WorldWideScience

Sample records for chrysomya megacephala fabricius

  1. Analysis of the Transcriptome of Blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) Larvae in Responses to Different Edible Oils

    OpenAIRE

    Min Zhang; Hao Yu; Yanyan Yang; Chao Song; Xinjun Hu; Guren Zhang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), a prevalent necrophagous blowfly that is easily mass reared, is noted for being a mechanical vector of pathogenic microorganisms, a pollinator of numerous crops, and a resource insect in forensic investigation in the postmortem interval. In the present study, in order to comprehensively understand the physiological and biochemical functions of C. megacephala, we performed RNA-sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling using Solexa/Ill...

  2. Analysis of the transcriptome of blowfly Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius larvae in responses to different edible oils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, a prevalent necrophagous blowfly that is easily mass reared, is noted for being a mechanical vector of pathogenic microorganisms, a pollinator of numerous crops, and a resource insect in forensic investigation in the postmortem interval. In the present study, in order to comprehensively understand the physiological and biochemical functions of C. megacephala, we performed RNA-sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE profiling using Solexa/Illumina sequencing technology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 39,098,662 clean reads were assembled into 27,588 unigenes with a mean length of 768 nt. All unigenes were searched against the Nt database, Nr database, Swiss-Prot, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG with the BLASTn or BLASTx algorithm (E-value<0.00001 for annotations. In total, 7,081 unigenes and 14,099 unigenes were functionally classified into 25 COG categories and 240 KEGG pathways, respectively. Furthermore, 20,216 unigenes were grouped into 48 sub-categories belonging to 3 main Gene Ontology (GO categories (ontologies. Using the transcriptome data as references, we analyzed the differential gene expressions between a soybean oil-fed group (SOF and a lard oil-fed group (LOF, compared to the negative control group (NC, using the DGE approach. We finally obtained 1,566 differentially expressed genes in SOF/NC, and 1,099 genes in LOF/NC. For further analysis, GO and KEGG functional enrichment were performed on all differentially expressed genes, and a group of differentially expressed candidate genes related to lipometabolism were identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides a global survey of C. megacephala and provides the basis for further research on the functional genomics of this insect.

  3. BACTERIA CARRIED BY CHRYSOMYA MEGACEPHALA (FABRICIUS, 1794 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE IN SINOP, MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Carneiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae, popularly known as blowfly, has a great capacity for dispersion and, due to factors such as food abundance and favorable climate, it colonizes Brazil completely in a short time. These insects are important to the sectors of epidemiology, public health and forensics, especially due to carrying microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminthes, which are responsible for the spread of diseases such as dysentery, cholera, botulism, typhoid fever, brucellosis, polio, smallpox and tuberculosis. The objective of this study was to verify the diversity of bacteria carried by this species in the Federal University of Mato Grosso – Campus of Sinop during the month of January of 2012. The flies were collected using two traps baited with 100 g of fresh sardines on each and maintained in the field for 24 hours. Twenty specimens of C. megacephala were placed in Petri dishes, to walk for two minutes upon Nutrient Agar (NA. After establishment of the colonies, isolation of the bacteria on the NA medium and their multiplication in test tubes containing the same culture medium was performed, and later sent to identification by gas chromatography. The bacteria encountered were Aquaspirillum polymorphum; Burkholderia ambifaria; Burkholderia anthina; Burkholderia cepacia; Burkholderia cenocepacia; Burkholderia pyrrocinia; Burkholderia stabilis; Paenibacillus macerans; Virgibacillus pantothenticus, Bacillus subtilis e Photorhabdus luminescens luminescens, with the last two species considered of importance in the plant protection sector.

  4. Some gamma radiation (60Co) effects on Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptira-Calliphoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of different gama radiation (60Co) doses on Chrysomya megcephala (Fabricius) have been studied under laboratory conditions, in the Entomology Section of Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-USP), Piracicaba, SP, Brasil. The insects were collected close to sucking animals brooding areas, identified and reared on artificial diet, being kept in a temperature (26 +- 20C) and humidity (66 +- 9%) controlled room, with 12L:12D photopheriod. A Gammabeam type 650 Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation source was used, with 28, 196x1010 Bq activity at the beginning of the experiment. The pupae were submitted to increasing gamma radiation doses. To determine lethal doses, treatments were carried out at four different ages and to determine the sterilizing doses two-three day pupae were used. It was noted pupae radiosensitivity decreased with age, LD50 varying from 14 - 513 Gy. The sterilizing dose for males was 40 Gy and for females 30 Gy. During the individuals life cycle, it was noted that there was a decrease in life expectancy (exo) of adults when the gamma radiation dose was increased. Treated males were more sensitive than females (Crossed with ''normals''), there occurring a marked reduction in the number of eggs and their viability when the used gamma radiation dose was increased. (author)

  5. Radiolabelling of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) and rearing of Belonuchus rufipennis (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on eggs of this fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of the radiolabelling method for Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) was studied. Five males from 0 to 16 hours of age proceeding from artificial rearing, were labelled through its diet. The radioisotope used was Phosphorus-32, in the chemical form of sodium phosphate (Na2 H32 P O4), mixed into a sucrose solution of 10% sugar. After 25 hours of labelling and feeding period, each male was placed into a cage together with 20 females of the same age, for mating. The radioactivity of each male and of the genitalia of each female was verified through liquid scintillation counting. It was observed that the males showed high activity levels, above 1,7 x 106 counts per minute at an average of 3,1 x 106 cpm. Much smaller and more variable was the activity showed by the genitalia of the females: between 123 and 35.323 cpm, at an average of 2.986 cpm. As a conclusion it could be observed that the methodology of tagging this species of flies with radioactive phosphorus is perfectly suitable for ecological and behavioural studies. During the experiments of radiolabelling it could be observed that the predator Belonuchus rufipennis (Fabr., 1801) (Col., Staphylinidae) caused severe attack to recently laid eggs of the flies. To verify the possibility of rearing this insect in the laboratory, adults of the predator were maintained into Petri dishes containing eggs and water. Eggs of the predator, newly hatched larvae, pupae and adults were transferred separately into other Petri dishes for daily observations. As results it could be observed that the egg phase of the predator was two days. The development of the larvae is 10,7 days, and 5,9 days of the pupae. As a remark it could be observed that the eggs of the flies were well accepted by the predator even if dead, after maintenance into a freezer. As a final conclusion it could be confirmed that rearing of Belonuchus rufipennis is perfectly feasible under laboratory conditions using as

  6. Enterobactérias associadas a adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae no Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro Enterobacteria associated to adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae at the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.C. Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterobactérias foram identificadas em adultos de Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae e Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Ambas as espécies foram capturadas no Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro e tiveram a superfície externa do corpo lavada e o sistema digestivo dissecado, para análise bacteriológica. Identificaram-se Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. e Salmonella Agona. P. mirabilis foi o isolado bacteriano mais freqüente. Em duas amostragens (8% de C. megacephala, isolou-se Salmonella Agona. As amostras de E. coli não foram enteropatogênicas. M. domestica e C. megacephala são potenciais veiculadoras de bactérias causadoras de enterites em humanos e animais.Enterobacteria were identified in adults of Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1754 (Diptera: Calliphoridae. Both species were captured in the Zoo of Rio de Janeiro. They had their external body surface washed and their digestive system dissected for bacteriological analysis. Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Proteus mirabilis, Morganella sp., Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., Enterobacter sp. and Salmonella serovar Agona were isolated in the samples. P. mirabilis was the species most frequent isolated. Strains of Salmonella Agona were isolated from two samples (8% of C. megacephala. Enteropathogenic E. coli was not isolated. M. domestica and C. megacephala showed themselves as potential vectors of agents related to enteric diseases in humans and other animals.

  7. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. PMID:26779962

  8. Estudo da dispersão larval radial pós-alimentar em Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for sites to pupate or to additional food source, process referred as postfeeding larval dispersal. Some of the most important aspects of this process were investigated in Chrysomya megacephala, utilizing a circular arena to permit the radial dispersion of larvae from the center. To determinate the localization of each pupa, the arena was split in 72 equal sectors from the center. For each pupa, distance from the center of arena, weight and depth were determined. Statistical tests were performed to verify the relation among weight, depth and distance of burying for pupation. It was verified that the larvae that disperse farther are those with higher weights. The majority of individuals reached the depth of burying for pupation between 7 and 18 cm. The study of this process of dispersion can be utilized in the estimation of postmortem interval (PMI for human corpses in medico-criminal investigations.

  9. Ocorrência de multiparasitismo em larvas de terceiro ínstar e pupas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius em condições de campo Occurrence of multiparasitism in third instar larvae and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante experimento de pesquisa envolvendo o parasitismo de larvas de terceiro ínstar e pupas de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 em dois locais da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, observou-se a ocorrência de multiparasitismo em 1,83% das pupas expostas no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC e em 2,16% expostas no Jardim Zoológico (ZOO. O experimento foi conduzido semanalmente de agosto de 1999 a julho de 2000. Em ambos os locais, houve a co-ocorrência de duas espécies por pupa e os parasitóides encontrados foram os himenópteros Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 e Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836. 72,73% do multiparasitismo ocorreu no ZOO em julho de 2000. Em condições de multiparasitismo, T. zealandicus e P. vindemiae mantiveram seu hábito gregário e solitário, respectivamente, mas N. vitripennis foi encontrado solitário em algumas pupas.During research experiment involving parasitism of third instar larvae and pupae of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, it was found 1.83% of multiparasited pupae in Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC and 2.16% in Jardim Zoológico (ZOO. The exposition were conducted weekly from August 1999 to July 2000. The multiparasited pupae contained two Hymenoptera parasitoids species [Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 and either Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 or Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836]. 72.73% of the multiparasitism occurred at ZOO in July. T. zealandicus and P. vindemiae supported their respective gregarious and solitary natural conditions, respectively, but N. vitripennis sometimes behaved as solitary.

  10. Dinâmica populacional e parasitismo de Himenópteros parasitóides de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae, no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Population dynamics and parasitism of hymenopterans parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ribeiro de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado no período de agosto de 1999 a julho de 2000 com o objetivo de conhecer os parasitóides de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 (Diptera, Calliphoridae e avaliar sua dinâmica populacional no Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC/ FIOCRUZ e Jardim Zoológico, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. As coletas foram realizadas semanalmente através da exposição de larvas de terceiro instar da mosca e seu substrato de criação, carne bovina moída em putrefação. Foram identificadas três espécies de himenópteros parasitóides: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 (Encyrtidae, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 (Pteromalidae and Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 (Pteromalidae. Nos dois locais, T. zealandicus foi a espécie com maior taxa de parasitismo de C. megacephala, seguida por P. vindemiae e N. vitripennis. A população de parasitóides diminuiu drasticamente no verão (temperatura média = 28°C; precipitação = 6,5 mm.O pico populacional desses insetos foi verificado no final do outono e durante todo o inverno. No Jardim Zoológico, o lixo acumulado no local de coleta exerceu forte influência na dinâmica populacional dos himenópteros parasitóides identificados nesse estudo e o pico populacional de parasitismo foi verificado em junho e julho de 2000.This study was carried out from August 1999 to July 2000 to evaluate the population dynamics and to know the parasitoids of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC/ FIOCRUZ and Jardim Zoológico, in Rio de Janeiro City. Samplings were conducted weekly with third instar larvae of the fly and putrefying ground beef. It was identified three species of hymenopterans parasitoids: Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead, 1904 (Encyrtidae, Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani, 1875 (Pteromalidae and Nasonia vitripennis (Walker, 1836 (Pteromalidae. In both sampling areas, T. zealandicus was the species with the highest parasitism rate of C

  11. Comparative Study Between Chicken Gizzards and Beef as Diets and its Influences on the Post-Embryonic Development and Longevity of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Lourinho Dallavecchia

    2015-04-01

    Resumo. Moela de Frango foi testada como dieta alternativa à carne para criação de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius visando reduzir custos e otimizar o tempo de preparação da dieta e manutenção da colônia. Quarenta larvas recém eclodidas foram colocadas em 100 gramas de dieta: moela e carne (controle. O experimento foi realizado em triplicata. A massa das lavas maduras foi registrada em balança semi-analítica e separada em lotes de cinco. Após a emergência, foram formadas três repetições de 10 pares de insetos adultos. O Desenvolvimento pós-embrionário foi avaliado pelo teste Tukey com nível a 5% de significância e a longevidade foi ajustada por regressão Weibull. A massa das lavas maduras não apresentou diferença significativa. A fase larval de moscas criadas em carne foi mais longa. Pupa e adultos recém-emergidos não apresentaram diferenças significativas em função da dieta. A mortalidade aumentou após 22 dias de experimento em ambas as dietas. Uma maior longevidade foi conseguida com a dieta moela, que se mostrou mais eficiente do que a carne sobre os parâmetros biológicos estudados.

  12. Study of the combined radial post-feeding dispersion of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius and C. albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae Estudo da dispersão radial combinada de Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius e C. albiceps (Wiedemann (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Blowflies use discrete and ephemeral substrates to feed their larvae. After they run out of food, the larvae begin to disperse in order to find adequate places for pupation or additional food sources, a process named post-feeding larval dispersion. Some important aspects of this process were studied in a circular arena allowing the combined radial post-feeding dispersion from the center of the arena of C. albiceps and C. megacephala larvae. To determine the location of each pupa, the arena was divided in 72 identical sections starting from the center. The distance from the center, the depth and weight of each pupa were evaluated. Statistical tests were done to verify the relation between weight, depth and distance for pupation. From the total an average of 976 larvae released (488 for each species were collected considering both experiments 456 C. megacephala pupae and 488 of C. albiceps. This demonstrates that C. albiceps probably preyed on 32 C. megacephala larvae during post-feeding dispersion. The study of this dispersion process can be used to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI of human cadavers in legal medicine.As moscas- varejeiras utilizam-se de substratos discretos e efêmeros para alimentar suas larvas. Após deixarem o substrato alimentar, as larvas começam a dispersar em busca de locais adequados para pupação e fontes adicionais de alimento, um processo denominado dispersão larval pós-alimentar. Alguns aspectos importantes desse processo foram estudados em uma arena permitindo a dispersão radial combinada de larvas de C. megacephala e C. albiceps. Para determinar a localização de cada pupa, a arena foi dividida em 72 setores iguais começando do centro. A distância a partir do centro, a profundidade e o peso de cada pupa foram determinados. Testes estatísticos foram feitos para verificar a relação entre peso, profundidade e distância para pupação. De um total em média de 976 larvas soltas (488 de cada esp

  13. The Effect of Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(®) ) on the Development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and its Implications for Forensic Entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baia, Tainá Costa; Campos, Alessandra; Wanderley, Bruno Mattos Silva; Gama, Renata Antonaci

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of flunitrazepam (known as "date rape drug") on the developmental cycle of Chrysomya megacephala, an important forensic species, and their possible implications for the calculation of the PMI. A 1050 C. megacephala eggs were divided into five groups with seven replications each. The eggs were placed on artificial diet prepared with four drug concentrations of flunitrazepam (4, 8, 16, and 32 ng/g), besides the control group (prepared with water). Were evaluated the potential effects on development time, weight gain, and mortality during the cycles. The drug had no significant effect on development time or mortality although it did affect the weight of the pupae and adults (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The result can be deduced that the determination of the postmortem interval is not affected. PMID:27143233

  14. Report on the occurrence of synanthropic derived form of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae from Royapuram fishing harbour, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulchamy Ramaraj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dipteran fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 is reported for the first time from Royapuram fishing harbour (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, South East India. The fully grown third instar larvae of C. megacephala were collected from decaying fishes near Royapuram fishing harbour. This site is found to be the regular breeding site for C. megacephala. Larvae were reared under laboratory condition and freshly emerged adult flies from pupae were collected and identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Molecular identification through generation of DNA barcoding using mitochondrial COI gene of C. megacephala is appended.

  15. Egg Developmental Time and Survival of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Under Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M A; Souza, C M; Linhares, A X; Thyssen, P J

    2015-07-01

    Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are considered of forensic, medical, and veterinary importance in Brazil because of their necrophagous and synanthropic behaviour. The development of flies can be influenced by temperature, and species from the same genus usually have different responses to external variables. The egg development of blow fly can be a useful complementary technique to estimate the minimum postmortem interval. Thus, this study aimed to compare the egg developmental time and survival of C. megacephala and C. putoria at different temperatures to determine the optimal temperature for egg development and the linear regression for developmental time and temperature, thereby determining the minimum threshold (t) and thermal summation constant (K) for each species. Adults of both species were collected in the region of Campinas city, São Paulo state, Brazil. Eggs were incubated at eight constant temperatures between 05 ± 1°C and 35 ± 1°C and the egg developmental time and survival were evaluated. There was no egg survival at 5 and 10°C. The K for C. megacephala and C. putoria were 179.41 HD and 189.94 HD, respectively. The regression slopes and t (10°C) were similar for both species. The optimal temperature for egg survival was between 25 and 35°C, for C. megacephala and 20 and 30°C, for C. putoria. The present data were similar to most data available in the literature, but differences in the same species are a possibility. PMID:26335461

  16. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  17. C-banding and FISH in chromosomes of the blow flies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya putoria (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parise-Maltempi Patricia P

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The blow flies Chrysomya putoria and C. megacephala have 2n=12 chromosomes, five metacentric pairs of autosomes and an XX/XY sex chromosome pair. There are no substantial differences in the karyotype morphology of these two species, except for the X chromosome which is subtelocentric in C. megacephala and metacentric in C. putoria and is about 1.4 times longer in C. putoria. All autosomes were characterized by the presence of a C band in the pericentromeric region; C. putoria also has an interstitial band in pair III. The sex chromosomes of both species were heterochromatic, except for a small region at the end of the long arm of the X chromosome. Ribosomal genes were detected in meiotic chromosomes by FISH and in both species the NOR was located on the sex chromosomes. These results confirm that C. putoria was the species introduced into Brazil in 1970s, and not C. chloropyga as formerly described.

  18. Behavior of the combined radial post-feeding larval dispersal of the blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae and implications for forensic entomology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work was to study the life stages of Chrysomya megacephala in a circular arena allowing the combined radial post-feeding dispersal from the center of the arena of C. albiceps and C. megacephala larvae. To determine the location of each pupa, the distance from the center, the depth and weight of each pupa formed were analyzed. For the larvae of C. albiceps, females released buried deeper than males, reaching an average depth of 10.74 cm and C. megacephala larvae presented greater average results than C. albiceps for all variables, particularly distance, which was 16.02 cm for this species and 12.30 cm for C. albiceps. C. albiceps larvae preyed on 30 C. megacephala larvae in both experiments. These results could be used in forensic entomology because the evaluation of Post Mortem Interval (PMI was one of the most important aspects of legal medicine, and it could be underestimated if the older dispersing larvae or those that dispersed longer and faster or deeper, were not taken into account.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar estágios de vida de Chrysomya megacephala em uma arena circular permitindo a dispersão larval pós-alimentar combinada a partir do centro das larvas de C. megacephala e C. albiceps. Para determinar a localização de cada pupa a distância a partir do centro, a profundidade e o peso foram coletados. Do total de larvas soltas as fêmeas de C. albiceps se enterraram mais profundamente que os machos, alcançando uma profundidade de 10,74 cm. Apesar dessa diferença, as larvas de C. megacephala apresentaram resultado em média maiores para todas a variáveis, particularmente a distância, a qual foi 16,02 cm para essa espécie e 12,30 para C. albiceps. Além disso, as larvas de C. albiceps predaram 30 larvas de C. megacphala durante esse processo em ambos os experimentos. Esses estudos podem ser utilizados em Entomologia forense porque a estimativa do Intervalo Pós Morte (IPM é um dos aspectos mais

  19. Analysis of Swine (Sus scrofa DNA from Blowfly (Chrysomya megacephala Larval Guts after Post-Feeding Periods by PCR Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monthira MONTHATONG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the DNA of food sources taken from blowfly (Chrysomya megacephala larval guts, for application in forensic entomology. The muscle samples of domestic swine (Sus scrofa, decomposed in 2 conditions, in air and drowning, were used as case studies. Adult blowflies were allowed to lay eggs on the meat samples. Then, the third instar larvae were identified as C. megacephala, then transferred to non-meat food and collected every 6 h up to 36 h. Total DNA extraction was performed by the Phenol-Chloroform method, and used as DNA templates in a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR test. The PCR amplified swine partial cytochrome b (cyt b genes with 203 bp expected size. The results showed that the swine DNA from blowfly larvae grown on decayed tissue under air and drowning conditions could be detected by PCR after larvae post-feeding up to 18 and 36 h, respectively. The sequence analysis revealed that the forward and reverse strands undergo 94 and 98 % identities of the swine cyt b gene sequence retrieved from nucleotide databases. This study suggests that mitochondrial DNA of the food source from insect guts can be detected at limited times after feeding, combined with the condition of the decayed tissues.

  20. Effects on microhymenopteran progeny of different host exposure periods (Chrysomya megacephala, Calliphoridae to the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Mello

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available To test the assumption that exposure of the host to parasitoid for long periods could provoke superparasitism, the aim of this work was to test the consequences on the immature development time, productivity of parasitoids per pupa, sex ratio and rate of parasitism of Nasonia vitripennis bred in Chrysomya megacephala pupae. Each individual pupa was placed in a glass tube with one parasitoid female for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h period of exposure, under controlled laboratory conditions. Twenty replicates of each period were performed. ANOVA with a 5% significance level was applied. The 72 h exposure caused the immature development time to increase. The mean parasitoids emergence per pupa did not vary significantly with the time of exposure. There were a significantly higher number of females than males and a trend in sex ratio deviation towards the females in all of the treatments. An increase in the number of unviable pupae rates were observed with increased exposure time.Para testar a hipótese que longos períodos de exposição do hospedeiro ao parasitóide podem ocasionar o superparasitismo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo testar as conseqüências sobre o tempo de desenvolvimento do imaturo, a produtividade de parasitóides, razão sexual e taxa de parasitismo de Nasonia vitripennis criadas em pupas de Chrysomya megacephala. Cada pupa foi individualizada e alocada em um tudo de ensaio com uma fêmea de N. vitripennis por 24, 48, 72 ou 96 h, sob condições laboratoriais controladas. Foram realizadas 20 réplicas para cada período de exposição. ANOVA com significância de 5 % foi aplicada. A exposição de 72 h causou um aumento no tempo desenvolvimento. A média de emergência de parasitóides não variou significativamente entre os tempos de exposição. Houve um número significativamente maior de fêmeas e uma tendência ao desvio da razão sexual para fêmeas em todos os tratamentos. Foi verificado um aumento no número de pupas invi

  1. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worachote Boonsriwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae, was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly.

  2. In vitro repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) oils on Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, V; Pazinato, R; Radavelli, W M; Volpato, A; Stefani, L M; Santos, R C V; Vaucher, R A; Boligon, A A; Athayde, M L; Da Silva, A S

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repellent effect of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and andiroba (Carapa guianensis) essential oils on two species of flies (Haemotobia irritans and Chrysomya megacephala). For the in vitro studies, free-living adult flies were captured and reared in the laboratory. To verify the repellency effect, an apparatus was constructed where H. irritans and C. megacephala were exposed to andiroba and tea tree oils (5.0%), as well as to a known repellent (citronella, 5.0%) to validate the test. The study demonstrated that all three oils used showed in vitro repellent effect against both species of flies. It is possible to conclude that the essential oils (tea tree and andiroba) have repellent effect on these species of flies used in this study. PMID:25801266

  3. Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Sevilha Harterreiten-Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparative morphology of the spermathecae of some species of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy and Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Little is known about the morphology of the chitinized structures of the spermathecae of the Calliphoridae. In this work, the spermathecae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 and C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 are described and illustrated. The occurrence in one species of four spermathecae, an atypical form for blow flies, was recorded for the first time. The analysis of these structures will allow a better understanding of this group as well as provide taxonomic characters for future phylogenetic studies.Morfologia comparada das espermatecas de espécies de Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy e Cochliomyia Townsend (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Pouco se conhece sobre a morfologia das estruturas quitinizadas das espermatecas de Calliphoridae. Nesse trabalho as espermatecas de Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, 1775 e C. hominivorax Coquerel, 1858 são descritas e ilustradas. Foi registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência em uma espécie com quatro espermatecas, uma forma atípica em califorídeos. A análise dessas estruturas possibilitará uma melhor compreensão do grupo e fornecerá caracteres taxonômicos para futuros estudos filogenéticos.

  4. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann and Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Kosmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann and Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The corpse of a man was found in a Brazilian highland savanna (cerrado in the state of Minas Gerais. Fly larvae were collected at the crime scene and arrived at the laboratory three days afterwards. From the eight pre-pupae, seven adults of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 emerged and, from the two larvae, two adults of Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 were obtained. As necrophagous insects use corpses as a feeding resource, their development rate can be used as a tool to estimate the postmortem interval. The post-embryonary development stage of the immature collected on the body was estimated as the difference between the total development time and the time required for them to become adults in the lab. The estimated age of the maggots from both species and the minimum postmortem interval were four days. This is the first time that H. segmentaria is used to estimate the postmortem interval in a forensic case.

  5. Abundância e flutuação populacional das espécies de Chrysomya (Diptera, Calliphoridae em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Abundance and populational fluctuation of Chrysomya (Diptera, Calliphoridae species, in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élvia E. S. Vianna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the populational fluctuation of Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 species and the relation of populational abundance around, six wind oriented trap (WOT were placed in three distinct ecological areas (urban, rural and wild in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from February/1993 to January/1995. The flies were weekly collected. Captured species were Chrysomya albiceps Wiedmann, 1819, C. megacephala Fabricius, 1794 and C. putoria Wiedmann, 1830 with respective abundance of 64.5%, 19.7% and 0.9%, representing a total of 85.0% of 409,920 specimens of Calliphoridae. The three species demonstrated similarity in the populational fluctuation, except in the abundance. The populational peak ocurred in autum when the temperature decreases. In the months of July to November no fly was collected, recomposing the population in December, when the temperature surpassed 20ºC.

  6. Chrysomya Bezziana oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G S Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly.

  7. Spatio-temporal dynamics and transition from asymptotic equilibrium to bounded oscillations in Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Augusto Conde Godoy

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of parameters that govern the stability of population size in Chrysomya albiceps and describe its spatial dynamics was evaluated in this study. The dynamics was modeled using a density-dependent model of population growth. Our simulations show that variation in fecundity and mainly in survival has marked effect on the dynamics and indicates the possibility of transitions from one-point equilibrium to bounded oscillations. C. albiceps exhibits a two-point limit cycle, but the introduction of diffusive dispersal induces an evident qualitative shift from two-point limit cycle to a one fixed-point dynamics. Population dynamics of C. albiceps is here compared to dynamics of Cochliomyia macellaria, C. megacephala and C. putoria.

  8. Environ: E00533 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00533 Chrysomya megacephala larva Chrysomyae vermiculus Crude drug Protein [CPD:C0...0017], Fat, Chitin [CPD:C00461], Erepsin, Trypsin Chrysomya megacephala [TAX:115424] Calliphoridae Chrysomya megacephala lar...va (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Animals Insects E00533 Chrysomya megacephala larva ...

  9. Oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankari Leena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of certain dipteran flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. Herein, a case of oral myiasis in the maxillary anterior region of a 14-year-old mentally challenged boy is being reported. The myiasis was caused by the larvae of Chrysomya bezziana species. The clinical findings are presented. Etiology and the importance of oral health in special people are also discussed.

  10. Ocorrência e Sazonalidade de Muscóides (Diptera, Calliphoridae de Importância Sanitária no Município de Itaboraí, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Batista-da-Silva

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. This work was carried out to contribute to the knowledge of Calliphoridae flies (Diptera in Itaboraí, RJ, Brazil and quantify the predominant species of health importance. The flies were captured in eight different points in the city over a one year period, always using fish as bait, separated by species and kept properly in an entomological box in the Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose (Setor de Entomologia Médica e Forense - IOC / FIOCRUZ, RJ. A total of 1792 Calliphoridae flies were captured, belonging to seven (7 species: Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy (0.11%, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (87.94%, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (6.70%, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1.23%, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (0.56%, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (0.33%, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (3.13%.

  11. Ocular myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana – a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nene, Amit S; Mishra, Anoop; Dhand, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis can have variable presentation depending on the type of fly, structures involved, and level of penetration. A 42-year-old female presented with extensive myiasis of the right eye. A lesion of 3×2 cm was noted at the medial canthus and was infested with maggots. The larvae were removed meticulously and the wound debrided. The larva isolated was that of Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screwworm). Computed tomography (CT) scan was normal. The wound was dressed regularly and healed...

  12. Occurrence of Chrysomya bezziana in a buffalo in Jammu

    OpenAIRE

    Katoch, R.; Godara, R.; Yadav, Anish; Sharma, Shikha; Ahmad, Irshad

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous myiasis caused by the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, is a commonly occurring infestation of livestock and man in Southeast Asian and African countries. A buffalo, aged five years was presented with traumatic wound in the abnormal growth at the base of tail, housing maggots in it. Based on morphological features, the collected larvae were identified as C. bezziana larvae. The first ever occurrence of C. bezziana in a buffalo from this part of country and its public hea...

  13. The Tortricidae described by J. C. Fabricius (Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baixeras, Joaquin; Karsholt, Ole

    2011-01-01

    The identity and nomenclature of the 88 species of Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) described by J. C. Fabricius are reviewed. Type material deposited in the Natural History Museum Denmark is illustrated. Lectotypes for Tinea compositella (Fabricius, 1775), Pyralis rivellana (Fabricius, 1775) and P...

  14. Oral Myiasis Caused by Chrysomya bezziana in Anterior Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, and severe halitosis. It arises from invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals by maggots or larvae of certain dipterian flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. We hereby report a rare case of oral myiasis in a 70-year-old female with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which numerous live maggots (larvae and seen emerging out and discuss the definition, etiology, predisposing factors, classification, and management of the same. Furthermore, the life cycle of the causative organism in the present case, that is, Chrysomya bezziana, has also been discussed.

  15. On Stenocorus vittatus Fabricius, 1801 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae)

    OpenAIRE

    ANTONIO SANTOS-SILVA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTA forgotten synonymy betweenStenocorus vittatus Fabricius, 1801 andCerambyx globosus Olivier, 1795 (=Xystrocera globosa ) is corroborated. Consequently, the former is removed fromAlloesia Chevrolat, 1862, and formally excluded from the Brazilian fauna.

  16. On Stenocorus vittatus Fabricius, 1801 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO SANTOS-SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTA forgotten synonymy betweenStenocorus vittatus Fabricius, 1801 andCerambyx globosus Olivier, 1795 (=Xystrocera globosa is corroborated. Consequently, the former is removed fromAlloesia Chevrolat, 1862, and formally excluded from the Brazilian fauna.

  17. Ocorrência e Sazonalidade de Muscóides (Diptera, Calliphoridae de Importância Sanitária no Município de Itaboraí, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Batista-da-Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo contribuir com o conhecimento da entomofauna de Calliphoridae (Diptera no município de Itaboraí, RJ, Brasil e quantificar as espécies mais predominantes de importância sanitária. As moscas foram capturadas em oito diferentes pontos no período de um ano, usando sempre isca de peixe. Após triagem, as espécies foram separadas por espécie e inseridas na coleção entomológica do Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose (Setor de Entomologia Médica e Forense do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - IOC/FIOCRUZ. Foram capturadas 1792 moscas pertencentes a sete (7 espécies da família Calliphoridae: Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy (0,11%, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (87,94%, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (6,70%, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1,23%, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (0,56%, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (0,33%, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (3,13%.Occurrence and seasonality of muscoid (Diptera, Calliphoridae of public healthimportance in Itaboraí (RJ, BrazilAbstract. This work was carried out to contribute to the knowledge of Calliphoridae flies (Diptera in Itaboraí, RJ, Brazil and quantify the predominant species of health importance. The flies were captured in eight different points in the city over a one year period, always using fish as bait, separated by species and kept properly in an entomological box in the Laboratório de Transmissores de Leishmaniose (Setor de Entomologia Médica e Forense - IOC / FIOCRUZ, RJ. A total of 1792 Calliphoridae flies were captured, belonging to seven (7 species: Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy (0.11%, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (87.94%, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann (6.70%, Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann (1.23%, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius (0.56%, Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius (0.33%, Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann (3.13%.

  18. Purification of recombinant peritrophic membrane proteins of the Old World Screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Pearson

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility of vaccinating sheep against the Old World Screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana several recombinant peritrophin proteins were expressed in either a denatured form in Escherichia coli or a native-like form in Pichia pastoris cultures. Purification of the hexaHis tagged proteins was achieved by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Proteins purified under reducing conditions were refolded using a glutathione shuffle procedure. Purification of a glutathione-Stransferase fusion protein was attempted using glutathione affinity chromatography in conjunction with anion exchange chromatography. The authenticity of the expressed proteins was verified by amino terminal amino acid sequencing. Carbohydrate analysis using biotinylated lectins revealed that Cb-peritrophin-48 expressed in Pichia pastoris was glycosylated with high mannose-type sugars. Four of the purified recombinant proteins were used to evaluate their protective immunogenicity in sheep against Chrysomya bezziana strike.

  19. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, A; Rasekhi, AR; Kalantari, M; Hatam, GR

    2009-01-01

    Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The various forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two different regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this province. PMID:22808374

  20. Two synonyms for Hadrophallus bubalus (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Membracidae Dois sinônimos para Hadrophallus bubalus (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel S. de Andrade

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Two synonyms are considered: Hadrophallus bubalus (Fabricius, 1794 = Ceresa integra Walker, 1858 syn. nov. = Ceresa borealis Fairmaire, 1846 syn. restaur. The species Spissistilus constans (Walker, 1851 sensu Caldwell, 1949 is considered a misidentification of H. bubalus.Dois sinônimos são considerados: Hadrophallus bubalus (Fabricius, 1794 = Ceresa integra Walker, 1858 syn. nov. = Ceresa borealis Fairmaire, 1846 syn. restaur. A espécie Spissistilus constans (Walker, 1851 sensu Caldwell, 1949 é considerada interpretação errônea de H. bubalus.

  1. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein. PMID:26695221

  2. Influence of interspecific competition on the recruitment behavior and liquid food transport in the tramp ant species Pheidole megacephala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Breton, Julien; Suzzoni, Jean Pierre; Orivel, Jérôme; Saux-Moreau, Corrie

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted on the reactions of Pheidole megacephala scouts when finding liquid food sources situated on territories marked by competing dominant ant species or on unmarked, control areas to see if the number of recruited nestmates is affected and if soldiers behave in ways adapted to the situation. We show that scouts recruit more nestmates, particularly soldiers, on marked rather than on unmarked areas. This recruitment allows P. megacephala to organize the defence and rapid depletion of these food sources prior to any contact with competitors. Soldiers can carry liquid foods both (1) in their crops like other Myrmicinae and (2), in a new finding concerning myrmicine ants, under their heads and thoraxes like certain poneromorph genera because the droplets adhere through surface tension strengths. Later, the liquids stored in the crop are distributed to nestmates through regurgitations during trophallaxis and the external droplets are distributed through “social buckets”, or the mode of liquid food transfer common in poneromorphs. Their flexibility to use or not use the latter technique, based on the situation, corroborates other reports that Pheidole soldiers have a relatively large behavioral repertoire.

  3. cDNA library construction and isolation of genes for candidate vaccine antigens from Chrysomya bezziana (the Old World Screwworm fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Voucolo

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of cDNA libraries for the isolation of genes encoding candidate antigens for use in a recombinant vaccine against Chrysomya bezziana is described. RNA was isolated and mRNA purified from first and third instar larvae of Chrysomya bezziana and used in the synthesis of two cDNA libraries in the bacteriophage vector λ ZAP express®. These libraries were screened using Digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes obtained from two independent approaches. First, a homolog approach used probes designed from previously characterized peritrophic membrane genes identified from the related myiasis fly, Lucilia cuprina. Secondly, a de novo approach used amino-terminal and internal peptide sequence information derived from purified Chrysomya bezziana peritrophic membrane proteins to generate DNA probes. Three peritrophic membrane genes were identified and characterized. Chrysomya bezziana peritrophin-48 was identified using the homolog approach and, Chrysomya bezziana peritrophin-15 and Chrysomya bezziana peritrophin-42 were identified using the de novo approach. The identification of these genes as encoding candidate antigens against Chrysomya bezziana has allowed the production of recombinant proteins for use in vaccination trials

  4. Records of Chrysomya albiceps in Northern Italy: an ecological and forensic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vanin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the carrion-breeding insects present at a local level is important and necessary for defining the post-mortem interval. Climate changes and globalisation are affecting species ranges and population dynamics. In this note, we report the incidence of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae on dead human bodies and carrion in Northern Italy. These data confirm the spread of this species in the Northern regions. The partial sequencing of a 583-bp region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of an Adriatic population did not reveal any difference compared to the same genomic region in the African and South American populations of this species.

  5. Larra bicolor Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): its distribution throughout Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, J. Howard; Leppla, Norman C.; Sprenkel, Richard K.; Blount, Ann C.; Mizell, Russ F.

    2009-01-01

    We document the presence of Larra bicolor Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae) in 46 of Florida's 67 counties. The species is represented by two stocks. The first (released in 1981) originated in Pará, Brazil, but was obtained from Puerto Rico, and became established in Broward County in southern Florida. The second (released in 1988) originated in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, and became established in Alachua County in northern Florida. The Bolivian stock, aided by additional satellite ...

  6. Would Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae be a beneficial species? Seria Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae uma espécie benéfica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Madeira

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Chrysomya albiceps (Widemann develops on animal carcasses and may cause secondary myiases. An adult female Merino sheep presented a lesion of roughly circular shape with a 7.5cm radius in the anterior part of the thorax. A large number of second-instar larvae was removed from the lesion in addition to first-instar larvae from the wool. A third-instar larva was also obtained from the same lesion site and in the laboratory gave origin to a Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel adult insect. The larvae retrieved from the lesion were nurtured in laboratory. Pairs consisting of 100 individuals were formed with the adult specimens obtained from the larvae and kept in two cages. In all of the 800 adults reared in the laboratory and examined (100 per generation the propisternal seta was absent in the spiracle on both sides, this trait was highly stable. The 200 larvae examined, 15 per generation, did not present spines in the column of the ventral process of the penultimate abdominal segment and the column of the ventral process was triangular and the apex of the column process presented numerous spines. These characteristics allowed identifying these specimens as C. albiceps. However, since C. albiceps has the ability to damage intact tissues, it may be causing relevant aggravation when associated with C. hominivorax and can not be considered innocuous.Chrysomya albiceps (Widemann é uma mosca que se desenvolve em carcaças e opcionalmente pode causar miíase secundária. Larvas de segundo estádio foram removidas de uma lesão existente em uma ovelha da raça Merino em Botucatu. Entre a lã, ao redor da lesão, foram encontradas larvas de primeiro estádio. Também no interior da lesão foi obtida uma larva de terceiro estádio. As larvas foram mantidas em laboratório e delas obtidos insetos adultos, com 50 casais formados e mantidos em gaiolas por oito gerações. De cada geração, 100 adultos eram sacrificados e examinados morfologicamente, com os

  7. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  8. Ocular myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nene AS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amit S Nene, Anoop Mishra, Purnima Dhand Department of Ophthalmology, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India Abstract: Ophthalmomyiasis can have variable presentation depending on the type of fly, structures involved, and level of penetration. A 42-year-old female presented with extensive myiasis of the right eye. A lesion of 3×2 cm was noted at the medial canthus and was infested with maggots. The larvae were removed meticulously and the wound debrided. The larva isolated was that of Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screwworm. Computed tomography (CT scan was normal. The wound was dressed regularly and healed by secondary intention. Ocular myiasis is a rare disease that can lead to life threatening consequences, such as intracranial extension. Prompt management with debridement and radical antibiotic therapy is essential. Keywords: ophthalmomyiasis, medial canthus, screwworm

  9. Incidence of Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Old World screw-worm fly (OWSWF), Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve, is a member of the insect family Calliphoridae and is an obligate parasite of warm-blooded animals in the tropics and sub-tropics (Norris and Murray 1964). Flies lay their eggs on the edge of wounds or body orifices; the resulting larvae invade the host tissues and produce lesions and infertility if the genitals become infested (Humphrey et al. 1980). Recorded hosts include cattle (Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), goats (Caprus hircus), dogs (Canis familiaris), cats (Felis domesticus) and man (Homo sapiens) (Patton 1920, 1922, Stoddar and Peck 1962, Norris and Murray 1964). This investigation describes the incidence of myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iraq from September 1996 to March 1998

  10. Morphology and identification of first instar larvae of Australian blowflies of the genus Chrysomya of forensic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpila, Krzysztof; Wallman, James F

    2016-10-01

    Light microscopy photographs, line illustrations and scanning electron microscopy micrographs are provided for first instar larvae of six Australian species of Chrysomya. All species have confirmed or potential in forensic investigations given their carrion-breeding habits. Morphology of the first instar larvae of Ch. nigripes, Ch. rufifacies, Ch. saffranea and Ch. varipes is revised, while larvae of Ch. incisularis and Ch. latifrons are described for the first time. The following morphological structures are documented: pseudocephalon, antennal complex, maxillary palpus, facial mask, thoracic and abdominal spinulation, spiracular field, posterior spiracles and cephaloskeleton. New diagnostic features of the cephaloskeleton and the spinulation of the abdominal segments are described. Verification of earlier descriptions revealed major discrepancies between published data, especially in the case of Ch. nigripes. The present results allow clarification, correction and, especially, complementation of the existing information provided by numerous authors. Finally, an identification key for first instar larvae of Australian necrophagous Chrysomya is presented. PMID:27282097

  11. Evaluation of the Influence of the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin in the Development of an Old World Screwworm Fly, Chrysomya putoria

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Filho, Renato Geraldo da Silva; Valéria M. Aguiar-Coelho

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chlo...

  12. Natural Enemies of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Collected in States Goiás and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is of great medical importance because it produces myiasis. It has a significant role as a predator of other dipterous larvae. Moreover, this dipterous insect is of great importance with regard to public health because it mechanically carries pathogens to humans. This study had the objective of ascertaining the species of parasitoids of C. albiceps in human feces, cattle liver, cattle kidney, chicken viscera, fish and pig carcasses in Go...

  13. First record of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) maggots from a sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, South India

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishnan, Sreejith; Gopalan, Ajith Kumar Karapparambu; Ravindran, Reghu; Rajagopal, Kavitha; Sooryadas, Surendran; Promod, Kanjirakuzhiyil

    2012-01-01

    Fully grown third stage larvae (LIII) of Chrysomya albiceps were recovered from aberrant sites viz. trachea and rumen during necropsy of a free-range sambar deer that had been observed to bear an inflamed tongue infested with maggots and subsequently died due to starvation. Five dead maggots of C. bezziana were also recovered from rumen. The aberrant locations of the recovery of the maggots indicated that they might have reached these sites accidentally. This is the first report of LIII of C....

  14. Induced Cannibalism in Experimental Populations of the Forensic Indicator Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botteon, V W; Fernandes, F S; Godoy, W A C

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the behavior of third-instars of Chrysomya putoria as potential cannibals in experimental populations. Cannibalism rates were evaluated in three settings observed for 3, 6, 9, and 24 h, placing injured and uninjured larvae of C. putoria together. Our data heavily support that C. putoria larvae behave as cannibals when induced by a wound in another larva, and also after starving for 24 h. The probability of cannibalism increased as a function of time, both in no-choice and in choice experiments evidencing that time is a determining factor for cannibalism induction in C. putoria. However, the treatment combining injured with uninjured larvae showed the highest probability of cannibalism. These results suggest that C. putoria larvae may cannibalize under scarcity of food over long time or the presence of injured larvae. This study is useful to understand the behavior of C. putoria feeding on ephemeral substrates such as carrion or corpses and brings relevant and significant contribution to population ecology of blowflies and also forensic entomology. PMID:26698866

  15. Effects of the Antibiotics Gentamicin on the Postembryonic Development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; Silva, Débora C.; Figueiredo, Adriana L.; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G.; Aguiar, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:25527588

  16. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  17. Espécies novas de Anthidium Fabricius do Chile, Argentina e Peru (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera New species of Anthidium Fabricius from Chile, Argentina and Peru (Megachilidac, Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúncia Urban

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available New species of Anthidium Fabricius, 1804 are described: Anthidium danieli sp. n. from Argentina; Anthidium toro sp. n. from Chile; Anthidium alsinai sp. n., Anthidium luizae sp. n., Anthidium igori sp. n., Anthidium masunariae sp. n., Anthidium rafaeli sp. n., Anthidium rozeni sp. n. and Anthidium tarsoi sp. n. from Peru.

  18. Espécies novas de Anthidium Fabricius do Chile, Argentina e Peru (Megachilidae, Hymenoptera) New species of Anthidium Fabricius from Chile, Argentina and Peru (Megachilidac, Hymenoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Danúncia Urban

    2001-01-01

    New species of Anthidium Fabricius, 1804 are described: Anthidium danieli sp. n. from Argentina; Anthidium toro sp. n. from Chile; Anthidium alsinai sp. n., Anthidium luizae sp. n., Anthidium igori sp. n., Anthidium masunariae sp. n., Anthidium rafaeli sp. n., Anthidium rozeni sp. n. and Anthidium tarsoi sp. n. from Peru.

  19. Uma nova espécie de Centris Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Anthophoridae do Nordeste do Brasil A new species of Centris Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Anthophoridae from Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Santiago Moure

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Centris Fabricius, 1804 is described as C. xanthomelaena (body size 15 mm, forewing length 10.33 mm, head width 5.25 mm, second abdominal tergum width 5.75 mm. The specimens were captured when visiting the yellow flowers of Chamaecrista amiciela (I. & B. I. & B., Caesalpiniaceae and of Stimaphyllom auriculatum (Cav. Adr. Juss, Malpighiaceae.

  20. Descrição da larva de Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae Description of the larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius (Odonata, Libellulidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Santos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva of Diastatops obscura (Fabricius, 1775 is described and figured based on exuviae of last instar of reared specimes collected on still waters in São João river, Silva Jardim (22º38' - 42º18', Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The relationship among the larva of D. obscura and larvae of Celithemis are discussed.

  1. Suscetibilidade de Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae ao enxofre Susceptibility of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae to sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Gonçalves

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available As criações de Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae são freqüentemente infestadas pelo ácaro Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross e Krantz (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar doses de enxofre, acaricida eficaz contra A. lacunatus, não-prejudiciais ao desenvolvimento de R. dominica. As unidades experimentais foram constituídas de placas de Petri contendo 30 g de grãos de trigo infestados com 30 adultos de R. dominica. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização de doses de enxofre sobre os grãos, correspondentes a 0,0; 0,6; 0,9; 1,2; 1,5; 3,0; 6,0; 12,0; 24,0 e 48,0mg i a g-1, em dez repetições. As unidades experimentais foram armazenadas por 60 dias a 30±1°C, 60±5% UR e escotofase de 24h. O desenvolvimento de R. dominica foi afetado pela utilização de doses de enxofre maiores que 3,0mg i a g-1.The laboratory rearing of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae is frequently infested by the parasite mite Acarophenax lacunatus (Cross and Krantz (Prostigmata: Acarophenacidae. This study was aimed at evaluating the sulfur doses, an effective acaricide against A. lacunatus, not harmful to the development of with R. dominica. The experimental units were Petri dishes containing 30g of whole wheat grains powdered with the different doses of the sulfur (0.0, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, 24.0 and 48.0mg a i g-1 infested with 30 adults of R. dominica, in ten replicates. All treatments were maintained under controlled conditions (30±1°C, 60±5% r h and 24h scotophase for 60 days after the insect infestation. Sulfur doses higher than 3.0mg a i g-1 negatively affected R. dominica development.

  2. Evaluation of mating behaviour and mating compatibility methods for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Wardhana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique program (SIT to eradicate pest insects relies on the success of mating competitiveness between irradiated male flies and wild type males for the wild type females. It has been successfully applied for the New World screwworm fly (NWSF, Cochliomyia hominivorax but remains unproven for the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana. The aim of the study was to develop methods for investigating mating behaviour and mating compatibility of C. bezziana under laboratory conditions. Two methods were used for studying mating: individual mating (method 1 and group mating (method 2. The flies used in this study were 5-7 days old. Twenty four hours after emergence, adult flies were sexed and placed into different cages until studied. The female : male ratio in the group mating was 1 : 5 and the males were marked by painting a dot on the thorax using different oil colours. Observation of mating behaviour was investigated every 30 minutes through 10-20 replications for all methods depending on the availability of flies. Data were analysed using ANOVA and the Student’s t-test, with significance demonstrated at the 95% confidence level. The results demonstrated that the frequency of contacts between males and females at different ages was a significantly different (p 0.05 and method 2 (p > 0.05. Copulation was only initiated following longer periods of contact, mainly in the range of 270-449 seconds. The highest frequency of copulation occurred between 7-8 days, but the duration of mating was similar between 5-8 days old. The study demonstrated that the methods developed were suitable for a mating compatibility study of C. bezziana.

  3. Technique development of attractant test for Chrysomya bezziana in laboratory and semi-field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Swormlure (SL-2, synthetic attractant for the New World Screwworm Fly (NWSF, Cochliomya hominivorax, have been developed and used in the America. The effectiveness of swormlure in attracting the Old World Screwworm Fly (OWSF, Chrysomya bezziana is not well defined. The aim of the study was to provide suitable condition of the attractant in trapping the higher number at the OWSF in laboratory (cage assay and semi-field (room assay conditions. The cage assay to screen responses olfactory stimuli of OWSF was developed to asses the fly responses to lights, exhaust fan (on or off, the flies’ physiological status and whether there was any bias between cages or trap positions. Modifications were made to provide suitable physical and environmental conditions for candidate attractant. These included darkening all windows with paper, the construction of support for the fly cages and installation of additional lights centred above the fly cages. The room assay was used as an intermediate step between the cage assay and the field experiment. The number of entered flies into the trap indicated flies respond to SL-2. The data of cage assay was analysed by ANOVA and data of room assay was analysed by T test (5%. The results showed that standard experimental conditions for the cage assay: two lights above the cages on and the central lights off, covering fluorescent lights with oil paper, the jar trap positions on the centre line parallel to the lights and exhaust fan was turned off (no air flow during the session but was turned on in between sessions to reduce the odour from SL-2 in laboratory (p>0.05. The standard experimental conditions for the room assay used four fluorescents tubes, exhaust fan turned off during the replicates but turned on after replicated 3 and 6 for 15 minutes. Yellow half-size sticky was used as standard target (p>0.05.

  4. Vaccination trials in sheep against Chrysomya bezziana larvae using the recombinant peritrophin antigens Cb15, Cb42 and Cb48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarsih

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant forms of a number of peritrophic membrane proteins from the screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana have been assessed in vitro and in vivo for their efficacy as antigens in vaccination against the tissue-invasive, larval form of the parasite. The proteins included Cb15 and Cb42 expressed in Escherichia coli and Cb48 expressed in both Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris. In all cases, the in vitro assays of larval growth on serum from vaccinated sheep failed to show inhibition of larval weight gain or any detrimental effect on larval survival relative to controls. Chrysomya bezziana Cb48 has a significant degree of sequence identity with the antigen PM48 from Lucilia cuprina. Feeding Lucilia cuprina larvae on antisera to Cb48 induced a small but statistically significant reduction in weight gain, as does feeding on antisera to PM48. In vivo, larvae feeding on sheep vaccinated with Escherichia coli-expressed Cb15 and Cb42 and Pichia pastoris-expressed Cb48 showed marginally greater weight gain and survival which was equal to or greater than that on non-vaccinated sheep. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  5. Atratividade de diferentes iscas e sua relação com as fases de desenvolvimento ovariano em calliphoridae e sarcophagidae (insecta, diptera Attractiveness of differents baits and its relation with ovarian development fases in Calliphoridae ano Sarcophagidae (Insecta, Diptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mario d'Almeida

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Attrativeness of differents baits (fish, faeces and banana upon ovarian development fases of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae was evaluated. The insects were captured in Distrito Federal (urban area and Rio de Janeiro city (beach, zoological garden, urban area and Tijuca forest. The most frequent species captured were: Calliphoridae - Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794 78,9% and Chtysomya puloria (Wiedemann, 1818 5,4% - and Sarcophagidae - Sarcophagula Wulp, 1887 2,3% and Peckya chrysostoma (Wiedemann. 1830 2,2%. Fish was more attractive to females of Calliphoridae flies in intense ovarian vitelogenesis, although banana atracted more flies with mature eggs. Faeces and fish were more atractive for Sarcophagidae in the beggining of vitelogenesis.

  6. Expression of the ephrin receptor B2 in the embryonic chicken bursa of Fabricius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken B-cells develop in a specific organ, the bursa of Fabricius. To understand the bursal microenvironment guiding B-cell development, previous studies identified ephrin (Eph) receptor B2 (EphB2) gene transcripts in the embryonic bursa. We hypothesize that the EphB2 receptors and their ligands r...

  7. Specific detection of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in bulk fly trap catches using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, S; Morgan, J A T; Wlodek, B M; Brown, G W; Urech, R; Green, P E; Lew-Tabor, A E

    2010-09-01

    The Old World screwworm fly (OWS), Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a myiasis-causing blowfly of major concern for both animals and humans. Surveillance traps are used in several countries for early detection of incursions and to monitor control strategies. Examination of surveillance trap catches is time-consuming and is complicated by the presence of morphologically similar flies that are difficult to differentiate from Ch. bezziana, especially when the condition of specimens is poor. A molecular-based method to confirm or refute the presence of Ch. bezziana in trap catches would greatly simplify monitoring programmes. A species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to target the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA ITS1) of Ch. bezziana. The assay uses both species-specific primers and an OWS-specific Taqman((R)) MGB probe. Specificity was confirmed against morphologically similar and related Chrysomya and Cochliomyia species. An optimal extraction protocol was developed to process trap catches of up to 1000 flies and the assay is sensitive enough to detect one Ch. bezziana in a sample of 1000 non-target species. Blind testing of 29 trap catches from Australia and Malaysia detected Ch. bezziana with 100% accuracy. The probability of detecting OWS in a trap catch of 50 000 flies when the OWS population prevalence is low (one in 1000 flies) is 63.6% for one extraction. For three extractions (3000 flies), the probability of detection increases to 95.5%. The real-time PCR assay, used in conjunction with morphology, will greatly increase screening capabilities in surveillance areas where OWS prevalence is low. PMID:20497318

  8. Mass rearing the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries within the tropics are afflicted with one of two species of screw-worm, either the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel (NWSWF), or the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villenuve (OWSWF). In nature, larvae of both species are obligate parasites and feed on the living flesh of mammals and to a lesser extent, birds. Female flies lay eggs at the site of a pre-existing wound or near body orifices of the host. First instar larvae feed superficially on the wound; however, larger larvae use their hooked mouthparts to burrow deep into the flesh of the host. Damaged blood vessels provide a steady stream of blood and plasma that typically oozes from the infested wound. The wound also acquires a characteristic odour. Presumably, some of the volatile components emanating from the wound, also provide strong signals to gravid female flies, as once infested, wounds become far more attractive as a site to lay eggs than uninfested wounds. As the number of larvae increases, the myiasis enlarges and the well-being of the host is threatened. In areas where gravid female SWF are numerous, the wound has little chance to heal, thus death of the host is likely unless the wound is treated and re-infestation prevented. While New and Old World species are distantly related, they are remarkably similar ecologically and in their biological characteristics. Wherever either species occurs, it is considered a serious pest of livestock. Australia is fortunate that neither species of the screw-worm is present despite evidence that extensive areas appear environmentally suitable. The OWSWF is considered the most serious threat to Australia as it is present in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. It is envisaged that the sterile insect release method (SIRM) will be employed to eradicate the OWSWF if it becomes established in Australia. To facilitate such a programme, and to reduce delays in constructing a suitable mass rearing

  9. Expression in yeast (Pichia pastoris) of recombinant Cb-peritrophin-42 and Cbperitrophin- 48 isolated from Chrysomya bezziana (the Old World Screwworm fly)

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Pichia pastoris has been investigated as a means to express recombinant forms of two putative peritrophic membrane antigens from Chrysomya bezziana, Cb-peritrophin-42 (Cb42) and Cb-peritrophin-48 (Cb48). Recombinant Cb48 was expressed as a secreted and glycosylated protein. The yield of recombinant protein was 8 mg per litre of culture. In contrast, recombinant Cb42 was not expressed at detectable levels in Pichia pastoris, probably due to A + T rich sequence which may cause premature transcr...

  10. Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane de Oliveira Borges; Marcelo Eduardo Borges; Paulo Henrique Gorgatti Zarbin

    2014-01-01

    Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae). The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two type...

  11. Aspectos da biologia do camarão Plesionika narval (Fabricius, 1787) nos Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Graça, Gonçalo Nuno Santos Neto da

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação mest., Biologia Marinha, Universidade do Algarve, 2008 In this study, have been approached some aspects of the biology of Plesionika narval (Fabricius, 1787) around Azores Islands, with the purpose of deepening biological knowledge on the species. Data from 3 research cruises made between 1998 and 2006 in the central group of the archipelago and Princesa Alice’s sea bank were used. These surveys have used 5 different types of traps, some lying on the bottom and othe...

  12. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS) – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae), furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of ...

  13. Vitamin E as a radioprotector of bursa of Fabricius in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioprotective influence of vitamin E has been studied on the bursa of Fabricius 1 and 7 day old white leghorn chicks exposed to 2.25 Gy whole body γ-radiations. The study has revealed that the loss of lymphocytic population in the bursal follicles due to irradiation was very small in vitamin E treated animals compared to the untreated irradiated chicks. Also, the rate of reparation and lymphocytic repopulation was enhanced with vitamin E administration. (author). 8 refs., 8 figs

  14. Efeito da escopolamina sobre o desenvolvimento de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) e sua importância para a estimativa do intervalo pós-morte

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Jacqueline Thyssen; Maicon Diego Grella

    2011-01-01

    A presença de drogas nos tecidos de um corpo pode afetar o desenvolvimento de larvas de moscas necrófagas que são encontradas alimentando-se neste substrato. Essa observação já foi constatada para várias drogas tais como heroína, cocaína, certos analgésicos, e compostos anfetamínicos e benzodiazepínicos, entre outras. Assim, neste estudo investigamos o efeito da escopolamina – uma droga amplamente usada como analgésico – sobre a taxa de desenvolvimento de larvas de Chrysomya putoria (Diptera:...

  15. Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto da Silva Camargo; Juliane F. S. Lopes; Luiz Carlos Forti

    2013-01-01

    Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius). During nest excavation, leaf-cutting ant workers undergo reduction in their body reserve, particularly carbohydrates. In order to estimate the energetic cost of digging, groups of 30 workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens were sealed in a hermetic chamber for 24, 48 and 72 hours, with and without soil for digging, and had the CO2 concentration measured using respirometric chambers as well as ...

  16. Histomorphology of bursa of Fabricius: effects of stock densities on commercial broilers

    OpenAIRE

    EC Muniz; VB Fascina; PP Pires; AS Carrijo; EB Guimarães

    2006-01-01

    During the past few years, there has been considerable interest on the effects of stocking density on broiler behavior and immunity. Stress may cause immunodeficiency by affecting cell and humoral responses, as well as body weight decrease, and foot-pad dermatitis. The aim of this study was to study histomorphological changes of the bursa of Fabricius in broilers submitted to three different stocking densities (10, 15, and 20 birds/m²) from one to 42 days of age. Three birds from each group w...

  17. New record of color morphs of brachyuran crab Charybdis annulata Fabricius, 1798 (Decapoda: Portunidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Trivedi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Charybdis annulata (Fabricius, 1798 is a common portunid crab species found on rocky shore habitat. It mostly prefers coral reef and algal assemblage area as living and foraging habitats. During the study on brachyuran crab diversity of Saurashtra coast, Gujarat, India, we came across the presence of color polymorphism in the species. Total 62 specimens were collected from the field and two color morphs- orange morph and brown morph were identified. The differences in the morphological characteristic were recorded properly on the basis of detail observation of both the morphs. The orange morph shows specific micro habitat preference while the brown morph utilizes wide range of micro habitats.

  18. Evaluation of the influence of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin in the development of an Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya putoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C P; Dallavecchia, Daniele L; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; da Silva Filho, Renato Geraldo; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chloridrate. Each concentration of the antibiotic tested (3.33 µg/mL, 6.66 µg/mL, and 13.33 µg/mL) and the control (no antibiotic) were replicated four times (40 maggots/replication). The control received distilled water instead of the antibiotic. Maggots were kept in an acclimatized chamber at 30° C during the day and 28° C at night, with 70 + 10% RH and a 14:10 L:D photoperiod. They were weighed in batches of five and stored in test tubes sealed with nylon fabric and elastic. Microsoft Excel and STAT were used for the analysis. The variation among the maggot weight means and the duration of the maggot stage, pupal stage, and time to total development (neolarvae to adult) were analyzed by Student's t-test (α= 5%). The viabilities and the normality rates were compared using ANOVA, and the expected sex ratio frequency was tested by the chisquared test (χ(2)). There was no significant difference among the four treatments regarding mean individual maggot weight, mean duration of the maggot inoculation until abandonment, the duration of the maggot and pupal stages, and the total duration of all stages. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from the expected. Only treatment 2 (6.66 µg/mL concentration of ciprofloxacin) differed significantly from the control in maggot and total viability. The antibiotic did not seem to alter C. putoria development in the postembryonic period. PMID:25373150

  19. Study of some biological aspects of the blowfly Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 (Diptera: Calliphoridae in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla A.H. Al-Shareef

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We reared Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 unadult stages (first larval instar, second larval instar, third larval instar and pupal stage under four constant temperatures. Results proved that increasing temperature from 20 to 25, 30 and 35 °C reduced total larval stage duration (9–6, 4.83 and 4.75 days, respectively and pupal duration (7, 5.5, 4 and 1.5 days, respectively. C. albiceps larvae at first instar reached adult stage in the longest time at 20 °C (16 days, and in the shortest time at 35 °C (6.25 days. The accumulation degree-day (ADD at 20, 25, 30, 35 °C for first larval instar were 8.86, 13.86, 18.86, 23.86 DD, for second larval instar were 10.5, 12, 17, 22 DD and for third larval instar were 35.88, 42.08, 43.97, 56.43 DD. Heat requirements for larval stage at different temperatures; 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C (49.68, 63.12, 75.01 and 97.47 DD were more than the pupal requirements at the same temperatures (39.78, 58.76, 62.73 and 31.02 DD. Total heat requirements for C. albiceps to develop from the first larval instar to adult eclosion were the lowest at 20 °C (89.46 DD and the highest at 30 °C (129.138 DD. Decreasing of temperature increased larval body length at the same age. The development curves for C. albiceps were established at four constant temperatures using larval length and the time since egg hatching.

  20. mRNA expression in different developmental stages of the chicken bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Fubo; Shan, Hu; Wang, Shu-Bai; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2016-08-01

    The bursa of Fabricius, the central humoral immune organ unique to birds, plays an important role in B-lymphocyte differentiation. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of critical biological processes like B-cell immigration, differentiation, and final emigration, the transcriptional changes during embryonic and posthatch development of this organ were investigated. We generated a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from 3 representative developmental stages (embryonic day [ED] 10, posthatch d 2 and d 21). We generated over 70 million high-quality reads from the cDNA library by using deep sequencing. The uniquely mapped sequences of ED 10, d 2 and d 21 were 71087280, 59167491 and 70263675 respectively. All of the differential expressed genes were involved in Vitamin A metabolism, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Wnt signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The RNA-seq analysis provides a powerful method for analyzing the transcriptome and investigating the transcriptional changes of different development stages of bursa of Fabricius. The assembled bursa transcriptome provides an essential resource for future investigations about chicken Bursa development. PMID:26994188

  1. Apoptosis in the chicken bursa of fabricius induced by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature B lymphocytes in the chicken bursa of Fabricius have previously been reported to undergo apoptosis by low doses of ionizing radiation. In the present study, newly hatched chickens were subjected to whole-body X-irradiation, and the bursa of Fabricius was examined at various postirradiation times by light and electron microscopy to obtain information on the change of ultrastructure of irradiated bursal cells as well as on the time course and dose-response for the induction of apoptosis. Histological examination by light microscopy showed that pyknotic cells started to increase in the bursa within a few hours after irradiation and the frequency of occurrence reached a maximum at 6 hr. An evident increase of the pyknotic cells in number was observed at a dose of as little as 1 Gy, and the frequency increased with increases in the dose, reaching over 90% Gy. Electron microscopy of the irradiated bursa revealed typical apoptotic morphology such as chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, formation of apoptotic bodies and phagocytosis of pyknotic cells. Induction of apoptosis was also confirmed by the appearance of a typical DNA ladder pattern on agarose gel. Thus, the present results demonstrate that the chicken bursal cells are hypersensitive to X-irradiation with regard to induction of apoptosis, and that the apoptotic bursal cells exhibit most of the ultrastructural features known to be typical of apoptosis

  2. Description of the immature instars of three species of Podium Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Christiano Buys

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Immature instars of three species of the neotropical cockroach-hunting genus Podium Fabricius, 1804 are described. All larval instars and the cocoon of P. denticulatum Smith, 1856; the last instar and the cocoon of P. aureosericeum Kohl, 1902 and the last instar larva of P. fumigatum (Perty, 1833 were treated. The last larval instar of P. denticulatum is distinct from those of other species by lacking cephalic rugosity and spinning cocoons tapered in the posterior extremity. P. aureosericeum and P. fumigatum are unique in bearing small lamellae between mandibular teeth.São descritos estádios imaturos de três espécies do gênero neotropical caçador de baratas Podium Fabricius, 1804. Todos os estádios e o casulo de P. denticulatum Smith, 1856; a larva de último estádio e o casulo de P. aureosericeum Kohl, 1902 e a larva de último estádio de P. fumigatum (Perty, 1833 são tratados. A larva de último estádio de P. denticulatum é distinta da de outras espécies pela falta de rugosidade cefálica e por tecer casulos afilados na extremidade posterior. P. aureosericeum e P. fumigatum são únicos em possuir pequenas lamelas entre dentes mandibulares.

  3. Description of the pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Anthracinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    1999-01-01

    The pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston, 1970 are described and illustrated. Eleven species of four Hymenoptera families (Apidae, Eumenidae, Megachilidae and Sphecidae) are recorded as hosts of the immature stages of A. o. oedipus and A. o. aquilus.

  4. Description of the pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Anthracinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos José Einicker Lamas

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The pupae of Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 and Anthrax oedipus aquilus Marston, 1970 are described and illustrated. Eleven species of four Hymenoptera families (Apidae, Eumenidae, Megachilidae and Sphecidae are recorded as hosts of the immature stages of A. o. oedipus and A. o. aquilus.

  5. Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), an Old World flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) newly discovered in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Old World aradid Brachyrhynchus membranaceus (Fabricius), belonging to the subfamily Mezirinae, is reported for the first time from the Western Hemisphere. Since 2005, eight specimens have been intercepted at United States ports-of-entry in international commerce from Costa Rica, Dominican Repub...

  6. Activities of the Iraqian project for controlling Old World screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana, and the prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Old World screwworm fly (OWSW), Chrysomya bezziana, is an obligatory parasite of warm-blooded animals, particularly cattle, sheep, wildlife and humans. The total cases reported by the Iraqi national team was around 120 thousand in addition to 23 human cases till March 2003. 6 and 3 cases were reported in Diyala and Karbala provinces in Sep. and Aug. 2004, respectively. Efficient oviposition occurs in cages similar to those used in the Malaysian OWSWF laboratories. Maggots were reared on diet composed of minced meat free of fat 40%, whole blood 15%, distilled water 44.7% and formalin 0.3%. The colony by 1st / April/2003 was in its 88 generation. Quality control parameters during the last twenty generations are reported. These were percent of normal and abnormal adults produced, sex ratio, flight ability index under laboratory and field conditions, survival of adults with and without food, longevity of males and females etc. Furthermore, the effect of gamma rays on biological, genetical and cytological parameters is reported as follows: 1. Effect of gamma rays on adult emergence of flies irradiated as pupae of different age, longevity of males and females irradiated as pupae with different age, sex ratio, flight ability index under laboratory and field condition and finally mating competitiveness. The results were very encouraging and important for the project. 2. Effect of gamma rays and mating type on the number of eggs laid and percentage hatch using different doses of gamma rays, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 Gy, were investigated. The results showed that the dose 15 Gy caused reductions in the percentage of egg hatch to 0.7, 13.0 and 1.7 if the irradiated insect mated as follows: Irradiated male x irradiated female; irradiated female x unirradiated male and irradiated male x unirradiated female, respectively, while the percentage of egg hatch was zero when adults irradiated as pupae with a dose of 30 Gy or higher and mated as mentioned above. These

  7. Evaluation of the Influence of the Antibiotic Ciprofloxacin in the Development of an Old World Screwworm Fly, Chrysomya putoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Filho, Renato Geraldo da Silva; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), an Old World screwworm fly, is a species with potential for maggot therapy practice and has been described in myiasis and forensic entomology studies. The objective of the present study was to assess the action of different ciprofloxacin concentrations on the growth and development of C. putoria. First instar maggots of the third generation were raised on 60 g of chicken gizzard homogenate in 65% agar diet and received ciprofloxacin chloridrate. Each concentration of the antibiotic tested (3.33 µg/mL, 6.66 µg/mL, and 13.33 µg/mL) and the control (no antibiotic) were replicated four times (40 maggots/ replication). The control received distilled water instead of the antibiotic. Maggots were kept in an acclimatized chamber at 30° C during the day and 28° C at night, with 70 ± 10% RH and a 14:10 L:D photoperiod. They were weighed in batches of five and stored in test tubes sealed with nylon fabric and elastic. Microsoft Excel and STAT were used for the analysis. The variation among the maggot weight means and the duration of the maggot stage, pupal stage, and time to total development (neo-larvae to adult) were analyzed by Student's t-test (α = 5%). The viabilities and the normality rates were compared using ANOVA, and the expected sex ratio frequency was tested by the chi-squared test (χ2). There was no significant difference among the four treatments regarding mean individual maggot weight, mean duration of the maggot inoculation until abandonment, the duration of the maggot and pupal stages, and the total duration of all stages. The sex ratios found in the four treatments did not differ from the expected. Only treatment 2 (6.66 µg/mL concentration of ciprofloxacin) differed significantly from the control in maggot and total viability. The antibiotic did not seem to alter C. putoria development in the post-embryonic period. PMID:25373150

  8. Effect of electronic beam irradiation on last instar larvae of lasioderma serricorne fabricius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electronic beam irradiation effects on the last instar larvae of cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne Fabricius) in tobacco were studied, and the mortality in 42 days, lethal time, pupation rate, emergence rate and reproductive capacity after irradiation were measured. The results showed that the mortality increased with the increase of irradiation dosage, but the larvae did not dead immediately. The last instar larvae irradiated by the dosages higher than 480 Gy could prevent the development of larvae to adults. No new generation was found after 300 Gy treatment of the last instar larvae. So 300 Gy irradiation could be considered as a suitable dose to prevent the reproduction of cigarette beetle of the last instar larvae in the tobacco. (authors)

  9. Development of a dry artificial diet for Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Priscila; Parra, Jose R.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ). Dept. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola; Magro, Sandra R. [Faculdade Integrada de Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil); Panizzi, Antonio R. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2006-09-15

    Artificial diets prepared with wheat germ, soybean protein, dextrosol, potato starch, sucrose, cellulose, soybean or sunflower oil, and vitamin solution for rearing Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus heros (Fabricius) were tested under controlled temperature (25 {+-} 1 deg C), RH (60 {+-} 10%), and photophase (14h). Three diets were tested and compared with the natural diet privet [soybean and peanut seeds and privet Ligustrum lucidum Ait. fruit (Oleaceae)]. All three artificial diets allowed full development. The diet containing sunflower oil was the most suitable for N. viridula while E. heros developed better on a diet composed of soybean oil. Data indicated that the artificial diets were inferior to the natural diet. The artificial diets were more adequate for E. heros. (author)

  10. Bioactivity of Lantana camara L. essential oil against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius Bioactividad de aceite esencial de Lantana camara L. contra Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Zandi-Sohani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lantana camara L. is a widespread plant species mostly native to subtropical and tropical regions of the world. In this study, insecticidal and repellent activities of L. camara essential oil were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Col: Bruchidae. Analysis of chemical composition by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS showed high amounts of sesquiterpenes, mainly α-humelene (23.3% and cis-caryophyllene (16.2%. The results showed that the essential oil of L. camara has strong repellent activity against adults of C. maculatus at all tested concentrations. After 2 and 4 h, 97.4 and 100% repellency was seen at highest concentrations of 0.4 μL cm-2, respectively. Moreover, the oil was found to be toxic to adults when applied by fumigation. Responses varied with the gender of insect and exposure time. The LC50 values were 282.7 and 187.9 μL L-1 for females and males, respectively. An increase in the exposure time from 3 to 24 h caused increasing in mortality from 23.6 to 100% in males and from 14.1 to 97.1% in females, at highest concentration (1160 μL L-1. According to these results, L. camara essential oil may be useful as an alternative for bean protection against C. maculatus.Lantana camara L. es una especie vegetal nativa de las regiones subtropicales y tropicales del mundo. En este estudio se evaluaron las actividades insecticida y repelente del aceite esencial de L. camara contra Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius. El análisis de la composición volátil de este aceite esencial mediante cromatografía de gas/ espectrometría de masa (GC/MS demostró la presencia de elevadas cantidades de sesquiterpenos, principalmente α-humuleno (23.3% y ci's-cariofileno (16.2%. Los resultados obtenidos demostraron que el aceite esencial de L. camara tiene una elevada actividad repelente contra los adultos de C. maculatus a todas las concentraciones ensayadas. Después de 2 y 4 h la concentración de 0.4 μL cm-2 causó 97

  11. Description of the last instar larva of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae from Brazil Descrição da larva de último estágio de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor C. Buys

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The last instar larva of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius, 1804 is described and illustrated, based on one specimen collected in southeastern Brazil. This larva can be distinguished from other described larvae of the subgenus Trypargilum Richards, 1934 for the following combination of features: integument of the body with spines; labrum and epipharynx with sensillae; medio-apical and latero-basal portions of the epipharynx devoid of spines.A larva de último estádio de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius, 1804 é descrita e ilustrada, com base em um exemplar coletado do sudeste do Brasil. Esta larva pode ser distinta de outras larvas do subgênero Trypargilum Richards, 1934 descritas pela seguinte combinação de caracteres: tegumento do corpo com espinhos; labro e epifaringe com sensilas; porções medio-apical e latero-basal da epifarge sem espinhos.

  12. Expression in yeast (Pichia pastoris of recombinant Cb-peritrophin-42 and Cbperitrophin- 48 isolated from Chrysomya bezziana (the Old World Screwworm fly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Muharsini

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Pichia pastoris has been investigated as a means to express recombinant forms of two putative peritrophic membrane antigens from Chrysomya bezziana, Cb-peritrophin-42 (Cb42 and Cb-peritrophin-48 (Cb48. Recombinant Cb48 was expressed as a secreted and glycosylated protein. The yield of recombinant protein was 8 mg per litre of culture. In contrast, recombinant Cb42 was not expressed at detectable levels in Pichia pastoris, probably due to A + T rich sequence which may cause premature transcriptional termination. To expedite Cb42 expression in yeast, Cb42 was divided into two domains: Cb42A and Cb42B. Cb42B was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris, yielding 0.4 mg per litre of culture. However, Cb42A was not expressed. This work demonstrates that although Pichia pastoris offers considerable benefits as an expression system producing high level of glycosylated protein, success may vary from protein to protein.

  13. Gambaran Patologi Bursa Fabricius Embrio Ayam Pascavaksinasi Gumboro Secara In Ovo Menggunakan Vaksin Lokal dan Komersial (PATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION OF BURSA FABRICIUS CHICKEN EMBYROS AFTER IN OVO VACCINATED WITH LOCAL AND COMMERSIAL GUMBORO VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bursa Fabricius is a target organ of gumboro virus infection which is often damaged after vaccinationusing hot intermediate gumboro live vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess pathologic effect oflocal and commercial gumboro vaccines . As many as 45 embryo chicken eggs at nine day old were used inthis research, then grouped into three groups of 15 embryos chicken eggs each, these were: Embryo chickeneggs without vaccination (Group I, vaccinated with IBD intermediate plus commercial vaccine (Group IIand IBD intermediate plus local vaccine (Group III. Vaccinations were done at 14 days old. All groups thenterminated each three embryos at 12 hours, 1, 2, 3 days post vaccination. The results showed that pathologicanatomic lesions could not be detected. Whereas pathologic lesions were detected in the group that werevaccinated with intermediate plus local IBD observed more severe than in the group that vaccinated withintermediate plus commercial IBD. Lesions such as edema, hemorrhages, necrosis of lymphoid cells wereobserved microscopically in embryo at 12 hours, 1, 2 and 3 days post vaccination in Group II and group III.The lesions were more severe at two days post vaccination causing some lymphoid follicles disappeared at three days post vaccination. However, they were not detected again in the bursa Fabricius three days afterhatching. Cells containing antigens of gumboro were detected in the bursa Fabricius of chicken embryo atone day until three days post vaccination, then disappeared after three days post hatch. It was concludedthat pathologic description of bursa fabricius showed that virus vaccines used for vaccinated IBD in ovowere still virulent, that can cause histopathologic lesions. The viruses are suggested to be more attenuatedbefore using as vaccine in ovo.

  14. Gambaran Patologi Bursa Fabricius Embrio Ayam Pascavaksinasi Gumboro Secara In Ovo Menggunakan Vaksin Lokal dan Komersial (PATHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION OF BURSA FABRICIUS CHICKEN EMBYROS AFTER IN OVO VACCINATED WITH LOCAL AND COMMERSIAL GUMBORO VACCINES)

    OpenAIRE

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani; Dewi Ratih Agung Priyono; Wasmen Manalu

    2015-01-01

    Bursa Fabricius is a target organ of gumboro virus infection which is often damaged after vaccinationusing hot intermediate gumboro live vaccine. The purpose of this study was to assess pathologic effect oflocal and commercial gumboro vaccines . As many as 45 embryo chicken eggs at nine day old were used inthis research, then grouped into three groups of 15 embryos chicken eggs each, these were: Embryo chickeneggs without vaccination (Group I), vaccinated with IBD intermediate plus commercial...

  15. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  16. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    OpenAIRE

    Joost Van Itterbeeck; Niane Sivongxay; Bounthob Praxaysombath; Arnold van Huis

    2014-01-01

    Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-)cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed ...

  17. Conspecific mimics and low host plant availability reduce egg laying by Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira; Moreira, Gilson R. P.

    1996-01-01

    Oviposition response of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) to variation in host plant availability, Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae), and to presence of conspecific eggs and larvae was determined through choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Freeze dried, painted eggs and larvae were used as mimics for testing presence of conspecific effects. Females laid more eggs on intact P. suberosa shoots without conspecifics than on thos...

  18. Optimized sample preparation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soluble proteins from chicken bursa of Fabricius

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Xiaojuan; Zhang Xin; Zhou Jiyong; Wu Yongping; Jiang Xuetao; Shi Lixue; Yin Wei; Wang Junhua

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is a powerful method to study protein expression and function in living organisms and diseases. This technique, however, has not been applied to avian bursa of Fabricius (BF), a central immune organ. Here, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were constructed for the chicken BF tissue. Using the optimized protocol, we performed further 2-DE analysis on a soluble protein extract from the BF of chickens infected with viru...

  19. Chrysomya Bezziana Oral Myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    G S Vijay Kumar; G S Sowmya; Shivananda, S

    2011-01-01

    Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin....

  20. Effects of dietary nickel on detoxification enzyme activities in the midgut of Spodoptera litura Fabricius larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN HongXia; ZHOU Qiang; TANG WenCheng; SHU YingHua; ZHANG GuRen

    2008-01-01

    Nickel accumulated in midugt of Spodoptera litura Fabricius could induce the expression of metal-Iothionein, one of the most important detoxification proteins in organisms. In the present study, the effects of dietary nickel on the activities of detoxification enzymes, such as carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the midgut of S. litura larvae have been studied to get an un-derstanding of the detoxification mechanisms of S. litura larvae to excessive nickel. Results showed that CarE activities in the midgut of the 5th instar larvae decreased at lower levels of nickel (≤5 mg/kg), while increased with increasing nickel doses at higher levels of nickel (≥10 mg/kg) exposure in suc-cessive 3 generations. CarE activities of the 6th instar larvae were also characterized as inhibited at low levels of nickel exposure, and improved at higher levels in the 1st generation. CarE activities of 6th instar larvae in the 2rid and 3rd generations were all lower than that in control. However, GST activities in the midgut of the 5th and 6th instar larvae all increased with increasing nickel doses (1-20 mg/kg) in diets.

  1. First identification of nanoparticles on thorax, abdomen and wings of the worker bee Apis dorsata Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Atanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nanoparticles on the body of the honeybee Apis dorsata Fabricius, was investigated for the first time to better understand the bee’s behaviour. These have been observed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and confirmed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. Our study clearly denotes that the Indian rock honey bee Apis dorsata possess calcium silicate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles on its body surface of 5-50 nm in diameter. In particular, the nanoparticles on the abdomen and thorax of A. dorsata have an average diameter of about 10 nanometers and they are smaller than those found on wings of the same bees which are about 20 nanometers. The nanoparticles found are different of the ones previously observed on honey bees or other insects. The origin and role of these natural nanoparticles on the body of the Indian rock bee need to be to be further investigated; more research in the subject might raise important aspects in relation to the conservation of these unique pollinators.

  2. Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energetic cost of digging behavior in workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens (Fabricius. During nest excavation, leaf-cutting ant workers undergo reduction in their body reserve, particularly carbohydrates. In order to estimate the energetic cost of digging, groups of 30 workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens were sealed in a hermetic chamber for 24, 48 and 72 hours, with and without soil for digging, and had the CO2 concentration measured using respirometric chambers as well as volume of soil excavated (g. As expected, the worker groups that carried out soil excavation expelled more carbon dioxide than the groups that did not excavate. Therefore, a worker with body mass of 9.65 ± 1.50 mg dug in average 0.85 ± 0.27 g of soil for 24 hours, consuming ca. 0.58 ± 0.23 J. In this study, we calculate that the energetic cost of excavation per worker per day in the experimental set-up was ca. 0.58 J.

  3. Pollination of Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter (Orchidaceae by Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson R.P Moreira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time the pollination of a poorly known, terrestrial orchid, Habenaria pleiophylla Hoehne & Schlechter, 1921 (Orchidaceae by a passion vine butterfly, Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae is reported. Number of pollinia-carrying individuals was determined on a population of H. erato phyllis in Horto Florestal Barba Negra, Barra do Ribeiro County, Rio Grande do Sul State. The pollination mechanism was described under laboratory conditions, in association with the butterfly feeding habit and the orchid flower morphology. Habenaria pleiophylla pollinia are cemented during nectar feeding on the ventral portion of the compound eyes near H. erato phyllis proboscis base. The pollinia are transferred to the stigma of other flowers during subsequent visits. Both males and females of H. eralo phyllis frequently visit H. pleiophylla flowers in the Barba Negra Forest. About forty percent of field collected adults had attached pollinia, ranging in number from one to 19 per individual. Thus, H. eralo phyllis may play an important role in the reproductive biology of this H. pleiophylla population.

  4. Cryptosporidium sp. em intestinos, bursa de Fabricius e traquéia de frangos (Gallus gallus sp Cryptosporidium sp. in intestines, bursa of Fabricius and poultry trachea (Gallus gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Jacobsen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitas do gênero Cryptosporidium infectam várias espécies de animais, e a enfermidade resultante é a criptosporidiose, importante zoonose de distribuição mundial. Em aves, a infecção tem sido reportada em várias espécies. Este trabalho objetivou identificar a presença do parasita em 208 amostras de bursa de Fabricius, 208 amostras de intestino e 208 de traquéia, coletadas de frangos (Gallus gallus sp de diferentes idades, abatidos em três propriedades rurais do município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram feitas três impressões de cada amostra em lâminas para microscopia, coradas pelas técnicas de Ziehl Neelsen modificada com Dimetil Sulfóxido (DMSO, Ziehl Neelsen modificada por Henriksen e Pohlens (HP, Ziehl Neelsen (ZN e Kinyoun (K, perfazendo 1872 impressões analisadas em microscopia óptica (1000 x. Neste total, nas diferentes colorações empregadas, oocistos do parasita Cryptosporidium sp. foram visualizados em 18 impressões de traquéia, 42 de bursa de Fabricius e 29 de intestino, resultando positivas, portanto, 89 impressões. Destas, 44 foram identificadas pela técnica de DMSO, 32 por HP, três por ZN e 10 por K. Pode-se concluir que os oocistos do parasita Cryptosporidium sp. foram visualizados com maior freqüência nas impressões de bursa de Fabricius, e que o método de coloração, dentre os utilizados, que proporcionou a maior visualização dos oocistos foi o DMSO.Parasites of the gennus Cryptosporidium infect several animal species.The disease resultant is the criptosporidiosis, an important zoonosis spreaded worldwide. In poultry, the infection has been reported in several species. This study goal was to identify the parasite presence in 208 bursa of Fabricius samples, 208 intestine and 208 of trachea, collected at chicks (Gallus gallus sp of different ages, killed at three farms in Santa Maria city, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Three printings of each sample were done,on glass slides colored through the

  5. Histomorphology of bursa of Fabricius: effects of stock densities on commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC Muniz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been considerable interest on the effects of stocking density on broiler behavior and immunity. Stress may cause immunodeficiency by affecting cell and humoral responses, as well as body weight decrease, and foot-pad dermatitis. The aim of this study was to study histomorphological changes of the bursa of Fabricius in broilers submitted to three different stocking densities (10, 15, and 20 birds/m² from one to 42 days of age. Three birds from each group were sacrifieced on days 7 and 42. The bursa was collected, fixed, and processed for histomorphometric assessment using a Kontrom KS 400 image analyzer. Data were analyzed by Biostat 3.0 (Tukey Test. The results of average cortical area percentage in bursal follicles of 6-week-old birds were 45.12a (10 birds/m², 30.43b (15 birds/m², and 23.77b (20 birds/m². Average body weight was 2.58a kg (10 birds/m², 2.56a Kg (15 birds/m², and 2.47b Kg (20 birds/m², respectively. The percentage of foot-pad dermatitis in 6-week-old birds was 3.33a (10 birds/m², 17.76b (15 birds/m², and 49.17c (20 birds/m². These differences were statistically significant at a P<0.05 level. Under these experimental conditions,, it was concluded that the best stocking density to produce broilers is between 10-15 birds per square meter.

  6. Revisión del género centris fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: apidae: centridini) en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Vélez Velandia, Elvert Danny

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza la primera revisión taxonómica de las abejas del género Centris Fabricius en Colombia. Se examinaron 963 ejemplares de siete colecciones. Se encontraron nueve subgéneros y 59 especies que contrastan con las 29 reportadas previamente para Colombia. Se presentan claves, diagnosis, descripciones, fotografías, mapas de presencia e información biológica por especie. Se resaltar que a pesar del amplio número ejemplares examinados no se encontraron especímenes de 12 especi...

  7. Feeding Habits of Phyllotreta striolata(Fabricius)%黄曲条跳甲食性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟坚

    2002-01-01

    According to reports, Phyllortreta striolata (Fabricius) is a polyphagous insect.Its meal scope includs 19 species of plants in 8 families,some of which are from very far away branch of families.With the non-selectivity trial,the results indicate that SFB is an oligophagous insect.Its food is limited to the plants which contain glucosinolates belonging to Capparales Order in the Takhtajan or Cronquist plant system.Its food source has also been found in other plants that also contain glucosinates such as Tropaeolum majus.

  8. MORFOLOŠKE OSOBINE KRUŠKINE OSE SRČIKARICE, Janus compressus Fabricius 1793. (Hymenoptera: Cephidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Validžić, Tihomir; Ivezić, Marija; Raspudić, Emilija; Brmež, Mirjana; Majić, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Kruškina osa srčikarica (Janus compressus Fabricius) pripada porodici Cephidae (ose vlatarice). Javlja se periodično. U godinama masovne pojave štete su znatne, osobito vidljive u mladim nasadima kruške i voćnim rasadnicima. Primarni domaćin štetnika je kruška koju najintenzivnije napada. Sekundarni domaćin je jabuka, dok mušmulu, dunju i aroniju napada samo sporadično. U pogledu morfološko-bioloških osobina kruškine ose srčikarice, prvu obuhvatniju znanstvenu studiju objavili su 1935. godine...

  9. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae, furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Section of Entomology and Nematology. In this study, pear shoot sawfly in Eastern Slavonia occurred in the period of four weeks, starting from the third decade of April with the peak population at the beginning of the May. Adults flight is the most intensive during warm and sunny days, when temperatures are above 14°C. Adult sawflies are characterized by elongated body and antennae, usually 7-12 mm long and sexual dimorphism is present. Pest is univoltine. Basic colour of adult sawfly is black. Antennae are moniliform and consist of 20 (male - 22 (female segments. Females have red or dark red colored abdomen, while males have yellow or orange one. Eggs are cylindrically shaped, 0.8-1.0 mm long. Female lays approximately 30 eggs. Embryonic development of pear shoot sawfly eggs lasts from 11 to 14 days. Larvae are 8-10 mm long, white or pale yellow. Larvae molt three times. Pear shoot sawfly larvae were parasitized by insects from Hymenoptera order, from five identified and one unidentified genera. Level of parasitism by genera is as follows: Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae – 9.83%, Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – 2.01%, Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae – 1.66%, Pteromalus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae – 0.55%, Ichneumonida sp. (Hymenoptera: Pimplinae – 0.35% and unidentified genera – 0.62%. Plant parasitic species Metopoplax origani (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae was found in 1.80% of analyzed shoots. Larvae were

  10. Insectos de importancia forense en cadáveres de ratas, Carabobo - Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Liria Salazar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la composición de la entomofauna asociada con cadáveres de ratas, para identificar las especies de importancia forense en Carabobo, Venezuela. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los insectos en nueve cadáveres de ratas de laboratorio. Diariamente cada rata (cadáver + bandeja con tierra de sustrato fue recogida para obtener la fauna asociada. Con los datos de abundancias se calcularon índices de diversidad y equidad, y se empleó el análisis de componentes principales. Resultados: Se colectaron 13 590 insectos, de los cuales 14,8% correspondieron a cadáveres y 85,2% a bandejas. El orden Diptera fue el más abundante (94,2% seguido por Coleóptera e Hymenóptera (0,2%. Las especies de Diptéra más importantes fueron: Calliphoridae: Lucilia cluvia (Walker, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann y C. megacephala (Fabricius; y Muscidae: Musca domestica Linnaeus. También se encontraron algunos coleópteros como Dermestes ater DeGeer (Dermestidae y Staphylinidae. Conclusiones: La equidad y diversidad fue baja, debido a la dominancia de especies, y la poca sensibilidad de los índices de diversidad a la presencia de especies raras. Se observó la sucesión de especies en donde L. cluvia se relaciona con los primeros días, seguida por C. albiceps y C. megacephala. Se recomienda continuar con estudios relacionados, para su uso como herramienta de ayuda en la medicina legal en Venezuela.

  11. Laboratory Assessment for the Efficacy of Some botanical oils to Prevent Animal Wound Myiasis by Flesh Fly Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of certain plant oils (thyme, ginger, cloves, jojoba, marjoram and cinnamon) each applied at concentrations of 10, 20 and 40% as protectants of meat from myiasis caused by Chrysomya albiceps was studied. Experiments conducted revealed that at a concentration of 20% cinnamon oil with an exposure period of three days were more efficient than jojoba, thyme, ginger and marjoram oils at the highest concentration 40% with exposure period 7 days of treated meat against the larvae. Most treatments caused high mortality within exposure period of one week, while both cinnamon and jojoba oils caused 100% larval mortality at concentration 40% with exposure period 3 and 7 days which leads to zero % infestation. It is clear that there was a latent effect of the six tested oils applied at all concentrations on the reduction of adult emergence. No adult emergence of C. albiceps was occurred from meat treated with cinnamon or jojoba oil at concentrations of 10 and 20%, respectively. Percent malformation increased by increasing the concentration of tested oils where, the highest percent malformation was obtained at concentration 40% of thyme oil and at concentration 10% of jojoba, being 86.66 and 66.66 %, respectively. The sex ratio was in favor of males in the most tested oils at all levels of treated meat. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed a variable number of electrophoretic protein bands in the whole body tissue of third instar larvae exposed to untreated meat (control) and meat treated with tested plant oils (thyme, ginger, cloves, jojoba and cinnamon) at concentration 40%. Fourteen bands were separated and their molecular weight ranged between 15.85 and 104.0 KDa. The appearance of new protein band might be due to increasing of protein synthesis while the disappearance of other could be attributed to their breakdown as a result of toxicity of oils

  12. Effect of dietary pigment on growth performance and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary pigment on survival and disease (white spot syndrome virus: WSSV resistance in black tiger shrimp post larva (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius (PL15 for a 30-day period were studied. The results showed that not only was mean survival of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed with supplementation of Lucarotene or Betatene at 125 mg/kg diet significantly higher (P<0.05 but also the body color was increased. There were no effects of dietary pigment on mean weight, percent weight gain and WSSV resistance. However, mean WSSV resistance of black tiger shrimp (PL15 fed diet containing Lucantin pink 50 mg/kg diet, Spirulina 30 g/kg diet or Betatene 125 mg/kg diet was higher than that of control.

  13. Growth and nutritional indices of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) as altered by gamma irradiation for pest management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation mediated changes in nutritional profile of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) were evaluated in relation to sublethal gamma doses causing partial to complete sterilization. Spodoptera larvae in the first, third and sixth instars were exposed to various gamma doses ranging from 0 to 7 Krad. The effects were more pronounced in the insect treated in their younger stages; the radiosensitivity declined with advanced age at irradiation. Consumption index (CI), for instance was 3.29 in control, but was reduced to 1.62, 1.75 and 1.91 at 4 Krad dose given to first, third and sixth instars, respectively. A sterilizing dose induced > 40 per cent reduction in AD in relation to control. Irradiation increased the net growth efficiency (ECD) but had no significant effect on gross growth efficiency (ECI). (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Oliveira Borges

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Defensive behavior associated with secretions from the prosternal paired glands of the larvae of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. Our work presents for the first time, the defensive behavior associated with the release of the product of the prosternal paired glands of the larva of Heliconius erato phyllis Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The prosternal glands were first described for larvae of H. erato phyllis. They are formed by two types of glandular structures: the impair gland and the paired glands. The prosternal glands are located within the conical integumentary sac, which in turn is situated on the individual's prosternum. The main goal of this study is to analyze the existence of any secretion from the prosternal paired glands, and check the action mode of this secretion. The methodology used for chemical analysis of the glands included the aeration and, analysis in gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that the prosternal glands do not produce volatiles. Bioassays were conducted with simulated and natural attacks and revealed that the prosternal paired glands produce secretions of defense together with silk produced by labials glands as a defense strategy, described for the first time, against ants. The strategy consists in wrapping the ant with silk threads, the entire wrapped object moved to the end of the body, with the aid of the legs and prolegs, and possibly fixed in a nearby place. Evidence for the existence of a conical integumentary sac in larvae of other species and families of Lepidoptera allows us to propose the possibility of occurrence of prosternal paired glands with defensive function in these other groups as well.

  15. Effect of gamma rays on adult flight agility and distribution of Old World screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana, irradiated at the pupal stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The larvae of Old World screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana were reared on a meat-based diet containing: lean minced beef (54%), fresh blood (15% containing 10% EDTA), water (30%) and formalin (0.2%). The developed pupae were separated in plastic containers containing vermiculite or corncob grits and incubated for adult emergence under 28 deg. C and 70% relative humidity. The emerged adults were transferred into the adult cages (made from cloth tissue, black or white), provided with water, honey and sugar. Radiation Treatments: At the 5th day of female age, egging dishes were prepared from ground meat, clotted blood or pieces of liver, oviposition stimulants deg. Cntaining spent medium immersed inside the dish. All the contents were warmed on a hotplate to 37 - 39 deg. C. The egging dishes were provided daily for two hours inside the cage for egg deposition. Egg masses and newly hatched larvae were taken for establishing the laboratory colony. The average larval period was 6.8 days, rate of pupation 93.2%, pupal period 7.6 days and rate of pupal development 79%. Pupae at 2-5 days were irradiated with a Gammacell 220. Percentage pupal development to adults decreased from 82% for non-irradiated pupae, to 3%, 12%, 29% and 22% for pupae irradiated with a dose of 90 Gy at 2, 3, 4 and 6 days age. The lifespan of adults emerged from irradiated pupae decreased with increasing gamma dose. Sixty Gy or less did not have an effect on the ovarian development. No egg hatch resulted from the crosses between treatments of 60 to 90 Gy. Egg hatch was observed only in normal adult crosses or in normal females mated with males emerged from 45 Gy irradiated pupae. Flight Agility Test: A small cylinder was made from transparent paper (10 cm long X 10 cm diameter) and lined by baby powder to avoid adults walking out of the cylinder. A group of adults (newly emerged from irradiated pupae) were left inside each cylinder under appropriate temperature and humidity. Adults with flight ability

  16. Temperature-dependent development and the significance for estimating postmortem interval of Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, a new forensically important species in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Wang, Yu; Wang, Jiangfeng; Ma, Mengyun; Lai, Yue

    2016-09-01

    In forensic entomology, the developmental duration and larval body length of sarcosaprophagous flies are presently the two major approaches to estimate minimal postmortem interval (PMImin). A full characterization of the developmental stages of Calliphoridae, a predominating species on corpses, is especially important for PMI estimation. Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, which appears on the corpse mainly during the decay and the post-decay stages, is of significant value for PMImin estimation. However, there are limited detailed reports on the development of such species. Hence, this study was conducted to address the development pattern of C. nigripes, in order to provide the basic data related to PMI estimation. In this study, the larvae of C. nigripes were collected from pig carcasses that were placed in the field. The colonies were cultured at constant temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 (±1) °C. The biological features of C. nigripes, the developmental pattern, and the body length with time at different temperatures were studied. The results showed that the average developmental duration of the C. nigripes larvae at 20, 24, 28, and 32 (±1) °C were 608.0 ± 68.0 h, 327.0 ± 53.8 h, 254.0 ± 36.5 h, and 217.0 ± 28.0 h, respectively. There were two phases of body length increment with developmental time: growing phase and plateau phase. The maximal body length was 11-12 mm, and the relationship between body length and developmental time can be simulated using the following equation: L = a + bT + cT(2) + dT(3). The data for developmental duration and larval body length at 16 °C were not obtained. In summary, this study comprehensively studied the developmental biology of C. nigripes, which has a significant value for estimating PMI from highly decayed carcasses. PMID:26872466

  17. The Use of Olfactory and Visual Cues in Host Choice by the Capsid Bugs Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus Fabricius

    OpenAIRE

    Wynde, Fiona J. H.; Port, Gordon R.

    2012-01-01

    Lygus rugulipennis Poppius and Liocoris tripustulatus Fabricius (Heteroptera: Miridae) are pests of glasshouse cucumber and sweet pepper crops respectively. L. rugulipennis has a wide range of foodplants, but L. tripustulatus is specialised with very few food plants. We report behavioural assessments to investigate whether either species exhibits a preference for salad over wild hosts, and whether the role of olfaction and vision in response to cues from host plants can be distinguished. Olfa...

  18. Histologic Lesions of Thymus and Bursa of Fabricius in Commercial Broiler Chickens Inoculated with H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hadipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Low pathogenic avian influenza (H9N2 is of major concern for the poultry industry especially in Iran, as the virus can spread rapidly in and between flocks, causing high mortality and severe economic losses. The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza virus in thymus and bursa of Fabricius of commercial broiler chickens, so we studied the histologic lesions of this isolate in these organs following intranasal (IN inoculation. Twenty-four 3-week-old chickens were inoculated with 106 EID50 per bird with H9N2 avian influenza virus. Then on days 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-inoculation (PI, samples of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius were collected for histopathological studies. In inoculated chickens, lymphocyte depletion in the thymus, follicular atrophy and cystic follicles in the bursa of Fabricius were seen. The results indicated that the H9N2 has some immunosuppressive effects on chicken lymphoid organs.

  19. Efeito do tipo de substrato para pupação na dispersão larval pós-alimentar de Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera, Calliphoridae Effect of the substrate for pupation in the postfeeding larval dispersal of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Gomes

    Full Text Available As moscas-varejeiras utilizam substratos discretos e efêmeros para posturas dos ovos e para alimentação das larvas. Após a exaustão de recursos, as larvas começam a procurar por um sítio de pupação no habitat ou por mais fonte de alimento adicional (dispersão larval pós-alimentar. No entanto, o tipo de substrato de dispersão pode afetar este processo; assim, procurou-se avaliar o comportamento de dispersão de Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819 por meio da localização das pupas em arenas circulares preenchidas com vermiculita, comparando-se com outros estudos feitos em serragem. As arenas foram dividas em 72 setores iguais a partir do centro de dispersão para facilitar a localização das pupas no substrato. A massa, a distância de dispersão do centro de arena, e a profundidade de cada pupa foram determinadas e verificou-se a relação entre peso, profundidade e distância do centro de dispersão. Pôde-se constatar que as larvas com menor massa foram as que percorreram maior distância do centro de dispersão, como também foi observado em estudos anteriores que empregaram outros substratos. O sítio de pupação da maioria dos indivíduos foi entre 2 e 8 cm de profundidade (média 4,96±2,97 cm. Tal estudo do processo de dispersão pode ser útil na estimativa do intervalo pós-morte (IPM para corpos humanos em investigações médico-criminais.Blowflies utilize discrete and ephemeral sites for breeding and larval nutrition. After the exhaustion of food, the larvae begin dispersing to search for pupation sites or for additional food sources, a process referred to as postfeeding larval dispersal. However the nature of the substrate can affect this process. Some of the most important aspects of this behavior were here investigated in Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819, utilizing a circular arena covered with vermiculite allowing the post-feeding larval dispersal from the center and to comparing with others studies that used

  20. Infected and apoptotic cells in the IBDV-infected bursa of Fabricius, studied by double-labelling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieper, H; Teifke, J P; Jungmann, A; Lohr, C V; Muller, H

    1999-06-01

    Infections of young chickens with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) result in depletion of lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) due to necrosis and apoptotic processes. Interactions between IBDV and lymphoid cells were investigated by labelling paraffin-embedded tissue sections of infected BF with combinations of either immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) or in situ TUNEL reaction (IST). With regard to specificity and sensitivity, results of ISH were comparable to those of IHC. By double-labelling it was shown, for the first time, that viral antigen was present in most of the apoptotic cells. This suggests that IBDV may be directly involved in the induction of the apoptotic process. However, some cells also showed either viral antigen or DNA fragmentation, especially at the early stages of infection. It should be taken into account, therefore, that the apoptotic processes might also be induced by IBDV through indirect interaction between cells. Remarkably, in some of the infected lymphoid cells ISH signals were observed in the nucleolus. PMID:26915384

  1. Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their Dufour gland secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindis, Yolanda; Gomez y Gomez, Beningno; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico); Lachaud, Jean P. [Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA), CNRS-UMR5169, Toulouse (France). Univ. Paul-Sabatier

    2008-03-15

    Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. (author)

  2. Indigenous Knowledge of the Edible Weaver Ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Van Itterbeeck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-cultivating and farming edible insects. Such developments can draw on both western science and indigenous knowledge. Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae, of which particularly the queen brood is commonly consumed in Thailand and the Lao PDR, is believed to have the potential to act as flagship/umbrella species in forest conservation and management, to be incorporated simultaneously as biological control agent and direct source of human food in agroforestry practices, and to be (semi-cultivated. We provide a detailed account of indigenous knowledge of O. smaragdina and ant brood collection practices from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR, through focus group discussions and participant observations, and then reflect on sustainability and conservation issues, and on semi-cultivating constraints and possibilities embedded in indigenous knowledge and ant brood collection practices. 

  3. Invasão de áreas de savana intra-amazônicas por Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Invasion of intra-Amazonian savannas by the dung beetle Digintonthophagus gazella (Fabricius, 1787 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto Matavelli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi avaliada a invasão da comunidade de Scarabaeinae detritívoros de uma savana amazônica pela espécie africana Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius 1787. O estudo foi realizado nas proximidades da vila de Alter do Chão (2º 31' S e 55º 00' W, localizada a aproximadamente 36 km a sudoeste de Santarém, Pará, Brasil. Vinte e duas áreas de savanas de 3,75 ha (250 x 150 m distribuídas em 30.000 ha foram amostradas, no período de 21 de julho a 13 de agosto de 2003, utilizando 66 armadilhas de queda com três tipos de iscas (fezes bovinas, fezes humanas e carcaças. Foram encontrados indivíduos de D. gazella em quatro das vinte e duas áreas amostradas. Procurou-se explicar a presença da espécie nas áreas de savana através de análises de regressão logística, onde as variáveis explicativas foram: ocorrência de queimada nos últimos seis anos, diversidade e abundância total de Scarabaeidae nativos presentes na área, abundância de Canthon sp.1, (espécie de Scarabaeidae mais abundante na região. Exceto pela abundância total de indivíduos de Scarabaeidae nativos, nenhuma das variáveis bióticas e abióticas tiveram efeito estatisticamente significativo na presença do D. gazella. Estes resultados podem ser explicados por: (a algum fator ainda não analisado, relacionado à invasão da área pelo D. gazella; (b Não houve tempo para a dispersão e estabelecimento da espécie em todas as áreas; (c A comunidade nativa de Scarabaeinae apresenta resistência à invasão pelo D. gazella.This work aimed to verify the invasion of the dung beetles community from intra-Amazonian savanna by the African species Digitonthophagus gazella (Fabricius 1787. The research was carried out near Alter do Chão village (2º 31' S; 55º 00' W, 36 Km Southwest of Santarém, Pará, Brazil. Twenty two areas were sampled, from 21 July to 13 August 2003, using 66 baited pitfall traps (cattle dung, human faeces and carcass bait. D. gazella

  4. Pentatomidae bugs associated with sunflower crops in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul state and the action of Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae on sunfl ower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Sivori Silva dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this study were to identify the species of bugs attacking sunflowers in the northwest of Rio Grande do Sul state and to estimate the damage caused during the R6 and R8 stages. The bugs present in ten sunflower crops were collected, and their feeding sites were determined. The species Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794 was used to determine the damage by individualizing the capitula using mesh cages in the R6 and R8 stages. Each caged capitulum was infested with one, two, or four bugs. Besides E. heros (47.67%, Dichelops furcatus (Fabricius, 1775 (44.18%, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood, 1837 (4.65% and Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794 (3.48% were found. There were no significant differences among the treatments regarding the yield components (weight of 1000 sunflower seeds, germination power, oil and protein content. The tetrazolio test indicated that the bugs fed on the sunflower seeds.

  5. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment. PMID:26807937

  6. Optimized sample preparation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soluble proteins from chicken bursa of Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xiaojuan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE is a powerful method to study protein expression and function in living organisms and diseases. This technique, however, has not been applied to avian bursa of Fabricius (BF, a central immune organ. Here, optimized 2-DE sample preparation methodologies were constructed for the chicken BF tissue. Using the optimized protocol, we performed further 2-DE analysis on a soluble protein extract from the BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins, several differentially expressed protein spots selected were cut from 2-DE gels and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results An extraction buffer containing 7 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 2% (w/v 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS, 50 mM dithiothreitol (DTT, 0.2% Bio-Lyte 3/10, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF, 20 U/ml Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I, and 0.25 mg/ml Ribonuclease A (RNase A, combined with sonication and vortex, yielded the best 2-DE data. Relative to non-frozen immobilized pH gradient (IPG strips, frozen IPG strips did not result in significant changes in the 2-DE patterns after isoelectric focusing (IEF. When the optimized protocol was used to analyze the spleen and thymus, as well as avibirnavirus-infected bursa, high quality 2-DE protein expression profiles were obtained. 2-DE maps of BF of chickens infected with virulent avibirnavirus were visibly different and many differentially expressed proteins were found. Conclusion These results showed that method C, in concert extraction buffer IV, was the most favorable for preparing samples for IEF and subsequent protein separation and yielded the best quality 2-DE patterns. The optimized protocol is a useful sample preparation method for comparative proteomics analysis of chicken BF tissues.

  7. Conspecific mimics and low host plant availability reduce egg laying by Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition response of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae to variation in host plant availability, Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and to presence of conspecific eggs and larvae was determined through choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Freeze dried, painted eggs and larvae were used as mimics for testing presence of conspecific effects. Females laid more eggs on intact P. suberosa shoots without conspecifics than on those with H. erato phyllis egg and first instar mimics in both simultaneous and sequential choice trials. Oviposition response to variation in host plant availability was determined through no-choice trials, under host plant densities varying from 0.3 to 8.3 plants per female. Number of eggs laid per plant decreased exponentially with an increase in plant availability. On the contrary, daily oviposition rates (eggs /female/day increased with an increase in plant number, and levelled off when the number of plants available for oviposition was greater than potential fecundity of females. Thus, it is inferred from the results that females assess egg and larval load and prefer to lay eggs on shoots free from conspecifics. It is also inferred that they are able to recognize plant abundance and are unwilling to lay more than one egg per shoot even when host availability is scarce, as judged by reduction in daily oviposition rates under low host plant number. The consequences of laying isolated eggs on P. suberosa shoots are discussed from the viewpoint of intraspecific competition in the larval stage of H. erato phyllis.

  8. KRUŠKINA OSA SRČIKARICA (Janus compressus Fabricius) – ŽIVOTNI CIKLUS I BIOLOŠKO-MORFOLOŠKE OSOBINE

    OpenAIRE

    Validžić, Tihomir

    2014-01-01

    Cilj ovoga rada bio je istražiti životni ciklus, biološko- morfološke osobine kruškine ose srčikarice (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera - Cephidae) te identificirati njezine prirodne neprijatelje. Terenski dio istraživanja obavljen je tijekom 2010., 2011. i 2012. u nasadima kruške na pet lokaliteta. Let imaga praćen je uz uporabu žutih ljepljivih ploča. Laboratorijski dio istraživanja proveden je na Poljoprivrednome fakultetu u Osijeku, Katedri za entomologiju i nematologiju. Istraživa...

  9. Estimation of the adult male population of sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) at its low-density period on Kikai Island in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) is a major insect pest of the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We estimated the entire adult male population of C. formicarius at its low-density period on Kikai Island, Kagoshima Pref., Japan. The population of adult males at the high-density period in September was about 5 times larger than that at its low-density period in May, both of which were estimated by Yamamura's method. Using this calculation in combination with an estimate of the maximal population size (4 x 10E6) by Sugimoto et al. in 1994, the total number of male weevils at their low-density period can be assumed to be less than 8 x 10E5

  10. Aperçu biologique du Platypus cylindrus (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae : Platypodinae) dans les galeries du bois de chêne-liège (Quercus suber L.)

    OpenAIRE

    BELHOUCINE, Latifa; Tarik Bouhraoua, Rachid; Dahane, Belkheir; Pujade, Juli, 1960-

    2011-01-01

    L’étude de la biologie de l’insecte Platypus cylindrus (Fabricius, 1792) dans les galeries du bois de chêne-liège a été étudiée au niveau de la suberaie littorale occidentale de M’Sila, à climat semi aride. Pour cela 3 arbres fortement infestés par le ravageur ont été abattus entre Décembre 2007 et Juillet 2008. La dissection des 14 rondelles de bois ayant un volume de 53 dm3, nous a permis de dénombrer 2920 individus répartis entre les 4 écophases de l’insecte avec une densité moyenne de 55 ...

  11. On the reliability of a simple method for scoring phenotypes to estimate heritability: A case study with pupal color in Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Andrejew Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two methods for assessing the degree of melanization of pupal exuviae from the butterfly Heliconius erato phyllis , Fabricius 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiini are compared. In the first method, which was qualitative, the exuviae were classified by scoring the degree of melanization, whereas in the second method, which was quantitative, the exuviae were classified by optical density followed by analysis with appropriate software. The heritability (h 2 of the degree of melanization was estimated by regression and analysis of variance. The estimates of h 2 were similar with both methods, indicating that the qualitative method could be particularly suitable for field work. The low estimates obtained for heritability may have resulted from the small sample size ( n = 7-18 broods, including the parents or from the allocation-priority hypothesis in which pupal color would be a lower priority trait compared to morphological traits and adequate larval development.

  12. Effects of cattle treatment with a fluazuron pour-on on survival and reproduction of the dung beetle species Onthophagus gazella (Fabricius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryger, U; Deschodt, C; Davis, A L V; Scholtz, C H

    2007-02-28

    While resistance against many other classes of acaricides has been described, products containing benzoylphenyl urea are currently still successfully used against the pesticide-resistant blue tick (Boophilus decoloratus) in South Africa. In order to assess any adverse impact of these tickicides on the important dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) fauna, a bioassay was undertaken on the ecotoxicological effects of a fluazuron (benzoylphenyl urea) pour-on formulation (Acatak) on the survival and reproduction of the African dung beetles species Onthophagus gazella (Fabricius). The experiment yielded no significant differences in adult or larval survival, egg production, fecundity and fertility between the control and treatment group following three beetle generations over. These results suggested that treatment of cattle with the fluazuron pour-on formulation Acatak was not detrimental to the selected dung beetle species in any notable way. PMID:16978786

  13. Relative quantification and detection of different types of infectious bursal disease virus in bursa of Fabricius and cloacal swabs using real time RT-PCR SYBR green technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Handberg, K.J.; Kabell, Susanne; Kusk, M.; Zhang, M.F.; Jorgensen, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    In present study, different types of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), virulent strain DK01, classic strain F52/70 and vaccine strain D78 were quantified and detected in infected bursa of Fabricius (BF) and cloacal swabs using quantitative real time RT-PCR with SYBR green dye. For selection...... of a suitable internal control gene, real time PCR parameters were evaluated for three candidate genes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 28S rRNA and beta-actin to IBDVs. Based on this P-actin was selected as an internal control for quantification of IBDVs in BF. All BF samples with...... primers. The method described here is robust and may sever as a useful tool with high capacity for diagnostics as well as in viral pathogenesis studies....

  14. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION PATTERN OF THE INSECT SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CARCASS OF THE FREE-RANGING URBAN DOG, Canis domesticus (L.: A TOOL FOR FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZANA PERVEEN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The free-ranging urban dog, Canis domesticus (L. carcass decomposition in tropical region, i.e., Takht-i-Bahi, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 15-25 May 2011 was characterized by 5 stages, i.e., fresh (12 h, bloated (13-48 h, active (49-96 h, advanced (97-144 h and dry (145-265 h and the ecological succession pattern of insect species collected were identified into 11 species of 3 orders. The insect species associated with the carcass of C. domesticus found that the blow flies, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart and house fly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758 were found in the fresh, bloat and active decay stages. However, the blow fly, C. megacephala (Fabricius; flesh fly, Parasarcophaga ruficornis (Meigen and the hornet wasp, Vespa orientalis (Linnaeus were existed in the fresh and bloat stages. Moreover, cheese fly, Piophila casei (Linnaeus was found bloat and active decay stages. Further, the hide beetle, Dermestes maculates (Geer, clown beetle, Hister sp. (Gullenhal; ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (Fabricus and skin beetle, Trox sp. (Harold completed their life cycle in active decay, advance decay and dry stages. Furthermore, the jummper ant, Myrmecia pilosula (Smith was collected from only fresh stage. The specimens of insect species were collected minimum 0.8% of V. orientalis and maximum 21.3% of 2 species, i.e., C. rufifacies and M. domestica. The temperature, humidity and rainfalls were found affected insect larvae, pupae and adults, and rate of decomposition of C. domesticus. The average temperature, humidity and rainfalls were 35.34±1.54, 38.8% and 3.8 mm, respectively, of 11 experimental days. This research will be helpful for forensic entomologist for a case study of death to investigate of crimes in tropical region of Pakistan.

  15. Capture of Caliptrate flies with different breeding substrates on beaches in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mário D'Almeida

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscidae flies belonging to four Familia and 13 species in a total number of 3.652 specimens were collected from beaches at Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using different breeding substrates, and subsequently bred in the laboratory. Captures were done from April to November 1989, using in a first phase different substrates: fruits (banana and papaya, vegtable (tomato, animal viscera (bovine liver, marine animals (fish, crab, shrimp, squid, mouse carcass and feaces (human and canine. The species collected more often were: Fannia sp. (subgroup pusio, Chrysomya megacephala, Phaenicia eximia, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Peckya chrysostoma, Musca domestica and Atherigona orientalis. In a later phase, only fish was used, as bait and placed directly on the beach sand. From a total of 189 pupae, the following adult specimen were obtained: Peckia chrysostoma (58.06%, Chrysomya megacephala (30.64% and in lesser numbers Synthesiomyia nudiseta and Phaenicia eximia.

  16. An Ecological Study of the Mantis Shrimp Lysiosquilla macutala Fabricius (Crustacea: Stomatopoda) in the Reef Flat, Pari Island, West Java, Indonesia: 1. The Relationship Between Environmental Factors and Mantis Shrimp Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sukristijono Sukardjo; Toro, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Lysiosquilla maculata Fabricius, mantis shrimp population density and size distribution were studied in 37 different transects of the reef flat from May 1994 - March 1998 (46 months) in order to determine relationships between the densities and size distribution of the L. maculata and 21 different physical-chemical parameters of their substrates and water. Site plots at 20 m to 120 m from the reef edge exhibit significantly higher population densities (mean densit: 62/ha to 71/ha). Lower popu...

  17. The Growth of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) on Feed Media Dosed with Flavour Volatiles Found in Dry Cocoa Beans

    OpenAIRE

    Jonfia-Essien, W. A.; Alderson, P. G.; G. Tucker; R. Linforth; West, G.

    2007-01-01

    Acetophenone, ethyl butyrate and 2-phenyl ethanol were used as additives to media on which Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) were cultured for 65 days. Acetophenone and ethyl butyrate had a positive impact on the weight and multiplication of the insects. The weight and rate of multiplication was higher in feed media containing acetophenone alone. The amount of the flavour volatiles added was high enough to deter the Lasioderma from feeding well, which affected...

  18. Use of maggot therapy for treating a diabetic foot ulcer colonized by multidrug resistant bacteria in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marilia A.R.Q. Pinheiro; Ferraz, Julianny B.; Junior, Miguel A.A.; Andrew D Moura; Maria E.S.M. da Costa; Fagner J.M.D. Costa; Neto, Valter F.A.; Renato M. Neto; Renata A Gama

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the efficacy of maggot therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infected with multidrug resistant microorganisms. A 74 year old female patient with diabetes for over 30 years, was treated with maggot therapy using larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The microbiological samples were collected to evaluate aetiology of the infection. The therapy done for 43 days resulted in a reduction of necrosis and the ulcer′s retraction of 0.7 cm [2] in area. Analysis of the bacteriolo...

  19. Use of maggot therapy for treating a diabetic foot ulcer colonized by multidrug resistant bacteria in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Marilia A.R.Q. Pinheiro; Julianny B Ferraz; Junior, Miguel A.A.; Andrew D Moura; Maria E.S.M. da Costa; Costa, Fagner J.M.D.; Neto, Valter F.A.; Renato M. Neto; Gama, Renata A.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the efficacy of maggot therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infected with multidrug resistant microorganisms. A 74 year old female patient with diabetes for over 30 years, was treated with maggot therapy using larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The microbiological samples were collected to evaluate aetiology of the infection. The therapy done for 43 days resulted in a reduction of necrosis and the ulcer's retraction of 0.7 cm2 in area. Analysis of the bacteriologic...

  20. Estudo comparativo do aspecto da hemolinfa de algumas espécies de carrapatos (Acari, Ixodidae: descrição da variação hemocitária de adultos de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius Koch Comparative study of the hemolymph aspect from a few ticks species (Acari, Ixodidae: description of the hemocyte variation of adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Carneiro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The hemocyte composition of adults of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 Koch, 1844 adults consisted of three basic cellular types: prahemocyte I (PR I, plasmatocyte (PL and spherulocyte (ES II. Among the ixodids observed (A. cajennense; A. dissimile Koch, 1844; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 1806; Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 Schulze, 1937; Boophilus microplus Canestrini, 1887 and Haemaphysalis sp. only A. cajennense was different in the adult hemolymph colour. It changed from amber to deep blue as the ixodid age advanced. This fact could be associated with the presence of hemocyanin in the hemolymph and points out the need to develop further investigations about the Ixodidae hemolymph pratein composition as well as the function of all the types found in it. This information could aid the studies on ticks control.

  1. Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.

  2. Influência do Fotoperíodo no Parasitismo de Trichogramma galloi Zucchi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae em Ovos de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Santana

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. Trichogramma species are an important group of parasitoids that attack especially lepidopteran eggs. The quality and performance of this natural enemy may be influenced by factors such as alternative host used in the massal rearing, and differences in the temperature and photoperiod. Based on this, this study aimed to evaluate the number of parasitized eggs, % of females that parasitized, % emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals of Trichogramma galloi Zucchi per egg of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius in the presence and absence of light. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments (light and dark and 60 replications, being each experimental unit composed by 40 eggs of D. saccharalis which were placed in a glass tube with one female of T. galloi with age of 24 hours, previously fed with honey. The experiment was carried out at 25 ± 2 °C and 70 ± 10% relative humidity. In each one of the treatments, the parasitoid was removed from the tube after 12 hours. The highest number of parasitized eggs (12.9 and % of females that parasitized (83.3% was observed during the period with light. For the emergence, sex ratio and number of individuals per egg, there was no statistical difference. The results showed that the presence of light is essential for this biological control agent.

  3. Parasitoids of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) with description of a new species of Agiommatus Crawford, 1911 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) from India with notes on biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankita; Gawas, Sandesh M

    2016-07-01

    In rearing of Gangara thyrsis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from Karnataka and Goa, India, six species of parasitoids were observed. One new species of parasitic wasp is described and illustrated: Agiommatus thyrsisae n. sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a solitary parasitoid reared from the egg of G. thyrsis on the natural host plant Dypsis lutescens (H. Wendl.) Beentje & J. Dransf. Three additional species of parasitic wasps were also reared: Anastatus ramakrishnai (Mani, 1935) (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), a solitary hyperparasitoid of A. thyrsisae n. sp.; Sympiesis thyrsisae Gupta, Gawas & Bhambure (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a gregarious parasitoid reared from the caterpillar of G. thyrsis on the host plant Cocos nucifera L., and Brachymeria lasus (Walker) reared from pupa of G. thyrsis on the host plant D. lutescens. Additionally, two species of tachinid flies were also reared from the pupae of G. thyrsis: Exorista sorbillans (Wiedemann, 1830) and an innominate species close to Blepharella spp. Gangara thyrsis is a new host record for the genus Agiommatus and for A. ramakrishnai and B. lasus. The mean percent parasitism in G. thyrsis eggs was 26.58% with an incubation period of 6-7 days. Amongst the egg parasitoids, 57.14-73.08% were females and 23.08% were males. Hyperparasitism ranged from 3.85 to 42.86%. Dypsis lutescens, a member of Arecaceae, is a new host plant record for G. thyrsis. PMID:27307173

  4. Size of and damage on shoots of Passiflora suberosa (Passifloraceae influence oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mugrabi-Oliveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition site selection of Heliconius erato phyllis (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae was studied when size of and damage on shoots were variable in a natural population of Passiflora suberosa Linnaeus (Passifloraceae, and through sequential and simultaneous choice experiments performed under insectary conditions. Females showed marked oviposition preference for undamaged and largest shoots of P. suberosa. Eggs were mostly laid on the terminal buds of intact shoots under natural conditions. In simultaneous choice trials, females preferred to oviposit on shoots from which leaves (ten were removed but the terminal bud maintained to those where leaves were kept but the terminal bud was cut out. In sequential choice trials, they did not lay eggs on shoots from which the terminal bud was removed. Females preferred to oviposit on large to short intact shoots in both sequential and simultaneous choice trials. Females laid eggs preferentially on shoots with the greatest leaf area when most plants were intact in the field during early spring. Later in fall, when mostly large, old shoots were damaged or in a reproductive stage (less desirable for oviposition, oviposition intensity was highest on the shortest, youngest shoots of P. suberosa. Thus, females might rank these quality attributes higher than size while selecting shoots for oviposition. The consequences of ovipositing selectively on intact, large shoots of P. suberosa are discussed from the view point of H. erato phyllis larval performance.

  5. Spatial Distribution of Eggs of Alabama argillacea Hübner and Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tatiana R; Fernandes, Marcos G; Degrande, Paulo E; Mota, Thiago A

    2015-01-01

    Among the options to control Alabama argillacea (Hübner, 1818) and Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, 1781) on cotton, insecticide spraying and biological control have been extensively used. The GM'Bt' cotton has been introduced as an extremely viable alternative, but it is yet not known how transgenic plants affect populations of organisms that are interrelated in an agroecosystem. For this reason, it is important to know how the spatial arrangement of pests and beneficial insect are affected, which may call for changes in the methods used for sampling these species. This study was conducted with the goal to investigate the pattern of spatial distribution of eggs of A. argillacea and H. virescens in DeltaOpal™ (non-Bt) and DP90B™ Bt cotton cultivars. Data were collected during the agricultural year 2006/2007 in two areas of 5,000 m2, located in in the district of Nova América, Caarapó municipality. In each sampling area, comprising 100 plots of 50 m2, 15 evaluations were performed on two plants per plot. The sampling consisted in counting the eggs. The aggregation index (variance/mean ratio, Morisita index and exponent k of the negative binomial distribution) and chi-square fit of the observed and expected values to the theoretical frequency distribution (Poisson, Binomial and Negative Binomial Positive), showed that in both cultivars, the eggs of these species are distributed according to the aggregate distribution model, fitting the pattern of negative binomial distribution. PMID:26628025

  6. A major host plant volatile, 1-octen-3-ol, contributes to mating in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendera, M.; Ekesi, S.; Ndung'u, M.; Srinivasan, R.; Torto, B.

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies on the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on sex pheromones, but the role of the host plant on sexual behavior has not been explored. We investigated this interaction in the laboratory using behavioral assays and chemical analyses. We found that the presence of cowpea seedlings and a dichloromethane extract of the leaf increased coupling in the legume pod borer by 33 and 61 %, respectively, compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of both contact and olfactory cues. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify compounds from the cowpea leaf extract, detected by M. vitrata antenna. We found that the antennae of the insect consistently detected four components, with 1-octen-3-ol identified as a common and dominant component in both the volatiles released by the intact cowpea plant and leaf extract. We therefore investigated its role in the coupling of M. vitrata. In dose-response assays, 1-octen-3-ol increased coupling in M. vitrata with increasing dose of the compound compared to the control. Our results suggest that the cowpea volatile 1-octen-3-ol contributes to M. vitrata sexual behavior.

  7. A second New World hoverfly, Toxomerus floralis (Fabricius) (Diptera: Syrphidae), recorded from the Old World, with description of larval pollen-feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaens, Kurt; Goergen, Georg; Kirk-Spriggs, Ashley H; Vokaer, Audrey; Backeljau, Thierry; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Recently (2013-2014), several hoverfly specimens from two localities in Benin and Cameroon (West and Central Africa) were caught from a species that we could not identify using existing identification keys for Afrotropical Syrphidae. Specific identification as Toxomerus floralis (Fabricius) was accomplished using morphology and various Neotropical identification keys. Corroboration of this identification was made by sequencing of the standard COI barcode region and a subsequent BLAST-IDS in BOLD that revealed a 100% sequence similarity with Toxomerus floralis from Suriname (South America). Species identification was further supported by sequencing parts of the nuclear 18S and 28S rRNA genes. The species is widespread in Togo, Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon, and eggs, larvae and adults are abundant at several localities. Yet, the full extent of its geographic distribution within tropical Africa remains to be determined. This is only the second known established introduction of a non-African hoverfly species in the Afrotropics. Interestingly, the larvae of the species have been reported as predators of Aphididae and Delphacidae but we found them to be pollenivorous, which is a rare feeding mode within the subfamily Syrphinae. Moreover, it is the only known Syrphinae species of which the larvae feed on pollen from two plant species from different families (Cyperaceae and Orobranchaceae). This example illustrates how DNA barcoding may allow a fast and accurate identification of introduced species. PMID:26624726

  8. Blow Flies Visiting Decaying Alligators: Is Succession Synchronous or Asynchronous?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P. Nelder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Succession patterns of adult blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae on decaying alligators were investigated in Mobile (Ala, USA during August 2002. The most abundant blow fly species visiting the carcasses were Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricus, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricus, Phormia regina (Meigen, and Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was collected more often during the early stages of decomposition, followed by Chrysomya spp., Cochliomyia macellaria, and Phormia regina in the later stages. Lucilia coeruleiviridis was the only synchronous blow fly on the three carcasses; other blow fly species exhibited only site-specific synchrony. Using dichotomous correlations and analyses of variance, we demonstrated that blow fly-community succession was asynchronous among three alligators; however, Monte Carlo simulations indicate that there was some degree of synchrony between the carcasses.

  9. Ocorrência do complexo Carpophilus humeralis (Fabricius-Ceratocystis paradoxa (De Seynes Moreau em cana-de-açúcar no Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of the complex Carpophilus humeralis (Fabricius-Ceratocystis paradoxa (De Seynes Moreau in sugar cane in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jorge Rossetto

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi constatada a ocorrência do besourinho Carpophilus humeralis (Fabricius (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae no Estado de São Paulo, em toletes de cana-de-açúcar com podridão-abacaxi, causada pelo fungo Ceratocystis paradoxa (De Seynes Moreau. Experimento conduzido com duas variedades de cana, IAC64-257 e NA56-79, tratamento do tolete com fungicida e posição da gema no tolete, demonstrou que a variedade NA56-79 respondeu positivamente ao tratamento com fungicida enquanto a variedade IAC64-257 não apresentou resposta. As gemas da extremidade do tolete foram mais afetadas que as centrais.The pineapple disease caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa (De Seynes Moreau has been recognized as the main cause of poor germination of sugar cane fields in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, associated with rottening of the sugar cane cuttings. In 1983 in the counties of Promissão, Penápolis and Araçatuba and again in 1984 in Araçatuba for the first time was observed the occurrence of the pineapple disease associated with high populations of the nitidulid beetle Carpophilus humeralis (Fabricius. The authors ignore previous records of occurrence of this nitidulid species in Brazil. An experiment with three factors, fungicide treatment, variety and position of the buds in the cutting was performed. The treated cuttings were immersed in a solution of Benomil at 1% a.i. Two varieties of sugarcane, NA56-79 and IAC64-257 were used. Two positions of the buds in the cuttings were considered, middle and lateral. A split split plot design was used with 8 treatments and 16 replications. The presence or absence of fungicide treatment was the main plot. Varieties were sub plots and position of the buds within the cuttings constituted the sub sub plots. The treatment of the cutting for 1 minute in the fungicide solution improved the germination of the variety NA56-79 but had no effect in the variety IAC64-257. There was no difference between the percent germination of the two

  10. Effects of Different Usage Methods of (fabricius) Sex Attractant on Moth Catches%斜纹夜蛾性诱剂不同使用方法对诱蛾量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌明华; 陆镜清; 徐冬毅; 杨焕军

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of different usage methods of sex attractant and trapper of (fabricius) on moth catches, to make sure the suitable hanging height and distance of the trapper. The results showed that, under the same usage time and climate condition, the number of trapped moth was the largest while the trapper was hung 30-50 cm above crop. In addition, taking cost-saving and trapping effect into consideration comprehensively, it was advisable to keep the hanging distance of 50-80 cm and put single sex attractant of (fabricius) into the trapper.%通过对性诱剂及诱捕器不同悬挂使用方法对诱蛾量的影响进行应用观察研究,以期明确性诱剂诱捕器摆放高度、间距等较为合理的使用方法。试验结果表明,诱捕器在时间、气候条件等相同情况下,放置在作物顶端上方30~50 cm,诱蛾量最大;从节本和诱蛾效果来看,放置间距以50~80 m为宜;诱芯以单放为宜。

  11. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to 80

  12. Chemo sterilization of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) with sugar solution bait and insecticides of insect growth regulators group; Esterilizacao quimica da broca da cana-de-acucar Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) atraves de isca com melaco e inseticidas do grupo dos reguladores de crescimento de insetos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazaki, Catia Sumie Shimatai. E-mail csazaki@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest in Brazilian sugarcane crops. Currently, biological control is the most frequently used method for controlling D saccharalis. However, in several locations, the parasitoid Cotesia flavipes (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has not been effective for controlling this pest, and it has been recorded infestation intensity above 25%. In this context, the Sterile Insect Technique could be an additional control method in Integrated Pest Management, because it is compatible with other control methods. The use of insecticides that interferes in hormone homeostasis involved in the ecdyse's process with exogenous hormone sources or synthetic analogues (agonists or antagonists) can result in the interruption of the reproductive process or abnormal development of the insect?s embryo. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the insecticides that regulates the insect growth on the D. saccharalis reproduction. The insecticides tested were: chlorfluazuron (1,0 and 1,5 g a.i./L), diflubenzuron (3,75; 5,0 and 7,5 g a.i./L), flufenoxuron (1,0 g a.i./L), lufenuron (0,75; 1,0 and 2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (0,5 and 1,0 g a.i./L) pyriproxyfen (1,0; 1,5; 1,8 and 2,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (1,5; 3,0 and 6,0 g a.i./L). Each insecticide was provided to 1-day moths on soaked cotton with a sugar solution at 10% as a bait. All treatments, except to of the lowest concentration of lufenuron (0,75 g a.i./L) decreased the egg production in relation to the control. Flufenoxuron (1,00 g g a.i./L) and chlorfluazuron (1,50 g a.i./L) decreased the lifespan of both sexes treated by ingestion. Lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), novaluron (1,0 g a.i./L) and teflubenzuron (3,0 g a.i./L) decreased the male's lifespan. The most effective treatments for sterilization were pyriproxyfen (1,8 g a.i./L and 2,0 g a.i./L) and lufenuron (2,0 g a.i./L), witch showed efficiencies greater or close to

  13. Nim (Azadirachta indica: uma alternativa no controle de moscas na pecuária Neem (Azadirachta indica: an alternative for controlling flies associated with animal breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Sayão R. Deleito

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As moscas Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, Cochliomyia hominivorax e Musca domestica, estão entre as mais importantes pragas da pecuária causando miíases e como portadoras de microrganismos patogênicos. O propósito deste estudo foi testar a eficácia de várias concentrações do óleo de nim sobre pupas das moscas mencionadas em condições de laboratório e de campo. A redução da emergência das moscas das pupas tratadas com 0,6 por cento de óleo de nim foi de 95,6 por cento em condições de laboratório e 94,5 por cento quando aplicado ao solo onde descansam os animais durante a noite. A aplicação do óleo de nim a 0,6% no solo é uma alternativa viável para controle das pupas de L. cuprina, C. megacephala, C. hominivorax e M. domestica.Flies Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, Cochliomyia hominivorax and Musca domestica, are among the most important arthropod pests of livestock, which produce myiasis and carry pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to test of efficacy of various concentrations of neem oil on pupae of the above mentioned flies under laboratory and in field conditions. Reduction of fly emergence from treated pupae with 0.6 per cent of neem oil was 95.6 per cent under laboratory conditions and 94.5 per cent when applied on the soil, where the cattle rest during the night. The application of neem oil at 0.6 per cent on the soil is a viable alternative for controlling pupae of L. cuprina, C. megacephala, C. hominivorax and M. domestica.

  14. Dynamics of experimental populations of native and introduced blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae: mathematical modelling and the transition from asymptotic equilibrium to bounded oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAC Godoy

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium dynamics of native and introduced blowflies is modelled using a density-dependent model of population growth that takes into account important features of the life-history in these flies. A theoretical analysis indicates that the product of maximum fecundity and survival is the primary determinant of the dynamics. Cochliomyia macellaria, a blowfly native to the Americas and the introduced Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya putoria, differ in their dynamics in that the first species shows a damping oscillatory behavior leading to a one-point equilibrium, whereas in the last two species population numbers show a two-point limit cycle. Simulations showed that variation in fecundity has a marked effect on the dynamics and indicates the possibility of transitions from one-point equilibrium to bounded oscillations and aperiodic behavior. Variation in survival has much less influence on the dynamics.

  15. Muscóides sinantrópicos associados ao lixo urbano em Goiânia, Goiás Synanthropic muscoids associated with the urban garbage in Goiânia, Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Judy de Mello Ferreira

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of synanthropic muscoids associated with the urban garbage in the town of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil was investigated from March, 1987 to February, 1988. Flies were captured by entomological nets in four different sites: periodical food markets, popular markets, garbage containers and the municipal refuse dump. The following species were founded: Phaenicia eximia, P. sericata, P. cuprina, Chrysomya putoria. C. albiceps, C. megacephala, Musca domestica, Ophyra sp., Fannia sp. and several species of Sarcophagidae.

  16. Nidificação de Polybia rejecta (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Vespidae Associada à Azteca chartifex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae em Ecótono de Bioma Caatinga/Mata Atlântica, no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Virgínio

    2015-12-01

    Abstract. Some neotropical social wasps which are associated with some vertebrates and other insects like ants, and these interactions are reported for decades, but little is known about the presence of these in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest. This study describes the first association's record between nests of Polybia rejecta (Fabricius wasp and Azteca chartifex Forel ants in the transition area of the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga in Rio Grande do Norte. The observations were in a private forest in Monte Alegre, from October 2009 to September 2014 through active search for colonies, use of ad libitum method, photography and collection of specimens with traceability. In the study area were found four active colonies and one abandoned of P. rejecta, all associated with nests of A. chartifex with approach of 20-30 cm. It was found that when the colony of P. rejecta was disturbed, they became aggressive towards the disturbance object, whereas the ants gathered in order to fend off a potential predators. These interactions appear to benefit wasps and ants, it is assumed that is possible that wasps attack ants's predators, whereas the ants attack the wasps's predators. This study corroborates the hypothesis that the association between the social wasps P. rejecta and A. chartifex ants is beneficial for both species, and probably the wasps are the most benefited, but also shows the non-exclusivity of this association for the biomes up then reported.

  17. Evaluation on control efficacy of Sprodoptera litura (Fabricius) with 4 kinds of insecticides on Vigna unguiculata%4种杀虫剂防治豇豆斜纹夜蛾的防效比较试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦双; 陈海燕; 潘飞; 吉训聪

    2014-01-01

    通过应用4种药剂防治豇豆斜纹夜蛾药效试验,结果表明,5%氯虫苯甲酰胺悬浮剂防效最好,速效性和持效性都较好,20%氟虫双酰胺水分散粒剂、24%虫螨腈悬浮剂和24%甲氧虫酰肼悬浮剂等药剂也表现出较好的效果,持效期7d以上,生产上防治时可轮换或混合使用。%The efficacies of 4 insecticides were evaluated against Sprodoptera litura (Fabricius) with Vigna unguiculata in field trial. The results showed control efficiency of 5% chlorantraniliprole was the best with rapid efficacy and long efficacy. 20% flubendiamide, 24% chlorfenapyr and 24% methoxyfenozide in the trials had good control effects too, and the effects can be sustained for more than 7 days. These insecticides can be used on the production.

  18. Fumigant Toxicity of Crushed Bulbs of Two Allium Species to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Toxicidad Fumigante para Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabriciu (Coleoptera: Bruchidae de Bulbos Trozados de Especies Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I Ofuya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of crushed fresh bulbs of Allium sativum L. and A. cepa L. to the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, a major pest of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds was assessed under laboratory conditions in Akure, Nigeria. In the tests, 20 g of infested cowpea seeds were suspended in a piece of muslin cloth, over an amount of crushed bulb in a container with a tightly fitted lid. Adult emergence was completely prevented from freshly laid eggs of C. maculatus on cowpea seeds that was fumigated with 6.0 g or more of crushed bulbs of A. sativum. Such fumigated seeds were not holed at all. Other amounts of A. sativum tested (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. Crushed A. sativum was ineffective in preventing adult emergence from fumigated C. maculatus larvae in seeds. The fumigant effect of crushed A. cepa did not kill all C. maculatus eggs. An amount of 7.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. There is good prospect in using crushed bulbs of A. sativum> as fumigant in C. maculatus control in stored cowpea seeds.Se evaluó la toxicidad fumigante de bulbos frescos trozados de Allium sativum L. y A. cepa L. sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, una importante plaga de semilla almacenada de caupí Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Akure, Nigeria. En las pruebas, 20 g de semillas infestadas se suspendieron en un trozo de tela sobre cierta cantidad de bulbos trozados en un contenedor con una tapa ajustada. Se previno completamente la emergencia de adultos desde huevos recién puestos de C. maculatus en semillas de caupí que se fumigaron con 6,0 g o más de bulbos de A. sativum. Estas semillas fumigadas no estaban ahuecadas. Otras cantidades de A. sativum probadas (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 y 5.0 g redujeron

  19. Análise comparativa dos surtos e danos causados pelos besouros desfolhadores Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius, 1801 e Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre, 1891 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae em plantios de eucalipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Gonçalves Mafia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Os besouros desfolhadores Costalimaita ferruginea (Fabricius, 1801 e Costalimaita lurida (Lefévre, 1891 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae são pragas importantes da cultura do eucalipto. A biologia e comportamento daninho de C. ferruginea já foram caracterizados. Todavia, não existem estudos sobre o potencial de C. lurida como praga da cultura. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, de forma comparativa, os surtos e as injúrias causadas por C. ferruginea e C. lurida em plantios de eucalipto. Para isso, 202,8 mil ha de plantios clonais de eucalipto, nos Estados do Espírito Santo, da Bahia e de Minas Gerais, foram monitorados no período crítico de ocorrência (quente e chuvoso. Os surtos detectados foram caracterizados, determinando-se, por meio de amostragens, a incidência, a severidade e as populações absoluta e relativa do inseto por planta atacada. De forma geral, o comportamento daninho de C. lurida foi similar ao de C. ferruginea, em termos de época de ocorrência e tipo de injúrias causadas. Todavia, C. lurida apresentou maiores picos populacionais, em termos absolutos (insetos por planta e relativos (razão entre o número de insetos e altura das plantas atacadas, e atingiu maior proporção de área, podendo ser considerado mais daninho que C. ferruginea. O besouro C. lurida deve ser monitorado considerando os mesmos critérios. Além disso, os surtos desta nova praga poderão ser avaliados quanto ao nível crítico para controle, empregando-se as mesmas premissas adotadas para C. ferruginea. Adicionalmente aos resultados, registrou-se, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência de C. lurida no Estado da Bahia, em plantas de araçá (Psidium guineense, Swartz (Myrtaceae.

  20. Análise melissopalinológica e estrutura de ninho de abelhas Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Apidae encontradas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristovão, SE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emilene Correia Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo. A tribo Trigonini abrange o maior número de gêneros e espécies de abelhas, existindo espécies que ainda não foram estudadas e características biológicas e ecológicas que ainda são desconhecidas. As abelhas Trigona spinipes (Fabricius são descritas como agente polinizador de diversas culturas, podendo ser utilizada inclusive como agente polinizador comercial. O objetivo do trabalho foi realizar estudos sobre a abelha T. spinipes, buscando conhecer aspectos de sua biologia, preferências e hábitos alimentares, a partir do acompanhamento dos ninhos existentes no Campus da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, situado na cidade de São Cristóvão, SE. Os seguintes parâmetros foram avaliados: atividade de vôo, estrutura de ninho, umidade, grau brix e pH no mel, e avaliação palinológica do mel e tipos polínicos observados nos ninhos. Foram encontrados 20 ninhos de T. spinipes, as médias de entradas de abelhas foram 298,72 e saídas 282,16. O volume médio dos potes de mel foi de 0,459 mL (p > 0.05, o peso médio de 0,9573 g, (p = 0.05, and the medium weight 0.9573 g, (p <0.01. The humidity text the same to 24.20%, degree brix (soluble solids equal to 74.50 and pH 3.58. In the pollen the dominant grain belonged to the family Celastraceae (46% and honey the grain of dominant pollen belonged to the family Euphorbiaceae (51%. The diversity of pollens grains found in its victuals evidences the potential of the trigona as polinizador.

  1. 吡虫啉与联苯菊酯混配对麦长管蚜的毒力及增效作用%Synergistic Effect of Combinating Imidacloprid and Bifenthrin to Macrosiphum avenae(Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威; 谢咸升; 李大鹏

    2015-01-01

    参照FAO推荐的浸渍法,研究了吡虫啉与联苯菊酯的5种配比对麦长管蚜的防治效果。结果表明,吡虫啉和联苯菊酯混配后,表现增效作用的配比为1颐1,2颐1,共毒系数(CTC)分别为273.22,126.17;表现相加作用的配比为1颐2,5颐1,共毒系数(CTC)为95.28,104.65;表现拮抗作用的配比为1颐5,共毒系数(CTC)为60.46。5种配比中以1颐1的配比增效作用最强。%Five kinds ratio of imidacloprid and bifenthrin are reaseached on Macrosiphum avenae(Fabricius)for synergistic effect refered to FAO recommended immersion method. The result shows that mixed ratio of synergistic effect are 1:1,2:1,co-toxicity coefficient (CTC)are 273.22,126.17,additive effect are 1:2,5:1,CTC are 95.28,104.65;antagonism effect is 1:5,CTC is 60.46. The better ratio of synergistic effect was 1:1,which can provide the reasonable mixed basis for imidacloprid and bifenthrin.

  2. Сравнительный морфологический анализ двух видов Camptochironomus Kieffer, 1918 (Diptera, Chironomidae) - c. tentans (Fabricius, 1805) и c. pallidivittatus Edwards, 1929 Нижнего Поволжья

    OpenAIRE

    ПОЛУКОНОВА Н.В.

    2014-01-01

    Представлен морфологический анализ двух видов Camptochironomus Kieffer, 1918 (Chironomidae, Diptera) C. tentans (Fabricius, 1805) и C. pallidivittatus Edwards, 1929 Нижнего Поволжья.

  3. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  4. Effect of differents baits as attractant for blowflies (diptera at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil Efeito de diferentes iscas na atração de califorídeos (diptera no campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. D'almeida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It was carried out a survey of blowflies in a área of the Campus (Valonguinho of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine, bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively. The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%.Foi realizado um estudo sobre califorideos no Campus do Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense. A pesquisa foi efetuada de dezembro de 2003 a novembro de 2004, com coletas feitas com armadilhas utilizando iscas à base de peixe (sardinha, fígado bovino, camarão e banana. Foram coletados 6015 califorideos, Chrysomya megacephala e Lucilia eximia foram as mais freqüentes (50,55% e 21, 52%, respectivamente. A isca mais atrativa foi peixe (38,32% com picos populacionais em fevereiro e março.

  5. Levantamento de espécies de Odonata associadas à tanques de piscicultura e efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sobre ninfas de Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655 Odonata species survey associated with psiculture tanks and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis effect on Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 nymphs (Odonata: Libellulidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Moisés Quintilhiano

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Várias estações de piscicultura que trabalham com a produção de alevinos ou peixes ornamentais têm apresentado problemas relacionados à predação de larvas, pós-larvas e alevinos por ninfas de insetos da Ordem Odonata. Dessa forma, objetivou-se fazer um levantamento de espécies de odonatos presentes em tanques de criação de peixes em dois municípios da região centro-oeste de Minas Gerais, assim como avaliar o efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis de Barjac sobre ninfas de Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798 (Odonata: Libellulidae. Durante um período de três meses, foram realizadas coletas quinzenais, sendo os insetos adultos capturados com o auxílio de redes entomológicas e as ninfas, através de peneiras de malha fina, acopladas a cabos de madeira. As ninfas capturadas foram levadas para o laboratório onde foram individualizadas em caixas de isopor com capacidade para 2L, vedadas em sua extremidade superior com filó. Logo após a emergência dos adultos, esses foram mortos, acondicionados em envelopes e enviados para serem identificados. Os experimentos laboratoriais foram conduzidos em sala climatizada à 25 ± 2°C, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 12 horas. Ninfas de segundo ínstar de P. flavescens foram individualmente acondicionadas em caixas de isopor contendo cada uma 500mL de água livre de cloro e, estando essas no terceiro, quinto e sétimo ínstares, foram tratadas com B. thuringiensis var. israelensis, através do produto microbiano Vectobac®, em formulação granulada. O produto foi aplicado diretamente na água do recipiente de criação, em concentração indicada para o controle de larvas de culicídeos, duas concentrações superiores e duas inferiores a essa, além da testemunha, na qual não se aplicou o produto. As avaliações foram realizadas a 24, 48 e 72 horas após a aplicação do produto, registrando-se o número de insetos mortos em cada tratamento. Em ambos os experimentos, as ninfas

  6. Oral Myiasis Caused by Chrysomya bezziana in Anterior Maxilla

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Aggarwal; M Jonathan Daniel; Raju Singam Shetty; Boddu Naresh Kumar; Sumalatha, C. H.; Srikanth, E.; Shalu Rai; Rohit Malik

    2014-01-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare pathology and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, and severe halitosis. It arises from invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals by maggots or larvae of certain dipterian flies. It is mostly reported in developing countries and in the tropics. We hereby report a rare case of oral myiasis in a 70-year-old female with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which numerous live maggots ...

  7. Effect of Tomato, Pepper and Artificial Diet on the Growth, Development and Fecundity of Spodoptera litura Fabricius%取食番茄、辣椒和人工饲料对斜纹夜蛾生长发育和繁殖力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严珍; 吕宝乾; 彭正强; 章程辉; 金启安; 温海波

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different diets on the growth,development,survival,stool weight of different instars larvae,the amount of oviposition of Spodoptera litura Fabricius were observed,and the experimental population life table under the corresponding foodstuffs was established,by feeding S.litura with tomato fruit,pepper fruit and artificial diet in the laboratory,respectively.The results showed that the larval developmental period and the whole generation of S.litura fed with pepper fruit were significantly longer than that fed with tomato fruit and artificial diet.The stool weight of different instars larvae of S.litura fed with artificial diet was heavier than that fed with pepper fruit.The population trend index(Ⅰ)was all greater than 1,and the innate capacity for increase(rm)was all greater than 0,and the population of S.litura showed a rising trend.%分别用番茄果实、辣椒果实和人工饲料饲养斜纹夜蛾,观察不同食料对斜纹夜蛾(Spodoptera litura Fabricius)的生长发育、存活、不同龄期幼虫的粪便重量、成虫产卵量的影响,组建相应食料下的斜纹夜蛾实验种群生命表.结果表明:喂饲辣椒果实的斜纹夜蛾幼虫发育历期和全世代显著长于喂饲番茄和人工饲料,喂饲人工饲料的斜纹夜蛾不同龄期幼虫的粪便重量显著重于喂饲辣椒果实;种群趋势指数(Ⅰ)均大于1, 内禀增长力(rm)均大于0,斜纹夜蛾种群呈增长趋势.

  8. Rearing five species of Diptera (Calliphoridae of forensic importance in Colombia in semicontrolled field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Vélez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The family Calliphoridae is widely known to lead the colonization of corpses and their development rates are frequently used to estimate the postmortem interval. This study presents the larval growth of five forensically important species of Calliphoridae in Colombia. Rearing took place in semicontrolled field conditions where the egg masses were collected. We show curves of larval growth, larval length and time intervals to reach all immature stages for Lucilia eximia and Cochliomyia macellaria at two sites with different climatic conditions and for Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Calliphora nigribasis at one site. Overall, high temperatures speeded up the development of the species reared at two different sites, whereas low temperatures for C. nigribasis, lengthened the total development time. Differences between this study and others can be explained by the experimental conditions in the field without the possibility of strict laboratory rearing controls.La familia Calliphoridae es ampliamente conocida por liderar la colonización de los cadáveres y sus tasas de desarrollo son frecuentemente utilizadas para estimar el intervalo postmortem. Este estudio presenta el crecimiento larval de cinco especies de Calliphoridae de importancia forense en Colombia, considerando que la cría se dio en condiciones de campo semicontroladas en los lugares donde las masas de huevos fueron colectadas. Mostramos también, los intervalos de longitud y el tiempo empleado en alcanzar todos los estadios inmaduros para Lucilia eximia y Cochliomyia macellaria en dos lugares con diferentes condiciones climáticas y Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala y Calliphora nigribasis, en un solo lugar. En general, las altas temperaturas producen una aceleración en el desarrollo de las especies criadas en dos sitios diferentes, mientras que bajas temperaturas para C. nigribasis, alargaron el tiempo utilizado para completar el desarrollo. Las diferencias

  9. 非寄主植物挥发油对黄曲条跳甲成虫嗅觉、取食及产卵行为的影响%The Influence of Non-Host Plant Volatiles on Olfactory, Feeding and Oviposition Behavior of Phyllotreta striolata Fabricius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 张茂新; 凌冰; 张世军; 丛斌; 梁广文

    2003-01-01

    选取5种黄曲条跳甲(Phyllotreta striolata Fabricius)的非寄主植物:薇甘菊(Mikania micrantha H. B. K)、飞机草(Chromolaena odorata L.)、蟛蜞菊[Wedelia chinensis (Osb.) Merr.]、马缨丹(Lantana camara L.)和番茄(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).应用四臂嗅觉仪测定了黄曲条跳甲成虫对各种挥发油的嗅觉反应.结果表明:5种植物挥发油对黄曲条跳甲成虫都具有很强的驱避作用.室内选择性试验结果进一步证实了几种植物挥发油对黄曲条跳甲成虫取食和产卵行为具有干扰作用.

  10. Nim (Azadirachta indica): uma alternativa no controle de moscas na pecuária Neem (Azadirachta indica): an alternative for controlling flies associated with animal breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia Sayão R. Deleito; Gonzalo E. Moya Borja

    2008-01-01

    As moscas Lucilia cuprina, Chrysomya megacephala, Cochliomyia hominivorax e Musca domestica, estão entre as mais importantes pragas da pecuária causando miíases e como portadoras de microrganismos patogênicos. O propósito deste estudo foi testar a eficácia de várias concentrações do óleo de nim sobre pupas das moscas mencionadas em condições de laboratório e de campo. A redução da emergência das moscas das pupas tratadas com 0,6 por cento de óleo de nim foi de 95,6 por cento em condições de l...

  11. Use of maggot therapy for treating a diabetic foot ulcer colonized by multidrug resistant bacteria in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marilia A R Q; Ferraz, Julianny B; Junior, Miguel A A; Moura, Andrew D; da Costa, Maria E S M; Costa, Fagner J M D; Neto, Valter F A; Neto, Renato M; Gama, Renata A

    2015-03-01

    This study reports the efficacy of maggot therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infected with multidrug resistant microorganisms. A 74 year old female patient with diabetes for over 30 years, was treated with maggot therapy using larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The microbiological samples were collected to evaluate aetiology of the infection. The therapy done for 43 days resulted in a reduction of necrosis and the ulcer's retraction of 0.7 cm [2] in area. Analysis of the bacteriological swabs revealed the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies need to be done to confirm the role of maggot therapy in wound healing using a large sample and a proper study design. PMID:25963495

  12. Quantifying the potential pathogens transmission of the blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo A Maldonado

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the potential capability of transporting and passing infective pathogens of some blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Mihályi's danger-index was calculated for seven species. The original equation was modified to include synanthropic information to discriminate between asynanthropic, hemisynanthropic, and eusynanthropic status. Three groups were recognized, of which Phaenicia cluvia and Musca domestica proved the flies with lowest index value (D = 2.93 and 3.00 respectively; Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Sarconesia chlorogaster presented a significantly higher index value (p < 0.10; D = 4.28, 4.44 and 5.66 respectively and C. megacephala, C. vicina and P. sericata appear to represent the heaviest potential sanitary risk with the highest index value (p < 0.10; D = 15.54, 16.88 and 12.49 respectively.

  13. A fresh liver agar substrate for rearing small numbers of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Forensically important calliphorids can be reared on a mixture of beef liver and agar. Small pieces of meat, especially fresh or frozen beef liver, will desiccate in 2–6 h, but this simple-to-make feeding substrate remains moist for at least 12 h at 25 and 30°C without desiccation, even in small (5 g) amounts. We determined the survivorship of small numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (first-instar larvae to adult eclosion) raised on 5 g of liver agar and fresh beef liver. We found that all larvae raised on 5 g of liver died due to desiccation, but survivorship on 5 g of liver agar was equivalent to that on larger (50 g) pieces of either liver agar or beef liver.

  14. Use of maggot therapy for treating a diabetic foot ulcer colonized by multidrug resistant bacteria in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia A.R.Q. Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the efficacy of maggot therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer infected with multidrug resistant microorganisms. A 74 year old female patient with diabetes for over 30 years, was treated with maggot therapy using larvae of Chrysomya megacephala. The microbiological samples were collected to evaluate aetiology of the infection. The therapy done for 43 days resulted in a reduction of necrosis and the ulcer′s retraction of 0.7 cm [2] in area. Analysis of the bacteriological swabs revealed the presence of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further studies need to be done to confirm the role of maggot therapy in wound healing using a large sample and a proper study design.

  15. Apoptose e expressão de VP2 e GAPDH na infecção precoce pelo vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius em pintos SPF Apoptosis and expression of VP2 and GADPH in an experimental infectious bursal disease in SPF chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Batista

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e nove pintos SPF de um dia foram inoculados com o vírus da doença infecciosa da bursa de Fabricius (VDIB para avaliar a ocorrência precoce de apoptose e a expressão da proteína viral 2 (VP2 e da enzima gliceraldeído fosfato dehidrogenase (GAPDH. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos: 1-controle; e 2 a 5- com 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas pós-inoculação, respectivamente. Fragmentos da bursa de Fabricius foram colhidos para processamento histológico e extração de RNA. Lâminas coradas em HE e TUNEL (marcação in situ da fragmentação do genoma com transferase terminal de deoxinucleotídeo foram utilizadas na morfometria do índice apoptótico. Amostras de mRNA foram testadas para a expressão dos genes VP2 e GAPDH utilizando-se transcrição reversa e RT-PCR. Utilizou-se um kit SYBR GREEN PCR, e a reação foi desenvolvida em ABI Prism 7000 SDS. Os índices apoptóticos cresceram progressivamente indicando uma relação na atrofia bursal causada pelo VDIB. Paralelamente, os resultados da PCR em tempo real demonstraram queda da carga viral nas células linfóides da bursa nos diferentes intervalos de tempo do experimento. Esses resultados sugerem um papel protetor da apoptose na diminuição da replicação viral.Twenty-nine SPF 1-day-old chicks were inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV to evaluate early apoptosis and the expression of viral protein 2 (VP2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease (GAPDH. Five groups were formed: G1-control -and G2 to G5, - 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation, respectively. Half of each BF was fixed and processed by routine techniques. To quantify apoptosis, 5µm-thick sections were stained with HE and submitted to TUNEL (terminal transferase UDP nick end labeling technique. mRNA was extracted from pooled samples of 3 animals/group and used for the expression of VP2 and GADPH genes using the reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A SYBR

  16. Dípteros muscóides como vetores mecânicos de ovos de helmintos em jardim zoológico, Brasil Muscoid dipterans as helminth eggs mechanical vectors at the zoological garden, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderleia Cristina de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar as espécies de dípteros muscóides capazes de veicular ovos e larvas de helmintos e avaliar o potencial de contaminação dos dípteros capturados. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi realizada em dois pontos distintos do Jardim Zoológico da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, no período de maio de 1996 a abril de 1998. As capturas dos dípteros foram realizadas semanalmente com armadilhas contendo peixe em putrefação, que permaneceram expostas durante uma hora nos dois pontos: local 1- próximo à lixeira do zoológico e o local 2- perto do recinto do hipopótamo e das aves de rapina. Foram capturadas 41.080 moscas, sendo a espécie Chrysomya megacephala mais representativa com 69,34%, seguida de Chrysomya albiceps 11,22%, Musca domestica 7,15%, Chrysomya putoria 4,52%, Fannia sp. 3,12%, Ophyra sp. 2,53% e Atherigona orientalis 2,08%. As moscas capturadas tiveram a superfície dos corpos lavadas com água destilada e os tubos digestivos dissecados. RESULTADOS: Das espécies estudadas, C. megacephala e M. domestica apresentaram maior quantidade de ovos de helmintos na superfície do corpo e no conteúdo intestinal. Ovos de Ascaridoidea e Trichinelloidea prevaleceram no conteúdo intestinal de C. megacephala. Dos ovos de helmintos encontrados na superfície do corpo e no conteúdo intestinal foram identificados: Ascaris sp., Toxascaris sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Oxiurídeos, Triconstrogilídeos e Acantocephala. Também foram encontradas larvas de helmintos na superfície do corpo dos dípteros. Houve diferenças significativas (nível de 5%, pelo teste F entre os diferentes pontos de capturas em relação ao número de ovos de helmintos encontrados nos dípteros. CONCLUSÕES: As fezes dos animais do jardim zoológico, encontradas freqüentemente nos abrigos e lixeiras, contribuíram para a proliferação dos dípteros muscóides, que assumem importante papel na veiculação de ovos de helmintos, principalmente pelo

  17. Pandora bullata (Entomophthoromycota: Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalva, Cristian; Collier, Karin; Luz, Christian; Humber, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was observed over several days in mid-February 2015 at the local garbage dump adjacent to the city of Cavalcante, northern Goiás. This site harbored large populations of both C. megacephala and a Musca sp. (Diptera: Muscidae) but only the population of oriental latrine fly was affected by any fungal pathogen and presented unusually dense populations of fresh cadavers. The fungus was identifiable as Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) only after a very small number of characteristically decorated resting spores were found in these flies two months later; this represents the first Brazilian (and South American) record of this species. P. bullata is known previously from a small number of North American, European and Australian collections, all of which have included relatively abundant production of resting spores. We cannot dismiss the possibility that the extremely sparse formation of resting spores at this Brazilian site may be due to abiotic factors such as latitude (13°46'40.53″S), day length, ambient temperatures, or even the precipitation patterns in this mid-tropical montaine site. Epizootic events affecting calliphorids in Brazil strengthen the interest in entomophthoran pathogens for biological control of flies. PMID:26968351

  18. Using the Developmental Gene Bicoid to Identify Species of Forensically Important Blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Park

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying species of insects used to estimate postmortem interval (PMI is a major subject in forensic entomology. Because forensic insect specimens are morphologically uniform and are obtained at various developmental stages, DNA markers are greatly needed. To develop new autosomal DNA markers to identify species, partial genomic sequences of the bicoid (bcd genes, containing the homeobox and its flanking sequences, from 12 blowfly species (Aldrichina grahami, Calliphora vicina, Calliphora lata, Triceratopyga calliphoroides, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Phormia regina, Lucilia ampullacea, Lucilia caesar, Lucilia illustris, Hemipyrellia ligurriens and Lucilia sericata; Calliphoridae: Diptera were determined and analyzed. This study first sequenced the ten blowfly species other than C. vicina and L. sericata. Based on the bcd sequences of these 12 blowfly species, a phylogenetic tree was constructed that discriminates the subfamilies of Calliphoridae (Luciliinae, Chrysomyinae, and Calliphorinae and most blowfly species. Even partial genomic sequences of about 500 bp can distinguish most blowfly species. The short intron 2 and coding sequences downstream of the bcd homeobox in exon 3 could be utilized to develop DNA markers for forensic applications. These gene sequences are important in the evolution of insect developmental biology and are potentially useful for identifying insect species in forensic science.

  19. Phylogenetics of the Old World screwworm fly and its significance for planning control and monitoring invasions in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phylogenetic, genealogical and population relationships of Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b), nuclear elongation factor 1α( EF-1α) and nuclear white eye colour (white), using sequences of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies as outgroups. Cyt b (717 bp, 754 specimens), EF-1α (361 bp, 256 specimens) and white (577 bp, 242 specimens) were analysed from up to two African and nine Asian countries, including 10 Indonesian islands. We show that OWSF occurs as distinctive African and Asian lineages based on cyt b and white, and that there is a marked differentiation between Sumatran and Javan populations in Indonesia, supported by the genealogy and analysis of molecular variance of cyt b alone. Four cyt b sub-lineages are recognised in Asia: only 2.1 occurs on the Asian mainland, from Yemen to Peninsular Malaysia; only 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 occur in central Indonesia; 2.4 predominates on New Guinea; and 2.1 co-occurs with others only on Sumatra in western Indonesia. This phylogeography and the genetic distances between cyt b haplotypes indicate pre-historic, natural dispersal of OWSF eastwards into Indonesia and other Malesian islands, followed by vicariant evolution in New Guinea and central Indonesia. OWSF is absent from Australia, where there is surveillance for importation or natural invasion. Judged by cyt b haplotype markers, there is currently little spread of OWSF across sea barriers, despite frequent shipments of Australian livestock through Indonesian seas to the Middle East Gulf region. These findings will inform plans for integrated pest management, which could be applied progressively, for example starting in East Nusa Tenggara (central Indonesia) where OWSF has regional cyt b markers, and progressing westwards to Java where any invasion from Sumatra is unlikely. Cyt b markers would help identify the source of any re-emergence in treated areas. (author)

  20. Phylogenetics of the Old World screwworm fly and its significance for planning control and monitoring invasions in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhana, A H; Hall, M J R; Mahamdallie, S S; Muharsini, S; Cameron, M M; Ready, P D

    2012-07-01

    Phylogenetic, genealogical and population relationships of Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b), nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) and nuclear white eye colour (white), using sequences of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies as outgroups. Cyt b (717bp, 754 specimens), EF-1α (361bp, 256 specimens) and white (577bp, 242 specimens) were analysed from up to two African and nine Asian countries, including 10 Indonesian islands. We show that OWSF occurs as distinctive African and Asian lineages based on cyt b and white, and that there is a marked differentiation between Sumatran and Javan populations in Indonesia, supported by the genealogy and analysis of molecular variance of cyt b alone. Four cyt b sub-lineages are recognised in Asia: only 2.1 occurs on the Asian mainland, from Yemen to Peninsular Malaysia; only 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 occur in central Indonesia; 2.4 predominates on New Guinea; and 2.1 co-occurs with others only on Sumatra in western Indonesia. This phylogeography and the genetic distances between cyt b haplotypes indicate pre-historic, natural dispersal of OWSF eastwards into Indonesia and other Malesian islands, followed by vicariant evolution in New Guinea and central Indonesia. OWSF is absent from Australia, where there is surveillance for importation or natural invasion. Judged by cyt b haplotype markers, there is currently little spread of OWSF across sea barriers, despite frequent shipments of Australian livestock through Indonesian seas to the Middle East Gulf region. These findings will inform plans for integrated pest management, which could be applied progressively, for example starting in East Nusa Tenggara (central Indonesia) where OWSF has regional cyt b markers, and progressing westwards to Java where any invasion from Sumatra is unlikely. Cyt b markers would help identify the source of any re-emergence in treated areas. PMID:22664061

  1. Autosomal rearrangement in Gryllus assimilis Fabricius, 1775 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Zefa

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Gryllus assimilis L. has a karyotype of 2n = 29 (X0, male and 30 (XX, female. The above karyotype was encountered along with another in which 2n = 28 (X0, male and 2n = 29 (XX, female in a population from the outskirts of Rio Claro city (São Paulo State, Brazil. Of eight specimens studied, five had the heterozygous karyotype involving a translocation and three had the basic karyotype. There were no individuals homozygous for the rearrangement. The heterozygous karyotype was the result of a chromosomal rearrangement between chromosome pairs 6 and 10, both of which were initially submetacentric. The members of the sixth pair normally have two constrictions in the small arm, with a satellite at the chromosome tip. The chromosome of the tenth pair involved in the translocation was generally submetacentric and probably underwent a pericentric inversion which transported the centromere to a subterminal position before being translocated. In this case, the long arm of the inverted chromosome of the tenth pair was translocated with the satellite of a member of the sixth pair.A espécie Gryllus assimilis L. apresenta 2n = 29, X0 (macho e 2n = 30, XX (fêmea, porém em alguns indivíduos coletados na cidade de Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brasil, foram encontrados dois cariótipos distintos: o cariótipo básico e outro rearranjado, com 2n = 28, X0 e 2n = 29, XX. O rearranjo foi interpretado como sendo autossômico e heterozigoto, caracterizado pela translocação envolvendo dois pares de homólogos submetacêntricos: o par 10, que possivelmente tem um dos elementos com uma inversão pericêntrica, e o par 6, que possui em seu braço curto duas constrições secundárias, diferenciando satélites em suas extremidades.

  2. Walking stability of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, E M; Nogueira, R M; Pina, D S; Manica, C L M; Faroni, L R A; Moreira, P S A

    2016-04-19

    Results obtained in studies can contribute to the advancement of science and innovative methods and techniques for developing practical activities. Reporting conditions that may restrict the implementation of research is critical to ensure the optimal development of further technical studies. The objective of this study was to assess the walking stability of R. dominica on a flat and smooth surface. The study was based on the determination of mortality, morphology and walking stability of the insect outside the grain mass, on a flat and smooth surface. Mortality of adults of this Coleoptera in conditions with and without food was similar, which explains the difficulty that this insect had for accessing the food source on the flat and smooth surface. The measurements of body length (BOL), width (BOW) and height (BOH) of R. dominica were compared with those of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which showed good ability to walk in these conditions. This study indicated that the former presents lower BOL and BOW, and greater BOH than the second, and all these variables showed differences when analyzed simultaneously by means of the construction of multivariate morphometric indices (Width × Height, Length × Height and Height × Length × Width). These morphometric variables, together with the definition of the geometry most similar to the body shape, resulted in determination of the center of gravity (CG) and static rollover threshold (SRTgeom) for both species. Rhyzopertha dominica and T. castaneum presented CGs considered high and low, respectively, and together with the values obtained for SRTgeom, may justify that R. dominica can be considered a less stable species during movement, and presents greater risk of rollover on flat and smooth surfaces. PMID:27097085

  3. Control of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) infesting wheat through accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the findings of this paper, it could be recommended that wheat has to be irradiated with accelerated electrons with the dose of 250 Gy, so as to make it completely safe against the development of eventually existing R. dominica populations

  4. Mortality rates estimates for Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) of Maputo Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Brinca, L.; Palha de Sousa, L.

    1984-01-01

    The species Metapenaeus monoceros in Maputo Bay recruits to the fishery almost all over the year, but the main recruitment occurs over a short period of time, each year, during April-May. Growth curves were constructed by following the progression of modes over a period of time. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated as L∞=31.9 mm and K(monthly)=0.25, for males, and L∞=48.3 mm and K(monthly)=0.14, for females (Brinca and Sousa, 1984). Using data on growth and length composition ...

  5. Autosomal rearrangement in Gryllus assimilis Fabricius, 1775 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Edison Zefa

    1999-01-01

    Gryllus assimilis L. has a karyotype of 2n = 29 (X0, male) and 30 (XX, female). The above karyotype was encountered along with another in which 2n = 28 (X0, male) and 2n = 29 (XX, female) in a population from the outskirts of Rio Claro city (São Paulo State, Brazil). Of eight specimens studied, five had the heterozygous karyotype involving a translocation and three had the basic karyotype. There were no individuals homozygous for the rearrangement. The heterozygous karyotype was the result of...

  6. Interaction of enzyme inhibitors with insecticides on Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)and Spodoptera litura(Fabricius)%酶抑制剂与防治甜菜夜蛾和斜纹夜蛾杀虫剂的互作效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永强; 王伟; 于春雷; 慕卫; 胡延萍

    2011-01-01

    To understand the interaction of enzyme inhibitors with insecticides on Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) and Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), the laboratory toxicities of emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, tebufenozide and methomyl on the 3-instars of S. exigua and S. litura were determined using topical application. The results indicated that the relative toxicities of emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb were high on S. exigua and S. litura with the LC50 range between 0.69 1g/g and 16.32 μg/g, while only chlorpyrifos showed high toxicity to S. litura and tebufenozide to S. exigua with LC50 37.66 μg/g and 20.71 μg/g, respectively. The results of interaction of enzyme inhibitors with insecticides indicated that four different enzyme inhibitors of PBO, TPP, DEM, and SV1 showed significant restraint to chlorfenapyr and indoxacarb with the synergism ratio between 0.25 and 0.96, while showed synergism to emamectin benzoate, tebufenozide on S. exigua and emamectin benzoate, chlorpyrifos on S. litura with the synergism ratio between 1.22 and 16.2.%采用点滴法比较了甲维盆、虫螨腈.茚虫威、虫酰肼、毒死蟀、灭多威对甜菜夜蛾和斜纹夜蛾3龄幼虫的室内毒力,以及酶抑制剂与防治甜菜夜蛾和斜纹夜蛾杀虫剂的互作效应.结果表明,甲维盐、虫螨腈、茚虫威对2种试虫毒力较高,LC50值介于0.69~16.32μg/g之间;虫酰肼对甜菜夜蛾毒力较高,LC50值为37.66μg/g毒死蜱对斜纹夜蛾毒力较高,LC50值为20.71μg/g.酶抑制剂PBO,TPP,DEM,SV1在甜菜夜蛾和斜纹夜蛾上对虫螨腈和茚虫威均表现为抑制作用,增效比在0.25~0.96之间;而这4种酶抑制剂在甜菜夜蛾上对甲维盐和虫酰肼以及在斜纹夜蛾上对甲维盐和毒死蟀表现为增效作用,除SV1在斜纹夜蛾上对毒死蜱增效倍数高达16.20外,其它组合增效倍数均介于1.22~4.20之间.

  7. Ocular myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana – a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nene, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Amit S Nene, Anoop Mishra, Purnima Dhand Department of Ophthalmology, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India Abstract: Ophthalmomyiasis can have variable presentation depending on the type of fly, structures involved, and level of penetration. A 42-year-old female presented with extensive myiasis of the right eye. A lesion of 3×2 cm was noted at the medial canthus and was infested with maggots. The larvae were removed meticulously and the wound debrided. The l...

  8. Ocular myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana – a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nene AS; Mishra A; Dh; Van, P.

    2015-01-01

    Amit S Nene, Anoop Mishra, Purnima Dhand Department of Ophthalmology, Assam Medical College and Hospital, Dibrugarh, Assam, India Abstract: Ophthalmomyiasis can have variable presentation depending on the type of fly, structures involved, and level of penetration. A 42-year-old female presented with extensive myiasis of the right eye. A lesion of 3×2 cm was noted at the medial canthus and was infested with maggots. The larvae were removed meticulously and the wound debrided. The larva...

  9. Polimorfisme gen pengkode protein membran peritrofik (PM-48) Screwworm fly (Chrysomya bezziana) asal Bandung dan Makassar

    OpenAIRE

    Agus, Rosana; Iskandar, Djoko T.; Moeis, Maelita R

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui ada tidaknya polimorfisme gen pengkode membran peritrofik PM-48 asal Bandung dan Makassar. Membran peritrofik dihasilkan oleh kardia larva Crysomya bezziana dan merupakan suatu kandidat vaksin yang ideal untuk mencegah penyakit miasis pada sapi.

  10. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi, A; AR Rasekhi; M Kalantari; GR Hatam

    2009-01-01

    Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The vari­ous forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chry­somya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two differ­ent regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this prov­ince. &n...

  11. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Faramarzi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The vari­ous forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chry­somya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two differ­ent regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this prov­ince.  

  12. Effects of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabricius infestation on resistant enzyme activity in the leaves of tomato genotypes with different JA pathways%茄二十八星瓢虫为害对不同基因型番茄叶内三种抗性酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国红; 曹彬; 黄长礼; 戈峰

    2015-01-01

    [Objectives] We examined interactions between H. vigintioctopunctata and three isogenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) genotypes with different jasmonic acid (JA) pathways. [Methods] The tomato genotypes were; suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2) mutant plants, 35s prosystemin (35s) plants, and wild type (Wt) plants. Activity of protease inhibitors (PI) and lipoxygenase (LOX) and dynamic change in relative gene expression of the three kinds of enzymes were tested to study the defense signal pathway induced by H. vigintioctopunctata in tomatoes, and the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in the plant defense process. [Results] Major results were; activity and gene expression of PI and LOX in 35s type tomatoes were significantly higher than in the other two varieties whereas the spr2 type tomato had the lowest level of PI expression. Different periods of exposure to H. vigintioctopunctata showed that the highest PI and LOX activity occurred in 35s and wt type tomatoes 24 h and 6 h after infestation, respectively. There was no significant temporal change in enzyme activity in spr2 type tomatoes. There were no significant differences in PAL activity and relative gene expression in the three tomato varieties. In the process of feeding on plants by H. vigintioctopunctata, PAL activity initially increased then declined after 48 h. No significant changes in PAL activity and gene expression were observed in systemic leaves. PI and LOX were more sensitive to insect herbivory than PAL. [Conclution] 35s tomatoes are to a certain degree resistant to H. vigintioctopunctata and jasmonic acid (JA) plays a role in this resistance.%【目的】研究茉莉酸合成相关基因在番茄抗茄二十八星瓢虫 Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabricius 中的作用,探讨茉莉酸信号因子在植物防御过程中起到的作用。【方法】利用3种基因型番茄茉莉酸合成缺失突变体 spr2、茉莉酸合成过量表达体35s、野生型番茄 Wt

  13. Hemócitos fagocitários em larvas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae Phagocytic hemocytes in larval of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M.F Falleiros

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural observation of the hemocytes of D. saccharalis larvae showed different hemocyte tvpes in various stage of interaction with microorganisms, which were interpreted as bacteria. The microorganisms were observed either free in the hemolymph or into the insect hemocytes. The bacteria were detected mostly into lhe granulocytes and plasmatocytes: the spherule cells and the oenocytoids also presented intracytoplasmic microorganisms, but less frequently. The fagocytic capacity of the different hemocyte tvpes is discussed.

  14. Flight time and flight age in the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius)(Coleoptera: Brentidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined daily flight patterns and the correlation between adult age and flight in Cylas formicarius in the laboratory at 25 ± 1 ℃ under a 14L10D photoregime by a simple method of counting the number of adults flying out of a cup. The flight activity of males peaked just after the onset of darkness and gradually decreased toward the onset of light. Only a small proportion of them flew during the photophase. More than 90% of male adults flow at least once within 2 weeks after exodus from the sweet potato tuber. The proportion of males flying per day increased to a maximum 1 week after the exodus, and about 10% of them flow even 30 days after the exodus. On the other hand, flight activity of females was low and the proportion of females flying at least once was about 25%. Females flow from 7 to 24 days after the exodus

  15. X-ray induced sterility in adults of Dysdercus koenigii Fabricius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of late 1st instar nymphs of Dysdercus koenigii F. with X-ray dose of 10 to 50 Gy adversely affected their moulting and metamorphosis. Doses above 20 Gy completely inhibited nymphal development. At 20 Gy dose only 15 percent nymphs could reach adults stage with about 3-5 days delay. But at 10 Gy dose, 75 percent nymphs could metamorphose to adult stage as compared to 86 percent in control. Adults emerged in 10 Gy dose treatment were outcrossed to normal partners of opposite sex and also intercrossed to assess level of sterility induced in these insects. Fecundity was not affected in any of the four combinations tested. Almost complete sterility was induced in males whereas in females partial sterility was observed. Sterility was mainly due to induction of dominant lethal mutations. In case of treated females mated to normal males there was gradual recovery in fertility when successive egg batches of individual females were considered. However, no such recovery was found in males which emerged from irradiated nymphs. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Progress in the eradication of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius, 1794 (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae) from the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amblyomma variegatum, commonly known as the tropical Bont tick, was introduced from West Africa to the islands of Guadeloupe and Antigua in the 19th century. The tick spread only to two other islands in the French West Indies during the following 70 to 80 years. Since the mid-1970s, however, it became widely distributed in the eastern Caribbean islands. There is now increasing evidence that migratory birds, especially the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis Linnaeus (Ciconiformes: Ardeie) disseminated larvae and nymphs, as the egret itself has been spreading to new islands over the last 20 years (Corn et al. 1993, Barre et al. 1995). Subsequently, the tropical Bont tick, through its association with the bacterial skin disease known as dermatophilosis, caused the loss of large numbers of animals. On Nevis, for example, cattle numbers were decimated from 5,000 to 500 in less than 10 years. Elimination of this tick and its associated diseases could help to alleviate the deficit in animal protein in the region which imports about US$100 million worth of livestock products per annum. Risk analysis, feasibility and cost-benefit studies were carried out to assess the importance of these problems (Alderink and McCauley 1988, Gersabeck 1994). The US Department of Agriculture estimated potential losses of US$762 million annually if the tick and its associated diseases became established in mainland countries. These studies led to the formulation of the Caribbean Amblyomma Programme in the late 1980s (Barre and Garris 1989, CARICOM/FAO/IICA 1995, Wilson 1996). During the early 1990s, potential donors were concerned about the proposed tick control strategy whereby government veterinary teams would be responsible for treatment of all livestock. Based on practical experience in the region, it was considered particularly unrealistic for teams to treat 600 - 1,000 animals per day under the current livestock management practices. An alternative, or complementary, method proposed the use of mobile crush-pens which would also be difficult to implement. Who would erect them and where? Once erected, who would bring the animals to them? Most livestock in the region are owned by part-time farmers who tend their livestock early in the morning or late in the evening or on weekends. Consequently, they are rarely available to assist veterinary personnel in handling their livestock during normal working hours. This unique system of animal ownership and husbandry practices in the Caribbean would, therefore, due to very high operational costs, almost prohibit conventional delivery of tick control by veterinary services personnel

  17. Geographic variation in cypermethrin insecticide resistance and morphometry in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anbalagan Santhosh Kumar; Kathirvelu Baskar; Ajith Johnson; Savarior Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find out the most resistant strain of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) from Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka by synthetic insecticide treatment. Methods:Using leaf disc no-choice method, the insects were tested with different doses for pesticides. The LC50 and LC90 values were calculated by probit analysis. Results:In the insect bioassay, the cypermethrin insecticide showed significantly higher LC50 values of 14.699 g/L and 15.738 g/L against the Tamil Nadu and Kerala S. litura insect cultures respectively. The body length of 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae were significantly higher (P≤0.05) in TTP insect population [(19.2±2.3) mm, (28.05±3.20) mm, (36.1±2.0) mm], when compared with KTK [(18.5±2.7) mm, (23.38±2.00) mm, (31.75±2.70) mm] and control, KBB [(15.65±2.30) mm, (23.65±2.70) mm, (33.2±2.2) mm] populations. The body breadth of 3rd instar larvae was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in TTP insect population (4.9±1.1) mm, when compared with KTK (3.93±0.80) mm and control, KBB (3.65±0.70) mm populations. Conclusions: The present study clearly showed that field collected strains were highly resistant when compared to control. Based on our study, we conclude that reduced use of synthetic pesticides is necessary and IPM is a better way to reduce the development of pesticide resistance among strains of S. litura.

  18. Moulting and moult quality in eye-stalk ablated penaeid prawn, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R.; Sivadas, P.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name 4_Kerala_Sci_Cong_Proc_1992_271.pdf.txt stream_source_info 4_Kerala_Sci_Cong_Proc_1992_271.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  19. Wild birds as hosts of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Rojas

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the prevalence, mean intensity and relative density of ticks in 467 wild birds of 67 species (12 families from forest and cerrado habitats at two protected areas of Minas Gerais, between March and September 1997. Ticks collected (n=177 were identified as larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense and four other species of Amblyomma. We report for the first time 28 bird species as hosts of the immature stages of A. cajennense, demonstrating the lack of host specificity of the larvae and nymphs. A. cajennense had 15% prevalence on birds, with a mean infestation intensity of 0.37 ticks per host sampled, and 2.5 ticks per infested bird. Prevalence varied in relation to host species, diet and between birds from forests at two successional stages. There were no differences in relation to host forest dependence, participation in mixed flocks of birds, and nest type constructed. A. cajennense is a species of medical and veterinary importance, occurring on domestic animals but is known little of its occurrence on wildlife.

  20. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    followed the cube law. The weight of the prawn increased at the rate of more or less cube of the length. The relationship was found to be significant (p less than 0.001). At 95% confidence limit the b values were between 3.0524 and 4.3691. ANOVA showed...

  1. Physiological effects of hypercapnia in the deep-sea bivalve Acesta excavata (Fabricius, 1779) (Bivalvia; Limidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karen M.; Kristiansen, Erlend; Zachariassen, Karl Erik

    2011-01-01

    ) corresponding to conditions reported from natural CO(2) seeps. Effects on acid base status and metabolic rate were related to time of exposure and subsequent recovery. During exposure there was an uncompensated drop in both hemolymph and intracellular pH. Intracellular pH returned to control values, while...

  2. [Range and ecology of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) in Mazuria focus. I. Defining current range].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdaszewska, Zofia

    2004-01-01

    During the vegetation periods of five subsequent years, ie. 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001, a field study aimed at defining, the current range of Dermacentor reticulatus in the so-called Mazuria focus was conducted on an area of about 24.000 km2 . The total of 68 sites covered by the study were located between the Great Mazurian Lakes District in the east and the lower Vistula valley in the west. The presence of adult forms of Dermacentor reticulatus was confirmed in 23 sites. The westernmost sites were discovered in the vicinity of Brodnica and Elblag. Both sites are located at longitude 19 degrees 20' East. PMID:16862808

  3. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Soundarapandian

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics. The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. The pH of the control tank w as 8.4 and the experimental tank was 8.2.The dissolved oxygen was higher in experimental tank (6.12ml/litre and lower in control tanks (5.75ml/litre. Likewise, the ammonia was higher in control tanks (0.19 mg/litre rather than experimental tanks (0.15mg/litre. The survival rate of different larval stages (nauplii, zoea and mysis were maximum in the present study than that of control tanks. The final survival rate of the post larvae from the control and experimental tank was 70 and 30% respectively. The average length of all post larvae was maximum when reared in experimental tank than control tanks. The general conclusion obtained from the present study is that the probiotics plays a vital role in maintaining water quality parameters throughout the larval cycle. It is clear from the microbial load data that vibrio sp. is dominant in the control tanks than in experimental tanks.

  4. A study on growth of Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) of Maputo Bay

    OpenAIRE

    Brinca, L.; Palha de Sousa, L.

    1984-01-01

    Biological data on Metapenaeus monoceros has been regularly collected in Maputo Bay since 1968. The main objective of this report is to study growth as a function of the size, since this is one of the basic parameters for population dynamics. As the possibility of studying shrimp growth by modal progression analysis depends very much on the space-time configuration of sampling, the years 1968 and 1969 were chosen to study growth of the population available to the bottom trawl used by the fish...

  5. Application of Irradiated Pro biotic Microorganism in Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine shrimp culture in Thailand has been developed continuously for the past two decades. This development will ensure the highest level of shrimp quality that will be suitable for the consumption of the people in the country and also aboard. The trend of culture system emphasizes on disease prevention more than treatment which will consequently limit the application of drug and chemicals. Application of pro biotic has been one means of this prevention that are commonly practiced by shrimp farmers. This research was conducted to compare the efficacy of normal Bacillus subtilis isolate from shrimp intestine and an irradiated B. subtilis as a pro biotic in shrimp feed. It was found that overall results were quite the same. These included the broth Co-culture assay. Effects on immune functions were conducted with Penaeus monodon with initial average weight of 17 gms by feeding with 3 gms/kg feed of spore of these two pro biotic for two mouths. The results indicated that both pro biotic caused significant improvement on percent phagocytosis only at the forth week of feeding trial and the overall enhancement of bactericidal activity. However, total haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were not altered. Total bacterial count in shrimp intestine was also conducted during the two month trial. the results indicated significant reduction of Vibrio spp. of both pro biotic groups when compared with the control. Number of Bacillus spp. in intestine were continuously high even after pro biotic treatment had been stopped Growth rate of experiment and control shrimp was not significantly different.

  6. Effect of Probiotics on the Hatchery Seed Production of Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Soundarapandian; Babu, R

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the diseases of shrimps hindered the development of shrimp culture. Hence, the use of probiotic bacteria in aquaculture has tremendous scope and the study of the application of probiotics in aquaculture has a glorious future. In the present study, the probiotics was applied (experimental) for the larval rearing of P. monodon which is compared with control tanks (without probiotics). The temperature and alkalinity of both control and experimental tanks were more of less same. ...

  7. Host plants of leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: noctuidae in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Ahmad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. Host plant survey for two years from three different locations in cotton belt revealed 27 plant species as host plants of S. litura belonging to 25 genera of 14 families including cultivated crops, vegetables, weeds, fruits and ornamental plants. Major host plants on which it thrived for maximum period were Gossypium hirsutum L., Ricinus communis L., Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L., Colocasia esculenta L., Trianthema portulacastrum L. and Sesbania sesban L.. Eggs were also collected from tree plants but larvae did not complete their development. Reliance of S. litura on major plant species of cultivated crops necessitates their regular monitoring especially during March to April for their population abundance and early warning for their management on commercial crops like cotton.

  8. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; Koeniger, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F A

    2014-12-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (subsequent sampling days) dynamics. We compared the drones' genotypes at ten microsatellite DNA markers with those of the queen genotypes of six drone-producing colonies located close to the DCAs (Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia). None of 430 sampled drones originated from any of these nearby colonies. Moreover, we estimated that 141 unidentified colonies were contributing to the three DCAs. Most of these colonies were participating multiple times in the different locations and/or during the consecutive days of sampling. The drones sampled in the DCAs could be attributed to six subpopulations. These were all admixed in all DCA samples, increasing the effective population size an order of magnitude and preventing matings between potentially related queens and drones. PMID:25558361

  9. Extensive population admixture on drone congregation areas of the giant honeybee, Apis dorsata (Fabricius, 1793)

    OpenAIRE

    Beaurepaire, Alexis L; Kraus, Bernard F; Koeniger, Gudrun; KOENIGER, Nikolaus; Lim, Herbert; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2014-01-01

    The giant honeybee Apis dorsata often forms dense colony aggregations which can include up to 200 often closely related nests in the same location, setting the stage for inbred matings. Yet, like in all other Apis species, A. dorsata queens mate in mid-air on lek like drone congregation areas (DCAs) where large numbers of males gather in flight. We here report how the drone composition of A. dorsata DCAs facilitates outbreeding, taking into the account both spatial (three DCAs) and temporal (...

  10. Food preference in the cultured species, Penaeus monodon Fabricius (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Khanum; Tirmizi, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    The study of food preference is necessitated by the need to promote coastal culture of shrimps in Pakistan. The cultured Penaeus monodon was selected for study. Food preferences have been examined through the analysis of the gut contents. The shrimp shows a seasonal variation in its preference to food and feeding.

  11. Feeding behavior and food preference of Penaeus monodon Fabricius with scrap tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Apud, F.D.; Deatras, N.; Gonzales, K.G.

    1980-01-01

    The time of day during which P. monodon feeds at different depth levels in earthen ponds, and its preference for three types of tilapia feeds (dry, fresh and fermented) were determined. It was observed that P. monodon concentrated at the bottom beds during the day and along the periphery of dikes during night-time, with a slight tendency to swim and feed towards the surface as darkness increased. P. monodon showed special preference for dried tilapia compared to fresh and fermented tilapia. P...

  12. Effect of eyestalk ablation on moulting and growth in the penaeid shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius, 1798)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkitaraman, P.R.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Balasubramanian, T.

    rate. The net growth efficiency also followed a trend similar to that of production in both size ranges. The results suggest that unilateral eyestalk ablation can be resorted to accelerate growth and conversion efficiency in M. monoceros...

  13. Purification and biochemical properties of a salivary α-amylase in Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Fazeli-Dinan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available α-amylase is one of the enzymes that has crucial role in extra-oral digestion (EOD of hemipteran insects. An α-amylase was purified and biochemically characterized from the salivary glands of Andrallus spinidens showing its considerable role in EOD process. It was found an enzyme by specific activity of 4.22 U/mg protein, recovery of 14.67 % and purification fold of 13.83-fold as well as molecular weight of 26 kDa. By using two buffer solutions, optimal pH of the purified α-amylase was found to be 9 for both universal and Tris-HCl buffers. Our findings revealed that the purified α-amylase had the highest activity at the temperatures of 35 and 40 °C, and were stable for 96 h at these temperatures. Kinetic parameters of the purified enzyme show that both starch and glycogen, are the suitable substrates for the enzymatic assay, but a lower Km demonstrated glycogen as a more appropriate substrate. Among the cations used to show their possible involvement in active site of the enzyme, Ca2+2+, Mg and one concentration of Cu2+ increased the α-amylase activity but Na+ decreased the enzyme activity. Triton X-100 increased the enzyme activity but SDS, EDTA, EGTA and TTHA decreased it, indicating involvement of metal ions in the active site of the purified α-amylase.

  14. Zizula hylax (Fabricius, 1775) new butterfly species for Socotra (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fric, Zdeněk; Hula, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 164 (2013), s. 571-575. ISSN 0300-5267 Grant ostatní: MŠMT(CZ) INGO LA 10036 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Zizula hylax Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.304, year: 2013

  15. Investigation on mosquito and fly species in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park%上海化工区口岸蚊蝇调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙义涛; 郭光亮; 曹敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To know the composition and distribution of mosquito and fly species through field investigation in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park,so as to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and treatment of biological vectors.Methods Lamp-baiting and scooping method were used for the investigation of mosquitoes,and cage-trap method was used for the catching of flies.Results During the investigation from 2009 to 2011,10 species of mosquitoes belonging to 6 genera were monitored,with Culex tritaeniorhynchus being the dominant specie.The ecological wetland was the prime breeding place of mosquitoes,and its peak time of activity was from June to August.Coquillettidia ochracea and Ochlerotatus dorsalis,which were rarely found in Shanghai,were also collected during the investigation there.Fifty-nine species of flies belonging to 31 genera of 5 families were monitored,with Chrysomya megacephala,Hemipyrellia liqurriens and Atherigona oryzae being the dominant species,and its peak time of activity was from June to September.Population distribution displayed the feature of diversification.Conclusions Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Chrysomya megacephala were the dominant species in the port of Shanghai Chemical Industry Park and were the prime vectors for prevention and control,and comprehensive prevention and control measures should be taken in accordance with their breeding habits and features,as well as changes in seasons of a year.%目的 调查上海化工区口岸蚊蝇,了解本区域蚊蝇种群的组成和分布,为口岸病媒防治工作提供科学依据.方法 蚊类调查采用灯诱法和捞勺法,蝇类采用诱蝇笼法.结果 2009-2011年,化工区口岸蚊类有6属10种,三带喙库蚊为优势种群,活动高峰在6-8月,生态湿地周围是蚊虫主要孳生地,捕获到上海地区较少见的黄色轲蚊和背点骚扰蚊;蝇类有5科31属59种,优势蝇种为大头金蝇、瘦叶带绿蝇和芒蝇,6-9月是活动高峰,种群分

  16. 2008-2009年柳州市蚊蝇密度监测分析%Monitoring and analysis the density of mosquitoes and flies in Liuzhou during 2008 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟柳青; 陈蔚恩; 罗静; 谢丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the pattem of annual vanation and population constitute of mosquitoes and flies ,to provide scientific basis for establishing control and prevention measures. Method Using manual - power - per - hour -trapping and cage trapping to monitor the density of mosquitoes and flies respectively. Results The density peak of mosquitoes appeared at the second and the fourth quarter, Culex quinquefasciatus was the dominant specie. There were two density peaks of flies in February and July of 2008 , and in April, June, August and September of 2009. Lucillia sericata, chrysomya megacephala and aldrichina grahami were the dominant species. Conclusions The density of mosquitoes and flies were higher in Liuzhou. At the basis of comprehensive prevention and control measures, combined the ecology characteristics of population and density fluctuation, canied on prevention and control strategies.%目的 了解柳州市城区蚊、蝇类季节消长规律及种群构成,为制订防制对策提供科学依据.方法 蚊密度监测用人工小时法,蝇密度监测用诱蝇笼法.结果 蚊在第二、四季度出现密度高峰,致倦库蚊为优势种群;蝇类密度2008年分别在2、7月出现高峰,2009年则在4、6、8、9月出现高峰,以丝光绿蝇、大头金蝇和巨尾阿丽蝇为优势种群.结论 柳州市区蚊蝇密度较高,应在以环境治理为主的综合防制策略基础上,结合种群和密度消长等生态学特点科学开展防制.

  17. Insects associated with exposed decomposing bodies in the Colombian Andean Coffee Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Grisales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, mainly classic forensic medicine methods were used to clarify crimes until 2004. However, other disciplines, including forensic entomology, started to be considered only after the New Accusatory System introduction in Bogotá and the Coffee Region in 2005. In order to provide tools for obtaining evidentiary material elements in judicial trials, it is presented here the succession of insects throughout the decomposition process of an exposed carcass of Sus scrofa Linnaeus 1758 (Suidae and the Occurrence Matrix of colonizing species. This process was evaluated under ambient conditions in the Andean rural area of the city of Pereira, in the Mundo Nuevo district, located in a pre-montane Wet Forest area, from October to November 2006. A sampling period of 27 days and 3198 individuals were collected. We found these colonizing species in the following stages of decomposition: Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 fresh; Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, Oxelytrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840, and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius 1775 bloated; Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819, Compsomyiops verena (Walker, 1849, Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann, 1830 and Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 active; Fannia sp. advanced and Stearibia nigriceps (Meigen, 1826 remains. This study provides support tools to define the Post Mortem Interval that may be used by experts from government institutions and laboratories officially accredited.

  18. Relative performance of surveys for the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in Iraq based on fly trapping and myiasis monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Taweel, A A; Okaily, R A; Salman, Q S; Al-Temimi, F A; Al-Adhadh, B N; Hamad, B S; Urech, R

    2014-10-01

    Fly traps are being used to monitor populations of Old World screwworm (OWS) flies in Iraq. We evaluated trapping systems for seasonality and trap type and compared the results with monitoring of OWS flies using myiases on animals. Fly catches increased during spring and autumn with low catches during the hot, dry summer and the cold winter. The effectiveness of the sticky trap/Swormlure and LuciTrap/Bezzilure for OWS flies could not be determined because no OWS were caught during the comparison period in 2009. The LuciTrap caught more flies of all other species than the sticky trap during this comparison. The numbers of myiases detected on animals in Iraqi provinces from 1996 to 2013 are provided. The high numbers of myiases in most provinces in the late 1990s were followed by lower numbers and subsequent apparent elimination in about half of the provinces. Myiases were detected mainly in sheep (77.0%) and goats (16.7%). A temporal comparison of OWS fly detection with traps and animal myiases in Babil province demonstrated a similar sensitivity and a weak correlation between the two methods. We recommend that both fly trapping and inspection of animals for myiases are used for the detection or monitoring OWS fly populations and that Iraq and the international organisations initiate an area-wide integrated OWS fly program, including the sterile insect technique, with the aim of eradicating the OWS fly from Iraq. PMID:24657848

  19. Genetical, Cytological and Biological Studies of OWSWF, Chrysomya bezziana Exposed to Gamma Rays: III.Effect on Flight Ability Index and Mating competitiveness Value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results showed that the Flight Ability Index (FAI) of Old World Screwworm (OWS) fly Ghrysomya bezziana adults which emerged form irradiated pupae with 30, 45, 60 and 75 Gy of gamma ray was not affected under Lab. conditions but it was effected under field condition. Result of mating competitiveness of adults emerged from irradiated pupae with 30 and 60 Gy of gamma rays and mated as follows: a - Irradiated males: unirradiated males:unirradiated females. b- Irradiated females: unirradiated females: unirradiated males. c- Irradiated females:Irradiated males:unirradiated females: unirradiated males. Showed that males irradiated with 30 Gy and mated as in a: reduced and have the percentages of egg hatching and have a very good competitiveness value and this dose which caused complete sterility in C. bezziana had no effect on this parameter, moreover, 30 Gy gamma rays caused an effect to females which mated as in b: Finally the results showed that irradiated males and females with 30 Gy as in c: had a very good mating competitiveness value.

  20. Controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (acari: xodidae em eqüinos, Minas Gerais, Brasil - Parte I Strategic control of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (acari: ixodidae on horses, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arildo P. Da Cunha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a eficiência de um programa de controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense em eqüinos sob condições de campo. Os tratamentos carrapaticidas foram realizados a cada sete dias e divididos em dois módulos: o primeiro com início em abril e término em maio de 2004 (oito banhos e o segundo com início e término em julho de 2004 (cinco banhos, visando atingir as larvas e ninfas do carrapato. Empregou-se a base química piretróide - cipermetrina 0,015%, para banhar os eqüinos. Após o programa de controle houve uma redução de 44,85% da carga parasitária de adultos do carrapato no período de outubro de 2004 a março 2005, e de 59,74%, em fevereiro e março de 2005. Os resultados demonstraram a efetividade do controle estratégico. No entanto, consideram-se importantes fatores operacionais e de gerenciamento que podem interferir na aplicação prática desta tecnologia.The aim of this study was to verify the efficiency of a strategic control program of Amblyomma cajennense in horses under field conditions. Acaricide treatments were applied at seven days intervals and divided in two series, the first one beginning in April 2004 (eight treatments, and the second one beginning in July 2004 (five treatments, aiming to control larvae and nymphs of the tick. A pyrethroid chemical base cypermethrin 0.015% was used for spraying the horses. There was a reduction of 44.85% in the adults infestetion of the tick in the period of October 2004 to March 2005, and 59.74%, in February and March 2005. Results showed the effectiveness of the strategic control. Important administrative and operational procedures can interfere with the practical application of this technology, and should be considered.

  1. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Euphoria lurida (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera - Scarabaeidae EM POMAR CÍTRICO POPULATION FLUCTUATION OF Euphoria lurida (Fabricius, 1775 (COLEOPTERA-SCARABAEIDAE IN CITRIC YARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gomes da Cunha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A flutuação populacional de Euphoria lurida foi estudada em pomar cítrico misto, abandonado e formado pelas variedades de laranjas baianinha e natal, tangerinas-cravo e rio, tangor-sabará e limão-cravo. Os adultos foram coletados através de armadilhas plásticas iscadas com melaço de cana a 20 %. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, quando também se procedia à troca da isca. As amostragens ocorreram no período de janeiro/84 a dezembro/86. Foram coletados 716 adultos no período e verificada a ocorrência da espécie durante todos os meses do ano. As maiores médias de coletas foram obtidas nos meses de janeiro, fevereiro e dezembro. O maior pico populacional foi observado no mês de janeiro do terceiro ano. Foram coletados 21,4%, 28,8% e 49,8% dos adultos no primeiro, segundo e terceiro anos de amostragens, respectivamente. A grande disponibilidade de alimento representada pelo alto número de frutos abandonados no solo foi a principal causa do aumento populacional da espécie no último ano de coletas. Estes resultados evidenciam que pomares abandonados, principalmente aqueles com grande quantidade de frutos deixados no solo, propiciam condições favoráveis ao rápido aumento populacional da espécie, que poderá migrar para pomares cítricos produtivos e causar sérios prejuízos atacando as flores e provocando a queda dos frutos em formação.

    The population fluctuation of Euphoria lurida was studied in a mixed citric yard, abandoned and composed by the varieties of baianinha and natal oranges, cravo and rio tangerine, tangor-sabará, and cravo lemon. Adult insects were collected using a plastic bait trap with 20% sugar-cane molasses. The collections were carried out every two weeks, when the baits were also replaced. Samples were undertaken in the period between January/94 to December/86. 716 adult insects were collected in such period and specie occurrence was verified during all months of the year. The highest population averages were observed during January, February and December, while the lowest occurrences happened in June and July. The highest population peak was observed in January, in the third year of collection. 21.4%, 28.8% and 49.8% of the adult insects were collected respectively, in the first, second and third years. An elevated food availability, caused by the high number of dropped fruits on the ground, was the main cause for the population raise observed during the last year of collection. Abandoned yards, specially those presenting a high amount of dropped fruits on the ground, propitiate the necessary conditions for the rapid population raise of the specie. Such increased population can migrate to productive citric yards causing serious damage, since they attack the flowers and lead to the fall of petals and growing fruits.

  2. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Euphoria lurida (Fabricius, 1775) (Coleoptera - Scarabaeidae) EM POMAR CÍTRICO POPULATION FLUCTUATION OF Euphoria lurida (Fabricius, 1775) (COLEOPTERA-SCARABAEIDAE) IN CITRIC YARD

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Gomes da Cunha; Antônio Henrique Garcia; Valquíria Rocha Santos Veloso

    2007-01-01

    A flutuação populacional de Euphoria lurida foi estudada em pomar cítrico misto, abandonado e formado pelas variedades de laranjas baianinha e natal, tangerinas-cravo e rio, tangor-sabará e limão-cravo. Os adultos foram coletados através de armadilhas plásticas iscadas com melaço de cana a 20 %. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, quando também se procedia à troca da...

  3. Estudo morfológico e quantitativo dos hemócitos em larvas de Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae Morphological and quantitative studies of the hemocytes in larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. Siqueira Bombonato

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemocytes of Diatraea saccharalis larvae aging from 13 to 26 days old were morphological and quantitatively characterized by phase contrast microscopy. Six hemocyte types were described and identified as: prohemocytes (PR, plasmatocytes (PL, granulocytes (GR, oenocytoides (OE. spherulocytes (SP and verm cells (VE. The total hemocyte counts showed no significant difference in the number of these cells along the normal development of the larvae. However, the relative number of different circulating hemocyte types fluctuated, and it could be expressed as: PL > GR > SP> PR > VE > OE in larvae up to 14 days old; and as: GR > SP > PL > VE > OE > PR in those older than 24 days.

  4. Studies on Life Fecundity Tables of Tobacco Leaf Eatingcaterpillar, Spodoptera Litura (Fabricius) On Tobacco, Nicotiana Tabacum (Linnaeus)

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, R. A.; D. M. Mehta; B. L. Jat; L. V. Ghetiya

    2014-01-01

    Studies on Life tables of Spodoptera litura, were carried out on bidi tobacco cv ABD-101 under laboratory condition at 26 ± 1 °C temperature at Bidi Tobacco Research Station, Anand Agricultural University, Anand (Gujarat). The results on number of individuals survived during development revealed that there was no mortality during egg stage and the maximum durations of egg, larva and pupa were 4, 22 and 14 days, respectively. The number that survived from 100 eggs to adult emergence was 76. Th...

  5. Crustacea decapoda : studies of the Plesionika narval (Fabricius, 1787) group (Pandalidae) with description of six new species

    OpenAIRE

    Crosnier, Alain; Chan, T. Y.

    1991-01-01

    A partir de récoltes faites par l'ORSTOM (Institut de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération), le Service Mixte de Contrôle Biologique des Armées (SMCR) et la National Taïwan Ocean University dans d'Indo-Ouest Pacifique (à Madagascar, aux Seychelles, à Taïwan, aux Philippines, en Indonésie, aux îles Chesterfield, en Nouvelle Calédonie et en Polynésie) et des prêts de divers Museums, une révision des #Plesionika$ du groupe #narval$ est tentée. (D'après résumé d'auteur)...

  6. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedokun, A.V.; Adeniyi, D.O.

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations. PMID:27147898

  7. Host Specificity of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae with Comments on the Drop-off Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Marques Lisbôa Lopes

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The parasitic specificity of larval, nymph and adult Amblyomma cajennense on six different host species: Oryctolagus cuniculus, Rattus norvegicus, Gallus gallus domesticus, Anas platyrhynchus, Coturnix coturnix and Streptopelia decorata is described. In terms of the numbers of larvae and nymphs recovered, O. cuniculus was the best host species. The modal day for drop-off of larvae and nymphs was day three for the mammal hosts, but variable in the birds. We conclude that adult A. cajennense have a strong degree of specificity due to the fact that the tick failed to complete its life cycle on any of the evaluated hosts. The immature stages, on the other hand, showed a low level of specificity, most especially in the larval stage, indicating the existence of secondary hosts which probably serve as dispersers in the wild. The results also indicated a variable drop-off rhythm for larvae and nymphs in two periods, diurnal (6-18 hr and nocturnal (18-6 hr, which differed depending upon the host.

  8. A first sighting of Tawny Coster Acraea violae Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from the southern foothills of Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Tshering Nidup

    2015-01-01

    Despite having rich faunal diversity of butterflies in the country there is no compressive checklist of butterflies. However, the sighting of Tawny Coster in southern foothills of Bhutan adds up a new species to the list of butterflies of Bhutan.  

  9. Bioactivity of Pseudocalymma alliaceum (Lam.) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae) against Spodoptera litura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidotera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar; Tamilarasu Chinnamani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, larvicidal and insect growth inhibitory activities of crude extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum tested against fourth instar larvae of Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods: Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera.Results:Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant, insecticidal activity against S. litura and H. armigera. Maximum percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were found on treatment with ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by extract treated larvae. Ethyl acetate extracts of Pseudocalymma alliaceum, showed higher percentage of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities.Conclusions:This is the first report on S. litura and H. armigera. Further, the active compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts will be useful for controlling economically important insect pests.

  10. Benthic Faunal Composition of Penaeus monodon Fabricius Culture Pond in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Hena M.K.; O. Hshamuddin; K. Misri; Abdullah, F.; Loo, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    The present study deals with the results on benthic faunal abundance and diversity of tiger shrimp P. monodon culture ponds in Perak, West coast of Peninsular Malaysia. To observe the abundance and composition of benthic organisms, sampling was carried out every three weeks interval throughout the culture period. In addition, observations on water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, transparency, pH and organic matter of soil were also made. The major groups of macro-benthos comprised of...

  11. Abundance and composition of benthic fauna in Penaeus monodon Fabricius culture pond on the west coast of Malaysia peninsular

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Abu Hena; Hishamuddin, O.; K. Misri

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the benthic faunal abundance and diversity of tiger shrimp P. monodon culture ponds in Perak, west coast of Malaysia Peninsular. Sampling was carried out at three weeks interval throughout the 116 days culture period. In addition, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, transparency, pH and organic matter of soil were also measured. Results showed that the major groups of macro-benthos comprised of gastropod, foraminifera, polychaetes, bivalve and insects;...

  12. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y-H; Zheng, X-S; Gao, X-W

    2016-08-01

    The aphid species Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi are the most important pests in wheat growing regions of many countries. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on fecundity, longevity, and enzyme activity in both aphid species by comparing 3-h exposure for one or three generations. Our results indicated that 3-h exposure to sublethal doses of imidacloprid for one generation had no discernible effect on the survival, fecundity, longevity, or enzyme activity levels of aphids. However, when pulse exposures to imidacloprid were sustained over three generations, both fecundity and longevity were significantly decreased in both S. avenae and R. padi. Interestingly, the fecundity of R. padi had almost recovered by the F5 generation, but its longevity was still deleteriously affected. These results indicated that R. padi laid eggs in shorter time lags and has a more fast resilience. The change in reproduction behavior may be a phenomenon of R. padi to compensate its early death. If this is stable for the next generation, it means that the next generation is more competitive than unexposed populations, which could be the reason underlying population outbreaks that occur after longer-term exposure to an insecticide. This laboratory-based study highlights the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the longevity and fecundity of descendants and provides an empirical basis from which to consider management decisions for chemical control in the field. PMID:27161277

  13. Gene variation and genetic differentiation among populations of the solitary mud dauber wasp Trypoxylon (Trypargilum albitarse Fabricius 1804 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C.B. Bergamaschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trypoxylon is a genus of solitary crabronid wasps whose population genetics is poorly known. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the genetic variation and differentiation among five populations of Trypoxylon albitarse, a species widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, with records from Panama to northern Argentina. Eight species-specific microsatellite loci were used for genotyping 96 adult wasps (one female per nest sampled at five sites in Brazil. The analysis of allelic richness and private alleles indicated high genetic diversity in the populations sampled. Pairwise comparisons using the Fst and Dest indices revealed significant differentiation for all, but one pair of populations. Fst, Dest, AMOVA and assignment test values pointed to inter-population differentiation. Additionally, the analysis of population structure using Bayesian and PCA methods characterized two alternative genetic groups. The Mantel test indicated no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Despite evidence of considerable dispersal capacity for T. albitarse, the data indicate low to moderate population structuring in this species.

  14. Indigenous knowledge of the edible weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius Hymenoptera: Formicidae from the Vientiane Plain, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itterbeeck, Van J.; Sivongxay, N.; Praxaysombath, B.; Huis, van A.

    2014-01-01

    Of major importance in realizing the potential of edible insects as a core element in improving food security, sustainable food production, and biodiversity conservation, are developments in sustainable exploitation of wild edible insect populations and in (semi-)cultivating and farming edible insec

  15. Invasion of Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798, in the western north Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam L.; Knott, David M.; Kingsley-Smith, Peter R.; Morris, James A.; Buckel, Christine A.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Hartman, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    After going unreported in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for 18 years (1988 to 2006), the Asian tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, has recently reappeared in the South Atlantic Bight and, for the first time ever, in the Gulf of Mexico. Potential vectors and sources of this recent invader include: 1) discharged ballast water from its native range in Asia or other areas where it has become established; 2) transport of larvae from established non-native populations in the Caribbean or South America via ocean currents; or 3) escape and subsequent migration from active aquaculture facilities in the western Atlantic. This paper documents recent collections of P. monodon from the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico, reporting demographic and preliminary phylogenetic information for specimens collected between North Carolina and Texas from 2006 through 2012. The increased number of reports in 2011 and 2012, ranging from 102 mm to 298 mm total length, indicates that an adult population is present in densities sufficient for breeding, which is indicative of incipient establishment. Based on these reports of P. monodon, its successful invasion elsewhere, and its life history, we believe that this species will become common in the South Atlantic Bight and Gulf of Mexico in less than 10 years. Penaeus monodon is an aggressive predator in its native range and, if established, may prey on native shrimps, crabs, and bivalves. The impacts of an established P. monodon population are potentially widespread (e.g., alterations in local commercial fisheries, direct and indirect pressures on native shrimp, crab and bivalve populations, and subsequent impacts on the populations of other predators of those organisms) and should be considered by resource managers. The impacts of P. monodon on native fauna and the source(s) or vector(s) of the invasion, however, remain unknown at this time.

  16. Oviposition capacity and egg mass to fecundity weight ratios in laboratory cultured amblyoma variegatum fabricius, 1794 (Acari: Ixodida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nkegbe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We studied the reproductive characteristics of femaleAmblyoma variegatum in the laboratory. These included variations in engorgedweight, percentage body mass due to eggs, and quantity of eggs an engorgedfemale could lay. The results showed that different volumes of blood mealswould be consumed by the same progeny of Am. variegatum female ticks leading todifferent engorged weights. The study revealed that in Am. variegatum egg masscould account for as high as 51% of the engorged body weight. The female tickcould also oviposit as high as 31,487 eggs and also as low as 2421 eggs in samestudy cohorts. The study also showed that the actual engorged weight might notreflect the actual ovipositing capacity of the tick. Only the weight of the eggmass laid determined the actual quantity of eggs.

  17. Gamma sterilization of sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Effects of irradiation on fertility, longevity, and mating potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naked pupae of sweet potato weevil were exposed to gamma rays two or three days before an adult eclosion. The irradiation reduced an adult longevity by half, and atrophied adult testes and ovarioles. Oviducts were swelled and changed in color from milk-white to brown. As irradiated males mated with non-irradiated females and vice versa, most of females had sperm in their spermathecae except insects irradiated at 100 Gy. A doses of 70 Gy was required to prevent a reproduction of adults from irradiated pupae

  18. Pathogenesis and virulence of Vibrio harveyi from southern part of Thailand in black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecharat, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of bacteria were performed from diseased black tiger shrimp collected from farms in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Patthalung, Songkhla, Satun and Patthani. All isolates belonged to Vibrio harveyi, forming rounded colonies with smooth periphery and hemolysis of red blood cells. The colonies appearedgreen and yellow on TCBS selective media and indeeded both luminescent and non-luminescent groups. To support good growth as cell proliferation, an addition of 2-8% salt to the culture media was required. Sensitivity tests against antibiotics showed that all ten isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, norfloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, oxolinic acid, oxytetracyclin and sarafloxacin at 80, 60, 50, 40, 40 and 30%, respectively. When 12-15 g juvenile shrimp were tested for the virulence by injection, the isolates were highly virulent with OD at 640 nm in the range 0.007-0.139. The bacteria concentration of 1.60×106 - 7.27×107 CFU/ ml caused 50% juvenile mortality in ten days. The physiological changes after susceptibility included a decline in the blood cells (p<0.05, higher plasma pH (p<0.05, decrease in serum protein within 24 h (p<0.05, and a return to normal levels within 48 h. There were no differences in blood sugar levels and phenoloxidase activity between the healthy and the infected individuals. Histological study showed that at an early period of susceptibility, there were swollen tubular lumen, minor cell degeneration of the hepatic tubules and lymphoid organs and aggregation of blood cells around the degenerating cells. During 7-day susceptibility period, there was large scale cell degeneration of the hepatopancreas, lymphoid organs, gills and blood formingorgans with a great extent of blood cell aggregation and eventually mortalities occurred. During 14 day susceptibility period, there was almost entire degeneration of cells in hepatic tubules and lymphoid organs causing hepatopancreatic tubular necrosis. During this period, juveniles did not accept feed and total mortality occurred.

  19. Population characteristics of the mole crab, Hippa adactyla Fabricius, in the intertidal sediment at Kavaratti Atoll, Lakshadweep Islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sreepada, R.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    for commercial exploitation especially in oceanic environment, like Lakshadweep islands, where food resources are limited. The information on the population parameters provided here therefore would be useful for sustainable exploitation...

  20. Strategy of Quality Improvement of Pond Shrimp Post Harvest Management (Penaeus monodon Fabricius in Mahakam Delta (Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Noor Asikin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Delta area, which is situated in Kutai Kartanegara Regency, has become a pond center that gives a significant contribution to shrimp export of East Kalimantan Province. Pond-produced shrimps, however, do not always accord to the intention of cold storage companies at expected price. The companies even sometimes reject the request due to poor quality of the product. The decreasing shrimp quality may be due to maintenance process by the pond farmers as well as the improper collectors. In the other hand, importing countries have decided more and more restricted requirements for the imported fishing products. This study was held in Muara Jawa, Anggana, and Muara Badak Districts using techniques of data collection of in-depth interview with twelve respondents. In order to improve shrimp quality, farmers or the producers have to formulate a strategy towards the improvement of the post harvest shrimps from the pond using an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Results of the AHP consist of as follows: (1 application of pond shrimp post harvest technology and improvement of facilities and accommodation that support the quality improvement of the pond shrimps, (2 human resource quality improvement of pond farmers, collectors, and field instructors, (3 development of pond culture by applying best practices principle and local policies in order to improve the quality of the pond shrimps, and (4 improvement of interagency coordination, monitoring, and evaluation to enhance the pond shrimp quality

  1. A case report: A rare case of infant gastrointestinal canthariasis caused by larvae of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xi; Wang, Li-Fu; Feng, Ying; Xie, Hui; Zheng, Xiao-Ying; He, Ai; Karim, Md Robiul; Lv, Zhi-Yue; Wu, Zhong-Dao

    2016-01-01

    Background Canthariasis is a disease of humans caused by the infestation of beetle larvae. It is the second important insectal disease after myiasis. Several species of beetles are reported to cause the disease in gastrointestinal tract, urogenital system, nasal sinuses, ears and faces of mammals. The cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne is a widespread and destructive pest that usually feeds on tobacco, tea, beans, cereal grains, and animal and plant specimen. While there was no previous e...

  2. A first record of Hemithyrsocera palliata Fabricius, 1798 (Blattodea: Blattellidae: Blattellinae: an addition to the fauna of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Madhukar Gaikwad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hemithyrsocera palliata is a shining dark brown about 12mm sized cockroach. Pronotum sub-elliptical, black with golden yellow margin. In India, the taxon is reported from Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu and Tripura.   It is now recorded from Sangirdewadi, Kudal, Sindhudurga of Maharashtra for the first time which is an addition  for Blattodea of Maharashtra.   H. palliata is pictured and described for the first time in the literature. 

  3. Notes on the Neotropical Zethus Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) with the description of two new species from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rogério B; Noll, Fernando B

    2014-01-01

    Two new species, Zethus (Zethus) aliceae Lopes, sp. nov. (Brazil) and Z. (Zethus) sinuostylus Lopes, sp. nov. (Brazil) are described and figured. New synonymy is proposed for Zethus (Zethoides) biglumis Spinola, 1841 (=Zethus ferrugineus de Saussure, 1852, syn. nov. PMID:24872046

  4. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedokun, A V; Adeniyi, D O

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations. PMID:27147898

  5. Survival and changes in the fine structure of selected tissues of Penaeus monodon Fabricius juveniles fed various carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, F.P.; Coloso, R.M.; Tamse, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Penaeus monodon juveniles were reared on semipurified diets containing various carbohydrates (maltose, sucrose, dextrin, molasses, cassava starch, corn starch or sago palm starch). Significant differences were observed between the type as well as the level of carbohydrate in the diet on the survival of the juveniles. Results indicate that there does not seem to be any correlation between survival and the complexity of the carbohydrates.

  6. Efficacy of different fly baits%不同诱饵对蝇类引诱效果探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 贾凤龙; 梁焯南; 张韶华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of three kinds of baits (rotten fish, rotten eggs and brown sugar-vinegar) against flies to offer the ideal option for vector monitoring. Methods Fly traps with different baits were deployed simultaneously in five experimental sites. The captured flies were identified in the laboratory. Results No significant differences in the captured species was found between the baits. Flies captured by the rotten fish, rotten eggs and brown sugar-vinegar accounted for 66.99%, 32.07% and 0.94%, respectively. Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica were the dominant species in the rotten fish group. Lucilia cuprina was more easily attracted by sugar-vinegar baits. Rotten eggs were more attractive to C. Megacephala and Hemipyrellia ligurriens. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were more easily attracted by rotten fish, while Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae and Anthomyiidae preferred rotten eggs. Conclusion Sugar-vinegar baits did not reflect seasonal changes as they attracted a very small number of flies. Rotten fish attracted a large number of flies from only a few species. Rotten eggs could attract a proper number of flies from a balanced collection of species, and thus could be used for fly monitoring.%目的 比较分析腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃、红糖食醋以及腐败鸡蛋3种诱饵对不同蝇种的引诱力差别,以筛选媒介蝇类监测的最佳诱饵.方法 采用诱蝇笼法,选取5个实验点同时使用3种饵料进行诱集,诱得的蝇类在实验室进行鉴定.结果 3种诱饵诱集的蝇种区别不明显,诱集个体数量上按多少排列依次为腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵、腐败鸡蛋饵、红糖食醋饵,分别占捕蝇总数的66.99%、32.07%和0.94%;不同诱饵诱集的优势种差别较大,腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵诱集的优势种为大头金蝇和家蝇,红糖食醋饵为铜绿蝇,腐败鸡蛋饵为大头金蝇和瘦叶带绿蝇;丽蝇科和蝇科趋向于被腐烂鱼肠鱼鳃饵吸引,而丽蝇科、麻蝇科和花蝇

  7. Insects of forensic importance from Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil Insetos de importância forense do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Sandro Barros de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted throughout the year 2005, at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas campus. The objectives of the study were to analyze the decomposition of rabbit (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. with mean weight 2.67 Kg carcass and describe the interaction of insects acting on it, as well as the insect's potential use in legal medicine. We collected 5.239 insect specimens; 1.827 of them were obtained from larvae collected from carcasses and reared. The specimens were identified and 20 species were of forensic importance. The species Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 and Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae were better indicators of post-mortem interval (PMI because they occurred in all seasons and were the first to reach the carcass. Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850, H. segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Muscina stabulans (Fallén, 1817 and Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp, 1883 (Diptera, Muscidae can disclose death time because they occur only in certain months of the year. Oxyletrum discicolle (Brullé, 1840 (Coleoptera, Silphidae and Dermestes maculates De Geer, 1774 (Coleoptera, Desmestidae were found in advanced stages of decomposition.Durante todas as estações do ano de 2005 foi conduzido um experimento em uma área do campus da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar a decomposição de carcaças de coelho (Oryctolagus cunniculus L. pesando 2,67 Kg em média e descrever como os insetos atuam na decomposição e seu possível uso na medicina-legal. Foram coletados 5.239 espécimes; 1.827 foram obtidos a partir da criação de imaturos coletados na carcaça. Foram identificadas 20 espécies com importância forense. As espécies mais propícias para serem usadas com indicadoras de intervalo post-mortem (IPM são Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819 e Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae por terem sido encontradas em todas as estações de coleta

  8. Effects of the gamma and ultraviolet radiation in metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) isolated SOROKIN, 1883 and its application to control the distracer saccharals (Fabricius, 1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of M. anisopliae and the utilization of this pathogen, aiming the polulation control of the sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis. To evaluate the application of M. anisopliae under field conditions, two experiments were carried out, the first consisting of a spore suspension application upon sugarcane borer egg masses, and the second consisting of a pulverization of spores upon egg masses previously placed on sugarcane leaves. The dosages utilized were of 100, 200 and 300 g of spores/ha. The results obtained in both trials indicated that the deposition of spores on D. saccharalis egg masses was difficulted by the sugarcane foliar mass. (author)

  9. A study on biochemical changes in the penaeid shrimp, Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) following exposure to sublethal doses of organochlorine pesticide (endosulfan)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryavanshi, U.; Sreepada, R.A.; Ansari, Z.A.; Nigam, S.; Badesab, S.

    doses of endosulfan has been recently reported by Balasubramani and Pandian (2008). The lack of information on the effects of sublethal doses of endosulfan on the proximate composition of metabolically active tissues of coastal marine and estuarine... statistical analyses were performed using Graph Pad Prism Software (Graph Pad, San Diego, CA, USA). Unless otherwise indicated, the results are presented as mean±1S.E. of replicate tanks. 3. Results 3.1. Physico-chemical parameters and biochemical analyses...

  10. IMPROVEMENT IN LABORATORY REARING OF IMMATURE STAGES OF SNAIL-KILLING FLY SEPEDON SPHEGEA (FABRICIUS AND THEIR SURVIVAL (INSECTA, DIPTERA, SCIOMYZIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Tirgari

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology of immature stages of S.sphegea and different techniques for their laboratory rearing has been studied during the past five years (1972-77. This fly is one of the 18 Iranian species of snail-killing flies which is dominant in the focus area of schistosomiasis (Khuzestan Province in the south-west of Iran. The following procedures improved appreciably our laboratory rearin-technics and greatly reduced larval mortality: 1- Large number of fresh aquatic snails required for the progress of this study has been obtained at the entrances of the traditional under ground water canals (Ghanat in Teheran. These canals are almost permanent sources of snails because their water temperatures are rather constant through out the year and the water is by far protected from the surface pollution. In other cases, fresh snail was brought from distant swamp and rice fields. Attempts to maintain and to rear live aquatic snails, in large container equipped with aeration pump were not successful due to infection with coli form bacteria. Although the infected snails did not show any biological ill symptoms, could cause heavy mortality among larvae of flies. 2- Fly larvae were reared in plastic container of 28×32 cm. containing 7 to 8 liters of water (7 to 8 cm.depth. Eight to 12 laboratory vials filled with water were placed vertically in several rows in each container to secure uniform distribution of both snails and fly larvae. Fresh and dried leaves of lettuce were used to feed the snails. 3- Dead snails and their shells were picked out by forceps and half of the volume of water of all containers was drained from the bottom by siphoning every two days. 4- The surface pollution of water in the containers, which caused high mortality in different stages of larval development, was removed every four to five days by strips of blotting paper. The oily missed pollution on the water-surface was mostly due to dead snails, rotten leaves of lettuce and to a lesser extend caused by air pollution. 5- Several floating sticks on the inner periphery of each container provided resting place mostly for full-grown larvae. Many of the third stage larvae used to craw1 out of the containers, and sometimes suffering more than 50% mortality. The average survival of newly borne larvae up to pupal stage in 4 cohort of 15 was 71.7, whereas the average survival of 24 hours-fed larvae on crushed snail prior to release, in 5 cohort reached to 84% (min. 66. 66, max. 100%. It is concluded that the feeding of newly borne larvae on crushed aquatic snails for 24 hours prior to release is advantageous, in case of biological based on the mass release of larvae of the above snail-killing fly.

  11. 烟草甲植物源驱避剂的筛选%Screening of plant-derived repellents against tobacco beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李为争; 范荫荫; 安靖靖; 王琼; 郭线茹; 罗梅浩; 原国辉

    2014-01-01

    为筛选烟草甲植物源高效驱避剂,对12种芳香植物材料进行了筛选,比较了肉桂醛及其2种结构类似物(肉桂酸甲酯和肉桂酸乙酯)的驱避活性,测定了肉桂醛琼脂胶包结物的驱避效果。Y形嗅觉仪测定结果表明,肉桂皮粉和丁香粉对烟草甲具有极显著的驱避活性,3种化合物的驱避活性次序为:肉桂醛>肉桂酸甲酯>肉桂酸乙酯。盆形嗅觉仪测定结果表明,肉桂醛琼脂胶包结物在4 d内对烟草甲的驱避反应指数可达100%。肉桂醛是烟用香精的成分,可制作琼脂胶包结驱避剂用于烟仓中烟草甲的防治。%Twelve aroma plant species were chosen to screen effective plant repellent to tobacco beetle, Lasioderma serricorne. Repellent activity of cinnamaldehyde was compared against its two structural analogs (methyl cinnamate and ethyl cinnamate), and repellent effect of cinnamaldehyde formulated in agaro-pectin was also determined. Results in Y-typed olfactometer showed that the Cinnamomun cassia bark powder and Syringa oblata bud powder had extremely significant repellent effect, and repellent activity of three tested compounds was expressed in a declining order of cinnamaldehyde, methyl cinnamate and ethyl cinnamate. Results in basin-shaped olfactometer showed that repellent index of cinnamaldehyde formulated in agaro-pectin almost reached 100%against Lasioderma serricorne during a four-day test period. Thus cinnamaldehyde as component of tobacco flavor could be used to make agaro-pectin repellent against Lasioderma serricorne in tobacco warehouse.

  12. Structural Examination of the Dufour's Gland of the Cavity-nesting Bees Osmia lignaria Say and Megachile rotundata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dufour’s gland of two solitary cavity-nesting bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), were examined with microscopy to determine the structure and arrangement of the gland as part of the sting apparatus. The Dufour’s glands of these two bee species are similar ...

  13. RNAi-mediated knockdown of catalase causes cell cycle arrest in SL-1 cells and results in low survival rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiming; Yi, Xin; Hu, Zhen; Hu, Meiying; Chen, Shaohua; Muhammad, Rizwan-ul-Haq; Dong, Xiaolin; Gong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT) is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444) was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT). This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival. PMID:23555693

  14. Influence and Mechanism of Different Host Plants on the Growth, Development and, Fecundity of Reproductive System of Common Cutworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Shahout

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to explore the influence and mechanism of different host plants on the growth, development and fecundity of the reproductive system of the common cutworm S. litura to understand host suitability of plant infesting insect species to make progress in efficient strategies to control this economic pest. The influence of different host plants on larval, pupal developmental duration, adult life (longevity and fecundity of the Spodoptera litura were investigated in the laboratory. The results revealed that the larval development was significantly (p<0.05 decreased to (15.55 days when larvae fed on cabbage while it was significantly (p<0.05 prolonged to (19.55, (20.18 days when larvae fed on cowpea and alligator weed. Pupal duration was significantly (p<0.05 reduced to (7.54 days and increased to (9.13 days when larvae fed on cabbage and alligator weed respectively. When larvae fed on different host plants adult duration (longevity was not significantly different, only when S. litura larvae fed on sweet potato and cowpea the adult longevity was significantly (p<0.05 different and it was about (6.92, (5.64 days when larvae fed on sweet potato and cowpea respectively, Pupal weight was significantly (p<0.05 increased to (0.28 g when the larvae fed on cabbage while it was significantly (p<0.05 decreased to (0.16 g when larvae fed on cowpea. Our results found when both 1st and 3rd day age of adult female dissected ovarian length was significantly (p<0.05 increased when larvae fed on cabbage, cotton, sweet potato, while it was significantly (p<0.05 reduced when larvae fed on soybean and cowpea and alligator weed respectively. Ovarian weight was also significantly (p<0.05 influenced by the different host plants at both 1st and 3rd day age. As well as the male accessory gland length for both age was significantly (p<0.05 increased to (5.45, (5.62 cm when larvae fed on cabbage while it was significantly (p<0.05 reduced to (3.20, (3.73 when larvae fed on cowpea .the results also showed that the 3rd day age mating insects its accessory gland length was shorter. Similarly we found that the ovarian weight has the same trend for both age where the weight was significantly (p<0.05 influenced by different host plants however at the paired of 3rd day age insects the weight was lower. In addition spermary fresh weight for both age was also significantly increased to (3.23, (2.83 mg while it was reduced (2.17, (1.63 mg when larvae fed on cabbage and alligator weed respectively .Similarly the spermary weight was more reduced at the mated of 3rd day age adult .We conclude that cabbage and cotton and sweet potato were found to be more preferred for S. litura life than soybean and cowpea and alligator weed however; the implications for these findings need to be more discussed to control S. litura.

  15. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius)

    OpenAIRE

    Klowkliang, T.; Tattanon, T.; Ruangsri, J.; Supamattaya, K.; Suntornchareonnon, N.; Boonyaratpalin, M.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa) extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.4...

  16. Biological activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (Solanaceae) against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner and armyworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidotera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alagarmalai Jeyasankar; Selvaraj Premalatha; Kuppusamy Elumalai

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (S. pseudocapsicum) seed extracts against Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods:Hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate seed extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera. Results:Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant and insecticidal activities against S. litura and H. armigera. Percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were maximum in treatment of ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by seeds on extract treated larvae. Conclusions: Ethyl acetate extracts of S. pseudocapsicum, showed higher efficiency of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities. Hence, it can be used to controll agricultural insect pests, S. litura and H. armigera.

  17. Effects of Thai medicinal plants on pathogenic bacterial, growth performance, health condition and disease resistance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klowkliang, T.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.49% w/w. There are andrographolide,14-deoxy-11-12-didehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide. TLC-chromatogram of Clinacanthus nutans extract after reacted with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid showed a 9 key compounds, while preliminary neutralization test of the compounds revealed that there were active compounds against HSV-1 virus. In vitro efficacy test revealed that Curcuma longa and Andrographis paniculata extracts at 250 and 1,500 mg/L could eradicate 15 isolates of Vibrio spp. which were isolated from infected shrimps. Effects of medicinal plant extracts incorporated into the diet on shrimp immune responses were investigated. Shrimp fed diet containing Clinacanthus nutans extract at 20 mg/kg of diet had good growth, FCR and immune responses. The shrimp that were fed diet containing Curcuma longa extracts at 25 mg/kg of diet for 7-14 days showed high resistance to Vibrio harveyi. Likewise, the shrimp fed Andrographis paniculata extract at 25 mg/ kg of diet for 14 days had a higher resistance to WSSV. Incorporating the medicinal extracts at higher levels resulted in reduction in diet palatability which consequently had an effect on a decrease in growth, immune responses and resistance to bacterial and WSSV infection.

  18. Mitochondrial COI and morphological evidence for host specificity of the black cherry aphids Myzus cerasi (Fabricius, 1775) collected from different cherry tree species in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakauskas, Rimantas; Havelka, Jekaterina; Zaremba, Audrius; Bernotienė, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    Partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene of forty eight European and two Turkish population samples of Myzus cerasi from different winter hosts (Prunus spp.) were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The analysed M. cerasi samples emerged as paraphyletic relative to a Myzus borealis sample used as an out-group, and formed two major clades in neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees, corresponding to subspecies living specifically on Prunus avium and P. cerasus. Multivariate discriminant analysis (method of canonical variates) was applied to find out if morphological variation of samples correlated with mitochondrial COI and host plant information. Mean scores on the first two canonical variables clustered samples fully in accordance with their COI haplotypes and host plants confirming the existence of two morphologically similar winter host - specific subspecies of M. cerasi in Europe. No single morphological character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of the two subspecies. A three-character linear discriminant function enabled 92.37% correct identification of apterous viviparous females of M. cerasi cerasi (n = 118) and 93.64% of M. cerasi pruniavium (n = 110). A key for the morphological identification of the two subspecies is presented and their taxonomic status is discussed. PMID:24715766

  19. Mitochondrial COI and morphological evidence for host specificity of the black cherry aphids Myzus cerasi (Fabricius, 1775 collected from different cherry tree species in Europe (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimantas Rakauskas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene of forty eight European and two Turkish population samples of Myzus cerasi from different winter hosts (Prunus spp. were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The analysed M. cerasi samples emerged as paraphyletic relative to a Myzus borealis sample used as an out-group, and formed two major clades in neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference trees, corresponding to subspecies living specifically on Prunus avium and P. cerasus. Multivariate discriminant analysis (method of canonical variates was applied to find out if morphological variation of samples correlated with mitochondrial COI and host plant information. Mean scores on the first two canonical variables clustered samples fully in accordance with their COI haplotypes and host plants confirming the existence of two morphologically similar winter host - specific subspecies of M.cerasi in Europe. No single morphological character enabled satisfactory discrimination between apterous viviparous females of the two subspecies. A three-character linear discriminant function enabled 92.37% correct identification of apterous viviparous females of M. cerasi cerasi (n=118 and 93.64% of M. cerasi pruniavium (n=110. A key for the morphological identification of the two subspecies is presented and their taxonomic status is discussed.

  20. Use of gamma radiation cobalt 60 for disinfestation of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1972) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Chamomilla recutita L. and Pimpinela anisum L. dehydrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stores products such a grains, flours, dry fruits and spices are normally infested by pests as beetles (Lasioderma serricorne), mites and moths, depreciating the product visually and promoting its deterioration. To improve the quality of spices, medicinal plants and others foodstuffs there is a need for adequate methods of handling, correct identification of the species, adequate collection and storage. The objective of this work was to determine the dose of gamma radiation for the disinfestation of medicinal and aromatic plants infested by L. serricorne. The plants used in this study were Chamomilla recutita L. and Pimpinela anisum L. in this dehydrated form. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas e Acaricidas from Instituto Biologico/SP, during the months of January and May 2006, and the irradiations were carried out in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN/SP, using and experimental Cobalt 60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220. Each treatment consisted of 5 parcels containing 10 g of dehydrated products infested with 20 last instar larvae of L. serricorne, conditioned in plastic 10 x 10 cm containers with small punctures in the cover to allow internal aeration. The substratum previously infested was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0: 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.25; 1.50; 1.75; 2.0; 2.25; 2.50 and 2.75 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were kept in a acclimatized room at 27 ± 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 ± 5% and after a 45 days period the number of adults insects emerged was evaluated. The disinfestation dose of gamma radiation for last instar larvae L. serricorne on Chamomilla recutita L. and Pimpinela anisum L. was 2.0 kGy. (author)

  1. Genetic relationship among Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae nests by RAPD molecular markers - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.10913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to investigate the genetic relationship among nests of the carpenter ant, Camponotus rufipes, located in the same area. Five random oligodecamers were used to amplify DNA from 108 ant workers collected from six nests. A total of 47 RAPD markers were identified, which revealed low levels of genetic differentiation among nests (Fst = 0.00218 and a low average Shannon index (0.3727 among workers within nests. These results together suggest that the C. rufipes nest may be formed by a single, once-mated queen and that nests produced by queens that are genetically related tend to keep their nests in close proximity to one other.

  2. Use of gamma radiation cobalt 60 for disinfestation of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1972) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Chamomilla recutita L. and Pimpinela anisum L. dehydrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare; Potenza, Marcos Roberto [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Sanidade Vegetal]. E-mail: julianaabc@ig.com.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2008-03-15

    Stores products such a grains, flours, dry fruits and spices are normally infested by pests as beetles (Lasioderma serricorne), mites and moths, depreciating the product visually and promoting its deterioration. To improve the quality of spices, medicinal plants and others foodstuffs there is a need for adequate methods of handling, correct identification of the species, adequate collection and storage. The objective of this work was to determine the dose of gamma radiation for the disinfestation of medicinal and aromatic plants infested by L. serricorne. The plants used in this study were Chamomilla recutita L. and Pimpinela anisum L. in this dehydrated form. The experiment was carried out in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas e Acaricidas from Instituto Biologico/SP, during the months of January and May 2006, and the irradiations were carried out in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN/SP, using and experimental Cobalt 60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220. Each treatment consisted of 5 parcels containing 10 g of dehydrated products infested with 20 last instar larvae of L. serricorne, conditioned in plastic 10 x 10 cm containers with small punctures in the cover to allow internal aeration. The substratum previously infested was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0: 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 1.25; 1.50; 1.75; 2.0; 2.25; 2.50 and 2.75 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were kept in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5% and after a 45 days period the number of adults insects emerged was evaluated. The disinfestation dose of gamma radiation for last instar larvae L. serricorne on Chamomilla recutita L. and Pimpinela anisum L. was 2.0 kGy. (author)

  3. Effects of carotenoid sources on growth performance, blood parameters, disease resistance and stress tolerance in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supamattaya, K.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding trial were conducted to determine the effects of various sources of carotenoid on growth performance, disease resistance, blood parameters, stress tolerance and pigmentation in juvenile black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon. Trial I was performed in small shrimp (1 g average body weight. The shrimp were fed with control diet without carotenoid (diet 1 while diets 2 to 6 contained 50 mg/kg astaxanthin (Lucanthin Pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 200 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 125 mg/kg Betatene® extracted from Dunaliella and 3% dried Spirulina respectively. There was an improvement in color in all groups of shrimp fed caroteniod supplemented diets, but no significant differences in weight gain or survival among the shrimps fed each test diet (p>0.05. Resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection and stress tolerance (salinity stress, were not significantly different among treatments. Trial II was performed in juvenile shrimp (10 g average body weight fed test diets containing 100 ppm astaxanthin (Lucanthin pink®, 125 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg β-carotene (Lucarotin®, 250 mg/kg Betatene® and 3% dried Spirulina compared with those fed control diet without carotenoid. At the end of 6 weeks feeding period, shrimp fed control diet as well as astaxanthin and dried Spirulina supplemented diets had higher levels of total hemocyte counts than those of all β-carotene supplemented diets feeding group. However, phenoloxidase activity and clearance of pathogenic vibrio from the hemolymphwere not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05. Astaxanthin levels were highest in the shrimp fed all carotenoid-supplemented diets. In conclusion, a natural carotenoid i.e. dried Spirulina and carotenoid extracted from Dunaliella which have a lower production cost than analytical carotenoid showed beneficial effects on shrimp feed supplement.

  4. Taxonomic studies of the last instar nymph of Lathrecista asiatica asiatica (Fabricius 1798 (Family: Libellulidae, Order: Odonata by using its Exuvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Paul Adambukulam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lathrecista asiatica asiatica, the Asiatic Blood Tail, is a monotypic cosmopolitan dragonfly species of the genus Lathrecista belonging to family Libellulidae, reported from peninsular India to Australia. No literature is available on the description of the nymph of this species, and the present paper describes the nymphal features of the last instar of Lathrecista asiatica asiatica by using its exuviae which was collected at the time of emergence of adult from a temporary pond in Ammadam, Thrissur district, Kerala, India.

  5. Use of gamma radiation cobalt 60 for disinfestation of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1972) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. dehydrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stored products such as grains, flours, dry fruits and spices are normally infested by pests as beetles (Lasioderma serricorne), mites and moths, depreciating the product visually and promoting its deterioration. To improve the quality of spices, medicinal plants, seasoning and others foodstuffs there is a need for adequate methods of handling, correct identification of the species, adequate collection, pre and post-treatment procedures and adequate storage. The objective of this work was to determine the dose of gamma radiation for the disinfestations of medicinal and aromatic plants dehydrated infested by L. serricone. The plants used in this study were Cymbopogon citratus stapf (lemon grass) and Ocimun basillicum L. (basil) in this dehydrated form. The experiment was carried out in the Arthropods Laboratory of the Instituto Biologico/SP, during the months of January and May 2006, and the irradiations were carried out in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN/SP, using an experimental Cobalt 60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220. Each treatment consisted of 5 parcels containing 10g of dehydrated products infested with 20 last instar larvae of L. serricorne, conditioned in plastic 10x10 cm containers with small punctures in the cover to allow internal aeration. The substratum previously infested was kept for 1 day in a acclimatized room at 27 ± 2 deg C, after this period the substratum was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,50; 1,75; 2,0; 2,25; 2,50 e 2,75 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were kept in a acclimatized room at 27 ± 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 ± 5 % and after a 45 days period the number of adults insects emerged was evaluated. The lethal dose of gamma radiation for L. serrricorne last instar larvae on Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. was 1,75 kGy. (author)

  6. Use of gamma radiation cobalt 60 for disinfestation of Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1972) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) in Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. dehydrated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Amanda C.O.; Potenza, Marcos R.; Alves, Juliana N.; Justi Junior, Joao [Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Sanidade Vegetal]. E-mail: potenza@biologico.sp.gov.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Stored products such as grains, flours, dry fruits and spices are normally infested by pests as beetles (Lasioderma serricorne), mites and moths, depreciating the product visually and promoting its deterioration. To improve the quality of spices, medicinal plants, seasoning and others foodstuffs there is a need for adequate methods of handling, correct identification of the species, adequate collection, pre and post-treatment procedures and adequate storage. The objective of this work was to determine the dose of gamma radiation for the disinfestations of medicinal and aromatic plants dehydrated infested by L. serricone. The plants used in this study were Cymbopogon citratus stapf (lemon grass) and Ocimun basillicum L. (basil) in this dehydrated form. The experiment was carried out in the Arthropods Laboratory of the Instituto Biologico/SP, during the months of January and May 2006, and the irradiations were carried out in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN/CNEN/SP, using an experimental Cobalt 60 irradiator, model Gammacell 220. Each treatment consisted of 5 parcels containing 10g of dehydrated products infested with 20 last instar larvae of L. serricorne, conditioned in plastic 10x10 cm containers with small punctures in the cover to allow internal aeration. The substratum previously infested was kept for 1 day in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C, after this period the substratum was submitted to increasing doses of gamma radiation: 0; 0,5; 0,75; 1,0; 1,25; 1,50; 1,75; 2,0; 2,25; 2,50 e 2,75 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were kept in a acclimatized room at 27 {+-} 2 deg C of temperature and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5 % and after a 45 days period the number of adults insects emerged was evaluated. The lethal dose of gamma radiation for L. serrricorne last instar larvae on Cymbopogon citratus stapf and Ocimun basillicum L. was 1,75 kGy. (author)

  7. Taxonomic studies of the last instar nymph of Lathrecista asiatica asiatica (Fabricius 1798) (Family: Libellulidae, Order: Odonata) by using its Exuvia

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun Paul Adambukulam; Francy K Kakkassery

    2013-01-01

    Lathrecista asiatica asiatica, the Asiatic Blood Tail, is a monotypic cosmopolitan dragonfly species of the genus Lathrecista belonging to family Libellulidae, reported from peninsular India to Australia. No literature is available on the description of the nymph of this species, and the present paper describes the nymphal features of the last instar of Lathrecista asiatica asiatica by using its exuviae which was collected at the time of emergence of adult from a temporary pond in Ammadam, Th...

  8. Insecticidal activity of three essential oils against two new important soybean pests: Sternechus pinguis (Fabricius) and Rhyssomatus subtilis Fiedler (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    María P. ZUNINO; Vanessa A. ARECO; Zygadlo, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se analizaron por CG-EM (cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas) los aceites esenciales de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), naranja (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) y limón (Citrus limon L) y se evaluaron sus efectos tóxicos contra dos especies de plagas importantes para la soja en Sud América: Sternechus subsignatus y Rhyssomatus subtilis. La toxicidad por contacto, ensayada por discos de papel de filtro impregnados, mostró que estos aceites causaron una mor...

  9. Effect of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) Sorokin, 1883 and its utilization aiming Diatraea saccharalis (FABRICIUS, 1794) control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma radiation and ultraviolet in isolated of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorokin, and the utilization of this pathogen for the Diatrae saccharalis (Fabr.) control are studied. (L.M.J.)

  10. Post-embryonic development of Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with eggs of Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: CrambidaeDesenvolvimento pós-embrionário de Ceraeochrysa cincta (Schneider, 1851 (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae alimentada com ovos de Diatraea saccharallis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Amorim Pessoa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The lacewings (Ceraeochrysa cincta are important predators found associated to many pests in several agroecosystems. Eggs of Sitotroga cerealella and Anagasta kuehniella are used traditionally for massal rearing of these predators. Other foods can be used in substitution to the traditional ones, but little is known about the biology of lacewings and other alternative foods. So, this work was carried out to evaluate the effect of different diets on the post-embryonic development of C. cincta in laboratory. After been individualized in glass tubes, each larva was fed with S. cereallella and Diatraea saccharallis. It was evaluated the larvae duration, weight and viability in each instar, the duration, weight and viability of the pupa and pre-pupa stages and the duration of the post-embryonic period. It was adopted a completely randomized design with ten replications per treatment, each consisting of five eggs or larvae of C. cincta. Larvae were weighed 48 hours after hatching and 48 hours after each molt, and pre-pupae and pupae, 48 hours after starting these stages. There was no effect of the kind of food provided on the parameters evaluated. Therefore, D. saccharallis eggs can be used to feed C. cincta.Os crisopídeos são importantes predadores encontrados associados a diversos artrópodes-praga em diversos agroecossistemas. Para a criação massal desses predadores são utilizados tradicionalmente ovos de Sitotroga cerealella e de Anagasta kuehniella. Outros alimentos podem ser utilizados em substituição aos tradicionais, mas pouco se conhece sobre a biologia de crisopídeos e outros alimentos alternativos. Assim, este trabalho objetivou verificar o efeito de diferentes dietas sobre o desenvolvimento pós-embrionário dessa espécie em laboratório. Após a individualização em tubos de vidro, cada larva foi alimentada com ovos de S. cerealella e Diatraea saccharallis. Avaliou-se a duração, o peso e a viabilidade das larvas em cada ínstar, a duração o peso e viabilidade das fases de pré-pupa e pupa e a duração do período pós-embrionário. Adotou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições por tratamento, cada uma constituída por cinco ovos ou larvas de C. cincta. As larvas foram pesadas 48 horas após a eclosão e 48 horas após cada ecdise, e as pré-pupas e pupas, 48 horas após iniciarem esses estágios Não houve interferência do tipo de alimento fornecido sobre os parâmetros avaliados. Desta forma, ovos de D. saccharallis podem ser utilizados para alimentação de C. cincta.

  11. Ocorrência de Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) como parasitóide de dípteros coletados em diferentes substratos em Itumbiara, Sul de Goiás, Brasil Occurrence of Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as parasitoid of díptera collected in different substrata in Itumbiara, South of Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori; L. A. Pereira; O. M. S. Filho; L.C.S. Ribeiro; V.R. Borges

    2003-01-01

    This work aimed to study the prevalence of parasitism of the parasitoid Brachymeria podagrica in Itumbiara, Goiás, using five different substrata: cattle kidneys, human feces, viscera of chicken, fish and cattle liver. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The prevalence of parasitism was of 13.8%.

  12. Avaliação de parâmetros clínicos e hematológicos de eqüinos submetidos a um programa de controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae Evaluation of clinical and hematological parameters of equines submitted to a strategic control program of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Cunha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se aspectos clínicos e hematológicos em eqüinos submetidos a um programa de controle estratégico de A. cajennense. Os tratamentos carrapaticidas foram realizados a cada sete dias e divididos em dois módulos, o primeiro com início em abril de 2004, e o segundo com início em julho do mesmo ano, utilizando-se a base química piretróide - cipermetrina na concentração de 0,015%. Além do acompanhamento clínico dos animais, foram realizados hemogramas completos antes e após o programa. As dosagens bioquímicas de bilirrubinas, gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, creatina kinase (CK, proteína total, albumina e globulinas, foram realizadas antes, durante e ao final do programa. Os resultados demonstraram que houve uma melhora no quadro hematológico dos animais após o programa de controle. Os tratamentos carrapaticidas, na forma em foram aplicados, não provocaram alterações desfavoráveis nos parâmetros clínicos e hematológicos dos eqüinos. Tais informações podem ser consideradas na busca de alternativas viáveis e seguras para o controle dessa espécie de carrapato.Clinical and hematological parameters were studied in equines submitted to a strategic control program of Amblyomma cajennense. The acaricide treatments were carried to each seven days and divided in two batteries, the first one began in April 2004 and the second in July 2004. A pyrethroid chemical base - 0.015% cypermethrin was used. Clinical examinations of the animals and complete hemograms were carried before and after the control program of the tick. Seric dosages of bilirrubins, gamma-glutamiltransferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatin kinase (CK, total protein, albumin, and globulins, were carried before and throughout the experiment. The results showed an improvement in the hematological parameters of the animals after the end of control program. The acaricide treatments did not cause undesirable alterations of the clinical and hematological parameters studied. Such information can be considered as viable and safe alternatives for the control of this tick.

  13. Efeitos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 em condições de laboratório Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok on engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.S. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense engorged females to some isolated of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was verified and lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 were calculated. The females were dived in conidia suspensions for five minutes, and kept in climatically controlled chambers BOD under 27° C and 80% relative humidity. Each bioassay had four treatments in concentrations of 10(5,10(6,10(7e10(8 conidia/ml. A control group was also used. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight and period of oviposition, indexes of reproductive and nutritional efficiency and percentage of microbiological control. A dose dependent negative effect was observed in ticks treated with the suspension. All isolates tested cause a negative effect on in vitro tests of engorged females of A. cajennense, suggesting its potential for microbiological control of tick's species.

  14. Efeito do controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (acari: ixodidae sobre a população de Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 (acari: ixodidae em eqüinos Effect of the strategic control of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 (acari: ixodidae on the population of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897 (acari: ixodidae in equines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arildo P. Da Cunha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de um programa de controle estratégico de Amblyomma cajennense sobre a população de Anocentor nitens em eqüinos. Os tratamentos carrapaticidas foram realizados a cada sete dias e divididos em dois módulos, o primeiro com início em abril de 2004 (oito tratamentos e o segundo com início em julho do mesmo ano (cinco tratamentos, utilizando-se a base química piretróide - cipermetrina na concentração de 0,015%. Avaliou-se mensalmente a carga parasitária de A. nitens no pavilhão auricular e divertículo nasal dos eqüinos antes (outubro de 2003 a março de 2004 e depois (outubro de 2004 a março de 2005 do controle estratégico com banhos carrapaticidas. Utilizaram-se escores de 0 a 3 para classificar os níveis de infestação. Entretanto, não houve redução significativa da carga parasitária de A. nitens no pavilhão auricular e no divertículo nasal dos eqüinos, possivelmente, devido a não aplicação sistemática de carrapaticida no divertículo nasal, pois, esta estrutura anatômica é um importante sítio de infestação por A. nitens em eqüinos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Amblyomma cajennense strategic control program on the Anocentor nitens population. The acaricide treatments were carried out every seven days and divided in two series, the first one beginning in April 2004 (eight treatments and the second beginning in July of the same year (five treatments, using pyrethroid chemical base - cypermethrin in the concentration of 0,015%. Monthly it was evaluated the infestation of A. nitens in the ear and nasal diverticulum of the equines before (October 2003 to March 2004 and after (October of 2004 to March of 2005 the strategic program of acaricide treatments. It was used score of 0 to 3 to classify the infestation levels. It did not have any significant reduction of the parasitic load of A. nitens in the ear and nasal diverticulum of the equines. Possibly, due to absence of acaricide in the nasal diverticulum. Therefore, this anatomical structure it is an important place of infestation by A. nitens in equines.

  15. Larvas de Sergestes arcticus Kroyer, 1855, Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 y Munida gregaria (Fabricius, 1793, entre el seno Reloncaví y Boca del Guafo, sur de Chile Larvae of Sergestes arcticus Kroyer, 1855, Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837, and Munida gregaria (Fabricius, 1793 between Seno Reloncaví and Boca del Guafo, southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mujica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la distribución de los estados de desarrollo de las larvas de Sergestes arcticus, Neotrypaea uncinata y Munida gregaria, capturadas entre el seno Reloncaví y la Boca del Guafo, durante noviembre de 2004. Se distinguieron tres zonas oceanógraficas, de acuerdo a los antecedentes relacionados con el grado de participación de aguas continentales y oceánicas. La distribución de las larvas de estas especies y sus estados de desarrollo, permitieron establecer diferencias significativas entre ellas respecto de las características oceanógraficas, lo que estaría relacionado con los lugares de desove y habitat de las poblaciones desovantes en el área de estudio.The distribution of developmental stages of Sergestes arcticus, Neotrypaea uncinata and Munida gregaria larvae caught between Seno Reloncaví and Boca del Guafo in November 2004 was analyzed. Three oceanographic zones were distinguished according to records showing the degree of participation of continental and oceanic waters. Significant differences were determined between larval distribution and development stages for these species with respect to oceanographic characteristics; said differences might be related to the spawning sites and the habitat of the spawning stock in the study area.

  16. Lunar, diel and tidal variabilityin penaeid prawn larval abundance in the Mandovi estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; Goswami, U.

    samples. These were in order of abundance, Metapenaeus dobsoni (Miers), M. affinis (H. Milne-Edwards), M. monoceros (Fabricius), Parapenaeopsis stylifera (H. Milne-Edwards), Penaeus merguiensis De Man, P. indicus H. Milne-Edwards, P. monodon Fabricius...

  17. Research on population and distribution of three medical insects in Yulin urban area of Shaanxi province%陕西省榆林市城区3种病媒昆虫种群及分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘建军; 吕文; 高鸿; 李东波; 孙养信

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the population composition, density and distribution of vectors in Yulin urban area, providing evidence for control of these insects. Methods Human baited net trap method and lamp baited trap method were employed for mosquito collection, cage-trapping for fly collection and sticky-paste for cockroach collection. Results Mosquitoes caught belonged to 5 species 4 genera, with Culex pipiens pallens being the dominant species. The average density based on the human baited net trap method was 19.11 per net per hour, or 1.61 per lamp per hour based on lamp baited trap method. The density in the urban area was higher than that in the villages. Flies belonged 23 species 19 genera 5 family, and the common species were Chrysomya megacephala, Lucilia sericata, Musca domestica, Muscina stabulans, Boettcherisca peregrine and L. cuprina, accounting for 36.49%, 20.41%, 14.78%, 10.61%, 8.65% and 2.61%, respectively. The average density was 4.42/ cage, the highest density observed in the farm produce markets. Cockroach density was 16.28/piece ? night, highest observed in the restaurants, with Blattella germanica being the predominant species. The peak of flies and cockroaches was in August, and that of mosquitoes in July. Conclusion The population composition, density and distribution of vectors were basically grasped. Integrated measures should be taken with focus on such major areas as restaurants, farm produce markets and residential areas.%目的 调查榆林市城区蚊、蝇、蜚蠊3种病媒昆虫种类、数量及分布,为开展病媒生物防制工作提供科学依据.方法 蚊类调查采用入帐诱法和诱蚊灯法,蝇类采用笼诱法,蜚蠊采用粘捕法.结果 捕获蚊类4属5种,淡色库蚊为优势种,帐诱法总密度为19.11只/(顶·h),诱蚊灯法总密度为1.61只/(灯·h),蚊密度城区高于周边农村.捕获蝇类5科19属23种,常见蝇种有大头金蝇、丝光绿蝇、家蝇、厩腐蝇、棕尾别麻蝇和铜

  18. Analysis of vector surveillance from 2011 to 2013 in Zhejiang province, China%浙江省2011-2013年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜燕; 龚震宇; 侯娟; 郭颂; 王金娜; 凌锋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province from 2011 to 2013, the aim is to provide scientific and technical support for the prevention and control of vectors. Methods Mosquitoes, flies, rodents and cockroaches were monitored with mosquito lamps, cage traps, traps set at night and glue traps. Results From 2011 to 2013, the mosquito density was 1.52, 1.33 and 1.62 per lamp⁃hour, respectively, with the highest density found in livestock pens, and the dominant species were Culex pipiens pallen (sure not Cx. quinquefasciatus), accounting for 57.44%. Mosquitoes appeared from April and peak in June through August. The fly density was 8.77, 5.67 and 3.47 per cage, respectively, with the dominant species were Chrysomya megacephala from 2011 to 2012, which became Musca domestica in 2013. The rodent density was 0.89%, 0.81%and 0.78%, respectively, with the dominant species were Rattus norvegicus, accounting for 57.70%. Rodents were observed throughout the whole year. The cockroach density was 0.54, 0.37 and 0.35 per glue trap, respectively, with the dominant species were Blattella germanica, accounting for 88.42%. Conclusion Species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province were analyzed through 3-year surveillance, mitigation measures should be taken accordingly to control vectors.%目的:了解2011-2013年浙江省居民区病媒生物种群构成、密度及其变化趋势,为浙江省病媒生物防控提供理论基础。方法蚊、鼠、蝇、蜚蠊分别采用诱蚊灯法、夹夜法、笼诱法和粘捕法进行监测。结果2011-2013年浙江省蚊密度分别为1.52、1.33和1.62只/(灯·h),牲畜棚最高,以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的57.44%,高峰期为6-8月;蝇密度分别为8.77、5.67和3.47只/笼,2011-2012年以大头金蝇为主要优势蝇种,其次为家蝇,2013年则以家蝇为主

  19. 2005-2010年浙江省磐安县病媒生物监测结果分析%Analysis of vector density surveillance in Pan' an county, Zhejiang province from 2005 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应凯满; 郑柏福

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the density of primary vector species and their seasonal fluctuation in Pan 'an county for improvement of prevention and control strategies. Methods Light traps, cage traps, roach pastes and night traps were used to capture mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rodents, respectively, for density calculations. Results From 2005 to 2010, the average density of mosquitoes in Pan'an county was 2.04 per lamp-hour, with the prominent species being Culex pipiens pallens /Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus accounting for 71.81%. The average density of flies was 1.83 per cage with Chrysomya megacephala and Musca domestica as the predominant species, which accounted for 52.62% and 37.81%, respectively. The density of cockroaches was 0.91 per paste, with Blattella germanica as the predominant species (92.10%). The rodent density was 0.89%with Niviventer fulvescens as the predominant species (37.60%). Most mosquitoes and flies appeared in May; the former became most active in July and the latter in June through August. Cockroaches and rats were observed throughout the year with relatively high roach density from March to October and generally peak rodent density in September. Conclusion The population composition and seasonal fluctuation of primary vectors in Pan'an county are clarified.%目的 掌握浙江省磐安县主要病媒生物种群密度及其消长规律,为控制病媒生物的危害提供科学依据.方法 采用诱蚊灯法监测蚊密度,笼诱法监测蝇密度,粘捕法监测蜚蠊密度,夹夜法监测鼠密度.结果 2005-2010年磐安县蚊类平均密度为2.04只/(灯·h),以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的71.81%;蝇密度指数为1.83只/笼,优势种为家蝇和大头金蝇,分别占捕获总数的52.62%和37.81%;蜚蠊密度为0.91只/张,优势种为德国小蠊,占捕获总数的92.10%;鼠密度为0.89%,优势种为针毛鼠,占捕获总数的37.60%.蚊和蝇5月开始活动,蚊类于7

  20. Analysis of vector surveillance from 2011 to 2013 in Zhejiang province, China%浙江省2011-2013年病媒生物监测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴瑜燕; 龚震宇; 侯娟; 郭颂; 王金娜; 凌锋

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解2011-2013年浙江省居民区病媒生物种群构成、密度及其变化趋势,为浙江省病媒生物防控提供理论基础。方法蚊、鼠、蝇、蜚蠊分别采用诱蚊灯法、夹夜法、笼诱法和粘捕法进行监测。结果2011-2013年浙江省蚊密度分别为1.52、1.33和1.62只/(灯·h),牲畜棚最高,以淡色/致倦库蚊为优势蚊种,占捕获总数的57.44%,高峰期为6-8月;蝇密度分别为8.77、5.67和3.47只/笼,2011-2012年以大头金蝇为主要优势蝇种,其次为家蝇,2013年则以家蝇为主要优势种,其次为大头金蝇;鼠密度分别为0.89%、0.81%和0.78%,以褐家鼠为优势鼠种,占捕获总数的57.70%,全年均有鼠类活动;蜚蠊密度分别为0.54、0.37和0.35只/张,以德国小蠊为主要优势种,占捕获总数的88.42%。结论通过2011-2013年监测数据分析,基本掌握了浙江省居民区病媒生物数量状态,建议各地市按照浙江省病媒生物流行的实际情况采取防控措施。%Objective To identify the species compositions, densities and seasonal fluctuation of vectors in Zhejiang province from 2011 to 2013, the aim is to provide scientific and technical support for the prevention and control of vectors. Methods Mosquitoes, flies, rodents and cockroaches were monitored with mosquito lamps, cage traps, traps set at night and glue traps. Results From 2011 to 2013, the mosquito density was 1.52, 1.33 and 1.62 per lamp⁃hour, respectively, with the highest density found in livestock pens, and the dominant species were Culex pipiens pallen (sure not Cx. quinquefasciatus), accounting for 57.44%. Mosquitoes appeared from April and peak in June through August. The fly density was 8.77, 5.67 and 3.47 per cage, respectively, with the dominant species were Chrysomya megacephala from 2011 to 2012, which became Musca domestica in 2013. The rodent density was 0.89%, 0.81%and 0.78%, respectively, with the

  1. Analysis on ties monitoring status of Mianyang in 2010%2010年绵阳市城区蝇类监测情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒亚; 郑幸福; 谭刚; 史映红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the species and density of flies in Mianyang city of Sichuan after earthquake, and provide the evidences for prevention and control of flies occurred and epidemic. Method According to surveillance project of the vector in the whole country and the surveillance implementation scheme of vector in Mianyang city in 2010, selecting Daximen district, Youxian district and Gaoshui district as the surveillance sites, adopting cage trapping method to investigate the species and density of flies. Results In Mianyang, the average densities of Lucilia sericata, Lucilia cuprina, Aldrichina grahami, Musca domestica, Chrysomya megacephala, Boettcherisca peregrine, Muscina stabulans, Fannia canicularis were 4.07, 1.58, 0.41, 0. 18, 0.18, 0. 06, 0.04 and 0. 04 pieces per cage, respectively. The flies seasonal decay trend appeared in July. The average densities of flies in farm produce markets, greenbelts, food industry, and residential area were 15.52, 11.19, 8.64 and 7. 38 pieces per cage respectively. The average density of flies in Daximen district, Youxian district and Gaoshui district were 6.26, 13. 86, 10.71 pieces per cage respectively. Conclusions By this investigation, we grasped the concrete conditions of flies in Mianyang after earthquake area, and provided scientific evidences for government marking vector control strategies.%目的 了解绵阳市城区地震后蝇类的种群和密度,为预防和控制蝇类传播疾病的发生和流行提供依据.方法 按照《全国病媒生物监测方案》和《绵阳市2010年病媒生物监测实施方案》,选取大西门片区、游仙片区和高水片区为监测点,以笼诱法调查蝇类的种群和密度.结果 绵阳市城区丝光绿蝇、铜绿蝇、巨尾阿丽蝇、家蝇、大头金蝇、棕尾别麻蝇、厩腐蝇、夏厕蝇的平均密度依次为4.07、1.58、0.41、0.18、0.18、0.06、0.04、0.04只/笼.蝇类季节消长高峰在7月.各类生境蝇类

  2. Distribution and Abundance of Necrophagous Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae) in Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira de Sousa, José Roberto; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando da Silva; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at surveying the local calliphorid and sarcophagid species in Maranhão State (Brazil) to determine their distribution and abundance, as well as the distribution of exotic Chrysomya species. In total, 18,128 calliphorid specimens were collected, distributed in 7 genera and 14 species. The species Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850) and Paralucilia paraensis (Mello, 1969) were new state records. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819) and Cochliomyia macellaria (F., 1775) wer...

  3. Larval development of the pedunculate barnacles Octolasmis angulata Aurivillius 1894 and Octolasmis cor Aurivillius 1892 (Cirripedia: Thoracica: Poecilasmatidae) from the gills of the mud crab, Scylla tranquebarica Fabricius, 1798.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, F C; Wong, W L; Maule, A G; Brennan, G P; Lim, L H S

    2015-05-01

    Detailed studies of larval development of Octolasmis angulata and Octolasmis cor are pivotal in understanding the larval morphological evolution as well as enhancing the functional ecology. Six planktotrophic naupliar stages and one non-feeding cyprid stage are documented in details for the first time for the two species of Octolasmis. Morphologically, the larvae of O. angulata and O. cor are similar in body size, setation patterns on the naupliar appendages, labrum, dorsal setae-pores, frontal horns, cyprid carapace, fronto-lateral gland pores, and lattice organs. Numbers of peculiarities were observed on the gnathobases of the antennae and mandible throughout the naupliar life-cycle. The setation pattern on the naupliar appendages are classified based on the segmentation on the naupliar appendages. The nauplius VI of both species undergoes a conspicuous change before metamorphosis into cyprid stage. The cyprid structures begin to form and modify beneath the naupliar body towards the end of stage VI. This study emphasises the importance of the pedunculate barnacle larval developmental studies not only to comprehend the larval morphological evolution but also to fill in the gaps in understanding the modification of the naupliar structures to adapt into the cyprid life-style. PMID:25770075

  4. 苦瓜叶乙酸乙酯萃取物对斜纹夜蛾消化酶活性的影响%Effects of ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia leaves on digestive enzymes of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆颖; 张茂新; 凌冰

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the toxic mechanism of ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia leaves and Momordicin II to Spodoptera litura. Artificial diet treated with ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia leaves and Momordicin II to feed the 4 th - instar larvae of Spodoptera litura, followed by analyzing the activities of amylase and protease of treated larvae, respectively. The results were shown that the activities of amylase and protease were decreased by ethyl acetate extracts of M. charantia leaves. After treating with extracts at 0. 08% for 72 h, the inhibition rates of amylase and protease were 23. 0% and 40. 6%. After treated with Momordicin II, compared with control, there were no difference about the activities of amylase, but the activities of protease were markedly decreased, the inhibition effect of Momordicin II was very high after treating for 72 h, the inhibition rates of protease can reach up to 75. 6% after treating at 0. 6%. From these results, it was reasonably postulated that the ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia leaves and Momordicin II disturbed and inhibited the activities of amylase and protease , this is the reason of larve of S. litura can not be normal growth and development.%为了研究苦瓜Momordica charantia叶乙酸乙酯萃取物及其活性化合物Momordicin Ⅱ对斜纹夜蛾Spodoptera litura的作用机理,将苦瓜叶乙酸乙酯萃取物及其活性化合物Momordicin Ⅱ添加到人工饲料中饲喂斜纹夜蛾幼虫,分别测定其对斜纹夜蛾幼虫中肠蛋白酶活性和淀粉酶活性的影响.结果表明,斜纹夜蛾幼虫取食了含苦瓜叶乙酸乙酯萃取物的饲料后,其中肠的淀粉酶和蛋白酶活性均比对照明显降低,处理后72 h,高浓度(0.08%)对淀粉酶和蛋白酶的抑制率分别为23.0%和40.6%.斜纹夜蛾幼虫取食了含Momordicin Ⅱ的饲料后,对淀粉酶活性无明显的影响,但其中肠的蛋白酶活性比对照明显降低,处理后72 h的抑制作用最强,浓度为0.6%时对蛋白酶的抑制率高达75.6%.这些结果说明乙酸乙酯萃取物及其活性化合物Momordicin Ⅱ能够抑制和干扰斜纹夜蛾幼虫中肠的蛋白酶活性和淀粉酶活性,这是中毒斜纹夜蛾幼虫不能正常生长发育的原因之一.

  5. Expression pattern of Sonic hedgehog in developing chicken bursa of Fabricius%Sonic hedgehog在鸡胚法氏囊发育过程中的表达研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕艳杰; 宁黔冀; 陈忠科

    2008-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog(Shh)是Hedgehog(Hh)家族中的一员,在胚胎发育和器官形成过程中发挥重要作用.法氏囊是鸟类所特有的中枢免疫器官,在机体的免疫防御方面发挥重要作用.利用切片原位杂交的方法探究Shh基因在鸡胚法氏囊发育过程中的表达模式,检测发现Shh基因主要在鸡胚法氏囊的囊下上皮细胞、血管周围上皮细胞以及网状细胞中表达.

  6. Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Calliphoridae as new biological vector of eggs of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 (Diptera: Oestridae in Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinho Clarissa Rezende

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note was to record for the first time the finding of Hemilucilia segmentaria acting as biological vector of Dermatobia hominis, during a study of the diversity of Calliphoridae at Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The insects were captured using traps baited with chicken vicera, for a period of 28-30 h twice per month. In the period of one year, 1987 insects were collected, 7.5% of which belonged to the H. segmentaria; of these a female was captured in May 2001, carrying a mass of 20 eggs on the left side of its abdomen.

  7. Ocorrência de Brachymeria podagrica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) como parasitóide de dípteros coletados em diferentes substratos em Itumbiara, Sul de Goiás, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marchiori C.H.; Pereira L.A.; Filho O.M.S.; Ribeiro L.C.S.; Borges V.R.

    2003-01-01

    This work aimed to study the prevalence of parasitism of the parasitoid Brachymeria podagrica in Itumbiara, Goiás, using five different substrata: cattle kidneys, human feces, viscera of chicken, fish and cattle liver. The pupae were obtained by the flotation method. They were individually placed in gelatin capsules until the emergency of the adult flies or their parasitoids. The prevalence of parasitism was of 13.8%.

  8. Rozšíření rýhovců Rhysodes sulcatus (Fabricius, 1787) a Omoglymmius germari (Ganglbauer, 1892) (Coleoptera: Rhysodidae) v České republice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Ondřej; Čížek, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Sept 1 (2015), s. 111-114. ISSN 1804-2732 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Coleoptera * distributional maps * faunistics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. 烟草甲在三种寄主上存活、发育的研究%SURVIVAL AND DEVELOPMENT OF LASIODERMA SERRICORNE(FABRICIUS) (COLEOPTERA: ANOBIIDAE) IN THREE HOST PLANTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akinkurolere,R.O.; 张宏宇; 饶琼; 杨长举

    2006-01-01

    测定百里香thyme(Thymus vulgaris)、肉豆蔻nutmeg(Myristica fragrans)、豇豆种子cowpea seed(Vigna unguiculata)三种寄主对烟草甲的生物活性.在温度为28±2℃,相对湿度(R.H.)为70%±5%的实验室条件下测定烟草甲在三种寄主上的发育、产卵、存活情况.烟草甲在百里香、肉豆蔻、豇豆种子三种寄主上从卵到成虫发育历期分别为32.17 d、40.45 d、35.77 d.雌成虫在不同寄主上的产卵量也有显著不同,从百里香上的70.65粒/雌到肉豆蔻上的56.36粒/雌.幼虫成功羽化成成虫的存活率在37.33%(肉豆蔻)到64.50%(百里香)之间.雌成虫在百里香、肉豆蔻、豇豆种子三种寄主上的寿命分别为31.60 d、26.29 d、28.64 d.烟草甲在百里香属植物上最大的内禀增长率(rm)、周限增长率(λ)、净繁殖速率(R0)分别为0.08、1.02、88.03.生命表分析表明,在三种寄主中百里香是饲养烟草甲的最适寄主,肉豆蔻最不适合做寄主.

  10. Genetic relationship among Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) nests by RAPD molecular markers - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i1.10913

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf; Sara Lívia da Silva Fernandes da Matta; Maria Santina de Castro Morini

    2012-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to investigate the genetic relationship among nests of the carpenter ant, Camponotus rufipes, located in the same area. Five random oligodecamers were used to amplify DNA from 108 ant workers collected from six nests. A total of 47 RAPD markers were identified, which revealed low levels of genetic differentiation among nests (Fst = 0.00218) and a low average Shannon index (0.3727) among workers within nests. These results together sugg...

  11. The chicken embryo bioassay as a tool to assess the possible toxic effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): a study with special reference to thiamine deficiency, EROD induction and the bursa of Fabricius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roode, de D.F.

    2002-01-01

    Since the introduction of man made chemicals into the environment, the reproductive success of bird species all over the world has been compromised. Since the ban on the use of several chemicals, pollution has decreased, but residues still remain, and reproductive and physiological are still reporte

  12. Identification of vertebrate volatiles stimulating olfactory receptors on tarsus I of the tick Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (Ixodidae): I. Receptors within the Haller’s organ capsule

    OpenAIRE

    Steullet, Pascal; Guerin, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Gas chromatography-coupled electrophysiological recordings (GC-EL) from olfactory sensilla within the capsule of Haller's organ of the tick Amblyomma variegatum indicate the presence of a number of stimulants in rabbit and bovine odours, and in steer skin wash. Some of these stimulants were fully identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and by matching electrophysiological activity of synthetic analogues as: 1) hexanal, 2-heptenal, nonanal, furfural, benzaldehyde, and 2-hyd...

  13. Identification of vertebrate volatiles stimulating olfactory receptors on tarsus I of the tick Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (Ixodidae): II. Receptors outside the Haller’s organ capsule

    OpenAIRE

    Steullet, Pascal; Guerin, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine odour excites olfactory receptor(s) in a wall-pore olfactory sensillum on the anterior pit of Haller's organ in Amblyomma variegatum. Gas chromatography-coupled electrophysiology recordings from this sensillum reveal the presence of 4 active compounds in bovine odour. The two strongest stimulants were identified as 2-nitrophenol and 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol by gas chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry, and by matching electrophysiological activity of synthetic analogues. Synthetic ana...

  14. Estudos histológicos sôbre as glândulas peçonhentas da "Viúva negra", Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius (Arachnida, Araneae, Theridiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1962-07-01

    Full Text Available A glândula peçonhenta de Latrodectus mactans compõe-se: 1. De um saco formado por uma membrana de tecido conjuntivo peritonial, que se projeta proximalmente no ducto de peçonha. 2. De um manto externo, formado por 40-45 feixes musculares, circundando 3/4 da glândula, helicoidalmente. Os feixes inserem-se nas extremidades apical e basal da membrana sarcoperitonial; sua contração impele a peçonha, através do ducto, para as garras. 3. Do epitélio glandular, composto: a de células da glândula principal, b de células da glândula auxiliar, c de célula da glândula situada à entrada do ducto. As células das glândulas principal e auxiliar, juntas, formam uma unidade glandular de natureza ragiócrina. A secreção das células da glândula auxiliar passa, através das membranas celulares, para o interior das células glandulares principais, deslocando-se, juntamente com a secreção destas, para o pólo apical, a que ambas confluem, formando uma substância viscosa, fortemente condensada em virtude da eliminação de certos líquidos. Após a formação de 8 a 10 destas porções de secreções, os dois tipos de células esgotam-se; não se dá a regeneração ou substituição por outras células. A quantidade de peçonha, uma vez produzida, é armazenada na cavidade da glândula, sendo suficiente para tôda a vida do animal. As células da glândula situada á entrada do ducto, ou glândula lipócrina, produzem uma substãncia lipóide. Esta substância dissolve uma porção de corpúsculos das secreções segregadas pelas células principais e auxiliares. O líquido resultante é inoculado no tecido da prêsa ou do inimigo, por contração do manto muscular. Ao mesmo tempo, novas porções da peçonha armazenada são transportadas no sentido proximal e dissolvidas no líquido lipóide, preparando-se, assim, nova peçonha para outra picada. As formas das células e os pormenores histológicos estão explicados nas figuras que acompanham êste texto. Os músculos da glândula, ao contrário do que afirmam outros autores, verificamos serem de natureza "tetãnica", apresentando uma estriação transversal, típica. Certas zonas, porém, ricas em sarcoplasma, possuem propriedades "tônicas", mantendo-se sempre em certo grau de contratura que provoca a tensão adequada na membrana sarcoperitonial, o que permite um efeito imediato da contração da parte tetânica, no momento da picada.

  15. Utilisation of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment of medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation of the Cobalto-60 as quarantine treatment of the medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella determining the disinfestation doses to attend the criterion in the not emergency of adults of the species in study and analysing through the Chromatography of Thin Layer the effect of the gamma radiation of the cobalto-60 on the active principle of extract dehydrated of Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris. The work was developed in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas in the Instituto Biologico in Sao Paulo in the period of August of 2005 the June of 2007. The radiation source used gamma was an experimental irradiator of Cobalto-60, model Gamacell 220, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, located in Sao Paulo. In the period of 30 days after the irradiation of the samples evaluated the number of adults emerged of Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, using the data of mortality for the analysis of Probit. Obtained 100% of not emergency of adults in the Lasioderma serricorne with the dose of 2,00 kGy and 100% of not emergency of adults in the Plodia interpunctella with the dose of 2,25 kGy. The Chromatographic Analysis of Thin Layer was to evaluate did not show chemical differences in the extracts analysed. (author)

  16. Utilisation of gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 as quarantine treatment of medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae); Utilizacao da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60 como tratamento quarentenario de plantas medicinais, aromaticas e condimentares desidratadas infestadas por Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) e Plodia interpunctella (Hubner, 1813) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Juliana Nazare

    2007-07-01

    The research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation of the Cobalto-60 as quarantine treatment of the medicinal plant, aromatic and seasoning plants dehydrated infested by Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella determining the disinfestation doses to attend the criterion in the not emergency of adults of the species in study and analysing through the Chromatography of Thin Layer the effect of the gamma radiation of the cobalto-60 on the active principle of extract dehydrated of Chamomilla recutita, Pimpinella anisum, Origanum vulgare, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus vulgaris. The work was developed in the Laboratorio de Inseticidas in the Instituto Biologico in Sao Paulo in the period of August of 2005 the June of 2007. The radiation source used gamma was an experimental irradiator of Cobalto-60, model Gamacell 220, located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, located in Sao Paulo. In the period of 30 days after the irradiation of the samples evaluated the number of adults emerged of Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, using the data of mortality for the analysis of Probit. Obtained 100% of not emergency of adults in the Lasioderma serricorne with the dose of 2,00 kGy and 100% of not emergency of adults in the Plodia interpunctella with the dose of 2,25 kGy. The Chromatographic Analysis of Thin Layer was to evaluate did not show chemical differences in the extracts analysed. (author)

  17. Abelhas sem ferrão (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini) da Estação Ecológica de Água Limpa, Cataguases-MG, Brasil.

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Werneck; Georgina Faria-Mucci

    2014-01-01

    Resumo. No presente estudo realizou-se um levantamento de ninhos de abelhas Meliponini na Estação Ecológica de Água Limpa (EEAL), no município de Cataguases, Minas Gerais. Foram encontrados 21 ninhos pertencentes a nove espécies: Friesella schrottkyi (Friese), Melipona bicolor Lepeletier, Plebeia sp. 1, Plebeia sp. 2, Tetragona clavipes (Fabricius), Tetragona quadrangula (Fabricius), Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille), Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier), Trigona spinipes (Fabricius). Vinte dos 21...

  18. 鹿児島におけるケナフの害虫相とその主要種の発生消長

    OpenAIRE

    平松, 亜也; 坂巻, 祥孝; 櫛下町, 鉦敏; ヒラマツ, アヤ; サカマキ, ヨシタカ; クシゲマチ, カネトシ; HIRAMATSU, Aya; SAKAMAKI, Yositaka; KUSIGEMATI, Kanetosi

    2001-01-01

    Concerning the pests feeding on Kenaf, Hibiscus Cannabinus L., some surveies were carried out in Kagoshima City in 1999,with the confirmation of 39 species, 28 families and 8 orders, all of which recorded first in Japan. Investigations were made in the Kenaf field concerning some species of the major pests, namely Aphis gossypii Glover, Anomala albopilosa albopilosa (Hope), Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), Anomis flava (Fabricius) and Haritalodes derogata (Fabricius). The cotton aphid, Aphis go...

  19. Precision control of an invasive ant on an ecologically sensitive tropical island: a principle with wide applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaigher, R; Samways, M J; Jolliffe, K G; Jolliffe, S

    2012-07-01

    Effective management of invasive ants is an important priority for many conservation programs but can be difficult to achieve, especially within ecologically sensitive habitats. This study assesses the efficacy and nontarget risk of a precision ant baiting method aiming to reduce a population of the invasive big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala on a tropical island of great conservation value. Area-wide application of a formicidal bait, delivered in bait stations, resulted in the rapid decline of 8 ha of P. megacephala. Effective suppression remained throughout the succeeding 11-month monitoring period. We detected no negative effects of baiting on nontarget arthropods. Indeed, species richness of nontarget ants and abundance of other soil-surface arthropods increased significantly after P. megacephala suppression. This bait station method minimized bait exposure to nontarget organisms and was cost effective and adaptable to target species density. However, it was only effective over short distances and required thorough bait placement. This method would therefore be most appropriate for localized P. megacephala infestations where the prevention of nontarget impacts is essential. The methodology used here would be applicable to other sensitive tropical environments. PMID:22908700

  20. Chromosome evolution in tiger beetles: Karyotypes and localization of 18S rDNA loci in Neotropical Megacephalini (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia J.R. Proença

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Four Neotropical tiger beetle species, three from the genus Megacephala and one from the genus Oxycheila, currently assigned to the tribe Megacephalini were examined cytogenetically. All three Megacephala species showed simple sex chromosome systems of the X0/XX type but different numbers of autosomal pairs (15 in M. cruciata, 14 in M. sobrina and 12 in M. rutilans, while Oxycheila tristis was inferred to have a multiple sex chromosome system with four X chromosomes (2n = 24 + X1X2X3X4Y/X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using a PCR-amplified 18S rDNA fragment as a probe revealed the presence of rDNA clusters located exclusively on the autosomes in all the Megacephala species (five clusters in M. cruciata, eight in M. sobrina and three in M. rutilans, indicating variability in the number of clusters and the presence of structural polymorphisms. The same methodology showed that O. tristis had six rDNA clusters, apparently also located on the autosomes. Although our data also show cytogenetic variability within the genus Megacephala, our findings support the most accepted hypothesis for chromosome evolution in the family Cicindelidae. The description of multiple sex chromosomes in O. tristis along with phylogenetic analyses and larval morphological characters may be assumed as an additional evidence for the exclusion of the genus Oxycheila and related taxa from the tribe Megacephalini.

  1. Revisão do gênero Harmonides Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae Revision of the genus Harmonides Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Creão-Duarte

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Harmonides Kirkaldy, 1902 is revised. The following species are treated: Harmonides dispar (Fabricius, 1803 (= Boethoos glohosa Haviland, 1925, syn.n.; = Vanduzea [sic] decorata Funkhouser, 1940, syn.n.; Harmonides reticulata (Fabricius, 1803 (= Vanduzea [sic] testudinea Haviland, 1925, syn.n.; Harmonides panamensis, sp.n. (Panama; Harmonides elongata, sp.n. (Brazil, Mato Grosso.

  2. Tegelikult olid pahad ju luterlased / Anti Selart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Selart, Anti, 1973-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: Fabricius, Dionysius. Dionysius Fabriciuse, Viljandi kiriku praosti Liivimaa ajaloo lühiülevaade neljas osas aastast tuhat ükssada viiskümmend kaheksa kuni aastani 1610 = Dionysii Fabricii, Praepositi pontificii Felinensis, Livonicae historiae compendiosa series in quatuor digesta partes ab anno millesimo centesimo quinquagesimo octavo usque ad annum MDCX. [Tartu] : Johannes Esto Ühing, 2010

  3. Vespidae (Hymenoptera) of the Pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Junaid Ali; Bodlah, Imran; Carpenter, James M; Naeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Munir; Bodlah, Muhammad Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Six genera and nine species of Eumeninae (Eumenes punctatus de Saussure, E. papillarius (Christ), Delta dimidiatipenne (de Saussure), D. p. pyriforme (Fabricius), D. esuriens (Fabricius), Rhynchium brunneum (Fabricius), Anterhynchium abdominale (Illiger), Antepipona sibilans (Cameron), Allorhynchium argentatum (Fabricius)) , two genera and six species of Polistinae (Polistes wattii (Cameron), P. olivaceus (De Geer), P. rothneyi carletoni van der Vecht, P. indicus Stolfa), Ropalidia brevita Das & Gupta, R. cyathiformis (Fabricius), and one genus and four species of Vespinae (Vespa basalis Smith, V, orientalis Linnaeus, V, tropica (Linnaeus), V. velutina Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau) are recorded from Pothwar region. Eumenes punctatus and E. papillarius are newly recorded from Pakistan. An illustrated keys to subfamilies, genera and species are given.  PMID:25661959

  4. Dípteros muscóides associados com carcaça de suíno e seus parasitóides em área de pastagem e de mata em Goiás Muscoids dipterous insects associated with pig carcass and their parasitoids collected in areas of pasture and of wood in Goiás, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Marchiori; C.G. SILVA; E.R. Caldas; C.I.S. Vieira; K.G.S. Almeida; F.F. Teixeira; A.X. Linhares

    2000-01-01

    Muscoid dipterous insects associated with pig carcass and their parasitoids collected in pasture and wood were collected from savanna (cerrado) at Goiás, Brazil. The species collected more often were: Chrysomya albiceps (89.5%), Ophyra sp. (6.9%) (flies) and Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (33.3%) and Spalangia endius (38.8%) (parasitoids). The parasitism rate was 0.4%.

  5. Levantamento de espécies de Odonata associadas à tanques de piscicultura e efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sobre ninfas de Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655 Odonata species survey associated with psiculture tanks and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis effect on Pantala flavescens (Fabricius, 1798) nymphs (Odonata: Libellulidae) - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i1.1655

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Moisés Quintilhiano; Eduardo Sérgio da Silva; Marisa Cristina da Fonseca; Newton Moreno Sanches; Alysson Rodrigo Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    Várias estações de piscicultura que trabalham com a produção de alevinos ou peixes ornamentais têm apresentado problemas relacionados à predação de larvas, pós-larvas e alevinos por ninfas de insetos da Ordem Odonata. Dessa forma, objetivou-se fazer um levantamento de espécies de odonatos presentes em tanques de criação de peixes em dois municípios da região centro-oeste de Minas Gerais, assim como avaliar o efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis de Barjac sobre ninfas de Pantala f...

  6. The pupal morphology of the Carabus (s. l. (Coleoptera, Carabidae in the southwestern Iberian peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cárdenas, A. M.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The pupae of Carabus (s. l. of the south-west Iberian peninsula are described. The study was carried out with pupae of Macrothorax rugosus (Fabricius, 1792, Hadrocarabus dufouri (Dejean, 1831, H. lusitanicus (Fabricius, 1801 and Rhabdotocarabus melancholicus (Fabricius, 1798 reared in the laboratory from adults caught in the field. By determining and testing various morphological structures, all three genera were identified. These results indicate that the presence or absence of setae on the pronotum, the distribution of hairs on the abdominal tergi and the development of tergal expansions from urotergi are the most significant features for identification.

  7. 中华蜜蜂化学感受蛋白AcerCSP3的配基结合功能分析%Molecular binding characterization with chemical ligands of a chemosensory protein AcerCSP3 in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius ( Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红亮; 张林雅; 倪翠侠; 商晗武

    2011-01-01

    为研究中华蜜蜂和Apis cerana cerana化学感受蛋白AcerCSP3在化学感受系统中的生理功能,本实验通过对AcerCSP3进行原核表达、分离纯化后,利用荧光法研究了体外重组AcerCSP3与1-NPN以及候选化学配基的结合特征.Scatchard方程显示AcerCSP3与1-NPN的解离常数KD为8.29 μmol/L,结合位点数约等于1.在候选配基竞争1-NPN与AcerCSP3结合的实验中,5种配基均能在200 μmol/L浓度下使1-NPN的相对荧光强度下降至50%以下.其中β-紫罗兰酮其至能使1-NPN的相对荧光强度下降至10%左右,表明候选配基均与AcerCSP3有较强的结合能力,而3,4-二甲基苯甲醛与中蜂AcerCSP3的结合能力最强,KD达到18.77 μmol/L.本研究所用化学配基均为植物花与叶片的挥发性的次生代谢产物,表明AcerCSP3可能作为中蜂化学感受系统的一部分,在其搜寻某些植物花粉蜜源时作为气味分子运载体发挥一定的作用.%In order to clarify the physiological function of AcerCSP3, a chemosensory protein (CSP) in Apis cerana cerana, the recombinant protein AcerCSP3 was successfully expressed in a optimized prokaryotic expression system, and the binding properties of the purified AcerCSP3 with 1-NPN was then investigated.Scatchard plot analysis indicated that the dissociation constant between 1-NPN and AcerCSP3 was 8.29 μmol/L and the binding site number was about one. In the competitive binding assays, all the five candidate ligands at the concentration of 200 μmol/L reduced the relative fluorescence intensity of 1-NPN by more than 50% , with β-ionone causing 90% reduction in the relative fluorescence intensity, suggesting that all the tested ligands have strong binding capability with AcerCSP3. 3, 4-Dimethylbenzaldehyde had the strongest binding capability with a dissociation constant as high as 18.77 μmol/L. All the candidate chemical ligands are plant volatile secondary metabolites, indicating that AcerCSP3 may act as a carier for odor molecules released from flower and nectar and play a role in searching for honey sources.

  8. Transgenic cry1C(⁎) gene rough rice line T1C-19 does not change the host preferences of the non-target stored product pest, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and its parasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Yan, Miao-Jun; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2015-10-01

    Rough rice grains are often stored for extended periods before they are used or consumed. However, during storage, the rough rice is vulnerable to insect infestation, resulting in significant economic loss. Previous studies have shown that volatiles cues, physical characteristics, and taste chemicals on the grains could be the important key behavior factors for storage insect pests to locate the hosts and select oviposition sites. It is also well known that the transgenic Bt rough rice line T1C-19, which expresses a cry1C(⁎) gene has a high resistance to Lepidoptera pests. However, there were no evidences to show the consequences of host preference for non-target insect pests after growing Bt transgenic rice. In this study, the potential key factors of Bt rough rice were investigated for their impacts on the behaviors of non-target pest lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica, the main weevil pest of grain and its parasitic wasps Anisopteromalus calandrae, the natural enemy of the beetle. Both electronic nose and electronic tongue analyses showed that the parameters of Bt rough rice were analogous to those of the non-Bt rough rice. The volatile profiles of Bt and non-Bt rough rice examined by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were similar. For most volatile compounds, there were no significantly quantitative differences in compound quantities between Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The densities of sclereids and trichomes on the rough rice husk surface were statistically equal in Bt and non-Bt rough rice. The non-target pest, R. dominica, and its parasitoid wasp, A. calandrae, were attracted to both rough rice and could not distinguish the transgenic T1C-19 from the isogenic rough rice. These results demonstrated that Bt rough rice has no negative impacts on the host preference behaviors of non-target stored product pest R. dominica and its parasitoid A. calandrae. PMID:26150137

  9. Rahvausust varauusaegsetes kroonikates. Puud, ussid ja pikne / Jüri Metssalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Metssalu, Jüri

    2004-01-01

    Talurahva uskumustest nelja 16. saj. lõpu - 17. saj. alguse krooniku (Balthasar Russow, Laurentius Müller, Franz Nyenstede, Dionysius Fabricius) ülestähenduste põhjal, kroonikakirjutajate taustast ja hoiakutest talurahva suhtes.

  10. Três espécies novas do gênero Chorisoneura (Blattellidae, Chorisoneuriinae coletadas em ninhos de Sphecidae (Hymenoptera do Estado do Acre, Brasil Three new species of the genus Chorisoneura (Blattellidae, Chorisoneuriinae collected in Sphecidae nests (Hymenoptera from Acre State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Lopes

    Full Text Available Three new species of Chorisoneura Brunner, 1865 from Acre State, Brazil collected in nests of Podium Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae are described. Illustrations of genitalia are presented.

  11. Utilization and growth performance of Nile Tilapia fed Asian latrine fly maggots

    OpenAIRE

    Akhter, Zulkernain

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the study was to estimate the digestibility of maggots by modifying diet replacement method, checking if fermentation activity occurs in mid to last part of intestine in Nile tilapia, and to evaluate the maggots potential as source of protein and lipid by conducting a growth trial. An eight day digestibility and 56 day growth trial was conducted to evaluate the digestibility of Asian latrine fly, Cryosoma megacephala maggots and, the growth performance parameters of Nile ti...

  12. Symbiotic mutualism with a community of opportunistic ants: protection, competition, and ant occupancy of the myrmecophyte Barteria nigritana (Passifloraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiéto-Lordon, Champlain; Dejean, Alain; Gibernau, Marc; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; McKey, Doyle

    2004-10-01

    Barteria nigritana is a myrmecophyte tree of Lower Guinea coastal vegetation. Unlike the more specialised B. fistulosa, which harbours a single host-specific mutualistic ant, B. nigritana is associated with several opportunistic ants. Such symbiotic, yet opportunistic, ant-plant associations have been little studied. On 113 clumps of B. nigritana, we censused ant associates and herbivores and compared herbivory on plants occupied by different ants. In addition to these correlative data, protection conferred by different ant species was compared by herbivore-placement experiments. Identity of ant associate changed predictably over plant ontogeny. Pheidole megacephala was restricted to very small plants; saplings were occupied by either Oecophylla longinoda or Crematogaster sp., and the latter species was the sole occupant of larger trees. Damage by caterpillars of the nymphalid butterfly Acraea zetes accounted for much of the herbivory to leaves. Ant species differed in the protection provided to hosts. While P. megacephala provided no significant protection, plants occupied by O. longinoda and Crematogaster sp. suffered less damage than did unoccupied plants or those occupied by P. megacephala. Furthermore, O. longinoda provided more effective protection than did Crematogaster sp. Herbivore-placement experiments confirmed these results. Workers of O. longinoda killed or removed all larval instars of A. zetes. Crematogaster preyed on only the two first larval instars, and P. megacephala preyed mainly on eggs, only rarely attacking the two first larval instars. Opportunistic ants provided significant protection to this relatively unspecialised myrmecophyte. The usual associate of mature trees was not the species that provided most protection.

  13. DIVERSITY OF CARABIDS (COLEOPTERA) ASSOCIATED WITH THE LOWER LURIN RIVER, LIMA, PERU

    OpenAIRE

    ARMANDO VÉLEZ-AZAÑERO; Alfonso Lizárraga-Travaglini

    2013-01-01

    Quarterly samples of beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were taken associated with the lower basin of the Lurín River (Lima-Peru) during the period August 2009 - February 2011, in six sampling points between 5 and 51 masl. Pitfall traps were used and obtained a total of 59 specimens distributed among three tribes, three genera, and four morphospecies. We report the presence of Megacephala, Scarites genus, and Pterostichus with the latter being the predominant genus.

  14. Identificação dos insetos infestantes de alimentos através da micromorfologia de seus fragmentos Identification of insect contaminants of food by the micromor-pholooy of the insect fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrry Bellot Vargas; Armando Antunes de Almeida

    1996-01-01

    The identification of insect fragments showed that the infestation was done, mainly, by Coleoptera of the genus Sitophilus Sch›nherr, 1838 (Curculionidae) and Rhizoperthadominica (Fabricius, 1792) (Bostrychidae), that are caracteristic of internai infestation, and in lesser percentage by insects charac-teristic of externai infestation, as Crylolestes spp. (Cucujidae), Tribolium spp. (Tene-brionidae), Oryzaephilussurinamensis(Linnacus, 1758) (Cucujidae) and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 17...

  15. Disruption of a protective ant-plant mutualism by an invasive ant increases elephant damage to savanna trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, Corinna; Karande, Megan A; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Palmer, Todd M

    2015-03-01

    Invasive species can indirectly affect ecosystem processes via the disruption of mutualisms. The mutualism between the whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium) and four species of symbiotic ants is an ecologically important one; ants strongly defend trees against elephants, which can otherwise have dramatic impacts on tree cover. In Laikipia, Kenya, the invasive big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala) has established itself at numerous locations within the last 10-15 years. In invaded areas on five properties, we found that three species of symbiotic Crematogaster ants were virtually extirpated, whereas Tetraponera penzigi co-occurred with P. megacephala. T. penzigi appears to persist because of its nonaggressive behavior; in a whole-tree translocation experiment, Crematogaster defended host trees against P. megacephala, but were extirpated from trees within hours. In contrast, T. penzigi retreated into domatia and withstood invading ants for >30 days. In the field, the loss of defensive Crematogaster ants in invaded areas led to a five- to sevenfold increase in the number of trees catastrophically damaged by elephants compared to uninvaded areas. In savannas, tree cover drives many ecosystem processes and provides essential forage for many large mammal species; thus, the invasion of big-headed ants may strongly alter the dynamics and diversity of East Africa's whistling thorn savannas by disrupting this system's keystone acaciaant mutualism. PMID:26236862

  16. Oral myiasis in an adult associated with filariasis and Hansen's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Candamourty, Ramesh; Venkatachalam, Suresh; Yuvaraj, Vaithilingam; Sujee, Chembilary

    2013-01-01

    Oral myiasis is a common parasitic infestation of live human and animals caused by species of dipteran fly larvae known as maggots which may be secondary to medical disease. This case involves a 51-year-old female, poorly debilitated with advanced periodontal disease infected by the dipteral larvae in the anterior maxillary region which belonged to the family Calliphoridae and Chrysomya bezziana species. This lady was neglected from her family and presented oral myiasis with the previous hist...

  17. Detection of Pb, Ba, and Sb in Blowfly Larvae of Porcine Tissue Contaminated with Gunshot Residue by ICP OES

    OpenAIRE

    Larissa C. Motta; Gabriela Vanini; Carlos A. Chamoun; Rayana A. Costa; Boniek G. Vaz; Helber B. Costa; Bassane, João F. P.; Maria Tereza W.D. Carneiro; Wanderson Romão

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), barium (Ba), and antimony (Sb) concentrations were monitored in flies larvae (immature Chrysomya albiceps) contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR) from .40 caliber Taurus pistols during the period of 2 to 12 days after the death of a female pig in decomposition, during the winter, under the influence of rain and high relative humidity. The samples were also analyzed by the colorimetric test using sodium rhodizonate (Feigl-Suter reaction). It was possible to detect and quantify the ...

  18. Orbital myiasis complicating squamous cell carcinoma of eyelid

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, JSM; Yeung, JCC; Chung, CF

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is infestation of the body by fly maggots. Immobile patients with skin wounds in exposed areas are at high risk of developing myiasis. We report a case of orbital myiasis from the species Chrysomya bezziana complicating squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit is useful for delineating the extent of the infestation and identifying residual maggots. In extensive orbital myiasis, exenteration is needed to prevent intracranial extension of tissue des...

  19. Abelhas sem ferrão (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini da Estação Ecológica de Água Limpa, Cataguases-MG, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Werneck

    2014-08-01

    Stingless Bees of the Estação Ecológica de Água Limpa, Cataguases-MG, Brazil Abstract. This study carried out a survey of nests of stingless bees present in the Estação Ecológica de Água Limpa (EEAL in the municipality of Cataguases, Minas Gerais. We found twenty-one nests belonging to nine species: Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, Melipona bicolor Lepeletier, Plebeia sp. 1, Plebeia sp. 2, Tetragona clavipes (Fabricius, Tetragona quadrangula (Fabricius, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius. Twenty of the 21 nests were found in arboreal substrate. The fauna of stingless bees observed in EEAL is represented by a low number of species. Although the local vegetation has the potential to provide substrates for nesting and floral resources, the low species richness may be related to the fact that the EEAL is an isolated forest remnant.

  20. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) Observation on the Penis of 12 Species of Dragonflies%十二种蜻蜓阳茎的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩凤英

    2000-01-01

    应用扫描电子显微镜和光学体现显微镜研究了蜻科12属12种的阳茎.这12种蜻蜓分别是:异色多纹蜻DeieliaphaonSelys,玉带蜻PseudothemiszonataBurmeister,黄翅蜻BrvachythemiscontamtnataFabricius,斜痣蜻TrameavirginiaRamber,晓褐蜻TrithemisauroraBurmeister,锥腹蜻AcisomapanorpoidesRambur,小斑蜻LibellulaquadrimaculataLinnaeus,六斑曲缘蜻Palpopleurasex-maculataFabricius,黄蜻PantalaflavescensFabricius,黑丽翅蜻RhyothemisfulignosaSelys,红蜻Crocothemisservilia,Drury,蓝额疏脉蜻BrachydiplaxchalybeaBrauer.另外还同赤蜻属Sympetrum及灰蜻属OrtAetrum作了比较,发现属间均有明显差异.

  1. Field evaluations of the efficacy of Distance Plus on invasive ant species in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Garry A; Hoffmann, Benjamin D

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of Distance Plus Ant Bait, containing the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen, was tested in the field against two invasive ant species in northern Australia: African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala (F.)) and yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith)). Results were also gained for a third pest species, Singapore ant (Monomorium destructor (Jerdon)), from one trial focused primarily on P. megacephala. Five studies were conducted throughout northern Australia, each with different protocols, but common to all was the broad-scale dispersal of Distance Plus, coupled with long-term monitoring of ant population levels. Additionally, a laboratory trial was conducted to assess if there was a direct toxic effect by the bait on A. gracilipes workers, and ant community data were collected at some sites in the A. gracilipes trial to assess nontarget impacts and subsequent ecological recovery. All three species were greatly affected by the treatments. The abundance of P. megacephala declined dramatically in all trials, and by the final assessment for each study, very few ants remained, with those remaining being attributable to edge effects from neighboring untreated properties. At both sites that it occurred, M. destructor was initially at least codominant with P. megacephala, but by the final assessment, only three M. destructor individuals were present at one lure at one site, and only a single individual at the other site. Abundance of A. gracilipes fell, on average, to 31% of control levels by 91 d and then slowly recovered, with subsequent treatments only providing slightly greater control. No direct toxic effect on workers was found in the laboratory trial, indicating that population declines of A. gracilipes were typical bait-related declines resulting from reduced worker replacement. Nontarget impacts of the bait could not be distinguished from the negative competitive impacts ofA. gracilipes, but there was a noticeable absence of some key

  2. The species of membracids described by C. Berg and M. Spinola classified in Sundarion Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae As espécies de membracídeos descritas por C. Berg e M. Spinola classificadas em Sundarion Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyranthe acaciae Berg, 1883 and Hemiptycha chilensis Spinola, 1852 are reinstated in Sundarion Kirkaldy, 1904 (formerly in synonymy of Callicentrus bonasia (Fabricius, 1775 (Centrotinae, Nessorhinini. Pyranthe frustratoria Berg, 1883 (also formerly considered as synonym of Callicentrus bonasia becomes a new synonym of Sundarion flavomarginatum (Fairmaire, 1846.Pyranthe acaciae Berg, 1883 e Hemiptycha chilensis Spinola, 1852 são revalidadas em Sundarion Kirkaldy, 1904 (anteriormente colocadas em sinonímia de Callicentrus bonasia (Fabricius, 1775 (Centrotinae, Nessorhinini. Pyranthe frustratoria Berg, 1883 (também considerada anteriormente como sinônimo de Callicentrus bonasia torna-se um novo sinônimo de Sundarion flavomarginatum (Fairmaire, 1846.

  3. Systematic status of true katydids Sathrophyllia (Orthoptera, Tettigonioidea, Pseudophyllinae from Pakistan, with description of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat Sultana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Sathrophyllia Stål, 1874 from Pakistan is reviewed with four species recorded. The diagnostic characters are given and two new species Sathrophyllia saeedi sp. n. and Sathrophyllia irshadi sp. n. are described. In addition to that Sathrophyllia nr. rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758 and Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787 are re-described. Further information on the distribution and ecology of the species is given and a key to studied species of Sathrophyllia is presented. Sathrophyllia femorata (Fabricius, 1787 and S. rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758 are recorded from Rawalakot (KPK and Tharparker (Sindh, Pakistan for first the time.

  4. Identificação dos insetos infestantes de alimentos através da micromorfologia de seus fragmentos Identification of insect contaminants of food by the micromor-pholooy of the insect fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrry Bellot Vargas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of insect fragments showed that the infestation was done, mainly, by Coleoptera of the genus Sitophilus Sch›nherr, 1838 (Curculionidae and Rhizoperthadominica (Fabricius, 1792 (Bostrychidae, that are caracteristic of internai infestation, and in lesser percentage by insects charac-teristic of externai infestation, as Crylolestes spp. (Cucujidae, Tribolium spp. (Tene-brionidae, Oryzaephilussurinamensis(Linnacus, 1758 (Cucujidae and Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792 (Anobiidae. From the total of recovered and identified insect fragments, 59% were fragments of elytra, 23% of mandibles, and in minor percentage by tarsal segments, claws, tibial spurs, legs, tarsus, eyes, antennae, exuviae and larvae urogomphi.

  5. Revisão do gênero Runibia (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini Revision of the genus Runibia (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Pentatomini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Zwetsch

    Full Text Available Runibia Stål, 1861 is redescribed, as well as the species R. dallasi Rider, 1998, R. decorata (Dallas, 1851, R. discoidea (Fabricius, 1787, R. euopta (Walker, 1867 and R. perspicua (Fabricius, 1798. A new species, R. caribeana, is described from Virgin Islands. Strachia alligata Walker, 1867, R. decorata var. alligata, and R. picturata Breddin, 1904 were considered junior synonyms of R. decorata. Lectotypes of R. dallasi, R. euopta and R. alligata were designated. Male and female genitalia for all species are described, except the phallus and ectodermal genital duct for R. dallasi. A key and a geographical distribution map are also provided.

  6. A taxonomic review of the genus Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from the Indian subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Girish P; Carpenter, James M

    2013-01-01

    The genus Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855 is reviewed from the Indian subcontinent. Three species with one additional subspecies are present, namely Antodynerus flavescens flavescens (Fabricius, 1775), A. f. karachiensis Giordani Soika, 1970, A. limbatus (de Saussure, 1852), and A. punctatipennis (de Saussure, 1853). The parasitic association of strepsipteran insects and the symbiotic association of mites are reported for the first time in the genus Antodynerus. The distribution of A. f. flavescens (Fabricius) and A. limbatus (de Saussure) in the Indian states is augmented. The latter species is newly recorded from China (Tibet). A key to species of the Indian subcontinent is provided. PMID:25277569

  7. Effect of an invasive ant and its chemical control on a threatened endemic Seychelles millipede.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, James M; Samways, Michael J; Henwood, Jock; Kelly, Janine

    2011-06-01

    The impact of invasive species on island faunas can be of major local consequence, while their control is an important part of island ecosystem restoration. Among these invasive species are ants, of which some have a disruptive impact on indigenous arthropod populations. Here, we study the impact of the invasive African big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala, on a small Seychelles island, Cousine, and assess the impact of this ant, and its chemical control, using the commercially available hydramethylnon-based bait, Siege, on the endemic keystone Seychelles giant millipede species, Sechelleptus seychellarum. We found no significant correlations in landscape-scale spatial overlap and abundance between the ant and the millipede. Furthermore, the ant did not attack healthy millipedes, but fed only on dying and dead individuals. The chemical defences of the millipede protected it from ant predation. Ingestion of the bait at standard concentration had no obvious impact on the millipede. The most significant threat to the Seychelles giant millipede in terms of P. megacephala invasion is from possible catastrophic shifts in ecosystem function through ant hemipteran mutualisms which can lead to tree mortality, resulting in alteration of the millipede's habitat. PMID:21340553

  8. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  9. Oral Myiasis: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jimson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of dipteran flies. Houseflies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever they come to rest and thereby mechanically are the root cause for disease organisms. A case of oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in the maxillary anterior region in a 40-year-old patient is presented. Manual removal of maggots, and surgical debridement of wound was done followed by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic medications. A note on the identification of the larva and histopathology of the tissue is also highlighted here.

  10. AcEST: BP920073 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YMU001_000132_F12 533 Adiantum capillus-veneris mRNA. clone: YMU001_000132_F12. BP920073 - Show ... e, mitochondrial OS=Mus... 70 6e-12 sp|O45228|PROD_CAE EL Proline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial OS=Cae ... 7 ... Chrysomya bezziana PE=2 SV=1 30 7.3 sp|P34554|YNP1_CAE EL Uncharacterized protein T05G5.1 OS=Cae norha... 3 ... jct: 466 SSIMKGAQRERQLLWQELRRR 486 >sp|O45228|PROD_CAE EL Proline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial OS=Cae norha ...

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13019-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available K13 on chro... 40 0.64 4 ( AC214419 ) Populus trichocarpa clone POP109-H02, complete se... 32 0.64 6 ( AJ426041 ) Chrysomya megacepha.........................................done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N ( BJ366609 ) Dictyostel...s; 5,674,871 total letters Score E Sequences producing significant alignment...sions: 2788 Number of sequences better than 10.0: 407 length of query: 656 length of database:.... 34 0.003 8 ( AX344559 ) Sequence 10 from Patent WO0200932. 36 0.004 10 ( AC116982 ) Dictyostelium discoide

  12. An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

  13. Duas espécies novas de Cyphonia Laporte da região central do Brasil (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae Two new species of Cyphonia Laporte, 1832 from the central region of Brazil (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal Lopes Barreira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyphonia cabetteae sp. n. and C. xavantina sp. n., both from Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, are described and illustrated. These two new species are very close to Cyphonia intermedia Sakakibara, 1968 and to Cyphona clavata (Fabricius, 1787, concerning their overall aspects.

  14. Nomenclatural notes in Membracidae (Homoptera: new combination and new synonymies in Amastris Stål, 1862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Morimasa Sakakibara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The following nomenclatural changes are made: Amastris convoluta (Fabricius, 1781 comb. nov. (formerly Darnis; Hebetica; Amastris maculata Funkhouser, 1922 = Amastris fasciata Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov. = Amastris pseudomaculata Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov. = Amastris inermis Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov. = Amastris sakakibarai Broomfield, 1976 syn. nov.; Amastris elevata Funkhouser, 1922 = Amastris vismiae Haviland, 1925 syn. nov. = Amastris flavifolia Funkhouser, 1927 syn. nov.

  15. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  16. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera da Colômbia. III: Cerambycinae com olhos finamente granulados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Maria Helena M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New species described: Chrysoprasis pilosa from Huila. New records for Colombian Cerambycidae fauna: Tillomorphini, Euderces posticus (Pascoe, 1866; Heteropsini, Alloesia chlorophana Chevrolat, 1862; Monnecles apollinarii (Gounelle, 1913; Trachyderini, Ancylocerina, Ceralocyna variegata Monné & Napp, 1999; Trachyderini, Trachyderina, Crioprosopus cacicus Bates, 1885; Ancylosternus m. morio (Fabricius, 1787; Ozodera callidioides Dupont, 1840; Trachyderes hermani Huedepohl, 1985.

  17. Detection of vvIBDV in vaccinated SPF chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kabell, Susanne; Handberg, Kurt; Li, Yiping;

    2005-01-01

    the age of 28 to 44 days. Gross pathological lesions were not observed. Lymphoid tissues from the bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow, spleen and thymus in addition to cloacal- and bursal swaps were analysed by one-step reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Positive results were...

  18. Incidência natural de parasitóides em ovos de percevejos (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) encontrados na soja no distrito federal

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros, Maria Alice de; Loiácono, Marta Susana; Borges, Miguel; Schimidt, Francisco Virgulino Guilherme

    1998-01-01

    A survey of egg parasitoids of soybean Pentatomidae was carried out in Planaltina, DF, Brazil. Twelve species of egg parasitoids (Telenomus edessae Fabricius, Telenomus podisi Ashmead, Telenomus sp., Trissolcus basalis (Wollaston), Trissolcus brochymenae Ashmead, Trissolcus sp., Trissolcus teretis Johnson, Trissolcus urichi Crawford; Anastatus auriceps Ashmead, Eupelmus sp., Ooencyrtus sp. and Neorileya sp.) were recovered in seven hosts: Acrosternum aseadum Rolston, Edessa meditabunda (Fabri...

  19. Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, N.E.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vinesthroughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The

  20. Utilisation of multiple queens and pupae transplantation to boost early colony growth of weaver ants Oecophylla smaragdina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Renkang; Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Offenberg, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Weaver ants (Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius) have been increasingly used as biocontrol agents of insect pests and as insect protein for human food and animals. For either of these purposes, mature ant colonies are essential. However, for a newly established colony to develop to a suitable mature...

  1. Host preference of Callosobruchus maculatus: a comparison of life history characteristics for three strains of beetles on two varieties of cowpea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    The reproductive success of Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, the main insect pest of stored cowpea, may vary between strains of this beetle and between varieties of the host seeds. Life history parameters of beetle strains from three different origins in West Africa were compared on two susceptib

  2. New faunistic records of Jewel beetles from Southern Italy and Sardinia (Coleoptera, Buprestidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Izzillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Buprestidae are reported for the first time from two Italian regions: Anthaxia (s. str. midasssp. oberthuri Schaefer, 1937, and Anthaxia (s. str. salicis (Fabricius, 1777 new to Campania, and Agrilus(Spiragrilus hyperici (Creutzer, 1799 new to Sardinia. Short notes on ethology and larval development ofA. midas oberthuri are also given.

  3. Social wasps trapped in the Czech Republic with syrup and fermented fruit and comparison with similar studies (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of social wasps were trapped in the Czech Republic and Slovakia with syrup as bait. Vespa crabro L, Vespula germanica (Fabricius), and Vespula vulgaris (L.) dominated trap catches at most sites, comprising 32, 28, and 35% of the wasps trapped respectively. Nearly all wasps captured wer...

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the immune system of the chick embryo and the induction of tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of low doses of gamma ray (1, 2.5 and 5 gray) irradiation on the lymphoid organs (bursa of fabricius - BF-, the thymus- Thy - and the bone marrow) of the developing chick were investigated.The embryos were irradiated at stage 34 (about 8 days of incubation)

  5. Acoustic detectability of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The palmetto weevil, Rhynchophorus cruentatus Fabricius, native to Florida, attacks palm trees. Like its economically destructive relatives, R. ferrugineus (Olivier) and R. palmarum L., it feeds internally and often is not detected until irreparable damage occurs. Acoustic methods previously used su...

  6. Review of the Eustrophinae (Coleoptera, Tetratomidae) of America north of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Darren Pollock

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Nearctic fauna (north of Mexico) of Eustrophinae is reviewed, and consists of the following five genera and 12 species: Pseudoholostrophus (Pseudoholostrophus) impressicollis (LeConte), Pseudoholostrophus (Holostrophinus) discolor (Horn), Holostrophus bifasciatus (Say), Eustrophus tomentosus Say, Eustrophopsis confinis (LeConte), Eustrophopsis bicolor (Fabricius), Eustrophopsis brunneimarginatus (Dury), Eustrophopsis indistinctus (LeConte), Eustrophopsis arizonensis (Horn), Eustr...

  7. AnthWest, occurrence records for wool carder bees of the genus Anthidium (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae, Anthidiini) in the Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees are among the most important pollinators of flowering plants in most ecosystems. This paper describes a large dataset that represents one of the outcomes of a comprehensive, broadly comparative study on the diversity, biology, biogeography, and evolution of Anthidium Fabricius in the Western He...

  8. Topical treatment of calves with synthetic pyrethroids: effects on the non-target dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.

    2001-01-01

    Dung from calves treated with synthetic pyrethroids negatively influenced, in varying degrees, survival, reproduction and size of the common dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Fabricius). This was documented in assays where the coprophagous larvae and adults of N. cornicina were exposed to dung collecte...

  9. Chaves para a identificação dos principais Coleoptera (Insecta) associados com produtos armazenados Keys for the identification of Coleoptera (Insecta) associated with stored products

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva Pereira; Lúcia Massutti de Almeida

    2001-01-01

    An illustrated key to identify nine families of Coleoptera commonly found in stored products is presented. Keys for the identification of Anobiidae [Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792), Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus, 1761)], Bruchidae [Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831), Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833)], Curculionidae [Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763), S. zeamais Motschulsky, 1885], Silvanidae [Ahasverus advena (Waltl, 1832), Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin, 1892), Oryzaephilus me...

  10. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  11. Detection of Pb, Ba, and Sb in Blowfly Larvae of Porcine Tissue Contaminated with Gunshot Residue by ICP OES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa C. Motta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, barium (Ba, and antimony (Sb concentrations were monitored in flies larvae (immature Chrysomya albiceps contaminated with gunshot residue (GSR from .40 caliber Taurus pistols during the period of 2 to 12 days after the death of a female pig in decomposition, during the winter, under the influence of rain and high relative humidity. The samples were also analyzed by the colorimetric test using sodium rhodizonate (Feigl-Suter reaction. It was possible to detect and quantify the three metals of interest by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES, where the concentrations of all three elements kept practically constant during the putrefaction stage. Minimum ([Pb] = 382.26 μg L−1; [Ba] = 140.50 μg L−1; [Sb] = 39.18 μg L−1 and maximum ([Pb] = 522.66 μg L−1; [Ba] = 190.30 μg L−1; [Sb] = 56.14 μg L−1 concentrations were found during the third and fifth days after death, respectively. ICP OES presented higher sensitivity in metals determination when compared to the conventional colorimetric test, which showed negative result for the GSR extracts obtained from the immature Chrysomya albiceps.

  12. Integrated programme to eradicate the old world screwworm fly from the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Old World Screwworm fly is one of the most destructive insect pests of livestock, humans and wildlife. It was recognized by World Organization for Animal Health as a notifiable disease. The outbreak of Old World Screwworm in Iraq in the late 1996 led to a joint regional/international meeting under the umbrella of the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development to demonstrate the feasibility of eradicating Old World Screwworm from the gulf region by using the sterile insect technique as an agent of the Area- Wide Integrated Pest Management campaign. The programme approved by Arab Organization for Agricultural Development , Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency included identification of different stages of Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana, increasing the awareness of the animal breeder against the danger of this pest, the possibility of rearing this pest in the laboratory for carrying different studies such as the effect of gamma rays on different insect stages, induced sterility, competitiveness,.. etc. Furthermore, the programme included genetic diversity studies on the Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana strain which was found in different Arab Gulf countries to demonstrate if this diversity has any effect on using sterile insect technique to eradicate this pest from the gulf region. Finally the programme demonstrated the economic feasibility of using sterile insect technique for eradicating this pest from the gulf countries. (author)

  13. ИЗМЕНЕНИЕ АРЕАЛА DERMACENTOR MARGINATUS SULZER,1776 И D.RETICULATUS FABRICIUS,1794 И КЛИМАТА В ЕВРОПЕЙСКОЙ ЧАСТИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ ЗА ПЕРИОД 1903 – 2008 ГОДЫ

    OpenAIRE

    Кербабаев Э.Б.

    2010-01-01

    Как показали исследования жизненной схемы 18 видов иксодовых клещей (в том числе D.marginatus и D.reticulatus) связанными с типичными обитателями пустынь (гребенщиковой песчанки) и типичными лесными зверьками (рыжие полёвки, бурундуки и лесные мыши) только один вид - D.marginatus оказался общим для гребенщиковой песчанки и лесных зверьков (Платонова, 2001). Это тоже свершившийся факт и также требует мониторинга, который позволит дать экологическое обоснование для разработки интегрированного м...

  14. Recruitment and origin of penaeid prawn postlarvae in two South-east African estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, A. T.; Cyrus, D. P.

    1991-09-01

    Input of postlarval stages into the penaeid prawn stocks of Natal, South Africa, was investigated by monitoring immigration into the St Lucia and Kosi estuaries. Five species, Penaeus japonicus Bate, P. indicus Milne Edwards, P. semisulcatus de Haan, P. monodon Fabricius and Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius) were recorded. Recruitment into the more northerly Kosi estuary, where offshore conditions are influenced by the south-flowing Agulhas Current, was totally dominated by P. japonicus. At St Lucia, at the northern end of the Tugela Bank, similar numbers of P. japonicus and P. indicus were recorded as well as smaller numbers of the other three species. The differences imply that the Tugela Bank provides the major postlarval input of commercially important species to St Lucia and suggests a greater degree of isolation of the Natal penaeid prawn populations than previously thought.

  15. Primary List of Flower-visiting Insects in Huaian Rape Fields%淮安市油菜田访花昆虫资源研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜翠萍; 施保国; 徐建明; 胡晨曦; 赵祥祥

    2012-01-01

    Through investigation and identification, there are 58 species belonging to 32 families in 8 orders of flower-visiting insects in Huai an rape fields, including Mantodea, Homoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera. The main pollinating insects include Apis cerana Fabricius, Micrapis florea Fabricius, Pieris rapae Linnaeus, Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer).%经过调查与鉴定,发现淮安市油菜田中访花昆虫包括膜翅目、双翅目、鳞翅目、鞘翅目、半翅目、同翅目、脉翅目、螳螂目等8目、32科的58种昆虫,其中主要传粉昆虫为中华蜜蜂、小蜜蜂、菜粉蝶、黑带食蚜蝇(成虫).

  16. Chaves para a identificação dos principais Coleoptera (Insecta associados com produtos armazenados Keys for the identification of Coleoptera (Insecta associated with stored products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Valle da Silva Pereira

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to identify nine families of Coleoptera commonly found in stored products is presented. Keys for the identification of Anobiidae [Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius, 1792, Stegobium paniceum (Linnaeus, 1761], Bruchidae [Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say, 1831, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman, 1833], Curculionidae [Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus, 1763, S. zeamais Motschulsky, 1885], Silvanidae [Ahasverus advena (Waltl, 1832, Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin, 1892, Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel, 1889, O. surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758] and Tenebrionidae [Gnathocerus cornutus (Fabricius, 1798, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, 1797, T. confusum du Val, 1868] are also provided. These keys cover the most frequent Coleoptera found in stored products, specially grains, and are to the adult stage only. Illustrations of external morphology and general characteristics are provided for each species reported.

  17. Review of potter wasps with a petiolate metasoma excluding so-called "Zethinae" (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) in the Lesser Sunda Islands of the Indonesian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Hari; Kojima, Jun-Ichi; Ubaidillah, Rosichon

    2013-01-01

    Twenty species and six subspecies of nine genera of eumenine wasps with a petiolate metasoma occurring in the Lesser Sunda Islands are listed. New synonymies are proposed for Delta campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius 1775) (=D. campaniforme gracilior Giordani Soika 1986, syn. nov.) and D. nigriculum Giordani Soika 1986, stat. nov. (=D. campaniforme rendalloide Giordani Soika 1993, syn. nov.). Eumenes piriformis de Saussure and E. inconspicuus Smith are newly recorded from the Lesser Sunda Islands; E. pius Giordani Soika, D. nigriculum Giordani Soika, D. pyriforme (Fabricius), D. sciarum (van der Vecht), Pareumenes nigerrimus van der Vecht, and Labus vandervechti Giordani Soika, are newly recorded from some islands of the Lesser Sunda. Hitherto unknown male of P. nigerrimus is described. PMID:24614445

  18. Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Patrício Macedo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Origin of samples of Cannabis sativa through insect fragments associated with compacted hemp drug in South America. Insects associated with a seizure of Cannabis sativa L. may indicate the origin of the illicit drug. Nevertheless, no work regarding this subject has been previously published for South America. In the present investigation, seven kilograms of vegetal material (C. sativa were inspected for insect fragments. Three species were identified and used to test the origin of the seizure of cannabis plant material: Euschistus heros (Fabricius, 1794, Thyanta perditor (Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, and Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae. These insect species restricted the geographic origin of the drug to the Neotropical region, and their distribution patterns showed an overlap of the State of Mato Grosso (Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Based on this information, two of the three major C. sativa growing areas in South America were excluded: (1 the Colombian territory and (2 northeastern Brazil.

  19. Phylogenomics and Divergence Dating of Fungus-Farming Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of the Genera Sericomyrmex and Apterostigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ješovnik, Ana; González, Vanessa L.; Schultz, Ted R.

    2016-01-01

    Fungus-farming ("attine") ants are model systems for studies of symbiosis, coevolution, and advanced eusociality. A New World clade of nearly 300 species in 15 genera, all attine ants cultivate fungal symbionts for food. In order to better understand the evolution of ant agriculture, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed transcriptomes of four different attine ant species in two genera: three species in the higher-attine genus Sericomyrmex and a single lower-attine ant species, Apterostigma megacephala, representing the first genomic data for either genus. These data were combined with published genomes of nine other ant species and the honey bee Apis mellifera for phylogenomic and divergence-dating analyses. The resulting phylogeny confirms relationships inferred in previous studies of fungus-farming ants. Divergence-dating analyses recovered slightly older dates than most prior analyses, estimating that attine ants originated 53.6–66.7 million of years ago, and recovered a very long branch subtending a very recent, rapid radiation of the genus Sericomyrmex. This result is further confirmed by a separate analysis of the three Sericomyrmex species, which reveals that 92.71% of orthologs have 99% - 100% pairwise-identical nucleotide sequences. We searched the transcriptomes for genes of interest, most importantly argininosuccinate synthase and argininosuccinate lyase, which are functional in other ants but which are known to have been lost in seven previously studied attine ant species. Loss of the ability to produce the amino acid arginine has been hypothesized to contribute to the obligate dependence of attine ants upon their cultivated fungi, but the point in fungus-farming ant evolution at which these losses occurred has remained unknown. We did not find these genes in any of the sequenced transcriptomes. Although expected for Sericomyrmex species, the absence of arginine anabolic genes in the lower-attine ant Apterostigma megacephala strongly suggests that

  20. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum =

  1. Environmental characteristics of tropical coral reef-seagrass dominated lagoons (Lakshadweep, India) and implications to resilience to climate change.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nobi, E.P.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    and unpredictability. The resilience of an ecosystem generally refers to its capacity to recover or withstand disturbances (McCook et al. 2007; Nystrom et al. 2008). In many ecosystems, resilience is normally maintained by structuring the processes that interfere... al. 2007; De’ath and Fabricius 2008; Waycott et al. 2009; Ateweberhan et al. 2013). Water quality parameters are considered as indicators of seagrass and coral sensitivity (Masini et al. 1990; Funderbunk et al. 1991; Dennison et al. 1993). Zonal...

  2. Prospects of semi-cultivating the edible weaver and Oecophylla smaragdina

    OpenAIRE

    Itterbeeck, Van, J.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: entomophagy, edible insects, Formicidae, global food security, agricultural revolution, Lao PDR An increased use of edible insects as human food and animal feed is a viable means to feed the growing human population and to tackle sustainability issues of the food production systems. The semi-cultivation of the edible weaver ant Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Southeast Asia can assure a sustainably supply of the highly favoured queen brood; reduce the en...

  3. Chemical Composition and Food Potential of Pachymerus nucleorum Larvae Parasitizing Acrocomia aculeata Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Ariana Vieira Alves; Eliana Janet Sanjinez Argandoña; Adelita Maria Linzmeier; Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso; Maria Lígia Rodrigues Macedo

    2016-01-01

    Insect consumption as food is culturally practiced in various regions of the world. In Brazil, there are more than 130 species of edible insects registered, from nine orders, among which stands out the Coleoptera. The larva of the beetle Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1792, grows into the bocaiuva fruit (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. Ex Mart., 1845), which has proven nutritional quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional potential of P. nucleorum larvae compared to boca...

  4. Revision of the New World bee fly genus Heterostylum Macquart (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae) Revisão do bombylideos do gênero Heterostylum Macquart do novo mundo (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae)

    OpenAIRE

    André Mallemont Cunha; Carlos José Einicker Lamas; Márcia Souto Couri

    2007-01-01

    The genus Heterostylum Macquart and five Neotropical species (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805), H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827), H. rufum (Olivier, 1789), H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863) and H. pallipes Bigot, 1892) are redescribed. The other species, recently redescribed or described are only diagnosed, except for H. deani Painter, 1930, whose spermathecae are described and illustrated for the first time. The main characters of the external morphology were photographed and the male genitalia and ...

  5. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Magdi El-Hawagry; Hathal Al Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species ( Bombyliidae , Diptera ) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of...

  6. Learning Ability and Factors Influencing Nest Establishment of the Solitary Bees Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vorel, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the use of solitary bees as an alternative to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for pollination of commercial crops has increased, in part as a response to ongoing problems faced by commercial honey bee populations. Two solitary bee species have exhibited great commercial potential: the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria Say, and the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, growth of O. lignaria and M. rotundata ...

  7. Swollen hindgut syndrome (SHG) of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Penaeidae) post larvae: Identification of causing pathogenic bacteria and their sensitivity to some antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh Aftabuddin; Naima Akter

    2011-01-01

    Swollen Hindgut syndrome (SHG) of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798post larvae has been reported from Bangladesh shrimp hatcheries in recent years. At present SHG is abudding problem causing significant economic loss to the shrimp hatcheries in Bangladesh. Unlike therapid mortalities associated with viral disease such as white spot syndrome and yellow head virus,progression of SHG is gradual leading to low level mortalities without affecting swimming activity. Thesign of SHG ...

  8. Daily activity patterns of visits by males of four species of Eulaema (Apidae: Euglossina) to odor baits in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro N. Melo; Miriam Gimenes; Antonio Oliveira Neto

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted with bees of the subtribe Euglossina using odor baits as attractants. The objective of this study was to analyze the daily activity pattern of visits by males of four species of Eulaema - Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Eulaema flavescens (Friese, 1899), Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804) and Eulaema bombiformis (Packard, 1869) - to vanillin and benzyl acetate baits, and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors throughout the day in dif...

  9. Six Pandalid Shrimps of the Genus Plesionika (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jung Nyun Kim; Jung Hwa Choi; Jeong-Hoon Lee; Joo Il Kim

    2012-01-01

    Based on samples collected from the Korean Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) during an investigation of fishery resources by the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (NFRDI) from 2002 to 2010, alongside some supplemental material, six species of the genus Plesionika are identified: P. izumiae Omori, 1971, P. ortmanni Doflein, 1902, P. grandis Doflein, 1902, P. lophotes Chace, 1985, P. narval (Fabricius, 1787), and P. orientalis Chace, 1985. Of these, the last four species are new...

  10. Invastigation About Fauna and Distribution of Species Which Belong to Pieridae (Lepidoptera) Family in the Plateau Baskonus and Tekir (Kahramanmaras Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Boylu, Ökkeş Akın; Bahadıroğlu, Cengiz; BOZDOĞAN, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    In this study which was materialized in the years 2009-2010, the species belonging to Pieridae (Lepidoptera) family, their fauna and distribution have been examined, in total 8 genera and 11 species Gonepteryx cleopatra,( Linnaeus, 1767), Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus 1758 ), Colias crocea (Fourcroy 1785), Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus 1758), Pieris rapae (Linnaeus 1758), Pontia edusa (Fabricius 1777), Euchloe ausonia, (Hübner 1804), Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus 1758), Anthocharis cardamines (Linn...

  11. Changes in lymphatic organs of layer chickens following vaccination against Marek’s disease: Histological and stereological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miljković Biljana; Rakin Ana; Ašanin Ružica; Dimitrijević Ljiljana; Mićić Mileva

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphometrical characteristics of the thymus, bursa of Fabricius and spleen in the chickens vaccinated with a vaccine against Marek's disease. For this purpose, we used newly hatched chickens of the light hybrid line, obtained from a local hatchery. The chickens were vaccinated on the 5th day after hatching with a bivalent cell-associated Marek's disease vaccine (PFU-2000 per dose). On day 13 both vaccinated chickens and ...

  12. Merry Sisterhood or Guarded Watchfulness? Cooperation Between the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Fabricius

    2007-01-01

    Since their inception at the end of the Second World War, the sister organizations of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) have aimed to consistently speak with one voice vis-à-vis their member governments. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that they often do not speak in one voice. Fabricius draws on field research conducted in Ghana, Pakistan, Peru, and Vietnam to identify the conditions that determine whether or not the organizations are indeed on the same page and t...

  13. A new species of Smicromorpha (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae from Vietnam, with notes on the host association of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Darling

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Smicromorpha masneri Darling, sp. n. is described from Bach Ma National Park, Thua Thien-Hue Province, Vietnam. This is the first confirmed record for the genus on mainland southeast Asia. It is generally accepted that species of Smicromorpha are parasitoids of green tree or weaver ants, Oecophylla smaragdina (Fabricius but this is first rearing record of these parasitoids from the nests of weaver ants.

  14. Seasonal distribution and sex ratio of eleven noctuid species (Insecta, Lepidoptera) captured in blacklight traps on Terceira Island (Azores)

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Virgílio; Araújo, M. G. Gomes de; Tavares, João

    1998-01-01

    The adult flight periods of Agrotis segetum (DENNIS & SCHIFFERMÜLLER), Noctua pronuba (LINNAEUS), Noctua atlantica (WARREN), Peridroma saucia (HÜBNER), Xestia c-nigrum (LINNAEUS), Mythimna loreyi (DUPONCHEL), Phlogophora meticulosa (LINNAEUS), Phlogophora interrupta(WARREN), Mesapamea storai (REBEL), Autographa gamma (LINNAEUS), and Trichoplusia orichalcea (FABRICIUS) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were studied between November 1992 and November 1993, at Terra Chã (110 m), Granja (310 m), Faj...

  15. Immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe (Scurrula oortiana extract on chicken embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Murtini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Tea mistletoe is one of medicinal herb which believed has an anticancer activity, it’s due to the capability of immunostimulator. The following research was carried out to determine the immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe (Scurrula oortiana extract on chicken embryos. Twenty White Leghorn Specific Pathogen Free (SPF 10 days old embryonated chicken eggs were divided into four groups of 5 eggs. The first group served as control and they were inoculated with aquabidestilate sterile. The second, third and fourth group was inoculated with 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg S. oortiana extract/egg respectively. S. oortiana extract was inoculated via allantoic cavity. All experimental eggs were incubated at 37oC until day 21 and incubation was terminated before the embryos hatched. The embryos and the lymphoid organs (bursa of Fabricius, thymus and spleen were weighed. Immunomodulatory effect of tea mistletoe extract was measured by counting the percentage of bursa of Fabricius active lymphoid follicle and the area of thymus medulla. The results showed tea mislestoe extract at the dose of 0.1mg, 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg have immunomodulatory effect on chicken embryos indicated by the increase of percentage of active lymphoid follicle of bursa Fabricius i.e. 68.8, 71.8 and 57.8% and increase area of thymus medulla i.e. 24.9 – 39.3% respectively compared to control group i.e. 22.6% of active lymphoid follicle of bursa Fabricius and 17.6% of thymus medulla area. It is concluded that S. oortiana extract at the dose of 0.1mg, 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg have immunomodulatory effect on chicken embryos.

  16. Reproduction and development of the black vine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in relation to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Youngsoo

    2004-01-01

    Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Fabricius) is a serious pest of various horticultural crops in the United States. Despite its economic importance, this pest remains very challenging to manage. Integrated Pest Management Program for O. sulcatus has not yet been implemented due to lack of accurate information on its ecology. Investigation of temperature-dependent development and reproduction of O. sulcatus was conducted to enable the prediction of stage emergence more accurately. Immature-development...

  17. Integrated Pest Management for sweetpotato in Eastern Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, N.E.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Sweetpotato is an important crop in Eastern Africa. Sweetpotato weevils ( Cylas puncticollis Boheman and C. brunneus Fabricius; Coleoptera: Apionidae) cause damage to roots and vinesthroughout the crop's production area. Other insect pests of sweetpotato are of regional importance. The aim of the research project was to gain insight in the biology and ecology of sweetpotato weevils and, based on this insight, develop pest management programmes on sweetpotato in Eastern Africa.In Chapter 1, th...

  18. Morphology, molecules and mating behavior : an integrative study of population divergence and speciation in widespread sepsid flies (Sepsidae: Diptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Puniamoorthy, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation explores processes of selection and speciation acting on diverging populations in two widespread sepsid species (Sepsidae: Diptera). The main focus was on investigating sexual selection, sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and incipient speciation in the nearctic and palaearctic species Sepsis punctum (Fabricius 1794) (Chapters 1-4). In addition, divergence in reproductive behavior and morphology was also addressed in the neotropical species Archisepsis divers...

  19. Impacts of Synergy-505 on the Functional Response and Behavior of the Reduviid Bug, Rhynocoris marginatus

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrose, D. P.; Rajan, S. J.; Raja, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the insecticide, Synergy-505 (chlorpyrifos 50% and cypermethrin 5% E.C), on the functional response, predatory behavior, and mating behavior of a non-target reduviid, Rhynocoris marginatus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), a potential biological control agent, were studied. Though both normal and Synergy-505-exposed R. marginatus exhibited Holling's type II curvilinear functional response, Synergy-505 caused a less pronounced type II functional response with reduced numbers o...

  20. The ‘vivid sociolinguistic profiling’ of Received Pronunciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The present paper contributes to an ongoing debate on the sociolinguistic situation of modern Received Pronunciation (hereafter RP) , the social elite accent of England (Milroy 2001; Mugglestone 2003). It reports on an attitudinal study which elicited openended as well as scaled responses to...... samples of RP and nonRP spontaneous dialectindiscourse. This research agenda is a natural extension of studies of synchronic variation and generational change in RP (see e.g. Fabricius 2000, 2002a, 2002b)....

  1. Diversidade de espécies e densidade de ninhos de abelhas sociais sem ferrão (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae) em floresta de terra firme na Amazônia central Diversity of species and density of stingless bee social nests (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae) in terra firme forest in central Amazônia

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio L. Oliveira; Elder F. Morato; Garcia, Marcos V. B.

    1995-01-01

    Stingless bees were collected between 1984 and 1990 in continuous forest, forest fragments and cleared areas 90 Km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Several methods were employed. a total of 54 species of 21 genera were collected including two undescribed species of Plebeia Schwarz, 1938. The most abundant genera were Trigona Jurine, 1807; Melipona Illiger, 1806; Partamona Schwarz, 1939 and Tetragona Lepeletier, 1825. The most abundant species were Trigona crassipes (Fabricius, 1793) and T. ...

  2. Improving rural livelihoods through participative research on the domestication and breeding of the palm weevil larvae (Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabr.) : the African palm weevil project : final project report

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Muafor; Le Gall, Philippe; Levang, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to fight against food insecurity, poverty and biodiversity erosion, this project was elaborated to initiate the breeding and domestication of the palm weevil grubs (edible larvae of the African palm weevil: Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabricius, 1801). The project was aimed at determining an appropriate technique and feed formula for the domestication of the larvae, as well as training local people on acquired multiplication and breeding techniques. In order to m...

  3. Effect of Copper Toxicity on Lymphoid Organs in Ducklings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Heng-min; CHEN Huai-tao; PENG Xi; YANG Guang; DENG Jun-liang; LI De-bing

    2004-01-01

    210 one-day-old Tianfu meat ducklings ware divided into three groups,and fed on diets as follows: (1) control (Cu 12.16 mg kg-1),(2) copper toxic Ⅰ (Cu 850 mg kg-1) and (3)copper toxic Ⅱ( Cu 1 050 mg kg-1) for studies on effects of copper toxicity on lymphoid organs in duckling with the methods of experimental pathology and flow cytometry (FCM).The weight and growth index of the thymus,spleen and bursa of Fabricius were markedly reduced (P< 0.05 or P< 0.01) in both copper toxic group Ⅰ and Cu toxic group Ⅱ when compared with control group.The G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle of the thymus,spleen and bursa of Fabricius was much higher,and S,G2+M phases lower in Cu toxic groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ than in the control group.There were lymphocyte degeneration and depletion of lymphoid organs,and the reticular cells of spleen and bursa of Fabricius proliferated and the reticular cells of thymus were also degenerate and necrotic in Cu toxic groups.The results demonstrated that Cu toxicity seriously impaired the progression of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to S phase,inhibited the development of lymphoid organs and caused marked pathological injury in lymphoid organs.The results also showed that the effect of Cu toxicity on the primary lymphoid organs occurred stronger than on the secondary lymphoid organs.The effect of Cu toxicity was the greatest on the bursa of Fabricius,followed hy the thymus,and then the spleen.Potential mechanisms underlying aforementioned observation were also discussed.key words: Copper toxicity,Lesion,Cell cycle,Lymphoid organ,Duckling

  4. Ultrastructural and quantitative studies of hemocytes in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ângela Maria Ferreira Falleiros; Maria Terezinha Siqueira Bombonato; Elisa Aparecida Gregório

    2003-01-01

    Six circulating hemocytes cell types from Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae were identified by transmission and scanning electron microscope: prohemocytes (PR), plasmatocytes (PL) granulocytes (GR), spherulocytes (SP), oenocytoids (OE) and vermicytes (VE). The PR was the smallest cell type with a large nucleus, a cytoplasm with few organelles and a homogenous smooth surface. The PL was polymorphic and abundant, with a cytoplasm rich in organelles and a cellular ...

  5. Induction of a gloverin-like antimicrobial polypeptide in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis challenged by septic injury

    OpenAIRE

    J.L.C. Silva; J.F. Barbosa; Bravo, J. P.; Souza, E.M.; L.F. Huergo; F.O. Pedrosa; Esteves, E.; Daffre, S; M.A. Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest for Brazilian sugarcane. In the present study, we detected two distinct spots in hemolymph from septic injured larvae (HDs1 and HDs2), which are separated by 2DE gel electrophoresis. Both spots were subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis, which revealed the sequence VFGTLGSDDSGLFGK present in both HDs1 and HDs2. This sequence had homology and 80% identity with specific Lepidoptera an...

  6. Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) feeding on stinkhorn spores (Fungi, Phallales): robbery or dispersal?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio L. Oliveira; Elder F. Morato

    2000-01-01

    Records about stingless bee-fungi interaction are very rare. In Brazilian Amazonia, workers of Trigona crassipes (Fabricius, 1793) and Trigona fulviventris Guérin, 1835 visiting two stinkhorn species, Dictyophora sp. and Phallus sp., respectively, were observed. The workers licked the fungi gleba, a mucilaginous mass of spores covering the pileum. Neither gleba residue nor spores were found on the body surface of these bee workers. These observations indicate that these bee species include sp...

  7. The Primary Investigation on Edible Spider in Folk from Yunnan Province%云南民间食用蜘蛛初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万晓瑜; 廖绍波

    2013-01-01

    笔者通过在采访和文献查阅,初步统计出云南民间常食用的蜘蛛有4种:横纹金蛛Argiope bruennichi(Scopoli,1772)、棒络新妇Nephila clavataL.koch,1878、斑络新妇Nephila pilipes(Fabricius,1793)、大囊地蛛Atypus sacculatus Zhu et al.,2006.

  8. Sex Determination of the Live Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis: A Novel Method

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod, K. V.; Sabu, Thomas K.; Benny, T. M.

    2008-01-01

    Absence of a discrete, externally visible gender-specific character makes sex determination of the rubber plantation litter beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Lupropini), a difficult task. A new method based on a distinct notch on the 8th sternite of males that can be used to distinguish the sexes is described. This is the only method by which accurate sex determination of L. tristis could be done when culturing of live specimens is required. All alternative methods...

  9. Point-of-care procalcitonin test to reduce antibiotic exposure in patients hospitalized with acute exacerbation of COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Caspar Corti,1 Markus Fally,1 Andreas Fabricius-Bjerre,1 Katrine Mortensen,1 Birgitte Nybo Jensen,1 Helle F Andreassen,1 Celeste Porsbjerg,1 Jenny Dahl Knudsen,2 Jens-Ulrik Jensen1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark Background: This study was conducted to investigate whether point-of-care (POC) procalcitonin (PCT) measurement can reduce re...

  10. Avian leukosis virus infection: analysis of viremia and DNA integration in susceptible and resistant chicken lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, T W; Humphries, E H

    1984-01-01

    Avian leukosis viruses induce lymphoid leukosis, a lymphoma which develops within the bursa of Fabricius several months after virus infection. Chickens from the Hyline SC and FP lines are, respectively, susceptible and resistant to avian leukosis virus-induced lymphoid leukosis. We examined plasma and cellular DNA obtained from avian leukosis virus-infected chickens for the presence of viremia and integrated viral sequences to determine whether the extent of virus infection is comparable in i...

  11. Compared Morphology of the Immatures of Males of Two Urban Ant Species of Camponotus

    OpenAIRE

    Solis, Daniel Russ; Fox, Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson; Rossi, Mônica Lanzoni; Bueno, Odair Correa

    2012-01-01

    The immatures of males of two species of Camponotus ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) are described and compared by light and electron microscopy. The numbers of larval instars were determined: Camponotus rufipes Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) have four instars; and Camponotus vittatus Forel have three. Male larvae of the two species are similar to previously described Camponotus larvae, sharing the following traits: basic shape of body and mandible, presence of ‘chiloscleres’, ‘praesaepium...

  12. Toxicidad volátil de monoterpenoides y mecanismos bioquímicos en insectos plaga del arroz almacenado

    OpenAIRE

    López Belchí, María Dolores

    2008-01-01

    Algunas plagas causan daños importantes en productos y granos almacenados, lo cual conlleva consecuentemente a pérdidas de producción y calidad en estos productos.Las principales plagas del arroz almacenado en España son, Sitophilus oryzae L. (Coleoptera Curculionidae), Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), y Cryptolestes pusillus Schönherr (Coleoptera: Cucujidae). Las dos primeras son plagas primarias que atacan directamente el grano y resultan bastante destructivas debi...

  13. Development of Reference Transcriptomes for the Major Field Insect Pests of Cowpea: A Toolbox for Insect Pest Management Approaches in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tolulope A Agunbiade; Weilin Sun; Coates, Brad S; Rousseau Djouaka; Manuele Tamò; Ba, Malick N; Clementine Binso-Dabire; Ibrahim Baoua; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R.

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrip...

  14. Artropofauna de importancia forense en un cadáver de cerdo en el Callao, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacone José

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758) on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) (81.62%); Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) (16.35%)...

  15. Artropofauna de importancia forense en un cadáver de cerdo en el Callao, Perú Arthropofauna of forensic importance in pig carcass in Callao, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    José Iannacone

    2003-01-01

    This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758) on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) (81.62%); Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774) (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) (16.35%)...

  16. Rôle de l'intensité lumineuse sur les capacités parasitaires d'Eupelmus orientalis Crawford et d'Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoïdes des Bruchidae ravageurs de graines de niébé (Vigna unguiculata Walp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ndoutoume-Ndong A.; Rojas-Rousse D.

    2008-01-01

    Role of light intensity on parasitic capacities of Eupelmus orientalis Crawford and Eupelmus vuilleti Crawford, parasitoids of Bruchidae pests of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) seeds. In tropical Africa, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius is a cowpea pest. After the harvest, the disappearance of one of C. maculatus parasitoids (Eupelmus orientalis Crawford) limits the duration of stocks conservation. In this study, we used an experimental model imitating the traditional african granaries ta...

  17. Characteristics of family Pieridae (Lepidoptera) in Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon; Farzana Perveen

    2016-01-01

    The butterflies are the most beautiful and colorful insects of the world. Which attract most of the animals for their food easily available. The present research were conducted at Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during August 2014 to May 2015. The family Pieridae were collected with the help of insects net and naked hands. A total of 8 species and 6 genera were collected, i.e., Common or lemon emigrant, Catopsilia ponoma Fabricius; Mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; Cl...

  18. Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera of district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Inayatullah Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%, which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.

  19. Evaluation of Size and Lesion Scores of Bursa Cloacae in Broiler Flocks in Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sellaoui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of IBD (infectious bursal disease are frequently observed among correctly vaccinated broiler flocks in Algerian Nord-East region. The present study aimed to search for the immunosuppression state as possible consequence of IBD. Our investigation focused on nine broilers flocks whom one suffering from IBD. Total of 400 bursa cloacae (bursa Fabricius were collected from broiler chickens during the rearing period or at slaughtering. The parameters of the bursa cloacae are evaluated: body weight ratio, index bursal, morphometric characteristics and the histopathological observations. The results obtained show that the weight and diameter of bursa Fabricius are not proportional to the age and weight of chickens. The weight and size of the bursa Fabricius were found lower than the accepted standards. According to the evaluation system in effect, 58 % of examined chickens belong to the poor category and 29 % to the excellent category. Such results indicate bursa atrophy and confirm state of immunosuppression which was suspected because of poor performances recorded in some broiler flocks. In conclusion, the bursa characteristics (body weight ratio, morphometric and histopathological studies are practical and not expensive tools for any field investigation to evaluate the immune status of broilers

  20. Dinâmica Populacional de Pulgão Preto dos Citros (Sternorrhyncha em Cultivo Orgânico de Tangerina (Citrus reticulata Blanco em Seropédica-RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rodrigues

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. The aphid Toxoptera citricida (Kyrkaldy (Sternorrhyncha is a potential vector of citrus virus tristeza, consider an important pest of the orchard. Was realized bimonthly monitoring between October 2002 and October 2003, with aim of study the populational dynamic this aphid, included predators ant ant-tending, in organic cropping of tangerine cv Ponkan, Fazendinha Agroecológica, Seropédica, RJ. The faunistic analysis of the ant-tending and predators, were realized across Shanon-Wiener (H' and Simpson (D diversity index's, Berger-Parker dominance (d and equitability J (e. The predators considered efficient in the populational reduction of brown citrus aphid (BCA, was Cycloneda sanguinea (L., Azya luteipes Mulsant and Pseudodorus clavatus (Fabr., although has been registered eight predators attacking BCA colonies. Verified that C. sangiunea obtained the biggest populational peak, following P. clavatus and A. luteipes. The predators diversity and equitability was considered high (H'= 0.7979; D =0.9638; e= 0.8836. Tending BCA, was registered Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus rufipes (Fabricius Camponotus atriceps (Fabricius, Camponotus crassus (Mayr, Camponotus clypeatus (Mayr; Crematogaster sp., Solenospis sp., Ectatomma brunneum (Fabricius and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Fr. Smith. Ant-tending was considered medium to H' value (0.6585 and high to D value (0.9012. The equitability was considered medium too (e =0.69. T. citricida populational dynamic is influenced to foliar shoot following predation and ant-tending. These two end factors are antagonist due to protection offer to ants at BCA.

  1. Incidence of myiasis in Panama during the eradication of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel 1858, Diptera: Calliphoridae (2002-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio E Bermúdez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a study on myiasis in Panama during the first years of a Cochliomyia hominivorax eradication program (1998-2005, with the aim of investigating the behavior of the flies that produce myiasis in animals and human beings. The hosts that registered positive for myiasis were cattle (46.4%, dogs (15.3%, humans (14.7%, birds (12%, pigs (6%, horses (4%, and sheep (1%. Six fly species caused myiasis: Dermatobia hominis (58%, Phaenicia spp. (20%, Cochliomyia macellaria (19%, Chrysomya rufifacies (0.4%, and maggots of unidentified species belonging to the Sarcophagidae (3% and Muscidae (0.3%. With the Dubois index, was no evidence that the absence of C. hominivorax allowed an increase in the cases of facultative myiasis.

  2. Chromoblastomycosis after a leech bite complicated by myiasis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marschal Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic mycotic infection, most common in the tropics and subtropics, following traumatic fungal implantation. Case presentation A 72 year-old farmer was admitted to Luang Namtha Provincial Hospital, northern Laos, with a growth on the left lower leg which began 1 week after a forefoot leech bite 10 years previously. He presented with a cauliflower-like mass and plaque-like lesions on his lower leg/foot and cellulitis with a purulent tender swelling of his left heel. Twenty-two Chrysomya bezziana larvae were extracted from his heel. PCR of a biopsy of a left lower leg nodule demonstrated Fonsecaea pedrosoi, monophora, or F. nubica. He was successfully treated with long term terbinafin plus itraconazole pulse-therapy and local debridement. Conclusions Chromoblastomycosis is reported for the first time from Laos. It carries the danger of bacterial and myiasis superinfection. Leech bites may facilitate infection.

  3. La Entomología Forense y el Neotrópico The Forensic Entomology and the Neotropic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG. Mavárez-Cardozo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La Entomología Forense ha alcanzado un estatus importante dentro de las ciencias forenses. Los países del Neotrópico tienen una composición faunística y ambiental, diversa y extensa. Sin embargo, son escasos los trabajos referentes a la sucesión de insectos en cadáveres en esta región. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron recopilar información bibliográfica acerca de las investigaciones realizadas en el Neotrópico y en otras latitudes, y compararlos con los obtenidos en observaciones realizadas en pequeños cadáveres de mamíferos en la Parroquia Juana de Ávila, Municipio Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela. Hay autores que han reportado que la estacionalidad es un factor decisivo en países como Canadá, Estados Unidos y España en contraste con países del Neotrópico, como Perú y Colombia. Esto determinó una variabilidad importante tanto en las oleadas de artrópodos, como en la duración de cada una de las etapas de descomposición de los restos. En nuestras observaciones de campo, Chrysomya sp. apareció desde el primer día y sus larvas se mantuvieron en ese estado hasta el séptimo y octavo día donde empezaron a formar pupas, las cuales emergieron entre el noveno y décimo día. Se observó la presencia muy dispersa y pobre del adulto, después del décimo día. Se concluyó que Chrysomya sp. fue la especie dominante sobre los otros dípteros carroñeros y el indicador principal del intervalo postmortem (I.P.M., durante los primeros diez días en los cadáveres estudiados.Forensic Entomology has reached an important status within the forensic sciences. The Neo-tropical countries have a vast and diverse environmental and faunal composition. Nevertheless, the studies regarding the insect succession in cadavers in this region, are scarce. The objective of this paper is to gather information regarding the research performed in the Neo-tropics and in other latitudes, and to carry out observations in the cadavers of small mammals

  4. Thematic Plan for the Sterile Insect Technique for Old and New World Screwworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To support livestock development programmes aiming at controlling or eradicating key insect pests. This involves the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into area wide integrated pest management and eradication systems. The sustainability of eradication activities has been demonstrated for a number of insect pests under various national settings where the application of SIT has produced significant impact on socio-economic development, in terms of both cost-savings and environmental quality. In line with the TC strategy, this thematic plan reviews best practices and experience gained in field operations, identifies stakeholders and common objectives in New World Screwworm, Cochliomya hominivorax (NWS) and Old World Screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana (OWS), control and outlines a strategy for implementing integrated pest control programmes at the regional, sub-regional and national level. Synergies are sought with partner organisations to expand the knowledge base and capabilities for SIT based pest control activities and to strengthen TCDC.

  5. Avaliação de danos por insetos em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Raimunda Liége Souza de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa, com a utilização de um questionário,para averiguar as condições de uso e processamento da madeira e as medidas preventivas contra o ataque de insetos. Foram realizados, também,um levantamento da ocorrência de insetos em 19 espécies de madeiras utilizadas por essas indústrias e a avaliação do dano provocado pelas principais espécies de Coleoptera (besouros e Isoptera (cupins. Das respostas apuradas, constatou-se que nenhuma das empresas visitadas emprega qualquer produto para prevenir o ataque de insetos às toras, assim como a secagem e a estocagem das toras são feitas de forma incorreta, contribuindo para aumentar a intensidade de ataque de insetos. Foram encontradas uma família de cupins e 16 de besouros, ressaltando que destas apenas cinco causam danos à madeira. Do total de 13 espécies de insetos coletados, destacam-se Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff e Platypus parallelus (Fabricius, encontradas em 18 espécies madeireiras, sendo conseqüentemente responsáveis pela maioria dos danos nas toras X. volvulus (Fabricius e Platypus sp. foram encontradas em cinco espécies; X. ferrugineus (Fabricius em três espécies; Minthea rugicolis Walk, Minthea sp. e Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky em duas, e Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollaston, Anoplotermes sp.; e Cnesinus sp. em uma. As espécies de madeiras que sofreram maior grau de deterioração, causada principalmente por coleópteros, foram Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaertn. e Copaifera multijuga Hayne, seguidas por Couroupitaguianensis Aubl., Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Cedrela odorata L., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg., Hura crepitans L., Hymenolobium sp., Maquira coriacea (Karsten C.C. Berg, Nectandra sp., Virolasurinamensis Warb. e Vochysia sp.

  6. Patogenesitas Virus Gumboro Isolat Lokal pada Ayam Pedaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutiastuti Wahyuwardani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Study of the pathogenicity of gumboro virus (very virulent Infectious Bursal Disease virus, vvIBDV oflocal isolates was performed in broilers. The chickens were grouped into four: i infected with vvIBDV; iivaccinated with commercial vaccine + challenge with vvIBDV; iii vaccinated using locally produced vaccine+ challenged with vvIBDV; and iv control group (unvaccinated animals. Pathogenecity was analyzedbased on the sequence of infection; the distribution and degree of gross pathology and histopathologylesions on bursa Fabricius, spleen and thymus in relation to the presence of the antigen (IBDV Ag whichwas detected using immunohistochemistry technique. During the acute phase (1-3 days following theexperimental infection hyperemia and exudation on the bursa Fabricius were observed in the infectedgroup and the two vaccinated-challenged groups. Similarly, hyperemia was also observed on the spleenand thymus. Whilst during the chronic stages (at 7 and 14 days following the experimental infection thebursa showed atrophy. Upon histological examination, the bursa showed interstitial edema, hemorrhage,infiltration of heterophyl cells and fibroblast hyperplasia. The bursa lymphoid follicles were depleted dueto cells necrosis and apoptosis. Plica epithelial layer was wrinkled and the Goblet cells metaplasia formedhyper plastic cysts. In the spleen and thymus severe reticulo endothelial cells proliferation was observedduring the acute stage and tended to decline during the chronic stage. During the acute and chronic stagescells containing IBDV Ag were detected in the bursa Fabricius, distributed within the mantle zone andgerminal center of lymphoid follicles in the two vaccinated-challenge groups. Whereas in the infectedgroup, the IBDV antigen were detected up to 7 days post the infection. Nevertheless, neither IBDV antigenwas detected in the spleen nor in the thymus in all the experimental groups. The results of this studyclearly explained the ferocity of

  7. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deping Han

    Full Text Available The Silky Fowl (SF is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs. The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte.

  8. Selenium Deficiency Mainly Influences Antioxidant Selenoproteins Expression in Broiler Immune Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Liu, Chunpeng; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-07-01

    Selenoprotein has many functions in chicken, and the expression of selenoproteins is closely associated with the selenium (Se) level. However, little is known about the expression patterns of selenoproteins in chicken immune organs. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary Se deficiency on the expressions of 23 selenoproteins in broiler immune organs. In this study, 150 broilers were randomly divided into two groups (75 chickens per group). The chickens were maintained either on a diet supplemented with Se through the addition of 0.2 mg/kg of Se (C group) via sodium selenite or on a Se-deficient granulated diet (L group) until the broilers exhibited an onset of exudative diathesis (ED). Following euthanasia, the samples from the immune tissues (including the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius) were quickly collected, and the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of 23 selenoproteins were examined by real-time quantitative PCR and analyzed using principal component analysis. The results showed that Se deficiency decreased the mRNA levels of 23 selenoproteins in the thymus, spleen, and bursa of the Fabricius tissues of broiler chickens. Furthermore, we found that among 23 selenoproteins, the mRNA levels of Dio1 in the thymus, Txnrd2 in the spleen, and Txnrd3 in the bursa of Fabricius decreased significantly (90.9 %, 83.3 %, and 96.8 %, respectively). In addition, the principal component analysis (PCA) results suggested that Se deficiency mainly influenced the expression of antioxidative selenoproteins, especially glutathione peroxidases (Gpxs), thioredoxin reductases (Txnrds), and iodothyronine deiodinases (Dios) in chicken immune organs. The results of this study are valuable for understanding the relevance of selenoprotein activity in vivo. PMID:26631053

  9. A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of the fruit piercing moths in Songkhla Province of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchanee Nilla-or5

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of fruit piercing moths (FPM in Songkhla provinceof southern Thailand was conducted from December 2003 to November 2004. The objectives of this study were to determine species diversity, the seasonal abundance of the major moth species occurring in longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff., citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco and pomelo (C. maxima Merr. as well as to assess yield losses due to these insects in citrus cropping systems. Twenty-four species of FPM were collected from these crops. The greatest species richness and relative abundance were observed in citrus, covering 23 species from 452 individuals trapped. In pomelo, 20 different species were found among the 142 individuals trapped.In the longkong system, there were 13 species found among the 100 individuals trapped. The three most dominant species collected at the longkong site were Erebus ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner, E. hieroglyphica (Druryand Ophiusa coronata (Fabricius. From the citrus site the most common species trapped were O. coronata (Fabricius, E. ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner and Othreis fullonia (Clerck. The most abundant species from the pomelo site were Trigonodes hyppasia (Cramer, Mocis undata (Fabricius and E. ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner. Simpson's indices of diversity were 0.79, 0.89 and 0.88 in longkong, citrus and pomelo, respectively. Moth population levels peaked in July and November in citrus, and in June in both longkong and pomelo. These peak occurrences were directly synchronized with the ripening stage of the fruit or at the harvest periods. Fruit losses due to FPM in citrus were 24.8% and 22.7% in the 1st harvest season (July-August 2004 and the 2nd harvest season (November-December 2004, respectively.

  10. Effect of a Chinese herbal formula Astragalus immunomodulator on immune function of chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingru ZHANG; Guojun JIANG; Shupeng LI; Xiuhui ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the immunomodulatory effects and the mechanism of a Chinese herbal medicine, Zengmiansan (Astragalus immunomodulator), on immune function of chickens, three hundred 1-day-old chickens were assigned randomly into 5 groups, i.e., the blank control group, the Chinese herbal medicine Zengmiansan (ZMS)-treated group, the cyclophosphamide group, the cyclophosphamide plus levamisole group, the cyclophosphamide plus ZMS group and the control group. All chickens were immunized with Lasota vaccine by nose-drip or eye-drop at the age of 6 days. Newcastle Disease (ND) antibody titers, growth indexes of the spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius, the concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes and CD8+ lymphocytes in spleen, thymus and peripheral blood, and the apoptosis of splenocytes, thymocytes and bursa of Fabricius cells were observed at the ages of 14,21, 28 and 35 days, respectively. Our results indicated that the NDV antibody titers of chickens in the Chinese herbal medicine ZMS-treated group at the ages of 14 and 21 days were significantly higher than that of the other groups (P<0.01). The growth indexes of immune organs, the concentrations of CD4+ lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes of chickens in the Chinese herbal medicine ZMS- treated group at the ages of 14, 21 and 28 d were significantly higher than those of the other groups (P<0.01). The apoptotic splenocytes, thymocytes and bursa of Fabricius cells of chickens in the ZMS-treated group were significantly lower than the other groups (P < 0.01) at the ages of 14, 21 and 28 days.

  11. Vejigas animales como sitios de oviposición y desarrollo de moscas en festividades, Heredia - Costa Rica Animal bladders as oviposition and breeding sites por flies after festivities in Heredia, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olger Calderón Arguedas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un recuento del número de vejigas dispersas en 15 manzanas del centro urbano de Barva, Heredia, luego de la celebración de las mascaradas, actividad enmarcada en las fiestas patronales de la ciudad. Adicionalmente se llevó a cabo una evaluación de los huevos, larvas y adultos de mosca presentes en 2 vejigas que fueron descartadas en lugares públicos y que no fueron contaminadas con tierra, fluidos u otros detritos. Luego de la actividad se contaron 29 vejigas, las cuales estuvieron localizadas en tendido eléctrico (55,2%, aceras (27,6%, jardines (6,9%, desagües (6,9% y techos (3,4%. Los grupos de moscas observados pertenecieron a las familias Calliphoridae (Cochliomyia macellaria, Lucilia eximia, Phaenicia cuprina, Chrysomyia megacephala, Sarcophagidae (Sarcophaga sp., Muscidae (Musca domestica y Phoridae. Los promedios de huevos y larvas por vejiga fueron 176 y 44 respectivamente. Los resultados demuestran que las vejigas crudas constituyen un eficiente atrayente para diversas especies de moscas de importancia en salud pública, lo que plantea la necesidad de buscar alternativas de tratamiento para las mismas con el fin de garantizar la sostenibilidad de la tradición minimizando la contaminación del entorno urbano.A study of the number of animal bladders dispersed in 15 blocks in the urban core of Barva- Heredia was performed following the masquerades, a traditional celebration during the festivities of the city. Additionally, an evaluation of the eggs, larvae and adult flies was performed in two bladders that were discarded in public areas, which were free from soil, fluids, or other debris. In total, 29 bladders were counted. They were located on power lines (55,2%, sidewalks (27,6%, drainages (6,9% and roofs (3,4%. The flies observed corresponded to the families Calliphoridae (Cochliomyia macellaria, Lucilia eximia, Phaenicia cuprina, Chrysomyia megacephala, Sarcophagidae (Sarcophaga sp., Muscidae (Musca domestica, and

  12. Sterile insect technique (SIT) for control of spotted bollworm of cotton: field experiments confirm dose fractionation improves mating competitiveness of sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earias vittella Fabricius causes serious economic damage to cotton and is being targeted for control by SIT. Experiments were conducted under simulated and actual field conditions with sterile males obtained using dose fractionation (75 x 4 Gy ). Under group mating conditions a 6 sterile : 1 normal male ratio resulted in an egg hatch of only 1.4 % compared to 93.5 % in control. Field studies using the same release ratio showed that sterile - males could search the females from a long distance and egg hatch remained only 2.1% for days. These studies confirmed the competitiveness of sterile males obtained using dose fractionation. (author)

  13. Ecological aspects of cattle tick control in central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, R G; Lemche, J; Chizyuka, H G; Sutherst, R W; Floyd, R B; Kerr, J D; McCosker, P J

    1989-07-01

    In ecological studies in central Zambia, both climate and ecotype affected population dynamics of tick species. Below average rainfall for several years caused a suppression in numbers of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus Neumann adults. Reduction in rainfall leading to changes in grazing patterns is thought to have been responsible for an increase in numbers of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius adults in a grassland habitat. There were reasonable correlations between numbers of each tick species on individual hosts over 1 year old. However, there were no relationships between numbers of ticks and bovine lymphocyte antigens (BoLA). PMID:2519677

  14. Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini feeding on stinkhorn spores (Fungi, Phallales: robbery or dispersal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio L. Oliveira

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Records about stingless bee-fungi interaction are very rare. In Brazilian Amazonia, workers of Trigona crassipes (Fabricius, 1793 and Trigona fulviventris Guérin, 1835 visiting two stinkhorn species, Dictyophora sp. and Phallus sp., respectively, were observed. The workers licked the fungi gleba, a mucilaginous mass of spores covering the pileum. Neither gleba residue nor spores were found on the body surface of these bee workers. These observations indicate that these bee species include spores as a complement in their diet. On the other hand, they also suggest that these stingless bees can, at times, facilitale spore dispersal, in case intact spores are eliminated with the feces.

  15. New records of the rare calcareous sponge Paragrantia waguensis Hôzawa, 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Soest, Rob W.M.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Reimer, James D.; De Voogd, Nicole J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Paragrantia waguensis Hôzawa is reported from coastal reefs of the island of Okinawa. This rare species was previously known only from Central Japan, Mie Prefecture. It has peculiar apopylar tetractine spicules, so far unique among Calcarea. We present in situ images of the species and a full description including SEM images of skeletal structure and spicule complement. The status of Paragrantia as a separate genus of the family Grantiidae distinct from Grantia Fleming is confirmed on the basis of a morphological and molecular comparison with the European type species of Grantia, Grantia compressa (Fabricius). PMID:26798302

  16. A comparison of three speaker-intrinsic vowel formant frequency normalization algorithms for sociophonetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne; Watt, Dominic; Johnson, Daniel Ezra

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates a speaker-intrinsic vowel formant frequency normalization algorithm initially proposed in Watt & Fabricius (2002). We compare how well this routine, known as the S-centroid procedure, performs as a sociophonetic research tool in three ways: reducing variance in area ratios of...... from RP and Aberdeen English (northeast Scotland). We conclude that, for the data examined here, the S-centroid W&F procedures performs at least as well as the two most recognized speaker-intrinsic, vowel-extrinsic, formant-intrinsic normalization methods, Lobanov's (1971) z-score procedure and Nearey...

  17. Mating Behavior of the African Weaver Ant, Oecophylla longinoda (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nene, Wilson; Rwegasira, Gration; Offenberg, Hans Joachim;

    2015-01-01

    reference to the closely related species Oecopylla smaragdina (Fabricius) whose mating occur during nuptial flights. Understanding the mating strategy of O. longinoda is of importance for its successful application in biological control programs. We conducted field and screen house experiments during two......Mating in most species of ants occurs during nuptial flights. In the African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda Latreille, mating has previously been hypothesized to take place within the nest before the nuptial flight. However, several researchers disagree with this supposition particularly with...

  18. Molecular Identification and Expressive Characterization of an Olfactory Co-Receptor Gene in the Asian Honeybee, Apis cerana cerana

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Huiting; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Chunxiang; Ma, Weihua; Jiang, Yusuo

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction recognition process is extraordinarily complex in insects, and the olfactory receptors play an important function in the process. In this paper, a highly conserved olfactory co-receptor gene, AcerOr2 (ortholog to the Drosophila melanogaster Or83b), cloned from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae), using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length sequence of the gene was 1763 bp long, and the cDNA ...

  19. Spatial distribution of the Ocypode quadrata (Crustacea: Ocypodidae) along estuarine environments in the Paranaguá Bay Complex, southern Brazil Distribuição espacial de Ocypode quadrata (Crustacea: Ocypodidae) ao longo de ambientes estuarinos no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo C. da Rosa; Carlos A. Borzone

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution of the ghost crabs, Ocypode quadrata Fabricius, 1787, in thirteen estuarine sandy beaches located along two main axes of the Paranaguá Bay Estuarine Complex, southern Brazil. Burrow densities of ghost crabs were measured at three beach levels established around the high tide mark during the summer and winter of 2005. All beaches showed a steep beach face slope (2.6 to 8.3º) with sediment composition varying from well sorted fine sand to very poorly...

  20. Defective bursa regeneration after irradiation of young thymectomized chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of the bursa of Fabricius to regenerate after gamma-irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was examined in chickens thymectomized (TX) immediately after hatching. Irradiation (2 X 500 R) 3 weeks after hatching was followed by impaired bursa regeneration, as judged both by bursa/body weight ratios and by bursa follicle development 3-6 weeks later in TX as compared to control birds. Germinal center formation in the spleen was deficient, and immune responses to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) and B. abortus (BA) were moderately reduced in the TX as compared to control birds irradiated at 3 weeks but not in TX birds irradiated at 5 weeks of age

  1. Três novas espécies de abelhas da Amazônia pertencentes ao gênero Eulaema (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Marcio Luiz de

    2006-01-01

    Eulaema (Apeulaema) pseudocingulata sp. n., semelhante a E. (A.) cingulata (Fabricius, 1804) e com distribuição pela Amazônia e planalto das Guianas; Eulaem a (Eulaema) parapolyzona sp. n., semelhante a Eulaema (Eulaema) polyzona (Mocsáry, 1897) e exclusiva da Amazônia ocidental, e Eulaema (Eulaema) napensis sp. n., endêmica da Amazônia equatoriana são descritas. Uma chave para identificação das espécies do gênero é apresentada.

  2. Report on the occurrence of synanthropic derived form of Chrysomyamegacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from Royapuram fishing harbour, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraj, Paulchamy; Selvakumar, Chellappa; Ganesh, Arumugam; Janarthanan, Sundaram

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of dipteran fly, Chrysomyamegacephala (Fabricius, 1794) is reported for the first time from Royapuram fishing harbour (Chennai), Tamil Nadu, South East India. The fully grown third instar larvae of Chrysomyamegacephala were collected from decaying fishes near Royapuram fishing harbour. This site is found to be the regular breeding site for Chrysomyamegacephala. Larvae were reared under laboratory condition and freshly emerged adult flies from pupae were collected and identified by morphological features and molecular tools. Molecular identification through generation of DNA barcoding using mitochondrial COI gene of Chrysomyamegacephala is appended. PMID:25057250

  3. Revisão das espécies brasileiras do gênero Exoplectra Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Exoplectrinae, Exoplectrini A revision of Brazilian species of the genus Exoplectra Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Exoplectrinae, Exoplectrini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Costa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As espécies brasileiras de Exoplectra Chevrolat, 1844 são revisadas com base no estudo de caracteres morfológicos do exoesqueleto e genitália. Dentre as 37 espécies do gênero foram estudadas 14 brasileiras, incluindo as três propostas como novas. Foi examinado o material-tipo de nove espécies. São designados os lectótipos de E. angustifrons Weise, 1895, E. calcarata (Germar, 1824, E. coccinea (Fabricius, 1801 e E. miniata (Germar, 1824. Exoplectra companyoi Mulsant, 1850 é revalidada; E. aenea (Fabricius, 1801, E. bernardinensis Brèthes, 1925, E. impotens Mulsant, 1850, E. luteicornis Mulsant, 1850 e E. irregularis (Crotch, 1874 são provisoriamente removidas do gênero. São propostas duas novas espécies do Brasil: E. columba sp. nov., do Paraná e E. bimaculata sp. nov., do Amamzonas. É apresentada chave dicotômica para as espécies, fotos e desenhos das principais estruturas utilizadas para identificação.The Brazilian species of Exoplectra Chevrolat, 1844, based on the morphological analysis of external characters and genitalia, are revised. Among the 37 species in the genera, 14 Brazilian species were analysed, including three new species. It was studied the type material of nine of them. The lectotypes of E. angustifrons Weise, 1895, E. calcarata (Germar, 1824, E. coccinea (Fabricius, 1801 and E. miniata (Germar, 1824 are designated. Exoplectra companyoi Mulsant, 1850 is revalidated; E. aenea (Fabricius, 1801, E. bernardinensis Brèthes, 1925, E. impotens Mulsant, 1850, E. luteicornis Mulsant, 1850 and E. irregularis (Crotch, 1874 are provisionally removed from the genus. Two new species from Brazil are proposed: E. columba sp. nov., from Paraná and E. bimaculata sp. nov., from Amazonas. Dicotomic key for species is presented as well as pictures and illustrations for the main structures used in the identification.

  4. Revisão das espécies brasileiras do gênero Exoplectra Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Exoplectrinae, Exoplectrini) A revision of Brazilian species of the genus Exoplectra Chevrolat (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae, Exoplectrinae, Exoplectrini)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana V. Costa; Lúcia M. Almeida; Geovan H. Corrêa

    2008-01-01

    As espécies brasileiras de Exoplectra Chevrolat, 1844 são revisadas com base no estudo de caracteres morfológicos do exoesqueleto e genitália. Dentre as 37 espécies do gênero foram estudadas 14 brasileiras, incluindo as três propostas como novas. Foi examinado o material-tipo de nove espécies. São designados os lectótipos de E. angustifrons Weise, 1895, E. calcarata (Germar, 1824), E. coccinea (Fabricius, 1801) e E. miniata (Germar, 1824). Exoplectra companyoi Mulsant, 1850 é revalidada; E. a...

  5. 西双版纳棚栽辣木主要害虫及防治%Major Pests of Moringa oleifera in Greenhouse and Their Control in Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌芬; 杨焱; 龙继明

    2011-01-01

    介绍了西双版纳棚栽辣木存在的主要害虫:朱砂叶螨(Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval)、美洲斑潜蝇(Liriomyza sativae Blanchard)、斜纹夜蛾(Prodenia litura Fabricius)和小菜蛾(Plutella xylostella L.)为害症状和防治。%There are several pests damaged Moringa oleifera tree of greenhouse,namely Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisduval,Liriomyza ativae Blanchard,Prodenia litura Fabricius and Plutella xylostella L..

  6. Aristathlus imperatorius Bergroth, a newly recognized synonym of Reduvius iopterus Perty, with the new combination Aristathlus iopterus (Perty, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) ​

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Dimitri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Reduvius iopterus Perty 1834 was first described from the Rio Negro, Brazil. It was then included in Zelus Fabricius 1803 as Z. iopterus (Perty 1834) without critical examination of this action (Stål 1872).The Neotropical genus Aristathlus Bergroth 1913 was described to include two species from the Amazon basin: A. imperatorius Bergroth 1913 and A. regalis Bergroth 1913. New information Based on the original description and illustration of Reduvius iopterus, Aristathlus imperatorius is considered to be its junior synonym, with the resulting new combination: Aristathlus iopterus (Perty 1834). PMID:26175611

  7. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Straka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini, a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkai sp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini is represented by four species – Thyreus denolii sp. n., T. batelkai sp. n., T. schwarzi sp. n., and T. aistleitneri sp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  8. Photonic structures in butterfly Thaumantis diores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; LI Qi; ZHOU Ji; LI Longtu

    2004-01-01

    @@ The beauty created by Nature always inspires people to fabricate artificial structures with certain functions in a bionic way. There has been a great interest in photonic band gap (PBG) materials since the concept was first proposed by Yablonovich[1] and John[2] in 1987. However, Nature had already created these PBG structures in living organisms long since, as was found recently in the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly[3], sea mouse Aphrodita[4], male Ancyluris meliboeus Fabricius butterflies[5], male peacock Pavo muticus feathers[6], and weevil Pachyrhynchus argus[7].

  9. An irradiation marker for mango seed weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to look for a method to determine whether live mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangifera (Fabricius) present in fruit had been irradiated at a quarantine dose or lower. We looked specifically for anatomical effects on the supra-oesophageal ganglion of larvae and tested a biochemical method for detection of the effects of irradiation on the protein profile of pupae. Neither method was successful. However, because for most international export markets mangoes need only be found free of the pest at inspection sourcing from pest-free production orchards and quality control systems incorporating requisite pest management components could prove practicable and satisfy most markets. (author)

  10. Cerambycidae (Coleoptera da Colômbia: IV. Cerambycinae com olhos grosseiramente granulados Cerambycidae (Coleoptera from Colômbia: IV. Cerambycinae with coarsely granulated eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New records for Colombian Cerambycidae - Achrysonini: Achryson immaculipenne Gounelle, 1909, A. lineolatum Erichson, 1847, A. quadrimaculatum (Fabricius, 1792; Ectenessini: Ectenessa lurida Martins, 1973; Cerambycini: Jupoata rufipennnis (Gory, 1831, Poeciloxestia carlyslei Fragoso, 1978, P. paraensis Lane, 1965; Elaphidionini: Ambonus electus (Gahan & Arrow, 1903, Paramallocera cribripennis (Bates, 1885, Periboeum pubescens (Olivier, 1790, Stizocera plicicollis (Germar, 1824, S. poeyi (Guérin-Méneville, 1838, Pantonyssus glabricollis Fuchs, 1961; Piezocerini: Haruspex lineolatus Bates, 1870; Eligmodermini: Eligmoderma spinicolle Aurivillius, 1923, E. ziczac Nonfried, 1895. New species described: Pantonyssus suturale sp. nov. (Santander; Anelaphus colombianus sp. nov. (Santander; A. sparsus sp. nov. (Magdalena.

  11. Notas e descrições em Bisaltes Thomson, 1868 e Ptericoptus Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, 1830 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini Notes and descriptions in Bisaltes Thomson, 1868 and Ptericoptus Lepeletier & Audinet-Serville, 1830 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The following new species are described in the subgenus Bisaltes (Bisaltes: B. (B. picticornis sp. nov. from Bolivia; B.(B. taua sp. nov. from Brazil (Paraná and Santa Catarina and B. (B. unicolor sp. nov. from Ecuador. Bisaltes (B. pictus Breuning, 1940 is transferred to the subgenus Craspedocerus. In Ptericoptus, P. hybridus hybridus Breuning, 1939 is considered a synonym of P. acuminatus (Fabricius, 1801; P. dorsalis Audinet-Serville, 1835 previously in the synonymy of P. acuminatus is revalidated and Saperda vitta Newman, 1838 is considered its synonym; P. corumbaensis sp. nov. is described from Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul.

  12. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Geotrupidae and Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Webster

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Geotrupidae, Geotrupes splendidus splendidus (Fabricius and Odonteus liebecki (Wallis, are newly reported for New Brunswick, Canada. Twelve species of Scarabaeidae are added to the faunal list of the province, including Aegialia criddlei Brown, Caelius humeralis (Brown, Dialytellus dialytoides (Fall, Diapterna omissa (LeConte, Diapterna pinguis (Haldeman, Planolinoides aenictus (Cooper and Gordon, Stenotothorax badipes (Melsheimer, and Ataenius strigatus (Say, which are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for each species.

  13. Use of attractant traps in area-wide control of vegetable insect pests in the Jiangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Plutella xylostella (L.), Prodenia litura (Fabricius) and Laphyqma exiqua Huebner are main insect pests of vegetables in the Jiangxi province. The long-term use of pesticides to control these pests has caused serious problems such as resistance to pesticides and resurgence of pests as well as pollution to environment and vegetables. Sex attractants have been used for area-wide control of these pests to solve these problems and to produce pollution-free vegetables. Based on the principles of effective, economic and operational implementation, two types of traps made of used plastic cola bottles (1.25L) and oil bottles (2.5L), have been used in 2,250 ha of vegetables in 2001-2003. Traps have been baited with pest-specific attractants incorporated in a rubber wick and placed in vegetable fields at a density of 45 traps per ha. The area-wide use of sex attractants to control these pests has resulted in the decrease of densities of male adults, eggs and larva of these pests and the increase of vegetable yield. An average of 2.34, 2.1, 2.85 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively with the cola bottle trap, and 3.22, 0.63, 4.33 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively oil bottle trap. Comparing trap area with non-trap area, egg density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 84.48% and 85.38%, respectively and larva density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 89.62% and 89.93%, respectively. The egg and larva density of L. exiqua Huebner was reduced by 66.67% and 64.47%, respectively and the percent of damaged host plants and leaves was reduced by 83.48% and 75.85%, respectively. The larva density of P. litura (Fabricius) was reduced by 24.92% and the percent of damaged host plants was reduced by 35.52%. The vegetable yield per ha has been increased by 30% on average

  14. A review of the Palaearctic species of Larinus Dejean (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in C. J. Schoenherr collection: nomenclature and lectotype designations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Gültekin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The syntypes of 41 species of Larinus Dejean described by L. Gyllenhal and C. H. Boheman, housed at the C. J. Schoenherr collection in the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm and the Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University, are examined. Lectotypes are designated, a nomenclatural review performed, many previous synonyms confirmed and three new synonyms proposed: Larinus planus (Fabricius, 1792 (= Larinus rusticanus Gyllenhal, 1835 syn. nov.; Larinus carlinae (Olivier, 1807 (= Larinus sulphurifer Boheman, 1843 syn. nov.; Larinus minutus Gyllenhal, 1835 (= Larinus puncticollis Capiomont, 1874 syn. nov.. Colour images for 15 lectotypes are presented.

  15. The early history of the integrable chiral Potts model and the odd-even problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perk, Jacques H. H.

    2016-04-01

    In the first part of this paper I shall discuss the round-about way of how the integrable chiral Potts model was discovered about 30 years ago. As there should be more higher-genus models to be discovered, this might be of interest. In the second part I shall discuss some quantum group aspects, especially issues of odd versus even N related to the Serre relations conjecture in our quantum loop subalgebra paper of 5 years ago and how we can make good use of coproducts, also borrowing ideas of Drinfeld, Jimbo, Deguchi, Fabricius, McCoy and Nishino.

  16. Isolation and structure elucidation of secondary metabolites in Central and South American Calea species and their biochemical systematic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen species of the genus Calea (Family Compositae, Tribe Heliantheae) from Central and northern South America, including the type species for the genus, were investigated chemically to determine their secondary metabolites. The taxa studied were C. leptocephala Blake, C. megacephala Rob, and Greenm., and C. trichotoma B. Smith from Mexico, C. prunifolia Kunth (syn. C. pittieri) from Costa Rica, C. prunifolia Kunth from Panama, C. jamaicensis L. from Jamaica, and the Venezuelan species C. berteriana DC., C. divaricata Benthem, C. oliverii Rob. and Greenm., C. prunifolia Kunth, C. septuplinervia Hieron., C. solidaginea Kunth, and C. subcordata Kunth. The chemical investigation of these Calea species, undertaken as part of biochemical systematic study, has resulted in the isolation of 83 compounds, of which 38 are new natural products. The isolated compounds were represented by a dioxin derivative, 3 benzofuranes, 5 chromenes, 12 flavones, and 62 sesquiterpene lactones. The structures of the new compounds were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. These methods included MS, IR, UV, and CD, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis

  17. Discovery-dominance trade-off among widespread invasive ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmeier, Cleo; Avril, Amaury; Blight, Olivier; Jourdan, Hervé; Courchamp, Franck

    2015-07-01

    Ants are among the most problematic invasive species. They displace numerous native species, alter ecosystem processes, and can have negative impacts on agriculture and human health. In part, their success might stem from a departure from the discovery-dominance trade-off that can promote co-existence in native ant communities, that is, invasive ants are thought to be at the same time behaviorally dominant and faster discoverers of resources, compared to native species. However, it has not yet been tested whether similar asymmetries in behavioral dominance, exploration, and recruitment abilities also exist among invasive species. Here, we establish a dominance hierarchy among four of the most problematic invasive ants (Linepithema humile, Lasius neglectus, Wasmannia auropunctata, Pheidole megacephala) that may be able to arrive and establish in the same areas in the future. To assess behavioral dominance, we used confrontation experiments, testing the aggressiveness in individual and group interactions between all species pairs. In addition, to compare discovery efficiency, we tested the species' capacity to locate a food resource in a maze, and the capacity to recruit nestmates to exploit a food resource. The four species differed greatly in their capacity to discover resources and to recruit nestmates and to dominate the other species. Our results are consistent with a discovery-dominance trade-off. The species that showed the highest level of interspecific aggressiveness and dominance during dyadic interactions. PMID:26257879

  18. The Long-Term Effects of Reduced Competitive Ability on Foraging Success of an Invasive Pest Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Fabian Ludwig; Bell, Vaughn Antony; Suckling, David Maxwell; Lester, Philip John

    2016-08-01

    Ant species like Pheidole megacephala (F.), Solenopsis invicta (Buren), and the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), have repeatedly been reported to be strongly associated with honeydew-producing arthropods like aphids, scale insects, and mealybugs, effectively protecting them from biological control agents like parasitoids. Here we report the results of a successful trial using pheromone dispensers to suppress Argentine ant activity over large sections in a commercial vineyard over a period of two months and preventing ant access into and foraging within the vine canopy. We found Argentine ant activity to be significantly reduced in pheromone-treated plots for the duration of the trial period compared with control plots. Our results showed a significant reduction in the numbers of Argentine ant workers recruited to randomly placed food resources within treated plots compared with untreated plots. Furthermore, spatial distribution of Argentine ants alongside transects in untreated plots remained relatively continuous, while increasing sharply beyond the borders of treated plots. Lastly, we measured the body fat content of workers and found a significant reduction in fat among workers from treated plots compared with untreated plots, suggesting an adverse effects on nest fitness. Additionally, we provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of the presented approach. Our results showed that it is possible to control Argentine ant, preventing them access to and foraging within the vine canopy, thereby reducing Argentine ants' access to honeydew. PMID:27329630

  19. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest. PMID:22182536

  20. Effect of irradiation on the longevity and reproduction of Pheidole megacepala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) queens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is a quarantine treatment option to control ants and other hitchhiker pests on fresh horticultural products exported from Hawaii. The radiotolerance of the big-headed ant, Pheidole megacephala (F.), was studied to determine a dose sufficient for its control. This ant was chosen as a representative species because it is a common hitchhiker and rearing methods in the laboratory have been developed. The desired response with irradiation treatment of ants is sterility of reproductive females. Queens from micro-colonies were irradiated at 60, 90, 120, or 150 Gy or left untreated as controls, then followed for 19 weeks to observe colony growth. In general, queen longevity, and the number of eggs, larvae, and pupae observed in the micro-colonies decreased with increasing irradiation dose. In the 60 Gy treatment, the number of eggs observed was reduced by 89.6% compared with the untreated controls. In the 120 Gy and 150 Gy treatments, the number of eggs observed was reduced by 99.5% and 98.5%, respectively, and no eggs were found after the first observation date at 7 days after treatment. No larvae or pupae were observed in the 90, 120 or 150 Gy treatments, suggesting these irradiation doses sterilized queens. This study suggests the USDA-APHIS-approved generic irradiation dose of 400 Gy is more than sufficient for the Formicidae. Information is needed on the radiotolerance of additional species of ants to confirm our findings. (author)

  1. Synanthropic flies of Asir Province, southwest of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kenawy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of synanthropic flies was carried out in 11 slaughter houses in 8 localities representing different altitudes in Asir. Flies were sampled twice a month from December 2008 to November 2009 by Final Flight Fly Traps. A total of 11,737 flies consisting of 19 species, belonging to 7 families were collected, of which those of family Muscidae predominated (94.88% followed by Calliphoridae (3.12%, Sarcophagidae (1.22% and Fanniidae (0.55%. The other 5 families (Piophilidae, Oestridae, Phoridae, Ulidiidae and Lonchaeidae totally represented 0.79%. Of the identified species, Musca domestica was predominant (94.26% followed by Lucilia sericata (1.51%, Sarcophaga carnaria (1.01%, Chrysomya albiceps (0.67%, Fannia canicularis (0.55%, Chrysomya marginalis (0.54%, Muscina stabulans (0.52%, Calliphora vicina (0.39%, Wohlfahrtia nuba (0.14%, Megaselia scalaris (0.08%, Lonchaea sp. (0.06, Bercaea cruentata (0.05, Ophyra sp. and Oestrus ovis (0.04% each, Atherigona sp., Piophila casie and Physiphora demandala (0.03% each and Parasarcophaga ruficornis (0.01. Flies altogether were more common (16 spp., 84.21% and abundant (36.45 fly/trap in highlands than in the other altitude levels. The highlands were found with the maximum Simpson (1-D=0.18 and Shannon (H=0.49, P<0.001 diversity indices. Likewise, the highest density of M. domestica was in the highlands (P<0.05. Regression analysis confirmed that house fly density was directly related to the altitude level (P<0.05. In all altitude levels, housefly was active during the whole year with higher activities during months of low and moderate temperatures (spring, autumn and winter seasons. Analysis revealed that fly density had inverse relation with temperature.

  2. Nanoindentation Mechanical Properties and Structural Biomimetic Models of Three Species of Insects Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jin; CHANG Zhiyong; YANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin; LIU Xianping; CHETWYND Derek G; CHEN Donghui; SUN Jiyu

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking insect flights were used to design and develop new engineering materials. Although extensive research was done to study various aspects of lfying insects. Because the detailed mechanics and underlying principles involved in insect lfights remain largely unknown. A systematic study was carried on insect lfights by using a combination of several advanced techniques to develop new models for the simulation and analysis of the wing membrane and veins of three types of insect wings, namely dragonfly (Pantala lfavescensFabricius), honeybee (Apis cerana cerana Fabricius) and lfy (Sarcophaga carnaria Linnaeus). In order to gain insights into the lfight mechanics of insects, reverse engineering methods were used to establish three-dimensional geometrical models of the membranous wings, so we can make a comparative analysis. Then nano-mechanical test of the three insect wing membranes was performed to provide experimental parameter values for mechanical models in terms of nano-hardness and elastic modulus. Finally, a computational model was established by using the ifnite element analysis (ANSYS) to analyze and compare the wings under a variety of simpliifed load regimes that are concentrated force, uniform line-load and a torque. This work opened up the possibility towards developing an engineering basis for the biomimetic design of thin solid iflms and 2D advanced engineering composite materials.

  3. The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov., its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov. , its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae.The subgenus Lycoderes (Lycoderides Sakakibara, 1972 is raised to the genus category - Lycoderides stat. nov.. - : and it now includes: Lycoderides amazonicus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides brevilobus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides burmeisteri (Fairmaire, 1846, comb. nov. , Lycoderides cultratus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fernandezi (Strümpel, 1988, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fuscus (Amyot & Serville, 1843, comb. nov. , Lycoderides gradatus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides hippocampus (Fabricius, 1803, comb. nov. , Lycoderides luteus (Funkhouser, 1940, comb. nov. , Lycoderides marginalis (Walker, 1851, comb. nov. , Lycoderides nathanieli (Cryan, 1999, comb. nov. , Lycoderides obtusus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides pennyi (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides phasianus (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. (= Enchenopa minamen Buckton, 1901,SYN. NOV: , Lycoderides protensus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides serraticornis (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. , and Lycoderides strumpeli (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. The following new species are described: Lycoderides abditus, sp. nov. , Lycoderides brulei,SP. NOV. (: both from French Guiana, Lycoderides capixaba, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Espírito Santo, Lycoderides cavichiolii, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Lycoderides meloi, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Bahia, and Lycoderides oliviae, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Minas Gerais. Other nomenclatural change: Stegaspis bracteata (Fabricius, 1787 = Lycoderes capitata Buckton, 1903, syn. nov. New records of geographical distribution and a key to the species are provided.

  4. Taxonomic notes on Callicentrus Stål and description of new species (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae Notas taxonômicas em Callicentrus Stål e descrição de novas espécies (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The synonyms assigned to some species of Callicentrus Stål, 1869 are revised, resulting: for Callicentrus bonasia (Fabricius, 1775 and Centrotus flavivitta Walker, 1851 the respective synonyms are removed. The species Centrotus aurifascia Walker, 1851, C. jucundus Walker, 1851, and C. platycerus Walker, 1851 are reinstated in Callicentrus. Three new species are described, all from Jamaica: Callicentrus delicatus sp. nov., C. ramosi sp. nov., and C. rubripes sp. nov. All of the treated species are figured.Os sinônimos assinalados para algumas espécies de Callicentrus Stål, 1869 são revistos, resultando: para Callicentrus bonasia (Fabricius, 1775 e Centrotus flavivitta Walker, 1851, os respectivos sinônimos são removidos. As espécies Centrotus aurifascia Walker, 1851, C. jucundus Walker, 1851 e C. platycerus Walker, 1851 são revalidadas em Callicentrus. Três espécies novas, todas da Jamaica, são descritas: Callicentrus delicatus sp. nov., C. ramosi sp. nov. e C. rubripes sp. nov. Todas as espécies tratadas são figuradas.

  5. Revisão do gênero Tynelia Stål e descrição de um novo gênero correlato (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae Revision of the genus Tynelia Stål and description of a correlatcd newgenus (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio José Creão-Duarte

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Tynelia Stål, 1858 is revised and its limits redefined; two species are included: T. longula Burmeister, 1835 (= Boethoos nitida Funkhouser, 1922, Syn.n.and T. godoyae sp.n. (from Brazil, Pará. Neotynelia gen.n. (type species: Darnis pubescens Fabricius, 1803 is described and the following species are treated, as well as some nomenclatural changes introduced: Neotynelia pubescens (Fabricius, 1803 comb.n. (= Tragopa prominens Walker, 1858 Syn.n.;= Boethoos hirsuta Funkhouser, 1922 Syn.n.; = Boethoos cinctata Haviland, 1925, Syn.n.; Neotynelia vertebralis (Fairmaire, 1846 sp. reval., comb.n. (= Tragopa bilinea Walker, 1858 Syn.n.; = Boethoos brunnea Funkhouser, 1922 Syn.n.; Neotynelia distinguenda (Fowler, 1895, sp. reval., comb.n.; Neotynelia nigra (Funkhouser, 1940 comb.n. (= Tynelia flavodorsata Fonseca, 1941 Syn.n.; Neotynelia bandeirai sp.n., Neotynelia martinsi sp.n., and Neotynelia rafaeli sp.n. (all three new species from Brazil, Mato Grosso.

  6. Revision of the New World bee fly genus Heterostylum Macquart (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae Revisão do bombylideos do gênero Heterostylum Macquart do novo mundo (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Bombyliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mallemont Cunha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Heterostylum Macquart and five Neotropical species (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805, H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827, H. rufum (Olivier, 1789, H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863 and H. pallipes Bigot, 1892 are redescribed. The other species, recently redescribed or described are only diagnosed, except for H. deani Painter, 1930, whose spermathecae are described and illustrated for the first time. The main characters of the external morphology were photographed and the male genitalia and female spermathecae illustrated. An identification key to all included species is also presented.O gênero Heterostylum Macquart e cinco espécies Neotropicais (H. ferrugineum (Fabricius, 1805, H. hirsutum (Thunberg, 1827, H. rufum (Olivier, 1789, H. haemorrhoicum (Loew, 1863 e H. pallipes Bigot, 1892 são redescritas. As demais espécies recentemente redescritas ou descritas tem sua diagnose apresentada, com exceção de H. deani Painter, 1930, cuja espermateca foi descrita e ilustrada pela primeira vez. Os principais caracteres da morfologia externa foram fotografados e a genitália masculina e espermateca feminina ilustradas. Uma chave de identificação para todas as espécies também é apresentada.

  7. Biodiversidade e Sazonalidade de Cigarrinhas (Hemiptera: Membracidae em Cacaueiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Benassi

    2016-04-01

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to identify the treehoppers diversity associated with cocoa plantation and to determine the seasonality of the most common species in two shaded areas, in the municipality of Linhares, Espirito Santo State, Brazil. For the sampling, twelve yellow-tray traps were randomly set in each area, spaced from one another in 30 m., placed on wooden stakes at a height of 1.0 m. above ground level. Weekly the collected material was taken during August/2011 to July/2012. Also samples of fruits, branches and leaves containing postures, nymphs, and adults of the treehoppers were collected and maintained in the laboratory for the eventual emergence of parasitoids and cataloging of the species. Through the traps were collected 16,094 exemplars of treehoppers belonging to 30 species, of which, 58.7 % in the first area (70 % shade and 41.3 % in the second area (60 % shade. The most abundant species was Horiola picta (Coquebert comprising 87.2 % of the total collection. Cocoa trees are confirmed to be the host plant of H. picta, Membracis tectigera Olivier, Membracis dorsata Fabricius, Membracis mimica Walker, Anobilia sp., Phormophora maura (Fabricius, Leioscyta pulchella Funkhouser and Enchenopa squamigera (Linnaeus. Parasitoids belonging to the families Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera were obtained from the eggs of H. picta, Anobilia sp., L. pulchella, M. tectigera and P. maura.

  8. Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Fahimeh; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Golian, Abolghasem; Nassiri-Moghaddam, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    The effect of dietary thyme-oil extract (TOE) supplementation on immune functions of broilers were assessed by feeding graded levels (50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm) of TOE to male broiler chicks during a 42-d feeding trial compared with negative- or positive-control diets. Dietary control treatments included a negative-control diet with no feed-additive supplementation and 2 positive-control groups supplemented with either virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin. In total, 300 1-day-old Ross × Ross male broilers were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments that consisted of 5 replicates of 10 birds each. On d 21 and 42, 2 birds from each replicate were killed by cervical cutting to measure the relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. At 25 d of age, chicks were injected with 0.5 mL of 10% SRBC suspension. Broilers fed with 200 ppm of TOE had heavier weights of bursa of Fabricius than those fed other dietary treatments at d 42 of age. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of 100 ppm of TOE resulted in higher (P sheep erythrocytes compared with other dietary treatments. On the other hand, diet modifications had no significant effect on blood leukocyte subpopulations and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with TOE, especially at the level of 100 ppm, can improve immunological responses of broiler chicks. PMID:26362978

  9. New host records of Aglaomelissa duckei and a compilation of host associations of Ericrocidini bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léo C. Rocha-Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, confirmed host records are reported for the monotypic Ericrocidini genus Aglaomelissa Snelling & Brooks, 1985. Aglaomelissa duckei (Friese, 1906 emerged from trap-nests of Centris (Heterocentris analis (Fabricius, 1804 and C. (Heterocentris terminata Smith, 1874 from two sites in the Brazilian Amazonian region. The parasitism ratio caused by A. duckei was high, varying from 80 to 100% of the brood cells in a single trap-nest. Also, a compilation of the known host records for the species of Ericrocidini is presented and host-parasite associations are discussed. Host associations are known for seven of the 11 genera and about 17 of the 42 species of the tribe, involving a total of 34 confirmed or putative host species of Centridini bees. All species of the tribe are known to attack only nests of Centris Fabricius, 1804, except Mesoplia rufipes (Perty, 1833 that also parasitizes nests of Epicharis Klug, 1807. Although the phylogenetic relationships within Ericrocidini and among the subgenera of Centris are not well resolved, the current knowledge of the host-parasite associations points to a relatively high degree of specificity and possible coevolution between them.

  10. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSTIMULANTS ON BROILERS SUFFERING FROM INFECTIOU: BURSAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mushtaq, S. A. Khan, A. Aslam, K. Saeed1, G. Saleem and H. Mushtaq

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This project was aimed to evaluate immunostimulatory effects of three therapeutic substances in broilers suffering from infectious bursal disease (IBD. For this purpose, 150 chicks were divided into five equal groups i.e. A, B, C, D and E having 30 birds each. Group A, B, C and D were challenged with infectious bursal disease virus. There were three immunostimulatory treatments i.e. levamisole (group A, vitamin E (group B, and bursinex (group C. Groups D and E were untreated control. Bursa body weight index, histopathology of bursa of Fabricius, plasma cell counting in Harderian gland and estimation of antibody response against infectious bursal disease virus was recorded. Vitamin E played a major role in improving the condition of birds suffering from infectious bursal disease, as it showed increased bursa body weight index (BBIx, less histopathological lesions in bursa of Fabricius, increased number of plasma cells in Harderian gland and high antibody response in infectious bursal disease infected broilers as compared to levamisole and bursinex. Levamisole played a minor role in improving condition of birds, while bursinex did not seem to be much effective against infectious bursal disease virus in this study.

  11. Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Paleari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles. Stiretrus decemguttatus is an important predator of two species of cassidine beetles, Botanochara sedecimpustulata (Fabricius, 1781 and Zatrephina lineata (Fabricius, 1787 (Coleoptera, Cassidinae, on the Marajó Island, Brazil. It attacks individuals in all development stages, but preys preferentially on late-instar larvae. Its life cycle in the laboratory was 43.70 ± 1.09 days, with an egg incubation period of six days and duration from nymph and adult stages of 16.31 ± 0.11 and 22.10 ± 1.67 days, respectively. The duration of one generation (T was 12.65 days and the intrinsic population growth rate (r 0.25. These data reveal the adjustment of the life cycle of S. decemgutattus with those of the two preys, but suggest greater impact on Z. lineata. However, no preference over cassidine species was shown in the laboratory. Up to 17 different color patterns can be found in adults of S. decemguttatus, based on combinations of three basic sets of color markings. Some of them resemble the markings of chrysomelids associated with Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae and are possibly a mimetic ring. Three color patterns were identified in nymphs, none of which was associated with any specific adult color pattern.

  12. Immunohistochemical investigation of the tissue distribution of mannan-binding lectin in non-infected and virus-infected chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, O L; Jørgensen, P H; Hedemand, J; Jensenius, J C; Koch, C; Laursen, S B

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of immuno-histochemical staining for chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) in formalin-fixed tissue sections from non-infected chickens, and from chickens infected with infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) or infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the non-infected chickens, MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of a few hepatocytes and in the germinal centres of the caecal tonsils, whereas sections of kidney, heart muscle, spleen, cerebrum, thymus, adrenal gland, bursa of Fabricius, bone marrow and trachea were without staining. In the ILTV-infected chickens, an intense staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes and on the surface of, and inside, ILTV-infected cells. Also in the IBDV-infected chickens, an intense staining reaction for MBL was detected in the cytoplasm of all hepatocytes. No staining was seen in the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius, but MBL was present in non-identified cells in the interstitium, and in the cytoplasm of macrophage-like cells, located peripheral to the ellipsoid of the spleen. These findings indicate the liver as the primary site of MBL synthesis, and points to up-regulation as a result of the viral infections. The location outside the liver could indicate a role of MBL in the immune defence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9708196

  13. Histopathological features of Marek’s disease infections in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Damayanti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Marek’s disease was reported to occur in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis. A total number of 58 tissues samples of broiler chicken were collected from 7 flocks of commercial broiler chicken farms in both Districts. The disease affected broiler chicken aged 17 to 24 days. Those chickens had been vaccinated to Newcastle Disease (ND and at age of 10 days had been vaccinated to Gumboro using blended bursa of fabricius. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% of buffered neutral formalin (BNF prior to haematoxilin and eosin (H and E stain using standard procedures. Histopathological features show that out of 58 samples, 32 (55.2% were infected by Marek’s Disease (19.0% were infected by Marek’s Disease, 20.1% were infected by Marek’s Disease and Gumboro, 16.1% Marek’s Disease and other infections, whereas 44.8% were infected by Gumboro alone or accompanied by other infections, ND and Colibasillosis. The study reveals that Marek’s Disease infection in broiler chicken tends to be mild i.e. infiltration of neoplastic cells (lymphoid, pleomorphic in proventriculus, intestine, spleen, livers and bursa of fabricius. In addition to this, there were mild non-supurative inflammation in heart, lung, peripheral nerve and brain, as well as a severe demyelination in brain. It is concluded that the histopthological features confirm the diagnosis of Marek’s Disease.

  14. Effect of Copper Toxicity on Lymphoid Organs in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Heng-min; YANG Guang; PENG Xi; DENG Jun-liang; LI De-bing

    2005-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to examine the effect of copper toxicity on lymphoid organs by experimental pathology and flow cytometry (FCM). 180 one-day-old Avian broilers were divided into three groups, and fed diets as follows: 1) Control(Cu 11.97 mg kg-1 diet), 2) Cu- toxic group Ⅰ (Cu 650 mg kg-1) and 3) Cu- toxic group Ⅱ (Cu 850 mg kg-1) for six weeks.Compared with the control, the growth index of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were markedly reduced (P<0.05or P<0.01), the G0/G1 phase of cell cycles of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius was higher (P<0.05 or P<0.01), while the S phase and proliferating index were lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01)in both Cu-toxic group Ⅰ and Cu-toxic group Ⅱ. The results demonstrated that Cu toxicity seriously impaired the progression of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to the S phase, inhibited the growth and development of lymphoid organs.

  15. Effect of Zinc Toxicity on Lymphoid Organs in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Heng-min; ZHAO Cui-yan; LI De-bing; PENG Xi; DENG Jun-liang

    2004-01-01

    The experiment was conducted with the objective of studies on effects of zinc toxicity on lymphoid organs by the methods of experimental pathology and flow cytometry (FCM). 200one-day-old Avian broilers were divided into four groups randomly, and fed on diets as follows: controls (Zn 100mg kg-1)and zinc toxic (Zn 1 500mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅰ; Zn 2 000 mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅱ; Zn 2 500 mg kg-1, zinc toxic group Ⅲ) for seven weeks. The weight and growth index of the thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius were reduced in both zinc toxic group Ⅱ and zinc toxic group Ⅲ when compared with those of control group. The G0/G1 phase of the cell cycles of the lymphoid organs was higher, and S, G2+M phases lower in zinc toxic groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ than in control group. Lymphocytes were depleted and degenerate in the lymphoid organs. The reticular cells of the bursa of Fabricius proliferated and the reticular cells of the thymus were also degenerate and necrotic,particularly in zinc toxic groups Ⅱ and Ⅲ. The results demonstrated that more than 1 500 mg kg-1 impaired the progression of lymphocytes from the G0/G1 phase to S phase obviously, inhibited the development of lymphoid organs and caused marked pathological changes in the lymphoid organs. Potential mechanisms underlying these observations are also discussed.

  16. Differential expression of immune-related cytokine genes in response to J group avian leukosis virus infection in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanni; Liu, Yongzhen; Guan, Xiaolu; Li, Xiaofei; Yun, Bingling; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Gao, Honglei; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2015-03-01

    Infection with J group avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) can result in immunosuppression and subsequently increased susceptibility to secondary infection. The innate immune system is the first line defense system in prevention of further bacterial and viral infections. Cytokines play key roles in the innate immune system. In this study, we used RT-qPCR technology to test the cytokine mRNA expression levels in various immune tissues, including the spleen, bursa of fabricius and cecal tonsil, in the days following ALV-J infection. The results indicated that in the infected group, the expression levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, interferon-α (IFN-α) and IFN-γ significantly increased in the spleen and reached peak levels that were thousandfolds higher than baselines at 9-12 days post-infection (d.p.i.). The levels in the bursa of fabricius slightly increased, and the levels in the cecal tonsil were not significantly altered. Moreover, the pattern of the expression of these three cytokines in the spleens of the infected group was similar to the pattern of viremia of this group. These results suggest that the spleen plays an important role in the interaction between ALV-J infection and the innate immune system. This study contributes to the understanding of innate immune responses to ALV-J infection and also elucidates the mechanisms of the pathogenicity of ALV-J in chickens. PMID:25438822

  17. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status. PMID:26740133

  18. Artropofauna de importancia forense en un cadáver de cerdo en el Callao, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone José

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first report of an ongoing study on arthropofauna of forensic importance in Callao, Peru using a baby pig (Sus scrofa Linneaus, 1758 on land as a model to determine the arthropofauna over 84 days of weekly survey between 17 July and 02 October 2 000. A total of 4,405 specimens were collected belonging to five orders and eight families: Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775 (Diptera, Calliphoridae (81.62%; Dermestes maculatus (De Geer, 1774 (Coleoptera, Dermestidae (16.35%; Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761 (Diptera, Muscidae (0.04%; Saprinus aeneus (Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera, Histeridae (1.48%; Necrobia rufipes (De Geer, 1775 (Coleoptera, Cleridae (0.45%; Linepithema humile (Mayr, 1868 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae (0.02%; Porcellio laevis Latreille, 1804 (Isopoda, Porcellionidae (0.02% and Hadruroides lunatus (L. Koch, 1867 (Scorpionida, Iuridae (0.02%. Larvae accounted for 76%, pupae 14% and adults 10% of the total collected. The arthropods were into three: necrophages (98.01%, predators (1.95% and omnivorous (0.04%. C. macellaria were significantly higher during the decayed stage; by contrast D. maculatus was much higher in dry remains stage. The highest diversity with the Shannon-Weaver (H' and Pielou (J index were found during the advanced decayed stage. The absence of species of genus Chrysomyia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 is discussed.

  19. Bioactivity of Four Plant Extracts on Coleopterous Pests of Stored Cereals and Grain Legumes in Nigeria%四种植物淬取物对尼日利亚仓贮甲虫的生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris O. ADEDIRE; Rotimi O. AKINKUROLERE

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of ethanol extracts from four plants, Dennettia tripetala Baker, Eugenia aromatica Baillon, Piper guineense Thonn et Schum and Anchomanes difformis P. Beauv. as bioinsecticides for control of adult Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, Oryzaephilus mercator Fauvel and Lasioderma serricorne Fabricius were determined at two concentrations (0.5% and 2.0%) in the laboratory. All extracts were toxic to beetles with E. aromatica being the most potent of four plant materials tested and had the least LT50 value. This was followed by A. difformis extract. At 2.0% v/w extract concentration, percentage grain damage by insects in treated grains stored for 90 days was nil. Grains protected with A. difformis had the least percentage seedgerminationof62.50%whilethoseprotectedwithP.guineensehadthehighestpercentagegermination(74.58%)at2.0% extract concentration. The mean percentage germination in the control was 72.72%. Treatment of grains with plant extracts had no significant (P>0.05) effect on its water absorption capacity.

  20. Impact of screwworm eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) eradication programmes has been successfully demonstrated. As a result of a 45-year area-wide campaign, suppression and eradication have been achieved in the USA, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama north of the Canal, some Caribbean Islands, and the outbreak in Libya, North Africa. The humans, livestock, and wildlife in these countries are now free of this dangerous pest. It has been estimated that the annual producer benefits are: USA - USD 796 million, Mexico - USD 292 million, and Central America - USD 77.9 million. In Libya, the estimated benefit/cost ratio was 5:1 in the infested zone, and 10:1 in the whole country. If the New World screwworm were eradicated in South America, it has been estimated that each year USD 3592 million could be saved. Small field trials have confirmed that the SIT would be effective for the area-wide control of the Old World screwworm Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve). (author)

  1. Improved method for screening mitochondrial cytochrome b markers to identify regional populations of the Old World screwworm fly and other myiasis agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, P D; Wardhana, A H; Adams, Z J O; Sotiraki, S; Hall, M J R

    2014-10-01

    A new protocol was developed to overcome obstacles to the high-throughput sequence analysis of the 716-717 nucleotides at the carboxyl terminal of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b (cyt b) of the myiasis flies Chrysomya bezziana and Wohlfahrtia magnifica. For both of these obligate parasites, cyt b haplotypes provide diagnostic markers for phylogeographic populations, markers that identify the origins of emerging populations causing economically important myiasis in livestock and, in the case of C. bezziana (Old World screwworm fly), could help select reproductively-compatible populations for use in the Sterile insect technique as part of area wide integrated pest management. High sequence quality is important for unambiguously detecting the few mutations that are diagnostic for regional cyt b haplotypes and their lineages. A key innovation is the design of a new forward primer for the specific PCR amplification and high-quality sequencing of cyt b. The improved protocol will facilitate the use of this established comparative cyt b sequence analysis, not only by teams lacking the resources for whole genome sequencing (WGS) but also by those requiring reference sequences for developing comparative mitogenomics based on WGS. PMID:25016294

  2. Traumatic myiasis agents in Iran with introducing of new dominant species, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera:Sarcophagidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javad Rafinejad; Kamran Akbarzadeh; Yavar Rassi; Jamasp Nozari; Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat; Mostafa Hosseini; Hamzeh Alipour; Abdolmajid Ranjbar; Danial Zeinali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study agents of animal wound myiasis in various geographical districts of Fars province.Methods:of 10358 domestic animals have been visited from April 2011 to March 2012. The infected wounds in any parts of animal body were sampled by means of forceps.Results:This study has been done in Fars province, located in the southern part of Iran. Sums The most wound myiasis cases due to this species occurred in central part of Fars province. There wasn’t any significant difference between sheep and goat in infestation with myiasis (P>0.05). The infestation rate of myiasis in cattle community was 0.86%. About 61% of all animal wound myiasis were caused by larvae of Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Conclusions: The infestation rate of livestock was lower than other works in Iran and some other countries like Saudi Arabia. Chrysomya bezziana has been mentioned as main myiasis agent in Iran. But in this study it cleared that similarly to some European countries, the common animal myiasis agent in Iran is Wohlfahrtia magnifica. Introducing new species as principal agent for myiasis can help public health and animal husbandry policy makers to prepare sufficient and effective control and/or preventive measures for this disease.

  3. Necrophagous diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ândrio Z. da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrophagous Diptera associated with wild animal carcasses in southern Brazil. The aim of this study was to acquire a better knowledge concerning the diversity of necrophagous Diptera that develop on wild animal carcasses. For this purpose, the decomposition of six wild animal carcasses was observed in order to collect and identify the main species of necrophagous flies associated with the decomposition process. The carcasses were found on highways near the cities of Pelotas and Capão do Leão in the initial stage of decomposition, with no significant injuries or prior larval activity. Four wild animal models were represented in this study: two specimens of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840; two Tupinambis merianae Linnaeus, 1758; one Nothura maculosa Temminck, 1815; and one Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766. A total of 16,242 flies from 14 species were reared in the laboratory, where Muscidae presented the greatest diversity of necrophagous species. Overall, (i carcasses with larger biomass developed a higher abundance of flies and (ii the necrophagous community was dominated by Calliphoridae, two patterns that were predicted from published literature; and (iii the highest diversity was observed on the smaller carcasses exposed to the lowest temperatures, a pattern that may have been caused by the absence of the generalist predator Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819. (iv An UPGMA analysis revealed a similar pattern of clusters of fly communities, where the same species were structuring the groupings.

  4. Isolation and identification of associated bacteria and maggots from myiasis affected wounds of cattle and goats in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Touhidul Islam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the associated maggots and bacteria in myiasis affected wound in animals. Total 37 myiasis affected cattle (n=25 and goats (n=12 were examined in this study, of which 21 samples were collected from the Veterinary clinics of Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU, Mymensingh, and the remaining 16 samples were collected from Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Gouripur, Mymensingh. The maggots were collected from the wounds, and were identified under microscope. For microbial identification, samples (n=10 were collected aseptically by using sterile cotton swab. The samples were allowed to grow in media. Colony and staining characteristics were studied. Traumatic, creeping or migratory myiasis wounds were identified in the examined animals. In this study, subcutaneous wound was mostly recorded, of which 43% (n=9/21 was found at the Veterinary Clinics, BAU, and 44% (n=7/16 was found at the Upazila Veterinary Hospital, Gouripur. The maggots were identified as Chrysomya bezziana, commonly known as Old World screwworm. Occurrence of myiasis due to C. bezziana larvae was recorded as 100%. The associated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus spp. In conclusion, the myiasis wounds are associated with both Staphylococcus spp. and larvae of C. bezziana. Preventive and control measures against the C. bezziana and Staphylococcus spp. can be undertaken to save the livestock from myiasis in Bangladesh.

  5. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, A Nurul; Salmah, M R Che; Hassan, A Abu; Hamdan, A; Razak, M N Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. 'Sala' and 'Chok Anan'. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  6. Field assessment of two synthetic attractants for the New World Screwworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago, E-mail: mastrang@unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CBMEG/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Biologia Molecular e Engenharia Genetica; Neto, Paulo C.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: pcassier@cena.usp.br, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The New World Screwworm fly (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, causes millions of dollars in annual losses to farmers. The collection of adult flies with trapping systems is essential in surveillance for NWS populations and for monitoring the progress of eradication programs against this pest. Chemical baits can be used to attract adult flies, such as the Swormlure-4. In ports of Australia, the attractant Bezzilure-2 B is part of a quarantine surveillance program for another screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Comparative trials with these attractants have never been done in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance between the attractants Swormlure-4 and Bezzilure-2 B for NWS. Field trials were carried out on a vegetated area of UNICAMP campus. For each trial, 12 Delta sticky traps were set up, with traps positioned 100 to 200 m apart. The attractants were dispensed in 30 mL bottles containing a dental roll. Three independent trials were performed: one applying Swormlure-4 alone (Trial A), the second with only Bezzilure-2 B (Trial B), and the third with both attractants (6 traps for each attractant) (Trial C). Between 800 and 1120 sterile adult flies were released 1 h after the installation of the traps. The trapped flies were collected on the 10{sup th} day after the release. In all trials, the Swormlure-4 proved to be much more efficient and its use should be encouraged for future collections and surveillance of NWS populations in Brazil. (author)

  7. An initial study of insect succession on decomposing rabbit carrions in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nyasha Mabika; Ron Masendu; Gilbert Mawera

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate insects visiting sun exposed and shaded decomposing rabbit carcasses and to establish the relationship between insects and carcasses which may be of forensic importance in Harare. Methods: Two rabbits weighing 2.3 kg and 2.5 kg were killed by sharp blows on the head. One was exposed to the sun while the other was placed under shade. The carcasses were allowed to decompose and insects were collected twice a day for the first week and thereafter once a day up to the end of the 7 weeks. Maggots were also collected from the decomposing carcasses and reared.Results:Five dipteran families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Phoridae and Drosophilidae) were identified from the sun-exposed carcass. Species collected included Luciliacuprina (L. cuprina), Chrysomya albiceps (C. albiceps), Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp. and Drosophila sp. Four families (Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae) were identified from the shaded carcass. Representatives of these families included L. cuprina, C. albiceps, Musca domestica, and Hydrotaea sp. Three Coleopteran families (Histeridae, Cleridae and Dermestidae) were identified from both carcasses. The observed species were Saprinus sp., Necrobia rufipes and Dermestes sp. Formicidae (Hymenoptera) was represented by only one species (Pheidole sp.). Flies which emerged from the rearing units were L. cuprina, Lucilia sp., C. albiceps, Sarcophaga sp. and Sepsis sp.). Conclusions: Of the dipteran species collected during the study, L. cuprina and C. albiceps could be important for further forensic studies since they were collected from the carcasses and also observed from the rearing units.

  8. Levantamento e caracterização da dipterofauna necrófaga em uma localidade de Brasília - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v6i2.456

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alonzo Carreira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os dípteros representam um grupo de extrema relevância para a criminalística graças a sua capacidade de encontrar corpos em decomposição, permitindo a estimativa do intervalo post mortem. A dificuldade de identificação dos dípteros é um problema que muitos dos profissionais têm que lidar para obter informações acuradas que possam ser utilizadas como provas de crime. Para resolver este problema as identificações por marcadores moleculares se mostram um método eficiente. O objetivo desse trabalho foi descrever a população de dípteros de interesse forense em Brasília por meio de marcadores moleculares baseados em DNA. Os resultados indicaram que marcadores RAPD e de DNAmt podem ser usados para a identificação de Chrysomya albiceps. Sendo assim, estabeleceu-se um método molecular de identificação de uma espécie de interesse forense que poderá servir de auxílio na elucidação de crimes na região ou na identificação de vestígios incompletos ou imaturos de dípteros.

  9. Field assessment of two synthetic attractants for the New World Screwworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The New World Screwworm fly (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, causes millions of dollars in annual losses to farmers. The collection of adult flies with trapping systems is essential in surveillance for NWS populations and for monitoring the progress of eradication programs against this pest. Chemical baits can be used to attract adult flies, such as the Swormlure-4. In ports of Australia, the attractant Bezzilure-2 B is part of a quarantine surveillance program for another screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana. Comparative trials with these attractants have never been done in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance between the attractants Swormlure-4 and Bezzilure-2 B for NWS. Field trials were carried out on a vegetated area of UNICAMP campus. For each trial, 12 Delta sticky traps were set up, with traps positioned 100 to 200 m apart. The attractants were dispensed in 30 mL bottles containing a dental roll. Three independent trials were performed: one applying Swormlure-4 alone (Trial A), the second with only Bezzilure-2 B (Trial B), and the third with both attractants (6 traps for each attractant) (Trial C). Between 800 and 1120 sterile adult flies were released 1 h after the installation of the traps. The trapped flies were collected on the 10th day after the release. In all trials, the Swormlure-4 proved to be much more efficient and its use should be encouraged for future collections and surveillance of NWS populations in Brazil. (author)

  10. Human Extensive Head Skin Myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soleimani Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nChrysomya bezziana Villeneuve is the most important fly, which produces myiasis, exists as an obligate ectoparasite in the ani­mals, and afflicts human. Poor hygiene and working in contaminated areas particularly during warm seasons provide a situa­tion to infest by this parasite. Infestation in human and livestock are often observed in wounds, normal body orifices such as eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. The manifestations include pruritus, pain, inflammation, redness, eosinophilia, and secon­dary bacterial infections and rarely death. A 5-year-old boy with severe headache and agitation symptoms was fol­lowed up. After physical examination and endoscopy, larvae of third instar fly were obtained from his scalp. Our precise identifica­tion indicated that the flies were the C. bezziana. This is the second report of the human scalp myiasis caused by C. bezziana in Iran. This study confirmed that the old world screwworm fly was distributed in the southern of Iran and proba­bly could be one of the most important agents of myiasis in this area.

  11. SIT in Uruguay: Screwworm Eradication and the Need for Integration for a Successful Pest Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Research Center at the School of Sciences is the unique nuclear facility constructed and devoted to work with radiation and isotopes in Uruguay. SIT technology experience was gained working with the Chagas' disease vector, Triatoma rubrovaria, as a model (Cristina et al., 1986; Salvatella et al., 1987; Cristina et al., 1985, 1984a,b,c). At the present time, working together with the Ministry for Cattle, Agriculture and Fisheries, it was possible to determine the importance of New World Screwworm control and/or eradication from Uruguay. This pest challenges the main export products of Uruguay. Regarding myiasis, four different species of Diptera have been found in Uruguay: Chlochliomyia hominivorax, Chlochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps and Dermatobia hominis. C. hominivorax accounts for 87.2 % of all myiasis in Uruguay. The general prevalence of the disease is 4.5% of bovines and 6.2% of ovines are affected. The death rate of affected animals is calculated to be 6.5% for bovines and 18.5% for ovines. Considering a population of 10 million cattle and 26 million ovine in Uruguay, 450,000 bovines and 1,612,000 ovines are affected each year. Total loses are estimated to be US$24 million per year. Since no geographical barrier separates Uruguay from Brazil, integrated management is the only choice to successfully control this important pest. SIT against screwworm would be very beneficial for Uruguay.

  12. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species - not hermes - inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V

    2014-01-01

    Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica). Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775)-type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro-and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County). While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other Hermeuptychia species, H

  13. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species – not hermes – inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793). The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica). Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775)—type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro—and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County). While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other Hermeuptychia

  14. A new Hermeuptychia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae is sympatric and synchronic with H. sosybius in southeast US coastal plains, while another new Hermeuptychia species – not hermes – inhabits south Texas and northeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cong

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hermeuptychia intricata Grishin, sp. n. is described from the Brazos Bend State Park in Texas, United States, where it flies synchronously with Hermeuptychia sosybius (Fabricius, 1793. The two species differ strongly in both male and female genitalia and exhibit 3.5% difference in the COI barcode sequence of mitochondrial DNA. Setting such significant genitalic and genotypic differences aside, we were not able to find reliable wing pattern characters to tell a difference between the two species. This superficial similarity may explain why H. intricata, only distantly related to H. sosybius, has remained unnoticed until now, despite being widely distributed in the coastal plains from South Carolina to Texas, USA (and possibly to Costa Rica. Obscuring the presence of a cryptic species even further, wing patterns are variable in both butterflies and ventral eyespots vary from large to almost absent. To avoid confusion with the new species, neotype for Papilio sosybius Fabricius, 1793, a common butterfly that occurs across northeast US, is designated from Savannah, Georgia, USA. It secures the universally accepted traditional usage of this name. Furthermore, we find that DNA barcodes of Hermeuptychia specimens from the US, even those from extreme south Texas, are at least 4% different from those of H. hermes (Fabricius, 1775—type locality Brazil: Rio de Janeiro—and suggest that the name H. hermes should not be used for USA populations, but rather reserved for the South American species. This conclusion is further supported by comparison of male genitalia. However, facies, genitalia and 2.1% different DNA barcodes set Hermeuptychia populations in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas apart from H. sosybius. These southern populations, also found in northeastern Mexico, are described here as Hermeuptychia hermybius Grishin, sp. n. (type locality Texas: Cameron County. While being phylogenetically closer to H. sosybius than to any other

  15. Evaluation of potential immunostimulant of the Carboxymethyl-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in poultry (Gallus domesticus / Avaliação do potencial imunoestimulante da Carboximetil-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae em frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Goméz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The carboxymethylglucan (CMG is a soluble molecule, composed of glucopyranosyl linked by ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, which can activate the immune system of the host. The purpose of this study was evaluate the productive and immunological characteristics of 192 poultry (Gallus domesticus COBB line which received feds containing 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% of CMG from Saccharomyces cerevisiae added in corn flour. All poultry were immunized against Newcastle disease and at each treatment 3 poultries randomly chosen received CMG intramuscular at 3, 7 and 14 days. It was evaluated the animal performance, development of the bursa of Fabricius, histological slides of the small intestine, counts of phagocytes cells in blood and levels of antibodies in serum. The results showed difference in weight gain and consumption of feed to poultry that consumed CMG at 1 to 21 days. Fabricius bursa relative weight increased in poultry supplemented with 0,025 e 0,050% of CMG. The phagocytic cells number and total levels of antibodies found in poultry at 21 days were higher in those that received CMG in the diet. For the animals that received intramuscular CMG was observed increase of antibodies specific to Newcastle.A carboximetilglucana (CMG é uma molécula solúvel, composta de resíduos de glicopiranosil unidos em ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, que possui a capacidade de ativar o sistema imune do hospedeiro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as características produtivas e imunológicas de 192 frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus da linhagem COBB, que receberam rações contendo 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% de CMG de Saccharomyces cerevisiae adicionada em farinha de milho. Todas as aves foram imunizadas contra a doença de Newcastle e, em cada tratamento, 3 aves escolhidas aleatoriamente receberam CMG intramuscular no 3º, 7º e 14º dia. Foram avaliados o desempenho animal, o desenvolvimento da bursa de Fabricius e lâminas histológicas do intestino delgado, além do número de c

  16. Revisão do gênero Potnia Stål (Homoptera, Membracidae, Membracinae, Hoplophorionini Revision of the genus Potnia Stål (Homoptera, Membracidae, Membracinae, Hoplophorionini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio J Creão-Duarte

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen species of Potnia Stål, 1866 are presented with descriptions, illustrations and a key for identification. The following nomenclatural changes are introduced: P. knightae sp.n. (from Guiana, P. miracyae sp.n. (from Costa Rica, P. diringshofeni sp.n. (from Brasil, P. webbi sp.n. (from Brazil, P. turrialbensis sp.n. (from Costa Rica, P. pinheiroi sp.n. (from Brazil, P. tapuruquarensis sp.n. (from Brasil, P. cornigera sp.n. (from Brazil and P. inca sp.n. (from Peru. Potnia venosa (Germar, 1821 = Aconophora nigrivittata Walker, 1851, syn.n. = Potnia perobtusa Fowler, 1894, syn.n.. Potnia brevicornis Fowler, 1894, sp. reval. = Potnia brunneifrontis Funkhouser, 1943, syn.n. = Potnia maculata Funkhouser, 1943, syn.n.. Potnia jacula (Fabricius, 1803 = Potnia orthosoma Fonseca & Diringshofen, 1974, syn.n.

  17. Revisão do gênero Umbonia Burmeister (Homoptera, Membracidae, Membracinae, Hoplophorionini Revision of the genus Umbonia Burmeister (Homoptera, Membracidae, Membracinae, Hoplophorionini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio J Creão-Duarte

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen species of Umbonia are presented with descriptions, illustrations, and a key for Identification. The following nomenclatural changes are introduced: Umbonia articularia Buckton, 1901, sp. reval.; Umbonia pyramidalis Fairmaire, 1846, sp. reval.; Umbonia lativitta Walker, 1851, sp. reval. = U. erecta Goding, 1920, syn.n.; Umbonia crassicornis (Amyot & Serville, 1843 = U. ermanni Griffini, 1895, syn.n. = U octolineata Goding, 1930, syn.n.; Umbonia spinosa (Fabricius, 1775 = U. reducta Walker, 1851, syn.n. = U. terribilis Walker, 1858, syn.n. = U. rectispina Stål, 1869, syn.n. = U. immaculata Funkhouser, 1943, syn.n.. Umbonia struempeli sp.n. (from Brazil; Umbonia formosa sp.n. (from Bolivia and Umbonia richteri sp.n. (from Colombia.

  18. Flavonoids and triterpenes from the nest of the stingless bee Trigona spinipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Marinalva O.; Ponte, Flavio A.F.; Lima, Mary Anne S.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: edil@ufc.br

    2008-07-01

    In the Northeast of Brazil the stingless bee Trigona spinipes Fabricius injures the tree bark of cultivated Eucalyptus citriodora specimens in order to make them exudate. The chemical investigation of the ethanol extract of an entire nest of T. spinipes allowed the isolation of the cycloartane triterpene magniferolic acid and 3{beta}-hydroxy-24-methylenecicloartan-26-oic acid, besides the flavonoids 3'-methyl quercetin, sakuranetin, kaempferol 7-methyl ether, tricetin and aromadendrin 7-methyl ether as the main compounds. The isolation of sakuranetin, kaempferol 7-methyl ether, and aromadendrin 7-methyl ether from both Trigonas spinipes' nest and the exudate from Eucalyptus, may suggest this species as a botanical origin of the nest constituents of these stingless bee in the Northeast of Brazil. The structural characterization of the isolated compounds was accomplished by spectrometric means and comparison with the literature data. (author)

  19. Fostering collective intelligence education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Meza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New educational models are necessary to update learning environments to the digitally shared communication and information. Collective intelligence is an emerging field that already has a significant impact in many areas and will have great implications in education, not only from the side of new methodologies but also as a challenge for education. This paper proposes an approach to a collective intelligence model of teaching using Internet to combine two strategies: idea management and real time assessment in the class. A digital tool named Fabricius has been created supporting these two elements to foster the collaboration and engagement of students in the learning process. As a result of the research we propose a list of KPI trying to measure individual and collective performance. We are conscious that this is just a first approach to define which aspects of a class following a course can be qualified and quantified.

  20. Nest structure and communal nesting in Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressler (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Garófalo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three nests of Euglossa (Glossura annectans Dressier, 1982 were obtained from trap nests at Serra do Japi, Jundiai, São Paulo State, Brazil. The bees nested in bamboo cane (one nest and in wooden-boxes (two nests. Solitary (two cases and pleometrotic (one case foundations were observed. Two nests were re-used once by two females working in each of them. Re-using females that shared the nests were of the same generation and each built, provisioned and oviposited in her own cells, characterizing a communal association. The brood development period was related to climatic conditions. Natural enemies included Anthrax oedipus oedipus Fabricius, 1805 (Bombyliidae, Coelioxys sp. (Megachilidae and Melittobia sp. (Eulophidae.

  1. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdi El-Hawagry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794, Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909, Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804, while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone.

  2. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

    2015-01-01

    Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyiadiscoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylumcandidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopalinearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopaminos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopalinearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylumcandidum and Bombomyiadiscoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  3. Domiciliary cockroaches found in restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, J; Sulaiman, S; Oothuman, P; Vellayan, S; Zainol-Ariffin, P; Paramaswaran, S; Razak, A; Muslimin, M; Kamil-Ali, O B; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M

    2012-03-01

    The following domiciliary cockroaches were collected from restaurants in five zones of Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Malaysia using 1L glass beaker traps baited with ground mouse-pellets: Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) (n = 820), Periplaneta brunnea Burmeister (n = 46), Blattella germanica (Linnaeus) (n = 12504), Supella longipalpa (Fabricius) (n = 321), Symploce pallens Stephens (n = 29) and Neostylopyga rhombifolia (Stoll) (n = 5). The following bacteria were isolated from 10 cockroach specimens: Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. rhinoscleromatis and Serratia liquefaciens from 5 B. germanica; Acinetobacter calcoaceticus var. anitratus, Citrobacter diversus/amalonaticus, Escherichia vulneris and K.p. pneumoniae from 3 P. brunnea; and Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans 4, Escherichia adecarboxylate, E. vulneris, K. p. pneumonia, K. p. rhinoscleromatis and Proteus vulgeris from 2 P. americana. PMID:22543619

  4. Assessment of gamma ray-induced DNA damage in Lasioderma serricorne using the comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2012-03-01

    We attempted a DNA comet assay under alkaline conditions to verify the irradiation treatment of pests. Lasioderma serricorne (Fabricius) were chosen as test insects and irradiated with gamma rays from a 60Co source at 1 kGy. We conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over time for 7 day. Severe DNA fragmentation in L. serricorne cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. The parameters of the comet image analysis were calculated, and the degree of DNA damage and repair were evaluated. Values for the Ratio (a percentage determined by fluorescence in the damaged area to overall luminance, including intact DNA and the damaged area of a comet image) of individual cells showed that no cells in the irradiated group were included in the Ratiocomet assay under alkaline conditions, combined with comet image analysis, can be used to identify irradiation history.

  5. EFEKTIVITAS DAN EFEK TOKSIK EKSTRAK STEROID TERIPANG DAN 17α METILTESTOSTERON PADA MANIPULASI KELAMIN UDANG GALAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apri Arisandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron selain dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai obat, juga dimanfaatkan untuk sex reversal pada udang galah (Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man.  Hormon yang umum dipakai untuk sex reversal jantan adalah 17α metiltestosteron, merupakan hormon sintetis.  Bioassay pada ayam, diketahui bahwa hormon sintetis memberikan efek samping toksik pada hati, limpa dan bursa fabricius.  Agar tidak memberikan efek toksik, salah satu cara dengan menggunakan sumber hormon testosteron alami dari teripang.  Pemberian hormon menggunakan metode dipping, lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan.  Dosis ekstrak steroid teripang 1, 2 dan 3mg/l, serta 17α metiltestosteron 2mg/l dapat menghasilkan populasi jantan lebih tinggi dari kontrol negatif (tanpa hormon, yaitu 44,15%, 49,65%, 49,72% dan 50,45%.   Kata kunci: ekstrak steroid teripang, 17α metiltestosteron, udang galah

  6. Editor's note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    In this issue Fabricius, Logan, Weeks, Lewis, and Brodie report a sophisticated synthesis of remotely sensed data that reveals important features of turbidity affecting the Great Barrier Reef region. This study details sources, geographic distributions, and transport, as well as highlights some processes leading to changing turbidity regimes. It is an excellent example of incisive processing and analysis of large, existing data sets, aiming at novel discovery of important aspects of coastal conditions. The results of course beg for efforts at obtaining and examining further information, on associated nutrient deliveries, particularly of nitrogen, detailing biological effects on food webs and corals, and more on the changing baselines that appear imminent. The results of this study therefore are an impressive basis for further work on important aspects of the largest coral region in the world, and could be an example to emulate elsewhere.

  7. 烟草甲体内共生菌的初步研究%Primary study on the symbionts from the cigarette beetle,Lasioderma serricorne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛宝燕; 程新胜; 魏重生; 陈树仁; 周郑

    2005-01-01

    烟草甲Lasioderma serricorne(Fabricius)体内有类似酵母的胞内共生物YLS,其对烟草甲有重要的营养和解毒作用.该文对YLS的细胞和菌落形态进行了观察,并通过菌落测定、液体培养和细胞质量测定等方法,以探明YLS的最适生长温度.结果表明:28~35℃比较适宜YLS的生长,35℃为最佳生长温度,而36~48 h是研究YLS的最佳时间.

  8. Atractividad de diferentes cebos sobre Trógidos (Coleoptera en el Bosque Autóctono "El Espinal", Río Cuarto (Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S. GÓMEZ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó un estudio para determinar la atractividad de cebos sobre las especies de Trogidae presentes en el Bosque Autóctono "El Espinal" en la ciudad de Río Cuarto (Córdoba, Argentina. Se usaron trampas de caída cebadas con carne de vacuno (3, carne de porcino (3, menudo de pollo (3, excremento humano (3, excremento de perro (3 y trampas testigo (sin cebo (3 sumando un total de 18. Se recolectaron cuatro especies de Trogidae: Omorgus suberosus (Fabricius, Polynoncus aeger (Guérin – Meneville, Polynoncus gemmingeri (Harold y Polynoncus pilularius (Germar, que mostraron una preferencia hacia los menudos en descomposición de pollo y carne de cerdo seguido por excremento de perro; sugiriendo un comportamiento necrofágico – coprofágico con una tendencia a la necrofagia. Adicionalmente se utilizaron trampas de luz capturándose ejemplares de Omorgus ciliatus (Blanchard

  9. Flavonoids and triterpenes from the nest of the stingless bee Trigona spinipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Northeast of Brazil the stingless bee Trigona spinipes Fabricius injures the tree bark of cultivated Eucalyptus citriodora specimens in order to make them exudate. The chemical investigation of the ethanol extract of an entire nest of T. spinipes allowed the isolation of the cycloartane triterpene magniferolic acid and 3β-hydroxy-24-methylenecicloartan-26-oic acid, besides the flavonoids 3'-methyl quercetin, sakuranetin, kaempferol 7-methyl ether, tricetin and aromadendrin 7-methyl ether as the main compounds. The isolation of sakuranetin, kaempferol 7-methyl ether, and aromadendrin 7-methyl ether from both Trigonas spinipes' nest and the exudate from Eucalyptus, may suggest this species as a botanical origin of the nest constituents of these stingless bee in the Northeast of Brazil. The structural characterization of the isolated compounds was accomplished by spectrometric means and comparison with the literature data. (author)

  10. A checklist of beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) on pig carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China: A preliminary study and its forensic relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhou; Wan, Li-Hua; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Tang, Rui; Xu, Lyu-Zi

    2016-07-01

    Examining the succession pattern of carrion insects on vertebrate carcasses is widely accepted as an effective method to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of decayed bodies. Investigation of the community of sarcosaprophagous insects, especially flies and beetles, is the foundation of the succession pattern study. This study aimed to investigate the sarcosaprophagous beetles succession on animal carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China and to establish a basic catalog for forensic application. The present study was conducted in 2013 in a mountain in Chongqing municipality with modified Schoenly traps. Carcasses of miniature pig were used to simulate human bodies. For most carcasses, five decomposition stages were observed. A total of 2108 adult coleopterans belonging to at least 61 species and 18 families were collected in the study, and most of the specimens occurred at the advanced decay stage. Omosita colon (Linnaeus, 1758), Necrodes nigricornis (Harold, 1875), Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius, 1775) and Neosilusa ceylonica (Kraatz, 1857) were the dominant species. PMID:27126839

  11. Ctenolepisma almeriensis n. sp. of Lepismatidae (Insecta, Zygentoma from south-eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero-Baltanás, R.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ctenolepisma almeriensis n. sp., from the south–eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula is described. This species was determined previously as Ctenolepisma lineata (Fabricius, 1775, which is widespread over the south–western Palaeartic region. The main difference between the two species is the setation of thoracic sternites. In each bristle–comb of the mesosternum and the metasternum, macrosetae are arranged in a single row in C. lineata and in two parallel rows in C. lmeriensis n. sp. In the prosternum, the first species shows 1–2 irregular lines of macrosetae per comb, and the new species shows 2–3 lines. Based on other parameters of setation, a discriminant analysis was carried out to separate a group of Spanish specimens of C. lineata from another group of specimens of the new species. This analysis demonstrated the validity of the occurrence of double or single lines of macrosetae in thoracic sternites to distinguish between thetwo species.

  12. Comparative Immature Morphology of Brazilian Fire Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves Paterson Fox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although common in Brazil, the biology of the fire ant Solenopsis saevissima (Smith is still poorly studied. Larval descriptions are useful to genus-level ant systematics and sometimes to species-level taxonomy. This study presents a detailed description of juveniles of S. saevissima from Brazil, which were compared with Brazilian specimens of Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, and Solenopsis altipunctata Pitts. Different larval instars were separated by diagnostic morphological traits which were confirmed by observing moults. Reproductive larvae could be easily sorted by their distinctive body dimensions and shape. Contrary to previous reports on this species, the larvae of S. saevissima proved to be generally identical to those of S. invicta, while a few specimens resembled those of other close species, such as Solenopsis megergates Trager. Mature larvae thus presented considerable intraspecific variation in some characters recently proposed to aid fire ant species separation (morphology of head hairs.

  13. Characterization of the proteases in the midgut of the xylophagous larvae of Oemona hirta (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brian David Shaw; John Tane Christeller

    2009-01-01

    The protein digestive capability oftbe larvae of the longhorn beetle (Oemona hirta,Coleoptera:Cerambycidae,Fabricius,1775) was investigated.This species feeds only on wood where there is a high proportion of vascular tissue.The pH of the midgut,the major digestive organ,was alkaline and protein hydrolysis was maximal at alkaline pH.Use of specific synthetic peptide substrates showed that the major protease activities were the endopeptidases,trypsin and chymotrypsin-like activity,and the exopeptidase,leucine aminopeptidase and the pH curves corresponded to that with protein substrate.Studies using a range ofsefine protease inhibitors as well as specific inhibitors ofmetalloproteases,cysteine proteases and aspartate proteases confirmed a serine protease-based digestive system similar to earlier reports of sapwood-feeding Cerambycids.Control of these insect pests using protease inhibitors is discussed.

  14. Oecophylla smaragdina food conversion efficiency: prospects for ant farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Hans Joachim

    2011-01-01

    can be combined with the use of the ants in biological control programmes in tropical plantations where pest insects are converted into ant biomass. To assess the cost-benefits of ant farming based on artificial feeding, food consumption and food conversion efficiency (ECI) of Oecophylla smaragdina......Oecophylla ants are sold at high prices on several commercial markets as a human delicacy, as pet food or as traditional medicine. Currently markets are supplied by ants collected from the wild; however, an increasing interest in ant farming exists as all harvest is easily sold and as ant farming...... (Fabricius) was tested under laboratory conditions. Of the two types of food offered, the ants ingested 76% pure sucrose and 24% insect prey (dry weights) leading to ECI’s of 29% and 39% including brood only or brood plus imago gain, respectively. Based on Thai sugar and protein food costs and ant brood...

  15. Biologia do ectoparasitóide Bracon hebetor Say, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae em sete espécies de lepidópteros Biology of the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor Say, 1857 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on seven lepidopteran species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Magro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Bracon hebetor Say, 1857 é um ectoparasitóide larval de várias espécies de piralídeos que atacam grãos armazenados, sendo considerado um agente potencial de controle biológico dessas pragas. Assim, a biologia de B. hebetor foi estudada em condições controladas de temperatura (25 ± 2°C, umidade relativa (60 ± 10% e fotoperíodo (fotofase de 14 horas, sobre sete espécies de lepidópteros, Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton e Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier (hospedeiros naturais e Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (insetos criados rotineiramente no laboratório de Biologia de Insetos da ESALQ/USP, para determinar o melhor hospedeiro para sua criação em laboratório. A duração e a viabilidade do ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto foram afetadas, dependendo do hospedeiro utilizado. A. kuehniella e C. cephalonica foram hospedeiros semelhantes para a criação de B. hebetor, produzindo insetos com duração de ciclo de 12,8 dias, viabilidade em torno de 90% e ótima capacidade de paralisação e parasitismo. D. saccharalis foi o único hospedeiro não natural que proporcionou resultados semelhantes àqueles obtidos sobre as três traças hospedeiras naturais. Quanto à agressividade, D. saccharalis produziu insetos com capacidade de paralisação e parasitismo semelhantes àqueles criados sobre as traças S. cerealella e C. cephalonica.Bracon hebetor Say, 1857 is a larval ectoparasitoid of several species of pyralids which attack stored grains, therefore a potential biological control agent of these pests. To determine the best host for laboratory rearing, the biology of B. hebetor was studied under controlled temperature conditions (25 ± 2°C, relative humidity (60 ± 10% and photoperiod (14-hour photophase on seven lepidopteran larvae: natural hosts Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton and Sitotroga

  16. Der russische Partikel-Konjunktiv und der deutsche würde-Konjunktiv im Vergleich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schümann, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian subjunctive mood (soslagatel’noe naklonenie is formed by the l-form of the verb and the particle by. From a morphological perspective, this is an isolating process, and the particle by has indeed been called an "ideal isolating form". In German on the other hand, besides the synthetic subjunctive (Konjunktiv I/II an analytic subjunctive construction with the auxiliary würde is gaining ground. This process, too, is seen as a tendency towards an isolating language structure. Against this background the article compares the analytic subjunctives in Russian and German. In particular, analyses are referred to that have tried to work out the semantic compositionality of the subjunctive constructions (Sørensen 1975, Fabricius-Hansen 2000. After a critical discussion of the literature it is argued that in certain respects the German würde-construction is even more isolating than the Russian by-subjunctive.

  17. Description of adult and third instar larva of Trichostetha curlei sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae from the Cape region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Perissinotto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new high altitude montane species of Trichostetha Burmeister, 1842 is described from the Elandsberg range of the Western Cape interior. This represents the 14th species of the genus and the first to be reported with a description of its larva. It is a significant addition to the growing number of species that exhibit no adult feeding behaviour and a short period of activity restricted to the onset of summer. Larvae dwell in rock crevices, feeding on decomposing plant matter. The genus Trichostetha is heterogeneous and the complex variability observed in some species, especially T. capensis (Linnaeus, 1767, requires the re-instatement of taxa that were recently synonymised. Thus, T. bicolor Péringuey, 1907 is here re-proposed as a separate species and T. capensis hottentotta (Gory & Percheron, 1833 as a separate subspecies. Conversely, T. alutacea Allard, 1994 is recognised as a dark variety of T. signata (Fabricius, 1775 and is, consequently, synonymised with this species.

  18. Notas e descrições em Parandrini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Parandrinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos -Silva Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Parandra is reviewed and four genera are recognized: Parandra Latreille, 1804, Neandra Lameere, 1912, stat. nov., Archandra Lameere, 1912, stat. nov. and Acutandra gen. nov. The genus Parandra is subdivided in two subgenera: Parandra (Parandra s. str. and Parandra (Birandra subgen. nov. The geographical distribution of P. (P. laevis Latreille, 1804 is commented and the probable synonymy between P. cubaecola Chevrolat, 1862 and P. (P. cribrata Thomson, 1861 is discussed. New species described: P. (P. tavakiliani from Puerto Rico and P. (Birandra mariahelenae from Jamaica. New combinations: Neandra brunnea (Fabricius, 1798, Neandra marginicollis (Schaeffer, 1929, Archandra caspia (Ménétriès, 1832, Acutandra punctatissima (Thomson, 1861, A. degeeri (Thomson, 1867, A. murrayi (Lameere, 1912, A. araucana (Bosq, 1951, A. ubitiara (Santos-Silva & Martins, 2000, all from Parandra. Keys to genera of Parandrini, subgenera of Parandra and American species of Parandra and Acutandra are added.

  19. A SYSTEMATIC LIST OF LYCAENIDAE IN REPRESENTATIVE REGIONS OF HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE%黑龙江省重点地区灰蝶科(Lycaenidae,Lepidoptera)名录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴海英; 王丽君; 张丽坤

    1999-01-01

    1984~1998年间,对黑龙江省重点地区的灰蝶科(Lycaenidae,Lepidoptera)昆虫进行调查,已鉴定出36种,隶属于3亚科24属.其中有黑龙江省新分布种类7种:栅黄灰蝶Japonica saepestriata(Hewitson)、华灰蝶Wagimoe sulgeri(Oberthür)、毛眼灰蝶Zizina otis(Fabricius)、钮灰碟Acytolepis puspa (Horsfield)、大紫琉璃灰蝶Celastrina oreas(Leech)、茄纹红珠灰蝶Lycaeides cleobis(Bremer)和维纳斯眼灰蝶Polymmatus venus(Staudinger).文中记述各种学名、别名、采集地及日期.

  20. Six Pandalid Shrimps of the Genus Plesionika (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Nyun Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on samples collected from the Korean Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ during an investigation of fishery resources by the National Fisheries Research and Development Institute (NFRDI from 2002 to 2010, alongside some supplemental material, six species of the genus Plesionika are identified: P. izumiae Omori, 1971, P. ortmanni Doflein, 1902, P. grandis Doflein, 1902, P. lophotes Chace, 1985, P. narval (Fabricius, 1787, and P. orientalis Chace, 1985. Of these, the last four species are new to Korean marine fauna. The distributional range of P. narval extends to the East China Sea off Jeju Island. Excluding P. izumiae and P. ortmanni, the other four species are relatively rare in the seas around Korea. They are described and illustrated with color photographs. A key to the Korean species of Plesionika is also presented.