of which the larvae feed on pollen from two plant species from different families (Cyperaceae and Orobranchaceae). This example illustrates how DNA barcoding may allow a fast and accurate identification of introduced species.

  15. A major host plant volatile, 1-octen-3-ol, contributes to mating in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendera, M.; Ekesi, S.; Ndung'u, M.; Srinivasan, R.; Torto, B.

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies on the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on sex pheromones, but the role of the host plant on sexual behavior has not been explored. We investigated this interaction in the laboratory using behavioral assays and chemical analyses. We found that the presence of cowpea seedlings and a dichloromethane extract of the leaf increased coupling in the legume pod borer by 33 and 61 %, respectively, compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of both contact and olfactory cues. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify compounds from the cowpea leaf extract, detected by M. vitrata antenna. We found that the antennae of the insect consistently detected four components, with 1-octen-3-ol identified as a common and dominant component in both the volatiles released by the intact cowpea plant and leaf extract. We therefore investigated its role in the coupling of M. vitrata. In dose-response assays, 1-octen-3-ol increased coupling in M. vitrata with increasing dose of the compound compared to the control. Our results suggest that the cowpea volatile 1-octen-3-ol contributes to M. vitrata sexual behavior.

  16. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on Bt and non-BtCotton

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    TATIANA R. RODRIGUES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818 and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781 on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpalTM (non-Bt and DP90BTMBt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive, showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution.

  17. Size of and damage on shoots of Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae influence oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae was studied when size of and damage on shoots were variable in a natural population of Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and through sequential and simultaneous choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Females showed marked oviposition preference for undamaged and largest shoots of P. suberosa. Eggs were mostly laid on the terminal buds of intact shoots under natural conditions. In simultaneous choice trials, females preferred to oviposit on shoots from which leaves (ten were removed but the terminal bud maintained to those where leaves were kept but the terminal bud was cut out. In sequential choice trials, they did not lay eggs on shoots from which the terminal bud was removed. Females preferred to oviposit on large to short intact shoots in both sequential and simultaneous choice trials. Females laid eggs preferentially on shoots with the greatest leaf area when most plants were intact in the field during early spring. Later in fall, when mostly large, old shoots were damaged or in a reproductive stage (less desirable for oviposition, oviposition intensity was highest on the shortest, youngest shoots of P. suberosa. Thus, females might rank these quality attributes higher than size while selecting shoots for oviposition. The consequences of ovipositing selectively on intact, large shoots of P. suberosa are discussed from the view point of H. erato phyllis larval performance.

  18. Influência do Fotoperíodo no Parasitismo de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Danilo Santana

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Trichogramma species are an important group of parasitoids that attack especially lepidopteran eggs. The quality and performance of this natural enemy may be influenced by factors such as alternative host used in the massal rearing, and differences in the temperature and photoperiod. Based on this, this study aimed to evaluate the number of parasitized eggs, % of females that parasitized, % emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi per egg of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius in the presence and absence of light. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (light and dark and 60 replications, being each experimental unit composed by 40 eggs of D. saccharalis which were placed in a glass tube with one female of T. galloi with age of 24 hours, previously fed with honey. The experiment was carried out at 25 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. In each one of the treatments, the parasitoid was removed from the tube after 12 hours. The highest number of parasitized eggs (12.9 and % of females that parasitized (83.3% was observed during the period with light. For the emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals per egg, there was no statistical difference. The results showed that the presence of light is essential for this biological control agent.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Marcos G; Degrande, Paulo E; Mota, Thiago A

    2015-01-01

    Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818) and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781) on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpal™ (non-Bt) and DP90B™ Bt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution) and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive), showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution. PMID:26628025

  20. Capture of Caliptrate flies with different breeding substrates on beaches in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    José Mário D'Almeida

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscidae flies belonging to four Familia and 13 species in a total number of 3.652 specimens were collected from beaches at Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using different breeding substrates, and subsequently bred in the laboratory. Captures were done from April to November 1989, using in a first phase different substrates: fruits (banana and papaya, vegtable (tomato, animal viscera (bovine liver, marine animals (fish, crab, shrimp, squid, mouse carcass and feaces (human and canine. The species collected more often were: Fannia sp. (subgroup pusio, Chrysomya megacephala, Phaenicia eximia, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Peckya chrysostoma, Musca domestica and Atherigona orientalis. In a later phase, only fish was used, as bait and placed directly on the beach sand. From a total of 189 pupae, the following adult specimen were obtained: Peckia chrysostoma (58.06%, Chrysomya megacephala (30.64% and in lesser numbers Synthesiomyia nudiseta and Phaenicia eximia.

  1. [Effect of different baits as attractant for blowflies (Diptera) at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, José M; Fraga, Mariana B

    2007-01-01

    It was carried out a survey of blowflies in an area of the Campus (Valonguinho) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine), bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively). The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%).

  2. The use of olfactory and visual cues in host choice by the capsid bugs Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus fabricius.

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    Fiona J H Wynde

    Full Text Available Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus Fabricius (Heteroptera: Miridae are pests of glasshouse cucumber and sweet pepper crops respectively. L. rugulipennis has a wide range of foodplants, but L. tripustulatus is specialised with very few food plants. We report behavioural assessments to investigate whether either species exhibits a preference for salad over wild hosts, and whether the role of olfaction and vision in response to cues from host plants can be distinguished. Olfactory responses to leaves were tested in choice chambers. L. rugulipennis was presented nettle (wild host and a salad leaf of cucumber or sweet pepper, where the salad leaves had higher nitrogen content. L. tripustulatus was tested with nettle and sweet pepper of two different nitrogen contents. Female L. rugulipennis spent more time on the cucumber salad host, and chose it first most often, but males showed no preference. Neither sex discriminated between sweet pepper or nettle leaves, but males made more first contacts with sweet pepper. Neither sex of L. tripustulatus discriminated between sweet pepper and nettle leaves when the sweet pepper had higher nitrogen. When the plant species contained equivalent nitrogen both sexes spent more time on nettle. There was no difference in first choice made by either sex. When visual stimuli were available, and leaves had equivalent nitrogen, L. rugulipennis showed no preference and L. tripustulatus preferred nettle leaves. We conclude that the generalist L. rugulipennis has the ability to use remote olfactory cues for host choice whereas the specialist L. tripustulatus relies mainly on contact chemosensory and gustatory cues.

  3. The use of olfactory and visual cues in host choice by the capsid bugs Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynde, Fiona J H; Port, Gordon R

    2012-01-01

    Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus Fabricius (Heteroptera: Miridae) are pests of glasshouse cucumber and sweet pepper crops respectively. L. rugulipennis has a wide range of foodplants, but L. tripustulatus is specialised with very few food plants. We report behavioural assessments to investigate whether either species exhibits a preference for salad over wild hosts, and whether the role of olfaction and vision in response to cues from host plants can be distinguished. Olfactory responses to leaves were tested in choice chambers. L. rugulipennis was presented nettle (wild host) and a salad leaf of cucumber or sweet pepper, where the salad leaves had higher nitrogen content. L. tripustulatus was tested with nettle and sweet pepper of two different nitrogen contents. Female L. rugulipennis spent more time on the cucumber salad host, and chose it first most often, but males showed no preference. Neither sex discriminated between sweet pepper or nettle leaves, but males made more first contacts with sweet pepper. Neither sex of L. tripustulatus discriminated between sweet pepper and nettle leaves when the sweet pepper had higher nitrogen. When the plant species contained equivalent nitrogen both sexes spent more time on nettle. There was no difference in first choice made by either sex. When visual stimuli were available, and leaves had equivalent nitrogen, L. rugulipennis showed no preference and L. tripustulatus preferred nettle leaves. We conclude that the generalist L. rugulipennis has the ability to use remote olfactory cues for host choice whereas the specialist L. tripustulatus relies mainly on contact chemosensory and gustatory cues. PMID:23226493

  4. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae.

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    Xia Zhou

    Full Text Available Micraspis discolor (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle' adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized.

  5. Ocorrência do complexo Carpophilus humeralis (Fabricius-Ceratocystis paradoxa (De Seynes Moreau em cana-de-açúcar no Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the complex Carpophilus humeralis (Fabricius-Ceratocystis paradoxa (De Seynes Moreau in sugar cane in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jorge Rossetto

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi constatada a ocorrência do besourinho Carpophilus humeralis (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae no Estado de São Paulo, em toletes de cana-de-açúcar com podridão-abacaxi, causada pelo fungo Ceratocystis paradoxa (De Seynes Moreau. Experimento conduzido com duas variedades de cana, IAC64-257 e NA56-79, tratamento do tolete com fungicida e posição da gema no tolete, demonstrou que a variedade NA56-79 respondeu positivamente ao tratamento com fungicida enquanto a variedade IAC64-257 não apresentou resposta. As gemas da extremidade do tolete foram mais afetadas que as centrais.The pineapple disease caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa (De Seynes Moreau has been recognized as the main cause of poor germination of sugar cane fields in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, associated with rottening of the sugar cane cuttings. In 1983 in the counties of Promissão, Penápolis and Araçatuba and again in 1984 in Araçatuba for the first time was observed the occurrence of the pineapple disease associated with high populations of the nitidulid beetle Carpophilus humeralis (Fabricius. The authors ignore previous records of occurrence of this nitidulid species in Brazil. An experiment with three factors, fungicide treatment, variety and position of the buds in the cutting was performed. The treated cuttings were immersed in a solution of Benomil at 1% a.i. Two varieties of sugarcane, NA56-79 and IAC64-257 were used. Two positions of the buds in the cuttings were considered, middle and lateral. A split split plot design was used with 8 treatments and 16 replications. The presence or absence of fungicide treatment was the main plot. Varieties were sub plots and position of the buds within the cuttings constituted the sub sub plots. The treatment of the cutting for 1 minute in the fungicide solution improved the germination of the variety NA56-79 but had no effect in the variety IAC64-257. There was no difference between the percent germination of the two

  6. Effects of Different Usage Methods of (fabricius) Sex Attractant on Moth Catches%斜纹夜蛾性诱剂不同使用方法对诱蛾量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌明华; 陆镜清; 徐冬毅; 杨焕军

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of different usage methods of sex attractant and trapper of (fabricius) on moth catches, to make sure the suitable hanging height and distance of the trapper. The results showed that, under the same usage time and climate condition, the number of trapped moth was the largest while the trapper was hung 30-50 cm above crop. In addition, taking cost-saving and trapping effect into consideration comprehensively, it was advisable to keep the hanging distance of 50-80 cm and put single sex attractant of (fabricius) into the trapper.%通过对性诱剂及诱捕器不同悬挂使用方法对诱蛾量的影响进行应用观察研究,以期明确性诱剂诱捕器摆放高度、间距等较为合理的使用方法。试验结果表明,诱捕器在时间、气候条件等相同情况下,放置在作物顶端上方30~50 cm,诱蛾量最大;从节本和诱蛾效果来看,放置间距以50~80 m为宜;诱芯以单放为宜。

  7. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80

  8. Identification of Host-Plant Volatiles and Characterization of Two Novel General Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Na; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Shichang; Li, Daiqin; Liu, Kaiyu; Wang, Guoxiu; Wang, Xiaoping; Ai, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Chemoreception is a key feature in selection of host plant by phytophagous insects, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in chemical communication of both insects and vertebrates. The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is one of the key pest species of cowpea and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, causing up to 80% of yield loss. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological responses of female M. vitrata to floral volatiles from V. unguiculata. Seventeen electroantennogram-active compounds were identified from floral volatiles of V. unguiculata by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then, we cloned two novel full-length GOBP genes (MvitGOBP1 and MvitGOBP2) from the antennae of M. vitrata using reverse transcription PCR. Protein sequence analysis indicated that they shared high sequence similarity with other Pyralididae insect GOBPs and had the typical six-cysteine signature. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that MvitGOBP1-2 mRNA was highly expressed in the antennae of female adult with several thousands-fold difference compare to other tissue. Next, the recombinant MvitGOBP1-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. Fluorescence binding assays demonstrated that MvitGOBP1-2 had different binding affinities with 17 volatile odorant molecules including butanoic acid butyl ester, limonene, 4-ethylpropiophenone, 1H-indol-4-ol, butanoic acid octyl ester and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal. In the field trapping experiment, these six floral volatiles could effectively attract female moths and showed significant difference compared with the blank lure. These results suggested that MvitGOBPs and the seventeen floral volatiles are likely to function in the olfactory behavior response of female moths, which may have played crucial roles in the selection of oviposition sites. The six

  9. Identification of Host-Plant Volatiles and Characterization of Two Novel General Odorant-Binding Proteins from the Legume Pod Borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae.

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    Jing Zhou

    Full Text Available Chemoreception is a key feature in selection of host plant by phytophagous insects, and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs are involved in chemical communication of both insects and vertebrates. The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is one of the key pest species of cowpea and widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical regions, causing up to 80% of yield loss. In this study, we investigated the electrophysiological responses of female M. vitrata to floral volatiles from V. unguiculata. Seventeen electroantennogram-active compounds were identified from floral volatiles of V. unguiculata by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAD and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Then, we cloned two novel full-length GOBP genes (MvitGOBP1 and MvitGOBP2 from the antennae of M. vitrata using reverse transcription PCR. Protein sequence analysis indicated that they shared high sequence similarity with other Pyralididae insect GOBPs and had the typical six-cysteine signature. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that MvitGOBP1-2 mRNA was highly expressed in the antennae of female adult with several thousands-fold difference compare to other tissue. Next, the recombinant MvitGOBP1-2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni ion affinity chromatography. Fluorescence binding assays demonstrated that MvitGOBP1-2 had different binding affinities with 17 volatile odorant molecules including butanoic acid butyl ester, limonene, 4-ethylpropiophenone, 1H-indol-4-ol, butanoic acid octyl ester and 2-methyl-3-phenylpropanal. In the field trapping experiment, these six floral volatiles could effectively attract female moths and showed significant difference compared with the blank lure. These results suggested that MvitGOBPs and the seventeen floral volatiles are likely to function in the olfactory behavior response of female moths, which may have played crucial roles in the selection of oviposition

  10. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

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    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  11. The Importance of Habitat in the Ecology of Decomposition on Rabbit Carcasses in Malaysia: Implications in Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silahuddin, Siti Aisyah; Latif, Baha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Walter, David Evans; Heo, Chong Chin

    2015-01-01

    The stages of decomposition and the faunal succession on rabbit carcasses in three different habitats, namely jungle, rural, and highland areas, were studied. Three New Zealand White rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses weighing ∼2 kg were sampled daily until the decomposition process was completed. Representative specimens of adult flies, larvae, pupa, and mites were collected from the carcasses and processed in the laboratory. There were differences in decomposition rate and faunal succession between the carcasses. The fastest rate of decomposition was recorded in rural area, and the slowest rate of decomposition was recorded in highland area. The carcasses exhibited the same pattern of colonization by adult flies, but the dominant species of larvae and adult flies on each carcass in specific habitats were different. The primary species of flies recorded in jungle were Chrysomya megacephala F., Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Chrysomya villenuevi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya pinguis (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia tagaliana (Bigot), Hypopyiopsis fumipennis (Walker), Hypopygiopsis violacea (Macquart), and Hydrotaea spinigera Stein represented by both adults and larvae. Musca domestica L., Atherigona sp., Lioproctia pattoni (Senior-White), Lioproctia saprianovae Pape & Bänziger, and Seniorwhitea princeps (Wiedemann) were represented by adults only. The biodiversity of flies in the rural area were C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, H. ligurriens, Fannia canicularis L., Hydrotaea chalcogaster (Wiedemann), and Hyd. spinigera represented by both adults and larvae, meanwhile M. domestica, Atherigona sp., Boettcherisca peregrina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Parasarcophaga taenionota Wiedemann, Parasarcophaga scopariiformis Senior-White, and S. princeps were represented by adults only. The species of flies collected in the highland area were Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), C. megacephala, C. rufifacies, C

  12. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group; Esterilizacao quimica da broca da cana-de-acucar Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) atraves de isca com melaco e inseticidas do grupo dos reguladores de crescimento de insetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazaki, Catia Sumie Shimatai. E-mail csazaki@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to

  13. Evaluation of follicular lymphoid depletion in the Bursa of Fabricius: an alternative methodology using digital image analysis and artificial neural networks Avaliação da depleção linfóide folicular da Bursa de Fabricius: uma metodologia alternativa utilizando análise digital de imagem e redes neurais artificiais

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    Lucas B. Moraes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifty Bursa of Fabricius (BF were examined by conventional optical microscopy and digital images were acquired and processed using Matlab® 6.5 software. The Artificial Neuronal Network (ANN was generated using Neuroshell® Classifier software and the optical and digital data were compared. The ANN was able to make a comparable classification of digital and optical scores. The use of ANN was able to classify correctly the majority of the follicles, reaching sensibility and specificity of 89% and 96%, respectively. When the follicles were scored and grouped in a binary fashion the sensibility increased to 90% and obtained the maximum value for the specificity of 92%. These results demonstrate that the use of digital image analysis and ANN is a useful tool for the pathological classification of the BF lymphoid depletion. In addition it provides objective results that allow measuring the dimension of the error in the diagnosis and classification therefore making comparison between databases feasible.Cinquenta Bursa de Fabrícius (BF foram examinadas através de microscopia óptica convencional e imagens digitais foram obtidas e processadas através do software Matlab® 6.5. Redes Neurais Artificiais (ANN foram geradas com a utilização do software Neuroshell® Classifier, e os dados das análises óptica e digital foram comparados. A ANN classificou corretamente a maioria dos folículos, atingindo sensibilidade e especificidade de 89% e 96%, respectivamente. Quando os folículos foram agrupados de forma binária houve um aumento da sensibilidade para 90% e obteve-se um valor máximo para a especificidade de 92%. Estes resultados demonstram que o uso da análise digital de imagem associada à ANNé uma ferramenta bastante útil para a classificação patológica da depleção linfóide da BF. Além disso, fornece resultados objetivos que permitem medir a dimensão do erro classificatório, tornando possível a comparação entre distintos bancos de

  14. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae e Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae em trigo armazenado Efficacy of insecticides to control Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae in stored wheat

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    Rui S. Furiatti

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae and Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae was determined exposing them to treated wheat in laboratory. Each plot, which was composed by 1.2 kg of wheat grain, was treated with 5 ml of the concentration/kg of wheat using a propelling air atomizer. Fifteen days after treatment 50 g samples of the grain were taken, from each plot, placed in plastic jars into which 10 adult insects of each species were released. This was repeated every 30 days until 165 days after treatment. The number of dead insects was counted 15 days after each infestation thus the evaluations were made at 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after the insecticide application. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,375+7,5+3,0 and 0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfen-valerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t and fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t were effective against Sitophilus oryzae until 180 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate+fenitrothion+pyperonil butoxide (0,5+10,0+4,0 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+esfenvalerate (7,5+0,375 and 10,0+0,375 g a.i./t, fenitrothion+synergised deltamethrin (7,5+0,375 g a.i./t were effective against R. dominica until 180 days after treatment. Synergised deltamethrin (0,375 g a.i./t was effective against S. oryzae until 150 days and against R. dominica until 120 days after treatment. Esfenvalerate (0,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against S. oryzae and effective until 60 days after treatment against R. dominica. Fenitrothion (7,5 g a.i./t was ineffective against R. dominica. The use of mixtures of organophosphorus plus pyrethroids were more effective against S. oryzae and R. dominica when compared with these insecticides used alone.

  15. Research Evolution, Progress and Forecast on the Occurrence and Integrated Control of Maruca vitrata Fabricius in China%中国豆野螟发生与防治研究沿革、进展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    忙定泽; 罗庆怀; 舒敏; 孙翠英

    2012-01-01

    Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Maruca testulalis Ceyer) is the most important that distributed whole China. The author narrated briefly the research or study history of the insect pest, summed up and commented on its main host plants, generation quantity a year, developing rate of different stage or stadium and habit in China, recounted the change and development of thinking mode and control methods in China. Some controversial problems were analyzed and depicted. Through analysis, (1) the strong phototaxis of the bean pod borer was affirmed because it could stand steadily on glass or other smooth surface and not easy to fall into toxic bottle of black light lamp; (2) the pest could do damage to leguminous crops 24 months a year in Guangdong and Hainan areas, but it did not overwinter in most areas of China and moved gradually from north to south. By discussion, the research or study about Maruca vitrata Fabricius was forecasted and some IPM suggestions were given.%豆野螟是豆科作物主要害虫,中国各地均有发生.笔者简述了中国研究豆野螟的研究历史及进展,归纳和评述了豆野螟在中国各地的主要寄主植物、年发生代数、各虫态发育速率及危害习性等,叙述了防治理念和方法的变化和发展,对有争议的地方进行了分析和评述.通过分析,对2个存疑之处得出了肯定的回答:(1)豆野螟趋光性较强,由于其在玻璃等光滑的表面能稳稳地停息,不易落入黑光灯收集瓶(袋)内,致使早上收虫数量很少,从而被误认为其趋光性弱;(2)豆野螟除了广东、海南等地可以终年危害外,在中国的绝大部分地区都不越冬,冬季来临前,很可能逐渐南移至可终年繁殖危害的地区.最后以讨论形式,展望了对豆野螟今后的研究前景,并提出了一些综合治理建议.

  16. Nidificação de Polybia rejecta (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Vespidae Associada à Azteca chartifex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em Ecótono de Bioma Caatinga/Mata Atlântica, no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte

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    Francisco Virgínio

    2015-12-01

    Abstract. Some neotropical social wasps which are associated with some vertebrates and other insects like ants, and these interactions are reported for decades, but little is known about the presence of these in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest. This study describes the first association's record between nests of Polybia rejecta (Fabricius wasp and Azteca chartifex Forel ants in the transition area of the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga in Rio Grande do Norte. The observations were in a private forest in Monte Alegre, from October 2009 to September 2014 through active search for colonies, use of ad libitum method, photography and collection of specimens with traceability. In the study area were found four active colonies and one abandoned of P. rejecta, all associated with nests of A. chartifex with approach of 20-30 cm. It was found that when the colony of P. rejecta was disturbed, they became aggressive towards the disturbance object, whereas the ants gathered in order to fend off a potential predators. These interactions appear to benefit wasps and ants, it is assumed that is possible that wasps attack ants's predators, whereas the ants attack the wasps's predators. This study corroborates the hypothesis that the association between the social wasps P. rejecta and A. chartifex ants is beneficial for both species, and probably the wasps are the most benefited, but also shows the non-exclusivity of this association for the biomes up then reported.

  17. Evaluation on control efficacy of Sprodoptera litura (Fabricius) with 4 kinds of insecticides on Vigna unguiculata%4种杀虫剂防治豇豆斜纹夜蛾的防效比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦双; 陈海燕; 潘飞; 吉训聪

    2014-01-01

    通过应用4种药剂防治豇豆斜纹夜蛾药效试验,结果表明,5%氯虫苯甲酰胺悬浮剂防效最好,速效性和持效性都较好,20%氟虫双酰胺水分散粒剂、24%虫螨腈悬浮剂和24%甲氧虫酰肼悬浮剂等药剂也表现出较好的效果,持效期7d以上,生产上防治时可轮换或混合使用。%The efficacies of 4 insecticides were evaluated against Sprodoptera litura (Fabricius) with Vigna unguiculata in field trial. The results showed control efficiency of 5% chlorantraniliprole was the best with rapid efficacy and long efficacy. 20% flubendiamide, 24% chlorfenapyr and 24% methoxyfenozide in the trials had good control effects too, and the effects can be sustained for more than 7 days. These insecticides can be used on the production.

  18. Fumigant Toxicity of Crushed Bulbs of Two Allium Species to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Toxicidad Fumigante para Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabriciu (Coleoptera: Bruchidae de Bulbos Trozados de Especies Allium

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    T.I Ofuya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of crushed fresh bulbs of Allium sativum L. and A. cepa L. to the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, a major pest of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds was assessed under laboratory conditions in Akure, Nigeria. In the tests, 20 g of infested cowpea seeds were suspended in a piece of muslin cloth, over an amount of crushed bulb in a container with a tightly fitted lid. Adult emergence was completely prevented from freshly laid eggs of C. maculatus on cowpea seeds that was fumigated with 6.0 g or more of crushed bulbs of A. sativum. Such fumigated seeds were not holed at all. Other amounts of A. sativum tested (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. Crushed A. sativum was ineffective in preventing adult emergence from fumigated C. maculatus larvae in seeds. The fumigant effect of crushed A. cepa did not kill all C. maculatus eggs. An amount of 7.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. There is good prospect in using crushed bulbs of A. sativum> as fumigant in C. maculatus control in stored cowpea seeds.Se evaluó la toxicidad fumigante de bulbos frescos trozados de Allium sativum L. y A. cepa L. sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, una importante plaga de semilla almacenada de caupí Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Akure, Nigeria. En las pruebas, 20 g de semillas infestadas se suspendieron en un trozo de tela sobre cierta cantidad de bulbos trozados en un contenedor con una tapa ajustada. Se previno completamente la emergencia de adultos desde huevos recién puestos de C. maculatus en semillas de caupí que se fumigaron con 6,0 g o más de bulbos de A. sativum. Estas semillas fumigadas no estaban ahuecadas. Otras cantidades de A. sativum probadas (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 y 5.0 g redujeron

  19. Ecological Effects on the Aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) Exposed to UV-B Radiation for Several Successive Generations%连续多代UV-B处理对麦长管蚜生态学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国平; 杨杰; 张丽; 赵惠燕

    2012-01-01

    The effects and changing patterns of UV-B on growth, development and reproduction of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) were evaluated by establishing an age-specific life table of S. avenae exposed to UV-B for eight successive generations. The results revealed that the population degradation existed in the population of S. avenae after being raised for several generations in the experimental condition. Under the UV-B irradiation, the developmental duration (T) increased gradually with the increase of generations, while the intrinsic rate of increase (Rm) , net reproductive rate (R0) > finite increase rate (A) and population number tendency index (I) of S. avenae decreased until the third generations, then stable in the following generations. The developmental duration of the second, the third and the fourth instar nymph from F1 to F5 of S. avenae were delayed, while no significant difference was found in F7 generation. Additionally, under the condition of UV-B, the adult longevity, fecundity (F) and population number tendency index (I) decreased until the F3 generation and then increased or trended to stabilize thereafter. In conclusion, the effects of UV-B would be accumulated in the progeny. As the selective forces in the environment, UV-B inhibited the growth and propagation of S. avenae, however, the adaptation of S. avenae to stress was enhanced with the increase of generations. We also found that, the transform of phenotype from unwinged to winged S. avenae was significant in this study, which was related with that of the ecology parameters.%为评估紫外线UV-B对麦长管蚜Sitobion avenae (Fabricius)生长、发育和繁殖的影响,用中波紫外线(UV-B)连续照射8代麦长管蚜3、4龄若虫,并用特定年龄生命表方法对其后代生态学参数进行分析.结果显示,麦长管蚜在实验室条件下多代饲养,表现出明显的种群退化现象.在UV-B的影响下,随着世代的增加,麦长管蚜的内禀增长率(Rm)、净增值率(R0)

  20. Análise melissopalinológica e estrutura de ninho de abelhas Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Apidae encontradas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristovão, SE

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    Maria Emilene Correia Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. A tribo Trigonini abrange o maior número de gêneros e espécies de abelhas, existindo espécies que ainda não foram estudadas e características biológicas e ecológicas que ainda são desconhecidas. As abelhas Trigona spinipes (Fabricius são descritas como agente polinizador de diversas culturas, podendo ser utilizada inclusive como agente polinizador comercial. O objetivo do trabalho foi realizar estudos sobre a abelha T. spinipes, buscando conhecer aspectos de sua biologia, preferências e hábitos alimentares, a partir do acompanhamento dos ninhos existentes no Campus da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, situado na cidade de São Cristóvão, SE. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: atividade de vôo, estrutura de ninho, umidade, grau brix e pH no mel, e avaliação palinológica do mel e tipos polínicos observados nos ninhos. Foram encontrados 20 ninhos de T. spinipes, as médias de entradas de abelhas foram 298,72 e saídas 282,16. O volume médio dos potes de mel foi de 0,459 mL (p > 0.05, o peso médio de 0,9573 g, (p = 0.05, and the medium weight 0.9573 g, (p <0.01. The humidity text the same to 24.20%, degree brix (soluble solids equal to 74.50 and pH 3.58. In the pollen the dominant grain belonged to the family Celastraceae (46% and honey the grain of dominant pollen belonged to the family Euphorbiaceae (51%. The diversity of pollens grains found in its victuals evidences the potential of the trigona as polinizador.

  1. 吡虫啉与联苯菊酯混配对麦长管蚜的毒力及增效作用%Synergistic Effect of Combinating Imidacloprid and Bifenthrin to Macrosiphum avenae(Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威; 谢咸升; 李大鹏

    2015-01-01

    参照FAO推荐的浸渍法,研究了吡虫啉与联苯菊酯的5种配比对麦长管蚜的防治效果。结果表明,吡虫啉和联苯菊酯混配后,表现增效作用的配比为1颐1,2颐1,共毒系数(CTC)分别为273.22,126.17;表现相加作用的配比为1颐2,5颐1,共毒系数(CTC)为95.28,104.65;表现拮抗作用的配比为1颐5,共毒系数(CTC)为60.46。5种配比中以1颐1的配比增效作用最强。%Five kinds ratio of imidacloprid and bifenthrin are reaseached on Macrosiphum avenae(Fabricius)for synergistic effect refered to FAO recommended immersion method. The result shows that mixed ratio of synergistic effect are 1:1,2:1,co-toxicity coefficient (CTC)are 273.22,126.17,additive effect are 1:2,5:1,CTC are 95.28,104.65;antagonism effect is 1:5,CTC is 60.46. The better ratio of synergistic effect was 1:1,which can provide the reasonable mixed basis for imidacloprid and bifenthrin.

  2. Nim (Azadirachta indica: uma alternativa no controle de moscas na pecuária Neem (Azadirachta indica: an alternative for controlling flies associated with animal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Sayão R. Deleito

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As moscas Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, Cochliomyia hominivorax e Musca domestica, estão entre as mais importantes pragas da pecuária causando miíases e como portadoras de microrganismos patogênicos. O propósito deste estudo foi testar a eficácia de várias concentrações do óleo de nim sobre pupas das moscas mencionadas em condições de laboratório e de campo. A redução da emergência das moscas das pupas tratadas com 0,6 por cento de óleo de nim foi de 95,6 por cento em condições de laboratório e 94,5 por cento quando aplicado ao solo onde descansam os animais durante a noite. A aplicação do óleo de nim a 0,6% no solo é uma alternativa viável para controle das pupas de L. cuprina, C. megacephala, C. hominivorax e M. domestica.Flies Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, Cochliomyia hominivorax and Musca domestica, are among the most important arthropod pests of livestock, which produce myiasis and carry pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to test of efficacy of various concentrations of neem oil on pupae of the above mentioned flies under laboratory and in field conditions. Reduction of fly emergence from treated pupae with 0.6 per cent of neem oil was 95.6 per cent under laboratory conditions and 94.5 per cent when applied on the soil, where the cattle rest during the night. The application of neem oil at 0.6 per cent on the soil is a viable alternative for controlling pupae of L. cuprina, C. megacephala, C. hominivorax and M. domestica.

  3. Dynamics of experimental populations of native and introduced blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae: mathematical modelling and the transition from asymptotic equilibrium to bounded oscillations

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    WAC Godoy

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium dynamics of native and introduced blowflies is modelled using a density-dependent model of population growth that takes into account important features of the life-history in these flies. A theoretical analysis indicates that the product of maximum fecundity and survival is the primary determinant of the dynamics. Cochliomyia macellaria, a blowfly native to the Americas and the introduced Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya putoria, differ in their dynamics in that the first species shows a damping oscillatory behavior leading to a one-point equilibrium, whereas in the last two species population numbers show a two-point limit cycle. Simulations showed that variation in fecundity has a marked effect on the dynamics and indicates the possibility of transitions from one-point equilibrium to bounded oscillations and aperiodic behavior. Variation in survival has much less influence on the dynamics.

  4. Identifying fly puparia by clearing technique: application to forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Ngern-Klun, Radchadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Sukontason, Kom

    2007-10-01

    In forensic investigations, immature stages of the fly (egg, larva, or puparia) can be used as entomological evidence at death scenes, not only to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI), analyze toxic substances, and to determine the manner of death but also to indicate the movement of a corpse in homicide cases. Of these immature stages, puparia represent the longest developmental time, which makes them of useful. However, in order for forensic entomologists to use puparia effectively, it is crucial that they are able to accurately identify the species of fly found in a corpse. Typically, these puparia are similar in general appearance, being coarctate and light brown to dark brown in color, which makes identification difficult. In this study, we report on the clearing technique used to pale the integument of fly puparia, thereby allowing observation of the anterior end (second to fourth segments) and the profile of the posterior spiracle, which are important clues for identification. We used puparia of the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.), as the model species in this experiment. With placement in a 20% potassium hydroxide solution daily and mounting on a clearing medium (Permount(R), New Jersey), the profile of the posterior spiracle could be clearly examined under a light microscope beginning on the fifth day after pupation, and the number of papillae in the anterior spiracle could be counted easily starting from the ninth day. Comparison of morphological features of C. megacephala puparia with those of other blowflies (Chrysomya nigripes [Aubertin], Chrysomya rufifacies [Macquart], Chrysomya villeneuvi [Patton], Lucilia cuprina [Wiedemann], and Hemipyrellia ligurriens [Wiedemann]) and a housefly (Musca domestica L.) revealed that the anterior ends and the profiles of the posterior spiracles had markedly distinguishing characteristics. Morphometric analysis of the length and width of puparia, along with the length of the gaps between the posterior spiracles

  5. Levantamento de espécies de Odonata associadas à tanques de piscicultura e efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sobre ninfas de Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655 Odonata species survey associated with psiculture tanks and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis effect on Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 nymphs (Odonata: Libellulidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655

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    Douglas Moisés Quintilhiano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Várias estações de piscicultura que trabalham com a produção de alevinos ou peixes ornamentais têm apresentado problemas relacionados à predação de larvas, pós-larvas e alevinos por ninfas de insetos da Ordem Odonata. Dessa forma, objetivou-se fazer um levantamento de espécies de odonatos presentes em tanques de criação de peixes em dois municípios da região centro-oeste de Minas Gerais, assim como avaliar o efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis de Barjac sobre ninfas de Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 (Odonata: Libellulidae. Durante um período de três meses, foram realizadas coletas quinzenais, sendo os insetos adultos capturados com o auxílio de redes entomológicas e as ninfas, através de peneiras de malha fina, acopladas a cabos de madeira. As ninfas capturadas foram levadas para o laboratório onde foram individualizadas em caixas de isopor com capacidade para 2L, vedadas em sua extremidade superior com filó. Logo após a emergência dos adultos, esses foram mortos, acondicionados em envelopes e enviados para serem identificados. Os experimentos laboratoriais foram conduzidos em sala climatizada à 25 ± 2°C, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Ninfas de segundo ínstar de P. flavescens foram individualmente acondicionadas em caixas de isopor contendo cada uma 500mL de água livre de cloro e, estando essas no terceiro, quinto e sétimo ínstares, foram tratadas com B. thuringiensis var. israelensis, através do produto microbiano Vectobac®, em formulação granulada. O produto foi aplicado diretamente na água do recipiente de criação, em concentração indicada para o controle de larvas de culicídeos, duas concentrações superiores e duas inferiores a essa, além da testemunha, na qual não se aplicou o produto. As avaliações foram realizadas a 24, 48 e 72 horas após a aplicação do produto, registrando-se o número de insetos mortos em cada tratamento. Em ambos os experimentos, as ninfas

  6. Effect of differents baits as attractant for blowflies (diptera at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Efeito de diferentes iscas na atração de califorídeos (diptera no campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brasil

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    José M. D'almeida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out a survey of blowflies in a área of the Campus (Valonguinho of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine, bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively. The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%.Foi realizado um estudo sobre califorideos no Campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense. A pesquisa foi efetuada de dezembro de 2003 a novembro de 2004, com coletas feitas com armadilhas utilizando iscas à base de peixe (sardinha, fígado bovino, camarão e banana. Foram coletados 6015 califorideos, Chrysomya megacephala e Lucilia eximia foram as mais freqüentes (50,55% e 21, 52%, respectivamente. A isca mais atrativa foi peixe (38,32% com picos populacionais em fevereiro e março.

  7. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Insects (Diptera) associated with cadavers at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Pernambuco, Brazil: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tatiana Costa; Vasconcelos, Simao Dias

    2010-05-20

    Increasing rates of unsolved homicides in Brazil prompt the need for applied entomological data to be used as a complementary tool by criminal investigators. In that context, we analyzed the occurrence of forensically important insect species (Order Diptera) on 14 cadavers taken into the Institute of Legal Medicine (ILM), in Pernambuco, Brazil, according to the conditions of the body and the pattern of colonisation by insects. Simultaneously, we surveyed the diversity of insects in the surrounding environment using bait traps. Five species were present on cadavers: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Cochliomyia macellaria (Calliphoridae), Oxysarcodexia riograndensis and Ravinia belforti (Sarcophagidae). A total of 4689 adult insects belonging to 24 species of seven dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae and Stratiomyidae) was collected at the ILM premises. C. albiceps was the most frequent species on the corpses and the most abundant in the traps. Species referred to as of forensic importance, such as Lucilia eximia, Chrysomya putoria, Oxysarcodexia modesta and Ophyra chalcogaster were collected on traps, but not on cadavers. There seems to be a limited colonisation of cadavers at the scene of the death, despite the ubiquity of necrophagous species in the area. The results contribute to differentiate between species that are involved in decomposition and those found in and around the mortuary installations of the ILM, thus providing potential clues about the locality of death and the post-mortem interval.

  9. Effect of Tomato, Pepper and Artificial Diet on the Growth, Development and Fecundity of Spodoptera litura Fabricius%取食番茄、辣椒和人工饲料对斜纹夜蛾生长发育和繁殖力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严珍; 吕宝乾; 彭正强; 章程辉; 金启安; 温海波

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different diets on the growth,development,survival,stool weight of different instars larvae,the amount of oviposition of Spodoptera litura Fabricius were observed,and the experimental population life table under the corresponding foodstuffs was established,by feeding S.litura with tomato fruit,pepper fruit and artificial diet in the laboratory,respectively.The results showed that the larval developmental period and the whole generation of S.litura fed with pepper fruit were significantly longer than that fed with tomato fruit and artificial diet.The stool weight of different instars larvae of S.litura fed with artificial diet was heavier than that fed with pepper fruit.The population trend index(Ⅰ)was all greater than 1,and the innate capacity for increase(rm)was all greater than 0,and the population of S.litura showed a rising trend.%分别用番茄果实、辣椒果实和人工饲料饲养斜纹夜蛾,观察不同食料对斜纹夜蛾(Spodoptera litura Fabricius)的生长发育、存活、不同龄期幼虫的粪便重量、成虫产卵量的影响,组建相应食料下的斜纹夜蛾实验种群生命表.结果表明:喂饲辣椒果实的斜纹夜蛾幼虫发育历期和全世代显著长于喂饲番茄和人工饲料,喂饲人工饲料的斜纹夜蛾不同龄期幼虫的粪便重量显著重于喂饲辣椒果实;种群趋势指数(Ⅰ)均大于1, 内禀增长力(rm)均大于0,斜纹夜蛾种群呈增长趋势.

  10. 非寄主植物挥发油对黄曲条跳甲成虫嗅觉、取食及产卵行为的影响%The Influence of Non-Host Plant Volatiles on Olfactory, Feeding and Oviposition Behavior of Phyllotreta striolata Fabricius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 张茂新; 凌冰; 张世军; 丛斌; 梁广文

    2003-01-01

    选取5种黄曲条跳甲(Phyllotreta striolata Fabricius)的非寄主植物:薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha H. B. K)、飞机草(Chromolaena odorata L.)、蟛蜞菊[Wedelia chinensis (Osb.) Merr.]、马缨丹(Lantana camara L.)和番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).应用四臂嗅觉仪测定了黄曲条跳甲成虫对各种挥发油的嗅觉反应.结果表明:5种植物挥发油对黄曲条跳甲成虫都具有很强的驱避作用.室内选择性试验结果进一步证实了几种植物挥发油对黄曲条跳甲成虫取食和产卵行为具有干扰作用.

  11. 常见嗜尸性昆虫mtDNA提取方法的比较%Comparison of mtDNA Extracting Methods for Common Sarcosaphagous Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑶清; 郭亚东; 李茂枝; 熊枫; 李剑波; 蔡继峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(cetyl triethyl ammonium bromide,CTAB)法、十二烷基硫酸钠-醋酸钾(sodium dodecyl sulfate-potassium acetate,SDS-KAc)法和十二烷基硫酸钠-蛋白酶K(sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein K,SDS-PK)法对法医学常见嗜尸性昆虫mtDNA的提取效果.方法 随机采集放置在长沙地区室外草地家兔尸体上的大头金蝇、双色葬甲、金龟科、墨胸胡蜂4种72只常见嗜尸性昆虫,分别采用CTAB、SDS-KAc、SDS-PK 3种方法提取总DNA.核酸蛋白测定仪检测DNA纯度及浓度,用mtDNA特异性引物进行PCR扩增,琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测PCR产物,对PCR产物进行序列测定,将测序结果上传到GenBank.结果 3种方法均能成功提取4种嗜尸性昆虫的mtDNA,SDS-PK法提取效果最好,CTAB法对陈旧性样本提取效果优于另两种方法,SDS-KAc法对各类样本的提取效果相近.结论 实验中应根据不同情况,选择最恰当的提取方法.制备高质量DNA推荐使用SDS-PK法,陈旧性样本推荐使用CTAB法,在各类预实验中可采取低成本的SDS-KAc法.%Objective To compare effects of three different methods for mtDNA extraction from common sarcosaphagous insects including cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method, sodium dodecyl sul-fate-potassium acetate (SDS-Kac) method and sodium dodecyl sulfate-proteinase K (SDS-PK) method. Methods Seventy-two insects from four species [Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1784), Eusilpha bi-color (Fairmaire, 1896), Paraeutrichopus pecoudi (Mateu, 1954), Vespa velutina (Lepeletier, 1836)] were collected from the corpses of the rabbits in Changsha district. The total DNA of above samples was extracted by CTAB, SDS-Kac and SDS-PK methods. The purity and concentration of DNA were examined by protein-nucleic acid spectrophotometry, and mtDNA were amplified by specific primers and PCR products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Then PCR products were sequenced and subsequently uploaded to

  12. Apoptose e expressão de VP2 e GAPDH na infecção precoce pelo vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius em pintos SPF Apoptosis and expression of VP2 and GADPH in an experimental infectious bursal disease in SPF chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Batista

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove pintos SPF de um dia foram inoculados com o vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius (VDIB para avaliar a ocorrência precoce de apoptose e a expressão da proteína viral 2 (VP2 e da enzima gliceraldeído fosfato dehidrogenase (GAPDH. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos: 1-controle; e 2 a 5- com 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas pós-inoculação, respectivamente. Fragmentos da bursa de Fabricius foram colhidos para processamento histológico e extração de RNA. Lâminas coradas em HE e TUNEL (marcação in situ da fragmentação do genoma com transferase terminal de deoxinucleotídeo foram utilizadas na morfometria do índice apoptótico. Amostras de mRNA foram testadas para a expressão dos genes VP2 e GAPDH utilizando-se transcrição reversa e RT-PCR. Utilizou-se um kit SYBR GREEN PCR, e a reação foi desenvolvida em ABI Prism 7000 SDS. Os índices apoptóticos cresceram progressivamente indicando uma relação na atrofia bursal causada pelo VDIB. Paralelamente, os resultados da PCR em tempo real demonstraram queda da carga viral nas células linfóides da bursa nos diferentes intervalos de tempo do experimento. Esses resultados sugerem um papel protetor da apoptose na diminuição da replicação viral.Twenty-nine SPF 1-day-old chicks were inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV to evaluate early apoptosis and the expression of viral protein 2 (VP2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease (GAPDH. Five groups were formed: G1-control -and G2 to G5, - 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation, respectively. Half of each BF was fixed and processed by routine techniques. To quantify apoptosis, 5µm-thick sections were stained with HE and submitted to TUNEL (terminal transferase UDP nick end labeling technique. mRNA was extracted from pooled samples of 3 animals/group and used for the expression of VP2 and GADPH genes using the reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A SYBR

  13. Rearing five species of Diptera (Calliphoridae of forensic importance in Colombia in semicontrolled field conditions

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    María C. Vélez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Calliphoridae is widely known to lead the colonization of corpses and their development rates are frequently used to estimate the postmortem interval. This study presents the larval growth of five forensically important species of Calliphoridae in Colombia. Rearing took place in semicontrolled field conditions where the egg masses were collected. We show curves of larval growth, larval length and time intervals to reach all immature stages for Lucilia eximia and Cochliomyia macellaria at two sites with different climatic conditions and for Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Calliphora nigribasis at one site. Overall, high temperatures speeded up the development of the species reared at two different sites, whereas low temperatures for C. nigribasis, lengthened the total development time. Differences between this study and others can be explained by the experimental conditions in the field without the possibility of strict laboratory rearing controls.La familia Calliphoridae es ampliamente conocida por liderar la colonización de los cadáveres y sus tasas de desarrollo son frecuentemente utilizadas para estimar el intervalo postmortem. Este estudio presenta el crecimiento larval de cinco especies de Calliphoridae de importancia forense en Colombia, considerando que la cría se dio en condiciones de campo semicontroladas en los lugares donde las masas de huevos fueron colectadas. Mostramos también, los intervalos de longitud y el tiempo empleado en alcanzar todos los estadios inmaduros para Lucilia eximia y Cochliomyia macellaria en dos lugares con diferentes condiciones climáticas y Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala y Calliphora nigribasis, en un solo lugar. En general, las altas temperaturas producen una aceleración en el desarrollo de las especies criadas en dos sitios diferentes, mientras que bajas temperaturas para C. nigribasis, alargaron el tiempo utilizado para completar el desarrollo. Las diferencias

  14. Effects of meal size and temperature on the detectable period of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Adonia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)%捕食量和温度对麦长管蚜在多异瓢虫体内可测定时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高书晶; 庞保平; 周晓榕; 陈正贤

    2008-01-01

    为了方便准确评价麦田捕食性天敌对麦长管蚜Sitobion avenae (Fabricius)的控制作用,应用单克隆抗体及间接ELISA方法研究了捕食量和温度对麦长管蚜在多异瓢虫Adonia variegata(Goeze)体内可测定时间的影响.结果表明: 在不同的温度和捕食量下,麦长管蚜在多异瓢虫体内的降解中间产物曲线均为单峰型.温度对猎物的可测定时间有显著的影响,随着温度的上升,猎物的可测定时间不断缩短.特别是当温度达到30℃时,猎物的降解速率迅速上升,其可测定时间只有1.18天.捕食量对猎物的可测定时间也有显著影响,随着捕食量的增加,猎物的可测定时间延长.在25℃的条件下,当捕食量从1头蚜虫增加到3头蚜虫,可测定时间从2.81天延长到4.25天.

  15. Nim (Azadirachta indica): uma alternativa no controle de moscas na pecuária Neem (Azadirachta indica): an alternative for controlling flies associated with animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Sayão R. Deleito; Gonzalo E. Moya Borja

    2008-01-01

    As moscas Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, Cochliomyia hominivorax e Musca domestica, estão entre as mais importantes pragas da pecuária causando miíases e como portadoras de microrganismos patogênicos. O propósito deste estudo foi testar a eficácia de várias concentrações do óleo de nim sobre pupas das moscas mencionadas em condições de laboratório e de campo. A redução da emergência das moscas das pupas tratadas com 0,6 por cento de óleo de nim foi de 95,6 por cento em condições de l...

  16. Use of maggot therapy for treating a diabetic foot ulcer colonized by multidrug resistant bacteria in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia A.R.Q. Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the efficacy of maggot therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infected with multidrug resistant microorganisms. A 74 year old female patient with diabetes for over 30 years, was treated with maggot therapy using larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The microbiological samples were collected to evaluate aetiology of the infection. The therapy done for 43 days resulted in a reduction of necrosis and the ulcer′s retraction of 0.7 cm [2] in area. Analysis of the bacteriological swabs revealed the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies need to be done to confirm the role of maggot therapy in wound healing using a large sample and a proper study design.

  17. A fresh liver agar substrate for rearing small numbers of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Forensically important calliphorids can be reared on a mixture of beef liver and agar. Small pieces of meat, especially fresh or frozen beef liver, will desiccate in 2–6 h, but this simple-to-make feeding substrate remains moist for at least 12 h at 25 and 30°C without desiccation, even in small (5 g) amounts. We determined the survivorship of small numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (first-instar larvae to adult eclosion) raised on 5 g of liver agar and fresh beef liver. We found that all larvae raised on 5 g of liver died due to desiccation, but survivorship on 5 g of liver agar was equivalent to that on larger (50 g) pieces of either liver agar or beef liver.

  18. Comportamento de dípteros muscóides frente a substratos de oviposição, em laboratório, no Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil Behavior of caliptrate diptera in relation to the choose of oviposition substrates under laboratory conditions in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mario d'Almeida

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available How adult females of calyptrate Diptera recognize the appropriate breeding substrate is a matter of controversy. Among holometabolic insects, the feeding opportunities of immature stages are generally determined by the adult female choice of an oviposition site. The ovipositional and larvipositional substrate preference for the synanthropic flies (Chrysomya megacephala, C. putoria, Phaenicia cuprina: Calliphoridae; Atherigona orientalis, Synthesiomyia nudiseta: Muscidae; Ravinia belforti, Parasarcophaga ruficornis, Peckia chrysostoma: Sarcophagidae is presented in this work. The substrate used for testing were the following: bovine minced meat, fish (sardine, bovine liver, shrimp, squid, human faeces and banana. Bovine minced meat was the ovipositional and larvipositional substrate preferred by seven species. Human faeces were preferred by R. belforti.

  19. Use of maggot therapy for treating a diabetic foot ulcer colonized by multidrug resistant bacteria in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marilia A R Q; Ferraz, Julianny B; Junior, Miguel A A; Moura, Andrew D; da Costa, Maria E S M; Costa, Fagner J M D; Neto, Valter F A; Neto, Renato M; Gama, Renata A

    2015-03-01

    This study reports the efficacy of maggot therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infected with multidrug resistant microorganisms. A 74 year old female patient with diabetes for over 30 years, was treated with maggot therapy using larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The microbiological samples were collected to evaluate aetiology of the infection. The therapy done for 43 days resulted in a reduction of necrosis and the ulcer's retraction of 0.7 cm [2] in area. Analysis of the bacteriological swabs revealed the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies need to be done to confirm the role of maggot therapy in wound healing using a large sample and a proper study design.

  20. Dípteros muscóides como vetores mecânicos de ovos de helmintos em jardim zoológico, Brasil Muscoid dipterans as helminth eggs mechanical vectors at the zoological garden, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Cristina de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar as espécies de dípteros muscóides capazes de veicular ovos e larvas de helmintos e avaliar o potencial de contaminação dos dípteros capturados. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi realizada em dois pontos distintos do Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, no período de maio de 1996 a abril de 1998. As capturas dos dípteros foram realizadas semanalmente com armadilhas contendo peixe em putrefação, que permaneceram expostas durante uma hora nos dois pontos: local 1- próximo à lixeira do zoológico e o local 2- perto do recinto do hipopótamo e das aves de rapina. Foram capturadas 41.080 moscas, sendo a espécie Chrysomya megacephala mais representativa com 69,34%, seguida de Chrysomya albiceps 11,22%, Musca domestica 7,15%, Chrysomya putoria 4,52%, Fannia sp. 3,12%, Ophyra sp. 2,53% e Atherigona orientalis 2,08%. As moscas capturadas tiveram a superfície dos corpos lavadas com água destilada e os tubos digestivos dissecados. RESULTADOS: Das espécies estudadas, C. megacephala e M. domestica apresentaram maior quantidade de ovos de helmintos na superfície do corpo e no conteúdo intestinal. Ovos de Ascaridoidea e Trichinelloidea prevaleceram no conteúdo intestinal de C. megacephala. Dos ovos de helmintos encontrados na superfície do corpo e no conteúdo intestinal foram identificados: Ascaris sp., Toxascaris sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Oxiurídeos, Triconstrogilídeos e Acantocephala. Também foram encontradas larvas de helmintos na superfície do corpo dos dípteros. Houve diferenças significativas (nível de 5%, pelo teste F entre os diferentes pontos de capturas em relação ao número de ovos de helmintos encontrados nos dípteros. CONCLUSÕES: As fezes dos animais do jardim zoológico, encontradas freqüentemente nos abrigos e lixeiras, contribuíram para a proliferação dos dípteros muscóides, que assumem importante papel na veiculação de ovos de helmintos, principalmente pelo

  1. Survey of the Synanthropic Flies Associated with Human Habitations in Ubon Ratchathani Province of Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarinee Chaiwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synanthropic fly surveys were performed to determine the species composition and abundance in Ubon Ratchathani province in Northeast Thailand. Adult fly collections were conducted in various human habitations from two districts—Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap, at fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias, and rice paddy fields. Customized reconstructable funnel fly traps baited with 250 g of 1-day tainted beef were used for fly collections from September 2010–February 2011. A total of 3,262 flies were captured, primarily consisting of three families including: Calliphoridae (6 species, Muscidae (3 species, and Sarcophagidae (11 species. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, were the dominant species collected from both districts at all collection sites. C. megacephala was predominant in paddy fields, restaurants and garbage piles, while M. domestica was numerically dominant in fresh-food markets and school cafeterias. The current survey identified various species of synanthropic flies with close associations to humans and with the ability to transmit human pathogens in Ubon Ratchathani province; providing crucial information that may be used for developing control and sanitation management plans in this particular area.

  2. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  3. Phylogenetics of the Old World screwworm fly and its significance for planning control and monitoring invasions in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phylogenetic, genealogical and population relationships of Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b), nuclear elongation factor 1α( EF-1α) and nuclear white eye colour (white), using sequences of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies as outgroups. Cyt b (717 bp, 754 specimens), EF-1α (361 bp, 256 specimens) and white (577 bp, 242 specimens) were analysed from up to two African and nine Asian countries, including 10 Indonesian islands. We show that OWSF occurs as distinctive African and Asian lineages based on cyt b and white, and that there is a marked differentiation between Sumatran and Javan populations in Indonesia, supported by the genealogy and analysis of molecular variance of cyt b alone. Four cyt b sub-lineages are recognised in Asia: only 2.1 occurs on the Asian mainland, from Yemen to Peninsular Malaysia; only 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 occur in central Indonesia; 2.4 predominates on New Guinea; and 2.1 co-occurs with others only on Sumatra in western Indonesia. This phylogeography and the genetic distances between cyt b haplotypes indicate pre-historic, natural dispersal of OWSF eastwards into Indonesia and other Malesian islands, followed by vicariant evolution in New Guinea and central Indonesia. OWSF is absent from Australia, where there is surveillance for importation or natural invasion. Judged by cyt b haplotype markers, there is currently little spread of OWSF across sea barriers, despite frequent shipments of Australian livestock through Indonesian seas to the Middle East Gulf region. These findings will inform plans for integrated pest management, which could be applied progressively, for example starting in East Nusa Tenggara (central Indonesia) where OWSF has regional cyt b markers, and progressing westwards to Java where any invasion from Sumatra is unlikely. Cyt b markers would help identify the source of any re-emergence in treated areas. (author)

  4. Phylogenetics of the Old World screwworm fly and its significance for planning control and monitoring invasions in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhana, A H; Hall, M J R; Mahamdallie, S S; Muharsini, S; Cameron, M M; Ready, P D

    2012-07-01

    Phylogenetic, genealogical and population relationships of Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b), nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) and nuclear white eye colour (white), using sequences of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies as outgroups. Cyt b (717bp, 754 specimens), EF-1α (361bp, 256 specimens) and white (577bp, 242 specimens) were analysed from up to two African and nine Asian countries, including 10 Indonesian islands. We show that OWSF occurs as distinctive African and Asian lineages based on cyt b and white, and that there is a marked differentiation between Sumatran and Javan populations in Indonesia, supported by the genealogy and analysis of molecular variance of cyt b alone. Four cyt b sub-lineages are recognised in Asia: only 2.1 occurs on the Asian mainland, from Yemen to Peninsular Malaysia; only 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 occur in central Indonesia; 2.4 predominates on New Guinea; and 2.1 co-occurs with others only on Sumatra in western Indonesia. This phylogeography and the genetic distances between cyt b haplotypes indicate pre-historic, natural dispersal of OWSF eastwards into Indonesia and other Malesian islands, followed by vicariant evolution in New Guinea and central Indonesia. OWSF is absent from Australia, where there is surveillance for importation or natural invasion. Judged by cyt b haplotype markers, there is currently little spread of OWSF across sea barriers, despite frequent shipments of Australian livestock through Indonesian seas to the Middle East Gulf region. These findings will inform plans for integrated pest management, which could be applied progressively, for example starting in East Nusa Tenggara (central Indonesia) where OWSF has regional cyt b markers, and progressing westwards to Java where any invasion from Sumatra is unlikely. Cyt b markers would help identify the source of any re-emergence in treated areas. PMID:22664061

  5. Autosomal rearrangement in Gryllus assimilis Fabricius, 1775 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae

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    Edison Zefa

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Gryllus assimilis L. has a karyotype of 2n = 29 (X0, male and 30 (XX, female. The above karyotype was encountered along with another in which 2n = 28 (X0, male and 2n = 29 (XX, female in a population from the outskirts of Rio Claro city (São Paulo State, Brazil. Of eight specimens studied, five had the heterozygous karyotype involving a translocation and three had the basic karyotype. There were no individuals homozygous for the rearrangement. The heterozygous karyotype was the result of a chromosomal rearrangement between chromosome pairs 6 and 10, both of which were initially submetacentric. The members of the sixth pair normally have two constrictions in the small arm, with a satellite at the chromosome tip. The chromosome of the tenth pair involved in the translocation was generally submetacentric and probably underwent a pericentric inversion which transported the centromere to a subterminal position before being translocated. In this case, the long arm of the inverted chromosome of the tenth pair was translocated with the satellite of a member of the sixth pair.A espécie Gryllus assimilis L. apresenta 2n = 29, X0 (macho e 2n = 30, XX (fêmea, porém em alguns indivíduos coletados na cidade de Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil, foram encontrados dois cariótipos distintos: o cariótipo básico e outro rearranjado, com 2n = 28, X0 e 2n = 29, XX. O rearranjo foi interpretado como sendo autossômico e heterozigoto, caracterizado pela translocação envolvendo dois pares de homólogos submetacêntricos: o par 10, que possivelmente tem um dos elementos com uma inversão pericêntrica, e o par 6, que possui em seu braço curto duas constrições secundárias, diferenciando satélites em suas extremidades.

  6. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, E M; Nogueira, R M; Pina, D S; Manica, C L M; Faroni, L R A; Moreira, P S A

    2016-04-19

    Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL), width (BOW) and height (BOH) of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width). These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG) and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom) for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces. PMID:27097085

  7. Autosomal rearrangement in Gryllus assimilis Fabricius, 1775 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Edison Zefa

    1999-01-01

    Gryllus assimilis L. has a karyotype of 2n = 29 (X0, male) and 30 (XX, female). The above karyotype was encountered along with another in which 2n = 28 (X0, male) and 2n = 29 (XX, female) in a population from the outskirts of Rio Claro city (São Paulo State, Brazil). Of eight specimens studied, five had the heterozygous karyotype involving a translocation and three had the basic karyotype. There were no individuals homozygous for the rearrangement. The heterozygous karyotype was the result of...

  8. Interaction of enzyme inhibitors with insecticides on Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)and Spodoptera litura(Fabricius)%酶抑制剂与防治甜菜夜蛾和斜纹夜蛾杀虫剂的互作效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永强; 王伟; 于春雷; 慕卫; 胡延萍

    2011-01-01

    To understand the interaction of enzyme inhibitors with insecticides on Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), the laboratory toxicities of emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, tebufenozide and methomyl on the 3-instars of S. exigua and S. litura were determined using topical application. The results indicated that the relative toxicities of emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb were high on S. exigua and S. litura with the LC50 range between 0.69 1g/g and 16.32 μg/g, while only chlorpyrifos showed high toxicity to S. litura and tebufenozide to S. exigua with LC50 37.66 μg/g and 20.71 μg/g, respectively. The results of interaction of enzyme inhibitors with insecticides indicated that four different enzyme inhibitors of PBO, TPP, DEM, and SV1 showed significant restraint to chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb with the synergism ratio between 0.25 and 0.96, while showed synergism to emamectin benzoate, tebufenozide on S. exigua and emamectin benzoate, chlorpyrifos on S. litura with the synergism ratio between 1.22 and 16.2.%采用点滴法比较了甲维盆、虫螨腈.茚虫威、虫酰肼、毒死蟀、灭多威对甜菜夜蛾和斜纹夜蛾3龄幼虫的室内毒力,以及酶抑制剂与防治甜菜夜蛾和斜纹夜蛾杀虫剂的互作效应.结果表明,甲维盐、虫螨腈、茚虫威对2种试虫毒力较高,LC50值介于0.69~16.32μg/g之间;虫酰肼对甜菜夜蛾毒力较高,LC50值为37.66μg/g毒死蜱对斜纹夜蛾毒力较高,LC50值为20.71μg/g.酶抑制剂PBO,TPP,DEM,SV1在甜菜夜蛾和斜纹夜蛾上对虫螨腈和茚虫威均表现为抑制作用,增效比在0.25~0.96之间;而这4种酶抑制剂在甜菜夜蛾上对甲维盐和虫酰肼以及在斜纹夜蛾上对甲维盐和毒死蟀表现为增效作用,除SV1在斜纹夜蛾上对毒死蜱增效倍数高达16.20外,其它组合增效倍数均介于1.22~4.20之间.

  9. Adult behavior and circadian rhythm of sex pheromone production and release 0f the legume pod borer,Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)%豆野螟成虫行为学特征及性信息素产生与释放节律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆鹏飞; 乔海莉; 王小平; 周兴苗; 汪细桥; 雷朝亮

    2007-01-01

    豆野螟 Maruca vitrata(Fabricius)是一种严重的泛热带豆类蔬菜害虫.本文在(29±1)℃、相对湿度75%~80%、光周期14L:10D条件下研究了豆野螟成虫的羽化、交尾行为以及雌蛾性信息素的释放节律.结果表明:其羽化行为全天可见,在雌蛾中,86%于暗期羽化;在雄蛾中,73%于暗期羽化.雌雄蛾羽化行为在暗期第4、5和8 h差异达到显著(t>4;P<0.05).交尾活动发生在暗期19:00到5:00之间,交尾持续时间最短约为20 min,最长约为90 min,3日龄进入暗期第5 h具有最高的交尾率.1、6和7日龄成虫具有单个交尾高峰,2到5日龄成虫具有两个交尾高峰.同一日龄成虫交尾在暗期前半段平均花费的时间要明显高于在后半段花费的时间.低龄和高龄的成虫用于交尾的时间明显高于中龄的性成熟成虫.成虫的开始交尾时间随着日龄的增加逐渐前移.雄蛾对进入暗期后第5 h和第9 h处女雌蛾的性腺提取物和空气收集性信息素的触角电位反应最强,对3日龄处女雌蛾的性腺提取物和空气收集性信息素的触角电位反应最强.处女雌蛾田间诱蛾试验表明:23:00-01:00为诱蛾高峰期,3日龄处女雌蛾的诱蛾效果最好.该蛾的羽化、交尾及性信息素产生与释放均存在节律上的一致性.雌蛾的性信息素释放的时间较长,见于整个暗期,然而交尾行为发生时间较短,主要发生于两个交尾高峰之间.

  10. Effects of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabricius infestation on resistant enzyme activity in the leaves of tomato genotypes with different JA pathways%茄二十八星瓢虫为害对不同基因型番茄叶内三种抗性酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国红; 曹彬; 黄长礼; 戈峰

    2015-01-01

    [Objectives] We examined interactions between H. vigintioctopunctata and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes with different jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. [Methods] The tomato genotypes were; suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutant plants, 35s prosystemin (35s) plants, and wild type (Wt) plants. Activity of protease inhibitors (PI) and lipoxygenase (LOX) and dynamic change in relative gene expression of the three kinds of enzymes were tested to study the defense signal pathway induced by H. vigintioctopunctata in tomatoes, and the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in the plant defense process. [Results] Major results were; activity and gene expression of PI and LOX in 35s type tomatoes were significantly higher than in the other two varieties whereas the spr2 type tomato had the lowest level of PI expression. Different periods of exposure to H. vigintioctopunctata showed that the highest PI and LOX activity occurred in 35s and wt type tomatoes 24 h and 6 h after infestation, respectively. There was no significant temporal change in enzyme activity in spr2 type tomatoes. There were no significant differences in PAL activity and relative gene expression in the three tomato varieties. In the process of feeding on plants by H. vigintioctopunctata, PAL activity initially increased then declined after 48 h. No significant changes in PAL activity and gene expression were observed in systemic leaves. PI and LOX were more sensitive to insect herbivory than PAL. [Conclution] 35s tomatoes are to a certain degree resistant to H. vigintioctopunctata and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a role in this resistance.%【目的】研究茉莉酸合成相关基因在番茄抗茄二十八星瓢虫 Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabricius 中的作用,探讨茉莉酸信号因子在植物防御过程中起到的作用。【方法】利用3种基因型番茄茉莉酸合成缺失突变体 spr2、茉莉酸合成过量表达体35s、野生型番茄 Wt

  11. Focus stacking technique in identification of forensically important Chrysomya species (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha A. Elleboudy

    2016-09-01

    Recommendations: Further studies on the blowfly species that occur in Egypt and documentation of their key for identification are recommended to facilitate the diverse applications of these important insects in forensic investigations.

  12. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi, A; AR Rasekhi; M Kalantari; GR Hatam

    2009-01-01

    Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The vari­ous forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chry­somya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two differ­ent regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this prov­ince. &n...

  13. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faramarzi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The vari­ous forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chry­somya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two differ­ent regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this prov­ince.  

  14. Seasonality of insect succession on exposed rabbit carrion in Guangzhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Wei Shi; Xiao-Shan Liu; Hai-Yang Wang; Run-Jie Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Succession patterns for insect fauna,spanning four seasons,on rabbit carcasses were studied in Guangzhou China from 2006 to 2008.A total of 49 taxa belonging to three orders and 15 families were collected and identified.Four decomposition stages were recognized:fresh,bloated,decay and dry stage.Taxa diversity was higher in bloated and decay stages than fresh and dry stages.Internal and ambient temperatures were measured.Maximum internal temperature arrived earlier in warmer seasons.The sequence of insect succession in this study follows the same general patterns:the Diptera peaked initially,and the Coleoptera peaked later.Chrysomya megacephala was the dominant species in four seasons.Its time point of different development stages on carrion could be the most important indicators for PMI (postmaortem interval) estimation in Guangzhou.Yearly and seasonal differences in activities of insects were compared.Alpha diversity indices were calculated.There were no significant differences in Shannon-Wiener index,evenness (J) and dominance (C) between seasons and years.From the Jaccard similarity index,the highest similarity was between winter and spring,while the lowest was between summer and winter.Some species occurring exclusively in one season may be important to characterize different seasons.A list of the insect taxa associated with above-ground rabbit carrion during the four seasons was compiled,which can be used for estimating time since death in similar bio-climate areas.

  15. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M.; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.; Paulo, Daniel F.; Marinho, Marco Antonio T.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Purbojati, Rikky W.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2016-01-01

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies. PMID:26912394

  16. Edge effects on the blowfly fauna (Diptera, Calliphoridae) of the Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, B Q; Ribeiro, A C; Aguiar, V M; Mello-Patiu, C A

    2015-11-01

    In this contribution we examine the diversity, abundance and species richness of Calliphoridae in the Tijuca National Park, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Specimens were collected monthly between September 2009 and August 2010, using sardines as bait, in three points: A, on the forest edge (22°56'846"S 43°17'496"W), B, 700 m from it (22°57'073"S 43°17'832"W) and C, 1,200 m into the forest (22°57'321"S 43°18'031"W), evaluating the indicator species at each point and the anthropogenic influences and abiotic factors that determine species distribution. A total of 16,364 Calliphoridae were collected and 17 species were identified. Species abundance was strongly positively correlated with temperature. The greatest number of flies was collected at A, but in this point, diversity was lower and most individuals collected belonged to the dominant species. Point C, conversely, had the lower abundance and the highest diversity. Chrysomya megacephala, an urban and synanthropic species, was dominant at point A, whereas Laneela nigripes and Mesembrinella peregrina, typically forest species, were considered indicators at points B and C, respectively, showing that the anthropogenic influence is more intense at the forest edge.

  17. Durations of immature stage development period of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) under laboratory conditions: implications for forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Renata da Silva; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M

    2009-01-01

    Some microhymenopterans are parasitoids of flies of forensic importance. Their parasitic habit can alter the duration of post-embryonic development of these flies, altering the postmortem interval. In order to analyze possible alterations occurring during the immature development period of Nasonia vitripennis, this study tested different quantitative associations between female parasitoids and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala, which were defined by: (a) one pupa was exposed to different numbers of female parasitoids (1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9, 1:11) and (b) different numbers of pupae were exposed to one female parasitoid (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1). Analysis of variance (5% significance level) and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests were used for statistical analysis. There was a tendency of prolongation of the duration of parasitoid development, both by increasing the number of female parasitoids and by increasing the number of hosts in the associations. By increasing the number of female parasitoids per host, there is a possibility of increasing the occurrence of superparasitism, leading to competition for food source, then prolonging the duration of the immature development period. Increasing the number of hosts in the associations, females may distribute their postures among the available pupae and can cause reduction of the number of eggs per host. Since these insects are gregarious, the reduction of the number of eggs may delay the offspring development.

  18. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Paulo, Daniel F; Marinho, Marco Antonio T; Tomsho, Lynn P; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Purbojati, Rikky W; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-02-25

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies.

  19. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    followed the cube law. The weight of the prawn increased at the rate of more or less cube of the length. The relationship was found to be significant (p less than 0.001). At 95% confidence limit the b values were between 3.0524 and 4.3691. ANOVA showed...

  20. Moulting and moult quality in eye-stalk ablated penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R; Sivadas, P.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name 4_Kerala_Sci_Cong_Proc_1992_271.pdf.txt stream_source_info 4_Kerala_Sci_Cong_Proc_1992_271.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. Geographic variation in cypermethrin insecticide resistance and morphometry in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anbalagan Santhosh Kumar; Kathirvelu Baskar; Ajith Johnson; Savarior Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the most resistant strain of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) from Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka by synthetic insecticide treatment. Methods:Using leaf disc no-choice method, the insects were tested with different doses for pesticides. The LC50 and LC90 values were calculated by probit analysis. Results:In the insect bioassay, the cypermethrin insecticide showed significantly higher LC50 values of 14.699 g/L and 15.738 g/L against the Tamil Nadu and Kerala S. litura insect cultures respectively. The body length of 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae were significantly higher (P≤0.05) in TTP insect population [(19.2±2.3) mm, (28.05±3.20) mm, (36.1±2.0) mm], when compared with KTK [(18.5±2.7) mm, (23.38±2.00) mm, (31.75±2.70) mm] and control, KBB [(15.65±2.30) mm, (23.65±2.70) mm, (33.2±2.2) mm] populations. The body breadth of 3rd instar larvae was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in TTP insect population (4.9±1.1) mm, when compared with KTK (3.93±0.80) mm and control, KBB (3.65±0.70) mm populations. Conclusions: The present study clearly showed that field collected strains were highly resistant when compared to control. Based on our study, we conclude that reduced use of synthetic pesticides is necessary and IPM is a better way to reduce the development of pesticide resistance among strains of S. litura.

  2. Host plants of leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: noctuidae in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. Host plant survey for two years from three different locations in cotton belt revealed 27 plant species as host plants of S. litura belonging to 25 genera of 14 families including cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds, fruits and ornamental plants. Major host plants on which it thrived for maximum period were Gossypium hirsutum L., Ricinus communis L., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Colocasia esculenta L., Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Sesbania sesban L.. Eggs were also collected from tree plants but larvae did not complete their development. Reliance of S. litura on major plant species of cultivated crops necessitates their regular monitoring especially during March to April for their population abundance and early warning for their management on commercial crops like cotton.

  3. Application of Irradiated Pro biotic Microorganism in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine shrimp culture in Thailand has been developed continuously for the past two decades. This development will ensure the highest level of shrimp quality that will be suitable for the consumption of the people in the country and also aboard. The trend of culture system emphasizes on disease prevention more than treatment which will consequently limit the application of drug and chemicals. Application of pro biotic has been one means of this prevention that are commonly practiced by shrimp farmers. This research was conducted to compare the efficacy of normal Bacillus subtilis isolate from shrimp intestine and an irradiated B. subtilis as a pro biotic in shrimp feed. It was found that overall results were quite the same. These included the broth Co-culture assay. Effects on immune functions were conducted with Penaeus monodon with initial average weight of 17 gms by feeding with 3 gms/kg feed of spore of these two pro biotic for two mouths. The results indicated that both pro biotic caused significant improvement on percent phagocytosis only at the forth week of feeding trial and the overall enhancement of bactericidal activity. However, total haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were not altered. Total bacterial count in shrimp intestine was also conducted during the two month trial. the results indicated significant reduction of Vibrio spp. of both pro biotic groups when compared with the control. Number of Bacillus spp. in intestine were continuously high even after pro biotic treatment had been stopped Growth rate of experiment and control shrimp was not significantly different.

  4. Influence of temperature on reproductive biology and phenotype of a ladybird, Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, A; Omkar; Mishra, G

    2016-05-01

    Body melanisation in insects is polygenic, resulting from genetic polymorphism or phenotypic plasticity, with diverse implications ranging from thermal budgeting to reproductive success. In this study, we assessed the, mate choice, reproductive success, and offspring colouration of typical (T) and melanic (M) morphs of the ladybird Menochilus sexmaculatus paired at three temperatures 15°C, 25°C and 35°C. Mating success of the two morphs and the consequences for offspring fitness and offspring phenotype under these temperature regimes were evaluated. Melanic adults of both sexes achieved significantly higher mating success at 15°C and 25°C, but at 35°C no influence of adult morph on mate selection was observed. Melanic females were more fecund than typical females at all temperatures. Offspring of melanic parents developed faster than those of typicals at 15°C and 25°C, but not at 35°C. Evidence was also found of phenotypic plasticity in colour form at 15°C and 35°C. At 25°C the parents of pure (T) and (M) morphs produced offspring of the same morph. However, low temperature induced partial melanisation among the offspring of typical parents (T). Whereas at 35°C the offspring of (T) parents became paler in colour with very fine zigzag lines on elytra, i.e. they decrease the degree of melanisation. Pure melanics (M) compensated for elevated temperature stress by producing offspring that were either pure melanic but small or large with reduced melanisation. Our results on offspring phenotype variation indicate that the degree of melanism in morphs is a result of environmentally regulated expression of the parental genotype. PMID:27157332

  5. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Soundarapandian; Babu, R

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental) for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics). The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. ...

  6. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F A

    2014-12-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (subsequent sampling days) dynamics. We compared the drones' genotypes at ten microsatellite DNA markers with those of the queen genotypes of six drone-producing colonies located close to the DCAs (Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia). None of 430 sampled drones originated from any of these nearby colonies. Moreover, we estimated that 141 unidentified colonies were contributing to the three DCAs. Most of these colonies were participating multiple times in the different locations and/or during the consecutive days of sampling. The drones sampled in the DCAs could be attributed to six subpopulations. These were all admixed in all DCA samples, increasing the effective population size an order of magnitude and preventing matings between potentially related queens and drones. PMID:25558361

  7. DAÑOS EN GERMOPLASMA DE CEBADA (Hordeum vulgare Lin. PRODUCIDOS POR Rhyzoperta dominica FABRICIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regla M. Cárdenas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los daños cuantitativos producidos por plagas de almacén revisten vital importancia cuando se trata de semillas con destino a la investigación, pues generalmente las cantidades son muy pequeñas. El estudio se desarrolló con el objetivo de conocer las pérdidas de este tipo, producidas por Rhyzoperta dominica F. en semillas de 96 líneas de cebada procedentes de Siria y conservadas a la temperatura de 15 ± 2°C durante seis meses; para ello, se tuvo en cuenta la reducción producida en el peso (g, se determinó el peso de mil granos (PMG, se estimó el número de insectos adultos en mil granos (NAMG y se calculó, además, el índice de ataque (IA. Los resultados mostraron que 12 líneas presentaron daños producidos por R. dominica, con una pérdida promedio de 18 % en el peso en gramos; las líneas en estudio mostraron un bajo PMG (32.38 g, mientras el NAMG estimado fue de 31.25 y el IA de 3.17 %.

  8. Purification and biochemical properties of a salivary α-amylase in Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fazeli-Dinan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available α-amylase is one of the enzymes that has crucial role in extra-oral digestion (EOD of hemipteran insects. An α-amylase was purified and biochemically characterized from the salivary glands of Andrallus spinidens showing its considerable role in EOD process. It was found an enzyme by specific activity of 4.22 U/mg protein, recovery of 14.67 % and purification fold of 13.83-fold as well as molecular weight of 26 kDa. By using two buffer solutions, optimal pH of the purified α-amylase was found to be 9 for both universal and Tris-HCl buffers. Our findings revealed that the purified α-amylase had the highest activity at the temperatures of 35 and 40 °C, and were stable for 96 h at these temperatures. Kinetic parameters of the purified enzyme show that both starch and glycogen, are the suitable substrates for the enzymatic assay, but a lower Km demonstrated glycogen as a more appropriate substrate. Among the cations used to show their possible involvement in active site of the enzyme, Ca2+2+, Mg and one concentration of Cu2+ increased the α-amylase activity but Na+ decreased the enzyme activity. Triton X-100 increased the enzyme activity but SDS, EDTA, EGTA and TTHA decreased it, indicating involvement of metal ions in the active site of the purified α-amylase.

  9. Differential habitat use by demographic groups of the redfinger rubble crab Eriphia gonagra (Fabricius, 1781).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L S; Goés, J M; Fransozo, V; Alves, D F R; Teixeira, G M; Fransozo, A

    2014-08-01

    The structurally diverse rocky shores along the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, support a varied fauna and provide refuges for many organisms. Some of these environments allow for extensive microhabitats, among them the sand reefs formed by the polychaete Phragmatopoma lapidosa, which occupy much of this area. The beauty of the landscape attracts large numbers of tourists, who contribute to the damage to the sand reef colonies, causing an imbalance in the patterns of population distribution and of this ecosystem. We describe the structure and population biology of the redfinger rubble crab Eriphia gonagra, and investigated the differential occupation of the habitat by each demographic category of this species. Crabs were sampled monthly for two consecutive years on the rocky coast of Grande Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo, during spring low tides. Sampling was carried out over an area of approximately 1200 m2, during two hours on the rock surface and another two hours on the sand reefs. A total of 1407 crabs were collected; 776 on the sand reef (SR) and 631 on the rocky shore (RO). The majority of juvenile crabs inhabited the SR, while adult crabs were equally distributed in both microhabitats. This study showed that the SR is a natural nursery ground for the establishment of the early juvenile stages of E. gonagra, which use the reefs as a refuge and food resource. Many other organisms (mollusks, echinoderms, polychaetes etc.) settle on the reefs, and these areas may be among the most important in maintaining benthic diversity in the region. PMID:25296208

  10. Physiological effects of hypercapnia in the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata (Fabricius, 1779) (Bivalvia; Limidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karen M.; Kristiansen, Erlend; Zachariassen, Karl Erik

    2011-01-01

    The option of storing CO(2) in subsea rock formations to mitigate future increases in atmospheric CO(2) may induce problems for animals in the deep sea. In the present study the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata was subjected to environmental hypercapnia (pHSW 6.35, P(CO2), =33,000 mu atm) corresp...

  11. Progress in the eradication of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius, 1794 (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae) from the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblyomma variegatum, commonly known as the tropical Bont tick, was introduced from West Africa to the islands of Guadeloupe and Antigua in the 19th century. The tick spread only to two other islands in the French West Indies during the following 70 to 80 years. Since the mid-1970s, however, it became widely distributed in the eastern Caribbean islands. There is now increasing evidence that migratory birds, especially the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus (Ciconiformes: Ardeie) disseminated larvae and nymphs, as the egret itself has been spreading to new islands over the last 20 years (Corn et al. 1993, Barre et al. 1995). Subsequently, the tropical Bont tick, through its association with the bacterial skin disease known as dermatophilosis, caused the loss of large numbers of animals. On Nevis, for example, cattle numbers were decimated from 5,000 to 500 in less than 10 years. Elimination of this tick and its associated diseases could help to alleviate the deficit in animal protein in the region which imports about US$100 million worth of livestock products per annum. Risk analysis, feasibility and cost-benefit studies were carried out to assess the importance of these problems (Alderink and McCauley 1988, Gersabeck 1994). The US Department of Agriculture estimated potential losses of US$762 million annually if the tick and its associated diseases became established in mainland countries. These studies led to the formulation of the Caribbean Amblyomma Programme in the late 1980s (Barre and Garris 1989, CARICOM/FAO/IICA 1995, Wilson 1996). During the early 1990s, potential donors were concerned about the proposed tick control strategy whereby government veterinary teams would be responsible for treatment of all livestock. Based on practical experience in the region, it was considered particularly unrealistic for teams to treat 600 - 1,000 animals per day under the current livestock management practices. An alternative, or complementary, method proposed the use of mobile crush-pens which would also be difficult to implement. Who would erect them and where? Once erected, who would bring the animals to them? Most livestock in the region are owned by part-time farmers who tend their livestock early in the morning or late in the evening or on weekends. Consequently, they are rarely available to assist veterinary personnel in handling their livestock during normal working hours. This unique system of animal ownership and husbandry practices in the Caribbean would, therefore, due to very high operational costs, almost prohibit conventional delivery of tick control by veterinary services personnel

  12. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793)

    OpenAIRE

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; KOENIGER, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2014-01-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (...

  13. Effect of eyestalk ablation on moulting and growth in the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Balasubramanian, T.

    . The moult rate and dry moult weight showed marked differences between the two groups. In BEA shrimps, dry weight of moult in every succeeding moult was found to decrease. In the larger size group, values of protein efficiency ratio (PER) were almost 50...

  14. Investigation on mosquito and fly species in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park%上海化工区口岸蚊蝇调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙义涛; 郭光亮; 曹敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To know the composition and distribution of mosquito and fly species through field investigation in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park,so as to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and treatment of biological vectors.Methods Lamp-baiting and scooping method were used for the investigation of mosquitoes,and cage-trap method was used for the catching of flies.Results During the investigation from 2009 to 2011,10 species of mosquitoes belonging to 6 genera were monitored,with Culex tritaeniorhynchus being the dominant specie.The ecological wetland was the prime breeding place of mosquitoes,and its peak time of activity was from June to August.Coquillettidia ochracea and Ochlerotatus dorsalis,which were rarely found in Shanghai,were also collected during the investigation there.Fifty-nine species of flies belonging to 31 genera of 5 families were monitored,with Chrysomya megacephala,Hemipyrellia liqurriens and Atherigona oryzae being the dominant species,and its peak time of activity was from June to September.Population distribution displayed the feature of diversification.Conclusions Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Chrysomya megacephala were the dominant species in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park and were the prime vectors for prevention and control,and comprehensive prevention and control measures should be taken in accordance with their breeding habits and features,as well as changes in seasons of a year.%目的 调查上海化工区口岸蚊蝇,了解本区域蚊蝇种群的组成和分布,为口岸病媒防治工作提供科学依据.方法 蚊类调查采用灯诱法和捞勺法,蝇类采用诱蝇笼法.结果 2009-2011年,化工区口岸蚊类有6属10种,三带喙库蚊为优势种群,活动高峰在6-8月,生态湿地周围是蚊虫主要孳生地,捕获到上海地区较少见的黄色轲蚊和背点骚扰蚊;蝇类有5科31属59种,优势蝇种为大头金蝇、瘦叶带绿蝇和芒蝇,6-9月是活动高峰,种群分

  15. 2008-2009年柳州市蚊蝇密度监测分析%Monitoring and analysis the density of mosquitoes and flies in Liuzhou during 2008 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟柳青; 陈蔚恩; 罗静; 谢丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the pattem of annual vanation and population constitute of mosquitoes and flies ,to provide scientific basis for establishing control and prevention measures. Method Using manual - power - per - hour -trapping and cage trapping to monitor the density of mosquitoes and flies respectively. Results The density peak of mosquitoes appeared at the second and the fourth quarter, Culex quinquefasciatus was the dominant specie. There were two density peaks of flies in February and July of 2008 , and in April, June, August and September of 2009. Lucillia sericata, chrysomya megacephala and aldrichina grahami were the dominant species. Conclusions The density of mosquitoes and flies were higher in Liuzhou. At the basis of comprehensive prevention and control measures, combined the ecology characteristics of population and density fluctuation, canied on prevention and control strategies.%目的 了解柳州市城区蚊、蝇类季节消长规律及种群构成,为制订防制对策提供科学依据.方法 蚊密度监测用人工小时法,蝇密度监测用诱蝇笼法.结果 蚊在第二、四季度出现密度高峰,致倦库蚊为优势种群;蝇类密度2008年分别在2、7月出现高峰,2009年则在4、6、8、9月出现高峰,以丝光绿蝇、大头金蝇和巨尾阿丽蝇为优势种群.结论 柳州市区蚊蝇密度较高,应在以环境治理为主的综合防制策略基础上,结合种群和密度消长等生态学特点科学开展防制.

  16. [Dipterans of forensic interest in two vegetation profiles of cerrado in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Thiago A; Babata, Micaela L Y; De Souza, Carina M; De Sousa, Danielle; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia A; Mendes, Júlio

    2009-01-01

    Carrion breeding insects may be of great utility in crimes briefing. Studies on forensic entomology are restricted to few localities in Brazil and very few of them were done in the cerrado vegetation (a type of Savannah) until now. This work aimed to survey the main species of dipterans associated with the decomposition process of Sus scrofa and the insect succession pattern in carcasses in the Cerrado. The study was carried out in the dry and humid season of the year, in two cerrado vegetation profiles in Uberlândia, MG. Two pig carcasses were placed in each vegetation profile and time period of the year. The decomposition process was slower and insects were more abundant in the dry season. Differences in temperature, air humidity and pluvial precipitation seemed to be the main physical factors responsible for the differences in the time of decomposition of the pig carcasses between the two seasons. Fourteen species of dipterans (59,467 specimens) bred in the decomposing carcasses. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) was the species more abundantly breed in the two periods. The other species that breed in the carcasses were: C. putoria (Wiedemann), Hemilucilia segmentaria(Fabricius), Lucilia eximia(Wiedemann) (Calliphoridae), Peckia (Pattonella) intermutans(Walker), Peckia (Squamatoides) trivitatta(Curran), Sarcodexia lambens(Wiedemann) (Sarcophagidae), Musca domestica(L.), Ophyra aenescens(Wiedemann), Stomoxys calcitransL. (Muscidae), Fannia pusio(Wiedemann), Fannia sp. (Fanniidae), Hermetia illuscens L. (Stratiomyidae) and Phoridae sp. The Cerrado of this region presents many dipterans potential forensic indicators.

  17. Preliminary study of insects associated to indoor body decay in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yardany Ramos-Pastrana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary study of insects associated to indoor body decay in Colombia. This is the first report studying insects associated to indoor body decay process of a white pig (Sus scrofa (Artiodactyla, Suidae in a controlled indoor environment in an urban area of Florencia city, Amazonia Piedmont, Colombia. For a period of 54 days, 9,220 individuals (immature and adults, distributed in 3 orders, 5 families, 10 genera, and 10 species were collected using entomological nets and tweezers. Five decaying stages are described (fresh, bloated, active decay, advanced decay and remains. During the fresh stage we recorded Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830, Oxysarcodexia sp., Lepidodexia sp. and Lasiophanes sp.; during the bloating stage C. macellaria, C. albiceps, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819, Hemilucillia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758, O. aenescens, Oxysarcodexia sp., Lepidodexia sp., Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 and Lasiphanes sp.; during the active decay C. macellaria, C. albiceps, L. eximia, M. domestica, O. aenescens, Lepidodexia sp. D. maculatus and Lasiophanes sp.; during the advanced decay C. macellaria, C. albiceps, M. domestica, Lepidodexia sp. and Lasiophanes sp.; and during the remains stage C. albiceps, D. maculatus and Lasiophanes sp. The insects were sorted out in 3 ecological categories; necrophagous, predators and parasites and sarco-saprophagous. According to Chao and Jack estimators, total richness was observed on day 20, with 100% of the expected species.

  18. The Community Succession of Sarcosaphagous Insects on Pig Carcasses in Summer Indoor and Outdoor Environment in Shenzhen Area%深圳地区夏季室内外猪尸体上嗜尸性昆虫的群落演替

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹晓钧; 马孟云; 周晖; 赖跃; 王江峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:根据深圳地区夏季室内外猪尸体上主要嗜尸性昆虫的生长发育和群落演替规律来推断死亡时间(PMI)。方法从2013年5月初到8月初,在深圳市公安局法医检验中心模拟的室内、外场地分别放置成年猪尸体两头,观察尸体腐败的过程和猪尸体上出现主要昆虫的种类,记录猪尸体腐败各阶段的历期,以及主要昆虫在尸体上的群落演替。结果室内、外的猪尸体分别经历了412.5 h和325 h进入白骨化阶段。主要的嗜尸性昆虫,蝇类以大头金蝇、绯颜裸金蝇、星岛金蝇,甲虫类以大隐翅甲、赤颈郭公甲、丽腐阎甲、白腹皮蠹为优势代表性种类。室外猪尸体在较多雨水的影响下,优势蝇群明显产生二代,室内的猪尸体上未见较大规模二代产生。结论深圳地区夏季室内外猪尸体上主要昆虫的群落演替有规律性,7种代表性昆虫及其幼虫整体的活动规律对推断PMI有较大的意义。%Objective To explore the growing development and community succession of main sarcos-aphagous insects on pig carcasses in summer indoor and outdoor environment in Shenzhen area and to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). Methods From early May to August in 2013, in Forensic Med-ical Examination Center of Shenzhen Public Security Bureau, the main insect species and the decomposi-tion process were observed in two adult pig carcasses of simulative indoor and outdoor environment. The different decomposition stages and the community succession of insects were recorded. Results The indoor and outdoor pig carcasses showed skeleton 412.5 and 325 hours after death, respectively. The main species of flies on pig carcasses were Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Chrysomya chani. The main species of beetles were Crecphilus maxillosus, Necrobia ruficollis, Saprinus splendens and Dermestes maculatu. The dominant species of flies in the outdoor pig carcasses obviously

  19. Controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (acari: xodidae em eqüinos, Minas Gerais, Brasil - Parte I Strategic control of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (acari: ixodidae on horses, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arildo P. Da Cunha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a eficiência de um programa de controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense em eqüinos sob condições de campo. Os tratamentos carrapaticidas foram realizados a cada sete dias e divididos em dois módulos: o primeiro com início em abril e término em maio de 2004 (oito banhos e o segundo com início e término em julho de 2004 (cinco banhos, visando atingir as larvas e ninfas do carrapato. Empregou-se a base química piretróide - cipermetrina 0,015%, para banhar os eqüinos. Após o programa de controle houve uma redução de 44,85% da carga parasitária de adultos do carrapato no período de outubro de 2004 a março 2005, e de 59,74%, em fevereiro e março de 2005. Os resultados demonstraram a efetividade do controle estratégico. No entanto, consideram-se importantes fatores operacionais e de gerenciamento que podem interferir na aplicação prática desta tecnologia.The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of a strategic control program of Amblyomma cajennense in horses under field conditions. Acaricide treatments were applied at seven days intervals and divided in two series, the first one beginning in April 2004 (eight treatments, and the second one beginning in July 2004 (five treatments, aiming to control larvae and nymphs of the tick. A pyrethroid chemical base cypermethrin 0.015% was used for spraying the horses. There was a reduction of 44.85% in the adults infestetion of the tick in the period of October 2004 to March 2005, and 59.74%, in February and March 2005. Results showed the effectiveness of the strategic control. Important administrative and operational procedures can interfere with the practical application of this technology, and should be considered.

  20. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Euphoria lurida (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera - Scarabaeidae EM POMAR CÍTRICO POPULATION FLUCTUATION OF Euphoria lurida (Fabricius, 1775 (COLEOPTERA-SCARABAEIDAE IN CITRIC YARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gomes da Cunha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A flutuação populacional de Euphoria lurida foi estudada em pomar cítrico misto, abandonado e formado pelas variedades de laranjas baianinha e natal, tangerinas-cravo e rio, tangor-sabará e limão-cravo. Os adultos foram coletados através de armadilhas plásticas iscadas com melaço de cana a 20 %. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, quando também se procedia à troca da isca. As amostragens ocorreram no período de janeiro/84 a dezembro/86. Foram coletados 716 adultos no período e verificada a ocorrência da espécie durante todos os meses do ano. As maiores médias de coletas foram obtidas nos meses de janeiro, fevereiro e dezembro. O maior pico populacional foi observado no mês de janeiro do terceiro ano. Foram coletados 21,4%, 28,8% e 49,8% dos adultos no primeiro, segundo e terceiro anos de amostragens, respectivamente. A grande disponibilidade de alimento representada pelo alto número de frutos abandonados no solo foi a principal causa do aumento populacional da espécie no último ano de coletas. Estes resultados evidenciam que pomares abandonados, principalmente aqueles com grande quantidade de frutos deixados no solo, propiciam condições favoráveis ao rápido aumento populacional da espécie, que poderá migrar para pomares cítricos produtivos e causar sérios prejuízos atacando as flores e provocando a queda dos frutos em formação.

    The population fluctuation of Euphoria lurida was studied in a mixed citric yard, abandoned and composed by the varieties of baianinha and natal oranges, cravo and rio tangerine, tangor-sabará, and cravo lemon. Adult insects were collected using a plastic bait trap with 20% sugar-cane molasses. The collections were carried out every two weeks, when the baits were also replaced. Samples were undertaken in the period between January/94 to December/86. 716 adult insects were collected in such period and specie occurrence was verified during all months of the year. The highest population averages were observed during January, February and December, while the lowest occurrences happened in June and July. The highest population peak was observed in January, in the third year of collection. 21.4%, 28.8% and 49.8% of the adult insects were collected respectively, in the first, second and third years. An elevated food availability, caused by the high number of dropped fruits on the ground, was the main cause for the population raise observed during the last year of collection. Abandoned yards, specially those presenting a high amount of dropped fruits on the ground, propitiate the necessary conditions for the rapid population raise of the specie. Such increased population can migrate to productive citric yards causing serious damage, since they attack the flowers and lead to the fall of petals and growing fruits.

  1. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Euphoria lurida (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera - Scarabaeidae) EM POMAR CÍTRICO POPULATION FLUCTUATION OF Euphoria lurida (Fabricius, 1775) (COLEOPTERA-SCARABAEIDAE) IN CITRIC YARD

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Gomes da Cunha; Antônio Henrique Garcia; Valquíria Rocha Santos Veloso

    2007-01-01

    A flutuação populacional de Euphoria lurida foi estudada em pomar cítrico misto, abandonado e formado pelas variedades de laranjas baianinha e natal, tangerinas-cravo e rio, tangor-sabará e limão-cravo. Os adultos foram coletados através de armadilhas plásticas iscadas com melaço de cana a 20 %. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, quando também se procedia à troca da...

  2. Relative performance of surveys for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in Iraq based on fly trapping and myiasis monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taweel, A A; Okaily, R A; Salman, Q S; Al-Temimi, F A; Al-Adhadh, B N; Hamad, B S; Urech, R

    2014-10-01

    Fly traps are being used to monitor populations of Old World screwworm (OWS) flies in Iraq. We evaluated trapping systems for seasonality and trap type and compared the results with monitoring of OWS flies using myiases on animals. Fly catches increased during spring and autumn with low catches during the hot, dry summer and the cold winter. The effectiveness of the sticky trap/Swormlure and LuciTrap/Bezzilure for OWS flies could not be determined because no OWS were caught during the comparison period in 2009. The LuciTrap caught more flies of all other species than the sticky trap during this comparison. The numbers of myiases detected on animals in Iraqi provinces from 1996 to 2013 are provided. The high numbers of myiases in most provinces in the late 1990s were followed by lower numbers and subsequent apparent elimination in about half of the provinces. Myiases were detected mainly in sheep (77.0%) and goats (16.7%). A temporal comparison of OWS fly detection with traps and animal myiases in Babil province demonstrated a similar sensitivity and a weak correlation between the two methods. We recommend that both fly trapping and inspection of animals for myiases are used for the detection or monitoring OWS fly populations and that Iraq and the international organisations initiate an area-wide integrated OWS fly program, including the sterile insect technique, with the aim of eradicating the OWS fly from Iraq. PMID:24657848

  3. Genetical, Cytological and Biological Studies of OWSWF, Chrysomya bezziana Exposed to Gamma Rays: III.Effect on Flight Ability Index and Mating competitiveness Value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results showed that the Flight Ability Index (FAI) of Old World Screwworm (OWS) fly Ghrysomya bezziana adults which emerged form irradiated pupae with 30, 45, 60 and 75 Gy of gamma ray was not affected under Lab. conditions but it was effected under field condition. Result of mating competitiveness of adults emerged from irradiated pupae with 30 and 60 Gy of gamma rays and mated as follows: a - Irradiated males: unirradiated males:unirradiated females. b- Irradiated females: unirradiated females: unirradiated males. c- Irradiated females:Irradiated males:unirradiated females: unirradiated males. Showed that males irradiated with 30 Gy and mated as in a: reduced and have the percentages of egg hatching and have a very good competitiveness value and this dose which caused complete sterility in C. bezziana had no effect on this parameter, moreover, 30 Gy gamma rays caused an effect to females which mated as in b: Finally the results showed that irradiated males and females with 30 Gy as in c: had a very good mating competitiveness value.

  4. Gene variation and genetic differentiation among populations of the solitary mud dauber wasp Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius 1804 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C.B. Bergamaschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trypoxylon is a genus of solitary crabronid wasps whose population genetics is poorly known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation and differentiation among five populations of Trypoxylon albitarse, a species widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, with records from Panama to northern Argentina. Eight species-specific microsatellite loci were used for genotyping 96 adult wasps (one female per nest sampled at five sites in Brazil. The analysis of allelic richness and private alleles indicated high genetic diversity in the populations sampled. Pairwise comparisons using the Fst and Dest indices revealed significant differentiation for all, but one pair of populations. Fst, Dest, AMOVA and assignment test values pointed to inter-population differentiation. Additionally, the analysis of population structure using Bayesian and PCA methods characterized two alternative genetic groups. The Mantel test indicated no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Despite evidence of considerable dispersal capacity for T. albitarse, the data indicate low to moderate population structuring in this species.

  5. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  6. The potential effect of greenwater technology on water quality in the pond culture of Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tendencia, E.A.; Bosma, R.H.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Whitespot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused severe production drops in the shrimp industry. Numerous scientific manuscripts deal with WSSV epidemiology, but reports on minimizing disease outbreaks through ecological means are rare. Industry stakeholders resorted to various innovative techniques to re

  7. Studies on Life Fecundity Tables of Tobacco Leaf Eatingcaterpillar, Spodoptera Litura (Fabricius) On Tobacco, Nicotiana Tabacum (Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, R. A.; D. M. Mehta; B. L. Jat; L. V. Ghetiya

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Life tables of Spodoptera litura, were carried out on bidi tobacco cv ABD-101 under laboratory condition at 26 ± 1 °C temperature at Bidi Tobacco Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat). The results on number of individuals survived during development revealed that there was no mortality during egg stage and the maximum durations of egg, larva and pupa were 4, 22 and 14 days, respectively. The number that survived from 100 eggs to adult emergence was 76. Th...

  8. Crustacea decapoda : studies of the Plesionika narval (Fabricius, 1787) group (Pandalidae) with description of six new species

    OpenAIRE

    Crosnier, Alain; Chan, T. Y.

    1991-01-01

    A partir de récoltes faites par l'ORSTOM (Institut de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération), le Service Mixte de Contrôle Biologique des Armées (SMCR) et la National Taïwan Ocean University dans d'Indo-Ouest Pacifique (à Madagascar, aux Seychelles, à Taïwan, aux Philippines, en Indonésie, aux îles Chesterfield, en Nouvelle Calédonie et en Polynésie) et des prêts de divers Museums, une révision des #Plesionika$ du groupe #narval$ est tentée. (D'après résumé d'auteur)...

  9. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y-H; Zheng, X-S; Gao, X-W

    2016-08-01

    The aphid species Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi are the most important pests in wheat growing regions of many countries. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity in both aphid species by comparing 3-h exposure for one or three generations. Our results indicated that 3-h exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid for one generation had no discernible effect on the survival, fecundity, longevity, or enzyme activity levels of aphids. However, when pulse exposures to imidacloprid were sustained over three generations, both fecundity and longevity were significantly decreased in both S. avenae and R. padi. Interestingly, the fecundity of R. padi had almost recovered by the F5 generation, but its longevity was still deleteriously affected. These results indicated that R. padi laid eggs in shorter time lags and has a more fast resilience. The change in reproduction behavior may be a phenomenon of R. padi to compensate its early death. If this is stable for the next generation, it means that the next generation is more competitive than unexposed populations, which could be the reason underlying population outbreaks that occur after longer-term exposure to an insecticide. This laboratory-based study highlights the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the longevity and fecundity of descendants and provides an empirical basis from which to consider management decisions for chemical control in the field. PMID:27161277

  10. Histochemical Comparison of the Hypopharyngeal Gland in Apis cerana Fabricius, 1793 Workers and Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntima Suwannapong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypopharyngeal glands of honeybee are age-dependent structures that change with the size of acini and are correlated with various social behaviors. The histochemical structure of Apis cerana and A. mellifera worker hypopharyngeal glands in four different developmental stages wes stained with ninhydrin Schiff's and periodic acid Schiff's reagents (PAS for localization of proteins and carbohydrates, respectively, and examined with light microscopy. Nurse bees of both honeybee species had significantly larger glands as compared to guards and forgers, but there were no statistically significant differences between these two species after accounting for caste. Gland protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees, and this was correlated with the appearance of enriched protein granules in the cytoplasm. In addition, the hypopharyngeal gland protein concentration of A. mellifera was higher than that of A. cerana even though gland size was not significantly different between species. However, gland size was shown to have decreased progressively in foragers and guards.

  11. Oviposition capacity and egg mass to fecundity weight ratios in laboratory cultured amblyoma variegatum fabricius, 1794 (Acari: Ixodida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nkegbe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the reproductive characteristics of femaleAmblyoma variegatum in the laboratory. These included variations in engorgedweight, percentage body mass due to eggs, and quantity of eggs an engorgedfemale could lay. The results showed that different volumes of blood mealswould be consumed by the same progeny of Am. variegatum female ticks leading todifferent engorged weights. The study revealed that in Am. variegatum egg masscould account for as high as 51% of the engorged body weight. The female tickcould also oviposit as high as 31,487 eggs and also as low as 2421 eggs in samestudy cohorts. The study also showed that the actual engorged weight might notreflect the actual ovipositing capacity of the tick. Only the weight of the eggmass laid determined the actual quantity of eggs.

  12. Host Specificity of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae with Comments on the Drop-off Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marques Lisbôa Lopes

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic specificity of larval, nymph and adult Amblyomma cajennense on six different host species: Oryctolagus cuniculus, Rattus norvegicus, Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchus, Coturnix coturnix and Streptopelia decorata is described. In terms of the numbers of larvae and nymphs recovered, O. cuniculus was the best host species. The modal day for drop-off of larvae and nymphs was day three for the mammal hosts, but variable in the birds. We conclude that adult A. cajennense have a strong degree of specificity due to the fact that the tick failed to complete its life cycle on any of the evaluated hosts. The immature stages, on the other hand, showed a low level of specificity, most especially in the larval stage, indicating the existence of secondary hosts which probably serve as dispersers in the wild. The results also indicated a variable drop-off rhythm for larvae and nymphs in two periods, diurnal (6-18 hr and nocturnal (18-6 hr, which differed depending upon the host.

  13. MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR SHRIMP (PENAEUS MONODON, FABRICIUS FARMING AT BHAGBANPUR REGION IN PURBA MEDINIPUR DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sahu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp culture can give miracles towards socio-economic development for a large number of rural people. Its sustainable development can be achieved through the application of scientific methodology, input of technical knowledge at the crisis time, quality control mechanism targeted to marketing strategy, sufficient supply of institutional credit and Government involvement in the marketing strategy. An optimum output cannot be assured even after taking the risk of huge investment. The export policy promotion and distinct quality measures are the major thrust area for the recent days. Government efforts in implementing a proper planning and management oriented marketing strategies are required for the sustainability of the industry.

  14. Population characteristics of the mole crab, Hippa adactyla Fabricius, in the intertidal sediment at Kavaratti Atoll, Lakshadweep Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    for commercial exploitation especially in oceanic environment, like Lakshadweep islands, where food resources are limited. The information on the population parameters provided here therefore would be useful for sustainable exploitation...

  15. Ovicidal activity of botanical oil formulations against Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susaimanickam Maria Packiam; Kathirvelu Baskar; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal activity of different botanical oil formulations againstHelicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. Methods: Different botanical oils were formulated with different ratio to evaluate the ovicidal activity against H. armigera and S. litura at 5, 10, 15 and 20μl/L concentrations. Results: All the oil formulations showed the ovicidal activity against H. armigera and S. litura. The maximum ovicidal actvity of 76.74 and 69.36% was noticed at 20μl/L concentration in formulation 3 PONNEEM. Formulation 4 Pongam oil showed lower ovicidal activity of 31.34 and 24.76% against H. armigera and S. litura respectively. Among the formulations, PONNEEM exhibited statistically superior ovicidal activity against both insect pests. Conclusions: the present study clearly showed PONNEEM as a pontenial biopesticide to control the egg stage of economically important pests of H. armigera and S. litura. This is the first report for the ovicidal activity of PONNEEM against these two insect pests.

  16. First record of the behavior of latex drainage by Trigona spinipes (Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apidae in laticiferous flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Koschnitzke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the behavior of the bee Trigona spinipes, to avoid the latex, when piercing the base of the tubular corolla of the flowers of Mandevilla guanabarica in order to steal the nectar.

  17. Indigenous knowledge of the edible weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Sivongxay, N.; Praxaysombath, B.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-)cultivating and farming edible insec

  18. A case report: A rare case of infant gastrointestinal canthariasis caused by larvae of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xi; Wang, Li-Fu; Feng, Ying; Xie, Hui; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; He, Ai; Karim, Md Robiul; Lv, Zhi-Yue; Wu, Zhong-Dao

    2016-01-01

    Background Canthariasis is a disease of humans caused by the infestation of beetle larvae. It is the second important insectal disease after myiasis. Several species of beetles are reported to cause the disease in gastrointestinal tract, urogenital system, nasal sinuses, ears and faces of mammals. The cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne is a widespread and destructive pest that usually feeds on tobacco, tea, beans, cereal grains, and animal and plant specimen. While there was no previous e...

  19. Cellular and molecular markers in monitoring the fate of lymphoid cell culture from Penaeus monodon Fabricius (1798).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Jose, Seena; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright

    2015-12-01

    Lymphoid cell culture from penaeid shrimps has gained much acceptance as an in vitro platform to facilitate research on the development of prophylaxis, and therapeutic strategies against viruses and for cell line development. However, lymphoid cells can be used as platform for in vitro research, only if they are in metabolically and mitotically active state in vitro with unaltered cell surface receptors. Through this study, we addressed the response of lymphoid cells to a new microenvironment at cellular and molecular levels; including the study of mitotic events, DNA synthesis, expression profile of cell cycle genes, cytoskeleton organization, metabolic activity and viral susceptibility. The S-phase entry and synthesis of new DNA was recorded by immunoflourescent technique. Cdc2, CycA, CycB, EF-1α and BUB3 genes involved in cell cycle were studied in both the cells and tissue, of which EF-1α showed an elevated expression in cells in vitro (∼ 19.7%). Cytoskeleton network of the cell was examined by studying the organization of actin filaments. As the markers for metabolic status, mitochondrial dehydrogenase, protein synthesis and glucose assimilation by the cells were also assessed. Viral susceptibility of the cell was determined using WSSV to confirm the preservation of cellular receptors. This study envisages to strengthen the shrimp cell line research and to bring forth lymphoid cell culture system as a 'model' in vitro system for shrimp and crustaceans altogether.

  20. Gamma sterilization of sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Effects of irradiation on fertility, longevity, and mating potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naked pupae of sweet potato weevil were exposed to gamma rays two or three days before an adult eclosion. The irradiation reduced an adult longevity by half, and atrophied adult testes and ovarioles. Oviducts were swelled and changed in color from milk-white to brown. As irradiated males mated with non-irradiated females and vice versa, most of females had sperm in their spermathecae except insects irradiated at 100 Gy. A doses of 70 Gy was required to prevent a reproduction of adults from irradiated pupae

  1. Bioactivity of Pseudocalymma alliaceum (Lam.) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) against Spodoptera litura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidotera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar; Tamilarasu Chinnamani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, larvicidal and insect growth inhibitory activities of crude extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum tested against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods: Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera.Results:Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant, insecticidal activity against S. litura and H. armigera. Maximum percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were found on treatment with ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by extract treated larvae. Ethyl acetate extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum, showed higher percentage of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities.Conclusions:This is the first report on S. litura and H. armigera. Further, the active compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts will be useful for controlling economically important insect pests.

  2. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedokun, A V; Adeniyi, D O

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations. PMID:27147898

  3. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  4. Novel Pathways Revealed in Bursa of Fabricius Transcriptome in Response to Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Sun

    Full Text Available Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC has major negative impacts on human and animal health. Recent research suggests food-borne links between human and animal ExPEC diseases with particular concern for poultry contaminated with avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC, the avian ExPEC. APEC is also a very important animal pathogen, causing colibacillosis, one of the world's most widespread bacterial diseases of poultry. Previous studies showed marked atrophy and lymphocytes depletion in the bursa during APEC infection. Thus, a more comprehensive understanding of the avian bursa response to APEC infection will facilitate genetic selection for disease resistance. Four-week-old commercial male broiler chickens were infected with APEC O1 or given saline as a control. Bursas were collected at 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi. Based on lesion scores of liver, pericardium and air sacs, infected birds were classified as having mild or severe pathology, representing resistant and susceptible phenotypes, respectively. Twenty-two individual bursa RNA libraries were sequenced, each yielding an average of 27 million single-end, 100-bp reads. There were 2469 novel genes in the total of 16,603 detected. Large numbers of significantly differentially expressed (DE genes were detected when comparing susceptible and resistant birds at 5 dpi, susceptible and non-infected birds at 5 dpi, and susceptible birds at 5 dpi and 1 dpi. The DE genes were associated with signal transduction, the immune response, cell growth and cell death pathways. These data provide considerable insight into potential mechanisms of resistance to ExPEC infection, thus paving the way to develop strategies for ExPEC prevention and treatment, as well as enhancing innate resistance by genetic selection in animals.

  5. Efficacy of different fly baits%不同诱饵对蝇类引诱效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 贾凤龙; 梁焯南; 张韶华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of three kinds of baits (rotten fish, rotten eggs and brown sugar-vinegar) against flies to offer the ideal option for vector monitoring. Methods Fly traps with different baits were deployed simultaneously in five experimental sites. The captured flies were identified in the laboratory. Results No significant differences in the captured species was found between the baits. Flies captured by the rotten fish, rotten eggs and brown sugar-vinegar accounted for 66.99%, 32.07% and 0.94%, respectively. Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica were the dominant species in the rotten fish group. Lucilia cuprina was more easily attracted by sugar-vinegar baits. Rotten eggs were more attractive to C. Megacephala and Hemipyrellia ligurriens. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were more easily attracted by rotten fish, while Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae and Anthomyiidae preferred rotten eggs. Conclusion Sugar-vinegar baits did not reflect seasonal changes as they attracted a very small number of flies. Rotten fish attracted a large number of flies from only a few species. Rotten eggs could attract a proper number of flies from a balanced collection of species, and thus could be used for fly monitoring.%目的 比较分析腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃、红糖食醋以及腐败鸡蛋3种诱饵对不同蝇种的引诱力差别,以筛选媒介蝇类监测的最佳诱饵.方法 采用诱蝇笼法,选取5个实验点同时使用3种饵料进行诱集,诱得的蝇类在实验室进行鉴定.结果 3种诱饵诱集的蝇种区别不明显,诱集个体数量上按多少排列依次为腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵、腐败鸡蛋饵、红糖食醋饵,分别占捕蝇总数的66.99%、32.07%和0.94%;不同诱饵诱集的优势种差别较大,腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵诱集的优势种为大头金蝇和家蝇,红糖食醋饵为铜绿蝇,腐败鸡蛋饵为大头金蝇和瘦叶带绿蝇;丽蝇科和蝇科趋向于被腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵吸引,而丽蝇科、麻蝇科和花蝇

  6. Insects of forensic importance from Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil Insetos de importância forense do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Barros de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted throughout the year 2005, at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas campus. The objectives of the study were to analyze the decomposition of rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. with mean weight 2.67 Kg carcass and describe the interaction of insects acting on it, as well as the insect's potential use in legal medicine. We collected 5.239 insect specimens; 1.827 of them were obtained from larvae collected from carcasses and reared. The specimens were identified and 20 species were of forensic importance. The species Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae were better indicators of post-mortem interval (PMI because they occurred in all seasons and were the first to reach the carcass. Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, H. segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Muscina stabulans (Fallén, 1817 and Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, 1883 (Diptera, Muscidae can disclose death time because they occur only in certain months of the year. Oxyletrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840 (Coleoptera, Silphidae and Dermestes maculates De Geer, 1774 (Coleoptera, Desmestidae were found in advanced stages of decomposition.Durante todas as estações do ano de 2005 foi conduzido um experimento em uma área do campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a decomposição de carcaças de coelho (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. pesando 2,67 Kg em média e descrever como os insetos atuam na decomposição e seu possível uso na medicina-legal. Foram coletados 5.239 espécimes; 1.827 foram obtidos a partir da criação de imaturos coletados na carcaça. Foram identificadas 20 espécies com importância forense. As espécies mais propícias para serem usadas com indicadoras de intervalo post-mortem (IPM são Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 e Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae por terem sido encontradas em todas as estações de coleta

  7. Effects of the gamma and ultraviolet radiation in metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) isolated SOROKIN, 1883 and its application to control the distracer saccharals (Fabricius, 1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of M. anisopliae and the utilization of this pathogen, aiming the polulation control of the sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis. To evaluate the application of M. anisopliae under field conditions, two experiments were carried out, the first consisting of a spore suspension application upon sugarcane borer egg masses, and the second consisting of a pulverization of spores upon egg masses previously placed on sugarcane leaves. The dosages utilized were of 100, 200 and 300 g of spores/ha. The results obtained in both trials indicated that the deposition of spores on D. saccharalis egg masses was difficulted by the sugarcane foliar mass. (author)

  8. 苜蓿切叶蜂在杂交大豆育种上的应用%Utilization of Megachile rotundata Fabricius on crossbreeding soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张磊; 戴瓯和; 李杰坤; 黄志平

    2003-01-01

    苜蓿切叶峰是苜蓿种子生产中重要的传粉昆虫,2000-2001年引进苜蓿切叶蜂在杂交大豆制种方面进行了初步研究.结果表明,苜缩切叶蜂不仅适于我国东北温暖、少雨和日照充足的气候条件,在黄淮地区高温、多雨的环境条件下也能正常活动,且对大豆的传粉效果要比蜜蜂提高一倍多.苜蓿切叶蜂对大豆传粉效率高、速度快、活动范围小的特点为开放式杂交制种提供了可能.

  9. IMPROVEMENT IN LABORATORY REARING OF IMMATURE STAGES OF SNAIL-KILLING FLY SEPEDON SPHEGEA (FABRICIUS AND THEIR SURVIVAL (INSECTA, DIPTERA, SCIOMYZIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Tirgari

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology of immature stages of S.sphegea and different techniques for their laboratory rearing has been studied during the past five years (1972-77. This fly is one of the 18 Iranian species of snail-killing flies which is dominant in the focus area of schistosomiasis (Khuzestan Province in the south-west of Iran. The following procedures improved appreciably our laboratory rearin-technics and greatly reduced larval mortality: 1- Large number of fresh aquatic snails required for the progress of this study has been obtained at the entrances of the traditional under ground water canals (Ghanat in Teheran. These canals are almost permanent sources of snails because their water temperatures are rather constant through out the year and the water is by far protected from the surface pollution. In other cases, fresh snail was brought from distant swamp and rice fields. Attempts to maintain and to rear live aquatic snails, in large container equipped with aeration pump were not successful due to infection with coli form bacteria. Although the infected snails did not show any biological ill symptoms, could cause heavy mortality among larvae of flies. 2- Fly larvae were reared in plastic container of 28×32 cm. containing 7 to 8 liters of water (7 to 8 cm.depth. Eight to 12 laboratory vials filled with water were placed vertically in several rows in each container to secure uniform distribution of both snails and fly larvae. Fresh and dried leaves of lettuce were used to feed the snails. 3- Dead snails and their shells were picked out by forceps and half of the volume of water of all containers was drained from the bottom by siphoning every two days. 4- The surface pollution of water in the containers, which caused high mortality in different stages of larval development, was removed every four to five days by strips of blotting paper. The oily missed pollution on the water-surface was mostly due to dead snails, rotten leaves of lettuce and to a lesser extend caused by air pollution. 5- Several floating sticks on the inner periphery of each container provided resting place mostly for full-grown larvae. Many of the third stage larvae used to craw1 out of the containers, and sometimes suffering more than 50% mortality. The average survival of newly borne larvae up to pupal stage in 4 cohort of 15 was 71.7, whereas the average survival of 24 hours-fed larvae on crushed snail prior to release, in 5 cohort reached to 84% (min. 66. 66, max. 100%. It is concluded that the feeding of newly borne larvae on crushed aquatic snails for 24 hours prior to release is advantageous, in case of biological based on the mass release of larvae of the above snail-killing fly.

  10. 烟草甲植物源驱避剂的筛选%Screening of plant-derived repellents against tobacco beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李为争; 范荫荫; 安靖靖; 王琼; 郭线茹; 罗梅浩; 原国辉

    2014-01-01

    为筛选烟草甲植物源高效驱避剂,对12种芳香植物材料进行了筛选,比较了肉桂醛及其2种结构类似物(肉桂酸甲酯和肉桂酸乙酯)的驱避活性,测定了肉桂醛琼脂胶包结物的驱避效果。Y形嗅觉仪测定结果表明,肉桂皮粉和丁香粉对烟草甲具有极显著的驱避活性,3种化合物的驱避活性次序为:肉桂醛>肉桂酸甲酯>肉桂酸乙酯。盆形嗅觉仪测定结果表明,肉桂醛琼脂胶包结物在4 d内对烟草甲的驱避反应指数可达100%。肉桂醛是烟用香精的成分,可制作琼脂胶包结驱避剂用于烟仓中烟草甲的防治。%Twelve aroma plant species were chosen to screen effective plant repellent to tobacco beetle, Lasioderma serricorne. Repellent activity of cinnamaldehyde was compared against its two structural analogs (methyl cinnamate and ethyl cinnamate), and repellent effect of cinnamaldehyde formulated in agaro-pectin was also determined. Results in Y-typed olfactometer showed that the Cinnamomun cassia bark powder and Syringa oblata bud powder had extremely significant repellent effect, and repellent activity of three tested compounds was expressed in a declining order of cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and ethyl cinnamate. Results in basin-shaped olfactometer showed that repellent index of cinnamaldehyde formulated in agaro-pectin almost reached 100%against Lasioderma serricorne during a four-day test period. Thus cinnamaldehyde as component of tobacco flavor could be used to make agaro-pectin repellent against Lasioderma serricorne in tobacco warehouse.

  11. Influence of iridoid glycoside containing host plants on midgut β-glucosidase activity in a polyphagous caterpillar, Spilosoma virginica Fabricius (Arctiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankoke, Helga; Bowers, M Deane; Dobler, Susanne

    2010-12-01

    Iridoid glycosides are secondary plant compounds that have deterrent, growth reducing or even toxic effects on non-adapted herbivorous insects. To investigate the effects of iridoid glycoside containing plants on the digestive metabolism of a generalist herbivore, larvae of Spilosoma virginica (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) were reared on three plant species that differ in their secondary plant chemistry: Taraxacum officinale (no iridoid glycosides), Plantago major (low iridoid glycoside content), and P. lanceolata (high iridoid glycoside content). Midguts of fifth instar larvae were assayed for the activity and kinetic properties of β-glucosidase using different substrates. Compared to the larvae on T. officinale, the β-glucosidase activity of larvae feeding on P. lanceolata was significantly lower measured with 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside. Using the iridoid glycoside aucubin as a substrate, we did not find differences in the β-glucosidase activity of the larvae reared on the three plants. Heat inactivation experiments revealed the existence of a heat-labile and a more heat-stable β-glucosidase with similar Michaelis constants for 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to the observed decrease of β-glucosidase activity for larvae reared on P. lanceolata and its relevance for generalist herbivores in adapting to iridoid glycoside containing plant species and their use as potential host plants. PMID:20727899

  12. Use of gamma radiation cobalt 60 for disinfestation of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1972) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Chamomilla recutita L. and Pimpinela anisum L. dehydrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare; Potenza, Marcos Roberto [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Sanidade Vegetal]. E-mail: julianaabc@ig.com.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2008-03-15

    Stores products such a grains, flours, dry fruits and spices are normally infested by pests as beetles (Lasioderma serricorne), mites and moths, depreciating the product visually and promoting its deterioration. To improve the quality of spices, medicinal plants and others foodstuffs there is a need for adequate methods of handling, correct identification of the species, adequate collection and storage. The objective of this work was to determine the dose of gamma radiation for the disinfestation of medicinal and aromatic plants infested by L. serricorne. The plants used in this study were Chamomilla recutita L. and Pimpinela anisum L. in this dehydrated form. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas e Acaricidas from Instituto Biologico/SP, during the months of January and May 2006, and the irradiations were carried out in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN/SP, using and experimental Cobalt 60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220. Each treatment consisted of 5 parcels containing 10 g of dehydrated products infested with 20 last instar larvae of L. serricorne, conditioned in plastic 10 x 10 cm containers with small punctures in the cover to allow internal aeration. The substratum previously infested was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0: 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.25; 1.50; 1.75; 2.0; 2.25; 2.50 and 2.75 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were kept in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5% and after a 45 days period the number of adults insects emerged was evaluated. The disinfestation dose of gamma radiation for last instar larvae L. serricorne on Chamomilla recutita L. and Pimpinela anisum L. was 2.0 kGy. (author)

  13. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klowkliang, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.49% w/w. There are andrographolide,14-deoxy-11-12-didehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide. TLC-chromatogram of Clinacanthus nutans extract after reacted with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid showed a 9 key compounds, while preliminary neutralization test of the compounds revealed that there were active compounds against HSV-1 virus. In vitro efficacy test revealed that Curcuma longa and Andrographis paniculata extracts at 250 and 1,500 mg/L could eradicate 15 isolates of Vibrio spp. which were isolated from infected shrimps. Effects of medicinal plant extracts incorporated into the diet on shrimp immune responses were investigated. Shrimp fed diet containing Clinacanthus nutans extract at 20 mg/kg of diet had good growth, FCR and immune responses. The shrimp that were fed diet containing Curcuma longa extracts at 25 mg/kg of diet for 7-14 days showed high resistance to Vibrio harveyi. Likewise, the shrimp fed Andrographis paniculata extract at 25 mg/ kg of diet for 14 days had a higher resistance to WSSV. Incorporating the medicinal extracts at higher levels resulted in reduction in diet palatability which consequently had an effect on a decrease in growth, immune responses and resistance to bacterial and WSSV infection.

  14. Biological activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (Solanaceae) against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner and armyworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidotera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar; Selvaraj Premalatha; Kuppusamy Elumalai

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (S. pseudocapsicum) seed extracts against Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods:Hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate seed extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera. Results:Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant and insecticidal activities against S. litura and H. armigera. Percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were maximum in treatment of ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by seeds on extract treated larvae. Conclusions: Ethyl acetate extracts of S. pseudocapsicum, showed higher efficiency of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities. Hence, it can be used to controll agricultural insect pests, S. litura and H. armigera.

  15. 简述防治中蜂巢虫的方法%The Method of Prevention and Cure Wax-mothes in Apis cerana cerana Fabricius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦文安

    2006-01-01

    防治巢虫是中蜂饲养的重要工作之一,要避免或减少巢虫对蜂群的危害,需要养蜂者持久、细致地做好多方面的防治工作才能收到良好的效果。防治巢虫的方法我认为可以分为两大类:一是如何提高蜂群自身的抵抗力;二是人工捕杀、阻隔和破坏巢虫的滋生场所。笔者把养蜂前辈和同行的多种经验同自己的一些方法结合起来运用,效果不错。现介绍给初学养蜂者参考。

  16. Bioactivity of Lemon Oil against Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius%柠檬精油对谷蠹的生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 胡奇; 崔新仪

    2013-01-01

    [目的]植物精油可以克服仓储害虫化学防治的种种弊端.[方法]以谷蠹为试虫,研究了不同剂量柠檬精油对谷蠹的室内生物活性.[结果]柠檬精油100 μL/L处理对谷蠹成虫不仅具有较强的熏蒸活性和驱避活性,而且对其幼虫的羽化有一定的抑制作用.[结论]室内生物活性测定结果表明柠檬精油有望开发成一种绿色无污染的仓储害虫杀虫剂.%[Aims] Plant essential oil can control the disadvantages of chemical control of storage pests. [Methods] Bioactivity of different dose lemon essential oil against Rhizopertha dominnica was detected by the indoor bioassay. [Results] The treatment of 100 μL/L lemon essential oil not only had stomg fumigation and repellency against the adults of R. dominica, but also had certain influence on growth and development against the larva of R. dominica. [Conclusions] Indoor bioassay showed that lemon essential oil is expected to be developed into a green pollution-free insecticide against storage pests.

  17. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    Klowkliang, T.; Tattanon, T.; Ruangsri, J.; Supamattaya, K.; Suntornchareonnon, N.; Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.4...

  18. Use of gamma radiation cobalt 60 for disinfestation of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1972) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. dehydrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Amanda C.O.; Potenza, Marcos R.; Alves, Juliana N.; Justi Junior, Joao [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Sanidade Vegetal]. E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Stored products such as grains, flours, dry fruits and spices are normally infested by pests as beetles (Lasioderma serricorne), mites and moths, depreciating the product visually and promoting its deterioration. To improve the quality of spices, medicinal plants, seasoning and others foodstuffs there is a need for adequate methods of handling, correct identification of the species, adequate collection, pre and post-treatment procedures and adequate storage. The objective of this work was to determine the dose of gamma radiation for the disinfestations of medicinal and aromatic plants dehydrated infested by L. serricone. The plants used in this study were Cymbopogon citratus stapf (lemon grass) and Ocimun basillicum L. (basil) in this dehydrated form. The experiment was carried out in the Arthropods Laboratory of the Instituto Biologico/SP, during the months of January and May 2006, and the irradiations were carried out in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN/SP, using an experimental Cobalt 60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220. Each treatment consisted of 5 parcels containing 10g of dehydrated products infested with 20 last instar larvae of L. serricorne, conditioned in plastic 10x10 cm containers with small punctures in the cover to allow internal aeration. The substratum previously infested was kept for 1 day in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C, after this period the substratum was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,50; 1,75; 2,0; 2,25; 2,50 e 2,75 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were kept in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5 % and after a 45 days period the number of adults insects emerged was evaluated. The lethal dose of gamma radiation for L. serrricorne last instar larvae on Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. was 1,75 kGy. (author)

  19. Taxonomic studies of the last instar nymph of Lathrecista asiatica asiatica (Fabricius 1798 (Family: Libellulidae, Order: Odonata by using its Exuvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Paul Adambukulam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lathrecista asiatica asiatica, the Asiatic Blood Tail, is a monotypic cosmopolitan dragonfly species of the genus Lathrecista belonging to family Libellulidae, reported from peninsular India to Australia. No literature is available on the description of the nymph of this species, and the present paper describes the nymphal features of the last instar of Lathrecista asiatica asiatica by using its exuviae which was collected at the time of emergence of adult from a temporary pond in Ammadam, Thrissur district, Kerala, India.

  20. Mitochondrial COI and morphological evidence for host specificity of the black cherry aphids Myzus cerasi (Fabricius, 1775) collected from different cherry tree species in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakauskas, Rimantas; Havelka, Jekaterina; Zaremba, Audrius; Bernotienė, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    Partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene of forty eight European and two Turkish population samples of Myzus cerasi from different winter hosts (Prunus spp.) were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The analysed M. cerasi samples emerged as paraphyletic relative to a Myzus borealis sample used as an out-group, and formed two major clades in neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees, corresponding to subspecies living specifically on Prunus avium and P. cerasus. Multivariate discriminant analysis (method of canonical variates) was applied to find out if morphological variation of samples correlated with mitochondrial COI and host plant information. Mean scores on the first two canonical variables clustered samples fully in accordance with their COI haplotypes and host plants confirming the existence of two morphologically similar winter host - specific subspecies of M. cerasi in Europe. No single morphological character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of the two subspecies. A three-character linear discriminant function enabled 92.37% correct identification of apterous viviparous females of M. cerasi cerasi (n = 118) and 93.64% of M. cerasi pruniavium (n = 110). A key for the morphological identification of the two subspecies is presented and their taxonomic status is discussed. PMID:24715766

  1. Mitochondrial COI and morphological evidence for host specificity of the black cherry aphids Myzus cerasi (Fabricius, 1775 collected from different cherry tree species in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Rakauskas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene of forty eight European and two Turkish population samples of Myzus cerasi from different winter hosts (Prunus spp. were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The analysed M. cerasi samples emerged as paraphyletic relative to a Myzus borealis sample used as an out-group, and formed two major clades in neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees, corresponding to subspecies living specifically on Prunus avium and P. cerasus. Multivariate discriminant analysis (method of canonical variates was applied to find out if morphological variation of samples correlated with mitochondrial COI and host plant information. Mean scores on the first two canonical variables clustered samples fully in accordance with their COI haplotypes and host plants confirming the existence of two morphologically similar winter host - specific subspecies of M.cerasi in Europe. No single morphological character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of the two subspecies. A three-character linear discriminant function enabled 92.37% correct identification of apterous viviparous females of M. cerasi cerasi (n=118 and 93.64% of M. cerasi pruniavium (n=110. A key for the morphological identification of the two subspecies is presented and their taxonomic status is discussed.

  2. Identification and expression analysis of diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Cheng Chang

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides play essential roles in a variety of physiological responses that contribute to the development and reproduction of insects. Both the diapause hormone (DH and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN belong to the PBAN/pyrokinin neuropeptide family, which has a conserved pentapeptide motif FXPRL at the C-terminus. We identified the full-length cDNA encoding DH-PBAN in Maruca vitrata, a major lepidopteran pest of leguminous crops. The open reading frame of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 591 bp in length, encoding 197 amino acids, from which five putative neuropeptides [DH, PBAN, α-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptide (SGNP, β-SGNP and γ-SGNP] are derived. Marvi-DH-PBAN was highly similar (83% to DH-PBAN of Omphisa fuscidentalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, but possesses a unique C-terminal FNPRL motif, where asparagine has replaced a serine residue present in other lepidopteran PBAN peptides. The genomic DNA sequence of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 6,231 bp in size and is composed of six exons. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the Marvi-DH-PBAN protein sequence is closest to its homolog in Crambidae, but distant from Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera DH-PBAN, which agrees with the current taxonomy. DH-PBAN transcripts were present in the head and thoracic complex, but absent in the abdomen of M. vitrata. Real-time quantitative PCR assays have demonstrated a relatively higher expression of Marvi-DH-PBAN mRNA in the latter half of the pupal stages and in adults. These findings represent a significant step forward in our understanding of the DH-PBAN gene architecture and phylogeny, and raise the possibility of using Marvi-DH-PBAN to manage M. vitrata populations through molecular techniques.

  3. 温度对豆野螟(Maruca vitrata)生长发育的影响%Effect of Temperature on Development of Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟玉成; 王绛辉; 吴菊香; 樊堂群; 蒋春姬

    2008-01-01

    本试验在不同温度梯度恒温培养箱中观察了不同温度对豆野螟生长发育的影响.结果表明,在15~30℃范围内,随温度的升高发育历期缩短.卵、幼虫、蛹及从卵至成虫的发育起点温度分别为11.3、10.8、9.9℃和10.9℃,有效积温分别为40.2、169.5、135.1日度及344.8日度.

  4. Identification and expression analysis of diapause hormone and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (DH-PBAN) in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jian-Cheng; Ramasamy, Srinivasan

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides play essential roles in a variety of physiological responses that contribute to the development and reproduction of insects. Both the diapause hormone (DH) and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) belong to the PBAN/pyrokinin neuropeptide family, which has a conserved pentapeptide motif FXPRL at the C-terminus. We identified the full-length cDNA encoding DH-PBAN in Maruca vitrata, a major lepidopteran pest of leguminous crops. The open reading frame of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 591 bp in length, encoding 197 amino acids, from which five putative neuropeptides [DH, PBAN, α-subesophageal ganglion neuropeptide (SGNP), β-SGNP and γ-SGNP] are derived. Marvi-DH-PBAN was highly similar (83%) to DH-PBAN of Omphisa fuscidentalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), but possesses a unique C-terminal FNPRL motif, where asparagine has replaced a serine residue present in other lepidopteran PBAN peptides. The genomic DNA sequence of Marvi-DH-PBAN is 6,231 bp in size and is composed of six exons. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that the Marvi-DH-PBAN protein sequence is closest to its homolog in Crambidae, but distant from Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera DH-PBAN, which agrees with the current taxonomy. DH-PBAN transcripts were present in the head and thoracic complex, but absent in the abdomen of M. vitrata. Real-time quantitative PCR assays have demonstrated a relatively higher expression of Marvi-DH-PBAN mRNA in the latter half of the pupal stages and in adults. These findings represent a significant step forward in our understanding of the DH-PBAN gene architecture and phylogeny, and raise the possibility of using Marvi-DH-PBAN to manage M. vitrata populations through molecular techniques.

  5. Structural Examination of the Dufour's Gland of the Cavity-nesting Bees Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dufour’s gland of two solitary cavity-nesting bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were examined with microscopy to determine the structure and arrangement of the gland as part of the sting apparatus. The Dufour’s glands of these two bee species are similar ...

  6. The New World tarantula-hawk wasp genus Pepsis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Part 3. The P. inclyta- to P. auriguttata-groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    In this part the remaining 78 species of the genus Pepsis, belonging to ten species-groups, are described and figured, and their phylogenetics and biogeography are discussed. 14 of the species are described as new: P. achterbergi spec. nov., P. adonta spec. nov., P. boharti spec. nov., P. caliente s

  7. The New World tarantula-hawk wasp genus Pepsis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Part 2. The P. grossa- to P. deaurata-groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    In this Part, 37 species of the genus, belonging to eight species-groups, are described and figured, and their phylogenetics and biogeography are discussed. Seven of the species are described as new: P. ecuadorae, friburgensis, marthae, onorei, pulawskii, riopretensis, yucatani. One species-name, P.

  8. The New World tarantula-hawk wasp genus Pepsis Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Part 1. Introduction and the P. rubra species-group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    The genus Pepsis is diagnosed and described, and its taxonomic and natural history reviewed. The following are newly synonymized under this genus: the genera Abripepsis Banks, 1946 and Brethesia Schrottky, 1909; and all the existing subgenera of Pepsis, viz. Chrysopepsis Haupt, 1952; Cirripepsis Ban

  9. First report of toxicity of Xylopiaparviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil against cowpea seed bruchid, Callososbruchus maculatus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarinde, Samuel Adelani; Pitan, Olufemi Olutoyin Richard; Olatunde, Ganiyu Olatunji; Ajala, Michael Oluwole

    2015-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of Xylopia parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth (Annonaceae) root bark's essential oil (EO) against cowpea seed bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus, was investigated in the laboratory. Dose had significant (P < 0.0001) effect on mortality at 6 hours after treatment (HAT) at a concentration of 6.25 μL/mL air which exerted 81.70% mortality, while there was no mortality in all other lower doses. At 12 HAT, 75.05% and 90.00% mortality were observed at doses of 3.15 and 6.25 μL/mL air, respectively. It was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the mortality (50.58%) observed when 0.78 μL/mL air was applied. The lethal time for 50% of assayed adults (LT50) obtained when the bruchid was exposed to X. parviflora EO at a dose of 6.25 μL/mL air (2.71 h) was significantly lower than LT50 obtained at exposure of bruchid to other lower doses of 0.78-3.15 μL/mL air.

  10. Dynamics of cell and tissue genesis in the male reproductive system of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Amblyomma cajennense [corrected] (Fabricius, 1787) and Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas, 1772): a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2014-04-01

    Ticks are classified into three families: Argasidae, Ixodidae, and Nutalliellidae. The taxonomy and phylogeny within Ixodidae are still discussed by the specialists, thus requiring further studies. Amblyomma cajennese and Amblyomma aureolatum (Brazil) belong to two species complexes known as "cajennese" and "ovale", respectively, and are directly related to the transmission of the Brazilian spotted fever. This confirms the medical and veterinary significance of these species, as well as the need for further morphological studies that will bring a better understanding of their taxonomy, phylogeny, and control. In this context, the present study aimed to characterize the morphology of the male reproductive system of A. cajennese and A. aureolatum when unfed and after 4 days of feeding, thereby seeking to: (a) distinguish the two species or "complexes", and (b) study an internal system which has the potential to be targeted by acaricides. Therefore, males from both species (unfed and after 4 days of feeding) were cold-anesthetized, dissected, and had their reproductive systems removed for histological analysis. The results showed that the morphology of the male reproductive system is generally similar between both species, like in other Ixodidae ticks, exhibiting a multilobed accessory gland complex related to seminal fluid secretion, a pair of vasa deferentia and a pair of testes housing germ cells (spermatocytes) in different stages. The main differences were found in the development of the accessory gland complex cells and germ cells, showing that the maturation of the male reproductive system starts later in A. aureolatum, when compared to A. cajennese. However, during the blood meal, A. aureolatum development is increased, thus making germ cell maturation and gland complex activity higher than in A. cajennese. This study shows the differences in the development of the male reproductive systems of both species, while providing information that can assist in the establishment of new control methods.

  11. Genetic relationship among Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae nests by RAPD molecular markers - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.10913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to investigate the genetic relationship among nests of the carpenter ant, Camponotus rufipes, located in the same area. Five random oligodecamers were used to amplify DNA from 108 ant workers collected from six nests. A total of 47 RAPD markers were identified, which revealed low levels of genetic differentiation among nests (Fst = 0.00218 and a low average Shannon index (0.3727 among workers within nests. These results together suggest that the C. rufipes nest may be formed by a single, once-mated queen and that nests produced by queens that are genetically related tend to keep their nests in close proximity to one other.

  12. Influence and Mechanism of Different Host Plants on the Growth, Development and, Fecundity of Reproductive System of Common Cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    H.A. Shahout

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to explore the influence and mechanism of different host plants on the growth, development and fecundity of the reproductive system of the common cutworm S. litura to understand host suitability of plant infesting insect species to make progress in efficient strategies to control this economic pest. The influence of different host plants on larval, pupal developmental duration, adult life (longevity and fecundity of the Spodoptera litura were investigated in the laboratory. The results revealed that the larval development was significantly (p<0.05 decreased to (15.55 days when larvae fed on cabbage while it was significantly (p<0.05 prolonged to (19.55, (20.18 days when larvae fed on cowpea and alligator weed. Pupal duration was significantly (p<0.05 reduced to (7.54 days and increased to (9.13 days when larvae fed on cabbage and alligator weed respectively. When larvae fed on different host plants adult duration (longevity was not significantly different, only when S. litura larvae fed on sweet potato and cowpea the adult longevity was significantly (p<0.05 different and it was about (6.92, (5.64 days when larvae fed on sweet potato and cowpea respectively, Pupal weight was significantly (p<0.05 increased to (0.28 g when the larvae fed on cabbage while it was significantly (p<0.05 decreased to (0.16 g when larvae fed on cowpea. Our results found when both 1st and 3rd day age of adult female dissected ovarian length was significantly (p<0.05 increased when larvae fed on cabbage, cotton, sweet potato, while it was significantly (p<0.05 reduced when larvae fed on soybean and cowpea and alligator weed respectively. Ovarian weight was also significantly (p<0.05 influenced by the different host plants at both 1st and 3rd day age. As well as the male accessory gland length for both age was significantly (p<0.05 increased to (5.45, (5.62 cm when larvae fed on cabbage while it was significantly (p<0.05 reduced to (3.20, (3.73 when larvae fed on cowpea .the results also showed that the 3rd day age mating insects its accessory gland length was shorter. Similarly we found that the ovarian weight has the same trend for both age where the weight was significantly (p<0.05 influenced by different host plants however at the paired of 3rd day age insects the weight was lower. In addition spermary fresh weight for both age was also significantly increased to (3.23, (2.83 mg while it was reduced (2.17, (1.63 mg when larvae fed on cabbage and alligator weed respectively .Similarly the spermary weight was more reduced at the mated of 3rd day age adult .We conclude that cabbage and cotton and sweet potato were found to be more preferred for S. litura life than soybean and cowpea and alligator weed however; the implications for these findings need to be more discussed to control S. litura.

  13. A study on biochemical changes in the penaeid shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) following exposure to sublethal doses of organochlorine pesticide (endosulfan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryavanshi, U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Nigam, S.; Badesab, S.

    acts as building blocks of the cells and is the primary and immediate source of energy. During exposure period, the TC levels decreased in all the studied tissues, the depletion was more significant in the HP followed by GL and MU tissues of test... and MU tissues of test shrimps. All energy yielding metabolites such as the TP, the TC and the TL were found to be invariably altered following the exposure to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan in the present study. 9 4.1. Effect...

  14. Taxonomic studies of the last instar nymph of Lathrecista asiatica asiatica (Fabricius 1798) (Family: Libellulidae, Order: Odonata) by using its Exuvia

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun Paul Adambukulam; Francy K Kakkassery

    2013-01-01

    Lathrecista asiatica asiatica, the Asiatic Blood Tail, is a monotypic cosmopolitan dragonfly species of the genus Lathrecista belonging to family Libellulidae, reported from peninsular India to Australia. No literature is available on the description of the nymph of this species, and the present paper describes the nymphal features of the last instar of Lathrecista asiatica asiatica by using its exuviae which was collected at the time of emergence of adult from a temporary pond in Ammadam, Th...

  15. Effects of carotenoid sources on growth performance, blood parameters, disease resistance and stress tolerance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding trial were conducted to determine the effects of various sources of carotenoid on growth performance, disease resistance, blood parameters, stress tolerance and pigmentation in juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Trial I was performed in small shrimp (1 g average body weight. The shrimp were fed with control diet without carotenoid (diet 1 while diets 2 to 6 contained 50 mg/kg astaxanthin (Lucanthin Pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 200 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 125 mg/kg Betatene® extracted from Dunaliella and 3% dried Spirulina respectively. There was an improvement in color in all groups of shrimp fed caroteniod supplemented diets, but no significant differences in weight gain or survival among the shrimps fed each test diet (p>0.05. Resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection and stress tolerance (salinity stress, were not significantly different among treatments. Trial II was performed in juvenile shrimp (10 g average body weight fed test diets containing 100 ppm astaxanthin (Lucanthin pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg Betatene® and 3% dried Spirulina compared with those fed control diet without carotenoid. At the end of 6 weeks feeding period, shrimp fed control diet as well as astaxanthin and dried Spirulina supplemented diets had higher levels of total hemocyte counts than those of all β-carotene supplemented diets feeding group. However, phenoloxidase activity and clearance of pathogenic vibrio from the hemolymphwere not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. Astaxanthin levels were highest in the shrimp fed all carotenoid-supplemented diets. In conclusion, a natural carotenoid i.e. dried Spirulina and carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella which have a lower production cost than analytical carotenoid showed beneficial effects on shrimp feed supplement.

  16. Osmo and ionic regulation of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius 1798) juveniles exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantulo, Uras; Fotedar, Ravi

    2007-02-01

    An 11-day trial was conducted to investigate the osmoregulatory capacity (OC) and regulation of K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) of Penaeus monodon juveniles when exposed to K(+) deficient inland saline water (ISW) of four different salinities (5, 15, 25 and 35 ppt). The survival of juveniles showed a positive linear relationship (R(2) ranging from 0.72 to 0.98) with salinity. At the end of the trial, juveniles were able to survive only in 5 ppt of ISW and showed no changes in OC when transferred from ocean water (OW) to ISW. Further, the OC of juveniles in 5 ppt of ISW was significantly different (Pjuveniles exposed to 15, 25 and 35 ppt and exhibited strong serum K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) regulation monitored over 16 h. In contrast, at 35 ppt, significant decrease (Pjuveniles, which in turn causes decrease in the OC of the juveniles. The results of this study suggest that K(+) deficiency in ISW has a negative effect on survival, OC and the ability of P. monodon juveniles to regulate serum Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations. These effects are compounded as salinity increases.

  17. Efeitos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 em condições de laboratório Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok on engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense engorged females to some isolated of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was verified and lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 were calculated. The females were dived in conidia suspensions for five minutes, and kept in climatically controlled chambers BOD under 27° C and 80% relative humidity. Each bioassay had four treatments in concentrations of 10(5,10(6,10(7e10(8 conidia/ml. A control group was also used. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight and period of oviposition, indexes of reproductive and nutritional efficiency and percentage of microbiological control. A dose dependent negative effect was observed in ticks treated with the suspension. All isolates tested cause a negative effect on in vitro tests of engorged females of A. cajennense, suggesting its potential for microbiological control of tick's species.

  18. Ação in vitro dos fungos Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorok sobre ninfas e adultos de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae In vitro action of the fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch Sorok on ninphs and adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S. Reis

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a mortalidade in vitro de ninfas e adultos de Amblyomma cajennense frente à ação de isolados dos fungos Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Foram avaliados três isolados de M. anisopliae (959, 319 e E9 e dois de B. bassiana (986 e 747. As suspensões de conídios foram preparadas a partir de fungos produzidos em meio de arroz, e cada bioensaio foi constituído de quatro tratamentos nas concentrações 10(5, 10(6, 10(7, 10(8 conídios/ml e um grupo-controle. A análise constou da observação do percentual de mortalidade, 15 dias após o tratamento ou após a ecdise de adultos. Foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos quanto à mortalidade para todos os isolados e todos os instares. Nos grupos tratados houve aumento considerável na mortalidade à medida que se aumentava a concentração de conídios na suspensão. Conclui-se que todos os isolados testados causaram mortalidade em testes in vitro sobre esses estádios evolutivos, sugerindo o controle do A. cajennense pela ação desses fungos.This work aimed at the evaluation of the in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense nimphs and adults to isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae fungi. Three isolates of M. anisopliae (959, 319 e E9 and two of B. bassiana (986 e 747 were used. Conidia suspensions were made from fungi grown up in a rice culture medium and each test consisted of four treated groups (10(5, 10(6, 10(7, 10(8 conidia/ ml plus a control group. Viability of individuals was assessed 15 days after treatment or after adult ecdisis. Significative differences were found for all treatments and for all stages studied. A large reduction in the viability of ticks was observed, and this effect increased as conidia concentration raised. Based upon the results obtained, it can be concluded that all isolates tested presented an in vitro lethality for the biological stages of A. cajennense evaluated, suggesting a potential use in the biological control of this tick species.

  19. Larvas de Sergestes arcticus Kroyer, 1855, Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 y Munida gregaria (Fabricius, 1793, entre el seno Reloncaví y Boca del Guafo, sur de Chile Larvae of Sergestes arcticus Kroyer, 1855, Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837, and Munida gregaria (Fabricius, 1793 between Seno Reloncaví and Boca del Guafo, southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mujica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la distribución de los estados de desarrollo de las larvas de Sergestes arcticus, Neotrypaea uncinata y Munida gregaria, capturadas entre el seno Reloncaví y la Boca del Guafo, durante noviembre de 2004. Se distinguieron tres zonas oceanógraficas, de acuerdo a los antecedentes relacionados con el grado de participación de aguas continentales y oceánicas. La distribución de las larvas de estas especies y sus estados de desarrollo, permitieron establecer diferencias significativas entre ellas respecto de las características oceanógraficas, lo que estaría relacionado con los lugares de desove y habitat de las poblaciones desovantes en el área de estudio.The distribution of developmental stages of Sergestes arcticus, Neotrypaea uncinata and Munida gregaria larvae caught between Seno Reloncaví and Boca del Guafo in November 2004 was analyzed. Three oceanographic zones were distinguished according to records showing the degree of participation of continental and oceanic waters. Significant differences were determined between larval distribution and development stages for these species with respect to oceanographic characteristics; said differences might be related to the spawning sites and the habitat of the spawning stock in the study area.

  20. Avaliação de parâmetros clínicos e hematológicos de eqüinos submetidos a um programa de controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae Evaluation of clinical and hematological parameters of equines submitted to a strategic control program of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Cunha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se aspectos clínicos e hematológicos em eqüinos submetidos a um programa de controle estratégico de A. cajennense. Os tratamentos carrapaticidas foram realizados a cada sete dias e divididos em dois módulos, o primeiro com início em abril de 2004, e o segundo com início em julho do mesmo ano, utilizando-se a base química piretróide - cipermetrina na concentração de 0,015%. Além do acompanhamento clínico dos animais, foram realizados hemogramas completos antes e após o programa. As dosagens bioquímicas de bilirrubinas, gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatina kinase (CK, proteína total, albumina e globulinas, foram realizadas antes, durante e ao final do programa. Os resultados demonstraram que houve uma melhora no quadro hematológico dos animais após o programa de controle. Os tratamentos carrapaticidas, na forma em foram aplicados, não provocaram alterações desfavoráveis nos parâmetros clínicos e hematológicos dos eqüinos. Tais informações podem ser consideradas na busca de alternativas viáveis e seguras para o controle dessa espécie de carrapato.Clinical and hematological parameters were studied in equines submitted to a strategic control program of Amblyomma cajennense. The acaricide treatments were carried to each seven days and divided in two batteries, the first one began in April 2004 and the second in July 2004. A pyrethroid chemical base - 0.015% cypermethrin was used. Clinical examinations of the animals and complete hemograms were carried before and after the control program of the tick. Seric dosages of bilirrubins, gamma-glutamiltransferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatin kinase (CK, total protein, albumin, and globulins, were carried before and throughout the experiment. The results showed an improvement in the hematological parameters of the animals after the end of control program. The acaricide treatments did not cause undesirable alterations of the clinical and hematological parameters studied. Such information can be considered as viable and safe alternatives for the control of this tick.

  1. Analysis of vector surveillance from 2011 to 2013 in Zhejiang province, China%浙江省2011-2013年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜燕; 龚震宇; 侯娟; 郭颂; 王金娜; 凌锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解2011-2013年浙江省居民区病媒生物种群构成、密度及其变化趋势,为浙江省病媒生物防控提供理论基础。方法蚊、鼠、蝇、蜚蠊分别采用诱蚊灯法、夹夜法、笼诱法和粘捕法进行监测。结果2011-2013年浙江省蚊密度分别为1.52、1.33和1.62只/(灯·h),牲畜棚最高,以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的57.44%,高峰期为6-8月;蝇密度分别为8.77、5.67和3.47只/笼,2011-2012年以大头金蝇为主要优势蝇种,其次为家蝇,2013年则以家蝇为主要优势种,其次为大头金蝇;鼠密度分别为0.89%、0.81%和0.78%,以褐家鼠为优势鼠种,占捕获总数的57.70%,全年均有鼠类活动;蜚蠊密度分别为0.54、0.37和0.35只/张,以德国小蠊为主要优势种,占捕获总数的88.42%。结论通过2011-2013年监测数据分析,基本掌握了浙江省居民区病媒生物数量状态,建议各地市按照浙江省病媒生物流行的实际情况采取防控措施。%Objective To identify the species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province from 2011 to 2013, the aim is to provide scientific and technical support for the prevention and control of vectors. Methods Mosquitoes, flies, rodents and cockroaches were monitored with mosquito lamps, cage traps, traps set at night and glue traps. Results From 2011 to 2013, the mosquito density was 1.52, 1.33 and 1.62 per lamp⁃hour, respectively, with the highest density found in livestock pens, and the dominant species were Culex pipiens pallen (sure not Cx. quinquefasciatus), accounting for 57.44%. Mosquitoes appeared from April and peak in June through August. The fly density was 8.77, 5.67 and 3.47 per cage, respectively, with the dominant species were Chrysomya megacephala from 2011 to 2012, which became Musca domestica in 2013. The rodent density was 0.89%, 0.81%and 0.78%, respectively, with the

  2. 2005-2010年浙江省磐安县病媒生物监测结果分析%Analysis of vector density surveillance in Pan' an county, Zhejiang province from 2005 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应凯满; 郑柏福

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the density of primary vector species and their seasonal fluctuation in Pan 'an county for improvement of prevention and control strategies. Methods Light traps, cage traps, roach pastes and night traps were used to capture mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rodents, respectively, for density calculations. Results From 2005 to 2010, the average density of mosquitoes in Pan'an county was 2.04 per lamp-hour, with the prominent species being Culex pipiens pallens /Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus accounting for 71.81%. The average density of flies was 1.83 per cage with Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica as the predominant species, which accounted for 52.62% and 37.81%, respectively. The density of cockroaches was 0.91 per paste, with Blattella germanica as the predominant species (92.10%). The rodent density was 0.89%with Niviventer fulvescens as the predominant species (37.60%). Most mosquitoes and flies appeared in May; the former became most active in July and the latter in June through August. Cockroaches and rats were observed throughout the year with relatively high roach density from March to October and generally peak rodent density in September. Conclusion The population composition and seasonal fluctuation of primary vectors in Pan'an county are clarified.%目的 掌握浙江省磐安县主要病媒生物种群密度及其消长规律,为控制病媒生物的危害提供科学依据.方法 采用诱蚊灯法监测蚊密度,笼诱法监测蝇密度,粘捕法监测蜚蠊密度,夹夜法监测鼠密度.结果 2005-2010年磐安县蚊类平均密度为2.04只/(灯·h),以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的71.81%;蝇密度指数为1.83只/笼,优势种为家蝇和大头金蝇,分别占捕获总数的52.62%和37.81%;蜚蠊密度为0.91只/张,优势种为德国小蠊,占捕获总数的92.10%;鼠密度为0.89%,优势种为针毛鼠,占捕获总数的37.60%.蚊和蝇5月开始活动,蚊类于7

  3. Research on population and distribution of three medical insects in Yulin urban area of Shaanxi province%陕西省榆林市城区3种病媒昆虫种群及分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘建军; 吕文; 高鸿; 李东波; 孙养信

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the population composition, density and distribution of vectors in Yulin urban area, providing evidence for control of these insects. Methods Human baited net trap method and lamp baited trap method were employed for mosquito collection, cage-trapping for fly collection and sticky-paste for cockroach collection. Results Mosquitoes caught belonged to 5 species 4 genera, with Culex pipiens pallens being the dominant species. The average density based on the human baited net trap method was 19.11 per net per hour, or 1.61 per lamp per hour based on lamp baited trap method. The density in the urban area was higher than that in the villages. Flies belonged 23 species 19 genera 5 family, and the common species were Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia sericata, Musca domestica, Muscina stabulans, Boettcherisca peregrine and L. cuprina, accounting for 36.49%, 20.41%, 14.78%, 10.61%, 8.65% and 2.61%, respectively. The average density was 4.42/ cage, the highest density observed in the farm produce markets. Cockroach density was 16.28/piece ? night, highest observed in the restaurants, with Blattella germanica being the predominant species. The peak of flies and cockroaches was in August, and that of mosquitoes in July. Conclusion The population composition, density and distribution of vectors were basically grasped. Integrated measures should be taken with focus on such major areas as restaurants, farm produce markets and residential areas.%目的 调查榆林市城区蚊、蝇、蜚蠊3种病媒昆虫种类、数量及分布,为开展病媒生物防制工作提供科学依据.方法 蚊类调查采用入帐诱法和诱蚊灯法,蝇类采用笼诱法,蜚蠊采用粘捕法.结果 捕获蚊类4属5种,淡色库蚊为优势种,帐诱法总密度为19.11只/(顶·h),诱蚊灯法总密度为1.61只/(灯·h),蚊密度城区高于周边农村.捕获蝇类5科19属23种,常见蝇种有大头金蝇、丝光绿蝇、家蝇、厩腐蝇、棕尾别麻蝇和铜

  4. Analysis of vector surveillance from 2011 to 2013 in Zhejiang province, China%浙江省2011-2013年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜燕; 龚震宇; 侯娟; 郭颂; 王金娜; 凌锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province from 2011 to 2013, the aim is to provide scientific and technical support for the prevention and control of vectors. Methods Mosquitoes, flies, rodents and cockroaches were monitored with mosquito lamps, cage traps, traps set at night and glue traps. Results From 2011 to 2013, the mosquito density was 1.52, 1.33 and 1.62 per lamp⁃hour, respectively, with the highest density found in livestock pens, and the dominant species were Culex pipiens pallen (sure not Cx. quinquefasciatus), accounting for 57.44%. Mosquitoes appeared from April and peak in June through August. The fly density was 8.77, 5.67 and 3.47 per cage, respectively, with the dominant species were Chrysomya megacephala from 2011 to 2012, which became Musca domestica in 2013. The rodent density was 0.89%, 0.81%and 0.78%, respectively, with the dominant species were Rattus norvegicus, accounting for 57.70%. Rodents were observed throughout the whole year. The cockroach density was 0.54, 0.37 and 0.35 per glue trap, respectively, with the dominant species were Blattella germanica, accounting for 88.42%. Conclusion Species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province were analyzed through 3-year surveillance, mitigation measures should be taken accordingly to control vectors.%目的:了解2011-2013年浙江省居民区病媒生物种群构成、密度及其变化趋势,为浙江省病媒生物防控提供理论基础。方法蚊、鼠、蝇、蜚蠊分别采用诱蚊灯法、夹夜法、笼诱法和粘捕法进行监测。结果2011-2013年浙江省蚊密度分别为1.52、1.33和1.62只/(灯·h),牲畜棚最高,以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的57.44%,高峰期为6-8月;蝇密度分别为8.77、5.67和3.47只/笼,2011-2012年以大头金蝇为主要优势蝇种,其次为家蝇,2013年则以家蝇为主

  5. Analysis on ties monitoring status of Mianyang in 2010%2010年绵阳市城区蝇类监测情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒亚; 郑幸福; 谭刚; 史映红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the species and density of flies in Mianyang city of Sichuan after earthquake, and provide the evidences for prevention and control of flies occurred and epidemic. Method According to surveillance project of the vector in the whole country and the surveillance implementation scheme of vector in Mianyang city in 2010, selecting Daximen district, Youxian district and Gaoshui district as the surveillance sites, adopting cage trapping method to investigate the species and density of flies. Results In Mianyang, the average densities of Lucilia sericata, Lucilia cuprina, Aldrichina grahami, Musca domestica, Chrysomya megacephala, Boettcherisca peregrine, Muscina stabulans, Fannia canicularis were 4.07, 1.58, 0.41, 0. 18, 0.18, 0. 06, 0.04 and 0. 04 pieces per cage, respectively. The flies seasonal decay trend appeared in July. The average densities of flies in farm produce markets, greenbelts, food industry, and residential area were 15.52, 11.19, 8.64 and 7. 38 pieces per cage respectively. The average density of flies in Daximen district, Youxian district and Gaoshui district were 6.26, 13. 86, 10.71 pieces per cage respectively. Conclusions By this investigation, we grasped the concrete conditions of flies in Mianyang after earthquake area, and provided scientific evidences for government marking vector control strategies.%目的 了解绵阳市城区地震后蝇类的种群和密度,为预防和控制蝇类传播疾病的发生和流行提供依据.方法 按照《全国病媒生物监测方案》和《绵阳市2010年病媒生物监测实施方案》,选取大西门片区、游仙片区和高水片区为监测点,以笼诱法调查蝇类的种群和密度.结果 绵阳市城区丝光绿蝇、铜绿蝇、巨尾阿丽蝇、家蝇、大头金蝇、棕尾别麻蝇、厩腐蝇、夏厕蝇的平均密度依次为4.07、1.58、0.41、0.18、0.18、0.06、0.04、0.04只/笼.蝇类季节消长高峰在7月.各类生境蝇类

  6. Distribution and Abundance of Necrophagous Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae) in Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira de Sousa, José Roberto; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando da Silva; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at surveying the local calliphorid and sarcophagid species in Maranhão State (Brazil) to determine their distribution and abundance, as well as the distribution of exotic Chrysomya species. In total, 18,128 calliphorid specimens were collected, distributed in 7 genera and 14 species. The species Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850) and Paralucilia paraensis (Mello, 1969) were new state records. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819) and Cochliomyia macellaria (F., 1775) wer...

  7. Larval development of the pedunculate barnacles Octolasmis angulata Aurivillius 1894 and Octolasmis cor Aurivillius 1892 (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Poecilasmatidae) from the gills of the mud crab, Scylla tranquebarica Fabricius, 1798.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, F C; Wong, W L; Maule, A G; Brennan, G P; Lim, L H S

    2015-05-01

    Detailed studies of larval development of Octolasmis angulata and Octolasmis cor are pivotal in understanding the larval morphological evolution as well as enhancing the functional ecology. Six planktotrophic naupliar stages and one non-feeding cyprid stage are documented in details for the first time for the two species of Octolasmis. Morphologically, the larvae of O. angulata and O. cor are similar in body size, setation patterns on the naupliar appendages, labrum, dorsal setae-pores, frontal horns, cyprid carapace, fronto-lateral gland pores, and lattice organs. Numbers of peculiarities were observed on the gnathobases of the antennae and mandible throughout the naupliar life-cycle. The setation pattern on the naupliar appendages are classified based on the segmentation on the naupliar appendages. The nauplius VI of both species undergoes a conspicuous change before metamorphosis into cyprid stage. The cyprid structures begin to form and modify beneath the naupliar body towards the end of stage VI. This study emphasises the importance of the pedunculate barnacle larval developmental studies not only to comprehend the larval morphological evolution but also to fill in the gaps in understanding the modification of the naupliar structures to adapt into the cyprid life-style. PMID:25770075

  8. 苦瓜叶乙酸乙酯萃取物对斜纹夜蛾消化酶活性的影响%Effects of ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia leaves on digestive enzymes of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆颖; 张茂新; 凌冰

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the toxic mechanism of ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia leaves and Momordicin II to Spodoptera litura. Artificial diet treated with ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia leaves and Momordicin II to feed the 4 th - instar larvae of Spodoptera litura, followed by analyzing the activities of amylase and protease of treated larvae, respectively. The results were shown that the activities of amylase and protease were decreased by ethyl acetate extracts of M. charantia leaves. After treating with extracts at 0. 08% for 72 h, the inhibition rates of amylase and protease were 23. 0% and 40. 6%. After treated with Momordicin II, compared with control, there were no difference about the activities of amylase, but the activities of protease were markedly decreased, the inhibition effect of Momordicin II was very high after treating for 72 h, the inhibition rates of protease can reach up to 75. 6% after treating at 0. 6%. From these results, it was reasonably postulated that the ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia leaves and Momordicin II disturbed and inhibited the activities of amylase and protease , this is the reason of larve of S. litura can not be normal growth and development.%为了研究苦瓜Momordica charantia叶乙酸乙酯萃取物及其活性化合物Momordicin Ⅱ对斜纹夜蛾Spodoptera litura的作用机理,将苦瓜叶乙酸乙酯萃取物及其活性化合物Momordicin Ⅱ添加到人工饲料中饲喂斜纹夜蛾幼虫,分别测定其对斜纹夜蛾幼虫中肠蛋白酶活性和淀粉酶活性的影响.结果表明,斜纹夜蛾幼虫取食了含苦瓜叶乙酸乙酯萃取物的饲料后,其中肠的淀粉酶和蛋白酶活性均比对照明显降低,处理后72 h,高浓度(0.08%)对淀粉酶和蛋白酶的抑制率分别为23.0%和40.6%.斜纹夜蛾幼虫取食了含Momordicin Ⅱ的饲料后,对淀粉酶活性无明显的影响,但其中肠的蛋白酶活性比对照明显降低,处理后72 h的抑制作用最强,浓度为0.6%时对蛋白酶的抑制率高达75.6%.这些结果说明乙酸乙酯萃取物及其活性化合物Momordicin Ⅱ能够抑制和干扰斜纹夜蛾幼虫中肠的蛋白酶活性和淀粉酶活性,这是中毒斜纹夜蛾幼虫不能正常生长发育的原因之一.

  9. 烟草甲在三种寄主上存活、发育的研究%SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT OF LASIODERMA SERRICORNE(FABRICIUS) (COLEOPTERA: ANOBIIDAE) IN THREE HOST PLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akinkurolere,R.O.; 张宏宇; 饶琼; 杨长举

    2006-01-01

    测定百里香thyme(Thymus vulgaris)、肉豆蔻nutmeg(Myristica fragrans)、豇豆种子cowpea seed(Vigna unguiculata)三种寄主对烟草甲的生物活性.在温度为28±2℃,相对湿度(R.H.)为70%±5%的实验室条件下测定烟草甲在三种寄主上的发育、产卵、存活情况.烟草甲在百里香、肉豆蔻、豇豆种子三种寄主上从卵到成虫发育历期分别为32.17 d、40.45 d、35.77 d.雌成虫在不同寄主上的产卵量也有显著不同,从百里香上的70.65粒/雌到肉豆蔻上的56.36粒/雌.幼虫成功羽化成成虫的存活率在37.33%(肉豆蔻)到64.50%(百里香)之间.雌成虫在百里香、肉豆蔻、豇豆种子三种寄主上的寿命分别为31.60 d、26.29 d、28.64 d.烟草甲在百里香属植物上最大的内禀增长率(rm)、周限增长率(λ)、净繁殖速率(R0)分别为0.08、1.02、88.03.生命表分析表明,在三种寄主中百里香是饲养烟草甲的最适寄主,肉豆蔻最不适合做寄主.

  10. Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Calliphoridae as new biological vector of eggs of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 (Diptera: Oestridae in Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho Clarissa Rezende

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note was to record for the first time the finding of Hemilucilia segmentaria acting as biological vector of Dermatobia hominis, during a study of the diversity of Calliphoridae at Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The insects were captured using traps baited with chicken vicera, for a period of 28-30 h twice per month. In the period of one year, 1987 insects were collected, 7.5% of which belonged to the H. segmentaria; of these a female was captured in May 2001, carrying a mass of 20 eggs on the left side of its abdomen.

  11. Utilisation of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment of medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation of the Cobalto-60 as quarantine treatment of the medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella determining the disinfestation doses to attend the criterion in the not emergency of adults of the species in study and analysing through the Chromatography of Thin Layer the effect of the gamma radiation of the cobalto-60 on the active principle of extract dehydrated of Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris. The work was developed in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas in the Instituto Biologico in Sao Paulo in the period of August of 2005 the June of 2007. The radiation source used gamma was an experimental irradiator of Cobalto-60, model Gamacell 220, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, located in Sao Paulo. In the period of 30 days after the irradiation of the samples evaluated the number of adults emerged of Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, using the data of mortality for the analysis of Probit. Obtained 100% of not emergency of adults in the Lasioderma serricorne with the dose of 2,00 kGy and 100% of not emergency of adults in the Plodia interpunctella with the dose of 2,25 kGy. The Chromatographic Analysis of Thin Layer was to evaluate did not show chemical differences in the extracts analysed. (author)

  12. 寄主植物对豆野螟存活、发育和繁殖的影响%Effects of Food-Plants on the Survival, Development and Fecundity of Maruca vitrata (Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兴苗; 潘亚飞; 王小平; 李红; 雷朝亮

    2008-01-01

    在室内观察了豆野螟取食扁豆、豇豆和四季豆后的生长发育和繁殖状况.结果表明:豆野螟取食不同寄主后的卵孵化率、幼虫存活率、蛹存活率、蛹重、成虫寿命和产卵量均无显著差异,但均以取食四季豆为最低;豆野螟取食四季豆、豇豆和扁豆的幼虫发育历期分别为9.9d、11.2d和11.7d,三者差异显著;取食豇豆后5龄幼虫体重达53.9mg,显著高于取食扁豆和四季豆的5龄幼虫体重.

  13. Expression pattern of Sonic hedgehog in developing chicken bursa of Fabricius%Sonic hedgehog在鸡胚法氏囊发育过程中的表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕艳杰; 宁黔冀; 陈忠科

    2008-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog(Shh)是Hedgehog(Hh)家族中的一员,在胚胎发育和器官形成过程中发挥重要作用.法氏囊是鸟类所特有的中枢免疫器官,在机体的免疫防御方面发挥重要作用.利用切片原位杂交的方法探究Shh基因在鸡胚法氏囊发育过程中的表达模式,检测发现Shh基因主要在鸡胚法氏囊的囊下上皮细胞、血管周围上皮细胞以及网状细胞中表达.

  14. Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on the development of bursa of Fabricius in broilers%日粮中添加谷氨酰胺对肉仔鸡法氏囊发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李升和; 范光丽; 王珏; 顾有方

    2006-01-01

    谷氨酰胺(Glutamine,GLN)是体内组织间的氮前体穿梭工具,是快速增殖细胞(淋巴细胞和肠黏膜细胞)的主要能源物质,参与体内抗氧化剂-谷胱甘肽(GSH)的合成。具有维持肠道机能,提高机体免疫功能,改善酸碱平衡失调和提高机体对应激的适应等多种生理功能。GLN对机体免疫功能的作用已受到诸多学者关注:Ardawi等体外培养大鼠淋巴细胞发现,添加GLN可显著提高淋巴细胞的增殖;O’Riordain MG等证实,GLN能显著增强结肠、直肠切除病人体内T淋巴细胞DNA的合成。

  15. Fluorescence competition assay for the assessment of green leaf volatiles and trans-β-farnesene bound to three odorant-binding proteins in the wheat aphid Sitobion avenae (Fabricius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Tao; Yin, Jiao; Deng, Sisi; Li, Kebin; Cao, Yazhong

    2012-06-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are important parts of insect olfactory systems, and sensitive olfaction is vital for phytophagous insects in host foraging. Electrophysiological studies are helpful in understanding olfactory sensing in Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), but the functions of odorant-binding proteins in this insect are poorly understood. In this study, we used fluorescence competition assays to measure the binding specificities of SaveOBPs. The results showed that both SaveOBP2 and SaveOBP3 were superior to SaveOBP7 in binding green leaf volatiles. It was unexpected that SaveOBP7 bound trans-β-farnesene strongly, which was known as alarm pheromone of this species. Host volatiles were recognized much more easily by SaveOBP2, and the observed binding activity of SaveOBP2 equaled for tested green leaf volatiles. Our results imply that SaveOBP7 might play a more important role in aphid alarm pheromone discrimination.

  16. Genetic relationship among Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nests by RAPD molecular markers - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.10913

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf; Sara Lívia da Silva Fernandes da Matta; Maria Santina de Castro Morini

    2012-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to investigate the genetic relationship among nests of the carpenter ant, Camponotus rufipes, located in the same area. Five random oligodecamers were used to amplify DNA from 108 ant workers collected from six nests. A total of 47 RAPD markers were identified, which revealed low levels of genetic differentiation among nests (Fst = 0.00218) and a low average Shannon index (0.3727) among workers within nests. These results together sugg...

  17. The chicken embryo bioassay as a tool to assess the possible toxic effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): a study with special reference to thiamine deficiency, EROD induction and the bursa of Fabricius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roode, de D.F.

    2002-01-01

    Since the introduction of man made chemicals into the environment, the reproductive success of bird species all over the world has been compromised. Since the ban on the use of several chemicals, pollution has decreased, but residues still remain, and reproductive and physiological are still reporte

  18. Estudos histológicos sôbre as glândulas peçonhentas da "Viúva negra", Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius (Arachnida, Araneae, Theridiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1962-07-01

    Full Text Available A glândula peçonhenta de Latrodectus mactans compõe-se: 1. De um saco formado por uma membrana de tecido conjuntivo peritonial, que se projeta proximalmente no ducto de peçonha. 2. De um manto externo, formado por 40-45 feixes musculares, circundando 3/4 da glândula, helicoidalmente. Os feixes inserem-se nas extremidades apical e basal da membrana sarcoperitonial; sua contração impele a peçonha, através do ducto, para as garras. 3. Do epitélio glandular, composto: a de células da glândula principal, b de células da glândula auxiliar, c de célula da glândula situada à entrada do ducto. As células das glândulas principal e auxiliar, juntas, formam uma unidade glandular de natureza ragiócrina. A secreção das células da glândula auxiliar passa, através das membranas celulares, para o interior das células glandulares principais, deslocando-se, juntamente com a secreção destas, para o pólo apical, a que ambas confluem, formando uma substância viscosa, fortemente condensada em virtude da eliminação de certos líquidos. Após a formação de 8 a 10 destas porções de secreções, os dois tipos de células esgotam-se; não se dá a regeneração ou substituição por outras células. A quantidade de peçonha, uma vez produzida, é armazenada na cavidade da glândula, sendo suficiente para tôda a vida do animal. As células da glândula situada á entrada do ducto, ou glândula lipócrina, produzem uma substãncia lipóide. Esta substância dissolve uma porção de corpúsculos das secreções segregadas pelas células principais e auxiliares. O líquido resultante é inoculado no tecido da prêsa ou do inimigo, por contração do manto muscular. Ao mesmo tempo, novas porções da peçonha armazenada são transportadas no sentido proximal e dissolvidas no líquido lipóide, preparando-se, assim, nova peçonha para outra picada. As formas das células e os pormenores histológicos estão explicados nas figuras que acompanham êste texto. Os músculos da glândula, ao contrário do que afirmam outros autores, verificamos serem de natureza "tetãnica", apresentando uma estriação transversal, típica. Certas zonas, porém, ricas em sarcoplasma, possuem propriedades "tônicas", mantendo-se sempre em certo grau de contratura que provoca a tensão adequada na membrana sarcoperitonial, o que permite um efeito imediato da contração da parte tetânica, no momento da picada.

  19. Utilisation of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment of medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae); Utilizacao da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 como tratamento quarentenario de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares desidratadas infestadas por Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) e Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2007-07-01

    The research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation of the Cobalto-60 as quarantine treatment of the medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella determining the disinfestation doses to attend the criterion in the not emergency of adults of the species in study and analysing through the Chromatography of Thin Layer the effect of the gamma radiation of the cobalto-60 on the active principle of extract dehydrated of Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris. The work was developed in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas in the Instituto Biologico in Sao Paulo in the period of August of 2005 the June of 2007. The radiation source used gamma was an experimental irradiator of Cobalto-60, model Gamacell 220, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, located in Sao Paulo. In the period of 30 days after the irradiation of the samples evaluated the number of adults emerged of Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, using the data of mortality for the analysis of Probit. Obtained 100% of not emergency of adults in the Lasioderma serricorne with the dose of 2,00 kGy and 100% of not emergency of adults in the Plodia interpunctella with the dose of 2,25 kGy. The Chromatographic Analysis of Thin Layer was to evaluate did not show chemical differences in the extracts analysed. (author)

  20. Biological parameters of larvae, nymphs, and engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae obtained from artificial and successive infestations on Oryctolagus cuniculus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae Parâmetros biológicos de larvas, ninfas e fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari:Ixodidae obtidas de infestações artificiais e sucessivas em Oryctolagus cuniculus (Lagomorpha:Ochotonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.V. Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of acquired resistance to Amblyomma cajennense ticks was evaluated. A total of 18 rabbits were uniformly distributed into three groups named GL, GN, and GA that were submitted to three consecutive infestations with, respectively, larvae, nymphs, and adults of A. cajennense. After the infestations, the parasitic and reproductive parameters of recovered instars were evaluated. A significant reduction of recovery rates of inoculated ticks was observed only after the third infestation of animals in groups GL and GN (PAvaliou-se o desenvolvimento de resistência adquirida frente ao parasitismo por Amblyomma cajennense. Para tanto, 18 coelhos foram uniformemente distribuídos em três grupos denominados GL, GN e GA e submetidos a três infestações consecutivas por, respectivamente, larvas, ninfas ou adultos de A. cajennense. Após a infestação, estudaram-se os parâmetros parasitários e reprodutivos dos exemplares recuperados. Apenas a partir da terceira infestação dos animais dos grupos GL e GN, pôde-se observar uma queda significativa na taxa de recuperação dos ixodídeos inoculados (P<0,01. O dia modal de queda das larvas e ninfas recuperadas aumentou com o decorrer das infestações. As ninfas ingurgitadas recuperadas apresentaram uma redução significativa (P<0,01 no peso médio corporal entre a primeira e terceira infestação. Observou-se uma queda significativa na taxa média de recuperação das fêmeas ingurgitadas somente na terceira infestação (P<0,01. Todavia, a partir da segunda infestação observou-se nas teleóginas recuperadas, uma redução significativa no peso corporal, peso da postura e eclodibilidade das larvas (P<0,05. Os dados sugerem a ocorrência de resistência em coelhos à infestação por A. cajennense que foi mais evidente contra o estádio adulto.

  1. Tegelikult olid pahad ju luterlased / Anti Selart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selart, Anti, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Fabricius, Dionysius. Dionysius Fabriciuse, Viljandi kiriku praosti Liivimaa ajaloo lühiülevaade neljas osas aastast tuhat ükssada viiskümmend kaheksa kuni aastani 1610 = Dionysii Fabricii, Praepositi pontificii Felinensis, Livonicae historiae compendiosa series in quatuor digesta partes ab anno millesimo centesimo quinquagesimo octavo usque ad annum MDCX. [Tartu] : Johannes Esto Ühing, 2010

  2. Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting blue bottle flies, Chrysomyia megacephala (Diptera: Calliph...

  3. Levantamento de espécies de Odonata associadas à tanques de piscicultura e efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sobre ninfas de Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655 Odonata species survey associated with psiculture tanks and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis effect on Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) nymphs (Odonata: Libellulidae) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Moisés Quintilhiano; Eduardo Sérgio da Silva; Marisa Cristina da Fonseca; Newton Moreno Sanches; Alysson Rodrigo Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    Várias estações de piscicultura que trabalham com a produção de alevinos ou peixes ornamentais têm apresentado problemas relacionados à predação de larvas, pós-larvas e alevinos por ninfas de insetos da Ordem Odonata. Dessa forma, objetivou-se fazer um levantamento de espécies de odonatos presentes em tanques de criação de peixes em dois municípios da região centro-oeste de Minas Gerais, assim como avaliar o efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis de Barjac sobre ninfas de Pantala f...

  4. The pupal morphology of the Carabus (s. l. (Coleoptera, Carabidae in the southwestern Iberian peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas, A. M.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The pupae of Carabus (s. l. of the south-west Iberian peninsula are described. The study was carried out with pupae of Macrothorax rugosus (Fabricius, 1792, Hadrocarabus dufouri (Dejean, 1831, H. lusitanicus (Fabricius, 1801 and Rhabdotocarabus melancholicus (Fabricius, 1798 reared in the laboratory from adults caught in the field. By determining and testing various morphological structures, all three genera were identified. These results indicate that the presence or absence of setae on the pronotum, the distribution of hairs on the abdominal tergi and the development of tergal expansions from urotergi are the most significant features for identification.

  5. Dípteros muscóides associados com carcaça de suíno e seus parasitóides em área de pastagem e de mata em Goiás Muscoids dipterous insects associated with pig carcass and their parasitoids collected in areas of pasture and of wood in Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori; C.G. SILVA; E.R. Caldas; C.I.S. Vieira; K.G.S. Almeida; F.F. Teixeira; A.X. Linhares

    2000-01-01

    Muscoid dipterous insects associated with pig carcass and their parasitoids collected in pasture and wood were collected from savanna (cerrado) at Goiás, Brazil. The species collected more often were: Chrysomya albiceps (89.5%), Ophyra sp. (6.9%) (flies) and Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (33.3%) and Spalangia endius (38.8%) (parasitoids). The parasitism rate was 0.4%.

  6. 中华蜜蜂化学感受蛋白AcerCSP3的配基结合功能分析%Molecular binding characterization with chemical ligands of a chemosensory protein AcerCSP3 in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius ( Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红亮; 张林雅; 倪翠侠; 商晗武

    2011-01-01

    为研究中华蜜蜂和Apis cerana cerana化学感受蛋白AcerCSP3在化学感受系统中的生理功能,本实验通过对AcerCSP3进行原核表达、分离纯化后,利用荧光法研究了体外重组AcerCSP3与1-NPN以及候选化学配基的结合特征.Scatchard方程显示AcerCSP3与1-NPN的解离常数KD为8.29 μmol/L,结合位点数约等于1.在候选配基竞争1-NPN与AcerCSP3结合的实验中,5种配基均能在200 μmol/L浓度下使1-NPN的相对荧光强度下降至50%以下.其中β-紫罗兰酮其至能使1-NPN的相对荧光强度下降至10%左右,表明候选配基均与AcerCSP3有较强的结合能力,而3,4-二甲基苯甲醛与中蜂AcerCSP3的结合能力最强,KD达到18.77 μmol/L.本研究所用化学配基均为植物花与叶片的挥发性的次生代谢产物,表明AcerCSP3可能作为中蜂化学感受系统的一部分,在其搜寻某些植物花粉蜜源时作为气味分子运载体发挥一定的作用.%In order to clarify the physiological function of AcerCSP3, a chemosensory protein (CSP) in Apis cerana cerana, the recombinant protein AcerCSP3 was successfully expressed in a optimized prokaryotic expression system, and the binding properties of the purified AcerCSP3 with 1-NPN was then investigated.Scatchard plot analysis indicated that the dissociation constant between 1-NPN and AcerCSP3 was 8.29 μmol/L and the binding site number was about one. In the competitive binding assays, all the five candidate ligands at the concentration of 200 μmol/L reduced the relative fluorescence intensity of 1-NPN by more than 50% , with β-ionone causing 90% reduction in the relative fluorescence intensity, suggesting that all the tested ligands have strong binding capability with AcerCSP3. 3, 4-Dimethylbenzaldehyde had the strongest binding capability with a dissociation constant as high as 18.77 μmol/L. All the candidate chemical ligands are plant volatile secondary metabolites, indicating that AcerCSP3 may act as a carier for odor molecules released from flower and nectar and play a role in searching for honey sources.

  7. Transgenic cry1C(⁎) gene rough rice line T1C-19 does not change the host preferences of the non-target stored product pest, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and its parasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Yan, Miao-Jun; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-10-01

    Rough rice grains are often stored for extended periods before they are used or consumed. However, during storage, the rough rice is vulnerable to insect infestation, resulting in significant economic loss. Previous studies have shown that volatiles cues, physical characteristics, and taste chemicals on the grains could be the important key behavior factors for storage insect pests to locate the hosts and select oviposition sites. It is also well known that the transgenic Bt rough rice line T1C-19, which expresses a cry1C(⁎) gene has a high resistance to Lepidoptera pests. However, there were no evidences to show the consequences of host preference for non-target insect pests after growing Bt transgenic rice. In this study, the potential key factors of Bt rough rice were investigated for their impacts on the behaviors of non-target pest lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica, the main weevil pest of grain and its parasitic wasps Anisopteromalus calandrae, the natural enemy of the beetle. Both electronic nose and electronic tongue analyses showed that the parameters of Bt rough rice were analogous to those of the non-Bt rough rice. The volatile profiles of Bt and non-Bt rough rice examined by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were similar. For most volatile compounds, there were no significantly quantitative differences in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The densities of sclereids and trichomes on the rough rice husk surface were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The non-target pest, R. dominica, and its parasitoid wasp, A. calandrae, were attracted to both rough rice and could not distinguish the transgenic T1C-19 from the isogenic rough rice. These results demonstrated that Bt rough rice has no negative impacts on the host preference behaviors of non-target stored product pest R. dominica and its parasitoid A. calandrae.

  8. 豇豆荚螟雌雄蛾求偶交配行为及其影响因子研究%Courtship and Mating Behaviors of the Female and Male Moths of Maruca vitrata(Fabricius) and Their Influential Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温衍生; 罗大全; 赵冬香

    2009-01-01

    通过红外监控系统和野外观察实验研究豇豆荚螟雌雄蛾求偶交配规律及其影响因子.结果表明,豇豆荚螟交配时雌、雄蛾尾部交合在一起呈"一"字形,交配时间一般为75 min.雌雄蛾羽化24 h后性成熟,黄昏入夜时分开始活动,求偶交配大部分发生在夜间21:00~03:00时段内.雌雄蛾求偶高峰期出现在凌晨01:00~02:00时段内,次高峰期出现在22:00~23:00时段内;而交配高峰期出现在凌晨02:00~03:00时段内,次高峰期出现在23:00~00:00时段内.雌雄蛾求偶交配高峰的蛾龄期为4日龄.雌雄蛾求偶交配的最佳性比为1:1.其最适宜求偶交配温度为22℃,补充10%的蜂蜜水能明显促进雌雄蛾的求偶交配,豇豆花挥发物对雌雄蛾的求偶交配行为具有显著的促进作用.

  9. 黄曲条跳甲幼虫致病菌的鉴定及其对黄曲条跳甲的杀虫活性研究%Isolation and Identification of Bacteria from Phyllotreta striolata (Fabricius) and Determination of Its Insecticidal Bioactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建云; 纪春艳; 凌冰; 张茂新

    2014-01-01

    A virulent strain PS-1 with high infectivity was isolated from the natural death larvae of Phyllotreta striolata. The strain PS-1 was characterized as Serratia marcescens based on its morphological, cultural, biolog identification system and 16S rDNA sequences analysis. The larvae of P. striolata were fed with turnip cubes which had been dipped in suspension culture of different concentrations (3×104, 3×106 and 3×108 cfu/mL) of S. marcescens PS-1 for 24 h. The corrected mortality rates were 36.1%, 63.9% and 75.0% at 4 d post-treatment, respectively. The LC50 was 7.98×106, 4.27×106 and 8.02×105 cfu/mL at 2, 3 and 4 d. The corrected mortality rate of P. striolata larvae fed with cabbage leaves which had been dipped in suspension culture of S. marcescens PS-1 under the concentrations of 1×108 cfu/mL was 23.25%at 12 d post-treatment. When the eggs of P. striolata were dipped in suspension culture of different concentrations (1×105, 1×107and 1×109 cfu/mL) of S. marcescens PS-1, there was no significant difference in the hatching rate between the control and treatments. The results suggest that S. marcescens PS-1 which has a strong virulence against the larvae and adults of P. striolata might be a good candidate as a potential microbial agent for biological control.%从自然死亡黄曲条跳甲幼虫体中分离出1株对黄曲条跳甲幼虫和成虫有较高致病性菌株PS-1。通过病原菌的形态观察、Biolog系统鉴定以及16S rDNA序列测定分析,确定菌株PS-1隶属于肠杆菌科、沙雷氏菌属的粘质沙雷氏菌Serratia marcescens族群。用菌株PS-1浓度为3×104、3×106和3×108 cfu/mL的菌悬液浸泡鲜萝卜块饲喂黄曲条跳甲幼虫24 h,4 d后的校正死亡率分别为36.1%、63.9%和75.0%;2、3和4 d的LC50分别是7.98×106、4.27×106和8.02×105 cfu/mL。用浓度1×108 cfu/mL的菌悬液处理菜心叶片饲喂黄曲条跳甲成虫,12 d的校正死亡率为23.25%。用浓度1×105、1×107和1×109 cfu/mL的菌悬液浸渍黄曲条跳甲卵,其孵化率与对照无显著差异。结果表明,粘质沙雷氏菌 PS-1菌株对黄曲条跳甲成虫和幼虫有较强的毒力,在黄曲条跳甲的生物防治方面具有一定的应用前景。

  10. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were paras

  11. Três espécies novas do gênero Chorisoneura (Blattellidae, Chorisoneuriinae coletadas em ninhos de Sphecidae (Hymenoptera do Estado do Acre, Brasil Three new species of the genus Chorisoneura (Blattellidae, Chorisoneuriinae collected in Sphecidae nests (Hymenoptera from Acre State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Lopes

    Full Text Available Three new species of Chorisoneura Brunner, 1865 from Acre State, Brazil collected in nests of Podium Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae are described. Illustrations of genitalia are presented.

  12. Identificação dos insetos infestantes de alimentos através da micromorfologia de seus fragmentos Identification of insect contaminants of food by the micromor-pholooy of the insect fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrry Bellot Vargas; Armando Antunes de Almeida

    1996-01-01

    The identification of insect fragments showed that the infestation was done, mainly, by Coleoptera of the genus Sitophilus Sch›nherr, 1838 (Curculionidae) and Rhizoperthadominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Bostrychidae), that are caracteristic of internai infestation, and in lesser percentage by insects charac-teristic of externai infestation, as Crylolestes spp. (Cucujidae), Tribolium spp. (Tene-brionidae), Oryzaephilussurinamensis(Linnacus, 1758) (Cucujidae) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 17...

  13. Noise improves collective decision-making by ants in dynamic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussutour, A; Beekman, M; Nicolis, S C; Meyer, B

    2009-12-22

    Recruitment via pheromone trails by ants is arguably one of the best-studied examples of self-organization in animal societies. Yet it is still unclear if and how trail recruitment allows a colony to adapt to changes in its foraging environment. We study foraging decisions by colonies of the ant Pheidole megacephala under dynamic conditions. Our experiments show that P. megacephala, unlike many other mass recruiting species, can make a collective decision for the better of two food sources even when the environment changes dynamically. We developed a stochastic differential equation model that explains our data qualitatively and quantitatively. Analysing this model reveals that both deterministic and stochastic effects (noise) work together to allow colonies to efficiently track changes in the environment. Our study thus suggests that a certain level of noise is not a disturbance in self-organized decision-making but rather serves an important functional role.

  14. DIVERSITY OF CARABIDS (COLEOPTERA) ASSOCIATED WITH THE LOWER LURIN RIVER, LIMA, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    ARMANDO VÉLEZ-AZAÑERO; Alfonso Lizárraga-Travaglini

    2013-01-01

    Quarterly samples of beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were taken associated with the lower basin of the Lurín River (Lima-Peru) during the period August 2009 - February 2011, in six sampling points between 5 and 51 masl. Pitfall traps were used and obtained a total of 59 specimens distributed among three tribes, three genera, and four morphospecies. We report the presence of Megacephala, Scarites genus, and Pterostichus with the latter being the predominant genus.

  15. Forensic entomology and the estimation of the minimum time since death in indoor cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugelli, Valentina; Forni, David; Bassi, Luciani Alessandro; Di Paolo, Marco; Marra, Damiano; Lenzi, Scilla; Toni, Chiara; Giusiani, Mario; Domenici, Ranieri; Gherardi, Mirella; Vanin, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    Eight cases that occurred indoors in which the insects played an important role in the mPMI estimation are presented. The bodies of socially isolated people and old people living alone were discovered in central Italy between June and November. mPMI ranged from a few days to several weeks. Insects were collected during the body recovery and the postmortem. Climatic data were obtained from the closest meteorological stations and from measurements performed on the site. Sarcophagidae and Calliphoridae species were present in 75% of the cases with Lucilia sericata and Chrysomya albiceps collected in 50% of the cases. Chrysomya albiceps was always found in association with Lucilia species. Scuttle flies (Phoridae) were found in 37.5% of the cases, confirming the ability of these species in indoor body colonization. We show that if sealed environment may delay, the insect arrival dirty houses may create the environment where sarcosaprophagous insects are already present.

  16. Detection of Pb, Ba, and Sb in Blowfly Larvae of Porcine Tissue Contaminated with Gunshot Residue by ICP OES

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa C. Motta; Gabriela Vanini; Carlos A. Chamoun; Rayana A. Costa; Boniek G. Vaz; Helber B. Costa; Bassane, João F. P.; Maria Tereza W.D. Carneiro; Wanderson Romão

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), barium (Ba), and antimony (Sb) concentrations were monitored in flies larvae (immature Chrysomya albiceps) contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR) from .40 caliber Taurus pistols during the period of 2 to 12 days after the death of a female pig in decomposition, during the winter, under the influence of rain and high relative humidity. The samples were also analyzed by the colorimetric test using sodium rhodizonate (Feigl-Suter reaction). It was possible to detect and quantify the ...

  17. Levantamento de microhimenópteros parasitóides de dípteros de importância, médico-veterinária no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Augusto R. Silveira

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available De larvas e pupas de Musca domestica, Chrysomya albiceps, Cochliomyia homivorax, Stomoxys calcitrans e Syntesiomyia nudiseta coletadas em diversos ambiente, em São Paulo, Paraná, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul e Minas Gerais, foram obtidas dez espécies de microhimenópteros parasitóides da supermamília Chalcidoidea, algumas assinaladas pela primeira vez no Brasil.

  18. Characteristics of family Pieridae (Lepidoptera in Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies are the most beautiful and colorful insects of the world. Which attract most of the animals for their food easily available. The present research were conducted at Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during August 2014 to May 2015. The family Pieridae were collected with the help of insects net and naked hands. A total of 8 species and 6 genera were collected, i.e., Common or lemon emigrant, Catopsilia ponoma Fabricius; Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; Clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; Common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; Eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; Pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius. Aims of the present research the characteristics of butterfly fauna from Tehsil Tangi, are helpful in awareness, education and further research. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Tehsil Tangi.

  19. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Observation on the Penis of 12 Species of Dragonflies%十二种蜻蜓阳茎的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凤英

    2000-01-01

    应用扫描电子显微镜和光学体现显微镜研究了蜻科12属12种的阳茎.这12种蜻蜓分别是:异色多纹蜻DeieliaphaonSelys,玉带蜻PseudothemiszonataBurmeister,黄翅蜻BrvachythemiscontamtnataFabricius,斜痣蜻TrameavirginiaRamber,晓褐蜻TrithemisauroraBurmeister,锥腹蜻AcisomapanorpoidesRambur,小斑蜻LibellulaquadrimaculataLinnaeus,六斑曲缘蜻Palpopleurasex-maculataFabricius,黄蜻PantalaflavescensFabricius,黑丽翅蜻RhyothemisfulignosaSelys,红蜻Crocothemisservilia,Drury,蓝额疏脉蜻BrachydiplaxchalybeaBrauer.另外还同赤蜻属Sympetrum及灰蜻属OrtAetrum作了比较,发现属间均有明显差异.

  20. Studies on male genitalia of sarcophagidae (Diptera based on scanning electron microscope observations Estudos sobre a genitália masculina de Sarcophagidae (Diptera baseados em observações de microscópio de varredura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Cesar Rios Leite

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Male genitalia of Oxyvinia exicisa (Lopes, Oxysarcodexia thomax (Walker, O. fluminensis Lopes, Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann, Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann and Liopygia ruficornis (Fabricius were studied based on scanning electron microscope photography. Some important details were evidentiated with this method.As genitálias dos machos de Oxyvinia excisa (Lopes, Oxysarcodexia tornax (Walker, O. fluminensis Lopes, sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann, Peckia chrysostoma (Wiedemann e Liopygia ruficornis (Fabricius foram estudadas com base em fotografias de microscópio de varredura. Alguns detalhes importantes foram evidenciados por este método.

  1. Substratos utilizados para a criação de dípteros caliptratos no jardim zoológico do Rio de Janeiro (Rio-Zoo) Breeding media used for rearing flies in the Zoological Garden of Rio de Janeiro (Rio - Zoo)

    OpenAIRE

    José Mario d'Almeida

    1989-01-01

    No Rio-Zoo, foram criados 7.377 dípteros caliptratos, pertencentes a quatro famílias e 22 espécies. As criações foram efetuadas de agosto de 1987 a abril de 1988. Foram utilizados como substratos de criação: banana, camarão, carcaça de camundongo,fezes caninas, fezes humanas, fígado bovino, lula, mamão, peixe, siri e tomate. As espécies criadas com maior freqüência foram: Fannia sp. (subgrupo pusio), Atherigona orientalis, Chrysomyia megacephala, Phaenicia eximia. Paraphrissopoda chrysosotoma...

  2. Lista de sírfidos afidófagos y primeros registros de Pseudodoros clavatus y Eupeodes rojasi (Diptera: Syrphidae, potenciales agentes de control biológico en la provincia de Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo P. LÓPEZ GARCÍA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la primera lista de sírfidos afidófagos para la provincia de Mendoza y se reportan primeros registros de Pseudodoros clavatus Fabricius y Eu - peodes rojasi Marnef, potenciales agentes para el control biológico de áfidos plagas.

  3. Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera fauna of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidopteraare well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.

  4. Utilisation of multiple queens and pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth of weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius) have been increasingly used as biocontrol agents of insect pests and as insect protein for human food and animals. For either of these purposes, mature ant colonies are essential. However, for a newly established colony to develop to a suitable mature...

  5. Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, N.E.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vinesthroughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The

  6. Social wasps trapped in the Czech Republic with syrup and fermented fruit and comparison with similar studies (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of social wasps were trapped in the Czech Republic and Slovakia with syrup as bait. Vespa crabro L, Vespula germanica (Fabricius), and Vespula vulgaris (L.) dominated trap catches at most sites, comprising 32, 28, and 35% of the wasps trapped respectively. Nearly all wasps captured wer...

  7. Crustacea Decapoda von der Insel Rhodos, Griechenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewinsohn, Ch.

    1976-01-01

    Obwohl uns schon Aristoteles (384-322 v. Chr.) über Decapoden aus dem Ägäischen Meer berichtet (Palinurus elephas (Fabricius) und Homarus gammarus (L.)), ist die Decapodenfauna dieser Region des östlichen Mittelmeeres bis heute nicht eingehend erforscht worden. Es gibt bis jetzt keine zusammenfassen

  8. Incidência natural de parasitóides em ovos de percevejos (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) encontrados na soja no distrito federal

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Maria Alice de; Loiácono, Marta Susana; Borges, Miguel; Schimidt, Francisco Virgulino Guilherme

    1998-01-01

    A survey of egg parasitoids of soybean Pentatomidae was carried out in Planaltina, DF, Brazil. Twelve species of egg parasitoids (Telenomus edessae Fabricius, Telenomus podisi Ashmead, Telenomus sp., Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston), Trissolcus brochymenae Ashmead, Trissolcus sp., Trissolcus teretis Johnson, Trissolcus urichi Crawford; Anastatus auriceps Ashmead, Eupelmus sp., Ooencyrtus sp. and Neorileya sp.) were recovered in seven hosts: Acrosternum aseadum Rolston, Edessa meditabunda (Fabri...

  9. Functional response and life history parameters of Apanteles taragamae, a larval parasitoid of Maruca vitrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamò, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a serious pest of cowpea in West-Africa. The parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) that originates from Taiwan is a potential candidate for biological control of M. vitrata. We investigated under lab

  10. Assessing non-target effects and host feeding of the exotic parasitoid Apanteles taragamae, a potential biological control agent of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Apanteles taragamae Viereck is a larval parasitoid introduced in Benin for classical biological control of the cowpea pod borer Maruca vitrata Fabricius. In the laboratory, we evaluated the effects of A. taragamae on non-target herbivore species, and on another parasitoid of M. vitrata, i.e. the egg

  11. Vowel Formants and Angle Measurements in Diachronic Sociophonetic Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2007-01-01

    is well documented in varieties of British English, such as Torgersen and Kerswill [10], including RP, as in Hawkins and Midgley [6]. The paper also demonstrates the versatility of an angle calculation method (Fabricius [3]), used in combination with F1/F2 plots, in producing replicable quantified...

  12. Baratas (Insecta, Blattaria sinantrópicas na cidade de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Synantropic cockroaches (Insecta, Blattaria from Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albertino Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A coleta de baratas na cidade de Manaus resultou em seis espécies associadas às habitações, estabelecimentos comerciais e educacionais, sendo quatro predominantemente dentro das habitações, Blatella germanica (Linnaeus, 1758, Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758, P. australasiae (Fabricius, 1775 e duas fora das habitações, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758 e Blaberus parabolicus Walker, 1868. P. americana foi comum tanto interna como externamente às instalações urbanas; P. australasiae foi predominante em barcos; P. surinamensis e B. parabolicus foram invasoras ocasionais de residências na estação chuvosa. São apresentadas fotos coloridas, em tamanho natural, para reconhecimento das espécies.Collection of cockroaches from Manaus resulted in six species associated to human house, commercial buildings and educational buildings, being four species found predominantly indoor, Blatella germanica (Linnaeus, 1758, Supella longipalpa (Fabricius, 1798, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758 and P. australasiae (Fabricius, 1775 and two species found predominantly outdoor, Pycnoscelus surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Blaberus parabolicus Walker, 1868 the latter two occasionally house-infesting species in the rainy season. P. americana was common either indoor and outdoor and P. australasiae infesting mainly boats. Color figures in natural size are presented for all species in order to help their identification.

  13. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  14. Host preference of Callosobruchus maculatus: a comparison of life history characteristics for three strains of beetles on two varieties of cowpea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive success of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, the main insect pest of stored cowpea, may vary between strains of this beetle and between varieties of the host seeds. Life history parameters of beetle strains from three different origins in West Africa were compared on two susceptib

  15. Insecticide susceptibility of cimex hemipterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Perti

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the bed bug, cimex hemiptelus fabricius, to certain synthetic contact insecticides, viz., DDT, lindane dieldrin, diazinon and malathion was investigated. The fifth nymphal stage of the insect was found to be more tolerant to insecticides than other nymphal instars or the adult bed bug.

  16. Elastic moduli of sandstones saturated with a range of pore fluids correlated with kinematic viscosity and frequency ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2011-01-01

    . The purpose of this study is to investigate if frame parameters can be extracted from air saturated measurements in sandstones, because earlier studies have shown that air may have a non-negligible effect on carbonates due to the high kinematic viscosity of air (Fabricius et al., 2010)....

  17. Substratos utilizados para a criação de dípteros caliptratos em uma área urbana do Município do Rio de Janeiro Breeding media used for rearing of flies in an urban area of the State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mario D'Almeida

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Em uma área urbana do município do Rio de Janeiro, foram criados 10.988 dípteros caliptratos, pertencentes a quatro famílias e 22 espécies. As criações foram efetuadas em quatro etapas durante os anos de 1986 a 1987. Foram utilizados como substratos: peixe, fígado, carcaça de camundongo, fezes humanas e caninas, camarão, siri, banana, manga mamaão e tomate. As espécies criadas com maior freqüência foram: Fania sp (subgrupo pusio, Atherigona orientalis, Phaenicia eximia, Paraphrissopoda chrisostoma, Chrisomyia megacephala, Ophyra solitaria, Musca domestica, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Phaenicia cuprina, Ophyra aenescens, Sarcophagula occidua, Morellia flavicornis, e Sarcodexia innota.In an urban area of Municipality of rio de Janeiro were bred 10,988 calliptrate flies belonging to 4 families and 22 species. Breeding was effectuated in four steps during the years of 1986 and 1987. It were used as larvae substrate; fish, liver, mouse carcas, human and dog faeces, shrimp, crab, banana, mango, papaya and tomato. The species bred with frequency were: Fannia sp 9sub grouppusio, Atherigona orientalis, Phaenicia eximia, Paraphrissopoda chrysostoma, Chrysomyia megacephala, Ophyra solitaria, Musca domestica, Sarcophagula occidua, Morellia flavicornis e Sarcodexia innota.

  18. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  19. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  20. ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ АРЕАЛА DERMACENTOR MARGINATUS SULZER,1776 И D.RETICULATUS FABRICIUS,1794 И КЛИМАТА В ЕВРОПЕЙСКОЙ ЧАСТИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ЗА ПЕРИОД 1903 – 2008 ГОДЫ

    OpenAIRE

    Кербабаев Э.Б.

    2010-01-01

    Как показали исследования жизненной схемы 18 видов иксодовых клещей (в том числе D.marginatus и D.reticulatus) связанными с типичными обитателями пустынь (гребенщиковой песчанки) и типичными лесными зверьками (рыжие полёвки, бурундуки и лесные мыши) только один вид - D.marginatus оказался общим для гребенщиковой песчанки и лесных зверьков (Платонова, 2001). Это тоже свершившийся факт и также требует мониторинга, который позволит дать экологическое обоснование для разработки интегрированного м...

  1. Detection of Pb, Ba, and Sb in Blowfly Larvae of Porcine Tissue Contaminated with Gunshot Residue by ICP OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa C. Motta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, barium (Ba, and antimony (Sb concentrations were monitored in flies larvae (immature Chrysomya albiceps contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR from .40 caliber Taurus pistols during the period of 2 to 12 days after the death of a female pig in decomposition, during the winter, under the influence of rain and high relative humidity. The samples were also analyzed by the colorimetric test using sodium rhodizonate (Feigl-Suter reaction. It was possible to detect and quantify the three metals of interest by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES, where the concentrations of all three elements kept practically constant during the putrefaction stage. Minimum ([Pb] = 382.26 μg L−1; [Ba] = 140.50 μg L−1; [Sb] = 39.18 μg L−1 and maximum ([Pb] = 522.66 μg L−1; [Ba] = 190.30 μg L−1; [Sb] = 56.14 μg L−1 concentrations were found during the third and fifth days after death, respectively. ICP OES presented higher sensitivity in metals determination when compared to the conventional colorimetric test, which showed negative result for the GSR extracts obtained from the immature Chrysomya albiceps.

  2. Integrated programme to eradicate the old world screwworm fly from the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Old World Screwworm fly is one of the most destructive insect pests of livestock, humans and wildlife. It was recognized by World Organization for Animal Health as a notifiable disease. The outbreak of Old World Screwworm in Iraq in the late 1996 led to a joint regional/international meeting under the umbrella of the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development to demonstrate the feasibility of eradicating Old World Screwworm from the gulf region by using the sterile insect technique as an agent of the Area- Wide Integrated Pest Management campaign. The programme approved by Arab Organization for Agricultural Development , Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency included identification of different stages of Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana, increasing the awareness of the animal breeder against the danger of this pest, the possibility of rearing this pest in the laboratory for carrying different studies such as the effect of gamma rays on different insect stages, induced sterility, competitiveness,.. etc. Furthermore, the programme included genetic diversity studies on the Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana strain which was found in different Arab Gulf countries to demonstrate if this diversity has any effect on using sterile insect technique to eradicate this pest from the gulf region. Finally the programme demonstrated the economic feasibility of using sterile insect technique for eradicating this pest from the gulf countries. (author)

  3. A checklist of arthropods associated with pig carrion and human corpses in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LML Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous insects, mainly Diptera and Coleoptera, are attracted to specific stages of carcass decomposition, in a process of faunistic succession. They are very important in estimating the postmortem interval, the time interval between the death and the discovery of the body. In studies done with pig carcasses exposed to natural conditions in an urban forest (Santa Genebra Reservation, located in Campinas, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, 4 out of 36 families of insects collected - Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae (Diptera and Dermestidae (Coleoptera - were considered of forensic importance, because several species were collected in large numbers both visiting and breeding in pig carcasses. Several species were also observed and collected on human corpses at the Institute of Legal Medicine. The species belonged to 17 different families, 6 being of forensic importance because they were reared from human corpses or pig carcasses: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Piophilidae (Diptera, Dermestidae, Silphidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera. The most important species were: Diptera - Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya putoria, Hemilucilia segmentaria, Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Calliphoridae, Pattonella intermutans (Sarcophagidae, Ophyra chalcogaster (Muscidae, Piophila casei (Piophilidae; Coleoptera - Dermestes maculatus (Dermestidae, Oxyletrum disciolle (Silphidae and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae.

  4. Análise Faunística de Insetos Associados à Cultura do Quiabeiro [Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench] em Plantio Comercial, no Município de Canindé de São Francisco, SE, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristina Silva

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. This research aims to study the entomofauna associated with the commercial cultivation of okra in municipality of Canindé do São Francisco, Sergipe State, Brazil, through faunal analysis. The species Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B, Aphis gossypii (Glover, Phenacoccus sp., Icerya purchasi (Maskell and Lagria villosa (Fabricius were the okra key pests. Diabrotica speciosa (Germar and Gryllus assimilis (Fabricius were plagues of secondary importance. And Leptoglossus zonatus (Dallas, Nezaraviridula L., Pachycoris torridus (Scopoli and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis (Costa were sporadic pests. Four species of predatory insects were found, a constant and dominant (Cycloneda sanguinea L. a dispersed, but constant (Eriopis connexa German and two rare (Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and Psyllobora confluens F..

  5. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  6. Primary List of Flower-visiting Insects in Huaian Rape Fields%淮安市油菜田访花昆虫资源研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜翠萍; 施保国; 徐建明; 胡晨曦; 赵祥祥

    2012-01-01

    Through investigation and identification, there are 58 species belonging to 32 families in 8 orders of flower-visiting insects in Huai an rape fields, including Mantodea, Homoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera. The main pollinating insects include Apis cerana Fabricius, Micrapis florea Fabricius, Pieris rapae Linnaeus, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer).%经过调查与鉴定,发现淮安市油菜田中访花昆虫包括膜翅目、双翅目、鳞翅目、鞘翅目、半翅目、同翅目、脉翅目、螳螂目等8目、32科的58种昆虫,其中主要传粉昆虫为中华蜜蜂、小蜜蜂、菜粉蝶、黑带食蚜蝇(成虫).

  7. Chaves para a identificação dos principais Coleoptera (Insecta associados com produtos armazenados Keys for the identification of Coleoptera (Insecta associated with stored products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva Pereira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to identify nine families of Coleoptera commonly found in stored products is presented. Keys for the identification of Anobiidae [Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792, Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus, 1761], Bruchidae [Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833], Curculionidae [Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763, S. zeamais Motschulsky, 1885], Silvanidae [Ahasverus advena (Waltl, 1832, Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin, 1892, Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel, 1889, O. surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758] and Tenebrionidae [Gnathocerus cornutus (Fabricius, 1798, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797, T. confusum du Val, 1868] are also provided. These keys cover the most frequent Coleoptera found in stored products, specially grains, and are to the adult stage only. Illustrations of external morphology and general characteristics are provided for each species reported.

  8. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

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    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  9. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tolulope A Agunbiade; Weilin Sun; Coates, Brad S; Rousseau Djouaka; Manuele Tamò; Ba, Malick N; Clementine Binso-Dabire; Ibrahim Baoua; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrip...

  10. Artropofauna de importancia forense en un cadáver de cerdo en el Callao, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacone José

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758) on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) (81.62%); Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) (16.35%)...

  11. Artropofauna de importancia forense en un cadáver de cerdo en el Callao, Perú Arthropofauna of forensic importance in pig carcass in Callao, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    José Iannacone

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758) on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) (81.62%); Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) (16.35%)...

  12. The species of Megachilidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)from West Azarbaijan province, northwestern Iran%伊朗West Azarbaijan省切叶蜂科(膜翅目:蜜蜂总科)昆虫种类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan GHAHARI; Neveen S.GADALLAH

    2015-01-01

    本文记述了伊朗西北部West Azarbaijan省的切叶蜂科昆虫种类.总计记述8属(Anthidium Fabricius,Chelostoma Latreille,Coelioxys Latreille,Heriades Spinola,Hoplitis Klug,Lithurgus Berthold,Megachile Latreille和Osmia Panzer) 25种,其中2种Megachile(Creightonella)albisecta(KIug,1817)和Megachile(Chalicodoma)parietina(Geoffroy,1785)为伊朗分布新记录.

  13. Prospects of semi-cultivating the edible weaver and Oecophylla smaragdina

    OpenAIRE

    Itterbeeck, Van, J.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: entomophagy, edible insects, Formicidae, global food security, agricultural revolution, Lao PDR An increased use of edible insects as human food and animal feed is a viable means to feed the growing human population and to tackle sustainability issues of the food production systems. The semi-cultivation of the edible weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Southeast Asia can assure a sustainably supply of the highly favoured queen brood; reduce the en...

  14. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Ariana Vieira Alves; Eliana Janet Sanjinez Argandoña; Adelita Maria Linzmeier; Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso; Maria Lígia Rodrigues Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845), which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to boca...

  15. Revision of the New World bee fly genus Heterostylum Macquart (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Revisão do bombylideos do gênero Heterostylum Macquart do novo mundo (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    OpenAIRE

    André Mallemont Cunha; Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    2007-01-01

    The genus Heterostylum Macquart and five Neotropical species (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805), H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827), H. rufum (Olivier, 1789), H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863) and H. pallipes Bigot, 1892) are redescribed. The other species, recently redescribed or described are only diagnosed, except for H. deani Painter, 1930, whose spermathecae are described and illustrated for the first time. The main characters of the external morphology were photographed and the male genitalia and ...

  16. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Magdi El-Hawagry; Hathal Al Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species ( Bombyliidae , Diptera ) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of...

  17. Daily activity patterns of visits by males of four species of Eulaema (Apidae: Euglossina) to odor baits in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro N. Melo; Miriam Gimenes; Antonio Oliveira Neto

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted with bees of the subtribe Euglossina using odor baits as attractants. The objective of this study was to analyze the daily activity pattern of visits by males of four species of Eulaema - Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Eulaema flavescens (Friese, 1899), Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804) and Eulaema bombiformis (Packard, 1869) - to vanillin and benzyl acetate baits, and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors throughout the day in dif...

  18. Six Pandalid Shrimps of the Genus Plesionika (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Nyun Kim; Jung Hwa Choi; Jeong-Hoon Lee; Joo Il Kim

    2012-01-01

    Based on samples collected from the Korean Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) during an investigation of fishery resources by the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (NFRDI) from 2002 to 2010, alongside some supplemental material, six species of the genus Plesionika are identified: P. izumiae Omori, 1971, P. ortmanni Doflein, 1902, P. grandis Doflein, 1902, P. lophotes Chace, 1985, P. narval (Fabricius, 1787), and P. orientalis Chace, 1985. Of these, the last four species are new...

  19. Invastigation About Fauna and Distribution of Species Which Belong to Pieridae (Lepidoptera) Family in the Plateau Baskonus and Tekir (Kahramanmaras Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Boylu, Ökkeş Akın; Bahadıroğlu, Cengiz; BOZDOĞAN, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    In this study which was materialized in the years 2009-2010, the species belonging to Pieridae (Lepidoptera) family, their fauna and distribution have been examined, in total 8 genera and 11 species Gonepteryx cleopatra,( Linnaeus, 1767), Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus 1758 ), Colias crocea (Fourcroy 1785), Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus 1758), Pieris rapae (Linnaeus 1758), Pontia edusa (Fabricius 1777), Euchloe ausonia, (Hübner 1804), Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus 1758), Anthocharis cardamines (Linn...

  20. Taxonomic review of the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zarchi Win

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides keys to the genera and species for the butterfly species belonging to the tribe Junoniini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae from Myanmar. Species accounts include taxonomic description, synonymic lists, distributional ranges, and adult illustrations of nine species: Junonia hierta (Fabricius, Junonia orithya (Linnaeus, Junonia almana (Linnaeus, Junonia lemonias (Linnaeus, Junonia atlites (Linnaeus, Junonia iphita (Cramer, Yoma sabina (Cramer, Hypolimnas bolina (Linnaeus, and Hypolimnas misippus (Linnaeus.

  1. Point-of-care procalcitonin test to reduce antibiotic exposure in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Caspar Corti,1 Markus Fally,1 Andreas Fabricius-Bjerre,1 Katrine Mortensen,1 Birgitte Nybo Jensen,1 Helle F Andreassen,1 Celeste Porsbjerg,1 Jenny Dahl Knudsen,2 Jens-Ulrik Jensen1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark Background: This study was conducted to investigate whether point-of-care (POC) procalcitonin (PCT) measurement can reduce re...

  2. Morphology, molecules and mating behavior : an integrative study of population divergence and speciation in widespread sepsid flies (Sepsidae: Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation explores processes of selection and speciation acting on diverging populations in two widespread sepsid species (Sepsidae: Diptera). The main focus was on investigating sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and incipient speciation in the nearctic and palaearctic species Sepsis punctum (Fabricius 1794) (Chapters 1-4). In addition, divergence in reproductive behavior and morphology was also addressed in the neotropical species Archisepsis divers...

  3. Characteristics of family Pieridae (Lepidoptera) in Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon; Farzana Perveen

    2016-01-01

    The butterflies are the most beautiful and colorful insects of the world. Which attract most of the animals for their food easily available. The present research were conducted at Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during August 2014 to May 2015. The family Pieridae were collected with the help of insects net and naked hands. A total of 8 species and 6 genera were collected, i.e., Common or lemon emigrant, Catopsilia ponoma Fabricius; Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; Cl...

  4. Compared Morphology of the Immatures of Males of Two Urban Ant Species of Camponotus

    OpenAIRE

    Solis, Daniel Russ; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Rossi, Mônica Lanzoni; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2012-01-01

    The immatures of males of two species of Camponotus ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are described and compared by light and electron microscopy. The numbers of larval instars were determined: Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have four instars; and Camponotus vittatus Forel have three. Male larvae of the two species are similar to previously described Camponotus larvae, sharing the following traits: basic shape of body and mandible, presence of ‘chiloscleres’, ‘praesaepium...

  5. Improving rural livelihoods through participative research on the domestication and breeding of the palm weevil larvae (Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabr.) : the African palm weevil project : final project report

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Muafor; Le Gall, Philippe; Levang, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to fight against food insecurity, poverty and biodiversity erosion, this project was elaborated to initiate the breeding and domestication of the palm weevil grubs (edible larvae of the African palm weevil: Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabricius, 1801). The project was aimed at determining an appropriate technique and feed formula for the domestication of the larvae, as well as training local people on acquired multiplication and breeding techniques. In order to m...

  6. Reproduction and development of the black vine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Youngsoo

    2004-01-01

    Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius) is a serious pest of various horticultural crops in the United States. Despite its economic importance, this pest remains very challenging to manage. Integrated Pest Management Program for O. sulcatus has not yet been implemented due to lack of accurate information on its ecology. Investigation of temperature-dependent development and reproduction of O. sulcatus was conducted to enable the prediction of stage emergence more accurately. Immature-development...

  7. Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, N.E.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vinesthroughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The aim of the research project was to gain insight in the biology and ecology of sweetpotato weevils and, based on this insight, develop pest management programmes on sweetpotato in Eastern Africa.In Chapter 1, th...

  8. Diversidade de espécies e densidade de ninhos de abelhas sociais sem ferrão (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae) em floresta de terra firme na Amazônia central Diversity of species and density of stingless bee social nests (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae) in terra firme forest in central Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio L. Oliveira; Elder F. Morato; Garcia, Marcos V. B.

    1995-01-01

    Stingless bees were collected between 1984 and 1990 in continuous forest, forest fragments and cleared areas 90 Km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Several methods were employed. a total of 54 species of 21 genera were collected including two undescribed species of Plebeia Schwarz, 1938. The most abundant genera were Trigona Jurine, 1807; Melipona Illiger, 1806; Partamona Schwarz, 1939 and Tetragona Lepeletier, 1825. The most abundant species were Trigona crassipes (Fabricius, 1793) and T. ...

  9. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of eleven noctuid species (Insecta, Lepidoptera) captured in blacklight traps on Terceira Island (Azores)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Virgílio; Araújo, M. G. Gomes de; Tavares, João

    1998-01-01

    The adult flight periods of Agrotis segetum (DENNIS & SCHIFFERMÜLLER), Noctua pronuba (LINNAEUS), Noctua atlantica (WARREN), Peridroma saucia (HÜBNER), Xestia c-nigrum (LINNAEUS), Mythimna loreyi (DUPONCHEL), Phlogophora meticulosa (LINNAEUS), Phlogophora interrupta(WARREN), Mesapamea storai (REBEL), Autographa gamma (LINNAEUS), and Trichoplusia orichalcea (FABRICIUS) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were studied between November 1992 and November 1993, at Terra Chã (110 m), Granja (310 m), Faj...

  10. Learning Ability and Factors Influencing Nest Establishment of the Solitary Bees Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vorel, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the use of solitary bees as an alternative to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for pollination of commercial crops has increased, in part as a response to ongoing problems faced by commercial honey bee populations. Two solitary bee species have exhibited great commercial potential: the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria Say, and the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, growth of O. lignaria and M. rotundata ...

  11. Susceptibility of Bed Bugs to Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Damodar

    1964-04-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of a normal laboratory strain of the bed bug, cimex hemipterus fabricius to certain synthetic insecticides, viz. dieldrin, diazinon and malathion was investigated in relation to DDT and lindance. The data were subjected to probit analysis. It was found that diazinon was the most effective insecticide, as residual films on filter papers, and was followed by malathion, lindane and DDT/dieldrin. It was also found that c. hemipterus was fairly susceptible to all the insecticides investigated.

  12. The Primary Investigation on Edible Spider in Folk from Yunnan Province%云南民间食用蜘蛛初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万晓瑜; 廖绍波

    2013-01-01

    笔者通过在采访和文献查阅,初步统计出云南民间常食用的蜘蛛有4种:横纹金蛛Argiope bruennichi(Scopoli,1772)、棒络新妇Nephila clavataL.koch,1878、斑络新妇Nephila pilipes(Fabricius,1793)、大囊地蛛Atypus sacculatus Zhu et al.,2006.

  13. Effect of Copper Toxicity on Lymphoid Organs in Ducklings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Heng-min; CHEN Huai-tao; PENG Xi; YANG Guang; DENG Jun-liang; LI De-bing

    2004-01-01

    210 one-day-old Tianfu meat ducklings ware divided into three groups,and fed on diets as follows: (1) control (Cu 12.16 mg kg-1),(2) copper toxic Ⅰ (Cu 850 mg kg-1) and (3)copper toxic Ⅱ( Cu 1 050 mg kg-1) for studies on effects of copper toxicity on lymphoid organs in duckling with the methods of experimental pathology and flow cytometry (FCM).The weight and growth index of the thymus,spleen and bursa of Fabricius were markedly reduced (P< 0.05 or P< 0.01) in both copper toxic group Ⅰ and Cu toxic group Ⅱ when compared with control group.The G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle of the thymus,spleen and bursa of Fabricius was much higher,and S,G2+M phases lower in Cu toxic groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ than in the control group.There were lymphocyte degeneration and depletion of lymphoid organs,and the reticular cells of spleen and bursa of Fabricius proliferated and the reticular cells of thymus were also degenerate and necrotic in Cu toxic groups.The results demonstrated that Cu toxicity seriously impaired the progression of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to S phase,inhibited the development of lymphoid organs and caused marked pathological injury in lymphoid organs.The results also showed that the effect of Cu toxicity on the primary lymphoid organs occurred stronger than on the secondary lymphoid organs.The effect of Cu toxicity was the greatest on the bursa of Fabricius,followed hy the thymus,and then the spleen.Potential mechanisms underlying aforementioned observation were also discussed.key words: Copper toxicity,Lesion,Cell cycle,Lymphoid organ,Duckling

  14. EXTRACTION OF DNAS IN MENOCHILUS SEXMACULATA (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE) AND AMPLIFICATION OF 16SRDNA FRAGMENT BY PCR%六斑月瓢虫模板DNA的制备及16SrDNA序列扩增

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞虹

    2001-01-01

    本文对酒精浸泡的六斑月瓢虫Menochilus sexmaculata(Fabricius)标本进行基因组DNA的提取,用线粒体16 SrDNA引物扩增出长度约为500bp的PCR产物,为进一步开展瓢虫的分子系统学研究打下基础.

  15. Ultrastructural and quantitative studies of hemocytes in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Maria Ferreira Falleiros; Maria Terezinha Siqueira Bombonato; Elisa Aparecida Gregório

    2003-01-01

    Six circulating hemocytes cell types from Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae were identified by transmission and scanning electron microscope: prohemocytes (PR), plasmatocytes (PL) granulocytes (GR), spherulocytes (SP), oenocytoids (OE) and vermicytes (VE). The PR was the smallest cell type with a large nucleus, a cytoplasm with few organelles and a homogenous smooth surface. The PL was polymorphic and abundant, with a cytoplasm rich in organelles and a cellular ...

  16. Induction of a gloverin-like antimicrobial polypeptide in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis challenged by septic injury

    OpenAIRE

    J.L.C. Silva; J.F. Barbosa; Bravo, J. P.; Souza, E.M.; L.F. Huergo; F.O. Pedrosa; Esteves, E.; Daffre, S; M.A. Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest for Brazilian sugarcane. In the present study, we detected two distinct spots in hemolymph from septic injured larvae (HDs1 and HDs2), which are separated by 2DE gel electrophoresis. Both spots were subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis, which revealed the sequence VFGTLGSDDSGLFGK present in both HDs1 and HDs2. This sequence had homology and 80% identity with specific Lepidoptera an...

  17. Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera of district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Inayatullah Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%, which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.

  18. Dinâmica Populacional de Pulgão Preto dos Citros (Sternorrhyncha em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco em Seropédica-RJ

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    William Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. The aphid Toxoptera citricida (Kyrkaldy (Sternorrhyncha is a potential vector of citrus virus tristeza, consider an important pest of the orchard. Was realized bimonthly monitoring between October 2002 and October 2003, with aim of study the populational dynamic this aphid, included predators ant ant-tending, in organic cropping of tangerine cv Ponkan, Fazendinha Agroecológica, Seropédica, RJ. The faunistic analysis of the ant-tending and predators, were realized across Shanon-Wiener (H' and Simpson (D diversity index's, Berger-Parker dominance (d and equitability J (e. The predators considered efficient in the populational reduction of brown citrus aphid (BCA, was Cycloneda sanguinea (L., Azya luteipes Mulsant and Pseudodorus clavatus (Fabr., although has been registered eight predators attacking BCA colonies. Verified that C. sangiunea obtained the biggest populational peak, following P. clavatus and A. luteipes. The predators diversity and equitability was considered high (H'= 0.7979; D =0.9638; e= 0.8836. Tending BCA, was registered Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus rufipes (Fabricius Camponotus atriceps (Fabricius, Camponotus crassus (Mayr, Camponotus clypeatus (Mayr; Crematogaster sp., Solenospis sp., Ectatomma brunneum (Fabricius and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Fr. Smith. Ant-tending was considered medium to H' value (0.6585 and high to D value (0.9012. The equitability was considered medium too (e =0.69. T. citricida populational dynamic is influenced to foliar shoot following predation and ant-tending. These two end factors are antagonist due to protection offer to ants at BCA.

  19. Evaluation of Size and Lesion Scores of Bursa Cloacae in Broiler Flocks in Algeria

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    S. Sellaoui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of IBD (infectious bursal disease are frequently observed among correctly vaccinated broiler flocks in Algerian Nord-East region. The present study aimed to search for the immunosuppression state as possible consequence of IBD. Our investigation focused on nine broilers flocks whom one suffering from IBD. Total of 400 bursa cloacae (bursa Fabricius were collected from broiler chickens during the rearing period or at slaughtering. The parameters of the bursa cloacae are evaluated: body weight ratio, index bursal, morphometric characteristics and the histopathological observations. The results obtained show that the weight and diameter of bursa Fabricius are not proportional to the age and weight of chickens. The weight and size of the bursa Fabricius were found lower than the accepted standards. According to the evaluation system in effect, 58 % of examined chickens belong to the poor category and 29 % to the excellent category. Such results indicate bursa atrophy and confirm state of immunosuppression which was suspected because of poor performances recorded in some broiler flocks. In conclusion, the bursa characteristics (body weight ratio, morphometric and histopathological studies are practical and not expensive tools for any field investigation to evaluate the immune status of broilers

  20. Ant Community Structure (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Two Neighborhoods with Different Urban Profiles in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Alcione Piva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some ant species are highly abundant in cities, may form huge unicolonial populations with thousands of individuals able to displace native fauna, and impoverish ecological relationships in urban environments. In this work, we study the ant community in two neighborhoods with different urban profiles, one recently populated and another from the 1900s in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Two hundred and ninety houses were sampled with baits for ant collections. Results show that the recent urbanized neighborhood with greater disturbance favors opportunistic and dominant species to colonize it, like Tapinoma melanocephalum. We also made a temporal analysis in the ancient neighborhood, collecting ants after ten years from a first survey. T. melanocephalum has a broader range than ten years ago, displaced other ant species, but confronts with Pheidole megacephala that was not found in the recent urbanized neighborhood.

  1. Pentastomid infections in cichlid fishes in the Kruger National Park and the description of the infective larva of Subtriquetra rileyi n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Boomker, J; Booyse, D G

    1998-09-01

    During 1995, studies were conducted on the pentastome fauna of the cichlid fishes Tilapia rendalli and Oreochromis mossambicus in the Kruger National Park. The prevalence of infective pentastome larvae was 40.5% in T. rendalli and 9.2% in O. mossambicus. Encapsulated nymphs of Leiperia cincinnalis were taken from the mesentery, while Sebekia wedli was either encapsulated or free-living in the swim bladder. The subtriquetrids moved about freely in the swim bladder. L. cincinnalis was present in 0.5% of T. rendalli and 0.8% of O. mossambicus and additional descriptions and measurements of the nymphs are presented. S. wedli was present in 2.5% of O. mossambicus and a new Subtriquetra species, for which the name Subtriquetra riley n. sp. is proposed, in 7.5%. This ratio in T. rendalli was 40.5% and 2.2%, respectively. Of the infected T. rendalli, 89% harboured one or two sebekiid larvae, while a single fish harboured eight. Fish infected with S. rileyi contained only one larva each. The condition factor of infected T. rendalli was compared statistically to that of uninfected fish and no significant difference found. However, infected fish were significantly shorter and lighter than uninfected ones. S. rileyi differs from the other three known Subtriquetra spp., Subtriquetra subtriquetra, Subtriquetra megacephala and Subtriquetra shipleyi in both hook size and annulus counts. Furthermore, S. subtriquetra occurs in South American crocodilians (Riley 1986), and S. megacephala and S. shipleyi in crocodilians in India (Fain 1961). This is the first record of the genus occurring in Africa and although adult specimens of S. rileyi n. sp. were not obtained, we assume that the new species is specific to Nile crocodiles. PMID:9809320

  2. Phylogenomics and Divergence Dating of Fungus-Farming Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Genera Sericomyrmex and Apterostigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ješovnik, Ana; González, Vanessa L.; Schultz, Ted R.

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-farming ("attine") ants are model systems for studies of symbiosis, coevolution, and advanced eusociality. A New World clade of nearly 300 species in 15 genera, all attine ants cultivate fungal symbionts for food. In order to better understand the evolution of ant agriculture, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed transcriptomes of four different attine ant species in two genera: three species in the higher-attine genus Sericomyrmex and a single lower-attine ant species, Apterostigma megacephala, representing the first genomic data for either genus. These data were combined with published genomes of nine other ant species and the honey bee Apis mellifera for phylogenomic and divergence-dating analyses. The resulting phylogeny confirms relationships inferred in previous studies of fungus-farming ants. Divergence-dating analyses recovered slightly older dates than most prior analyses, estimating that attine ants originated 53.6–66.7 million of years ago, and recovered a very long branch subtending a very recent, rapid radiation of the genus Sericomyrmex. This result is further confirmed by a separate analysis of the three Sericomyrmex species, which reveals that 92.71% of orthologs have 99% - 100% pairwise-identical nucleotide sequences. We searched the transcriptomes for genes of interest, most importantly argininosuccinate synthase and argininosuccinate lyase, which are functional in other ants but which are known to have been lost in seven previously studied attine ant species. Loss of the ability to produce the amino acid arginine has been hypothesized to contribute to the obligate dependence of attine ants upon their cultivated fungi, but the point in fungus-farming ant evolution at which these losses occurred has remained unknown. We did not find these genes in any of the sequenced transcriptomes. Although expected for Sericomyrmex species, the absence of arginine anabolic genes in the lower-attine ant Apterostigma megacephala strongly suggests that

  3. Substratos utilizados para a criação de dípteros caliptratos no jardim zoológico do Rio de Janeiro (Rio-Zoo Breeding media used for rearing flies in the Zoological Garden of Rio de Janeiro (Rio - Zoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mario D'Almeida

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available No Rio-Zoo, foram criados 7.377 dípteros caliptratos, pertencentes a quatro famílias e 22 espécies. As criações foram efetuadas de agosto de 1987 a abril de 1988. Foram utilizados como substratos de criação: banana, camarão, carcaça de camundongo,fezes caninas, fezes humanas, fígado bovino, lula, mamão, peixe, siri e tomate. As espécies criadas com maior freqüência foram: Fannia sp. (subgrupo pusio, Atherigona orientalis, Chrysomyia megacephala, Phaenicia eximia. Paraphrissopoda chrysosotoma, Ophyra aenescens, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Ophyra chalcogaster, Oxisarcodexia fluminensis e Hemilucilia segmentaria. Foi efetuado um estudo, ainda que incompleto, das espécies que se desenvolvem em fezes de animais cativos do Rio-Zoo. Dentre as mais freqüentes destacam-se: Fannia sp., Sarcophagula occidua, Ophyra chalgogaster, Ravinia belforti e Phaenicia eximia.In Rio-Zoo 7,377 Callyptrate flies, belonging to 4 families and 22 species were bred, from August 1987 to April 1988. The substrate media used were: banana, shrimp, mouse carcas, dog faeces, human faeces, bovine liver, squid, papaya, fish, crab and tomato. The frequency of the bred species are as follows: Fannia sp. (subgroup pusio, Atherigona orientalis, Chrysomyia megacephala, Phaenicia eximia, Paraphrissopoda chrysostoma, Ophyra genescens, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Ophyra chalcogaster, Oxysarcodexia fluminensis and Hemilucilia segmentaria. Data concerning the development of the larvae in captive animal faeces is presented. The most prevalent species were Fannia sp., Sarcophagula occidua, Ophyra chalcogaster, Ravinia belforti and Phaenicia eximia.

  4. Thematic Plan for the Sterile Insect Technique for Old and New World Screwworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To support livestock development programmes aiming at controlling or eradicating key insect pests. This involves the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into area wide integrated pest management and eradication systems. The sustainability of eradication activities has been demonstrated for a number of insect pests under various national settings where the application of SIT has produced significant impact on socio-economic development, in terms of both cost-savings and environmental quality. In line with the TC strategy, this thematic plan reviews best practices and experience gained in field operations, identifies stakeholders and common objectives in New World Screwworm, Cochliomya hominivorax (NWS) and Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana (OWS), control and outlines a strategy for implementing integrated pest control programmes at the regional, sub-regional and national level. Synergies are sought with partner organisations to expand the knowledge base and capabilities for SIT based pest control activities and to strengthen TCDC.

  5. Rate of development of forensically-important Dipterain southern Brazil

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    Rodrigo F. Krüger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteran larvae were collected from rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. carcasses during the four seasons in 2005 in the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The larvae were fed ground beef at ambient temperatures following collection from carcasses. The development of each species under these conditions was estimated. The most abundant species in the carcasses were Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (Calliphoridae, and they were found in all seasons. The data were fitted to a linear model that describes the relationship between temperature and linear developmental rating. These two species are primary forensic indicators in southern Brazil. Other species such as Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani (Calliphoridae, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, Muscina stabulans (Fallen (Muscidae, and Fannia pusio (Wiedemann (Fanniidae were forensically less important because they only occurred in high frequency in certain seasons and during the first days of carcass decomposition.

  6. Chromoblastomycosis after a leech bite complicated by myiasis: a case report

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    Marschal Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic mycotic infection, most common in the tropics and subtropics, following traumatic fungal implantation. Case presentation A 72 year-old farmer was admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial Hospital, northern Laos, with a growth on the left lower leg which began 1 week after a forefoot leech bite 10 years previously. He presented with a cauliflower-like mass and plaque-like lesions on his lower leg/foot and cellulitis with a purulent tender swelling of his left heel. Twenty-two Chrysomya bezziana larvae were extracted from his heel. PCR of a biopsy of a left lower leg nodule demonstrated Fonsecaea pedrosoi, monophora, or F. nubica. He was successfully treated with long term terbinafin plus itraconazole pulse-therapy and local debridement. Conclusions Chromoblastomycosis is reported for the first time from Laos. It carries the danger of bacterial and myiasis superinfection. Leech bites may facilitate infection.

  7. Selenium Deficiency Mainly Influences Antioxidant Selenoproteins Expression in Broiler Immune Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Liu, Chunpeng; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-07-01

    Selenoprotein has many functions in chicken, and the expression of selenoproteins is closely associated with the selenium (Se) level. However, little is known about the expression patterns of selenoproteins in chicken immune organs. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 23 selenoproteins in broiler immune organs. In this study, 150 broilers were randomly divided into two groups (75 chickens per group). The chickens were maintained either on a diet supplemented with Se through the addition of 0.2 mg/kg of Se (C group) via sodium selenite or on a Se-deficient granulated diet (L group) until the broilers exhibited an onset of exudative diathesis (ED). Following euthanasia, the samples from the immune tissues (including the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius) were quickly collected, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of 23 selenoproteins were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and analyzed using principal component analysis. The results showed that Se deficiency decreased the mRNA levels of 23 selenoproteins in the thymus, spleen, and bursa of the Fabricius tissues of broiler chickens. Furthermore, we found that among 23 selenoproteins, the mRNA levels of Dio1 in the thymus, Txnrd2 in the spleen, and Txnrd3 in the bursa of Fabricius decreased significantly (90.9 %, 83.3 %, and 96.8 %, respectively). In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) results suggested that Se deficiency mainly influenced the expression of antioxidative selenoproteins, especially glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs), thioredoxin reductases (Txnrds), and iodothyronine deiodinases (Dios) in chicken immune organs. The results of this study are valuable for understanding the relevance of selenoprotein activity in vivo. PMID:26631053

  8. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson.

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    Deping Han

    Full Text Available The Silky Fowl (SF is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs. The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte.

  9. A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of the fruit piercing moths in Songkhla Province of Southern Thailand

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    Ratchanee Nilla-or5

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of fruit piercing moths (FPM in Songkhla provinceof southern Thailand was conducted from December 2003 to November 2004. The objectives of this study were to determine species diversity, the seasonal abundance of the major moth species occurring in longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff., citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco and pomelo (C. maxima Merr. as well as to assess yield losses due to these insects in citrus cropping systems. Twenty-four species of FPM were collected from these crops. The greatest species richness and relative abundance were observed in citrus, covering 23 species from 452 individuals trapped. In pomelo, 20 different species were found among the 142 individuals trapped.In the longkong system, there were 13 species found among the 100 individuals trapped. The three most dominant species collected at the longkong site were Erebus ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner, E. hieroglyphica (Druryand Ophiusa coronata (Fabricius. From the citrus site the most common species trapped were O. coronata (Fabricius, E. ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner and Othreis fullonia (Clerck. The most abundant species from the pomelo site were Trigonodes hyppasia (Cramer, Mocis undata (Fabricius and E. ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner. Simpson's indices of diversity were 0.79, 0.89 and 0.88 in longkong, citrus and pomelo, respectively. Moth population levels peaked in July and November in citrus, and in June in both longkong and pomelo. These peak occurrences were directly synchronized with the ripening stage of the fruit or at the harvest periods. Fruit losses due to FPM in citrus were 24.8% and 22.7% in the 1st harvest season (July-August 2004 and the 2nd harvest season (November-December 2004, respectively.

  10. Patogenesitas Virus Gumboro Isolat Lokal pada Ayam Pedaging

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    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Study of the pathogenicity of gumboro virus (very virulent Infectious Bursal Disease virus, vvIBDV oflocal isolates was performed in broilers. The chickens were grouped into four: i infected with vvIBDV; iivaccinated with commercial vaccine + challenge with vvIBDV; iii vaccinated using locally produced vaccine+ challenged with vvIBDV; and iv control group (unvaccinated animals. Pathogenecity was analyzedbased on the sequence of infection; the distribution and degree of gross pathology and histopathologylesions on bursa Fabricius, spleen and thymus in relation to the presence of the antigen (IBDV Ag whichwas detected using immunohistochemistry technique. During the acute phase (1-3 days following theexperimental infection hyperemia and exudation on the bursa Fabricius were observed in the infectedgroup and the two vaccinated-challenged groups. Similarly, hyperemia was also observed on the spleenand thymus. Whilst during the chronic stages (at 7 and 14 days following the experimental infection thebursa showed atrophy. Upon histological examination, the bursa showed interstitial edema, hemorrhage,infiltration of heterophyl cells and fibroblast hyperplasia. The bursa lymphoid follicles were depleted dueto cells necrosis and apoptosis. Plica epithelial layer was wrinkled and the Goblet cells metaplasia formedhyper plastic cysts. In the spleen and thymus severe reticulo endothelial cells proliferation was observedduring the acute stage and tended to decline during the chronic stage. During the acute and chronic stagescells containing IBDV Ag were detected in the bursa Fabricius, distributed within the mantle zone andgerminal center of lymphoid follicles in the two vaccinated-challenge groups. Whereas in the infectedgroup, the IBDV antigen were detected up to 7 days post the infection. Nevertheless, neither IBDV antigenwas detected in the spleen nor in the thymus in all the experimental groups. The results of this studyclearly explained the ferocity of

  11. Effect of a Chinese herbal formula Astragalus immunomodulator on immune function of chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingru ZHANG; Guojun JIANG; Shupeng LI; Xiuhui ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the immunomodulatory effects and the mechanism of a Chinese herbal medicine, Zengmiansan (Astragalus immunomodulator), on immune function of chickens, three hundred 1-day-old chickens were assigned randomly into 5 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the Chinese herbal medicine Zengmiansan (ZMS)-treated group, the cyclophosphamide group, the cyclophosphamide plus levamisole group, the cyclophosphamide plus ZMS group and the control group. All chickens were immunized with Lasota vaccine by nose-drip or eye-drop at the age of 6 days. Newcastle Disease (ND) antibody titers, growth indexes of the spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius, the concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes and CD8+ lymphocytes in spleen, thymus and peripheral blood, and the apoptosis of splenocytes, thymocytes and bursa of Fabricius cells were observed at the ages of 14,21, 28 and 35 days, respectively. Our results indicated that the NDV antibody titers of chickens in the Chinese herbal medicine ZMS-treated group at the ages of 14 and 21 days were significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.01). The growth indexes of immune organs, the concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes of chickens in the Chinese herbal medicine ZMS- treated group at the ages of 14, 21 and 28 d were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P<0.01). The apoptotic splenocytes, thymocytes and bursa of Fabricius cells of chickens in the ZMS-treated group were significantly lower than the other groups (P < 0.01) at the ages of 14, 21 and 28 days.

  12. Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for broiler chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 2. Effects on meat quality, oxidative stress, residues and histological traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzo, L; Cavallarin, L; Antoniazzi, S; Guerre, P; Biasibetti, E; Capucchio, M T; Schiavone, A

    2013-05-01

    The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC indicates that the maximum tolerable level of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds is 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six 1-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups, a control (basal diet) and an OTA (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The OTA concentration was quantified in serum, liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were evaluated in the liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The glutathione (GSH) content, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in the liver and kidney samples. Histopathological traits were evaluated for the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver samples. Moreover, the chemical composition of the meat was analysed in breast and thigh samples. In the OTA diet-fed animals, a serum OTA concentration of 1.15 ± 0.35 ng/ml was found, and OTA was also detected in kidney and liver at 3.58 ± 0.85 ng OTA/g f.w. and 1.92 ± 0.21 ng OTA/g f.w., respectively. The TBARS content was higher in the kidney of the ochratoxin A group (1.53 ± 0.18 nmol/mg protein vs. 0.91 ± 0.25 nmol/mg protein). Feeding OTA at 0.1 mg OTA/kg also resulted in degenerative lesions in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver. The maximum tolerable level of 0.1 mg OTA/kg, established for poultry feeds by the EU, represents a safe limit for the final consumer, because no OTA residues were found in breast and thigh meat. Even though no clinical signs were noticed in the birds fed the OTA-contaminated diet, moderate histological lesions were observed in the liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius.

  13. Sterile insect technique (SIT) for control of spotted bollworm of cotton: field experiments confirm dose fractionation improves mating competitiveness of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earias vittella Fabricius causes serious economic damage to cotton and is being targeted for control by SIT. Experiments were conducted under simulated and actual field conditions with sterile males obtained using dose fractionation (75 x 4 Gy ). Under group mating conditions a 6 sterile : 1 normal male ratio resulted in an egg hatch of only 1.4 % compared to 93.5 % in control. Field studies using the same release ratio showed that sterile - males could search the females from a long distance and egg hatch remained only 2.1% for days. These studies confirmed the competitiveness of sterile males obtained using dose fractionation. (author)

  14. Spatial distribution of the Ocypode quadrata (Crustacea: Ocypodidae) along estuarine environments in the Paranaguá Bay Complex, southern Brazil Distribuição espacial de Ocypode quadrata (Crustacea: Ocypodidae) ao longo de ambientes estuarinos no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo C. da Rosa; Carlos A. Borzone

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution of the ghost crabs, Ocypode quadrata Fabricius, 1787, in thirteen estuarine sandy beaches located along two main axes of the Paranaguá Bay Estuarine Complex, southern Brazil. Burrow densities of ghost crabs were measured at three beach levels established around the high tide mark during the summer and winter of 2005. All beaches showed a steep beach face slope (2.6 to 8.3º) with sediment composition varying from well sorted fine sand to very poorly...

  15. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Straka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini, a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkai sp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini is represented by four species – Thyreus denolii sp. n., T. batelkai sp. n., T. schwarzi sp. n., and T. aistleitneri sp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  16. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-11-19

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided.

  17. New records of the rare calcareous sponge Paragrantia waguensis Hôzawa, 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Soest, Rob W.M.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Reimer, James D.; De Voogd, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paragrantia waguensis Hôzawa is reported from coastal reefs of the island of Okinawa. This rare species was previously known only from Central Japan, Mie Prefecture. It has peculiar apopylar tetractine spicules, so far unique among Calcarea. We present in situ images of the species and a full description including SEM images of skeletal structure and spicule complement. The status of Paragrantia as a separate genus of the family Grantiidae distinct from Grantia Fleming is confirmed on the basis of a morphological and molecular comparison with the European type species of Grantia, Grantia compressa (Fabricius). PMID:26798302

  18. Use of attractant traps in area-wide control of vegetable insect pests in the Jiangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Plutella xylostella (L.), Prodenia litura (Fabricius) and Laphyqma exiqua Huebner are main insect pests of vegetables in the Jiangxi province. The long-term use of pesticides to control these pests has caused serious problems such as resistance to pesticides and resurgence of pests as well as pollution to environment and vegetables. Sex attractants have been used for area-wide control of these pests to solve these problems and to produce pollution-free vegetables. Based on the principles of effective, economic and operational implementation, two types of traps made of used plastic cola bottles (1.25L) and oil bottles (2.5L), have been used in 2,250 ha of vegetables in 2001-2003. Traps have been baited with pest-specific attractants incorporated in a rubber wick and placed in vegetable fields at a density of 45 traps per ha. The area-wide use of sex attractants to control these pests has resulted in the decrease of densities of male adults, eggs and larva of these pests and the increase of vegetable yield. An average of 2.34, 2.1, 2.85 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively with the cola bottle trap, and 3.22, 0.63, 4.33 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively oil bottle trap. Comparing trap area with non-trap area, egg density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 84.48% and 85.38%, respectively and larva density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 89.62% and 89.93%, respectively. The egg and larva density of L. exiqua Huebner was reduced by 66.67% and 64.47%, respectively and the percent of damaged host plants and leaves was reduced by 83.48% and 75.85%, respectively. The larva density of P. litura (Fabricius) was reduced by 24.92% and the percent of damaged host plants was reduced by 35.52%. The vegetable yield per ha has been increased by 30% on average

  19. Molecular Identification and Expressive Characterization of an Olfactory Co-Receptor Gene in the Asian Honeybee, Apis cerana cerana

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Huiting; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Chunxiang; Ma, Weihua; Jiang, Yusuo

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction recognition process is extraordinarily complex in insects, and the olfactory receptors play an important function in the process. In this paper, a highly conserved olfactory co-receptor gene, AcerOr2 (ortholog to the Drosophila melanogaster Or83b), cloned from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae), using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length sequence of the gene was 1763 bp long, and the cDNA ...

  20. Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) types of The Natural History Museum (BMNH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearns, Eugenio H; Barclay, Maxwell V L; Tavakilian, Gérard L

    2014-08-28

    The primary types of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 deposited at The Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, are catalogued and illustrated. Data on the original combination, current name, and type locality are verified and presented. There are 39 primary types of Onciderini including 11 in Oncideres Lacordaire, 1830; and three each in Hesycha Fairmaire & Germain, 1859; Hypselomus Perty, 1832; Lamia Fabricius, 1775; and Tybalmia Thomson, 1868. Of the 39 primary types, 17 were described by H. W. Bates and seven by F. P. Pascoe. Five lectotypes are designated. Notes on additional Onciderini types once believed to be deposited at the BMNH are presented. 

  1. 西双版纳棚栽辣木主要害虫及防治%Major Pests of Moringa oleifera in Greenhouse and Their Control in Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌芬; 杨焱; 龙继明

    2011-01-01

    介绍了西双版纳棚栽辣木存在的主要害虫:朱砂叶螨(Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval)、美洲斑潜蝇(Liriomyza sativae Blanchard)、斜纹夜蛾(Prodenia litura Fabricius)和小菜蛾(Plutella xylostella L.)为害症状和防治。%There are several pests damaged Moringa oleifera tree of greenhouse,namely Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval,Liriomyza ativae Blanchard,Prodenia litura Fabricius and Plutella xylostella L..

  2. Três novas espécies de abelhas da Amazônia pertencentes ao gênero Eulaema (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Marcio Luiz de

    2006-01-01

    Eulaema (Apeulaema) pseudocingulata sp. n., semelhante a E. (A.) cingulata (Fabricius, 1804) e com distribuição pela Amazônia e planalto das Guianas; Eulaem a (Eulaema) parapolyzona sp. n., semelhante a Eulaema (Eulaema) polyzona (Mocsáry, 1897) e exclusiva da Amazônia ocidental, e Eulaema (Eulaema) napensis sp. n., endêmica da Amazônia equatoriana são descritas. Uma chave para identificação das espécies do gênero é apresentada.

  3. Revisão das espécies brasileiras do gênero Exoplectra Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Exoplectrinae, Exoplectrini) A revision of Brazilian species of the genus Exoplectra Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Exoplectrinae, Exoplectrini)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana V. Costa; Lúcia M. Almeida; Geovan H. Corrêa

    2008-01-01

    As espécies brasileiras de Exoplectra Chevrolat, 1844 são revisadas com base no estudo de caracteres morfológicos do exoesqueleto e genitália. Dentre as 37 espécies do gênero foram estudadas 14 brasileiras, incluindo as três propostas como novas. Foi examinado o material-tipo de nove espécies. São designados os lectótipos de E. angustifrons Weise, 1895, E. calcarata (Germar, 1824), E. coccinea (Fabricius, 1801) e E. miniata (Germar, 1824). Exoplectra companyoi Mulsant, 1850 é revalidada; E. a...

  4. Leucosiid crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Taiwan, with three new records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Jia; Ho, Ping-Ho; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2015-12-01

    Four leucosiid species from Taiwan are presented. Ebalia nudipes Sakai, 1963, with its male first gonopod figured for the first time. Galilia petricola Komai & Tsuchida, 2014, is recorded on the basis of a larger specimen, and distinguishing features with its only congener, G. narusei Ng & Richer de Forges, 2007, reappraised. Nursia rhomboidalis (Miers, 1879), previously known only from Japan, Korea, and mainland China, is also recorded from Taiwan. Myra fugax (Fabricius, 1798) is now formally recorded from Taiwan, and female characters identified to help separate the three known Taiwanese species of Myra.

  5. 红麻小造桥虫的天敌寄生蜂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周新生; 李水春

    1984-01-01

    害虫天敌是重要的生物资源之一.为了保护和利用害虫天敌,查清我地红麻小造桥虫(Anomis flava Fabricius)的天敌寄生蜂的种类和自然寄生率;在1979—1980年调查的基础上,1981年我们进行了饲养观察和鉴定工作,现总结如下。

  6. A faunistic study on the leafhoppers of northwestern Iran (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandis Abdollahi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The leafhopper fauna of northwestern Iran: Azarbaijan-e-Sharghi, Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi and Ardabil provinces is listed from previously published records and from our current work. Sixty-nine species are included with four species (Mogangella straminea Dlabola, 1957, Doratura stylata (Boheman, 1847, Macrosteles sordidipennis (Stål, 1858 and Psammotettix seriphidii Emeljanov, 1962 listed as new for Iran and Balclutha punctata (Fabricius, 1775, as a new record for the region. A distribution map of the species in northwestern Iran is given.

  7. Notas e descrições em Bisaltes Thomson, 1868 e Ptericoptus Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, 1830 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini Notes and descriptions in Bisaltes Thomson, 1868 and Ptericoptus Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, 1830 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The following new species are described in the subgenus Bisaltes (Bisaltes: B. (B. picticornis sp. nov. from Bolivia; B.(B. taua sp. nov. from Brazil (Paraná and Santa Catarina and B. (B. unicolor sp. nov. from Ecuador. Bisaltes (B. pictus Breuning, 1940 is transferred to the subgenus Craspedocerus. In Ptericoptus, P. hybridus hybridus Breuning, 1939 is considered a synonym of P. acuminatus (Fabricius, 1801; P. dorsalis Audinet-Serville, 1835 previously in the synonymy of P. acuminatus is revalidated and Saperda vitta Newman, 1838 is considered its synonym; P. corumbaensis sp. nov. is described from Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul.

  8. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera da Colômbia: IV. Cerambycinae com olhos grosseiramente granulados Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from Colômbia: IV. Cerambycinae with coarsely granulated eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for Colombian Cerambycidae - Achrysonini: Achryson immaculipenne Gounelle, 1909, A. lineolatum Erichson, 1847, A. quadrimaculatum (Fabricius, 1792; Ectenessini: Ectenessa lurida Martins, 1973; Cerambycini: Jupoata rufipennnis (Gory, 1831, Poeciloxestia carlyslei Fragoso, 1978, P. paraensis Lane, 1965; Elaphidionini: Ambonus electus (Gahan & Arrow, 1903, Paramallocera cribripennis (Bates, 1885, Periboeum pubescens (Olivier, 1790, Stizocera plicicollis (Germar, 1824, S. poeyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1838, Pantonyssus glabricollis Fuchs, 1961; Piezocerini: Haruspex lineolatus Bates, 1870; Eligmodermini: Eligmoderma spinicolle Aurivillius, 1923, E. ziczac Nonfried, 1895. New species described: Pantonyssus suturale sp. nov. (Santander; Anelaphus colombianus sp. nov. (Santander; A. sparsus sp. nov. (Magdalena.

  9. Registros y distribución de la especie afroasiática Digitonthophagus gazella (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. ÁLVAREZ BOHLE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez el escarabajo coprófago Digitonthophagus gazella Fabricius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae para Argentina, por lo que se amplía su área de distribución geográfica en Sudamérica. Esta especie de origen afro-asiático fue capturada mediante colecta manual en estiércol de ganado bovino y equino, con trampas de luz y trampas de caída cebadas con estiércol en seis provincias del centro y norte argentino entre los años 2006 y 2009.

  10. Ecological aspects of cattle tick control in central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, R G; Lemche, J; Chizyuka, H G; Sutherst, R W; Floyd, R B; Kerr, J D; McCosker, P J

    1989-07-01

    In ecological studies in central Zambia, both climate and ecotype affected population dynamics of tick species. Below average rainfall for several years caused a suppression in numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults. Reduction in rainfall leading to changes in grazing patterns is thought to have been responsible for an increase in numbers of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius adults in a grassland habitat. There were reasonable correlations between numbers of each tick species on individual hosts over 1 year old. However, there were no relationships between numbers of ticks and bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA). PMID:2519677

  11. INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF AERIAL PARTS OF SYNEDRELLA NODIFLORA GAERTN (COMPOSITAE ON SPODOPTERA LITURA (FAB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J MARTIN RATHI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura (Fabricius is the most serious pest of many cultivated and non-cultivated crops and it developed resistance against many synthetic pesticides. The impact of a Compositae annual weed, Synedrella nodifl ora Gaertn. solvent extracts on the fourth instar larvae of S. litura has been evaluated by leaf dip method. The LD50 results revealed that methanol extract is the most toxic to the pest followed by benzene and chloroform, petroleum ether (400 – 600 C and water. Qualitative phytochemical analysis has also been performed.

  12. Mating Behavior of the African Weaver Ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Offenberg, Hans Joachim;

    2015-01-01

    reference to the closely related species Oecopylla smaragdina (Fabricius) whose mating occur during nuptial flights. Understanding the mating strategy of O. longinoda is of importance for its successful application in biological control programs. We conducted field and screen house experiments during two......Mating in most species of ants occurs during nuptial flights. In the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille, mating has previously been hypothesized to take place within the nest before the nuptial flight. However, several researchers disagree with this supposition particularly with...

  13. Photonic structures in butterfly Thaumantis diores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; LI Qi; ZHOU Ji; LI Longtu

    2004-01-01

    @@ The beauty created by Nature always inspires people to fabricate artificial structures with certain functions in a bionic way. There has been a great interest in photonic band gap (PBG) materials since the concept was first proposed by Yablonovich[1] and John[2] in 1987. However, Nature had already created these PBG structures in living organisms long since, as was found recently in the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly[3], sea mouse Aphrodita[4], male Ancyluris meliboeus Fabricius butterflies[5], male peacock Pavo muticus feathers[6], and weevil Pachyrhynchus argus[7].

  14. Revisão das espécies brasileiras do gênero Exoplectra Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Exoplectrinae, Exoplectrini A revision of Brazilian species of the genus Exoplectra Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Exoplectrinae, Exoplectrini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Costa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As espécies brasileiras de Exoplectra Chevrolat, 1844 são revisadas com base no estudo de caracteres morfológicos do exoesqueleto e genitália. Dentre as 37 espécies do gênero foram estudadas 14 brasileiras, incluindo as três propostas como novas. Foi examinado o material-tipo de nove espécies. São designados os lectótipos de E. angustifrons Weise, 1895, E. calcarata (Germar, 1824, E. coccinea (Fabricius, 1801 e E. miniata (Germar, 1824. Exoplectra companyoi Mulsant, 1850 é revalidada; E. aenea (Fabricius, 1801, E. bernardinensis Brèthes, 1925, E. impotens Mulsant, 1850, E. luteicornis Mulsant, 1850 e E. irregularis (Crotch, 1874 são provisoriamente removidas do gênero. São propostas duas novas espécies do Brasil: E. columba sp. nov., do Paraná e E. bimaculata sp. nov., do Amamzonas. É apresentada chave dicotômica para as espécies, fotos e desenhos das principais estruturas utilizadas para identificação.The Brazilian species of Exoplectra Chevrolat, 1844, based on the morphological analysis of external characters and genitalia, are revised. Among the 37 species in the genera, 14 Brazilian species were analysed, including three new species. It was studied the type material of nine of them. The lectotypes of E. angustifrons Weise, 1895, E. calcarata (Germar, 1824, E. coccinea (Fabricius, 1801 and E. miniata (Germar, 1824 are designated. Exoplectra companyoi Mulsant, 1850 is revalidated; E. aenea (Fabricius, 1801, E. bernardinensis Brèthes, 1925, E. impotens Mulsant, 1850, E. luteicornis Mulsant, 1850 and E. irregularis (Crotch, 1874 are provisionally removed from the genus. Two new species from Brazil are proposed: E. columba sp. nov., from Paraná and E. bimaculata sp. nov., from Amazonas. Dicotomic key for species is presented as well as pictures and illustrations for the main structures used in the identification.

  15. Immatures of Epilachna Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Epilachninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia A. Casari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of the pupa and redescription of the larva of Epilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabricius, collected for the first time on Brugmansia suaveoleus (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd. Bercht. and J. Presl (Solanaceae (trombeteiro, in the state of São Paulo (Brazil, is presented. The diagnoses of the described pupae of E. clandestina (Mulsant, E. paenulata (Germar and E. spreta (Mulsant, based on specimens examined, and that of E. cacica Guérin, based on the literature, are presented. A comparison among the known larvae and pupae of this genus is also presented. This is the first description of immatures of E. vigintioctopunctata from the Western Hemisphere.

  16. PLAGAS POTENCIALES DEL CULTIVO DE Jatropha curcas L., EN EL OCCIDENTE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA POTENTIAL PEST OF Jatropha curcas L. CROP IN WESTERN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Cristóbal Yepes Rodríguez; Manyer Ana Luisa Carmona; Norman Correa Zuluaga; Jhon Alveiro Quiroz Gamboa

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. Se da información sobre la biología, comportamiento, hábitos e importancia económica de las chinches Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, 1852 (Hemiptera: Coreidae) y Agonosoma trilineatum (Fabricius, 1781) (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) y se advierte sobre su presencia en una parcela de Jatropha curcas establecida en Santa Fe de Antioquia. Además, se halló que la pringamosa, Echidoscolus rubulosus es el hospedero silvestre de la segunda especie, en este ecosistema de bosque seco tropical. Se co...

  17. Vejigas animales como sitios de oviposición y desarrollo de moscas en festividades, Heredia - Costa Rica Animal bladders as oviposition and breeding sites por flies after festivities in Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olger Calderón Arguedas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un recuento del número de vejigas dispersas en 15 manzanas del centro urbano de Barva, Heredia, luego de la celebración de las mascaradas, actividad enmarcada en las fiestas patronales de la ciudad. Adicionalmente se llevó a cabo una evaluación de los huevos, larvas y adultos de mosca presentes en 2 vejigas que fueron descartadas en lugares públicos y que no fueron contaminadas con tierra, fluidos u otros detritos. Luego de la actividad se contaron 29 vejigas, las cuales estuvieron localizadas en tendido eléctrico (55,2%, aceras (27,6%, jardines (6,9%, desagües (6,9% y techos (3,4%. Los grupos de moscas observados pertenecieron a las familias Calliphoridae (Cochliomyia macellaria, Lucilia eximia, Phaenicia cuprina, Chrysomyia megacephala, Sarcophagidae (Sarcophaga sp., Muscidae (Musca domestica y Phoridae. Los promedios de huevos y larvas por vejiga fueron 176 y 44 respectivamente. Los resultados demuestran que las vejigas crudas constituyen un eficiente atrayente para diversas especies de moscas de importancia en salud pública, lo que plantea la necesidad de buscar alternativas de tratamiento para las mismas con el fin de garantizar la sostenibilidad de la tradición minimizando la contaminación del entorno urbano.A study of the number of animal bladders dispersed in 15 blocks in the urban core of Barva- Heredia was performed following the masquerades, a traditional celebration during the festivities of the city. Additionally, an evaluation of the eggs, larvae and adult flies was performed in two bladders that were discarded in public areas, which were free from soil, fluids, or other debris. In total, 29 bladders were counted. They were located on power lines (55,2%, sidewalks (27,6%, drainages (6,9% and roofs (3,4%. The flies observed corresponded to the families Calliphoridae (Cochliomyia macellaria, Lucilia eximia, Phaenicia cuprina, Chrysomyia megacephala, Sarcophagidae (Sarcophaga sp., Muscidae (Musca domestica, and

  18. Faunistic analysis of Carabidae and Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in five agroecosystems in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil Análise faunística de Carabidae e Staphylinidae (Coleoptera em cinco agroecossistemas da Região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determined species composition and community structure of Carabidae and Staphylinidae in five areas of forest fragment and soybean/corn crops or orange orchard, from December 2004 to May 2007. Beetles were captured in pitfall traps distributed along two parallel transects of 200 m in length, placed across crop land/forest boundary fragment, with 100 m each. The Shannon-Wiener diversity and evenness indexes and Morisita similarity index were calculated. The carabids Abaris basistriatus Chaudoir, Calosoma granulatum Perty, Megacephala brasiliensis Kirby, Odontochila nodicornis (Dejean and Selenophorus seriatoporus Putzeys. are dominant and are widely distributed in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. Point-scale species diversity was greatest at the transition between forest fragment and cultivated area. The carabid and staphylinid communities of the forest fragment were more similar to the community of orange orchard than that of soybean/corn crops.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a composição de espécies e a estrutura das comunidades de Carabidae e Staphylinidae, em cinco áreas de fragmento florestal e cultura soja/milho ou pomar laranja, de dezembro de 2004 a maio de 2007. Os besouros foram capturados com armadilhas de solo, distribuídas em dois transectos paralelos de 200 m de comprimento, com 100 m no interior da área cultivada e 100 m no interior do fragmento florestal. A fauna foi caracterizada pelos índices de diversidade e equitabilidade de Shannon-Wiener e pelo de similaridade de Morisita. Os carabídeos Abaris basistriatus Chaudoir, Calosoma granulatum Perty, Megacephala brasiliensis Kirby, Odontochila nodicornis (Dejean e Selenophorus seriatoporus Putzeys. são as espécies dominantes com maior distribuição geográfica na região nordeste do Estado de São Paulo. A maior diversidade de espécies de carabídeos e estafilinídeos ocorreu na transição entre fragmento florestal e

  19. Biodiversidade e Sazonalidade de Cigarrinhas (Hemiptera: Membracidae em Cacaueiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Benassi

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to identify the treehoppers diversity associated with cocoa plantation and to determine the seasonality of the most common species in two shaded areas, in the municipality of Linhares, Espirito Santo State, Brazil. For the sampling, twelve yellow-tray traps were randomly set in each area, spaced from one another in 30 m., placed on wooden stakes at a height of 1.0 m. above ground level. Weekly the collected material was taken during August/2011 to July/2012. Also samples of fruits, branches and leaves containing postures, nymphs, and adults of the treehoppers were collected and maintained in the laboratory for the eventual emergence of parasitoids and cataloging of the species. Through the traps were collected 16,094 exemplars of treehoppers belonging to 30 species, of which, 58.7 % in the first area (70 % shade and 41.3 % in the second area (60 % shade. The most abundant species was Horiola picta (Coquebert comprising 87.2 % of the total collection. Cocoa trees are confirmed to be the host plant of H. picta, Membracis tectigera Olivier, Membracis dorsata Fabricius, Membracis mimica Walker, Anobilia sp., Phormophora maura (Fabricius, Leioscyta pulchella Funkhouser and Enchenopa squamigera (Linnaeus. Parasitoids belonging to the families Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera were obtained from the eggs of H. picta, Anobilia sp., L. pulchella, M. tectigera and P. maura.

  20. Morphology and identification of the mature larvae of several species of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from Central Europe with an update of the life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosik, Rafał; Sprick, Peter; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Deruś, Magdalena; Hommes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The mature larvae of 14 Otiorhynchus taxa are described: O. (Otiorhynchus) armadillo (Rossi, 1792), O. (Nehrodistus) armatus Boheman, 1846, O. (Otiorhynchus) aurifer Boheman, 1843, O. (Pocodalemes) crataegi Germar, 1824, Otiorhynchus (Arammichnus) indefinitus Reitter, 1912 (syn. O. dieckmanni Magnano, 1979), O. (Choilisanus) raucus (Fa-bricius, 1777) and 3 taxa of the O. (Otiorhynchus) tenebricosus complex (Herbst, 1784), O. (Otiorhynchus) clavipes (Bonsdorff, 1785), O. (Otiorhynchus) fuscipes (Olivier, 1807) and O. (Otiorhynchus) lugdunensis Boheman, 1843, are described and illustrated for the first time. The larvae of (Otiorhynchus) meridionalis Gyllenhal, 1834, O. (Pendragon) ovatus (Linnaeus, 1758), O. (Zustalestus) rugosostriatus (Goeze, 1777), O. (Metopiorrhynchus) singularis (Linnaeus, 1767), and O. (Dorymerus) sulcatus (Fabricius, 1775) are redescribed and illustrated, and new characters are added. Important characters of the mature larvae (e.g. chaetotaxy, shape of head and body) are explained in detail and illustrated. A key to the identification of the mature larvae of 19 Otiorhynchus taxa is provided. Breeding and collecting data of the larvae are given, and the study is completed by a current overview on the life histories of all treated species. PMID:27394846

  1. Revision of the New World bee fly genus Heterostylum Macquart (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Revisão do bombylideos do gênero Heterostylum Macquart do novo mundo (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mallemont Cunha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Heterostylum Macquart and five Neotropical species (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805, H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827, H. rufum (Olivier, 1789, H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863 and H. pallipes Bigot, 1892 are redescribed. The other species, recently redescribed or described are only diagnosed, except for H. deani Painter, 1930, whose spermathecae are described and illustrated for the first time. The main characters of the external morphology were photographed and the male genitalia and female spermathecae illustrated. An identification key to all included species is also presented.O gênero Heterostylum Macquart e cinco espécies Neotropicais (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805, H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827, H. rufum (Olivier, 1789, H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863 e H. pallipes Bigot, 1892 são redescritas. As demais espécies recentemente redescritas ou descritas tem sua diagnose apresentada, com exceção de H. deani Painter, 1930, cuja espermateca foi descrita e ilustrada pela primeira vez. Os principais caracteres da morfologia externa foram fotografados e a genitália masculina e espermateca feminina ilustradas. Uma chave de identificação para todas as espécies também é apresentada.

  2. Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles

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    Lucia Maria Paleari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles. Stiretrus decemguttatus is an important predator of two species of cassidine beetles, Botanochara sedecimpustulata (Fabricius, 1781 and Zatrephina lineata (Fabricius, 1787 (Coleoptera, Cassidinae, on the Marajó Island, Brazil. It attacks individuals in all development stages, but preys preferentially on late-instar larvae. Its life cycle in the laboratory was 43.70 ± 1.09 days, with an egg incubation period of six days and duration from nymph and adult stages of 16.31 ± 0.11 and 22.10 ± 1.67 days, respectively. The duration of one generation (T was 12.65 days and the intrinsic population growth rate (r 0.25. These data reveal the adjustment of the life cycle of S. decemgutattus with those of the two preys, but suggest greater impact on Z. lineata. However, no preference over cassidine species was shown in the laboratory. Up to 17 different color patterns can be found in adults of S. decemguttatus, based on combinations of three basic sets of color markings. Some of them resemble the markings of chrysomelids associated with Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae and are possibly a mimetic ring. Three color patterns were identified in nymphs, none of which was associated with any specific adult color pattern.

  3. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON BROILERS SUFFERING FROM INFECTIOU: BURSAL DISEASE

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    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  4. Butterflies of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paulo Ricardo Barbosa; Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Butterflies and moths are found in all terrestrial environments and require efforts for a better understanding of its mega-diversity. These taxa have been the subject of several studies involving phylogeny, ecology and environmental impacts. Nevertheless, several areas in the tropics remain unexplored, resulting in gaps in the taxonomic composition and distribution of butterflies in endemic environments. Therefore, a survey of the butterfly fauna of the Bodoquena Plateau in Brazil was conducted. This area consists of tropical Atlantic Forests, with marginal influences of Savannah, Chaco and Pantanal. Sampling was carried out in 20 locations using Van Someren Rydon traps and insect nets between November 2009 and April 2015. Active collection of individuals was conducted from 9:00 to 17:00h, totaling 240 hours of sampling effort. In total, we registered 768 individuals belonging to 146 species of 98 genera, six families and 18 subfamilies. Nymphalidae was the richest family (84 species), followed by Hesperiidae (22 species), Riodinidae (14 species), Pieridae (12) Papilionidae (11 species) and Lycaenidae (five species). We sampled 239 nymphalids in traps, with 48 species, 30 genera, 15 tribes and five subfamilies. The most common species were Eunica macris (Godart, 1824), Dynamine artemisia (Fabricius, 1793) and Memphis moruus (Fabricius, 1775). Therefore, this study contributes to the knowledge of the Neotropical butterfly diversity and distribution, providing 37 new records and supporting the use of wildlife inventories as important tools for the knowledge of tropical forests biodiversity and conservation. PMID:26798308

  5. 中国蝴蝶一属四种新纪录(鳞翅目:锤角亚目)%New Records of Butterflies from China ( Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) : One Genus and Four Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡劭骥; 朱建青; 张鑫

    2012-01-01

    One genus and four species of butterflies were reported for the first time from China, i. e. , the genus is Suasa de Niceville, 1890 ( Lycaenidae), Suasa lisides (Hewitson, 1863) , the four species are Darpa striata ( H. Druce, 1873) ( Hesperiidae), Lethe minerva (Fabricius, 1775) (Nymphalidae), Arhopala dispar Riley et Godfrey, 1921 (Lycaenidae), and Rapala hades (de Niceville, 1895) (Lycaenidae). Brief descriptions, comparisons with similar species, and some observational notes are given in this paper.%报道中国蝴蝶新纪录1属4种:新纪录属为索灰蝶属Suasa de Nicéville,1890;新纪录种为弄蝶科的纹毛弄蝶Darpa striata(H.Druce,1873)、蛱蝶科的米纹黛眼蝶Lethe minerva(Fabricius,1775)、灰蝶科的帝娆灰蝶Arhopa-la dispar Riley et Godfrey,1921和哈燕灰蝶Rapala hades(de Nicéville,1895),并附简要描述对比及野外观察记录.

  6. 海南省椰子病虫害的监测与调查%Monitor and survey of pest insects and deseases of coconut trees in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明光; 韩玉春; 李伟东; 刘福秀; 徐卫; 敖苏; 汪兴鉴

    2010-01-01

    通过近2年来对海南省椰子作物病虫害的野外监测、调查和室内鉴定的结果表明,目前在海南省椰子作物上发生的病虫共有37种,其中害虫30种,病害7种.主要病虫种类包括椰心叶甲(Brontispa longissima Gestro)、红棕象甲(Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Fabricius)、二疣犀甲(Oryctes rhinoceros L.)、椰花四星象甲(Diocalandra frumenti Fabricius)、红脉穗螟(Tirathaba rufivena Walker)、椰子泻血病[Ceratocystis paradoxa(Dade)Mor]、椰子灰斑病(Pestalotia palmarum Cooke)、椰子芽腐病(Phytophthora palmivora Butler)和椰子干腐病(Paecilomyces varioti Bainier)等,其中椰心叶甲、红棕象甲、二疣犀甲、椰花四星象甲和椰子泻血病对海南椰子树危害最为严重,应重点予以防控.

  7. Artropofauna de importancia forense en un cadáver de cerdo en el Callao, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758 on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 (Diptera, Calliphoridae (81.62%; Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774 (Coleoptera, Dermestidae (16.35%; Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761 (Diptera, Muscidae (0.04%; Saprinus aeneus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Histeridae (1.48%; Necrobia rufipes (De Geer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Cleridae (0.45%; Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae (0.02%; Porcellio laevis Latreille, 1804 (Isopoda, Porcellionidae (0.02% and Hadruroides lunatus (L. Koch, 1867 (Scorpionida, Iuridae (0.02%. Larvae accounted for 76%, pupae 14% and adults 10% of the total collected. The arthropods were into three: necrophages (98.01%, predators (1.95% and omnivorous (0.04%. C. macellaria were significantly higher during the decayed stage; by contrast D. maculatus was much higher in dry remains stage. The highest diversity with the Shannon-Weaver (H' and Pielou (J index were found during the advanced decayed stage. The absence of species of genus Chrysomyia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is discussed.

  8. History of the Discovery of Mira Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffleit, Dorrit

    This year we celebrate the 400th anniversary of Fabricius' discovery of Mira, "The Wonderful," in 1596. But was he the first? Within the first century following Fabricius, four Mira-type variables were discovered, and in all cases it has been found that the stars were suspected of being novae long before their "official" discovery in the Western World. Three of the four had been recorded as novae in early Chinese or Korean records. By 1896, 251 Mira-type variabes had been discovered, most of them after the beginning of photographic experimentation. Now in the year of the fourth centennial, over 6000 Miras are known. Because of their ease of discovery relative to stars of small amplitude, no new Mira stars reaching naked-eye visibility have been discovered since 1899. The history of the discovery of Mira-type variables illustrates that (1) some new discoveries are re-discoveries of objects previously assumed to be novae; and (2) apparently logical deductions that early observations of a guest star correspond to a later discovered Mire-type may nevertheless be wrong.

  9. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status. PMID:26740133

  10. The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov., its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae

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    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov. , its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae.The subgenus Lycoderes (Lycoderides Sakakibara, 1972 is raised to the genus category - Lycoderides stat. nov.. - : and it now includes: Lycoderides amazonicus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides brevilobus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides burmeisteri (Fairmaire, 1846, comb. nov. , Lycoderides cultratus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fernandezi (Strümpel, 1988, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fuscus (Amyot & Serville, 1843, comb. nov. , Lycoderides gradatus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides hippocampus (Fabricius, 1803, comb. nov. , Lycoderides luteus (Funkhouser, 1940, comb. nov. , Lycoderides marginalis (Walker, 1851, comb. nov. , Lycoderides nathanieli (Cryan, 1999, comb. nov. , Lycoderides obtusus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides pennyi (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides phasianus (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. (= Enchenopa minamen Buckton, 1901,SYN. NOV: , Lycoderides protensus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides serraticornis (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. , and Lycoderides strumpeli (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. The following new species are described: Lycoderides abditus, sp. nov. , Lycoderides brulei,SP. NOV. (: both from French Guiana, Lycoderides capixaba, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Espírito Santo, Lycoderides cavichiolii, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Lycoderides meloi, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Bahia, and Lycoderides oliviae, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Minas Gerais. Other nomenclatural change: Stegaspis bracteata (Fabricius, 1787 = Lycoderes capitata Buckton, 1903, syn. nov. New records of geographical distribution and a key to the species are provided.

  11. Nanoindentation Mechanical Properties and Structural Biomimetic Models of Three Species of Insects Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jin; CHANG Zhiyong; YANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin; LIU Xianping; CHETWYND Derek G; CHEN Donghui; SUN Jiyu

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking insect flights were used to design and develop new engineering materials. Although extensive research was done to study various aspects of lfying insects. Because the detailed mechanics and underlying principles involved in insect lfights remain largely unknown. A systematic study was carried on insect lfights by using a combination of several advanced techniques to develop new models for the simulation and analysis of the wing membrane and veins of three types of insect wings, namely dragonfly (Pantala lfavescensFabricius), honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabricius) and lfy (Sarcophaga carnaria Linnaeus). In order to gain insights into the lfight mechanics of insects, reverse engineering methods were used to establish three-dimensional geometrical models of the membranous wings, so we can make a comparative analysis. Then nano-mechanical test of the three insect wing membranes was performed to provide experimental parameter values for mechanical models in terms of nano-hardness and elastic modulus. Finally, a computational model was established by using the ifnite element analysis (ANSYS) to analyze and compare the wings under a variety of simpliifed load regimes that are concentrated force, uniform line-load and a torque. This work opened up the possibility towards developing an engineering basis for the biomimetic design of thin solid iflms and 2D advanced engineering composite materials.

  12. Bioactivity of Four Plant Extracts on Coleopterous Pests of Stored Cereals and Grain Legumes in Nigeria%四种植物淬取物对尼日利亚仓贮甲虫的生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris O. ADEDIRE; Rotimi O. AKINKUROLERE

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of ethanol extracts from four plants, Dennettia tripetala Baker, Eugenia aromatica Baillon, Piper guineense Thonn et Schum and Anchomanes difformis P. Beauv. as bioinsecticides for control of adult Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, Oryzaephilus mercator Fauvel and Lasioderma serricorne Fabricius were determined at two concentrations (0.5% and 2.0%) in the laboratory. All extracts were toxic to beetles with E. aromatica being the most potent of four plant materials tested and had the least LT50 value. This was followed by A. difformis extract. At 2.0% v/w extract concentration, percentage grain damage by insects in treated grains stored for 90 days was nil. Grains protected with A. difformis had the least percentage seedgerminationof62.50%whilethoseprotectedwithP.guineensehadthehighestpercentagegermination(74.58%)at2.0% extract concentration. The mean percentage germination in the control was 72.72%. Treatment of grains with plant extracts had no significant (P>0.05) effect on its water absorption capacity.

  13. Histopathological features of Marek’s disease infections in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Damayanti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Marek’s disease was reported to occur in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis. A total number of 58 tissues samples of broiler chicken were collected from 7 flocks of commercial broiler chicken farms in both Districts. The disease affected broiler chicken aged 17 to 24 days. Those chickens had been vaccinated to Newcastle Disease (ND and at age of 10 days had been vaccinated to Gumboro using blended bursa of fabricius. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% of buffered neutral formalin (BNF prior to haematoxilin and eosin (H and E stain using standard procedures. Histopathological features show that out of 58 samples, 32 (55.2% were infected by Marek’s Disease (19.0% were infected by Marek’s Disease, 20.1% were infected by Marek’s Disease and Gumboro, 16.1% Marek’s Disease and other infections, whereas 44.8% were infected by Gumboro alone or accompanied by other infections, ND and Colibasillosis. The study reveals that Marek’s Disease infection in broiler chicken tends to be mild i.e. infiltration of neoplastic cells (lymphoid, pleomorphic in proventriculus, intestine, spleen, livers and bursa of fabricius. In addition to this, there were mild non-supurative inflammation in heart, lung, peripheral nerve and brain, as well as a severe demyelination in brain. It is concluded that the histopthological features confirm the diagnosis of Marek’s Disease.

  14. Registros y distribución de la especie afroasiática Digitonthophagus gazella (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae en Argentina Records and distribution of the Afro Asian species Digitonthophagus gazella (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Álvarez Bohle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez el escarabajo coprófago Digitonthophagus gazella Fabricius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae para Argentina, por lo que se amplía su área de distribución geográfica en Sudamérica. Esta especie de origen afro-asiático fue capturada mediante colecta manual en estiércol de ganado bovino y equino, con trampas de luz y trampas de caída cebadas con estiércol en seis provincias del centro y norte argentino entre los años 2006 y 2009.The occurrence of the dung beetle Digitonthophagus gazella Fabricius (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae is reported for the first time for Argentina. The record of this species represents an extension of its geographical range in South America. This species of Afro Asian origin was captured by manual collection in cattle dung, light traps, and dung baited pitfall traps in six provinces of Northern and Central Argentina between 2006 and 2009.

  15. Abelhas e vespas solitárias em ninhos-armadilha na Reserva Biológica Guaribas (Mamanguape, Paraíba, Brasil Trap-nesting solitary bees and wasps (Hymenoptera in Guaribas Biological Reserve (Mamanguape, Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Camillo Aguiar

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The trap-nesting bees of Guaribas Biological Reserve were studied during one year. Three areas with different vegetation types were sampled, open savanas, closed forest, and a mosaic of these two types. Twelve species of trap-nesting bees were observed, four of which are parasites. The most abundant species were Centris tarsata (Smith, 1879, C. analis (Fabricius, 1804, Tetrapedia diversipes KJug, 1810, and Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804. Nesting of Centris tarsata and Mesocheira bicolor occurred mainly during the dry season, while Centris analis and Tetrapedia diversipes did not show any seasonal preferences. Mesocheira bicolar occurred only in the nests of C. tarsata, parasitizing more than 50% of the nests and representing 23.2% of the individuais emerged in the host nests. The mosaic area yielded a greater abundance and diversity. Comparing the sampling methods of trap-nests and entomological nets, conducted simultaneously in the same area, in relation to diversity of trap nesting bees, it was observed a great similarity in terrns of composition and differences of abundance in species sampled. Some hypothesis are discussed to explain a reason for the greater diversity and abundance of the mosaic area in relation to the other areas.

  16. Effect of Copper Toxicity on Lymphoid Organs in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Heng-min; YANG Guang; PENG Xi; DENG Jun-liang; LI De-bing

    2005-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of copper toxicity on lymphoid organs by experimental pathology and flow cytometry (FCM). 180 one-day-old Avian broilers were divided into three groups, and fed diets as follows: 1) Control(Cu 11.97 mg kg-1 diet), 2) Cu- toxic group Ⅰ (Cu 650 mg kg-1) and 3) Cu- toxic group Ⅱ (Cu 850 mg kg-1) for six weeks.Compared with the control, the growth index of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were markedly reduced (P<0.05or P<0.01), the G0/G1 phase of cell cycles of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was higher (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the S phase and proliferating index were lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01)in both Cu-toxic group Ⅰ and Cu-toxic group Ⅱ. The results demonstrated that Cu toxicity seriously impaired the progression of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to the S phase, inhibited the growth and development of lymphoid organs.

  17. Effect of Zinc Toxicity on Lymphoid Organs in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Heng-min; ZHAO Cui-yan; LI De-bing; PENG Xi; DENG Jun-liang

    2004-01-01

    The experiment was conducted with the objective of studies on effects of zinc toxicity on lymphoid organs by the methods of experimental pathology and flow cytometry (FCM). 200one-day-old Avian broilers were divided into four groups randomly, and fed on diets as follows: controls (Zn 100mg kg-1)and zinc toxic (Zn 1 500mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅰ; Zn 2 000 mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅱ; Zn 2 500 mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅲ) for seven weeks. The weight and growth index of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were reduced in both zinc toxic group Ⅱ and zinc toxic group Ⅲ when compared with those of control group. The G0/G1 phase of the cell cycles of the lymphoid organs was higher, and S, G2+M phases lower in zinc toxic groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ than in control group. Lymphocytes were depleted and degenerate in the lymphoid organs. The reticular cells of the bursa of Fabricius proliferated and the reticular cells of the thymus were also degenerate and necrotic,particularly in zinc toxic groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ. The results demonstrated that more than 1 500 mg kg-1 impaired the progression of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to S phase obviously, inhibited the development of lymphoid organs and caused marked pathological changes in the lymphoid organs. Potential mechanisms underlying these observations are also discussed.

  18. PLAGAS POTENCIALES DEL CULTIVO DE Jatropha curcas L., EN EL OCCIDENTE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA POTENTIAL PEST OF Jatropha curcas L. CROP IN WESTERN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cristóbal Yepes Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se da información sobre la biología, comportamiento, hábitos e importancia económica de las chinches Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, 1852 (Hemiptera: Coreidae y Agonosoma trilineatum (Fabricius, 1781 (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae y se advierte sobre su presencia en una parcela de Jatropha curcas establecida en Santa Fe de Antioquia. Además, se halló que la pringamosa, Echidoscolus rubulosus es el hospedero silvestre de la segunda especie, en este ecosistema de bosque seco tropical. Se considera que ambos artrópodos podrían ser plagas potenciales del cultivo de esta oleaginosa en la región del occidente de Antioquia.Abstract. This paper provides information about the biology, the behavior, the habits and the economic importance of both the Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, 1852 (Hemiptera: Coreidae bug and Agonosoma trilineatum (Fabricius, 1781 (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae bug. We warn about the discovery of these insects in a parcel of J. curcas, established in Santa Fe de Antioquia. We also found that the Pringamosa plant, Echidoscolus rubulosus, is the wild host of the second specie in this tropical dry forest ecosystem. Both arthropods might be considered as potential pests of the oilseed crop in this region of western Antioquia.

  19. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest. PMID:22182536

  20. Effect of irradiation on the longevity and reproduction of Pheidole megacepala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is a quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products exported from Hawaii. The radiotolerance of the big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala (F.), was studied to determine a dose sufficient for its control. This ant was chosen as a representative species because it is a common hitchhiker and rearing methods in the laboratory have been developed. The desired response with irradiation treatment of ants is sterility of reproductive females. Queens from micro-colonies were irradiated at 60, 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls, then followed for 19 weeks to observe colony growth. In general, queen longevity, and the number of eggs, larvae, and pupae observed in the micro-colonies decreased with increasing irradiation dose. In the 60 Gy treatment, the number of eggs observed was reduced by 89.6% compared with the untreated controls. In the 120 Gy and 150 Gy treatments, the number of eggs observed was reduced by 99.5% and 98.5%, respectively, and no eggs were found after the first observation date at 7 days after treatment. No larvae or pupae were observed in the 90, 120 or 150 Gy treatments, suggesting these irradiation doses sterilized queens. This study suggests the USDA-APHIS-approved generic irradiation dose of 400 Gy is more than sufficient for the Formicidae. Information is needed on the radiotolerance of additional species of ants to confirm our findings. (author)

  1. Keragaman Jenis dan Prevalensi Lalat Pasar Tradisional di Kota Bogor (DIVERSITY AND PREVALENCE OF FLIES AT TRADITIONAL MARKETS IN BOGOR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puguh Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bogor city is one of the greater Jabodetabek area which has a fairly high growth of the modern market.This should not shift the role of traditional market, if accompanied with an increase in the number andquality of traditional markets, among others by controlling infestations of flies on the market that can bea vector of various diseases.This research was conducted to identify the diversity and infestation of fliesspesies in five old Bogor traditional markets. The flies were collected using insect nets and then killed withchloroform to count and identification purposes. Measuring the prevalence of flies infestation in eachmarket were using sticky fly paper on block sale of meat, fish and outside market environment. Therewere ten fly spesies belong to four main families that Calliphoridae (C. megacephala, C. saffranea, C.rufifacies, and Lucilia sericata, Muscidae (M. domestica, M. conducens, and M. fasciata, Sarcophagidae (S.haemorroidalis, and S. fuscicauda, and Drosophilidae (Drosophila repleta. The others three families werePhoridae, Anthomyiidae, and Syrphidae. Fly diversity index on each markets were 1.203 (Bogor Market,1.038 (Sukasari Market, 2.678 (Anyar Market, 1.017 (Jambu Dua Market, and 1.618 (Gunung BatuMarket. Measurement of Calliphorid flies infestations as an indicator of the presence of litterdecomposition of organic material showed a high concentration in the market environment.These resultsillustrate the general environmental sanitation of traditional markets are bad.

  2. The Long-Term Effects of Reduced Competitive Ability on Foraging Success of an Invasive Pest Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Fabian Ludwig; Bell, Vaughn Antony; Suckling, David Maxwell; Lester, Philip John

    2016-08-01

    Ant species like Pheidole megacephala (F.), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), and the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), have repeatedly been reported to be strongly associated with honeydew-producing arthropods like aphids, scale insects, and mealybugs, effectively protecting them from biological control agents like parasitoids. Here we report the results of a successful trial using pheromone dispensers to suppress Argentine ant activity over large sections in a commercial vineyard over a period of two months and preventing ant access into and foraging within the vine canopy. We found Argentine ant activity to be significantly reduced in pheromone-treated plots for the duration of the trial period compared with control plots. Our results showed a significant reduction in the numbers of Argentine ant workers recruited to randomly placed food resources within treated plots compared with untreated plots. Furthermore, spatial distribution of Argentine ants alongside transects in untreated plots remained relatively continuous, while increasing sharply beyond the borders of treated plots. Lastly, we measured the body fat content of workers and found a significant reduction in fat among workers from treated plots compared with untreated plots, suggesting an adverse effects on nest fitness. Additionally, we provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of the presented approach. Our results showed that it is possible to control Argentine ant, preventing them access to and foraging within the vine canopy, thereby reducing Argentine ants' access to honeydew. PMID:27329630

  3. Discovery-dominance trade-off among widespread invasive ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Avril, Amaury; Blight, Olivier; Jourdan, Hervé; Courchamp, Franck

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the most problematic invasive species. They displace numerous native species, alter ecosystem processes, and can have negative impacts on agriculture and human health. In part, their success might stem from a departure from the discovery-dominance trade-off that can promote co-existence in native ant communities, that is, invasive ants are thought to be at the same time behaviorally dominant and faster discoverers of resources, compared to native species. However, it has not yet been tested whether similar asymmetries in behavioral dominance, exploration, and recruitment abilities also exist among invasive species. Here, we establish a dominance hierarchy among four of the most problematic invasive ants (Linepithema humile, Lasius neglectus, Wasmannia auropunctata, Pheidole megacephala) that may be able to arrive and establish in the same areas in the future. To assess behavioral dominance, we used confrontation experiments, testing the aggressiveness in individual and group interactions between all species pairs. In addition, to compare discovery efficiency, we tested the species' capacity to locate a food resource in a maze, and the capacity to recruit nestmates to exploit a food resource. The four species differed greatly in their capacity to discover resources and to recruit nestmates and to dominate the other species. Our results are consistent with a discovery-dominance trade-off. The species that showed the highest level of interspecific aggressiveness and dominance during dyadic interactions. PMID:26257879

  4. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest.

  5. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  6. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species – not hermes – inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793. The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica. Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775—type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro—and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County. While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other

  7. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species - not hermes - inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V

    2014-01-01

    Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica). Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775)-type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro-and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County). While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other Hermeuptychia species, H

  8. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species – not hermes – inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica). Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775)—type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro—and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County). While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other Hermeuptychia

  9. Traumatic myiasis agents in Iran with introducing of new dominant species, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera:Sarcophagidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Rafinejad; Kamran Akbarzadeh; Yavar Rassi; Jamasp Nozari; Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat; Mostafa Hosseini; Hamzeh Alipour; Abdolmajid Ranjbar; Danial Zeinali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study agents of animal wound myiasis in various geographical districts of Fars province.Methods:of 10358 domestic animals have been visited from April 2011 to March 2012. The infected wounds in any parts of animal body were sampled by means of forceps.Results:This study has been done in Fars province, located in the southern part of Iran. Sums The most wound myiasis cases due to this species occurred in central part of Fars province. There wasn’t any significant difference between sheep and goat in infestation with myiasis (P>0.05). The infestation rate of myiasis in cattle community was 0.86%. About 61% of all animal wound myiasis were caused by larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Conclusions: The infestation rate of livestock was lower than other works in Iran and some other countries like Saudi Arabia. Chrysomya bezziana has been mentioned as main myiasis agent in Iran. But in this study it cleared that similarly to some European countries, the common animal myiasis agent in Iran is Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Introducing new species as principal agent for myiasis can help public health and animal husbandry policy makers to prepare sufficient and effective control and/or preventive measures for this disease.

  10. Impact of screwworm eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) eradication programmes has been successfully demonstrated. As a result of a 45-year area-wide campaign, suppression and eradication have been achieved in the USA, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama north of the Canal, some Caribbean Islands, and the outbreak in Libya, North Africa. The humans, livestock, and wildlife in these countries are now free of this dangerous pest. It has been estimated that the annual producer benefits are: USA - USD 796 million, Mexico - USD 292 million, and Central America - USD 77.9 million. In Libya, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 5:1 in the infested zone, and 10:1 in the whole country. If the New World screwworm were eradicated in South America, it has been estimated that each year USD 3592 million could be saved. Small field trials have confirmed that the SIT would be effective for the area-wide control of the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve). (author)

  11. Improved method for screening mitochondrial cytochrome b markers to identify regional populations of the Old World screwworm fly and other myiasis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, P D; Wardhana, A H; Adams, Z J O; Sotiraki, S; Hall, M J R

    2014-10-01

    A new protocol was developed to overcome obstacles to the high-throughput sequence analysis of the 716-717 nucleotides at the carboxyl terminal of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (cyt b) of the myiasis flies Chrysomya bezziana and Wohlfahrtia magnifica. For both of these obligate parasites, cyt b haplotypes provide diagnostic markers for phylogeographic populations, markers that identify the origins of emerging populations causing economically important myiasis in livestock and, in the case of C. bezziana (Old World screwworm fly), could help select reproductively-compatible populations for use in the Sterile insect technique as part of area wide integrated pest management. High sequence quality is important for unambiguously detecting the few mutations that are diagnostic for regional cyt b haplotypes and their lineages. A key innovation is the design of a new forward primer for the specific PCR amplification and high-quality sequencing of cyt b. The improved protocol will facilitate the use of this established comparative cyt b sequence analysis, not only by teams lacking the resources for whole genome sequencing (WGS) but also by those requiring reference sequences for developing comparative mitogenomics based on WGS. PMID:25016294

  12. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others. PMID:15831107

  13. The potential uses of sarcosaprophagous flesh flies and blowflies for the evaluation of the regeneration and conservation of forest clearings: a case study in the Amazon forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, José Roberto Pereira; Esposito, Maria Cristina; Carvalho Filho, Fernando da Silva; Juen, Leandro

    2014-01-01

    The level of association between dipterans of the families Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae and habitats with different levels of vegetation cover was analyzed at Porto Urucu in Coari, Amazonas, Brazil, with the aim of identifying the potential of these taxa as bioindicators for the assessment of forest regeneration and conservation. The flies were collected in 16 sample areas, 12 of which were clearings at different stages of regeneration (C1--early regeneration; C2--moderate regeneration; and C3--advanced regeneration) and 4 in continuous forest (F). According to the IndVal analysis, nine sarcophagid species--Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann), Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (Wiedemann), Peckia (Squamatodes) ingens (Walker), Sarcofahrtiopsis cuneata (Townsend), Oxysarcodexia thornax (Walker), Peckia (Euboettcheria) collusor (Curran & Walley), Oxysarcodexia fringidea (Curran & Walley), Oxysarcodexia amorosa (Schiner), and Helicobia pilifera (Lopes)--were associated indiscriminately with clearings (C1 + C2 + C3). In contrast, only one calliphorid species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) was associated with clearings in the early moderate regeneration (C1 + C2) phases, and four calliphorids were associated with continuous forest or mature clearings (C3 + F): Mesembrinella bicolor (F.), Eumesembrinella randa (Walker), Mesembrinella bellardiana (Aldrich), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann). These results indicate that sarcophagids may be useful for evaluating the degree of anthropogenic impact but are not suitable for the detection of minor variations in forest cover. In contrast, calliphorids may be appropriate for the evaluation of both anthropogenic impacts and the degree of forest regeneration and conservation. PMID:25502027

  14. An initial study of insect succession on decomposing rabbit carrions in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nyasha Mabika; Ron Masendu; Gilbert Mawera

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate insects visiting sun exposed and shaded decomposing rabbit carcasses and to establish the relationship between insects and carcasses which may be of forensic importance in Harare. Methods: Two rabbits weighing 2.3 kg and 2.5 kg were killed by sharp blows on the head. One was exposed to the sun while the other was placed under shade. The carcasses were allowed to decompose and insects were collected twice a day for the first week and thereafter once a day up to the end of the 7 weeks. Maggots were also collected from the decomposing carcasses and reared.Results:Five dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Phoridae and Drosophilidae) were identified from the sun-exposed carcass. Species collected included Luciliacuprina (L. cuprina), Chrysomya albiceps (C. albiceps), Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp. and Drosophila sp. Four families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae) were identified from the shaded carcass. Representatives of these families included L. cuprina, C. albiceps, Musca domestica, and Hydrotaea sp. Three Coleopteran families (Histeridae, Cleridae and Dermestidae) were identified from both carcasses. The observed species were Saprinus sp., Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes sp. Formicidae (Hymenoptera) was represented by only one species (Pheidole sp.). Flies which emerged from the rearing units were L. cuprina, Lucilia sp., C. albiceps, Sarcophaga sp. and Sepsis sp.). Conclusions: Of the dipteran species collected during the study, L. cuprina and C. albiceps could be important for further forensic studies since they were collected from the carcasses and also observed from the rearing units.

  15. Levantamento e caracterização da dipterofauna necrófaga em uma localidade de Brasília - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v6i2.456

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alonzo Carreira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os dípteros representam um grupo de extrema relevância para a criminalística graças a sua capacidade de encontrar corpos em decomposição, permitindo a estimativa do intervalo post mortem. A dificuldade de identificação dos dípteros é um problema que muitos dos profissionais têm que lidar para obter informações acuradas que possam ser utilizadas como provas de crime. Para resolver este problema as identificações por marcadores moleculares se mostram um método eficiente. O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever a população de dípteros de interesse forense em Brasília por meio de marcadores moleculares baseados em DNA. Os resultados indicaram que marcadores RAPD e de DNAmt podem ser usados para a identificação de Chrysomya albiceps. Sendo assim, estabeleceu-se um método molecular de identificação de uma espécie de interesse forense que poderá servir de auxílio na elucidação de crimes na região ou na identificação de vestígios incompletos ou imaturos de dípteros.

  16. SIT in Uruguay: Screwworm Eradication and the Need for Integration for a Successful Pest Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Research Center at the School of Sciences is the unique nuclear facility constructed and devoted to work with radiation and isotopes in Uruguay. SIT technology experience was gained working with the Chagas' disease vector, Triatoma rubrovaria, as a model (Cristina et al., 1986; Salvatella et al., 1987; Cristina et al., 1985, 1984a,b,c). At the present time, working together with the Ministry for Cattle, Agriculture and Fisheries, it was possible to determine the importance of New World Screwworm control and/or eradication from Uruguay. This pest challenges the main export products of Uruguay. Regarding myiasis, four different species of Diptera have been found in Uruguay: Chlochliomyia hominivorax, Chlochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Dermatobia hominis. C. hominivorax accounts for 87.2 % of all myiasis in Uruguay. The general prevalence of the disease is 4.5% of bovines and 6.2% of ovines are affected. The death rate of affected animals is calculated to be 6.5% for bovines and 18.5% for ovines. Considering a population of 10 million cattle and 26 million ovine in Uruguay, 450,000 bovines and 1,612,000 ovines are affected each year. Total loses are estimated to be US$24 million per year. Since no geographical barrier separates Uruguay from Brazil, integrated management is the only choice to successfully control this important pest. SIT against screwworm would be very beneficial for Uruguay.

  17. Field assessment of two synthetic attractants for the New World Screwworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago, E-mail: mastrang@unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CBMEG/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genetica; Neto, Paulo C.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: pcassier@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The New World Screwworm fly (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, causes millions of dollars in annual losses to farmers. The collection of adult flies with trapping systems is essential in surveillance for NWS populations and for monitoring the progress of eradication programs against this pest. Chemical baits can be used to attract adult flies, such as the Swormlure-4. In ports of Australia, the attractant Bezzilure-2 B is part of a quarantine surveillance program for another screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Comparative trials with these attractants have never been done in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance between the attractants Swormlure-4 and Bezzilure-2 B for NWS. Field trials were carried out on a vegetated area of UNICAMP campus. For each trial, 12 Delta sticky traps were set up, with traps positioned 100 to 200 m apart. The attractants were dispensed in 30 mL bottles containing a dental roll. Three independent trials were performed: one applying Swormlure-4 alone (Trial A), the second with only Bezzilure-2 B (Trial B), and the third with both attractants (6 traps for each attractant) (Trial C). Between 800 and 1120 sterile adult flies were released 1 h after the installation of the traps. The trapped flies were collected on the 10{sup th} day after the release. In all trials, the Swormlure-4 proved to be much more efficient and its use should be encouraged for future collections and surveillance of NWS populations in Brazil. (author)

  18. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A Nurul; Salmah, M R Che; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Razak, M N Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  19. Sex determination mechanisms in the Calliphoridae (blow flies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M J; Pimsler, M L; Tarone, A M

    2014-01-01

    The Calliphoridae or blow flies are a family of insects that occupy diverse habitats and perform important ecological roles, particularly the decomposition of animal remains. Some Calliphoridae species are also important in the forensic sciences, in agriculture (e.g. as livestock pests) and in medicine (e.g. maggot therapy). Calliphoridae provide striking examples in support of the hypothesis that sex determination regulatory gene hierarchies evolve in the reverse order, with the gene at the top being the most recently added. Unlike the model fly Drosophila melanogaster, where sex is determined by the number of X chromosomes, in the Australian sheep blow fly (Lucilia cuprina) sex is determined by a Y-linked male-determining gene (M). A different regulatory system appears to operate in the hairy maggot blow fly (Chrysomya rufifacies) where the maternal genotype determines sex. It is hypothesized that females heterozygous for a dominant female-determining factor (F/f) produce only female offspring and homozygous f/f females produce only sons. The bottom of the regulatory hierarchy appears to be the same in D. melanogaster and L. cuprina, with sex-specific splicing of doublesex transcripts being controlled by the female-specific Transformer (TRA) protein. We discuss a model that has been proposed for how tra transcripts are sex-specifically spliced in calliphorids, which is very different from D. melanogaster.

  20. Forensic entomology in Kuwait: the first case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mesbah, Hanadi; Al-Osaimi, Zarraq; El-Azazy, Osama M E

    2011-03-20

    To date, entomology has not been used in legal investigations in Kuwait. Indeed, this is true of most Arab countries in the Middle East. There are no known studies on necrophagous species in the region, nor any knowledge of cadaver succession with which to compare case material. Here we report the first case of application of forensic entomology in Kuwait. In Al-Rowdah district, a man was found dead in his bedroom which was air-conditioned and the windows were closed. The temperature of the room was 20°C. The cause of death was morphine overdose. At autopsy, fly larvae were collected from the blanket with which the body was wrapped and were identified as postfeeding 3rd instars of Parasarcophaga (Liopygia) ruficornis using molecular analysis. In addition, the face and neck were extensively and exclusively colonized by different stages of Chrysomya albiceps (secondary fly). Based on the age of P. ruficornis full mature 3rd instars and the location of the body, approximately 7.5-8.5 days postmortem was estimated for the corpse at the time of its discovery.

  1. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  2. Ecology, Behaviour and Control of Apis cerana with a Focus on Relevance to the Australian Incursion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. Koetz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apis cerana Fabricius is endemic to most of Asia, where it has been used for honey production and pollination services for thousands of years. Since the 1980s, A. cerana has been introduced to areas outside its natural range (namely New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Australia, which sparked fears that it may become a pest species that could compete with, and negatively affect, native Australian fauna and flora, as well as commercially kept A. mellifera and commercial crops. This literature review is a response to these concerns and reviews what is known about the ecology and behaviour of A. cerana. Differences between temperate and tropical strains of A. cerana are reviewed, as are A. cerana pollination, competition between A. cerana and A. mellifera, and the impact and control strategies of introduced A. cerana, with a particular focus on gaps of current knowledge.

  3. Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne

    Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark....... Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s....... Within a theoretical framework combining positioning theory with life course perspective, in-depth interviews were conducted with young adults of Indian and Pakistani background. The second study focussed on second generation Pakistani in Denmark and their remittances to Pakistan. The extent and nature...

  4. Fostering collective intelligence education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Meza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New educational models are necessary to update learning environments to the digitally shared communication and information. Collective intelligence is an emerging field that already has a significant impact in many areas and will have great implications in education, not only from the side of new methodologies but also as a challenge for education. This paper proposes an approach to a collective intelligence model of teaching using Internet to combine two strategies: idea management and real time assessment in the class. A digital tool named Fabricius has been created supporting these two elements to foster the collaboration and engagement of students in the learning process. As a result of the research we propose a list of KPI trying to measure individual and collective performance. We are conscious that this is just a first approach to define which aspects of a class following a course can be qualified and quantified.

  5. EFEKTIVITAS DAN EFEK TOKSIK EKSTRAK STEROID TERIPANG DAN 17α METILTESTOSTERON PADA MANIPULASI KELAMIN UDANG GALAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apri Arisandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron selain dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai obat, juga dimanfaatkan untuk sex reversal pada udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  Hormon yang umum dipakai untuk sex reversal jantan adalah 17α metiltestosteron, merupakan hormon sintetis.  Bioassay pada ayam, diketahui bahwa hormon sintetis memberikan efek samping toksik pada hati, limpa dan bursa fabricius.  Agar tidak memberikan efek toksik, salah satu cara dengan menggunakan sumber hormon testosteron alami dari teripang.  Pemberian hormon menggunakan metode dipping, lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan.  Dosis ekstrak steroid teripang 1, 2 dan 3mg/l, serta 17α metiltestosteron 2mg/l dapat menghasilkan populasi jantan lebih tinggi dari kontrol negatif (tanpa hormon, yaitu 44,15%, 49,65%, 49,72% dan 50,45%.   Kata kunci: ekstrak steroid teripang, 17α metiltestosteron, udang galah

  6. Keys to genera of the spider wasps (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) of Russia and neighbouring countries, with check-list of genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktionov, Valery M; Lelej, Arkady S

    2015-10-28

    Keys to 55 genera of spider wasps of Russia and neighbouring countries in females and males are given. Of them 34 genera are distributed in Russia. An annotated list of genera with type species and distribution data within Russia and biogeographical regions is given. The genus Xenaporus Ashmead, 1902 and X. eremocanus Wolf, 1990 are newly recorded from Russia. According to ICZN 1995 (Opinion 1820) new synonymy (valid name first) is proposed for the type species of genus Cryptocheilus Panzer, 1806: Sphex annulata Fabricius, 1798 (=Pompilus alternatus Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau, 1845, syn. nov.; =Pompilus comparatus Smith, 1855, syn. nov.; =Priocnemis culpabilis Costa, 1893, syn. nov.; Salius annulatilis Richards, 1935, syn. nov.).

  7. 苜蓿切叶蜂繁育及对苜蓿种子产量影响的初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧福君; 曾宪波; 陆占忠; 滕兴军

    2000-01-01

    @@ 苜蓿(Medicago sativa)是一种高蛋白的豆科牧草,在种子生产中,由于其花器的特殊性,一般的授粉昆虫,包括家蜂都难以打开苜蓿的花器,很难起到传粉作用,致使靠异花授粉的苜蓿种子产量低、品质差.在本世纪70年代,美国、加拿大等国家发现苜蓿切叶蜂(Megachile rotundata Fabricius)可以为苜蓿授粉并使苜蓿种子产量大幅度增加,现已应用于生产中,成为苜蓿种子生产中不可缺少的重要措施.

  8. Flavonoids and triterpenes from the nest of the stingless bee Trigona spinipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marinalva O.; Ponte, Flavio A.F.; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    In the Northeast of Brazil the stingless bee Trigona spinipes Fabricius injures the tree bark of cultivated Eucalyptus citriodora specimens in order to make them exudate. The chemical investigation of the ethanol extract of an entire nest of T. spinipes allowed the isolation of the cycloartane triterpene magniferolic acid and 3{beta}-hydroxy-24-methylenecicloartan-26-oic acid, besides the flavonoids 3'-methyl quercetin, sakuranetin, kaempferol 7-methyl ether, tricetin and aromadendrin 7-methyl ether as the main compounds. The isolation of sakuranetin, kaempferol 7-methyl ether, and aromadendrin 7-methyl ether from both Trigonas spinipes' nest and the exudate from Eucalyptus, may suggest this species as a botanical origin of the nest constituents of these stingless bee in the Northeast of Brazil. The structural characterization of the isolated compounds was accomplished by spectrometric means and comparison with the literature data. (author)

  9. Choosing a language in international office service encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    Preisler (eds.) Language alternation, language choice and language encounter in international education. Dordrecht: Springer Preisler, Bent, Ida Klitgård, and Anne H. Fabricius. (2011). Language and learning in the international university: from English uniformity to diversity and hybridity. Bristol...... at an International Office help desk, situated at a Danish university. Here, staff and student cohorts are made up of both local and ‘international’ members, with the help desk service providing support for both incoming and outgoing students participating in study exchange programmes such as ERASMUS. Specifically......, this paper demonstrates a number of practices through which culturally and linguistically diverse members are able to settle upon a language for conducting these service encounters (which in this case is usually Danish or English). I show how the opening sequences have a built-in mechanism for avoiding...

  10. Nest structure and communal nesting in Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Garófalo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three nests of Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressier, 1982 were obtained from trap nests at Serra do Japi, Jundiai, São Paulo State, Brazil. The bees nested in bamboo cane (one nest and in wooden-boxes (two nests. Solitary (two cases and pleometrotic (one case foundations were observed. Two nests were re-used once by two females working in each of them. Re-using females that shared the nests were of the same generation and each built, provisioned and oviposited in her own cells, characterizing a communal association. The brood development period was related to climatic conditions. Natural enemies included Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 (Bombyliidae, Coelioxys sp. (Megachilidae and Melittobia sp. (Eulophidae.

  11. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi El-Hawagry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794, Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909, Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804, while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone.

  12. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

    2015-01-01

    Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyiadiscoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylumcandidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopalinearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopaminos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopalinearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylumcandidum and Bombomyiadiscoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  13. Assessment of gamma ray-induced DNA damage in Lasioderma serricorne using the comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2012-03-01

    We attempted a DNA comet assay under alkaline conditions to verify the irradiation treatment of pests. Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) were chosen as test insects and irradiated with gamma rays from a 60Co source at 1 kGy. We conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over time for 7 day. Severe DNA fragmentation in L. serricorne cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. The parameters of the comet image analysis were calculated, and the degree of DNA damage and repair were evaluated. Values for the Ratio (a percentage determined by fluorescence in the damaged area to overall luminance, including intact DNA and the damaged area of a comet image) of individual cells showed that no cells in the irradiated group were included in the Ratiocomet assay under alkaline conditions, combined with comet image analysis, can be used to identify irradiation history.

  14. Comparative Immature Morphology of Brazilian Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although common in Brazil, the biology of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith is still poorly studied. Larval descriptions are useful to genus-level ant systematics and sometimes to species-level taxonomy. This study presents a detailed description of juveniles of S. saevissima from Brazil, which were compared with Brazilian specimens of Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, and Solenopsis altipunctata Pitts. Different larval instars were separated by diagnostic morphological traits which were confirmed by observing moults. Reproductive larvae could be easily sorted by their distinctive body dimensions and shape. Contrary to previous reports on this species, the larvae of S. saevissima proved to be generally identical to those of S. invicta, while a few specimens resembled those of other close species, such as Solenopsis megergates Trager. Mature larvae thus presented considerable intraspecific variation in some characters recently proposed to aid fire ant species separation (morphology of head hairs.

  15. A new species of Lepidocyrtus (Collembola, Entomobryidae) from the Börzsöny Mountains, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The genus Lepidocyrtus was previously represented by 17 species in Hungary, including four species with locus typicus in this country. Opportunistic sampling in mid-mountain grassland and forest habitats resulted in records of several species from the L. lignorum group and allowed to describe the new species L. traseri sp. nov. The L. lignorum group, established and named after the eponymic species, is composed by a total of 11 species. The main characteristics shared by every species in this group are the dorsal body macrochaetotaxy R0R1R2/00/0101+3 and the presence of scales on the antennae and legs. The new species is close to L. lignorum (Fabricius, 1793) and L. violaceus (Geoffroy, 1762) but differs from them by the color pattern, number of interocular scales, type of labral papillae and the number of inner setae on the manubrial plate. An identification key is given for differentiating all species of this group. PMID:27615681

  16. A checklist of beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) on pig carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China: A preliminary study and its forensic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhou; Wan, Li-Hua; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Tang, Rui; Xu, Lyu-Zi

    2016-07-01

    Examining the succession pattern of carrion insects on vertebrate carcasses is widely accepted as an effective method to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of decayed bodies. Investigation of the community of sarcosaprophagous insects, especially flies and beetles, is the foundation of the succession pattern study. This study aimed to investigate the sarcosaprophagous beetles succession on animal carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China and to establish a basic catalog for forensic application. The present study was conducted in 2013 in a mountain in Chongqing municipality with modified Schoenly traps. Carcasses of miniature pig were used to simulate human bodies. For most carcasses, five decomposition stages were observed. A total of 2108 adult coleopterans belonging to at least 61 species and 18 families were collected in the study, and most of the specimens occurred at the advanced decay stage. Omosita colon (Linnaeus, 1758), Necrodes nigricornis (Harold, 1875), Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius, 1775) and Neosilusa ceylonica (Kraatz, 1857) were the dominant species. PMID:27126839

  17. Crustáceos decápodos da Ilha da Restinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Conceição Quintino Farias

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the decapods crustaceans from Restinga island (Paraíba State, Brazil. A list of species collected from September 1977 to March 1978 and some ecological notes are given. Those following species were found in the island: Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann. Alpheus heterochaelis Say, Upogebia omissa Gomes-Corrêa, Petrolisthes armatus (Gibbes, Clibanarius vitatus (Bose, Clibanarius sclopetarius (Herbst, Callinectes danae Smith, Callinectes exasperatus (Gerstaecker, Callinectes bocourti. A.Milne Edwards, Callinectes sp., Panopeus herbstii. A. Milne Edwards, Cytoplax spinidentata (Benedict, Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, Aratus pisonii (Milme Eawards, Pachygrapsus gracilis (Saussure, Pachygrapsus transversus Gibbes, Sesarma rectum Randall, Sersama angustipes Dana, Cardisoma guanhunti Latreille, Uca leptodactyia Rathbun, Uca maracoani Latreille, Uca rapax (Smith, Uca panema Coelho, Uca thayeii Rathbun, Uca vocator Herbst, Uca cumulanta Crane, Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus e Calappa ocelata Holthuis.

  18. The antenna of horse stomach bot flies: morphology and phylogenetic implications (Oestridae, Gasterophilinae: Gasterophilus Leach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Li, Xinyu; Liu, Xianhui; Wang, Qike; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Antennae are among the most elaborate sensory organs in adult flies, and they provide rich information for phylogenic studies. The antennae of five out of eight species of Gasterophilus Leach (G. haemorrhoidalis (Linnaeus), G. intestinalis (De Geer), G. nasalis (Linnaeus), G. nigricornis (Loew) and G. pecorum (Fabricius)), were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology, including distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla were presented, and the definition of auriculate sensilla and sensory pits were updated and clarified. Eighteen antennal characters were selected to construct the first species-level phylogeny of this genus. The monophyly of Gasterophilus was supported by the presence of coeloconic sensilla III on the antennal arista. The species-level cladogram showed G. pecorum branching off at the base, and the remaining species forming the topology (G. intestinalis+ (G. haemorrhoidalis+ (G. nasalis+ G. nigricornis))). Our research shows the importance of the antennal ultrastructure as a reliable source for phylogenetic analysis. PMID:27703229

  19. Notas e descrições em Parandrini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Parandrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos -Silva Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Parandra is reviewed and four genera are recognized: Parandra Latreille, 1804, Neandra Lameere, 1912, stat. nov., Archandra Lameere, 1912, stat. nov. and Acutandra gen. nov. The genus Parandra is subdivided in two subgenera: Parandra (Parandra s. str. and Parandra (Birandra subgen. nov. The geographical distribution of P. (P. laevis Latreille, 1804 is commented and the probable synonymy between P. cubaecola Chevrolat, 1862 and P. (P. cribrata Thomson, 1861 is discussed. New species described: P. (P. tavakiliani from Puerto Rico and P. (Birandra mariahelenae from Jamaica. New combinations: Neandra brunnea (Fabricius, 1798, Neandra marginicollis (Schaeffer, 1929, Archandra caspia (Ménétriès, 1832, Acutandra punctatissima (Thomson, 1861, A. degeeri (Thomson, 1867, A. murrayi (Lameere, 1912, A. araucana (Bosq, 1951, A. ubitiara (Santos-Silva & Martins, 2000, all from Parandra. Keys to genera of Parandrini, subgenera of Parandra and American species of Parandra and Acutandra are added.

  20. Tests de toxicité sur Macrobrachium spp (crustacés décapodes) : première étude avec le temephos

    OpenAIRE

    Fossati, Odile; Danigo, Anne-Hélène; Séchan, Yves; Guillet, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Une nouvelle méthode pour réaliser des tests de toxicité sur #Macrobrachium$ est décrite. Ces tests sont réalisés durant 24 heures, dans des cuvettes dont l'eau est renouvelée en permanence. Des résultats préliminaires montrent l'absence de mortalité des trois espèces testées (#M. australe$ Guérin-Méneville, #M. lar$ Fabricius et #M. latimanus$ Martens) après un traitement au temephos à 4 mg/1/10 mn. L'importance de la maîtrise de divers facteurs mésologiques et biotiques est discutée. Un pro...

  1. Effect of astaxanthin and cholesterol on growth, survival, and pigmentation of adult spiny lobster, Panulirus ornatus (Decapoda, Palinuridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai V. Hung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on the spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 determined thatintermediate levels of cholesterol are important in diets, but astaxanthin may not be. Here we examinedhow the growth, survival and coloration of spiny lobster were influenced by the inclusion of bothastaxanthin (50, 60 and 70 mg.kg-1 and cholesterol (0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 % in a two factor experiment.Overall, survival was 84.8% with no significant difference among dietary treatments. Lobsters grew thebest when fed the diet containing the lowest cholesterol and greatest astaxanthin of the levels presented.The results of this study point out the need to examine the effects of dietary component addition acrossa range of inclusion levels simultaneously for multiple nutrients.

  2. Common Pests and Diseases of Moringa oleifera in Xishuangbanna and Their Control%西双版纳辣木常见病虫害及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋桂芝; 杨焱; 龙继明; 刘昌芬

    2011-01-01

    简述辣木田间常见的落叶病、嫩梢萎蔫病、枝条溃疡病、豆荚褐腐病,以及夜蛾、小菜蛾、红蜘蛛、蚜虫等害虫的发生规律和防治方法。%In this paper,it gives a brief introduction to the common diseases occurred in Moringa oleifera,including defoliate disease,shoot wilt,switch canker,pod brown rot and some pests like Prodenia litura Fabricius,Plutella xylostella Linnaeus,Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd and Aphididae sp.,as well as the control methods.

  3. A new antifungal and cytotoxic C-methylated flavone glycoside from Picea neoveitchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Quan; Song, Zhi-Jun; Xu, Han-Hong

    2012-09-15

    A new C-methylated flavone glycoside, 5,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-C-methylflavone 8,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), was isolated from the twigs and leaves of Picea neoveitchii Mast, together with eight known compounds, 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methylflavone 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) kaempferol 3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), tiliroside (5), massonianoside B (6), umbeliferone 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), dihydroconiferin (8) and gleditschiaside A (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of analyses of spectroscopic data. Compound 1 showed moderate antifungal activity against tested plant pathogens (Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc., Sclerotium rocfsii Sacc. and Alternaria mali Roberts), however, compounds 2 and 5 had obvious inhibitory effect against S. rocfsii and A. mali, respectively. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 9 also exhibited potent cytotoxicity against Spodoptera litura Fabricius cells.

  4. Parasitoid complex of Zygaena filipendulae L. (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae

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    Žikić V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars of Zygaena filipendulae Linnaeus were sampled during May and June in the Sićevo Gorge in southern Serbia. All parasitized larvae were found on grey elm trees (Ulmus canescens. During the short period before metamorphosis of Z. filipendulae, we found the whole specter of parasitoid wasps: Cotesia zygaenarum Marshall (Braconidae, Gelis agilis (Fabricius and Mesochorus velox Holmgren (Ichneumonidae, Elasmus platyedrae Ferrière and Pediobius sp. (Eulophidae, Eupelmus vesicularis (Retzius (Eupelmidae and Brachymeria tibialis (Walker (Chalcididae. Beside hymenopteran parasitoids, we found parasitoid flies from the family Tachinidae, Phryxe nemea (Meigen (Diptera. All 46 observed Z. filipendulae larvae found on grey elm trees were parasitized, but three pupae were found directly on Lotus corniculatus. Two species are newly reported as parasitoids of Z. filipendulae: E. platyedrae and Eupelmus vesicularis and three species (G. agilis, M. velox and E. platyedrae are new to the fauna of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43001

  5. Laboratory evaluation of the toxic properties of forest anchomanes, Anchomanes difformis against pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROTIMI O. AKINKUROLERE; CHRIS O. ADEDIRE; OLUSOLA O.ODEYEMI

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the efficacy of crude stem extracts of forest anchomanes, Anchomanes difformis (P. Beauv.) a plant occurring in West African forests, against the pulse beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius). Crude stem extracts at 3% concentration showed high contact toxicity to adult beetles within 24 h after application, while it was moderately toxic to the beetles at the lowest (1%) concentration. At the highest application rate, the plant extract provided good protection to grains stored for 90 days. Grain viability and water absorption capacity were not affected by treatments with ethanol extracts ofA. difformis. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to biopesticide-means of controlling cowpea bruchids.

  6. 果蔬重要实蝇属的分布、危害与形态特征比较研究%Comparative Study on Distribution, Harm and Morphological Characteristics of Important Insects in Bactrocera in Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振; 黄可辉

    2012-01-01

    This paper expounded the geological distribution, host plant species and major morphological characteristics of the important quarantine pest insects in fruits and vegetables in the following five genera: Bactrocera Macquart, Dacus Fabricius, Ceratitis Macleay, Anastrepha Schiner and Rhagoletis Loew, compared the similarities and differences among the five genera, and put forward some measures for the control of the important pest insects in fruits and vegetables in these genera.%阐述了果实蝇属、寡鬃实蝇属、小条实蝇属、按实蝇属、绕实蝇属5个检疫性害虫果蔬实蝇属的地理分布、寄主及其主要形态特征,比较了各个属形态特征的异同,并提出了一些防治果蔬重要实蝇属的措施.

  7. Compared morphology of the immatures of males of two urban ant species of Camponotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Daniel Russ; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Rossi, Mônica Lanzoni; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2012-01-01

    The immatures of males of two species of Camponotus ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are described and compared by light and electron microscopy. The numbers of larval instars were determined: Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have four instars; and Camponotus vittatus Forel have three. Male larvae of the two species are similar to previously described Camponotus larvae, sharing the following traits: basic shape of body and mandible, presence of 'chiloscleres', 'praesaepium' (some specimens), labial pseudopalps, and ten pairs of spiracles. However, larvae of the two species can be separated by bodily dimensions and based on their hair number and types. Worker larvae of C. vittatus previously described are extensively similar to male larvae, with only a few inconspicuous differences that may result from intraspecific variation or sexual differences. PMID:22934715

  8. Urban ants and transportation of nosocomial bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodovalho, Cynara M; Santos, Ana L; Marcolino, Marcus T; Bonetti, Ana M; Brandeburgo, Malcon A M

    2007-01-01

    Many ant species displaying synanthropic behavior that have successfully dispersed in urban areas can cause problems in hospitals by acting as bacterial vectors. In this study, we encountered bacteria on ants collected at the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia hospital, in the campus and at households nearby. The ants were identified as Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) and Camponotus vittatus (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the bacterial strains found here belong to the group of the coagulase-positive staphylococcus, coagulase-negative staphylococcus and gram negative bacilli, including antimicrobial drug-resistant strains. An investigation of the bacteria found in the ants and in the environment revealed that some ants carried non-isolated bacteria from the same environment and with high levels of resistance, evidencing the transmission potential of these insects. PMID:17710329

  9. Evaluation of potential immunostimulant of the Carboxymethyl-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in poultry (Gallus domesticus / Avaliação do potencial imunoestimulante da Carboximetil-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae em frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Goméz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The carboxymethylglucan (CMG is a soluble molecule, composed of glucopyranosyl linked by ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, which can activate the immune system of the host. The purpose of this study was evaluate the productive and immunological characteristics of 192 poultry (Gallus domesticus COBB line which received feds containing 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% of CMG from Saccharomyces cerevisiae added in corn flour. All poultry were immunized against Newcastle disease and at each treatment 3 poultries randomly chosen received CMG intramuscular at 3, 7 and 14 days. It was evaluated the animal performance, development of the bursa of Fabricius, histological slides of the small intestine, counts of phagocytes cells in blood and levels of antibodies in serum. The results showed difference in weight gain and consumption of feed to poultry that consumed CMG at 1 to 21 days. Fabricius bursa relative weight increased in poultry supplemented with 0,025 e 0,050% of CMG. The phagocytic cells number and total levels of antibodies found in poultry at 21 days were higher in those that received CMG in the diet. For the animals that received intramuscular CMG was observed increase of antibodies specific to Newcastle.A carboximetilglucana (CMG é uma molécula solúvel, composta de resíduos de glicopiranosil unidos em ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, que possui a capacidade de ativar o sistema imune do hospedeiro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as características produtivas e imunológicas de 192 frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus da linhagem COBB, que receberam rações contendo 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% de CMG de Saccharomyces cerevisiae adicionada em farinha de milho. Todas as aves foram imunizadas contra a doença de Newcastle e, em cada tratamento, 3 aves escolhidas aleatoriamente receberam CMG intramuscular no 3º, 7º e 14º dia. Foram avaliados o desempenho animal, o desenvolvimento da bursa de Fabricius e lâminas histológicas do intestino delgado, além do número de c

  10. One-dimensional photonic bandgap structure in abalone shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; ZHOU Ji; LI Longtu; LI Qi; HAN Shuo; HAO Zhibiao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Photonic bandgap (PBG) materials are periodic com- posites of dielectric materials in which electromagnetic waves of certain frequency range cannot propagate in any or a special direction. Recently, there has been great inter- est in synthetic PBG materials due to their ability in ma- nipulation of photons. Since 500 million years ago, the natural world has been exploiting photonic structures for specific biological purposes[1]. Different types of biologi- cal PBG materials have been discovered in recent years, such as the one-dimension PBG structure in the sea mouse Aphrodita[2], and the fruits Elaeocarpus[3,4]; two-dimension PBG structure in the male peacock Pavo muticus feathers[5], Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly[6], Thaumantis diores butterfly[7] and the male Ancyluris meliboeus Fabricius butterflies[8]; and three-dimension PBG structure in the weevil Pachyrhynchus argus[9].

  11. 烟草甲体内共生菌的初步研究%Primary study on the symbionts from the cigarette beetle,Lasioderma serricorne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛宝燕; 程新胜; 魏重生; 陈树仁; 周郑

    2005-01-01

    烟草甲Lasioderma serricorne(Fabricius)体内有类似酵母的胞内共生物YLS,其对烟草甲有重要的营养和解毒作用.该文对YLS的细胞和菌落形态进行了观察,并通过菌落测定、液体培养和细胞质量测定等方法,以探明YLS的最适生长温度.结果表明:28~35℃比较适宜YLS的生长,35℃为最佳生长温度,而36~48 h是研究YLS的最佳时间.

  12. Revisão do gênero neotropical Coelosis Hope (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae Revision of the neotropical genus Coelosis Hope (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Iannuzzi

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Coelosis with two subgenera, Coelosis s.str. [type species: Scarabaeus sylvanus Fabricius, 1775] and Eucoelosis subgen.n. [type species: Scarabaeus biloba Linnaeus, 1767], is revised and redescribed. Other four species: C. (C. inermis Sternberg, 1908, C. (C. bourgini (Dechambre, 1976, C. (Eucoelosis hippocrates Blanchard, 1846, and C. (E. bicornis (Leske, 1779 were recognized and redescribed. Coelosis (E. denticornis Arrow, 1937 was not studied, and the original description is transcribed herein. New characters considered relevant for comparative studies and for species identification are presented. The subgenus Millotsis Bourgin, 1944 [type species: Coelosis inermis Sternberg, 1908] is considered a junior subjective synonym of Coelosis s.str.. A phenetic analysis is presented.

  13. Abundance and diversity of Odonata in temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arulprakash

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Odonata diversity was assessed in 13 temporary water bodies of Coimbatore and Salem districts in Tamil Nadu. Assessment revealed the presence of 21 species of Odonata (14 species of Anisoptera and seven species of Zygoptera belonging to 17 genera under four families. Libellulidae (Anisoptera was represented by the maximum number of species and individuals. Pantala flavescens (Libellulidae was the most abundant among 21 species. Among the temporary water bodies, the maximum number of individuals as well as species was recorded from Utkulam tank (Coimbatore district. Odonata diversity was higher in Kamalapuram tanks 1 and 2 (Salem district and lower in Ukkadam tank (Coimbatore District. Diplacodes trivialis (Rambur, Orthetrum sabina (Drury and Pantala flavescens (Fabricius were identified as temporary water body specialists because of their presence in all the 13 temporary water bodies sampled.

  14. Flutuação populacional circanual de coleópteros em granja avícola, em Pelotas, RS, Brasil Fluctuation of Coleoptera population in poultry house, in Pelotas, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Lima Bicho

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a flutuação populacional de coleópteros na granja de aves do Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça, em Pelotas, RS, foram utilizados seis métodos de coleta: 1 (fezes de galinhas com 0 a 7 dias; 2 (7 a 14 dias; 3 (14 a 21 dias; 4 (0 a 21 dias; 5 (fezes acumuladas e 6 (armadilhas de tubo. Análises de regressão polinomial foram realizadas independentemente dos métodos de coleta. O estudo foi realizado de agosto de 1998 a julho de 1999. Foram capturados 12.449 coleópteros representados pelas seguintes espécies Carcinops troglodytes (Paykull, 1811 (Histeridae (6.444; Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797 (Tenebrionidae (2.896; Somotrichus unifasciatus (Dejean, 1792 (Carabidae (1.190; Gnathocerus cornutus (Fabricius, 1798 (Tenebrionidae (947; Euxestus sp. (Cerylonidae (394; Euspilotus rubriculus (Marseul, 1855 (Histeridae (213; Ontholestes sp. (Staphylinidae (190; Dactylosternum sp. (Hydrophilidae (93; Mezium americanum (Laporte, 1840 (Ptinidae (43; Palorus subdepressus (Wollaston, 1864 (Tenebrionidae (27; Tenebroides mauritanicus (L., 1758 (Trogossitidae (8; Xyleborus ferrugineus (Fabricius, 1801 (Scolytidae (1; e espécimens não identificados de Dermestidae (3. O maior número de espécies ocorreu nos meses de março e julho e o menor, no mês de setembro. Em março foi registrada a maior abundância de coleópteros (2.159, enquanto que o menor índice de captura foi assinalado em outubro (633. A flutuação populacional foi estimada para C. troglodytes, A. diaperinus, S. unifasciatus, G. cornutus, Euxestus sp., E. rubriculus, Ontholestes sp. e Dactylosternum sp.The population fluctuation of Coleoptera in poultry house "Conjunto Agrotécnico Visconde da Graça" in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil is investigated. Six collection methods were utilized: 1 (0 to 7 day-old chicken feces; 2 (7 to 14 day-old feces; 3 (14 to 21 day-old feces; 4 (0 to 21 day-old feces, 5 (accumulated feces; and 6 (tube trap. An

  15. Quantitative trait loci mapping of pubescence density and flowering time of insect-resistant soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Komatsu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of antibiosis resistance to common cutworm (Spodoptera litura Fabricius in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. has progressed significantly, but the immediate cause remains unknown. We performed quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis of pubescence density and plant development stage because these factors are assumed to be the immediate cause of resistance to cutworm. The QTLs for pubescence appeared to be identical to the previously detected the Pd1 and Ps loci controlling pubescence density. We found no candidate loci for flowering time QTLs, although one could be identical to the gene governing the long-juvenile trait or to the E6 loci controlling maturity. None of the QTLs overlapped with the QTLs for antibiosis resistance.

  16. A new genus and two new species of hymenosomatid crabs (Crustacea:Brachyura: Hymenosomatidae) from the southwestern Atlantic and eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Marcos; Santana, William

    2015-01-09

    A new genus, Teramnonotus n. gen., is erected for Elamena gordonae Monod, 1956. The new genus includes two new species, T. johnlucasi n. gen., n. sp. and T. monodi n. gen., n. sp., described herein from eastern Australia (Queensland) and the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil), respectively. Teramnonotus n. gen. superficially resembles Elamena H. Milne Edwards, 1837, and Trigonoplax H. Milne Edwards, 1853, of which it can be easily distinguished by a combination of characters: eyes and ocular peduncle, rostrum, carapace, thoracic sternite 8 and thoracic pleurite 8, and the inhalant water openings. The validity of the obscure species Elamena mexicana H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is not supported and it is synonymised with Halicarcinus planatus (Fabricius, 1775).

  17. Richter hernia: surgical anatomy and technique of repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalakis, Panagiotis N; Zoras, Odyseas; Skandalakis, John E; Mirilas, Petros

    2006-02-01

    Richter hernia (partial enterocele) is the protrusion and/or strangulation of only part of the circumference of the intestine's antimesenteric border through a rigid small defect of the abdominal wall. The first case was reported in 1606 by Fabricius Hildanus. The first definition of partial enterocele was given by August Gottlieb Richter in 1785. Sir Frederick Treves discriminated it from Littre hernia (hernia of the Meckel diverticulum). More often these hernias are diagnosed in the sixth and seventh decades of life. They comprise 10 per cent of strangulated hernias. Their common sites are the femoral ring, inguinal ring, and at incisional trauma. The most-often entrapped part of the bowel is the distal ileum, but any part of the intestinal tube may be incarcerated. These hernias progress more rapidly to gangrene than other strangulated hernias, and obstruction is less frequent. The gold standard technique for repair is the preperitoneal approach, followed by laparotomy and resection if perforation is suspected.

  18. A SYSTEMATIC LIST OF LYCAENIDAE IN REPRESENTATIVE REGIONS OF HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE%黑龙江省重点地区灰蝶科(Lycaenidae,Lepidoptera)名录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴海英; 王丽君; 张丽坤

    1999-01-01

    1984~1998年间,对黑龙江省重点地区的灰蝶科(Lycaenidae,Lepidoptera)昆虫进行调查,已鉴定出36种,隶属于3亚科24属.其中有黑龙江省新分布种类7种:栅黄灰蝶Japonica saepestriata(Hewitson)、华灰蝶Wagimoe sulgeri(Oberthür)、毛眼灰蝶Zizina otis(Fabricius)、钮灰碟Acytolepis puspa (Horsfield)、大紫琉璃灰蝶Celastrina oreas(Leech)、茄纹红珠灰蝶Lycaeides cleobis(Bremer)和维纳斯眼灰蝶Polymmatus venus(Staudinger).文中记述各种学名、别名、采集地及日期.

  19. Potential for exploitative competition, not intraguild predation, between invasive harlequin ladybirds and flowerbugs in urban parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, Andrew Gordon; Ravn, Hans Peter; Pipper, Christian Bressen;

    2016-01-01

    -content analysis, we investigated the relative frequencies of IGP by H. axyridis on the predatory flowerbug Anthocoris nemoralis Fabricius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) and prey overlap for a shared prey, the lime aphid Eucallipterus tiliae L. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in Tilia × europaea crowns in urban parks....... The frequency of IGP by H. axyridis was low: 2.7 % of larvae and 3.4 % of adults tested positive for A. nemoralis DNA. The presence of lime aphid DNA in predators was higher: 56.5 and 47.9 % of H. axyridis larvae and adults, respectively, contained E. tiliae DNA, whereas 60.8 % of adult A. nemoralis tested...... positive for aphid DNA. Incorporating insect densities revealed that the density of H. axyridis larvae had a strong negative effect on the likelihood of detecting aphid DNA in A. nemoralis. Prey overlap for E. tiliae was widespread in space (2–13 m height in tree crowns) and time (May–October 2011) which...

  20. Impact of heterophil granulocyte depletion caused by 5-fluorouracil on infectious bursal disease virus infection in specific pathogen free chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Igyarto, Botond-Zoltan; Magyar, Attila;

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the cytostatic drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which causes depletion of heterophil granulocytes, on clinical symptoms and histological lesions during the progress of infectious bursal disease virus ( IBDV) infection in chickens. The aim...... inoculated with the classical IBDV strain F52/70. Bursae of Fabricius were sampled at fixed intervals, and the progress of the infection was monitored by various histological techniques and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found correlation between histological observations and RT......-PCR results. In the 5-FU pretreated chickens, IBDV caused only mild clinical symptoms, even though histological alterations similar to alterations caused by IBDV were still observed. The 5-FU pretreatment resulted in severe heterophil granulocyte depletion by days 2 and 3 after infection (post inoculation...