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Sample records for chrysomelas callithrichidae primates

  1. Ranging Patterns of Critically Endangered Colobine, Presbytis chrysomelas chrysomelas

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    Ahmad Ampeng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbytis chrysomelas chrysomelas endemic only in Sarawak and Kalimantan was categorized by IUCN as a critically endangered primate that require special attention from research and conservation perspectives. A qualitative study on ranging patterns of P. c. chrysomelas was conducted in the Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak. The study was conducted over a period of 13 months from December 2004 to December 2005 with 213 days of observation. Behavioural observation covered 17 groups with special emphasis on two main groups and 1 subadult group. Scanning and focal sampling were employed as the observation methods. Results indicated that P. c. chrysomelas had vertical, straight horizontal, and cross-horizontal types of movement patterns. P. c. chrysomelas was recorded to have a short movement distance (31.8–54.3 m. Distribution, abundance types, and food resources might be the factors that shaped the patterns of movement and distance in P. c. chrysomelas.

  2. Spirura delicata sp. n. (Spiruridae, Spirurinae from Leontocebus mystax (Callithrichidae and a check list of other Nematodes of some brazilian primates

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    J. Julio Vicente

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirura delicata sp. n. from Leontocebus mystax (Six is proposed and compared to S. guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938, S. michiganensis Sandground, 1935 and S. nayarani Mirza & Basir, 1938. Their differentiation is based mainly on the size and shape of spicules. Identification of nematode samples recovered from primates along 60 years and presently deposited in the Oswaldo Cruz Helmintological Collection is provided herein through a check list. Some of them are reported in new hsots and/or geographical regions.

  3. Toxoplasmosis in golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas) and emperor marmosets (Saguinus imperator) in captivity.

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    Epiphanio, S; Guimarães, M A; Fedullo, D L; Correa, S H; Catão-Dias, J L

    2000-06-01

    From 1991 to 1995, eight New World nonhuman primates of the family Callitrichidae belonging to the collection of Fundacão Parque Zoologico de São Paulo died of toxoplasmosis. Of the eight affected nonhuman primates, four were Leontopithecus chrysomelas (one male, three females) and four were Saguinus imperator (two males, two females). The most commonly affected organs were the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes, with hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions. Histopathologic examination revealed protozoa that were morphologically consistent with Toxoplasma gondii. Immunohistochemical assays were strongly positive for T. gondii. PMID:10982139

  4. Occurrence of Prosthenorchis elegans in Free-living Primates from the Atlantic Forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil.

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    Catenacci, Lilian S; Colosio, Adriana C; Oliveira, Leonardo C; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel M; Munhoz, Alexandre D; Deem, Sharon L; Pinto, Jaqueline M S

    2016-04-28

    Parasite prevalence and abundance are important factors affecting species' conservation. During necropsies on a free-living golden-headed lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ) and two Wied's marmosets ( Callithrix kuhlii ) in the Atlantic Forest of southern Bahia, Brazil, we collected a large number of adult intestinal parasites that we identified as Prosthenorchis elegans. This parasite is pathogenic for neotropical primates. Prosthenorchis spp. infestation is influenced by diet with increased risk of exposure from ingesting invertebrate intermediate hosts. The biological similarities and sympatric nature of these two nonhuman primates support that they may harbor similar infectious and parasitic agents. PMID:26981688

  5. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

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    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  6. Primate photopigments and primate color vision.

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    Jacobs, G H

    1996-01-01

    The past 15 years have brought much progress in our understanding of several basic features of primate color vision. There has been particular success in cataloging the spectral properties of the cone photopigments found in retinas of a number of primate species and in elucidating the relationship between cone opsin genes and their photopigment products. Direct studies of color vision show that there are several modal patterns of color vision among groupings of primates: (i) Old World monkeys...

  7. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini

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    Cristiani Gifalli-Iughetti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus, Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62. The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates.

  8. Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus,Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines, despite the occurrence of extensive inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements in this infraorder of Primates. PMID:21637455

  9. Primate photopigments and primate color vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G H

    1996-01-23

    The past 15 years have brought much progress in our understanding of several basic features of primate color vision. There has been particular success in cataloging the spectral properties of the cone photopigments found in retinas of a number of primate species and in elucidating the relationship between cone opsin genes and their photopigment products. Direct studies of color vision show that there are several modal patterns of color vision among groupings of primates: (i) Old World monkeys, apes, and humans all enjoy trichromatic color vision, although the former two groups do not seem prone to the polymorphic variations in color vision that are characteristic of people; (ii) most species of New World monkeys are highly polymorphic, with individual animals having any of several types of dichromatic or trichromatic color vision; (iii) less is known about color vision in prosimians, but evidence suggests that at least some diurnal species have dichromatic color vision; and (iv) some nocturnal primates may lack color vision completely. In many cases the photopigments and photopigment gene arrangements underlying these patterns have been revealed and, as a result, hints are emerging about the evolution of color vision among the primates. PMID:8570598

  10. Studying the organization of genes encoding plant cell wall degrading enzymes in Chrysomela tremula provides insights into a leaf beetle genome.

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    Pauchet, Y; Saski, C A; Feltus, F A; Luyten, I; Quesneville, H; Heckel, D G

    2014-06-01

    The ability of herbivorous beetles from the superfamilies Chrysomeloidea and Curculionoidea to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides has only recently begun to be appreciated. The presence of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) in the beetle's digestive tract makes this degradation possible. Sequences encoding these beetle-derived PCWDEs were originally identified from transcriptomes and strikingly resemble those of saprophytic and phytopathogenic microorganisms, raising questions about their origin; e.g. are they insect- or microorganism-derived? To demonstrate unambiguously that the genes encoding PCWDEs found in beetle transcriptomes are indeed of insect origin, we generated a bacterial artificial chromosome library from the genome of the leaf beetle Chrysomela tremula, containing 18 432 clones with an average size of 143 kb. After hybridizing this library with probes derived from 12 C. tremula PCWDE-encoding genes and sequencing the positive clones, we demonstrated that the latter genes are encoded by the insect's genome and are surrounded by genes possessing orthologues in the genome of Tribolium castaneum as well as in three other beetle genomes. Our analyses showed that although the level of overall synteny between C. tremula and T. castaneum seems high, the degree of microsynteny between both species is relatively low, in contrast to the more closely related Colorado potato beetle. PMID:24456018

  11. Preimplantation Development in Primates

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    H.B.Croxatto

    1992-01-01

    Essential phenomena involved in preimplamation development, notably cleavageand cell differentiation, are considered from the point of view of their relationships andtheir role in the formation of the blastocyst. The time course of egg transport from theovary to the site of implantation and the requirements.for in vitro development in pri-mate species for which there are some data are compared. Finally the ultrastructural features of human preimptantation development are analyzed, It is concluded that muchmore descriptive information of preimpltmtation development in primates needs to beaccrued to elaborate a comparative view.

  12. Nonhuman Primate Ocular Biometry

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    Augusteyn, Robert C.; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine ocular growth in nonhuman primates (NHPs) from measurements on ex vivo eyes. Methods We obtained NHP eyes from animals that had been killed as part of other studies or because of health-related issues. Digital calipers were used to measure the horizontal, vertical, and anteroposterior globe diameters as well as corneal horizontal and vertical diameters of excised globes from 98 hamadryas baboons, 551 cynomolgus monkeys, and 112 rhesus monkeys, at ages ranging from 23 to 360 months. Isolated lens sagittal thickness and equatorial diameter were measured by shadowphotogrammetry. Wet and fixed dry weights were obtained for lenses. Results Nonhuman primate globe growth continues throughout life, slowing toward an asymptotic maximum. The final globe size scales with negative allometry to adult body size. Corneal growth ceases at around 20 months. Lens diameter increases but thickness decreases with increasing age. Nonhuman primate lens wet and dry weight accumulation is monophasic, continuing throughout life toward asymptotic maxima. The dry/wet weight ratio reaches a maximum of 0.33. Conclusions Nonhuman primate ocular globe and lens growth differ in several respects from those in humans. Although age-related losses of lens power and accommodative amplitude are similar, lens growth and properties are different indicating care should be taken in extrapolating NHP observations to the study of human accommodation. PMID:26780314

  13. Predation risk and the interspecific association of two Brazilian Atlantic forest primates in Cabruca agroforest.

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    Oliveira, Leonardo C; Dietz, James M

    2011-09-01

    Forming interspecific associations is one of many strategies adopted by primates in order to avoid predation. In addition to improved predator detection and avoidance, benefits of interspecific associations relate to improved foraging efficiency. In this study we tested these two hypotheses explaining associations between the endangered golden-headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas and the sympatric Wied's marmoset, Callithrix kuhlii. We estimated predation risk by recording the number of encounters between lion tamarins and potential predators in cabruca agroforest (shaded cacao plantation) and in mosaic forest (a mix of cabruca, primary and secondary forest). To evaluate if the association between the two species was related to foraging benefits we recorded the number of associations between the two species when the lion tamarins were eating and when they were not eating. To test if the association occurred to improve predator detection and avoidance, we evaluated if associations between the species were more frequent in areas with higher predation risk and during the part of the day when predation risk is higher. We also compared the number of associations 3 months before birth events and 3 months after, when the lion tamarins are more susceptible to predation. Predation risk, mainly by raptors, was significantly higher in cabruca than in mosaic forest (0.17 and 0.05 encounters with predators per hour of observation, respectively). Associations were significantly more frequent after birth events and during the part of the day when predation risk was also higher (5-6 am until noon). We did not observe any direct evidence of foraging-related advantages of interspecific associations for the lion tamarins. The tamarins did not associate more when they were foraging. Our findings suggest that lion tamarins are more exposed to predation in cabruca than in mosaic forest and associations between lion tamarins and Wied's marmosets are related to predation

  14. Parasite community interactions: Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infecting wild golden lion tamarins Leontopithecus rosalia and golden-headed lion tamarins L. chrysomelas (Callitrichidae, L., 1766).

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    Monteiro, Rafael V; Dietz, James M; Raboy, Becky; Beck, Benjamin; De Vleeschouwer, Kristel; Vleeschouwer, Kristel D; Baker, Andrew; Martins, Andréia; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2007-11-01

    The parasite prevalence and infection intensity in primate wild populations can be affected by many variables linked to host and/or parasite ecology or either to interparasite competition/mutualism. In this study, we tested how host sex, age, and place of origin, as well parasitic concomitant infections affect the structure of golden lion and golden-headed lion tamarins parasite community, considering Trypanosoma cruzi and intestinal helminths infection in these primates. A total of 206 tamarins from two Atlantic Coastal rain forest areas in Brazil were tested during 4 years for prevalence of T. cruzi infection and helminth prevalence. Three intestinal helminth groups showed high prevalences in both tamarin species: Prosthenorchis sp., Spiruridae, and Trichostrongylidae. An association between presence of T. cruzi infection and higher intestinal helminth prevalence was found in both tamarin species. Two explanations for this association seem to be plausible: (1) lower helminth-linked mortality rates in T. cruzi-infected tamarins and (2) lower elimination rates of helminths in such tamarins. A higher frequency of T. cruzi-positive blood cultures was significantly correlated to female tamarins and to the presence of Trichostrongylidae infection. The possibility of an increase in the transmissibility of T. cruzi and the three analyzed helminths in lion tamarins with concomitant infections is discussed. PMID:17676342

  15. Primate models in organ transplantation.

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    Anderson, Douglas J; Kirk, Allan D

    2013-09-01

    Large animal models have long served as the proving grounds for advances in transplantation, bridging the gap between inbred mouse experimentation and human clinical trials. Although a variety of species have been and continue to be used, the emergence of highly targeted biologic- and antibody-based therapies has required models to have a high degree of homology with humans. Thus, the nonhuman primate has become the model of choice in many settings. This article will provide an overview of nonhuman primate models of transplantation. Issues of primate genetics and care will be introduced, and a brief overview of technical aspects for various transplant models will be discussed. Finally, several prominent immunosuppressive and tolerance strategies used in primates will be reviewed. PMID:24003248

  16. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome

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    Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M.; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A.; Travis, Dominic A.; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Knights, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  17. Captivity humanizes the primate microbiome.

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    Clayton, Jonathan B; Vangay, Pajau; Huang, Hu; Ward, Tonya; Hillmann, Benjamin M; Al-Ghalith, Gabriel A; Travis, Dominic A; Long, Ha Thang; Tuan, Bui Van; Minh, Vo Van; Cabana, Francis; Nadler, Tilo; Toddes, Barbara; Murphy, Tami; Glander, Kenneth E; Johnson, Timothy J; Knights, Dan

    2016-09-13

    The primate gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, whose composition is associated with numerous metabolic, autoimmune, and infectious human diseases. Although there is increasing evidence that modern and Westernized societies are associated with dramatic loss of natural human gut microbiome diversity, the causes and consequences of such loss are challenging to study. Here we use nonhuman primates (NHPs) as a model system for studying the effects of emigration and lifestyle disruption on the human gut microbiome. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing in two model NHP species, we show that although different primate species have distinctive signature microbiota in the wild, in captivity they lose their native microbes and become colonized with Prevotella and Bacteroides, the dominant genera in the modern human gut microbiome. We confirm that captive individuals from eight other NHP species in a different zoo show the same pattern of convergence, and that semicaptive primates housed in a sanctuary represent an intermediate microbiome state between wild and captive. Using deep shotgun sequencing, chemical dietary analysis, and chloroplast relative abundance, we show that decreasing dietary fiber and plant content are associated with the captive primate microbiome. Finally, in a meta-analysis including published human data, we show that captivity has a parallel effect on the NHP gut microbiome to that of Westernization in humans. These results demonstrate that captivity and lifestyle disruption cause primates to lose native microbiota and converge along an axis toward the modern human microbiome. PMID:27573830

  18. Leopard predation and primate evolution.

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    Zuberbühler, Klaus; Jenny, David

    2002-12-01

    Although predation is an important driving force of natural selection its effects on primate evolution are still not well understood, mainly because little is known about the hunting behaviour of the primates' various predators. Here, we present data on the hunting behaviour of the leopard (Panthera pardus), a major primate predator in the Tai; forest of Ivory Coast and elsewhere. Radio-tracking data showed that forest leopards primarily hunt for monkeys on the ground during the day. Faecal analyses confirmed that primates accounted for a large proportion of the leopards' diet and revealed in detail the predation pressure exerted on the eight different monkey and one chimpanzee species. We related the species-specific predation rates to various morphological, behavioural and demographic traits that are usually considered adaptations to predation (body size, group size, group composition, reproductive behaviour, and use of forest strata). Leopard predation was most reliably associated with density, suggesting that leopards hunt primates according to abundance. Contrary to predictions, leopard predation rates were not negatively, but positively, related to body size, group size and the number of males per group, suggesting that predation by leopards did not drive the evolution of these traits in the predicted way. We discuss these findings in light of some recent experimental data and suggest that the principal effect of leopard predation has been on primates' cognitive evolution. PMID:12473487

  19. Myocardial stereology in captive Callithrix kuhlii (Callitrichidae, Primates: healthy animals versus animals affected by wasting marmoset syndrome (WMS Estereologia do músculo cardíaco em Callitrhix kuhlii cativos (Primatas, Callithrichidae: animais sadios versus animais afetados pela síndrome do emagrecimento progressivo (SEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita A. Pissinatti

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This study comprised 12 hearts of Wied´s black-tufted-ear marmoset, Callithrix kuhlii (Coimbra-Filho 1985, 6 with Wasting Marmoset Syndrome (WMS and 6 non-affected. Biometry was performed after death. After necropsy, the hearts were weighed, dissected, fixed in 10% formalin solution (pH 7.2, and processed for optical microscopy at 5µm sections stained with Haematoxylin-Eosin. Quantitative analysis was performed by stereological techniques. The statistical differences between the biometrical and stereological parameters were assessed by the Mann-Whitney test. The morphometric results showed that WMS causes a significant reduction in body and cardiac weights, and also in the volume density of vessels in those animals. Further studies are necessary to understand some of the results shown here.Neste estudo, foram utilizados corações de 12 Sagui-de-Wied, Callitrhix kuhlii (Coimbra-Filho 1985, sendo 6 animais afetados pela SEP e 6 animais normais. Após a morte foi realizada a biometria seguida de necropsia. Os corações foram fixados em formol tamponado a 10%, pesados e dissecados, sendo processados através de técnicas histológicas de rotina para microscopia óptica em cortes de 5µm corados por Hematoxilina-Eosina. As análises quantitativas foram feitas com o uso de técnicas estereológicas. As diferenças estatísticas entre os parâmetros biométricos e estereológicos foram avaliadas usando o test Mann-Whitney. Os resultados encontrados através da morfometria mostraram que a SEP causa uma redução significante do peso tanto corporal quanto do músculo cardíaco, e também uma redução no volume dos vasos nestes animais. Novos estudos são necessários para entender alguns dos resultados mostrados aqui.

  20. 42 CFR 71.53 - Nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nonhuman primates that is suspected of being yellow fever, monkeypox, or Marburg/Ebola disease. (3... member of their staff suspected of having an infectious disease acquired from nonhuman primates. (f) Disease control measures. Upon receipt of evidence of exposure of nonhuman primates to a...

  1. [Research proceedings on primate comparative genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Cheng-Hong; Su, Bing

    2012-02-01

    With the accomplishment of genome sequencing of human, chimpanzee and other primates, there has been a great amount of primate genome information accumulated. Primate comparative genomics has become a new research field at current genome era. In this article, we reviewed recent progress in phylogeny, genome structure and gene expression of human and nonhuman primates, and we elaborated the major biological differences among human, chimpanzee and other non-human primate species, which is informative in revealing the mechanism of human evolution. PMID:22345018

  2. Enrichment and aggression in primates.

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    Honess, P E; Marin, C M

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that primates housed under impoverished conditions develop behavioural abnormalities, including, in the most extreme example, self-harming behaviour. This has implications for all contexts in which primates are maintained in captivity from laboratories to zoos since by compromising the animals' psychological well-being and allowing them to develop behavioural abnormalities their value as appropriate educational and research models is diminished. This review examines the extensive body of literature documenting attempts to improve living conditions with a view to correcting behavioural abnormalities and housing primates in such a way that they are encouraged to exhibit a more natural range and proportion of behaviours, including less self-directed and social aggression. The results of housing, feeding, physical, sensory and social enrichment efforts are examined with specific focus on their effect on aggressive behaviour and variation in their use and efficacy. It is concluded that while inappropriate or poorly distributed enrichment may encourage aggressive competition, enrichment that is species, sex, age and background appropriate can dramatically reduce aggression, can eliminate abnormal behaviour and substantially improve the welfare of primates maintained in captivity.

  3. Counting primates for conservation: primate surveys in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumptre, Andrew J; Cox, Debby

    2006-01-01

    Primate census techniques have been developed over the past 35-40 years yet there is still some confusion and great variation in the methods used. This precludes comparisons between sites where different techniques have been used. This paper discusses the variations between the methods that seem to be practiced currently and then describes a census of primates in the forests of western Uganda. Primate density and biomass varied greatly between forests as well as within forests and this is probably related to food availability. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) density was strongly correlated with nest encounter rates from reconnaissance walks in the forest. This result can be used to estimate chimpanzee density in forests where it is difficult to survey this species (e.g., due to security reasons). A total of 4,980 chimpanzee was estimated for Uganda which is higher than previously guessed, but still of conservation concern. Only four forests had more than 500 individuals which gives concern for long-term population viability. PMID:16132166

  4. Primate Models in Organ Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Douglas J.; Kirk, Allan D.

    2013-01-01

    Large animal models have long served as the proving grounds for advances in transplantation, bridging the gap between inbred mouse experimentation and human clinical trials. Although a variety of species have been and continue to be used, the emergence of highly targeted biologic- and antibody-based therapies has required models to have a high degree of homology with humans. Thus, the nonhuman primate has become the model of choice in many settings. This article will provide an overview of no...

  5. Elephant cognition in primate perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Richard W.; Lucy A Bates; Moss, Cynthia J

    2009-01-01

    On many of the staple measures of comparative psychology, elephants show no obvious differences from other mammals, such as primates: discrimination learning, memory, spontaneous tool use, etc. However, a range of more naturalistic measures have recently suggested that elephant cognition may be rather different. Wild elephants sub-categorize humans into groups, independently making this classification on the basis of scent or colour. In number discrimination, elephants show no effects of abso...

  6. Cellular scaling rules for primate brains

    OpenAIRE

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Kaas, Jon H.

    2007-01-01

    Primates are usually found to have richer behavioral repertoires and better cognitive abilities than rodents of similar brain size. This finding raises the possibility that primate brains differ from rodent brains in their cellular composition. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for primate brains and show that brain size increases approximately isometrically as a function of cell numbers, such that an 11× larger brain is built with 10× more neurons and ≈12× more nonneuronal cells of ...

  7. The Special Column of Primate Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoguo LI; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ It is a long-term policy to publish SPECIAL COLUMNs in Current Zoology, and I am delighted that the journal is publishing this special colunm devoted to the topic of Primate Behavior. The eight papers in this seetion present significant new data and synthesize these findings with existing information on sexual selection of human-being and behaviors of living primates.

  8. Heart xenotransplantation in primate models.

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    Postrach, Johannes; Bauer, Andreas; Schmoeckel, Michael; Reichart, Bruno; Brenner, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is a potential solution for the worldwide persisting donor organ shortage. However, immunological and physiological barriers need to be overcome before the first clinical trials can be started. Nonhuman primates are considered the most suitable recipients in preclinical xenotransplantation models. Heterotopic abdominal cardiac xenotransplantation is a well-established nonworking heart model for immunological and biological studies on acute and delayed xenograft rejection and xenograft survival. Nevertheless, orthotopic life-supporting pig-to-baboon heart transplantation is the only accepted model for future cardiac xenotransplantation in humans so far. Survival times of 3 months in at least 60% of consecutive experiments have to be achieved and a minimum number of ten nonhuman primates have to survive for this period of time before clinical transplantation may be started. We recently introduced the heterotopic thoracic technique of pig-to-baboon heart transplantation. We believe that this technique combines the advantages of a working heart model with the safety of heterotopic transplantation. We describe the technical procedure of the three different pig-to-baboon models and give detailed information on perioperative care of the recipients. PMID:22565995

  9. Deep Hierarchies in the Primate Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Jannsen, Per; Kalkan, S.;

    2013-01-01

    of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchal processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (in the order of ten) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat...... vision architectures predominantly used in today's mainstream computer vision. We hope that the functional description of the deep hierarchies realized in the primate visual system provides valuable insights for the design of computer vision algorithms, fostering increasingly productive interaction...

  10. Biokinetics of Plutonium in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Deepesh; Guilmette, Raymond A; Gesell, Thomas F; Harris, Jason T; Brey, Richard R

    2016-10-01

    A major source of data on metabolism, excretion and retention of plutonium comes from experimental animal studies. Although old world monkeys are one of the closest living relatives to humans, certain physiological differences do exist between these nonhuman primates and humans. The objective of this paper was to describe the metabolism of plutonium in nonhuman primates using the bioassay and retention data obtained from macaque monkeys injected with plutonium citrate. A biokinetic model for nonhuman primates was developed by adapting the basic model structure and adapting the transfer rates described for metabolism of plutonium in adult humans. Significant changes to the parameters were necessary to explain the shorter retention of plutonium in liver and skeleton of the nonhuman primates, differences in liver to bone partitioning ratio, and significantly higher excretion of plutonium in feces compared to that in humans.

  11. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Dilmar A.G.; Ades César

    2004-01-01

    Long-distance calls are widespread among primates. Several studies concentrate on such calls in just one or in few species, while few studies have treated more general trends within the order. The common features that usually characterize these vocalizations are related to long-distance propagation of sounds. The proposed functions of primate long-distance calls can be divided into extragroup and intragroup ones. Extragroup functions relate to mate defense, mate attraction or resource defense...

  12. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    David H Abbott; Nicol, Lindsey E.; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Dumesic, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. L...

  13. Contextualising primate origins--an ecomorphological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Christophe; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2016-04-01

    Ecomorphology - the characterisation of the adaptive relationship between an organism's morphology and its ecological role - has long been central to theories of the origin and early evolution of the primate order. This is exemplified by two of the most influential theories of primate origins: Matt Cartmill's Visual Predation Hypothesis, and Bob Sussman's Angiosperm Co-Evolution Hypothesis. However, the study of primate origins is constrained by the absence of data directly documenting the events under investigation, and has to rely instead on a fragmentary fossil record and the methodological assumptions inherent in phylogenetic comparative analyses of extant species. These constraints introduce particular challenges for inferring the ecomorphology of primate origins, as morphology and environmental context must first be inferred before the relationship between the two can be considered. Fossils can be integrated in comparative analyses and observations of extant model species and laboratory experiments of form-function relationships are critical for the functional interpretation of the morphology of extinct species. Recent developments have led to important advancements, including phylogenetic comparative methods based on more realistic models of evolution, and improved methods for the inference of clade divergence times, as well as an improved fossil record. This contribution will review current perspectives on the origin and early evolution of primates, paying particular attention to their phylogenetic (including cladistic relationships and character evolution) and environmental (including chronology, geography, and physical environments) contextualisation, before attempting an up-to-date ecomorphological synthesis of primate origins. PMID:26830706

  14. Perceptions of nonhuman primates in human-wildlife conflict scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine M; Webber, Amanda D

    2010-09-01

    Nonhuman primates (referred to as primates in this study) are sometimes revered as gods, abhorred as evil spirits, killed for food because they damage crops, or butchered for sport. Primates' perceived similarity to humans places them in an anomalous position. While some human groups accept the idea that primates "straddle" the human-nonhuman boundary, for others this resemblance is a violation of the human-animal divide. In this study we use two case studies to explore how people's perceptions of primates are often influenced by these animals' apparent similarity to humans, creating expectations, founded within a "human morality" about how primates should interact with people. When animals transgress these social rules, they are measured against the same moral framework as humans. This has implications for how people view and respond to certain kinds of primate behaviors, their willingness to tolerate co-existence with primates and their likely support for primate conservation initiatives. PMID:20806339

  15. Episodic evolution of prolactin gene in primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; DUAN Ziyuan; JIA Lu; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we obtained exon 2―5 of prolactin (PRL) gene from four primate species by PCR and sequencing. Adding other genes available in GenBank, we calculate amino acid substitution rates for prolactin gene in primate. Comparison of nonsynonymous substitution rate to synonymous substitution rate ratios shows no evidence of positive selection for any lineage of primate prolactin gene. According to this and the facts that (I) no sites under positive selection are inferred by using maximum-likelihood method; (ii) among 32 amino acid replacement that occurred along the rapid evolutionary phase, only two are included in the 40 functionally important residues, indicating that amino acid replacement tends to occur in those functionally unimportant residues; (iii) partial of prolactin function is replaced by placental lactogen in primate at the rapid evolutionary phase of prolactin gene, we thus deem that it is relaxation of purifying selection to some extent rather than positive selection that enforces the rapid evolution of primate prolactin gene.

  16. Progress with nonhuman primate embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Don P; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Pau, K-Y Francis; Lester, Linda

    2004-12-01

    Embryonic stem cells hold potential in the fields of regenerative medicine, developmental biology, tissue regeneration, disease pathogenicity, and drug discovery. Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines are now available in primates, including man, rhesus, and cynomologous monkeys. Monkey ES cells serve as invaluable clinically relevant models for studies that can't be conducted in humans because of practical or ethical limitations, or in rodents because of differences in physiology and anatomy. Here, we review the current status of nonhuman primate research with ES cells, beginning with a description of their isolation, characterization, and availability. Substantial limitations still plague the use of primate ES cells, such as their required growth on feeder layers, poor cloning efficiency, and restricted availability. The ability to produce homogenous populations of both undifferentiated as well as differentiated phenotypes is an important challenge, and genetic approaches to achieving these objectives are discussed. Finally, safety, efficiency, and feasibility issues relating to the transplantation of ES-derived cells are considered.

  17. The ecology of primate material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture.

  18. The ecology of primate material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2014-11-01

    Tool use in extant primates may inform our understanding of the conditions that favoured the expansion of hominin technology and material culture. The 'method of exclusion' has, arguably, confirmed the presence of culture in wild animal populations by excluding ecological and genetic explanations for geographical variation in behaviour. However, this method neglects ecological influences on culture, which, ironically, may be critical for understanding technology and thus material culture. We review all the current evidence for the role of ecology in shaping material culture in three habitual tool-using non-human primates: chimpanzees, orangutans and capuchin monkeys. We show that environmental opportunity, rather than necessity, is the main driver. We argue that a better understanding of primate technology requires explicit investigation of the role of ecological conditions. We propose a model in which three sets of factors, namely environment, sociality and cognition, influence invention, transmission and retention of material culture. PMID:25392310

  19. Convergent evolution in primates and an insectivore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boffelli, Dario; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin, Edward M.

    2003-04-16

    The cardiovascular risk factor apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) has a puzzling distribution among mammals, its presence being limited to a subset of primates and a member of the insectivore lineage, the hedgehog. To explore the evolutionary history of apo(a), we performed extensive genomic sequence comparisons of multiple species with and without an apo(a) gene product, such as human, baboon, hedgehog, lemurand mouse. This analysis indicated that apo(a) arose independently in a subset of primates, including baboon and human, and an insectivore, the hedgehog, and was not simply lost by species lacking it. The similar structural domains shared by the hedgehog and primate apo(a) indicate that they were formed by a unique molecular mechanism involving the convergent evolution of paralogous genes in these distantspecies.

  20. Learning about primates' learning, language, and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of many years of research on the methods of teaching primates the language and cognitive skills which were long considered to be unteachable to particular species of primates. It was found that chimpanzee subjects could not only learn a number of 'stock sentences' but to use them in variations and several combinations for the purpose of solving various problems. Apes placed in different rooms could be taught to communicate via computer, and collaborate with each other on doing specific tasks. Contrary to expectations, young rhesus monkeys proved to be able to learn as much as the chimpanzee species.

  1. Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: implications for primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Bryer, Margaret A H; Takahashi, Maressa; Gilbert, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Insects and other invertebrates form a portion of many living and extinct primate diets. We review the nutritional profiles of insects in comparison with other dietary items, and discuss insect nutrients in relation to the nutritional needs of living primates. We find that insects are incorporated into some primate diets as staple foods whereby they are the majority of food intake. They can also be incorporated as complements to other foods in the diet, providing protein in a diet otherwise dominated by gums and/or fruits, or be incorporated as supplements to likely provide an essential nutrient that is not available in the typical diet. During times when they are very abundant, such as in insect outbreaks, insects can serve as replacements to the usual foods eaten by primates. Nutritionally, insects are high in protein and fat compared with typical dietary items like fruit and vegetation. However, insects are small in size and for larger primates (>1 kg) it is usually nutritionally profitable only to consume insects when they are available in large quantities. In small quantities, they may serve to provide important vitamins and fatty acids typically unavailable in primate diets. In a brief analysis, we found that soft-bodied insects are higher in fat though similar in chitin and protein than hard-bodied insects. In the fossil record, primates can be defined as soft- or hard-bodied insect feeders based on dental morphology. The differences in the nutritional composition of insects may have implications for understanding early primate evolution and ecology.

  2. Primate Innovation: Sex, Age and Social Rank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reader, S.M.; Laland, K.N.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of an exhaustive survey of primate behavior collated from the published literature revealed significant variation in rates of innovation among individuals of different sex, age and social rank. We searched approximately 1,000 articles in four primatology journals, together with other releva

  3. [Experimental whooping cough of nonhuman primate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrava, D T; Medkova, A Iu; Siniashina, L N; Shevtsova, Z V; Matua, A Z; Kondzharia, I G; Barkaia, V S; Elistratova, Zh V; Karataev, G I; Mikvabia, Z Ia; Gintsburg, A L

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable success in study of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors, pathogenesis of whooping cough, duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence, types and mechanisms of immune response are still keep underinvestigated. It can be explained by the absence ofadequate experimental animal model for pertussis study. Our study estimates clinical and laboratory parameters of whooping cough in non-human primates of the Old World in the process of intranasan infection by virulent B. pertussis bacteria. Also the duration of B. pertussis bacteria persistence in animals was investigated. 14 animal units of 4 species of non-human primates of the Old World were used for intranasal infection. The examination of infect animals included: visual exploration of nasopharynx, thermometry, clinical and biochemical blood analyses, identification ofB. pertussis, using microbiologic and molecular genetic analyses, estimation of innate and adoptive immune factors. The development of infectious process was accompanied by generation of B. pertussis bacteria, catarrhal inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa, leucocytosis, hypoglycemia specific for pertussis, and activation of innate and adaptive immunity for all primates regardless of specie were seen. While repeated experimental infection in primates single bacterial colonies were registered during only first week after challenge. It occurs like the absence of inflammation of nasopharyngeal mucosa and the lack of laboratory marks of whooping cough, recorded after first challenge. The evident booster effect of humoral immunity was observed. As a model for investigation of B. pertussis bacteria persistence and immune response against whooping cough we suggest the usage of rhesus macaque as more available to experiments.

  4. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena. PMID:25457970

  5. Nonhuman primate quarantine: its evolution and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jeffrey A; Andrews, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are imported to the United States for use in research, domestic breeding, and propagation of endangered populations in zoological gardens. During the past 60 years, individuals responsible for NHP importation programs have observed morbidity and mortality typically associated with infectious disease outbreaks. These outbreaks have included infectious agents such as tuberculosis, Herpesvirus sp., simian hemorrhagic fever, and filovirus infections such as the Ebola and Marburg viruses. Some outbreaks have affected both animal and human populations. These epizootics are attributable to a variety of factors, including increased population density, exposure of naïve populations to new infectious agents, and stress. The practice of quarantining animals arriving in the United States was first applied by individual research programs to improve animal health and ensure the quality of animals entering research programs. The development of government regulations for nonhuman primate quarantine accompanied the recognition that imported NHPs could pose a risk to public health. This article briefly reviews the history of US NHP importation and the factors behind the development of NHP quarantine regulations. The focus is on regulations concerned with infectious disease, public health, and the health of domestic primate colonies. These regulations have had the dual benefit of protecting public health as well as reducing animal morbidity and mortality during importation and quarantine. We review current practices and facilities for nonhuman primate quarantine and identify challenges for the future. PMID:18323577

  6. Sperm Morphology Assessment in Captive Neotropical Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, W F; Valle, R R; Carvalho, F M; Arakaki, P R; Rodas-Martínez, A Z; Muniz, Japc; García-Herreros, M

    2016-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate sperm morphology in four neotropical primate species to compare the sperm morphological traits and the sperm morphometric parameters as a basis for establishing normative sperm standards for each species. Data from 80 ejaculates collected from four primate species, Callithrix jacchus, Callimico goeldii, Alouatta caraya and Ateles geoffroyi, were analysed for detection of sperm morphological alterations using subjective World Health Organization (WHO-2010) standards and Sperm Deformity Index (SDI) criteria, objective computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA) and subpopulation sperm determination (SSD) methods. There were multiple differences (p SSD sperm analysis methods. In addition, multiple significant positive and negative correlations were observed between the sperm morphological traits (SDI, Sperm Deformity Index Head Defects, Sperm Deformity Index Midpiece Defects, Sperm Deformity Index Tail Defects, Normal Sperm, Head Defects, Midpiece Defects and Tail Defects) and the sperm morphometric parameters (SSD, Area (A), Perimeter (P), Length (L), Width (W), Ellipticity, Elongation and Rugosity) (p ≤ 0.046). In conclusion, our findings using different evaluation methods indicate that pronounced sperm morphological variation exists among these four neotropical primate species. Because of the strong relationship observed among morphological and morphometric parameters, these results suggest that application of objective analysis methods could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help to establish valid normative sperm values for neotropical primates. PMID:27260333

  7. Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Race, Brent; Meade-White, Kimberly D.; Phillips, Katie; Striebel, James; Race, Richard; Chesebro, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease is a prion disease of cervids. Assessment of its zoonotic potential is critical. To evaluate primate susceptibility, we tested monkeys from 2 genera. We found that 100% of intracerebrally inoculated and 92% of orally inoculated squirrel monkeys were susceptible, but cynomolgus macaques were not, suggesting possible low risk for humans.

  8. Nonhuman primate models in translational regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daadi, Marcel M; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E

    2014-12-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell-based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These include the use of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cellular products, issues related to the immune response in autologous and allogeneic setting, pros and cons of delivery techniques in a clinical setting, as well as the safety and efficacy of candidate cell lines. The NHP model allows the assessment of complex physiological, biochemical, behavioral, and imaging end points, with direct relevance to human conditions. At the same time, the value of using primates in scientific research must be carefully evaluated and timed due to expense and the necessity for specialized equipment and highly trained personnel. Often it is more efficient and useful to perform initial proof-of-concept studies for new therapeutics in rodents and/or other species before the pivotal studies in NHPs that may eventually lead to first-in-human trials. In this report, we present how the Southwest National Primate Research Center, one of seven NIH-funded National Primate Research Centers, may help the global community in translating promising technologies to the clinical arena.

  9. Variation in the molecular clock of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorjani, Priya; Amorim, Carlos Eduardo G; Arndt, Peter F; Przeworski, Molly

    2016-09-20

    Events in primate evolution are often dated by assuming a constant rate of substitution per unit time, but the validity of this assumption remains unclear. Among mammals, it is well known that there exists substantial variation in yearly substitution rates. Such variation is to be expected from differences in life history traits, suggesting it should also be found among primates. Motivated by these considerations, we analyze whole genomes from 10 primate species, including Old World Monkeys (OWMs), New World Monkeys (NWMs), and apes, focusing on putatively neutral autosomal sites and controlling for possible effects of biased gene conversion and methylation at CpG sites. We find that substitution rates are up to 64% higher in lineages leading from the hominoid-NWM ancestor to NWMs than to apes. Within apes, rates are ∼2% higher in chimpanzees and ∼7% higher in the gorilla than in humans. Substitution types subject to biased gene conversion show no more variation among species than those not subject to it. Not all mutation types behave similarly, however; in particular, transitions at CpG sites exhibit a more clocklike behavior than do other types, presumably because of their nonreplicative origin. Thus, not only the total rate, but also the mutational spectrum, varies among primates. This finding suggests that events in primate evolution are most reliably dated using CpG transitions. Taking this approach, we estimate the human and chimpanzee divergence time is 12.1 million years,​ and the human and gorilla divergence time is 15.1 million years​.

  10. [Ecotourism disturbances to non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peng-Lai; Xiang, Zuo-Fu

    2013-02-01

    In tandem with economic growth and rising living conditions, ecotourism has increasingly gained popularity among the Chinese public. Non-human primates, as charismatic animals and the closest relatives of human beings, have shown a strong affinity in attracting the general public and raising money, and for that reason a variety of monkey parks, valleys, and islands are becoming increasingly popular in China. Though successful in raising a substantial sum of money for the managing agency of a nature reserve, there may be negative impacts on monkey groups used in ecotourism. Here, to establish effective guards for non-human primates involved in ecotourism, we present a review on tourism disturbance and summarize the negative impacts on behavioral patterns, reproduction, and health condition of animals. PMID:23389980

  11. Nonhuman primate models of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, David H; Nicol, Lindsey E; Levine, Jon E; Xu, Ning; Goodarzi, Mark O; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-07-01

    With close genomic and phenotypic similarity to humans, nonhuman primate models provide comprehensive epigenetic mimics of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), suggesting early life targeting for prevention. Fetal exposure to testosterone (T), of all nonhuman primate emulations, provides the closest PCOS-like phenotypes, with early-to-mid gestation T-exposed female rhesus monkeys exhibiting adult reproductive, endocrinological and metabolic dysfunctional traits that are co-pathologies of PCOS. Late gestational T exposure, while inducing adult ovarian hyperandrogenism and menstrual abnormalities, has less dysfunctional metabolic accompaniment. Fetal exposures to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) suggest androgenic and estrogenic aspects of fetal programming. Neonatal exposure to T produces no PCOS-like outcome, while continuous T treatment of juvenile females causes precocious weight gain and early menarche (high T), or high LH and weight gain (moderate T). Acute T exposure of adult females generates polyfollicular ovaries, while chronic T exposure induces subtle menstrual irregularities without metabolic dysfunction.

  12. [Ecotourism disturbances to non-human primates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peng-Lai; Xiang, Zuo-Fu

    2013-02-01

    In tandem with economic growth and rising living conditions, ecotourism has increasingly gained popularity among the Chinese public. Non-human primates, as charismatic animals and the closest relatives of human beings, have shown a strong affinity in attracting the general public and raising money, and for that reason a variety of monkey parks, valleys, and islands are becoming increasingly popular in China. Though successful in raising a substantial sum of money for the managing agency of a nature reserve, there may be negative impacts on monkey groups used in ecotourism. Here, to establish effective guards for non-human primates involved in ecotourism, we present a review on tourism disturbance and summarize the negative impacts on behavioral patterns, reproduction, and health condition of animals.

  13. Evolution of the hepcidin gene in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossi Alessandro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepcidin/LEAP-1 is an iron regulatory hormone originally identified as an antimicrobial peptide. As part of a systematic analysis of the evolution of host defense peptides in primates, we have sequenced the orthologous gene from 14 species of non-human primates. Results The sequence of the mature peptide is highly conserved amongst all the analyzed species, being identical to the human one in great apes and gibbons, with a single residue conservative variation in Old-World monkeys and with few substitutions in New-World monkeys. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that hepcidin's role as a regulatory hormone, which involves interaction with a conserved receptor (ferroportin, may result in conservation over most of its sequence, with the exception of the stretch between residues 15 and 18, which in New-World monkeys (as well as in other mammals shows a significant variation, possibly indicating that this structural region is involved in other functions.

  14. Optogenetics in primates: a shining future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Annelies; Vanduffel, Wim

    2013-07-01

    To understand the functional role of specific neurons in micro- and macro-brain circuitry, health, and disease, it is critical to control their activity precisely. This ambitious goal was first achieved by optogenetics, allowing researchers to increase or decrease neural activity artificially with high temporal and spatial precision. In contrast to the revolution optogenetics engendered in invertebrate and rodent research, only a few studies have reported optogenetic-induced neuronal and behavioral effects in primates. Such studies are nonetheless critical before optogenetics can be applied in a clinical setting. Here, we review the state-of-the-art tools for performing optogenetics in mammals, emphasizing recent neuronal and behavioral results obtained in nonhuman primates.

  15. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, M C; Calello, M A; Colillas, O J; Rondinone, S N; Frigerio, M J

    1979-01-01

    Experimental Junin virus infection of a New World primate, Callithrix jacchus, was evaluated. The virus produced anorexia, loss of weight, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms and terminated in death. Virus was recovered from urine, blood samples and all tissues taken at autopsy. These preliminary observations show that several aspects of the experimental disease in C. jacchus are quite similar to severe natural Argentine hemorrhagic fever of man.

  16. Nonhuman Primate Models in Translational Regenerative Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Daadi, Marcel M.; Barberi, Tiziano; Shi, Qiang; Lanford, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs) are similar in size, behavior, physiology, biochemistry, structure and function of organs, and complexity of the immune system. Research on NHPs generates complementary data that bridge translational research from small animal models to humans. NHP models of human disease offer unique opportunities to develop stem cell–based therapeutic interventions that directly address relevant and challenging translational aspects of cell transplantation therapy. These ...

  17. The Neuroendocrinology of Primate Maternal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Saltzman, Wendy; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In nonhuman primates and humans, similar to other mammals, hormones are not strictly necessary for the expression of maternal behavior, but nevertheless influence variation in maternal responsiveness and parental behavior both within and between individuals. A growing number of correlational and experimental studies have indicated that high circulating estrogen concentrations during pregnancy increase maternal motivation and responsiveness to infant stimuli, while effects of prepartum or post...

  18. Emotions, stress, and maternal motivation in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-06-01

    Recent research conducted with nonhuman primates confirms that adaptive emotional processes, such as maternal attraction arousability and maternal anxiety arousability, enhance and sustain female motivation to interact with infants, invest in them, and protect them during the postpartum period. Changes in these emotional processes, and concomitant changes in maternal motivation, facilitate the reduction and eventual termination of maternal investment associated with infant weaning. Although laboratory studies of rodents and socially deprived rhesus monkeys have suggested that nulliparous females are neophobic and find infant stimuli aversive, recent primate research indicates that neophobia or aversion to infant stimuli do not occur in females with normal developmental experience. Furthermore, although some rodent and human studies have shown that lactation is accompanied by physiological hyporesponsiveness to stress, other studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans indicate that mothers are highly vulnerable to stress and that stress-induced dysregulation of emotions can interfere with maternal motivation and parenting behavior. It is possible that some aspects of the emotional and experiential regulation of maternal motivation and parental behavior are different in different mammalian species. However, variation in the environments in which subjects are tested and in their developmental experience may also be responsible for the some discrepancies between the results of different studies.

  19. Theory of Auditory Thresholds in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael J.

    2001-03-01

    The influence of thermal pressure fluctuations at the tympanic membrane has been previously investigated as a possible determinant of the threshold of hearing in humans (L.J. Sivian and S.D. White, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. IV, 4;288(1933).). More recent work has focussed more precisely on the relation between statistical mechanics and sensory signal processing by biological means in creatures' brains (W. Bialek, in ``Physics of Biological Systems: from molecules to species'', H. Flyvberg et al, (Eds), p. 252; Springer 1997.). Clinical data on the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in humans and other primates (W.C. Stebbins, ``The Acoustic Sense of Animals'', Harvard 1983.) has long been available. I have derived an expression for the frequency dependence of hearing thresholds in primates, including humans, by first calculating the frequency dependence of thermal pressure fluctuations at eardrums from damped normal modes excited in model ear canals of given simple geometry. I then show that most of the features of the clinical data are directly related to the frequency dependence of the ratio of thermal noise pressure arising from without to that arising from within the masking bandwidth which signals must dominate in order to be sensed. The higher intensity of threshold signals in primates smaller than humans, which is clinically observed over much but not all of the human auditory spectrum is shown to arise from their smaller meatus dimensions. note

  20. Ecological importance of trichromatic vision to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, N J; Lucas, P W

    2001-03-15

    Trichromatic colour vision, characterized by three retinal photopigments tuned to peak wavelengths of approximately 430 nm, approximately 535 nm and approximately 562 nm (refs 1, 2), has evolved convergently in catarrhine primates and one genus of New World monkey, the howlers (genus Alouatta). This uniform capacity to discriminate red-green colours, which is not found in other mammals, has been proposed as advantageous for the long-range detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves (which frequently flush red in the tropics) against a background of mature foliage. Here we show that four trichromatic primate species in Kibale Forest, Uganda, eat leaves that are colour discriminated only by red-greenness, a colour axis correlated with high protein levels and low toughness. Despite their divergent digestive systems, these primates have no significant interspecific differences in leaf colour selection. In contrast, eaten fruits were generally discriminated from mature leaves on both red-green and yellow-blue channels and also by their luminance, with a significant difference between chimpanzees and monkeys in fruit colour choice. Our results implicate leaf consumption, a critical food resource when fruit is scarce, as having unique value in maintaining trichromacy in catarrhines. PMID:11268211

  1. Hybridization in Large-Bodied New World Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Duda, Thomas F.; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; García-Orduña, Francisco; Rodríguez-Luna, Ernesto; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2007-01-01

    Well-documented cases of natural hybridization among primates are not common. In New World primates, natural hybridization has been reported only for small-bodied species, but no genotypic data have ever been gathered that confirm these reports. Here we present genetic evidence of hybridization of two large-bodied species of neotropical primates that diverged ∼3 MYA. We used species-diagnostic mitochondrial and microsatellite loci and the Y chromosome Sry gene to determine the hybrid status o...

  2. Brain Weight and Life-Span in Primate Species

    OpenAIRE

    Allman, J; McLaughlin, T.; A Hakeem

    1993-01-01

    In haplorhine primates (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans), there is a significant correlation between brain weight and maximum life-span when the effect of body size is removed. There is also a significant correlation in haplorhine primates between brain weight and female age at first reproduction. For strepsirhine primates (lorises and lemurs), there are no significant correlations between brain weight and either life-span or female reproductive age when the effect of body size is removed...

  3. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial co...

  4. Neutron activation of gold dental restorations in small primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, R.W.; Hartley, J.L.; Richey, E.O.; Harris, N.O.

    1959-07-01

    Dental gold alloys of various kinds were used to cast inlays which were placed in the molars of 10 small primates. These primates were then exposed to the neutron flux of an atomic detonation. The inlays were removed and the neutron-induced activity of the gold was measured in a scintillation counter. Calculation of the total activity showed a correlation with the neutron dosages received by the primates.

  5. The adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Daniel Marques Almeida; Maia, Rafael; de Albuquerque Ajuz, Rafael Cavalcanti; De Moraes, Pedro Zurvaino Palmeira Melo Rosa; Spyrides, Maria Helena Constantino; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras

    2014-08-01

    The complex evolution of primate color vision has puzzled biologists for decades. Primates are the only eutherian mammals that evolved an enhanced capacity for discriminating colors in the green-red part of the spectrum (trichromatism). However, while Old World primates present three types of cone pigments and are routinely trichromatic, most New World primates exhibit a color vision polymorphism, characterized by the occurrence of trichromatic and dichromatic females and obligatory dichromatic males. Even though this has stimulated a prolific line of inquiry, the selective forces and relative benefits influencing color vision evolution in primates are still under debate, with current explanations focusing almost exclusively at the advantages in finding food and detecting socio-sexual signals. Here, we evaluate a previously untested possibility, the adaptive value of primate color vision for predator detection. By combining color vision modeling data on New World and Old World primates, as well as behavioral information from human subjects, we demonstrate that primates exhibiting better color discrimination (trichromats) excel those displaying poorer color visions (dichromats) at detecting carnivoran predators against the green foliage background. The distribution of color vision found in extant anthropoid primates agrees with our results, and may be explained by the advantages of trichromats and dichromats in detecting predators and insects, respectively.

  6. Trabecular bone structure in the primate wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Ann-Marie; Tofanelli, Sergio; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Kivell, Tracy L

    2014-05-01

    Trabecular (or cancellous) bone has been shown to respond to mechanical loading throughout ontogeny and thus can provide unique insight into skeletal function and locomotion in comparative studies of living and fossil mammalian morphology. Trabecular bone of the hand may be particularly functionally informative because the hand has more direct contact with the substrate compared with the remainder of the forelimb during locomotion in quadrupedal mammals. This study investigates the trabecular structure within the wrist across a sample of haplorhine primates that vary in locomotor behaviour (and thus hand use) and body size. High-resolution microtomographic scans were collected of the lunate, scaphoid, and capitate in 41 individuals and eight genera (Homo, Gorilla, Pan, Papio, Pongo, Symphalangus, Hylobates, and Ateles). We predicted that particular trabecular parameters would 1) vary across suspensory, quadrupedal, and bipedal primates based on differences in hand use and load, and 2) scale with carpal size following similar allometric patterns found previously in other skeletal elements across a larger sample of mammals and primates. Analyses of variance (trabecular parameters analysed separately) and principal component analyses (trabecular parameters analysed together) revealed no clear functional signal in the trabecular structure of any of the three wrist bones. Instead, there was a large degree of variation within suspensory and quadrupedal locomotor groups, as well as high intrageneric variation within some taxa, particularly Pongo and Gorilla. However, as predicted, Homo sapiens, which rarely use their hands for locomotion and weight support, were unique in showing lower relative bone volume (BV/TV) compared with all other taxa. Furthermore, parameters used to quantify trabecular structure within the wrist scale with size generally following similar allometric patterns found in trabeculae of other mammalian skeletal elements. We discuss the challenges

  7. The Ethics of Infection Challenges in Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhill, Anne; Joffe, Steven; Miller, Franklin G

    2016-07-01

    In the midst of the recent Ebola outbreak, scientific developments involving infection challenge experiments on nonhuman primates (NHPs) sparked hope that successful treatments and vaccines may soon become available. Yet these studies pose a stark ethical quandary. On the one hand, they represent an important step in developing novel therapies and vaccines for Ebola and the Marburg virus, with the potential to save thousands of human lives and to protect whole communities from devastation; on the other hand, they intentionally expose sophisticated animals to severe suffering and a high risk of death. Other studies that infect NHPs with a lethal disease in order to test interventions that may prove beneficial for humans pose the same ethical difficulty. Some advocates have argued that all research on primates should be phased out, and ethicists have questioned whether a moral justification of primate research is possible. A 2010 European Union directive banned virtually all research on great apes, and 2013 guidelines from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), based upon recommendations in an influential 2011 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, eliminated most biomedical research with chimpanzees in the United States. But studies involving other NHPs face no comparable restrictions. Should research on NHPs other than great apes be subject to tighter restrictions than it currently is? In this article, we explore this general question in the context of one particular type of biomedical research: infection challenge studies. We advocate a presumptive prohibition on infection challenge experiments in NHPs, but we also argue that exceptions to this prohibition are permissible, subject to strict substantive and procedural safeguards, when necessary to avert substantial loss of human life or severe morbidity for a substantial number of people.

  8. Two Influential Primate Classifications Logically Aligned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nico M; Pier, Naomi M; Reeder, Deeann M; Chen, Mingmin; Yu, Shizhuo; Kianmajd, Parisa; Bowers, Shawn; Ludäscher, Bertram

    2016-07-01

    Classifications and phylogenies of perceived natural entities change in the light of new evidence. Taxonomic changes, translated into Code-compliant names, frequently lead to name:meaning dissociations across succeeding treatments. Classification standards such as the Mammal Species of the World (MSW) may experience significant levels of taxonomic change from one edition to the next, with potential costs to long-term, large-scale information integration. This circumstance challenges the biodiversity and phylogenetic data communities to express taxonomic congruence and incongruence in ways that both humans and machines can process, that is, to logically represent taxonomic alignments across multiple classifications. We demonstrate that such alignments are feasible for two classifications of primates corresponding to the second and third MSW editions. Our approach has three main components: (i) use of taxonomic concept labels, that is name sec. author (where sec. means according to), to assemble each concept hierarchy separately via parent/child relationships; (ii) articulation of select concepts across the two hierarchies with user-provided Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) relationships; and (iii) the use of an Answer Set Programming toolkit to infer and visualize logically consistent alignments of these input constraints. Our use case entails the Primates sec. Groves (1993; MSW2-317 taxonomic concepts; 233 at the species level) and Primates sec. Groves (2005; MSW3-483 taxonomic concepts; 376 at the species level). Using 402 RCC-5 input articulations, the reasoning process yields a single, consistent alignment and 153,111 Maximally Informative Relations that constitute a comprehensive meaning resolution map for every concept pair in the Primates sec. MSW2/MSW3. The complete alignment, and various partitions thereof, facilitate quantitative analyses of name:meaning dissociation, revealing that nearly one in three taxonomic names are not reliable across treatments

  9. Cellular Scaling Rules for Primate Spinal Cords

    OpenAIRE

    Burish, Mark J.; Peebles, J. Klint; Baldwin, Mary K.; Tavares, Luciano; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2010-01-01

    The spinal cord can be considered a major sensorimotor interface between the body and the brain. How does the spinal cord scale with body and brain mass, and how are its numbers of neurons related to the number of neurons in the brain across species of different body and brain sizes? Here we determine the cellular composition of the spinal cord in eight primate species and find that its number of neurons varies as a linear function of cord length, and accompanies body mass raised to an expone...

  10. Primates, Provisioning and Plants: Impacts of Human Cultural Behaviours on Primate Ecological Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Sengupta

    Full Text Available Human provisioning of wildlife with food is a widespread global practice that occurs in multiple socio-cultural circumstances. Provisioning may indirectly alter ecosystem functioning through changes in the eco-ethology of animals, but few studies have quantified this aspect. Provisioning of primates by humans is known to impact their activity budgets, diets and ranging patterns. Primates are also keystone species in tropical forests through their role as seed dispersers; yet there is no information on how provisioning might affect primate ecological functions. The rhesus macaque is a major human-commensal species but is also an important seed disperser in the wild. In this study, we investigated the potential impacts of provisioning on the role of rhesus macaques as seed dispersers in the Buxa Tiger Reserve, India. We studied a troop of macaques which were provisioned for a part of the year and were dependent on natural resources for the rest. We observed feeding behaviour, seed handling techniques and ranging patterns of the macaques and monitored availability of wild fruits. Irrespective of fruit availability, frugivory and seed dispersal activities decreased when the macaques were provisioned. Provisioned macaques also had shortened daily ranges implying shorter dispersal distances. Finally, during provisioning periods, seeds were deposited on tarmac roads that were unconducive for germination. Provisioning promotes human-primate conflict, as commensal primates are often involved in aggressive encounters with humans over resources, leading to negative consequences for both parties involved. Preventing or curbing provisioning is not an easy task as feeding wild animals is a socio-cultural tradition across much of South and South-East Asia, including India. We recommend the initiation of literacy programmes that educate lay citizens about the ill-effects of provisioning and strongly caution them against the practice.

  11. Primate theory of mind: a state of the art review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Såvel mennesket som andre primater have store hjerner med store hjernebarker. Det er blevet foreslået, at primaters store hjerner skyldes de komplekse sociale krav, der kommer af at skulle leve i store grupper. Inden for de sidste 40 år er der blevet lavet meget forskning inden for primaters socio-cognitive...... evner og siden Premack & Woodruff (1978) for første gang introducerede begrebet "theory of mind", er der blevet foretaget mange laboratorie-forsøg om mennesker og andre primaters evne til at attribuere mentale tilstande til andre. I nærværende artikel er størstedelen af disse forsøg med andre primater...

  12. What Cognitive Representations Support Primate Theory of Mind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alia; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-05-01

    Much recent work has examined the evolutionary origins of human mental state representations. This work has yielded strikingly consistent results: primates show a sophisticated ability to track the current and past perceptions of others, but they fail to represent the beliefs of others. We offer a new account of the nuanced performance of primates in theory of mind (ToM) tasks. We argue that primates form awareness relations tracking the aspects of reality that other agents are aware of. We contend that these awareness relations allow primates to make accurate predictions in social situations, but that this capacity falls short of our human-like representational ToM. We end by explaining how this new account makes important new empirical predictions about primate ToM.

  13. Primate Socioecology: New Insights from Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Peter M.

    Primate males have only recently returned to the center stage of socioecological research. This review surveys new studies that examine variation in the behavior of adult males and their role in social evolution. It is shown that group size, composition, and social behavior are determined not only by resource distribution, predation risk, and other ecological factors, but that life history traits and social factors, especially those related to sexual coercion, can have equally profound consequences for social systems. This general point is illustrated by examining male behavior at three levels: the evolution of permanent associations between males and females, the causes and consequences of variation in the number of males between group-living species, and the determinants of social relationships within and between the sexes. Direct and indirect evidence reviewed in connection with all three questions indicates that the risk of infanticide has been a pervasive force in primate social evolution. Several areas are identified for future research on male life histories that should contribute to a better understanding of male reproductive strategies and corresponding female counterstrategies.

  14. Men, primates, and germs: an ongoing affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Jean Paul; Prugnolle, Frank; Leroy, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates are phylogenetically (i.e., genetically) related and share pathogens that can jump from one species to another. The specific strategies of three groups of pathogens for crossing the species barrier among primates will be discussed. In Africa, gorillas and chimpanzees have succumbed for years to simultaneous epizootics (i.e.. "multi-emergence") of Ebola virus in places where they are in contact with Chiropters, which could be animal reservoirs of these viruses. Human epidemics often follow these major outbreaks. Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have an ancient history of coevolution and many interspecific exchanges with their natural hosts. Chimpanzee and gorilla SIVs have crossed the species barrier at different times and places, leading to the emergence of HIV-1 and HIV-2. Other retroviruses, such as the Simian T-Lymphotropic Viruses and Foamiviruses, have also a unique ancient or recent history of crossing the species barrier. The identification of gorilla Plasmodium parasites that are genetically close to P. falciparum suggests that gorillas were the source of the deadly human P. falciparum. Nonhuman plasmodium species that can infect humans represent an underestimated risk. PMID:23239237

  15. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilmar A.G. Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance calls are widespread among primates. Several studies concentrate on such calls in just one or in few species, while few studies have treated more general trends within the order. The common features that usually characterize these vocalizations are related to long-distance propagation of sounds. The proposed functions of primate long-distance calls can be divided into extragroup and intragroup ones. Extragroup functions relate to mate defense, mate attraction or resource defense, while intragroup functions involve group coordination or alarm. Among Neotropical primates, several species perform long-distance calls that seem more related to intragroup coordination, markedly in atelines. Callitrichids present long-distance calls that are employed both in intragroup coordination and intergroup contests or spacing. Examples of extragroup directed long-distance calls are the duets of titi monkeys and the roars and barks of howler monkeys. Considerable complexity and gradation exist in the long-distance call repertoires of some Neotropical primates, and female long-distance calls are probably more important in non-duetting species than usually thought. Future research must focus on larger trends in the evolution of primate long-distance calls, including the phylogeny of calling repertoires and the relationships between form and function in these signals.Chamados de longo alcance são comuns em primatas. Muitas pesquisas enfocaram tais vocalizações em uma única ou em poucas espécies, enquanto poucos estudos lidaram com padrões mais gerais dentro da ordem. As características comuns que geralmente distinguem estas vocalizações são relacionadas com a transmissão de sons a longa distância. As funções propostas para estas vocalizações podem ser divididas entre intragrupais e extragrupais. Funções extragrupais se relacionam com a defesa e atração de parceiros sexuais ou com a defesa de recursos, enquanto as fun

  16. Fruits, foliage and the evolution of primate colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, B C; Julliot, C; Simmen, B; Viénot, F; Charles-Dominique, P; Mollon, J D

    2001-03-29

    Primates are apparently unique amongst the mammals in possessing trichromatic colour vision. However, not all primates are trichromatic. Amongst the haplorhine (higher) primates, the catarrhines possess uniformly trichromatic colour vision, whereas most of the platyrrhine species exhibit polymorphic colour vision, with a variety of dichromatic and trichromatic phenotypes within the population. It has been suggested that trichromacy in primates and the reflectance functions of certain tropical fruits are aspects of a coevolved seed-dispersal system: primate colour vision has been shaped by the need to find coloured fruits amongst foliage, and the fruits themselves have evolved to be salient to primates and so secure dissemination of their seeds. We review the evidence for and against this hypothesis and we report an empirical test: we show that the spectral positioning of the cone pigments found in trichromatic South American primates is well matched to the task of detecting fruits against a background of leaves. We further report that particular trichromatic platyrrhine phenotypes may be better suited than others to foraging for particular fruits under particular conditions of illumination; and we discuss possible explanations for the maintenance of polymorphic colour vision amongst the platyrrhines. PMID:11316480

  17. Contributions of Nonhuman Primates to Research on Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, E. S.; MacLean, A. G.; Mohan, M.; Didier, P. J.; Lackner, A. A.; Kuroda, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is the biological process of declining physiologic function associated with increasing mortality rate during advancing age. Humans and higher nonhuman primates exhibit unusually longer average life spans as compared with mammals of similar body mass. Furthermore, the population of humans worldwide is growing older as a result of improvements in public health, social services, and health care systems. Comparative studies among a wide range of organisms that include nonhuman primates contribute greatly to our understanding about the basic mechanisms of aging. Based on their genetic and physiologic relatedness to humans, nonhuman primates are especially important for better understanding processes of aging unique to primates, as well as for testing intervention strategies to improve healthy aging and to treat diseases and disabilities in older people. Rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are the predominant monkeys used in studies on aging, but research with lower nonhuman primate species is increasing. One of the priority topics of research about aging in nonhuman primates involves neurologic changes associated with cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases. Additional areas of research include osteoporosis, reproductive decline, caloric restriction, and their mimetics, as well as immune senescence and chronic inflammation that affect vaccine efficacy and resistance to infections and cancer. The purpose of this review is to highlight the findings from nonhuman primate research that contribute to our understanding about aging and health span in humans. PMID:26869153

  18. Fast evolution of growth hormone receptor in primates and ruminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Zhenfang; LI Ying; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Pituitary growth hormone (GH) evolves very slowly in most of mammals, but the evolutionary rates appear to have increased markedly on two occasions during the evolution of primates and ruminants. To investigate the evolutionary pattern of growth hormone receptor (GHR), we sequenced the extracellular domain of GHR genes from four primate species. Our results suggested that GHR in mammal also shows an episodic evolutionary pattern, which is consistent with that observed in pituitary growth hormone. Further analysis suggested that this pattern of rapid evolution observed in primates and ruminants is likely the result of coevolution between pituitary growth hormone and its receptor.

  19. First evidence for functional vomeronasal 2 receptor genes in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Mundy, Nicholas I.; Zimmermann, Elke; Radespiel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Two classes of vomeronasal receptor genes, V1R and V2R, occur in vertebrates. Whereas, V1R loci are found in a wide variety of mammals, including primates, intact V2R genes have thus far only been described in rodents and marsupials. In primates, the V2R repertoire has been considered degenerate. Here, we identify for the first time two intact V2R loci in a strepsirrhine primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), and demonstrate their expression in the vomeronasal organ. Putatively f...

  20. Neurobiological roots of language in primate audition: common computational properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2015-03-01

    Here, we present a new perspective on an old question: how does the neurobiology of human language relate to brain systems in nonhuman primates? We argue that higher-order language combinatorics, including sentence and discourse processing, can be situated in a unified, cross-species dorsal-ventral streams architecture for higher auditory processing, and that the functions of the dorsal and ventral streams in higher-order language processing can be grounded in their respective computational properties in primate audition. This view challenges an assumption, common in the cognitive sciences, that a nonhuman primate model forms an inherently inadequate basis for modeling higher-level language functions.

  1. Isolation of Pancreatic Islets from Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dora M

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) constitute a highly relevant pre-clinical animal model to develop strategies for beta cell replacement. The close phylogenetic and immunologic relationship between NHP and humans results in cross-reactivity of various biological agents with NHP cells, as well as a very similar cytoarchitecture between islets from human and NHP that is strikingly different from that observed in rodent islets. The composition and location of endocrine cells in human or NHP islets, randomly distributed and associated with blood vessels, have functional consequences and a predisposition for paracrine interactions. Furthermore, translation of approaches that proved successful in rodent models to the clinic has been limited. Consequently, data collected from NHP studies can form the basis for an IND submission to the FDA. This chapter describes in detail the key aspects for isolation of islets from NHP, from organ procurement up to assessment of islet function, comparing and emphasizing the similarities between isolation procedures for human and NHP islets. PMID:27586422

  2. Mediodorsal thalamus and cognition in nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G Baxter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies in nonhuman primates have provided new insights into the role of the medial thalamus in different aspects of cognitive function. The mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD, by virtue of its connectivity with the frontal cortex, has been implicated in an array of cognitive functions. Rather than serving as an engine or relay for the prefrontal cortex, this area seems to be more specifically involved in regulating plasticity and flexibility of prefrontal-dependent cognitive functions. Focal damage to MD may also exacerbate the effects of damage to other subcortical relays. Thus a wide range of distributed circuits and cognitive functions may be disrupted from focal damage within the medial thalamus (for example as a consequence of stroke or brain injury. Conversely, this region may make an interesting target for neuromodulation of cognitive function via deep brain stimulation or related methods, in conditions associated with dysfunction of these neural circuits.

  3. The major histocompatibility complex of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heise, E R; Cook, D J; Schepart, B S; Manning, C H; McMahan, M R; Chedid, M; Keever, C A

    1987-08-31

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes cell surface glycoproteins that function in self-nonself recognition and in allograft rejection. Among primates, the MHC has been well defined only in the human; in the chimpanzee and in two species of macaque monkeys the MHC is less well characterized. Serologic, biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that the basic organization of the MHC linkage group has been phylogenetically conserved. However, the number of genes and their linear relationship on the chromosomes differ between species. Class I MHC loci encode molecules that are the most polymorphic genes known. These molecules are ubiquitous in their tissue distribution and typically are recognized together with nominal antigens by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Class II MHC loci constitute a smaller family of serotypes serving as restricting elements for regulatory T lymphocytes. The distribution of class II antigens is limited mainly to cell types serving immune functions, and their expression is subject to up and down modulation. Class III loci code for components C2, C4 and Factor B (Bf) of the complement system. Interspecies differences in the extent of polymorphism occur, but the significance of this finding in relation to fitness and natural selection is unclear. Detailed information on the structure and regulation of MHC gene expression will be required to understand fully the biologic role of the MHC and the evolutionary relationships between species. Meanwhile, MHC testing has numerous applications to biomedical research, especially in preclinical tissue and organ transplantation studies, the study of disease mechanisms, parentage determination and breeding colony management. In this review, the current status of MHC definition in nonhuman primates will be summarized. Special emphasis is placed on the CyLA system of M. fascicularis which is a major focus in our laboratory. A highly polymorphic cynomolgus MHC has been partially characterized and consists

  4. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad

  5. Transgenic nonhuman primates for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Anthony WS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal models that represent human diseases constitute an important tool in understanding the pathogenesis of the diseases, and in developing effective therapies. Neurodegenerative diseases are complex disorders involving neuropathologic and psychiatric alterations. Although transgenic and knock-in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, (AD, Parkinson's disease (PD and Huntington's disease (HD have been created, limited representation in clinical aspects has been recognized and the rodent models lack true neurodegeneration. Chemical induction of HD and PD in nonhuman primates (NHP has been reported, however, the role of intrinsic genetic factors in the development of the diseases is indeterminable. Nonhuman primates closely parallel humans with regard to genetic, neuroanatomic, and cognitive/behavioral characteristics. Accordingly, the development of NHP models for neurodegenerative diseases holds greater promise for success in the discovery of diagnoses, treatments, and cures than approaches using other animal species. Therefore, a transgenic NHP carrying a mutant gene similar to that of patients will help to clarify our understanding of disease onset and progression. Additionally, monitoring disease onset and development in the transgenic NHP by high resolution brain imaging technology such as MRI, and behavioral and cognitive testing can all be carried out simultaneously in the NHP but not in other animal models. Moreover, because of the similarity in motor repertoire between NHPs and humans, it will also be possible to compare the neurologic syndrome observed in the NHP model to that in patients. Understanding the correlation between genetic defects and physiologic changes (e.g. oxidative damage will lead to a better understanding of disease progression and the development of patient treatments, medications and preventive approaches for high risk individuals. The impact of the transgenic NHP model in understanding the role which

  6. Bat hepadnaviruses and the origins of primate hepatitis B viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasche, Andrea; Souza, Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2016-02-01

    The origin of primate HBV (family Hepadnaviridae) is unknown. Hepadnaviruses are ancient pathogens and may have been associated with old mammalian lineages like bats for prolonged time. Indeed, the genetic diversity of bat hepadnaviruses exceeds that of extant hepadnaviruses in other host orders, suggesting a long evolution of hepadnaviruses in bats. Strikingly, a recently detected New World bat hepadnavirus is antigenically related to HBV and can infect human hepatocytes. Together with genetically diverse hepadnaviruses from New World rodents and a non-human primate, these viruses argue for a New World origin of ancestral orthohepadnaviruses. Multiple host switches of bat and primate viruses are evident and bats are likely sources of ancestral hepadnaviruses acquired by primates. PMID:26897577

  7. Comparative Triceps Surae Morphology in Primates: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandy B. Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Primate locomotor evolution, particularly the evolution of bipedalism, is often examined through morphological studies. Many of these studies have examined the uniqueness of the primate forelimb, and others have examined the primate hip and thigh. Few data exist, however, regarding the myology and function of the leg muscles, even though the ankle plantar flexors are highly important during human bipedalism. In this paper, we draw together data on the fiber type and muscle mass variation in the ankle plantar flexors of primates and make comparisons to other mammals. The data suggest that great apes, atelines, and lorisines exhibit similarity in the mass distribution of the triceps surae. We conclude that variation in triceps surae may be related to the shared locomotor mode exhibited by these groups and that triceps surae morphology, which approaches that of humans, may be related to frequent use of semiplantigrade locomotion and vertical climbing.

  8. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, Amanda D.; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L.; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D.; Timm, Robert M.; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B.; Perry, George H.; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders...

  9. Towards Transgenic Primates: What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Hui; WANG Phillip L.; TSIEN Joe Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans, monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the precUnical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases. Various powerful genetic tech-nologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models. We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and limitations for systematic production of transgenic primates.

  10. Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates

    OpenAIRE

    Fornalé, F.; S. Vaglio; Spiezio, C.; E. Prato Previde

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve...

  11. The Development of Primate Raiding: Implications for Management and Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Strum, Shirley C.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystems and habitats are fast becoming human dominated, which means that more species, including primates, are compelled to exploit new human resources to survive and compete. Primate “pests” pose major management and conservation challenges. I here present the results from a unique opportunity to document how well-known individuals and groups respond to the new opportunity to feed on human foods. Data are from a long-term study of a single population in Kenya at Kekopey, near Gilgil, Keny...

  12. Euarchontan Opsin Variation Brings New Focus to Primate Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D; Timm, Robert M; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B; Perry, George H; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2016-04-01

    Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination.

  13. Afrotarsius chatrathi, first tarsiiform primate (? Tarsiidae) from Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, E.L.; Bown, T.M.

    1985-01-01

    Tarsiiform primates have long been regarded as a Laurasian group, with an extensive fossil record in the Eocene of North America and Europe1-4 and two important but less well-known records from Asia5,6. The only living genus is Tarsius (Tarsiidae), whereas all of the fossil tarsier-like primates are usually placed in the extinct family Omomyidae3. We now report the discovery of Afrotarsius chatrathi from early Oligocene rocks of Fayum Province, Egypt. This is the first known tarsiiform primate from Africa. Compared with fossil primates, the molar tooth morphology of this diminutive prosimian is most similar to that of the European Eocene microchoerine Pseudoloris; however, the closest similarity is to the molars of Tarsius. Because the phylogenetic relationships among living Tarsius and the omomyids remain unclear7,8 and because of the fragmentary nature of the only known specimen of this new primate, allocation of Afrotarsius to either Omomyidae or Tarsiidae is necessarily provisional. As we believe that its molar teeth are more like those of Tarsius than of any omomyids (including Pseudoloris), we tentatively assign the new genus to the extant family Tarsiidae as its only known fossil representative. Recovery of a Tarsius-like primate from Africa suggests that it or its ancestors might have been immigrants from Europe, may have been derived from an unknown Asian stock related to the ancestry of Tarsius, or may have originated in Africa. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  14. The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Simon M; Hager, Yfke; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-04-12

    There are consistent individual differences in human intelligence, attributable to a single 'general intelligence' factor, g. The evolutionary basis of g and its links to social learning and culture remain controversial. Conflicting hypotheses regard primate cognition as divided into specialized, independently evolving modules versus a single general process. To assess how processes underlying culture relate to one another and other cognitive capacities, we compiled ecologically relevant cognitive measures from multiple domains, namely reported incidences of behavioural innovation, social learning, tool use, extractive foraging and tactical deception, in 62 primate species. All exhibited strong positive associations in principal component and factor analyses, after statistically controlling for multiple potential confounds. This highly correlated composite of cognitive traits suggests social, technical and ecological abilities have coevolved in primates, indicative of an across-species general intelligence that includes elements of cultural intelligence. Our composite species-level measure of general intelligence, 'primate g(S)', covaried with both brain volume and captive learning performance measures. Our findings question the independence of cognitive traits and do not support 'massive modularity' in primate cognition, nor an exclusively social model of primate intelligence. High general intelligence has independently evolved at least four times, with convergent evolution in capuchins, baboons, macaques and great apes.

  15. What is the optimal anthropoid primate diet?

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmelt, H

    2001-01-01

    Following Socrates' advice "You should learn all you can from those who know. Everyone should watch himself throughout his life, and notice what sort of meat and drink and what form of exercise suit his constitution, and he should regulate them in order to enjoy good health." Based on biological, chemical and physical considerations I have attempted to synthesize guide lines for an optimal diet from the vast literature. For an offshoot of the primate line it may be wise not to stray too far from the line's surprisingly uniform predominantly frugi- and herbi-vorous diet that is only lightly supplemented by hunted small mammals, eggs, nuts, insects, etc. By dry weight raw wild fruit contains fats, proteins, carbohydrates, digested and undigested fiber in the approximate proportions 5 : 7 : 14 : 17 : 17. The fat component contains both essential fatty acids, about 23% linoleic and 16% alpha-linolenic, the latter severely lacking in Western diets. The practical problem is how to as best as possible, but not relig...

  16. Stereometrics In Primate Taxonomy And Phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Norman

    1980-07-01

    Studies of the systematic relationships within the primate taxa Homo, Hylobatidae (lesser apes), Hominoidea (apes and man) and Colobinae (Asian and African leaf monkeys) are described. All are based in large part on multivariate statistical analyses of cranial morphology. Adequate quantification of the frequently complex and subtle differences in the morphology of the animals being compared, as well as the inclusion of statistically adequate samples of as many presumed species or other groups of interest as possible, are essential to the success of such analyses. Two methods of stereometric measurement have been developed to make this possible. In initial studies of the Hylobatidae and the Hominoidea, a simple mechanical device was designed which determines the tri-dimensional coordinates of an anatomical point by measuring an angle and two distances. An improved version was used in an investigation of Subsaharan human crania. In a taxonomic revision of the Colobinae now in progress, crania are photographed in several views with a pair of metric cameras; point coordinates are then measured in a modified stereoplotter and the views rotated mathematically into a single coordinate system. Although stereometrics is only one component in a complex system of analysis, it is an extremely important one. Taxonomic revisions of the described scope and depth could not be carried out with conventional methods of measurement without a much greater commitment of resources, if at all.

  17. Nepotistic cooperation in non-human primate groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B

    2009-11-12

    Darwin was struck by the many similarities between humans and other primates and believed that these similarities were the product of common ancestry. He would be even more impressed by the similarities if he had known what we have learned about primates over the last 50 years. Genetic kinship has emerged as the primary organizing force in the evolution of primate social organization and the patterning of social behaviour in non-human primate groups. There are pronounced nepotistic biases across the primate order, from tiny grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) that forage alone at night but cluster with relatives to sleep during the day, to cooperatively breeding marmosets that rely on closely related helpers to rear their young, rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) females who acquire their mother's rank and form strict matrilineal dominance hierarchies, male howler monkeys that help their sons maintain access to groups of females and male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that form lasting relationships with their brothers. As more evidence of nepotism has accumulated, important questions about the evolutionary processes underlying these kin biases have been raised. Although kin selection predicts that altruism will be biased in favour of relatives, it is difficult to assess whether primates actually conform to predictions derived from Hamilton's rule: br > c. In addition, other mechanisms, including contingent reciprocity and mutualism, could contribute to the nepotistic biases observed in non-human primate groups. There are good reasons to suspect that these processes may complement the effects of kin selection and amplify the extent of nepotistic biases in behaviour. PMID:19805431

  18. Preliminary analysis of the mitochondrial genome evolutionary pattern in primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHAO; Xingtao ZHANG; Xingkui TAO; Weiwei WANG; Ming LI

    2012-01-01

    Since the birth of molecular evolutionary analysis,primates have been a central focus of study and mitochondrial DNA is well suited to these endeavors because of its unique features.Surprisingly,to date no comprehensive evaluation of the nucleotide substitution patterns has been conducted on the mitochondrial genome of primates.Here,we analyzed the evolutionary patterns and evaluated selection and recombination in the mitochondrial genomes of 44 Primates species downloaded from GenBank.The results revealed that a strong rate heterogeneity occurred among sites and genes in all comparisons.Likewise,an obvious decline in primate nucleotide diversity was noted in the subunit rRNAs and tRNAs as compared to the protein-coding genes.Within 13 protein-coding genes,the pattern of nonsynonymous divergence was similar to that of overall nucleotide divergence,while synonymous changes differed only for individual genes,indicating that the rate heterogeneity may result from the rate of change at nonsynonymous sites.Codon usage analysis revealed that there was intermediate codon usage bias in primate protein-coding genes,and supported the idea that GC mutation pressure might determine codon usage and that positive selection is not the driving force for the codon usage bias.Neutrality tests using site-specific positive selection from a Bayesian framework indicated no sites were under positive selection for any gene,consistent with near neutrality.Recombination tests based on the pairwise homoplasy test statistic supported complete linkage even for much older divergent primate species.Thus,with the exception of rate heterogeneity among mitochondrial genes,evaluating the validity assumed complete linkage and selective neutrality in primates prior to phylogenetic or phylogeographic analysis seems unnecessary.

  19. No need to replace an "anomalous" primate (Primates) with an "anomalous" bear (Carnivora, Ursidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Pine, Ronald H

    2015-01-01

    By means of mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequencing of putative "yeti", "bigfoot", and other "anomalous primate" hair samples, a recent study concluded that two samples, presented as from the Himalayas, do not belong to an "anomalous primate", but to an unknown, anomalous type of ursid. That is, that they match 12S rRNA sequences of a fossil Polar Bear (Ursusmaritimus), but neither of modern Polar Bears, nor of Brown Bears (Ursusarctos), the closest relative of Polar Bears, and one that occurs today in the Himalayas. We have undertaken direct comparison of sequences; replication of the original comparative study; inference of phylogenetic relationships of the two samples with respect to those from all extant species of Ursidae (except for the Giant Panda, Ailuropodamelanoleuca) and two extinct Pleistocene species; and application of a non-tree-based population aggregation approach for species diagnosis and identification. Our results demonstrate that the very short fragment of the 12S rRNA gene sequenced by Sykes et al. is not sufficiently informative to support the hypotheses provided by these authors with respect to the taxonomic identity of the individuals from which these sequences were obtained. We have concluded that there is no reason to believe that the two samples came from anything other than Brown Bears. These analyses afforded an opportunity to test the monophyly of morphologically defined species and to comment on both their phylogenetic relationships and future efforts necessary to advance our understanding of ursid systematics. PMID:25829853

  20. Male infanticide leads to social monogamy in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, Christopher; Atkinson, Quentin D; Dunbar, Robin I M; Shultz, Susanne

    2013-08-13

    Although common in birds, social monogamy, or pair-living, is rare among mammals because internal gestation and lactation in mammals makes it advantageous for males to seek additional mating opportunities. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of social monogamy among mammals: as a male mate-guarding strategy, because of the benefits of biparental care, or as a defense against infanticidal males. However, comparative analyses have been unable to resolve the root causes of monogamy. Primates are unusual among mammals because monogamy has evolved independently in all of the major clades. Here we combine trait data across 230 primate species with a Bayesian likelihood framework to test for correlated evolution between monogamy and a range of traits to evaluate the competing hypotheses. We find evidence of correlated evolution between social monogamy and both female ranging patterns and biparental care, but the most compelling explanation for the appearance of monogamy is male infanticide. It is only the presence of infanticide that reliably increases the probability of a shift to social monogamy, whereas monogamy allows the secondary adoption of paternal care and is associated with a shift to discrete ranges. The origin of social monogamy in primates is best explained by long lactation periods caused by altriciality, making primate infants particularly vulnerable to infanticidal males. We show that biparental care shortens relative lactation length, thereby reducing infanticide risk and increasing reproductive rates. These phylogenetic analyses support a key role for infanticide in the social evolution of primates, and potentially, humans.

  1. Primate Anatomy, Kinematics, and Principles for Humanoid Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Robert O.; Ambrose, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    The primate order of animals is investigated for clues in the design of Humanoid Robots. The pursuit is directed with a theory that kinematics, musculature, perception, and cognition can be optimized for specific tasks by varying the proportions of limbs, and in particular, the points of branching in kinematic trees such as the primate skeleton. Called the Bifurcated Chain Hypothesis, the theory is that the branching proportions found in humans may be superior to other animals and primates for the tasks of dexterous manipulation and other human specialties. The primate taxa are defined, contemporary primate evolution hypotheses are critiqued, and variations within the order are noted. The kinematic branching points of the torso, limbs and fingers are studied for differences in proportions across the order, and associated with family and genus capabilities and behaviors. The human configuration of a long waist, long neck, and short arms is graded using a kinematic workspace analysis and a set of design axioms for mobile manipulation robots. It scores well. The re emergence of the human waist, seen in early Prosimians and Monkeys for arboreal balance, but lost in the terrestrial Pongidae, is postulated as benefiting human dexterity. The human combination of an articulated waist and neck will be shown to enable the use of smaller arms, achieving greater regions of workspace dexterity than the larger limbs of Gorillas and other Hominoidea.

  2. Primate iPS cells as tools for evolutionary analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Stephanie; Kircher, Martin; Vieth, Beate; Haase, Alexandra; Merkert, Sylvia; Beier, Jennifer; Göhring, Gudrun; Glage, Silke; Schambach, Axel; Curnow, Eliza C; Pääbo, Svante; Martin, Ulrich; Enard, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are regarded as a central tool to understand human biology in health and disease. Similarly, iPSCs from non-human primates should be a central tool to understand human evolution, in particular for assessing the conservation of regulatory networks in iPSC models. Here, we have generated human, gorilla, bonobo and cynomolgus monkey iPSCs and assess their usefulness in such a framework. We show that these cells are well comparable in their differentiation potential and are generally similar to human, cynomolgus and rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs). RNA sequencing reveals that expression differences among clones, individuals and stem cell type are all of very similar magnitude within a species. In contrast, expression differences between closely related primate species are three times larger and most genes show significant expression differences among the analyzed species. However, pseudogenes differ more than twice as much, suggesting that evolution of expression levels in primate stem cells is rapid, but constrained. These patterns in pluripotent stem cells are comparable to those found in other tissues except testis. Hence, primate iPSCs reveal insights into general primate gene expression evolution and should provide a rich source to identify conserved and species-specific gene expression patterns for cellular phenotypes. PMID:24631741

  3. Led by the nose: Olfaction in primate feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Omer; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction, the sense of smell, was a latecomer to the systematic investigation of primate sensory ecology after long years in which it was considered to be of minor importance. This view shifted with the growing understanding of its role in social behavior and the accumulation of physiological studies demonstrating that the olfactory abilities of some primates are on a par with those of olfactory-dependent mammals such as dogs and rodents. Recent years have seen a proliferation of physiological, behavioral, anatomical, and genetic investigations of primate olfaction. These investigations have begun to shed light on the importance of olfaction in the process of food acquisition. However, integration of these works has been limited. It is therefore still difficult to pinpoint large-scale evolutionary scenarios, namely the functions that the sense of smell fulfills in primates' feeding ecology and the ecological niches that favor heavier reliance on olfaction. Here, we review available behavioral and physiological studies of primates in the field or captivity and try to elucidate how and when the sense of smell can help them acquire food.

  4. Led by the nose: Olfaction in primate feeding ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Omer; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction, the sense of smell, was a latecomer to the systematic investigation of primate sensory ecology after long years in which it was considered to be of minor importance. This view shifted with the growing understanding of its role in social behavior and the accumulation of physiological studies demonstrating that the olfactory abilities of some primates are on a par with those of olfactory-dependent mammals such as dogs and rodents. Recent years have seen a proliferation of physiological, behavioral, anatomical, and genetic investigations of primate olfaction. These investigations have begun to shed light on the importance of olfaction in the process of food acquisition. However, integration of these works has been limited. It is therefore still difficult to pinpoint large-scale evolutionary scenarios, namely the functions that the sense of smell fulfills in primates' feeding ecology and the ecological niches that favor heavier reliance on olfaction. Here, we review available behavioral and physiological studies of primates in the field or captivity and try to elucidate how and when the sense of smell can help them acquire food. PMID:26267435

  5. Biology of primate relaxin: A paracrine signal in early pregnancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayes Eric S

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Relaxin is a peptide hormone that exerts numerous effects in a variety of tissues across a broad range of species. Although first identified more than 75 years ago interest in relaxin biology has waxed and waned over the years consistent with peaks and troughs of new experimental data on its wide-ranging biological effects and advances in relaxin enabling technologies. Recent insights into species-dependent differences in relaxin biology during pregnancy have once again stimulated a relative surge of interest in the study of relaxin's reproductive biology. Identification and pharmacological characterization of orphaned relaxin receptors and exploration of its paracrine effects on pregnancy using genomic and proteomic technologies have succeeded in fueling current interest in relaxin research. Primates and non-primate vertebrates exhibit very disparate profiles of relaxin genomics, proteomics and functional biology. Non-human primates appear to exhibit a very close similarity to humans with respect to relaxin reproductive biology but the similarities and subtle differences are only just beginning to be understood. We, and others, have shown that relaxin produces significant changes to the non-human primate endometrium during the peri-implantation period that are consistent with relaxin's long perceived role as a paracrine modulator of pregnancy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the reproductive biology of relaxin in non-human primates with a specific emphasis on the paracrine role of ovarian and endometrial relaxin during embryo implantation and early pregnancy.

  6. Grooming reciprocation among female primates: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schino, Gabriele; Aureli, Filippo

    2008-02-23

    The theory of reciprocal altruism offers an explanation for the evolution of altruistic behaviours among unrelated animals. Among primates, grooming is one of the most common altruistic behaviours. Primates have been suggested to exchange grooming both for itself and for rank-related benefits. While previous meta-analyses have shown that they direct their grooming up the hierarchy and exchange it for agonistic support, no comprehensive evaluation of grooming reciprocation has been made. Here we report on a meta-analysis of grooming reciprocation among female primates based on 48 social groups belonging to 22 different species and 12 genera. The results of this meta-analysis showed that female primates groom preferentially those group mates that groom them most. To the extent allowed by the availability of kinship data, this result holds true when controlling for maternal kinship. These results, together with previous findings, suggest that primates are indeed able to exchange grooming both for itself and for different rank-related benefits.

  7. Functional comparison of innate immune signaling pathways in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis B Barreiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans respond differently than other primates to a large number of infections. Differences in susceptibility to infectious agents between humans and other primates are probably due to inter-species differences in immune response to infection. Consistent with that notion, genes involved in immunity-related processes are strongly enriched among recent targets of positive selection in primates, suggesting that immune responses evolve rapidly, yet providing only indirect evidence for possible inter-species functional differences. To directly compare immune responses among primates, we stimulated primary monocytes from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques with lipopolysaccharide (LPS and studied the ensuing time-course regulatory responses. We find that, while the universal Toll-like receptor response is mostly conserved across primates, the regulatory response associated with viral infections is often lineage-specific, probably reflecting rapid host-virus mutual adaptation cycles. Additionally, human-specific immune responses are enriched for genes involved in apoptosis, as well as for genes associated with cancer and with susceptibility to infectious diseases or immune-related disorders. Finally, we find that chimpanzee-specific immune signaling pathways are enriched for HIV-interacting genes. Put together, our observations lend strong support to the notion that lineage-specific immune responses may help explain known inter-species differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  8. PET imaging using parkinsonian primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many animal models have been for studying neutrodegenerative diseases in humans. Among them, Parkinson's disease (PD) model in primates treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is expected to be valid and useful in the field of regenerative medicine. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate parkinsonian syndrome, such as tremor, dyskinesia, rigidity, immobility, caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons at the nigrostriatal pathway. In this model, investigation of cognitive impairment that is one of the important aspects of PD could be possible. We evaluated the degeneration process of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons with positron emission tomography (PET) using unanesthetized MPTP-treated two cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). The tracers used were [11C]PE2I, [11C]DOPA, [11C]raclopride for monitoring dopamine transporter (DAT) densities, dopamine (DA) turnover, dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) densities, respectively. The gross behavioral observation was also performed referring to the criteria of the PD symptoms. The motor dysfunction was not clearly observed up to the cumulative doses of 3 mg/kg MPTP. This period was called 'asymptomatic period'. As a result of PET scans in the asymptomatic period, DAT densities and DA turnover had already decreased greatly, but D2R densities had not changed clearly. These findings suggest that PET imaging can delineate the dopaminergic dysfunction in vivo even in the asymptomatic period. In human study of PD, it is reported that parkinsonism is shown after great loss of dopaminergic neutrons as well as pre-synaptic dysfunction. MPTP-treated monkeys demonstrate the parkinsonian syndrome with the similar mechanism as human PD. It can be expected that PET study with MPTP-monkeys would provide important clues relevant to the underlying cause of PD and be useful for preclinical study of regenerative medicine in this disease. (author)

  9. Primate-specific evolution of an LDLR enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-Fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Wang, Qianben; Moses, Alan M.; Chanan, Sumita; Brown, Myles; Eisen, Michael B.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin,Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2005-12-01

    Sequence changes in regulatory regions have often been invoked to explain phenotypic divergence among species, but molecular examples of this have been difficult to obtain. In this study we identified an anthropoid primate-specific sequence element that contributed to the regulatory evolution of the low-density lipoprotein receptor. Using a combination of close and distant species genomic sequence comparisons coupled with in vivo and in vitro studies, we found that a functional cholesterol-sensing sequence motif arose and was fixed within a pre-existing enhancer in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Our study demonstrates one molecular mechanism by which ancestral mammalian regulatory elements can evolve to perform new functions in the primate lineage leading to human.

  10. Social learning of vocal structure in a nonhuman primate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemasson Alban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-human primate communication is thought to be fundamentally different from human speech, mainly due to vast differences in vocal control. The lack of these abilities in non-human primates is especially striking if compared to some marine mammals and bird species, which has generated somewhat of an evolutionary conundrum. What are the biological roots and underlying evolutionary pressures of the human ability to voluntarily control sound production and learn the vocal utterances of others? One hypothesis is that this capacity has evolved gradually in humans from an ancestral stage that resembled the vocal behavior of modern primates. Support for this has come from studies that have documented limited vocal flexibility and convergence in different primate species, typically in calls used during social interactions. The mechanisms underlying these patterns, however, are currently unknown. Specifically, it has been difficult to rule out explanations based on genetic relatedness, suggesting that such vocal flexibility may not be the result of social learning. Results To address this point, we compared the degree of acoustic similarity of contact calls in free-ranging Campbell's monkeys as a function of their social bonds and genetic relatedness. We calculated three different indices to compare the similarities between the calls' frequency contours, the duration of grooming interactions and the microsatellite-based genetic relatedness between partners. We found a significantly positive relation between bond strength and acoustic similarity that was independent of genetic relatedness. Conclusion Genetic factors determine the general species-specific call repertoire of a primate species, while social factors can influence the fine structure of some the call types. The finding is in line with the more general hypothesis that human speech has evolved gradually from earlier primate-like vocal communication.

  11. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments.

  12. Primate dietary ecology in the context of food mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner-Collier, Susan; Scott, Robert S; Chalk-Wilayto, Janine; Cheyne, Susan M; Constantino, Paul; Dominy, Nathaniel J; Elgart, Alison A; Glowacka, Halszka; Loyola, Laura C; Ossi-Lupo, Kerry; Raguet-Schofield, Melissa; Talebi, Mauricio G; Sala, Enrico A; Sieradzy, Pawel; Taylor, Andrea B; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wright, Barth W; Yamashita, Nayuta; Lucas, Peter W; Vogel, Erin R

    2016-09-01

    Substantial variation exists in the mechanical properties of foods consumed by primate species. This variation is known to influence food selection and ingestion among non-human primates, yet no large-scale comparative study has examined the relationships between food mechanical properties and feeding strategies. Here, we present comparative data on the Young's modulus and fracture toughness of natural foods in the diets of 31 primate species. We use these data to examine the relationships between food mechanical properties and dietary quality, body mass, and feeding time. We also examine the relationship between food mechanical properties and categorical concepts of diet that are often used to infer food mechanical properties. We found that traditional dietary categories, such as folivory and frugivory, did not faithfully track food mechanical properties. Additionally, our estimate of dietary quality was not significantly correlated with either toughness or Young's modulus. We found a complex relationship among food mechanical properties, body mass, and feeding time, with a potential interaction between median toughness and body mass. The relationship between mean toughness and feeding time is straightforward: feeding time increases as toughness increases. However, when considering median toughness, the relationship with feeding time may depend upon body mass, such that smaller primates increase their feeding time in response to an increase in median dietary toughness, whereas larger primates may feed for shorter periods of time as toughness increases. Our results emphasize the need for additional studies quantifying the mechanical and chemical properties of primate diets so that they may be meaningfully compared to research on feeding behavior and jaw morphology.

  13. Primate-Specific Evolution of an LDLR Enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Wang, Qianben; Moses, Alan M.; Chanan, Sumita; Brown, Myles; Eisen, Michael B.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Rubin,Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2006-06-28

    Sequence changes in regulatory regions have often beeninvoked to explain phenotypic divergence among species, but molecularexamples of this have been difficult to obtain. In this study, weidentified an anthropoid primate specific sequence element thatcontributed to the regulatory evolution of the LDL receptor. Using acombination of close and distant species genomic sequence comparisonscoupled with in vivo and in vitro studies, we show that a functionalcholesterol-sensing sequence motif arose and was fixed within apre-existing enhancer in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Ourstudy demonstrates one molecular mechanism by which ancestral mammalianregulatory elements can evolve to perform new functions in the primatelineage leading to human.

  14. Cocaine is pharmacologically active in the nonhuman primate fetal brain

    OpenAIRE

    Benveniste, Helene; Fowler, Joanna S.; Rooney, William D; Scharf, Bruce A.; Backus, W. Walter; Izrailtyan, Igor; Knudsen, Gitte M; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Volkow, Nora D.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third-trimester pregnant nonhuman primates, cocaine at doses typically used by drug abusers significantly increased brain glucose metabolism to the same extent in the mother as in the fetus (∼100%). Inasmuch as brain...

  15. Variabilidad del microdesgaste dental bucal en primates catarrhini

    OpenAIRE

    Galbany, Jordi; Romero, Alejandro; Pérez-Pérez, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    El análisis del patrón de microestriación dental ha demostrado ser un buen indicador de la dieta y del comportamiento relacionado con la alimentación de los humanos modernos, los primates actuales, homínidos y primates fósiles, incluso entre poblaciones de la misma especie. La composición de la dieta, así como el entorno ecológico o la presencia de polvo u otras partículas abrasivas en los alimentos están relacionados con la formación del microdesgaste dental en el esmalte de las superficies ...

  16. Consideration of other primate species as flight animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    The different types of primates which might be used as flight animals are surveyed, and the pros and cons of using them are discussed. Various factors suggest that the most desirable animals for space studies are the rhesus, pig-tailed, Java, and squirrel monkeys. The capuchin monkey has assets for certain types of space experimentation.

  17. As Threats of Violence Escalate, Primate Researchers Stand Firm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Scientists doing research on primates are increasingly being subjected to threats and acts of violence from animal rights groups. The intimidation has resulted in many laboratories taking extensive security measures. Some scientists claim, however, that there is no surrogate for animal research in understanding human diseases. There are fears that…

  18. A survey of diabetes prevalence in zoo-housed primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, C W; Fuller, G A; Dennis, P M

    2013-01-01

    In humans, type II diabetes mellitus is a condition in which the pancreas is capable of producing insulin but cells do not appropriately respond to insulin with an uptake of glucose. While multiple factors are associated with type II diabetes in humans, a high calorie diet and limited exercise are significant risk factors for the development of this disease. Zoo primates, with relatively high caloric density diets and sedentary lifestyles, may experience similar conditions that could predispose them to the development of diabetes. We surveyed all Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) facilities with primates in their collections to determine the prevalence of diabetes, diagnosis and treatment methods, and treatment outcomes. Nearly 30% of responding institutions reported at least one diabetic primate in their current collection. Although the majority of reported cases were in Old World Monkeys (51%), all major taxonomic groups were represented. Females represented nearly 80% of the diagnosed cases. A wide variety of diagnosing, monitoring, and treatment techniques were reported. It is clear from these results diabetes should be considered prominently in decisions relating to diet, weight and activity levels in zoo-housed primates, as well as discussions surrounding animal health and welfare.

  19. The evolution of female social relationships in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterck, E.H.M.; Watts, David P.; Schaik, C.P. van

    2002-01-01

    Considerable interspecifc variation in female social relationships occurs in gregarious primates, par- ticularly with regard to agonism and cooperation be- tween females and to the quality of female relationships with males. This variation exists alongside variation in female philopatry and dispersa

  20. Nonhuman Primates Prefer Slow Tempos but Dislike Music Overall

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh; Hauser, Marc D.

    2007-01-01

    Human adults generally find fast tempos more arousing than slow tempos, with tempo frequently manipulated in music to alter tension and emotion. We used a previously published method [McDermott, J., & Hauser, M. (2004). Are consonant intervals music to their ears? Spontaneous acoustic preferences in a nonhuman primate. Cognition, 94(2), B11-B21]…

  1. Molecular identification of Entamoeba spp. in captive nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  2. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology: Contributions from Comparative Research with Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Evolutionary developmental psychology is a discipline that has the potential to integrate conceptual approaches to the study of behavioral development derived from psychology and biology as well as empirical data from humans and animals. Comparative research with animals, and especially with nonhuman primates, can provide evidence of adaptation in…

  3. Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristiane C(A)SAR; Klaus ZUBERB(U)HLER

    2012-01-01

    There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller.In some species,there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls,but call sequences and the combinations generated by them.These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation.Until recently,however,most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old Word species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys,which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities.To address this,we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates.Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses.A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances,often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters,while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats.This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians,suggesting an early evolutionary origin.Second,recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types.These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously,notably predator type and location.Since meaningful call sequences have already been described in Old Word primates,we suggest

  4. Evolutionary and ecological implications of primate seed dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J E; Garber, P A

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate patterns of fruit eating and seed dispersal in monkeys and apes and draw an important distinction between 1) the ecological consequences of primates as seed dispersers and 2) the evolutionary implications of primates on the seed and fruit traits of the plant species they exploit. In many forest communities, primates act as both seed predators and seed dispersers and are likely to have an important ecological impact on patterns of forest regeneration and tree species diversity. Evidence from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and Manu National Park, Peru, as well as several other South American sites indicates that monkeys and apes display a wide range of fruit-processing behaviors, including spitting seeds, dropping seeds, masticating seeds, and swallowing seeds. Differences in consumer body size, diet, ranging patterns, and oral and digestive morphology result in different patterns in the distance and distribution of seeds from the parent plant. In the case of South American monkeys, for example, despite their relatively small body size, platyrrhines were found to exploit larger fruits and swallow larger seeds on average than did Old World monkeys and apes of the Kibale forest. We found little evidence to support the existence of a coevolutionary relationship between a single or set of primate dispersers and the particular plant species they disperse. This is due to variability in the manner in which monkeys and apes select fruits and treat seeds, the fact that many species of primates and nonprimates exploit and disperse the same fruit species, and the fact that extremely high levels of postdispersal seed, seedling, and sapling mortality serve to dilute the influence that any primate species may have on the recruitment of the next generation of adult trees. It is apparent that many primate lineages exhibit dental, digestive, and/or sensory adaptations that aid in the exploitation of particular food types and that many lineages of flowering

  5. Quality management for the international transportation of non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Elmore

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Safe and humane transportation of live animals requires dedicated, informed personnel who carefully plan and attend to the details of appropriate animal care and handling throughout the shipping process. Specifically, although transportation of non-human primates shares goals common to all live animal transport, it also poses unique challenges stemming from the nature of these animals. Some of these unique challenges of transporting non-human primates, include the impact of public perception of non-human primates as cargo, maintaining biosecurity of non-human primate cargo, safety of both the non-human primate and public contacts, meeting the vital husbandry needs of varying species of non-human primates and compliance with numerous regulatory agencies, which may have overlapping responsibilities. This discussion will focus on these important considerations, as they relate to the legal international transportation of non-human primates for scientific use.

  6. Reproductive/developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity assessment in the nonhuman primate model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonhuman primates are being used increasingly as a non-rodent animal model during preclinical toxicology and safety assessment on the basis of proven similarity and comparability between nonhuman primates and humans. The validity of the nonhuman primate models applies to many aspects of toxicological testing and holds particularly true for the evaluation of reproductive toxicology and developmental toxicology. More recently, the advent of humanized antibodies and vaccines imposed further demand on nonhuman primate models since many immunotherapeutics do not interact with rodent receptors but frequently only cross-react with primate tissue. In this paper we discuss the suitability of primate models for reproductive, developmental and immunotoxicology testing, and present our initial data on the development of lymphatic organs and immune system in a nonhuman primate model

  7. Longitudinal characterization of Escherichia coli in healthy captive nonhuman primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Clayton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal (GI tracts of nonhuman primates are well known to harbor Escherichia coli, a known commensal of humans and animals. While E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the mammalian gut, it also exists in a number of pathogenic forms or pathotypes, including those with predisposition for the GI tract, as well the urogenital tract. Diarrhea in captive nonhuman primates (NHPs has long been a problem in both zoo settings and research colonies, including the Como Zoo. It is an animal welfare concern, as well as a public health concern. E. coli has not been extensively studied in correlation with diarrhea in captive primates; therefore, a study was performed during the summer of 2009 in collaboration with a zoo in Saint Paul, MN, which was experiencing an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea among their NHP collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected weekly from each member of the primate collection, between June and August of 2009, and E. coli were isolated. A total of 33 individuals were included in the study, representing eight species. E. coli isolates were examined for their genetic relatedness, phylogenetic relationships, plasmid replicon types, virulence gene profiles, and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. A number of isolates were identified containing virulence genes commonly found in several different E. coli pathotypes, and there was evidence of clonal transmission of isolates between animals and over time. Overall, the manifestation of chronic diarrhea in the Como Zoo primate collection is a complex problem whose solution will require regular screening for microbial agents and consideration of environmental causes. This study provides some insight towards the sharing of enteric bacteria between such animals.

  8. The Narrow Niche hypothesis: gray squirrels shed new light on primate origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Joseph D; Pontzer, Herman

    2011-04-01

    Current hypotheses for primate origins propose that nails and primate-like grasping hands and feet were important early adaptations for feeding in fine branches. Comparative research in this area has focused on instances of convergence in extant animals, showing that species with primate-like morphology feed predominantly from terminal branches. Little has been done to test whether animals without primate-like morphology engage in similar behavior. We tested the fine-branch niche hypothesis for primate origins by observing branch use in Eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, a species lacking primate grasping adaptations that has been understudied in the context of primate origins. We hypothesized that because gray squirrels lack primate-like grasping adaptations, they would avoid feeding and foraging in terminal branches. Instantaneous focal animal sampling was used to examine the locomotor and postural behaviors used while feeding and foraging. Our results demonstrate habitual and effective usage of terminal branches by gray squirrels while feeding and foraging, primarily on tree seeds (e.g., oak, maple, and elm). Discriminant function analysis indicates that gray squirrels feed and forage like primates, unlike some other tree squirrel species. Given the absence of primate-like features in gray squirrels, we suggest that although selection for fine-branch foraging may be a necessary condition for primate origins, it is not sufficient. We propose an alternative model of primate origins. The Narrow Niche hypothesis suggests that the primate morphological suite evolved not only from selection pressure for fine branch use, but also from a lack of engagement in other activities. PMID:21404237

  9. Comparative primate neurobiology and the evolution of brain language systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K

    2014-10-01

    Human brain specializations supporting language can be identified by comparing human with non-human primate brains. Comparisons with chimpanzees are critical in this endeavor. Human brains are much larger than non-human primate brains, but human language capabilities cannot be entirely explained by brain size. Human brain specializations that potentially support our capacity for language include firstly, wider cortical minicolumns in both Broca's and Wernicke's areas compared with great apes; secondly, leftward asymmetries in Broca's area volume and Wernicke's area minicolumn width that are not found in great apes; and thirdly, arcuate fasciculus projections beyond Wernicke's area to a region of expanded association cortex in the middle and inferior temporal cortex involved in processing word meaning.

  10. Molecular cladistic markers in New World monkey phylogeny (Platyrrhini, Primates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Silke S; Schmitz, Jürgen; Schwiegk, Claudia; Zischler, Hans

    2003-03-01

    Transpositions of primate-specific Alu elements were applied as molecular cladistic markers in a phylogenetic analysis of South American primates. Seventy-four human and platyrrhine loci containing intronic Alu elements were PCR screened in various New World monkeys and the human outgroup to detect the presence of orthologous retrotransposons informative of New World monkey phylogeny. Six loci revealed size polymorphism in the amplification pattern, indicating a shared derived character state due to the presence of orthologous Alu elements confirmed by subsequent sequencing. Three markers corroborate (1) New World monkey monophyly and one marker supports each of the following callitrichine relationships: (2) Callithrix and Cebuella are more closely related to each other than to any other callitrichine, (3) the callitrichines form a monophyletic clade including Callimico, and (4) the next living relatives to the callitrichines are Cebus, Saimiri, and Aotus.

  11. Curing color blindness--mice and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitz, Maureen; Neitz, Jay

    2014-11-01

    It has been possible to use viral-mediated gene therapy to transform dichromatic (red-green color-blind) primates to trichromatic. Even though the third cone type was added after the end of developmental critical periods, treated animals acquired red-green color vision. What happened in the treated animals may represent a recapitulation of the evolution of trichromacy, which seems to have evolved with the acquisition of a third cone type without the need for subsequent modification to the circuitry. Some transgenic mice in which a third cone type was added also acquired trichromacy. However, compared with treated primates, red-green color vision in mice is poor, indicating large differences between mice and monkeys in their ability to take advantage of the new input. These results have implications for understanding the limits and opportunities for using gene therapy to treat vision disorders caused by defects in cone function. PMID:25147187

  12. Cocaine is pharmacologically active in the nonhuman primate fetal brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, Helene; Fowler, Joanna S; Rooney, William D;

    2010-01-01

    -trimester pregnant nonhuman primates, cocaine at doses typically used by drug abusers significantly increased brain glucose metabolism to the same extent in the mother as in the fetus (approximately 100%). Inasmuch as brain glucose metabolism is a sensitive marker of brain function, the current findings provide......Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third...... evidence that cocaine use by a pregnant mother will also affect the function of the fetal brain. We are also unique in showing that cocaine's effects in brain glucose metabolism differed in pregnant (increased) and nonpregnant (decreased) animals, which suggests that the psychoactive effects of cocaine...

  13. Primate paternal care: interactions between biology and social experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Anne E.; Ziegler, Toni E.

    2016-01-01

    We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids are involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their offspring. PMID:26253726

  14. Associative Hebbian Synaptic Plasticity in Primate Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiyong; Rozas, Carlos; Treviño, Mario; Contreras, Jessica; Yang, Sunggu; Song, Lihua; Yoshioka, Takashi; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    In primates, the functional connectivity of adult primary visual cortex is susceptible to be modified by sensory training during perceptual learning. It is widely held that this type of neural plasticity might involve mechanisms like long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). NMDAR-dependent forms of LTP and LTD are particularly attractive because in rodents they can be induced in a Hebbian manner by near coincidental presynaptic and postsynaptic firing, in a paradigm termed spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). These fundamental properties of LTP and LTD, Hebbian induction and NMDAR dependence, have not been examined in primate cortex. Here we demonstrate these properties in the primary visual cortex of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), and also show that, like in rodents, STDP is gated by neuromodulators. These findings indicate that the cellular principles governing cortical plasticity are conserved across mammalian species, further validating the use of rodents as a model system. PMID:24872561

  15. Non-Human Primate Models of Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schmitt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in humans, as well as in animals. Additionally, potential abuse of Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox, or monkeypox virus, as agents of bioterrorism, has renewed interest in development of antiviral therapeutics and of safer vaccines. Due to its high risk potential, research with VARV is restricted to two laboratories worldwide. Therefore, numerous animal models of other OPXV infections have been developed in the last decades. Non-human primates are especially suitable due to their close relationship to humans. This article provides a review about on non-human primate models of orthopoxvirus infections.

  16. Bridging the bonding gap: the transition from primates to humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R. I. M.

    2012-01-01

    Primate societies are characterized by bonded social relationships of a kind that are rare in other mammal taxa. These bonded relationships, which provide the basis for coalitions, are underpinned by an endorphin mechanism mediated by social grooming. However, bonded relationships of this kind impose constraints on the size of social groups that are possible. When ecological pressures have demanded larger groups, primates have had to evolve new mechanisms to facilitate bonding. This has involved increasing the size of vocal and visual communication repertoires, increasing the time devoted to social interaction and developing a capacity to manage two-tier social relationships (strong and weak ties). I consider the implications of these constraints for the evolution of human social communities and argue that laughter was an early evolutionary innovation that helped bridge the bonding gap between the group sizes characteristic of chimpanzees and australopithecines and those in later hominins. PMID:22641822

  17. Nonhuman Primate Positron Emission Tomography Neuroimaging in Drug Abuse Research

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Leonard Lee; Murnane, Kevin Sean

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) neuroimaging in nonhuman primates has led to significant advances in our current understanding of the neurobiology and treatment of stimulant addiction in humans. PET neuroimaging has defined the in vivo biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of abused drugs and related these findings to the time course of behavioral effects associated with their addictive properties. With novel radiotracers and enhanced resolution, PET neuroimaging techniques have also charac...

  18. A metagenomic study of primate insect diet diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Sarah B; Bergey, Christina M; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2012-07-01

    Descriptions of primate diets are generally based on either direct observation of foraging behavior, morphological classification of food remains from feces, or analysis of the stomach contents of deceased individuals. Some diet items (e.g. insect prey), however, are difficult to identify visually, and observation conditions often do not permit adequate quantitative sampling of feeding behavior. Moreover, the taxonomically informative morphology of some food species (e.g. swallowed seeds, insect exoskeletons) may be destroyed by the digestive process. Because of these limitations, we used a metagenomic approach to conduct a preliminary, "proof of concept" study of interspecific variation in the insect component of the diets of six sympatric New World monkeys known, based on observational field studies, to differ markedly in their feeding ecology. We used generalized arthropod polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers and cloning to sequence mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of the arthropod cytochrome b (CYT B) gene from fecal samples of wild woolly, titi, saki, capuchin, squirrel, and spider monkeys collected from a single sampling site in western Amazonia where these genera occur sympatrically. We then assigned preliminary taxonomic identifications to the sequences by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) comparison to arthropod CYT B sequences present in GenBank. This study is the first to use molecular techniques to identify insect prey in primate diets. The results suggest that a metagenomic approach may prove valuable in augmenting and corroborating observational data and increasing the resolution of primate diet studies, although the lack of comparative reference sequences for many South American insects limits the approach at present. As such reference data become available for more animal and plant taxa, this approach also holds promise for studying additional components of primate diets. PMID:22553123

  19. The evolution of primate general and cultural intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Reader, Simon M.; Hager, Yfke; Laland, Kevin N

    2011-01-01

    There are consistent individual differences in human intelligence, attributable to a single ‘general intelligence’ factor, g. The evolutionary basis of g and its links to social learning and culture remain controversial. Conflicting hypotheses regard primate cognition as divided into specialized, independently evolving modules versus a single general process. To assess how processes underlying culture relate to one another and other cognitive capacities, we compiled ecologically relevant cogn...

  20. The coevolution of innovation and technical intelligence in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ana F; Reader, Simon M; Street, Sally E; Whalen, Andrew; Laland, Kevin N

    2016-03-19

    In birds and primates, the frequency of behavioural innovation has been shown to covary with absolute and relative brain size, leading to the suggestion that large brains allow animals to innovate, and/or that selection for innovativeness, together with social learning, may have driven brain enlargement. We examined the relationship between primate brain size and both technical (i.e. tool using) and non-technical innovation, deploying a combination of phylogenetically informed regression and exploratory causal graph analyses. Regression analyses revealed that absolute and relative brain size correlated positively with technical innovation, and exhibited consistently weaker, but still positive, relationships with non-technical innovation. These findings mirror similar results in birds. Our exploratory causal graph analyses suggested that technical innovation shares strong direct relationships with brain size, body size, social learning rate and social group size, whereas non-technical innovation did not exhibit a direct relationship with brain size. Nonetheless, non-technical innovation was linked to brain size indirectly via diet and life-history variables. Our findings support 'technical intelligence' hypotheses in linking technical innovation to encephalization in the restricted set of primate lineages where technical innovation has been reported. Our findings also provide support for a broad co-evolving complex of brain, behaviour, life-history, social and dietary variables, providing secondary support for social and ecological intelligence hypotheses. The ability to gain access to difficult-to-extract, but potentially nutrient-rich, resources through tool use may have conferred on some primates adaptive advantages, leading to selection for brain circuitry that underlies technical proficiency. PMID:26926276

  1. Manipulation complexity in primates coevolved with brain size and terrestriality

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra A. Heldstab; Kosonen, Zaida K.; Koski, Sonja E.; Burkart, Judith M.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Karin Isler

    2016-01-01

    Humans occupy by far the most complex foraging niche of all mammals, built around sophisticated technology, and at the same time exhibit unusually large brains. To examine the evolutionary processes underlying these features, we investigated how manipulation complexity is related to brain size, cognitive test performance, terrestriality, and diet quality in a sample of 36 non-human primate species. We categorized manipulation bouts in food-related contexts into unimanual and bimanual actions,...

  2. Polymorphism of visual pigment genes in the muriqui (Primates, Atelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Talebi, M G; Pope, T. R.; Vogel, E R; NEITZ, M.; Dominy, N. J.

    2006-01-01

    Colour vision varies within the family Atelidae (Primates, Platyrrhini), which consists of four genera with the following cladistic relationship: {Alouatta[Ateles (Lagothrix and Brachyteles)]}. Spider monkeys (Ateles) and woolly monkeys (Lagothrix) are characteristic of platyrrhine monkeys in possessing a colour vision polymorphism. The polymorphism results from allelic variation of the single-locus middle-to-long wavelength (M/L) cone opsin gene on the X-chromosome. The presence in the popul...

  3. Cognitive Consilience: Primate Non-Primary Neuroanatomical Circuits Underlying Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Soren Van Hout Solari; Rich Martin Stoner

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia form the basis of cognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Understanding the principles of neuroanatomical organization in these structures is critical to understanding the functions they perform and ultimately how the human brain works. We have manually distilled and synthesized hundreds of primate neuroanatomy facts into a single interactive visualization. The resulting picture represents the fundamental n...

  4. Social odours, sexual arousal and pairbonding in primates

    OpenAIRE

    SNOWDON, CHARLES T.; Ziegler, Toni E; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J.; Ferris, Craig F.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the role of social odours in sexual arousal and maintaining pairbonds in biparental and cooperatively breeding primates. Social odours are complex chemical mixtures produced by an organism that can simultaneously provide information about species, kinship, sex, individuality and reproductive state. They are long lasting and have advantages over other modalities. Both sexes are sensitive to changes in odours over the reproductive cycle and experimental disruption of signals can lea...

  5. Cortical bone distribution in the femoral neck of strepsirhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demes, B; Jungers, W L; Walker, C

    2000-10-01

    The thickness of the inferior and superior cortices of the femoral neck was measured on X-rays of 181 strepsirhine primate femora representing 24 species. Neck length, neck depth and neck-shaft angle were also measured. The strength of the femoral neck in frontal bending was estimated by modeling the neck as a hollow cylinder, with neck depth as the outer diameter and cortical thickness representing the superior and inferior shell dimensions. Results indicate that the inferior cortex is always thicker than the superior cortex. The ratio of superior to inferior cortical thickness is highly variable but distinguishes two of the three locomotor groups in the sample. Vertical clingers and leapers have higher ratios (i.e., a more even distribution of cortical bone) than quadrupeds. The slow climbers tend to have the lowest ratios, although they do not differ significantly from the leapers and quadrupeds. These results do not confirm prior theoretical expectations and reported data for anthropoid primates that link greater asymmetry of the cortical shell to more stereotypical hip excursions. The ratio of superior to inferior cortical thickness is unrelated to body mass, femoral neck length, and neck-shaft angle, calling into question whether the short neck of strepsirhine primates acts as a cantilever beam in bending. On the other hand, the estimated section moduli are highly correlated with body mass and neck length, a correlation that is driven primarily by body mass. In conclusion, we believe that an alternative interpretation to the cantilever beam model is needed to explain the asymmetry in bone distribution in the femoral neck, at least in strepsirhine primates (e.g., a thicker inferior cortex is required to reinforce the strongly curved inferior surface). As in prior studies of cross-sectional geometry of long bones, we found slightly positive allometry of cortical dimensions with body mass. PMID:11006046

  6. Primate Auditory Recognition Memory Performance Varies With Sound Type

    OpenAIRE

    Chi-Wing, Ng; Bethany, Plakke; Amy, Poremba

    2009-01-01

    Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g. social status, kinship, environment),have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition, and/or memory. The present study employs a de...

  7. Analgesic Use in Nonhuman Primates Undergoing Neurosurgical Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    DiVincenti, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Animals experiencing major invasive surgery during biomedical research must receive appropriate and sufficient analgesia. The concept of pain management in veterinary medicine has evolved over the past several decades, and a multimodal, preemptive approach to postoperative analgesia is the current standard of care. Here, the pathophysiology of pain and a multimodal approach to analgesia for neurosurgical procedures is discussed, with emphasis on those involving nonhuman primates.

  8. Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Grabenhorst, F.; Hernadi, I.; Schultz, W.

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala is a key structure of the brain’s reward system. Existing theories view its role in decision-making as restricted to an early valuation stage that provides input to decision mechanisms in downstream brain structures. However, the extent to which the amygdala itself codes information about economic choices is unclear. Here, we report that individual neurons in the primate amygdala predict behavioral choices in an economic decision task. We recorded the activity of amygdala neurons...

  9. DRD4 dopamine receptor allelic diversity in various primate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M.; Higley, D. [NIAAA, Rockville, MD (United States); O`Brien, S. [NCI, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is uniquely characterized by a 48 bp repeating segment within the coding region, located in exon III. Different DRD4 alleles are produced by the presence of additional 48 bp repeats, each of which adds 16 amino acids to the length of the 3rd intracytoplasmic loop of the receptor. The DRD4 receptor is therefore an intriguing candidate gene for behaviors which are influenced by dopamine function. In several human populations, DRD4 alleles with 2-8 and 10 repeats have previously been identified, and the 4 and 7 repeat alleles are the most abundant. We have determined DRD4 genotypes in the following nonhuman primate species: chimpanzee N=2, pygmy chimpanzee N=2, gorilla N=4, siamang N=2, Gelada baboon N=1, gibbon N=1, orangutan (Bornean and Sumatran) N=62, spider monkey N=4, owl monkey N=1, Colobus monkey N=1, Patas monkey N=1, ruffed lemur N=1, rhesus macaque N=8, and vervet monkey N=28. The degree of DRD4 polymorphism and which DRD4 alleles were present both showed considerable variation across primate species. In contrast to the human, rhesus macaque monkeys were monomorphic. The 4 and 7 repeat allels, highly abundant in the human, may not be present in certain other primates. For example, the four spider monkeys we studied showed the 7, 8 and 9 repeat length alleles and the only gibbon we analyzed was homozygous for the 9 repeat allele (thus far not observed in the human). Genotyping of other primate species and sequencing of the individual DRD4 repeat alleles in different species may help us determine the ancestral DRD4 repeat length and identify connections between DRD4 genotype and phenotype.

  10. The coevolution of innovation and technical intelligence in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Ana F; Reader, Simon M; Street, Sally E; Whalen, Andrew; Laland, Kevin N

    2016-03-19

    In birds and primates, the frequency of behavioural innovation has been shown to covary with absolute and relative brain size, leading to the suggestion that large brains allow animals to innovate, and/or that selection for innovativeness, together with social learning, may have driven brain enlargement. We examined the relationship between primate brain size and both technical (i.e. tool using) and non-technical innovation, deploying a combination of phylogenetically informed regression and exploratory causal graph analyses. Regression analyses revealed that absolute and relative brain size correlated positively with technical innovation, and exhibited consistently weaker, but still positive, relationships with non-technical innovation. These findings mirror similar results in birds. Our exploratory causal graph analyses suggested that technical innovation shares strong direct relationships with brain size, body size, social learning rate and social group size, whereas non-technical innovation did not exhibit a direct relationship with brain size. Nonetheless, non-technical innovation was linked to brain size indirectly via diet and life-history variables. Our findings support 'technical intelligence' hypotheses in linking technical innovation to encephalization in the restricted set of primate lineages where technical innovation has been reported. Our findings also provide support for a broad co-evolving complex of brain, behaviour, life-history, social and dietary variables, providing secondary support for social and ecological intelligence hypotheses. The ability to gain access to difficult-to-extract, but potentially nutrient-rich, resources through tool use may have conferred on some primates adaptive advantages, leading to selection for brain circuitry that underlies technical proficiency.

  11. Evolution of alternative splicing in primate brain transcriptomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Lan; Shen, Shihao; Jiang, Peng; Sato, Seiko; Davidson, Beverly L.; Xing, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a predominant form of gene regulation in higher eukaryotes. The evolution of alternative splicing provides an important mechanism for the acquisition of novel gene functions. In this work, we carried out a genome-wide phylogenetic survey of lineage-specific splicing patterns in the primate brain, via high-density exon junction array profiling of brain transcriptomes of humans, chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. We identified 509 genes showing splicing differences among t...

  12. Assessing olfactory performance in an Old World primate, Macaca nemestrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübener, F; Laska, M

    1998-06-15

    The present study demonstrates that an operant conditioning paradigm, originally designed for assessing olfactory performance in a small New World primate, the squirrel monkey, can successfully be adapted for use with a large Old World primate, the pigtail macaque. Using a task designed to simulate olfactory-guided foraging behavior, based on multiple discrimination of simultaneously presented odor stimuli, we could show that Macaca nemestrina is able to learn to discriminate between objects on the basis of odor cues. Moreover, they could readily transfer to new S+ and S- stimuli and could remember the significance of previously learned odor stimuli even after a 3-week break. Furthermore, we could show that this method is suitable for obtaining reliable measures of olfactory sensitivity. The few modifications of the original method employed here did not affect essential features such as the mode of stimulus presentation (odorized paper strips attached to manipulation objects) and the choice criterion (opening or rejecting the odorized manipulation objects), thus for the first time enabling valid interspecific comparisons of olfactory capabilities between a catarrhine and a platyrrhine primate species. Our results indicate that M. nemestrina and Saimiri sciureus are similar with regard to several measures of olfactory performance, such as speed of initial task acquisition and ability to master transfer tasks as well as their sensitivity to a food-related odorant. PMID:9761227

  13. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species. PMID:22661394

  14. Cocaine is pharmacologically active in the nonhuman primate fetal brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benveniste, Helene; Fowler, Joanna S; Rooney, William D;

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third-trimester ......Cocaine use during pregnancy is deleterious to the newborn child, in part via its disruption of placental blood flow. However, the extent to which cocaine can affect the function of the fetal primate brain is still an unresolved question. Here we used PET and MRI and show that in third......-trimester pregnant nonhuman primates, cocaine at doses typically used by drug abusers significantly increased brain glucose metabolism to the same extent in the mother as in the fetus (approximately 100%). Inasmuch as brain glucose metabolism is a sensitive marker of brain function, the current findings provide...... are influenced by the state of pregnancy. Our findings have clinical implications because they imply that the adverse effects of prenatal cocaine exposure to the newborn child include not only cocaine's deleterious effects to the placental circulation, but also cocaine's direct pharmacological effect...

  15. Characterization of interleukin-8 receptors in non-human primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, V.; Coto, E.; Gonzalez-Roces, S.; Lopez-Larrea, C. [Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Interleukin-8 is a chemokine with a potent neutrophil chemoatractant activity. In humans, two different cDNAs encoding human IL8 receptors designated IL8RA and IL8RB have been cloned. IL8RA binds IL8, while IL8RB binds IL8 as well as other {alpha}-chemokines. Both human IL8Rs are encoded by two genes physically linked on chromosome 2. The IL8RA and IL8RB genes have open reading frames (ORF) lacking introns. By direct sequencing of the polymerase chain reaction products, we sequenced the IL8R genes of cell lines from four non-human primates: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, and macaca. The IL8RB encodes an ORF in the four non-human primates, showing 95%-99% similarity to the human IL8RB sequence. The IL8RA homologue in gorilla and chimpanzee consisted of two ORF 98%-99% identical to the human sequence. The macaca and orangutan IL8RA homologues are pseudogenes: a 2 base pair insertion generated a sequence with several stop codons. In addition, we describe the physical linkage of these genes in the four non-human primates and discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Field endocrinology of nonhuman primates: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P

    2016-08-01

    In the past few decades, research on nonhuman primate endocrinology has moved from the lab to the field, leading to a huge increase in both the breadth and depth of primate field studies. Here, I discuss the past, present, and future of primate field endocrinology. I review the history of the field, and go on to discuss methodological developments and the issues that they sometimes entail. Next, I consider ways in which we might conceptualize the role of hormones, and focus on the need to distinguish proximate from ultimate levels of explanation. Current potentially problematic issues in the field include: 1) an inability to obtain noninvasive measurements of Central Nervous System (CNS) rather than peripheral hormone concentrations; 2) research questions that become stuck (e.g., questions regarding sexual swelling expression mechanisms); 3) data dredging and post-hoc linking of hormones to any plausible variable, leading to a lack of clarity on their role in animal ecology and behavior. I finish by discussing several unanswered questions that might benefit from further research. These are how we might: 1) best obtain measurements for CNS hormone concentrations non-invasively; 2) measure hormone receptor expression alongside hormone concentrations; 3) consider the human endocrinology literature more thoroughly and perhaps take more multimarker approaches; 4) better consider the social environment, including audience and dyadic familiarity effects; and 5) apply our findings to conservation issues. PMID:27469069

  17. The role of terrestriality in promoting primate technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulman, Ellen J M; Sanz, Crickette M; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-03-01

    "Complex technology" has often been considered a hallmark of human evolution. However, recent findings show that wild monkeys are also capable of habitual tool use. Here we suggest that terrestriality may have been of crucial importance for the innovation, acquisition, and maintenance of "complex" technological skills in primates. Here we define complex technological skills as tool-use variants that include at least two tool elements (for example, hammer and anvil), flexibility in manufacture or use (that is, tool properties are adjusted to the task at hand), and that skills are acquired in part by social learning. Four lines of evidence provide support for the terrestriality effect. First, the only monkey populations exhibiting habitual tool use seem to be particularly terrestrial. Second, semi-terrestrial chimpanzees have more complex tool variants in their repertoire than does their arboreal Asian relative, the orangutan. Third, tool variants of chimpanzees used in a terrestrial setting tend to be more complex than those used exclusively in arboreal contexts. Fourth, the higher frequency in tool use among captive versus wild primates of the same species may be attributed in part to a terrestriality effect. We conclude that whereas extractive foraging, intelligence, and social tolerance are necessary for the emergence of habitual tool use, terrestriality seems to be crucial for acquiring and maintaining complex tool variants, particularly expressions of cumulative technology, within a population. Hence, comparative evidence among primates supports the hypothesis that the terrestriality premium may have been a major pacemaker of hominin technological evolution. PMID:22499440

  18. Applying Quantitative Genetic Methods to Primate Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, behavioral ecologists have applied quantitative genetic methods to investigate the evolution of behaviors in wild animal populations. The promise of quantitative genetics in unmanaged populations opens the door for simultaneous analysis of inheritance, phenotypic plasticity, and patterns of selection on behavioral phenotypes all within the same study. In this article, we describe how quantitative genetic techniques provide studies of the evolution of behavior with information that is unique and valuable. We outline technical obstacles for applying quantitative genetic techniques that are of particular relevance to studies of behavior in primates, especially those living in noncaptive populations, e.g., the need for pedigree information, non-Gaussian phenotypes, and demonstrate how many of these barriers are now surmountable. We illustrate this by applying recent quantitative genetic methods to spatial proximity data, a simple and widely collected primate social behavior, from adult rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago. Our analysis shows that proximity measures are consistent across repeated measurements on individuals (repeatable) and that kin have similar mean measurements (heritable). Quantitative genetics may hold lessons of considerable importance for studies of primate behavior, even those without a specific genetic focus. PMID:24659839

  19. The evolution of the social brain: anthropoid primates contrast with other vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Shultz, Susanne; Dunbar, R. I. M.

    2007-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis argues that large brains have arisen over evolutionary time as a response to the social and ecological conflicts inherent in group living. We test predictions arising from the hypothesis using comparative data from birds and four mammalian orders (Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Chiroptera and Primates) and show that, across all non-primate taxa, relative brain size is principally related to pairbonding, but with enduring stable relationships in primates. We argue that th...

  20. Human and non-human primate genomes share hotspots of positive selection.

    OpenAIRE

    David Enard; Frantz Depaulis; Hugues Roest Crollius

    2010-01-01

    Among primates, genome-wide analysis of recent positive selection is currently limited to the human species because it requires extensive sampling of genotypic data from many individuals. The extent to which genes positively selected in human also present adaptive changes in other primates therefore remains unknown. This question is important because a gene that has been positively selected independently in the human and in other primate lineages may be less likely to be involved in human spe...

  1. The Primate Community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): A Model to Decipher Ecological Partitioning among Extinct Species

    OpenAIRE

    Anusha Ramdarshan; Thomas Alloing-Séguier; Gildas Merceron; Laurent Marivaux

    2011-01-01

    International audience Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate signi...

  2. Characterization of the fecal microbiome from non-human wild primates reveals species specific microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Yildirim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Host-associated microbes comprise an integral part of animal digestive systems and these interactions have a long evolutionary history. It has been hypothesized that the gastrointestinal microbiome of humans and other non-human primates may have played significant roles in host evolution by facilitating a range of dietary adaptations. We have undertaken a comparative sequencing survey of the gastrointestinal microbiomes of several non-human primate species, with the goal of better understanding how these microbiomes relate to the evolution of non-human primate diversity. Here we present a comparative analysis of gastrointestinal microbial communities from three different species of Old World wild monkeys. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed fecal samples from three different wild non-human primate species (black-and-white colobus [Colubus guereza], red colobus [Piliocolobus tephrosceles], and red-tailed guenon [Cercopithecus ascanius]. Three samples from each species were subjected to small subunit rRNA tag pyrosequencing. Firmicutes comprised the vast majority of the phyla in each sample. Other phyla represented were Bacterioidetes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Lentisphaerae, Tenericutes, Planctomycetes, Fibrobacateres, and TM7. Bray-Curtis similarity analysis of these microbiomes indicated that microbial community composition within the same primate species are more similar to each other than to those of different primate species. Comparison of fecal microbiota from non-human primates with microbiota of human stool samples obtained in previous studies revealed that the gut microbiota of these primates are distinct and reflect host phylogeny. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis provides evidence that the fecal microbiomes of wild primates co-vary with their hosts, and that this is manifested in higher intraspecies similarity among wild primate species, perhaps reflecting species

  3. The glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor correlates, anatomical variation and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Martorell, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    The Doctoral Thesis entitled "the glenohumeral joint of hominoid primates: locomotor Correlates, anatomical variation and evolution" is about the anatomical adaptations in the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) of hominoid primates. The action of the forces exerted during locomotion model the shape of the joint determining the range of motion animals can achieve. The hominoid primates stand out as having very mobile joints, with the ability to raise the arm above the shoulder enabling the us...

  4. Animal Models of Neurologic Disorders: A Nonhuman Primate Model of Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Nout, Yvette S.; Rosenzweig, Ephron S.; Brock, John H.; Strand, Sarah C.; Moseanko, Rod; Hawbecker, Stephanie; Zdunowski, Sharon; Nielson, Jessica L; Roy, Roland R.; Courtine, Gregoire; Ferguson, Adam R.; Edgerton, V. Reggie; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Primates are an important and unique animal resource. We have developed a nonhuman primate model of spinal cord injury (SCI) to expand our knowledge of normal primate motor function, to assess the impact of disease and injury on sensory and motor function, and to test candidate therapies before they are applied to human patients. The lesion model consists of a lateral spinal cord hemisection at the C7 spinal level with subsequent examination of behavioral, electrophysiological, and anatomical...

  5. Absence of Frequent Herpesvirus Transmission in a Nonhuman Primate Predator-Prey System in the Wild

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, Sripriya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Metzger, Sonja; Nowak, Kathrin; De Nys, Helene; Boesch, Christophe; Wittig, Roman; Jarvis, Michael A.; Leendertz, Fabian; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Emergence of viruses into the human population by transmission from nonhuman primates (NHPs) represents a serious potential threat to human health that is primarily associated with the increased bushmeat trade. Transmission of RNA viruses across primate species appears to be relatively frequent. In contrast, DNA viruses appear to be largely host specific, suggesting low transmission potential. Herein, we use a primate predator-prey system to study the risk of herpesvirus transmission between ...

  6. Human and Non-Human Primate Genomes Share Hotspots of Positive Selection

    OpenAIRE

    David Enard; Frantz Depaulis; Hugues Roest Crollius

    2010-01-01

    Among primates, genome-wide analysis of recent positive selection is currently limited to the human species because it requires extensive sampling of genotypic data from many individuals. The extent to which genes positively selected in human also present adaptive changes in other primates therefore remains unknown. This question is important because a gene that has been positively selected independently in the human and in other primate lineages may be less likely to be involved in human spe...

  7. Primates´ socio-cognitive abilities: What kind of comparisons makes sense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill

    2015-01-01

    within the primate order on parameters relevant to the requirements of the object-choice task, such as social structure, feeding ecology, and general morphology. To examine whether these broad primate generalizations offer a fruitful organizing framework within which to interpret the results, a review...... was made of all published primate results on the use of gazing and glancing cues with species ordered along the primate phylogenetic tree. It was concluded that differences between species may be larger than differences between ancestry taxa, and it is suggested that we need to start rethinking why we...

  8. On folivory, competition, and intelligence: generalisms, overgeneralizations, and models of primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Considerations of primate behavioral evolution often proceed by assuming the ecological and competitive milieus of particular taxa via their relative exploitation of gross food types, such as fruits versus leaves. Although this "fruit/leaf dichotomy" has been repeatedly criticized, it continues to be implicitly invoked in discussions of primate socioecology and female social relationships and is explicitly invoked in models of brain evolution. An expanding literature suggests that such views have severely limited our knowledge of the social and ecological complexities of primate folivory. This paper examines the behavior of primate folivore-frugivores, with particular emphasis on gray langurs (traditionally, Semnopithecus entellus) within the broader context of evolutionary ecology. Although possessing morphological characteristics that have been associated with folivory and constrained activity patterns, gray langurs are known for remarkable plasticity in ecology and behavior. Their diets are generally quite broad and can be discussed in relation to Liem's Paradox, the odd coupling of anatomical feeding specializations with a generalist foraging strategy. Gray langurs, not coincidentally, inhabit arguably the widest range of habitats for a nonhuman primate, including high elevations in the Himalayas. They provide an excellent focal point for examining the assumptions and predictions of behavioral, socioecological, and cognitive evolutionary models. Contrary to the classical descriptions of the primate folivore, Himalayan and other gray langurs-and, in actuality, many leaf-eating primates-range widely, engage in resource competition (both of which have previously been noted for primate folivores), and solve ecological problems rivaling those of more frugivorous primates (which has rarely been argued for primate folivores). It is maintained that questions of primate folivore adaptation, temperate primate adaptation, and primate evolution more generally cannot be

  9. Chronology of primate discoveries in Myanmar: influences on the anthropoid origins debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochon, Russell L; Gunnell, Gregg F

    2002-01-01

    The history of primate paleontology in Asia is long and complex, beginning with the first discoveries of fossil primates on the Indian subcontinent in the early 1830's. The first Eocene mammals from Asia were collected in Myanmar and described in 1916, while the first primates, Pondaungia and Amphipithecus, were described in 1927 and 1937, respectively, both from the Pondaung Formation in Myanmar. For the next 60 years, these two Pondaung taxa remained as the only known Eocene primates from Myanmar and one of the few records of Eocene primates from all of Asia. Taxonomically, Pondaungia and Amphipithecus were linked with a number of different groups, including archaic, hoofed ungulates (condylarths), adapiform primates, omomyid primates, and anthropoids. While no consensus existed, Pondaungia and Amphipithecus were most commonly compared with anthropoids. Beginning in the late 1990s, new primates were discovered in Myanmar, including smaller-bodied forms such as Bahinia and Myanmarpithecus. Also, new and better specimens of the larger-bodied Pondaungia and Amphipithecus began to appear, including the first cranial and postcranial fragments. Evaluations based on these new specimens, especially the postcrania, indicate that the two larger-bodied Myanmar taxa are adapiform primates that show their closest affinities to North American notharctines. The smaller-bodied taxa remain enigmatic, but may share their closest affinities with North American and Asian omomyid primates and Asian Tarsius. None of the known Asian primate taxa appear closely related to African anthropoids, which suggests that true anthropoids did not reach Asia until the latest Oligocene or earliest Miocene. These facts make an Asian origin for Anthropoidea unlikely. Additional and earlier evidence from both Asia and Africa is required before the ultimate origin of anthropoids can be determined. It appears possible that true anthropoids were an ancient radiation that may have been part of a Gondwanan

  10. Morfologia macroscópica do aparelho reprodutor feminino de Leontopithecus cativos (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae Gross morphology of the female genital tract of captive Leontopithecus (Lesson, 1840 Primates-Callitrichidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pissinatti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se o sistema reprodutor feminino em três espécies de mico-leão Leontopithecus (Lesson 1840, cativos: L. rosalia, L. chrysopygus e L. chrysomelas. A vulva está delimitada pelos lábios vulvares menores e com clitóris conspícuo. A superfície do períneo urogenital apresenta elevações papilares mais concentradas nos lábios vulvares, conferindo-lhe aspecto rugoso. O vestíbulo vaginal constitui um tubo muscular de parede espessa que se estende da rima da vulva até o óstio da vagina. A vagina é um tubo muscular alongado e achatado dorsoventralmente, que comunica o vestíbulo vaginal ao colo uterino. O útero piriforme está localizado na porção caudal da cavidade abdominal. Craniolateralmente abrem-se tubas uterinas convolutas e ovários grosseiramente fusiformes de superfície lisa.It is described the female genital tract of three species of lion tamarin: Leontopithecus rosalia, L. chrysopygus, and L. chrysomelas. Fifteen animals were selected from the Museum of the Center of Primatology of Rio de Janeiro - CPRJ/FEEMA. The vulva is delimited by the labia and has a conspicuous clitoris. The surface of the urogenital perineum has papillary elevations more concentrated in the labia, which results in a rough aspect. The vestibule is a thick-walled muscular tube, extending from the pudendal cleft to the vaginal orifice. The vagina is an elongated and flat muscular tube, which communicates dorsoventrally the vestibulum and the cervix of uterus. The pyriform uterus is located in the caudal portion of the abdominal cavity. Craniolaterally, the convolute uterine tubes open, enveloping the ovaries, which are roughly fusiform with a smooth surface.

  11. Red-green color vision in three catarrhine primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornalé, Francesca; Vaglio, Stefano; Spiezio, Caterina; Previde, Emanuela Prato

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of the red-green visual subsystem in trichromatic primates has been linked to foraging advantages, specifically the detection of either ripe fruits or young leaves amid mature foliage, and to the intraspecific socio-sexual communication, namely the signal of the male rank, the mate choice and the reproductive strategies in females. New data should be added to the debate regarding the evolution of trichromatic color vision. Three catarrhine primates were observed to achieve this goal. The research was performed on captive groups of vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) housed at Parco Natura Viva - Garda Zoological Park (Italy). Using pairs of red-green bags containing the same hidden reward in comparable outdoor enclosures, we recorded the choices by observed individuals (n = 25) to investigate the role of color cues in choosing an object. The results indicate that chimpanzees used red color as cue to choose an object that contains food by showing a preference toward red objects; in contrast, vervet monkeys and pig-tailed macaques do not demonstrate a clear choice based on the color of the object. Our findings highlight the importance of the foraging hypothesis but not rule out the potential role of the intraspecific socio-sexual communication and may serve to add useful information to the debate regarding the adaptive value of the evolution of color vision in order to fill a phylogenetic gap from Old World monkeys to humans. Future studies should address the role of socio-sexual communication, such as the selection of the reproductive partner of both high genetic quality and with compatible genes, to determine how this influenced the evolution of color vision in non-human primates. PMID:23336029

  12. Mating strategies in primates: a game theoretical approach to infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, James E; Pandit, Sagar A; van Schaik, Carel P; Pradhan, Gauri R

    2011-04-01

    Infanticide by newly immigrated or newly dominant males is reported among a variety of taxa, such as birds, rodents, carnivores and primates. Here we present a game theoretical model to explain the presence and prevalence of infanticide in primate groups. We have formulated a three-player game involving two males and one female and show that the strategies of infanticide on the males' part and polyandrous mating on the females' part emerge as Nash equilibria that are stable under certain conditions. Moreover, we have identified all the Nash equilibria of the game and arranged them in a novel hierarchical scheme. Only in the subspace spanned by the males are the Nash equilibria found to be strict, and hence evolutionarily stable. We have therefore proposed a selection mechanism informed by adaptive dynamics to permit the females to transition to, and remain in, optimal equilibria after successive generations. Our model concludes that polyandrous mating by females is an optimal strategy for the females that minimizes infanticide and that infanticide confers advantage to the males only in certain regions of parameter space. We have shown that infanticide occurs during turbulent changes accompanying male immigration into the group. For changes in the dominance hierarchy within the group, we have shown that infanticide occurs only in primate groups where the chance for the killer to sire the next infant is high. These conclusions are confirmed by observations in the wild. This model thus has enabled us to pinpoint the fundamental processes behind the reproductive decisions of the players involved, which was not possible using earlier theoretical studies.

  13. Considering the Influence of Nonadaptive Evolution on Primate Color Vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Jacobs

    Full Text Available Color vision in primates is variable across species, and it represents a rare trait in which the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation are fairly well-understood. Research on primate color vision has largely focused on adaptive explanations for observed variation, but it remains unclear why some species have trichromatic or polymorphic color vision while others are red-green color blind. Lemurs, in particular, are highly variable. While some species are polymorphic, many closely-related species are strictly dichromatic. We provide the first characterization of color vision in a wild population of red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar with a sample size (87 individuals; NX chromosomes = 134 large enough to detect even rare variants (0.95 probability of detection at ≥ 3% frequency. By sequencing exon 5 of the X-linked opsin gene we identified opsin spectral sensitivity based on known diagnostic sites and found this population to be dichromatic and monomorphic for a long wavelength allele. Apparent fixation of this long allele is in contrast to previously published accounts of Eulemur species, which exhibit either polymorphic color vision or only the medium wavelength opsin. This unexpected result may represent loss of color vision variation, which could occur through selective processes and/or genetic drift (e.g., genetic bottleneck. To indirectly assess the latter scenario, we genotyped 55 adult red-bellied lemurs at seven variable microsatellite loci and used heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests to assess if this population may have experienced a recent genetic bottleneck. Results of heterozygosity excess but not M-ratio tests suggest a bottleneck might have occurred in this red-bellied lemur population. Therefore, while selection may also play a role, the unique color vision observed in this population might have been influenced by a recent genetic bottleneck. These results emphasize the

  14. Sistemas de apareamiento en un primate neotropical (Alouatta caraya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oklander, Luciana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La socioecología de primates no humanos provee un marco para comprender la evolución de varios aspectos de la conducta de nuestros antepasados. Un aspecto relevante de la evolución de los sistemas sociales es la descripción de los sistemas de apareamiento, que dependen de una combinación de estudios genéticos y comportamentales. Los estudios genéticomoleculares, en particular los STRs han permitido dilucidar sistemas de apareamiento y detallar el éxito reproductivo de los individuos. En platirrinos es necesario desarrollar STRs específicos. En el presente trabajo se detectaron STRs para Alouatta caraya. Estos monos aulladores habitan en el Noreste de nuestro país y países limítrofes, y sus tropas pueden tener uno o varios machos adultos. Se espera que el rango del macho juegue un papel importante en el acceso a hembras. Sin embargo, en varias especies de primates las hembras son promiscuas. Varias hipótesis explicarían este comportamiento desde asegurarse la fertilización, hasta evitar el infanticidio. Los objetivos del estudio fueron determinar si las jerarquías de dominancia entre machos se reflejan en un mayor acceso a cópulas y en la paternidad de las crías. Los resultados muestran que los machos dominantes obtuvieron un mayor número de cópulas (p<0,05, aunque las hembras copularon con varios machos de su tropa y tropas vecinas. La determinación de la paternidad de las crías permitirá dilucidar el sistema de apareamiento de estos primates.

  15. Evolution of Multilevel Social Systems in Nonhuman Primates and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, Cyril C; Chapais, Bernard; Zinner, Dietmar

    2012-10-01

    Multilevel (or modular) societies are a distinct type of primate social system whose key features are single-male-multifemale, core units nested within larger social bands. They are not equivalent to fission-fusion societies, with the latter referring to routine variability in associations, either on an individual or subunit level. The purpose of this review is to characterize and operationalize multilevel societies and to outline their putative evolutionary origins. Multilevel societies are prevalent in three primate clades: papionins, Asian colobines, and hominins. For each clade, we portray the most parsimonious phylogenetic pathway leading to a modular system and then review and discuss likely socioecological conditions promoting the establishment and maintenance of these societies. The multilevel system in colobines (most notably Rhinopithecus and Nasalis) has likely evolved as single-male harem systems coalesced, whereas the multilevel system of papionins (Papio hamadryas, Theropithecus gelada) and hominins most likely arose as multimale-multifemale groups split into smaller units. We hypothesize that, although ecological conditions acted as preconditions for the origin of multilevel systems in all three clades, a potentially important catalyst was intraspecific social threat, predominantly bachelor threat in colobines and female coercion/infanticide in papionins and humans. We emphasize that female transfers within bands or genetic relationships among leader males help to maintain modular societies by facilitating interunit tolerance. We still lack a good or even basic understanding of many facets of multilevel sociality. Key remaining questions are how the genetic structure of a multilevel society matches the observed social effort of its members, to what degree cooperation of males of different units is manifest and contributes to band cohesion, and how group coordination, communication, and decision making are achieved. Affiliative and cooperative

  16. Considering the Influence of Nonadaptive Evolution on Primate Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel L; Bradley, Brenda J

    2016-01-01

    Color vision in primates is variable across species, and it represents a rare trait in which the genetic mechanisms underlying phenotypic variation are fairly well-understood. Research on primate color vision has largely focused on adaptive explanations for observed variation, but it remains unclear why some species have trichromatic or polymorphic color vision while others are red-green color blind. Lemurs, in particular, are highly variable. While some species are polymorphic, many closely-related species are strictly dichromatic. We provide the first characterization of color vision in a wild population of red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer, Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar) with a sample size (87 individuals; NX chromosomes = 134) large enough to detect even rare variants (0.95 probability of detection at ≥ 3% frequency). By sequencing exon 5 of the X-linked opsin gene we identified opsin spectral sensitivity based on known diagnostic sites and found this population to be dichromatic and monomorphic for a long wavelength allele. Apparent fixation of this long allele is in contrast to previously published accounts of Eulemur species, which exhibit either polymorphic color vision or only the medium wavelength opsin. This unexpected result may represent loss of color vision variation, which could occur through selective processes and/or genetic drift (e.g., genetic bottleneck). To indirectly assess the latter scenario, we genotyped 55 adult red-bellied lemurs at seven variable microsatellite loci and used heterozygosity excess and M-ratio tests to assess if this population may have experienced a recent genetic bottleneck. Results of heterozygosity excess but not M-ratio tests suggest a bottleneck might have occurred in this red-bellied lemur population. Therefore, while selection may also play a role, the unique color vision observed in this population might have been influenced by a recent genetic bottleneck. These results emphasize the need to

  17. The prevalence of Microfilaria spp. in primates of colombian zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmery Ladino De La Hortúa; María Isabel Moreno Orozco

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of Microfilaria spp in 266 human and non human primates of Colombian zoos located between 5 and 2850 meters over sea level (mosl) was of 6.39% (17/266). Most of them were adult males Saguinus leucopus, Saguinus oedipus, Saimiri sciureus and Aotus sp; corresponding to Matecaña, Santa Fe and Santacruz zoos, located between 1.001-2.000 mosl. The microfilarias species observed in this study are morphologically compatible with Dipetalonema perstans and Microfilaria bolivarensis, usi...

  18. Observation of arterial blood pressure of the primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, J. P.; Henry, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    The developments are reported in physiological instrumentation, surgical procedures, measurement and data analysis techniques, and the definition of flight experiments to determine the effects of prolonged weightlessness on the cardiovascular system of subhuman primates. The development of an implantable telemetric data acquisition system is discussed along with cardiovascular research applications in renal hemodynamics. It is concluded that the implant technique permits a valid interpretation, free of emotional response, for the manipulated variable on physiological functions. It also allows a better definition of normal physiological baseline conditions.

  19. An evolutionarily conserved sexual signature in the primate brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Reinius

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of a potential biological sexual signature in the human brain is a heavily disputed subject. In order to provide further insight into this issue, we used an evolutionary approach to identify genes with sex differences in brain expression level among primates. We reasoned that expression patterns important to uphold key male and female characteristics may be conserved during evolution. We selected cortex for our studies because this specific brain region is responsible for many higher behavioral functions. We compared gene expression profiles in the occipital cortex of male and female humans (Homo sapiens, a great ape and cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, an old world monkey, two catarrhine species that show abundant morphological sexual dimorphism, as well as in common marmosets (Callithrix Jacchus, a new world monkey which are relatively sexually monomorphic. We identified hundreds of genes with sex-biased expression patterns in humans and macaques, while fewer than ten were differentially expressed between the sexes in marmosets. In primates, a general rule is that many of the morphological and behavioral sexual dimorphisms seen in polygamous species, such as macaques, are typically less pronounced in monogamous species such as the marmosets. Our observations suggest that this correlation may also be reflected in the extent of sex-biased gene expression in the brain. We identified 85 genes with common sex-biased expression, in both human and macaque and 2 genes, X inactivation-specific transcript (XIST and Heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1, that were consistently sex-biased in the female direction in human, macaque, and marmoset. These observations imply a conserved signature of sexual gene expression dimorphism in cortex of primates. Further, we found that the coding region of female-biased genes is more evolutionarily constrained compared to the coding region of both male-biased and non sex-biased brain

  20. The animal welfare act as applied to primate animal laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindaman, D F

    1983-01-01

    The Animal Welfare Act (Public Law 89-544, as amended) was passed by Congress to assure the humane care and treatment of certain warmblooded animals bought, sold, held, or transported for purposes of research, exhibition, or for use as pets. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is responsible for administering the minimum care and treatment requirements promulgated under the authorities of this law. This paper presents in some detail the requirements and responsibilities of users of nonhuman primates for research, testing, or experimentation.

  1. Clonal propagation of primate offspring by embryo splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, A W; Dominko, T; Luetjens, C M; Neuber, E; Martinovich, C; Hewitson, L; Simerly, C R; Schatten, G P

    2000-01-14

    Primates that are identical in both nuclear and cytoplasmic components have not been produced by current cloning strategies, yet such identicals represent the ideal model for investigations of human diseases. Here, genetically identical nonhuman embryos were produced as twin and larger sets by separation and reaggregation of blastomeres of cleavage-stage embryos. A total of 368 multiples were created by the splitting of 107 rhesus embryos with four pregnancies established after 13 embryo transfers (31% versus 53% in vitro fertilization controls). The birth of Tetra, a healthy female cloned from a quarter of an embryo, proves that this approach can result in live offspring.

  2. 9 CFR 3.87 - Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and Transportation of Nonhuman Primates 2 Transportation Standards § 3.87 Primary enclosures used to transport nonhuman primates. Any person subject to the Animal Welfare regulations (9 CFR parts 1, 2, and 3... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary enclosures used to...

  3. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27284790

  4. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  5. Scaling of convex hull volume to body mass in modern primates, non-primate mammals and birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Brassey

    Full Text Available The volumetric method of 'convex hulling' has recently been put forward as a mass prediction technique for fossil vertebrates. Convex hulling involves the calculation of minimum convex hull volumes (vol(CH from the complete mounted skeletons of modern museum specimens, which are subsequently regressed against body mass (Mb to derive predictive equations for extinct species. The convex hulling technique has recently been applied to estimate body mass in giant sauropods and fossil ratites, however the biomechanical signal contained within vol(CH has remained unclear. Specifically, when vol(CH scaling departs from isometry in a group of vertebrates, how might this be interpreted? Here we derive predictive equations for primates, non-primate mammals and birds and compare the scaling behaviour of Mb to volCH between groups. We find predictive equations to be characterised by extremely high correlation coefficients (r(2 = 0.97-0.99 and low mean percentage prediction error (11-20%. Results suggest non-primate mammals scale body mass to volCH isometrically (b = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.85-1.00, p = 0.08. Birds scale body mass to volCH with negative allometry (b = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.70-0.91, p = 0.011 and apparent density (volCH/Mb therefore decreases with mass (r(2 = 0.36, p<0.05. In contrast, primates scale body mass to vol(CH with positive allometry (b = 1.07, 95%CI = 1.01-1.12, p = 0.05 and apparent density therefore increases with size (r(2 = 0.46, p = 0.025. We interpret such departures from isometry in the context of the 'missing mass' of soft tissues that are excluded from the convex hulling process. We conclude that the convex hulling technique can be justifiably applied to the fossil record when a large proportion of the skeleton is preserved. However we emphasise the need for future studies to quantify interspecific variation in the distribution of soft tissues such as muscle, integument and body fat.

  6. Manipulation complexity in primates coevolved with brain size and terrestriality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldstab, Sandra A; Kosonen, Zaida K; Koski, Sonja E; Burkart, Judith M; van Schaik, Carel P; Isler, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Humans occupy by far the most complex foraging niche of all mammals, built around sophisticated technology, and at the same time exhibit unusually large brains. To examine the evolutionary processes underlying these features, we investigated how manipulation complexity is related to brain size, cognitive test performance, terrestriality, and diet quality in a sample of 36 non-human primate species. We categorized manipulation bouts in food-related contexts into unimanual and bimanual actions, and asynchronous or synchronous hand and finger use, and established levels of manipulative complexity using Guttman scaling. Manipulation categories followed a cumulative ranking. They were particularly high in species that use cognitively challenging food acquisition techniques, such as extractive foraging and tool use. Manipulation complexity was also consistently positively correlated with brain size and cognitive test performance. Terrestriality had a positive effect on this relationship, but diet quality did not affect it. Unlike a previous study on carnivores, we found that, among primates, brain size and complex manipulations to acquire food underwent correlated evolution, which may have been influenced by terrestriality. Accordingly, our results support the idea of an evolutionary feedback loop between manipulation complexity and cognition in the human lineage, which may have been enhanced by increasingly terrestrial habits. PMID:27075921

  7. Euthanasia Assessment in Ebola Virus Infected Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis K. Warren

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple products are being developed for use against filoviral infections. Efficacy for these products will likely be demonstrated in nonhuman primate models of filoviral disease to satisfy licensure requirements under the Animal Rule, or to supplement human data. Typically, the endpoint for efficacy assessment will be survival following challenge; however, there exists no standardized approach for assessing the health or euthanasia criteria for filovirus-exposed nonhuman primates. Consideration of objective criteria is important to (a ensure test subjects are euthanized without unnecessary distress; (b enhance the likelihood that animals exhibiting mild or moderate signs of disease are not prematurely euthanized; (c minimize the occurrence of spontaneous deaths and loss of end-stage samples; (d enhance the reproducibility of experiments between different researchers; and (e provide a defensible rationale for euthanasia decisions that withstands regulatory scrutiny. Historic records were compiled for 58 surviving and non-surviving monkeys exposed to Ebola virus at the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. Clinical pathology parameters were statistically analyzed and those exhibiting predicative value for survival are reported. These findings may be useful for standardization of objective euthanasia assessments in rhesus monkeys exposed to Ebola virus and may serve as a useful approach for other standardization efforts.

  8. Color vision of ancestral organisms of higher primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nei, M; Zhang, J; Yokoyama, S

    1997-06-01

    The color vision of mammals is controlled by photosensitive proteins called opsins. Most mammals have dichromatic color vision, but hominoids and Old World (OW) monkeys enjoy trichromatic vision, having the blue-, green-, and red-sensitive opsin genes. Most New World (NW) monkeys are either dichromatic or trichromatic, depending on the sex and genotype. Trichromacy in higher primates is believed to have evolved to facilitate the detection of yellow and red fruits against dappled foliage, but the process of evolutionary change from dichromacy to trichromacy is not well understood. Using the parsimony and the newly developed Bayesian methods, we inferred the amino acid sequences of opsins of ancestral organisms of higher primates. The results suggest that the ancestors of OW and NW monkeys lacked the green gene and that the green gene later evolved from the red gene. The fact that the red/green opsin gene has survived the long nocturnal stage of mammalian evolution and that it is under strong purifying selection in organisms that live in dark environments suggests that this gene has another important function in addition to color vision, probably the control of circadian rhythms. PMID:9190062

  9. Cognitive consilience: Primate non-primary neuroanatomical circuits underlying cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Van Hout Solari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia form the basis ofcognitive information processing in the mammalian brain. Understanding the principles ofneuroanatomical organization in these structures is critical to understanding the functions theyperform and ultimately how the human brain works. We have manually distilled and synthesizedhundreds of primate neuroanatomy facts into a single interactive visualization. The resultingpicture represents the fundamental neuroanatomical blueprint upon which cognitive functionsmust be implemented. Within this framework we hypothesize and detail 7 functional circuitscorresponding to psychological perspectives on the brain: consolidated long-term declarativememory, short-term declarative memory, working memory/information processing, behavioralmemory selection, behavioral memory output, cognitive control, and cortical information flow regulation. Each circuit is described in terms of distinguishable neuronal groups including thecerebral isocortex (9 pyramidal neuronal groups, parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus,thalamus (4 neuronal groups, basal ganglia (7 neuronal groups, metencephalon, basal forebrainand other subcortical nuclei. We focus on neuroanatomy related to primate non-primary corticalsystems to elucidate the basis underlying the distinct homotypical cognitive architecture. To dis-play the breadth of this review, we introduce a novel method of integrating and presenting datain multiple independent visualizations: an interactive website (www.cognitiveconsilience.comand standalone iPhone and iPad applications. With these tools we present a unique, annotatedview of neuroanatomical consilience (integration of knowledge.

  10. Primate ABO Gene is under Weak Positive Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Santos EVANOVICH

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABO locus presents three main alleles: A, B and O. A and B encode glycosyltransferases that catalyze the addiction of an N-GalNac and D-galactose to a precursor substance (H substance, producing A and B antigens, while the O allele does not produce a functional protein. The presence of A and B antigens have been associated to resistance against infectious agents which could use them as attachment factors increasing the virulence of some parasitic agents. As these antigens are not restrict to humans, analyses them in others species, for instance non-human primates, may be crucial to understand the relationship between pathogens and ABO phenotypes. Despite of the relevance of this issue, in the last decade few studies have addressed, mainly in New World Monkeys (NWM, natural reservoir of tropical diseases in Amazon Region. In order to understand the evolution of the ABO system in the primates, it has been obtained the partial sequence of the most important exon of ABO gene (exon 7, in platyrrhini families: Atelidae, Pithecidae and Cebidae. Then, it has been compared the sequences obtained those present in the literature, and measured the selective pressure. The present results shown that residues 266 and 268 are also crucial to distinguish A and B phenotypes in the platyrrhines, such as in catarrhines, and the 266 codon is under positive selection, although the most site codons are under action of purifying selection.

  11. Torpor use during gestation and lactation in a primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I.; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-02-01

    Torpor is an energy-saving mechanism that allows endotherms to overcome energetic challenges. Torpor should be avoided during reproduction because of potential incompatibility with offspring growth. To test if torpor can be used during gestation and lactation to compensate for food shortage, we exposed reproductive female grey mouse lemurs ( Microcebus murinus), a heterothermic primate, to different levels of food availability. Torpor use was characterised by daily skin temperature profiles, and its energetic outcome was assessed from changes in body mass. Food shortage triggered torpor during the end of the gestation period ( n = 1), ranging from shallow in response to 40% food restriction to deep daily torpor in response to 80% restriction. During the early period of lactation, females fed ad libitum ( n = 2) or exposed to a 40% restriction ( n = 4) remained normothermic; but 80% food restricted females ( n = 5) gave priority to energy saving, increasing the frequency and depth of torpor bouts. The use of torpor was insufficient to compensate for 80% energetic shortage during lactation resulting in loss of mass from the mother and delayed growth in the pups. This study provides the first evidence that a heterothermic primate can use torpor to compensate for food shortages even during reproduction. This physiological flexibility likely evolved as a response to climate-driven fluctuations in food availability in Madagascar.

  12. Identifying constraints in the evolution of primate societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Bernard

    2013-05-19

    The evolutionary study of social systems in non-human primates has long been focused on ecological determinants. The predictive value of socio-ecological models remains quite low, however, in particular because such equilibrium models cannot integrate the course of history. The use of phylogenetic methods indicates that many patterns of primate societies have been conserved throughout evolutionary history. For example, the study of social relations in macaques revealed that their social systems are made of sets of correlated behavioural traits. Some macaque species are portrayed by marked social intolerance, a steep dominance gradient and strong nepotism, whereas others display a higher level of social tolerance, relaxed dominance and a weaker influence of kinship. Linkages between behavioural traits occur at different levels of organization, and act as constraints that limit evolutionary responses to external pressures. Whereas these constraints can exert strong stabilizing selection that opposes the potential changes required by the ecological environment, selective mechanisms may have the potential to switch the whole social system from one state to another by acting primarily on some key behavioural traits that could work as pacemakers. PMID:23569290

  13. Hormonal response of the premature primate to operative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A F; Lally, K P; Chwals, W J; McCurnin, D C; Gerstmann, D R; Shade, R A; deLemos, R A

    1993-06-01

    There are few data on the hormonal response to operation in the premature infant. Studies examining the response of newborn human infants have been performed on patients beyond the first few days of life, where some adaptation to postnatal life has occurred. This study evaluated the response of the newly born premature primate to surgical stress. Premature baboons (75% gestation) were intubated, mechanically ventilated and underwent thoracotomy at 2 hours of life with exposure of the ductus arteriosus (PDA). In group 1, formalin was infiltrated to keep the ductus patent. In group 2, the PDA was ligated. Controls had no operation. Blood was drawn at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of age. Echocardiograms were performed to confirm patency or closure of the ductus and to monitor cardiac function. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, renin, and cortisol levels were measured. Cortisol levels rose in all groups. Operation stimulated a marked increase in catecholamine and renin levels in both operative groups, which was more marked in the group with PDA ligation at 24 hours. These data reflect expected pathophysiology since early PDA ligation exerts additional hemodynamic demand on the heart. In conclusion, the premature primate is able to mount a significant and severity-dependent endocrine response to stress. PMID:8331518

  14. Primate natal coats: a preliminary analysis of distribution and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treves, A

    1997-09-01

    Pelage coloration of infants was compiled for 138 species of primates. Three functional hypotheses--alloparental, infant defense, and paternity cloak--for primate natal coats are tested. Neonatal pelage contrasted with adult pelage in over half of the species examined. Subtle or inconspicuous contrast was more common than flamboyant contrast. Natal coats began to change at 5.7 weeks and disappeared by 18.0 weeks postpartum on average. The first body part to lose natal coloration was the head and/or dorsum in the majority of species. Functional analyses provided no support for the only published hypothesis--alloparental--while providing partial support for two new hypotheses--infant defense and paternity cloak. A significant association between testes weight and natal coat contrast supports a link between mating system and infant contrast. This is discussed in terms of infanticide avoidance. Natal coats are proposed to be categorically differentiated into inconspicuous and flamboyant types, not differentiated by a continuous gradation, such as color. Subspecific differentiation and patterns of shared ancestry are assessed.

  15. Primate molar crown formation times and life history evolution revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, G A

    2001-12-01

    Comparative studies have convincingly demonstrated that the pattern and timing of tooth emergence are highly correlated with life-history variables and brain size. Conversely, a firm relationship between molar formation time and life-history variables has not yet been established. It seems counterintuitive that one aspect of dental development should be correlated with life-history variables, whereas the other should not. In order to shed light on this apparent discrepancy this study analyzed all data on primate molar crown formations available in the published literature in relation to life-history variables, brain size, and female body mass. Crown formation times were found to be particularly highly correlated with both female body mass and brain size. Species that depart from the overall brain/body allometry by being relatively large-bodied, e.g., Gorilla gorilla and later Theropithecus oswaldi, also have shorter molar crown formation times than expected. The reverse is not found for species that depart from the overall brain/body allometry due to their larger brains, i.e., Homo sapiens. This finding is interpreted within an evolutionary and ecological framework. Specifically, by focusing on ecological commonalities, a scenario is proposed which may allow predictions to be made about the evolutionary history of other extinct primates also. If confirmed in future studies, crown formation time may again become a powerful tool in evolutionary enquiry. PMID:11748692

  16. Whisper-like behavior in a non-human primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Rachel; Reiss, Diana

    2013-01-01

    In humans, whispering has evolved as a counteractive strategy against eavesdropping. Some evidence for whisper-like behavior exists in a few other species, but has not been reported in non-human primates. We discovered the first evidence of whisper-like behavior in a non-human primate, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus), in the course of investigating their use of human-directed mobbing calls. We exposed a family of captive cotton-top tamarins to a supervisor who previously elicited a strong mobbing response. Simultaneous audio-video recordings documented the animals' behavioral and vocal responses in the supervisor's presence and absence. Rather than exhibiting a mobbing response and producing loud human-directed mobbing calls, the tamarins exhibited other anti-predator behaviors and produced low amplitude vocalizations that initially eluded our detection. A post-hoc analysis of the data was conducted to test a new hypothesis-the tamarins were reducing the amplitude of their vocalizations in the context of exposure to a potential threat. Consistent with whisper-like behavior, the amplitude of the tamarins' vocalizations was significantly reduced only in the presence of the supervisor. Due to its subtle properties, this phenomenon may have eluded detection in this species. Increasing evidence of whisper-like behavior in non-human species suggests that such low amplitude signaling may represent a convergence in a communication strategy amongst highly social and cooperative species. PMID:24038444

  17. Pollical oblique ligament in humans and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Marvin

    2003-04-01

    A morphological study of the oblique ligament in the thumb is presented. The ligament was consistently described in human specimens and compared with dissections of non-human primates from different species. The oblique ligament was found in some, but not all, specimens in each of the following species examined: chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, anubis baboon, hamadryas baboon, squirrel monkey, lemur and marmoset. A revised identity of the oblique ligament is proposed as a reinforced distal border of a fibro-osseous annular pollical flexor sheath and whose function is not independent of the flexor sheath. The constant presence and tendinous trait of the pollical oblique ligament in humans, when compared with non-human primates, supports the notion that the oblique ligament strengthens the pollical flexor sheath in humans for restraint of the flexor pollicis longus tendon during forceful precision pinching. A derivation of the pollical oblique ligament is considered as representing a vestigial radial limb of a flexor pollicis superficialis tendon in the thumb.

  18. The Evolution of Trypanosomes Infecting Humans and Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Jamie

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences and clade taxon composition, this paper adopts a biogeographical approach to understanding the evolutionary relationships of the human and primate infective trypanosomes, Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei, T. rangeli and T. cyclops. Results indicate that these parasites have divergent origins and fundamentally different patterns of evolution. T. cruzi is placed in a clade with T. rangeli and trypanosomes specific to bats and a kangaroo. The predominantly South American and Australian origins of parasites within this clade suggest an ancient southern super-continent origin for ancestral T. cruzi, possibly in marsupials. T. brucei clusters exclusively with mammalian, salivarian trypanosomes of African origin, suggesting an evolutionary history confined to Africa, while T. cyclops, from an Asian primate appears to have evolved separately and is placed in a clade with T. (Megatrypanum species. Relating clade taxon composition to palaeogeographic evidence, the divergence of T. brucei and T. cruzi can be dated to the mid-Cretaceous, around 100 million years before present, following the separation of Africa, South America and Euramerica. Such an estimate of divergence time is considerably more recent than those of most previous studies based on molecular clock methods. Perhaps significantly, Salivarian trypanosomes appear, from these data, to be evolving several times faster than Schizotrypanum species, a factor which may have contributed to previous anomalous estimates of divergence times.

  19. Primate paternal care: Interactions between biology and social experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Anne E; Ziegler, Toni E

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".We review recent research on the roles of hormones and social experiences on the development of paternal care in humans and non-human primates. Generally, lower concentrations of testosterone and higher concentrations of oxytocin are associated with greater paternal responsiveness. Hormonal changes prior to the birth appear to be important in preparation for fatherhood and changes after the birth are related to how much time fathers spend with offspring and whether they provide effective care. Prolactin may facilitate approach and the initiation of infant care, and in some biparental non-human primates, it affects body mass regulation. Glucocorticoids may be involved in coordinating reproductive and parental behavior between mates. New research involving intranasal oxytocin and neuropeptide receptor polymorphisms may help us understand individual variation in paternal responsiveness. This area of research, integrating both biological factors and the role of early and adult experience, has the potential to suggest individually designed interventions that can strengthen relationships between fathers and their partners and offspring. PMID:26253726

  20. Primate drum kit: a system for studying acoustic pattern production by non-human primates using acceleration and strain sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravignani, Andrea; Matellán Olivera, Vicente; Gingras, Bruno; Hofer, Riccardo; Rodríguez Hernández, Carlos; Sonnweber, Ruth-Sophie; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of achieving experimentally controlled, non-vocal acoustic production in non-human primates is a key step to enable the testing of a number of hypotheses on primate behavior and cognition. However, no device or solution is currently available, with the use of sensors in non-human animals being almost exclusively devoted to applications in food industry and animal surveillance. Specifically, no device exists which simultaneously allows: (i) spontaneous production of sound or music by non-human animals via object manipulation, (ii) systematical recording of data sensed from these movements, (iii) the possibility to alter the acoustic feedback properties of the object using remote control. We present two prototypes we developed for application with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) which, while fulfilling the aforementioned requirements, allow to arbitrarily associate sounds to physical object movements. The prototypes differ in sensing technology, costs, intended use and construction requirements. One prototype uses four piezoelectric elements embedded between layers of Plexiglas and foam. Strain data is sent to a computer running Python through an Arduino board. A second prototype consists in a modified Wii Remote contained in a gum toy. Acceleration data is sent via Bluetooth to a computer running Max/MSP. We successfully pilot tested the first device with a group of chimpanzees. We foresee using these devices for a range of cognitive experiments. PMID:23912427

  1. Primate Drum Kit: A System for Studying Acoustic Pattern Production by Non-Human Primates Using Acceleration and Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tecumseh Fitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of achieving experimentally controlled, non-vocal acoustic production in non-human primates is a key step to enable the testing of a number of hypotheses on primate behavior and cognition. However, no device or solution is currently available, with the use of sensors in non-human animals being almost exclusively devoted to applications in food industry and animal surveillance. Specifically, no device exists which simultaneously allows: (i spontaneous production of sound or music by non-human animals via object manipulation, (ii systematical recording of data sensed from these movements, (iii the possibility to alter the acoustic feedback properties of the object using remote control. We present two prototypes we developed for application with chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes which, while fulfilling the aforementioned requirements, allow to arbitrarily associate sounds to physical object movements. The prototypes differ in sensing technology, costs, intended use and construction requirements. One prototype uses four piezoelectric elements embedded between layers of Plexiglas and foam. Strain data is sent to a computer running Python through an Arduino board. A second prototype consists in a modified Wii Remote contained in a gum toy. Acceleration data is sent via Bluetooth to a computer running Max/MSP. We successfully pilot tested the first device with a group of chimpanzees. We foresee using these devices for a range of cognitive experiments.

  2. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus infection in non-human primates in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Nath

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated 37 serum samples of non-human primates in Assam State Zoo and the Department of Forest and Environment, Govt. of Assam for seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection during the period from December, 2007 to November, 2009. Four serum samples were also collected from animal keepers of the zoo to investigate transmission of the disease to the attendants working with these primates. Competitive ELISA was performed using hepatitis A virus ELISA kit (Wanti Hep. AV to detect hepatitis A virus antibody in serum samples. Ten (27.21% of the non-human primate samples and three (75% human samples had detectable anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies. Living status of the non-human primates (Free living was a high potential risk for hepatitis A virus infection. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection had significant difference between free living non-human primates and captive non-human primates (P less than 0.05. No significant difference (p=0.86 was seen between male and female non-human primates

  3. Genome-wide comparative analysis of microRNAs in three non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brameier Markus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are negative regulators of gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes. With the recently completed sequencing of three primate genomes, the study of miRNA evolution within the primate lineage has only begun and may be expected to provide the genetic and molecular explanations for many phenotypic differences between human and non-human primates. Findings We scanned all three genomes of non-human primates, including chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes, orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta, for homologs of human miRNA genes. Besides sequence homology analysis, our comparative method relies on various postprocessing filters to verify other features of miRNAs, including, in particular, their precursor structure or their occurrence (prediction in other primate genomes. Our study allows direct comparisons between the different species in terms of their miRNA repertoire, their evolutionary distance to human, the effects of filters, as well as the identification of common and species-specific miRNAs in the primate lineage. More than 500 novel putative miRNA genes have been discovered in orangutan that show at least 85 percent identity in precursor sequence. Only about 40 percent are found to be 100 percent identical with their human ortholog. Conclusion Homologs of human precursor miRNAs with perfect or near-perfect sequence identity may be considered to be likely functional in other primates. The computational identification of homologs with less similar sequence, instead, requires further evidence to be provided.

  4. Why mob? Reassessing the costs and benefits of primate predator harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofoot, Margaret C

    2012-01-01

    While some primate species attempt to avoid predators by fleeing, hiding or producing alarm calls, others actually approach, harass and sometimes attack potential threats, a behavior known as 'mobbing'. Why individuals risk their safety to mob potential predators remains poorly understood. Here, I review reports of predator harassment by primates to (1) determine the distribution of this behavior across taxa, (2) assess what is known about the costs of mobbing, and (3) evaluate hypotheses about its function. Mobbing is taxonomically widespread and is used against a wide range of predator species. However, inconsistent use of the term 'mobbing' within the primate literature, the lack of systematic studies of primate mobbing, and the likelihood of systematic biases in the existing data pose significant obstacles to understanding this puzzling behavior. Although difficult to quantify, the costs associated with harassing predators appear nontrivial. Many benefits that have been proposed to explain mobbing in birds may also be important in primate systems. There are puzzling aspects of primate mobbing, however, that existing hypotheses cannot explain. Future research should consider the within-group signaling potential of this costly behavior, as well as the ability of behavioral syndromes to explain the distribution of mobbing in primates. PMID:23363587

  5. Chromosomal evolution of the PKD1 gene family in primates

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    Krawczak Michael

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is mostly caused by mutations in the PKD1 (polycystic kidney disease 1 gene located in 16p13.3. Moreover, there are six pseudogenes of PKD1 that are located proximal to the master gene in 16p13.1. In contrast, no pseudogene could be detected in the mouse genome, only a single copy gene on chromosome 17. The question arises how the human situation originated phylogenetically. To address this question we applied comparative FISH-mapping of a human PKD1-containing genomic BAC clone and a PKD1-cDNA clone to chromosomes of a variety of primate species and the dog as a non-primate outgroup species. Results Comparative FISH with the PKD1-cDNA clone clearly shows that in all primate species studied distinct single signals map in subtelomeric chromosomal positions orthologous to the short arm of human chromosome 16 harbouring the master PKD1 gene. Only in human and African great apes, but not in orangutan, FISH with both BAC and cDNA clones reveals additional signal clusters located proximal of and clearly separated from the PKD1 master genes indicating the chromosomal position of PKD1 pseudogenes in 16p of these species, respectively. Indeed, this is in accordance with sequencing data in human, chimpanzee and orangutan. Apart from the master PKD1 gene, six pseudogenes are identified in both, human and chimpanzee, while only a single-copy gene is present in the whole-genome sequence of orangutan. The phylogenetic reconstruction of the PKD1-tree reveals that all human pseudogenes are closely related to the human PKD1 gene, and all chimpanzee pseudogenes are closely related to the chimpanzee PKD1 gene. However, our statistical analyses provide strong indication that gene conversion events may have occurred within the PKD1 family members of human and chimpanzee, respectively. Conclusion PKD1 must have undergone amplification very recently in hominid evolution. Duplicative

  6. Evolutionary and Functional Analysis of Old World Primate TRIM5 Reveals the Ancient Emergence of Primate Lentiviruses and Convergent Evolution Targeting a Conserved Capsid Interface.

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    Kevin R McCarthy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread distribution of lentiviruses among African primates, and the lack of severe pathogenesis in many of these natural reservoirs, are taken as evidence for long-term co-evolution between the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs and their primate hosts. Evidence for positive selection acting on antiviral restriction factors is consistent with virus-host interactions spanning millions of years of primate evolution. However, many restriction mechanisms are not virus-specific, and selection cannot be unambiguously attributed to any one type of virus. We hypothesized that the restriction factor TRIM5, because of its unique specificity for retrovirus capsids, should accumulate adaptive changes in a virus-specific fashion, and therefore, that phylogenetic reconstruction of TRIM5 evolution in African primates should reveal selection by lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs. We analyzed complete TRIM5 coding sequences of 22 Old World primates and identified a tightly-spaced cluster of branch-specific adaptions appearing in the Cercopithecinae lineage after divergence from the Colobinae around 16 million years ago. Functional assays of both extant TRIM5 orthologs and reconstructed ancestral TRIM5 proteins revealed that this cluster of adaptations in TRIM5 specifically resulted in the ability to restrict Cercopithecine lentiviruses, but had no effect (positive or negative on restriction of other retroviruses, including lentiviruses of non-Cercopithecine primates. The correlation between lineage-specific adaptations and ability to restrict viruses endemic to the same hosts supports the hypothesis that lentiviruses closely related to modern SIVs were present in Africa and infecting the ancestors of Cercopithecine primates as far back as 16 million years ago, and provides insight into the evolution of TRIM5 specificity.

  7. Molecular and evolutionary analyses of formyl peptide receptors suggest the absence of VNO-specific FPRs in primates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yang; Peng Shi

    2010-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) were observed to expand in rodents and were recently suggested as candidate vomeronasal chemo-sensory receptors. Since vomeronasal chemosensory receptors usually underwent positive selection and evolved concordantiy with the vomeronasal organ (VNO) morphology, we surveyed FPRs in primates in which VNO morphology is greatly diverse and thus it would provide us a clearer view of VNO-FPRs evolution. By screening available primate genome sequences, we obtained the FPR repertoires in representative primate species. As a result, we did not find FPR family size expansion in primates. Further analyses showed no evolutionary force variance between primates with or without VNO structure, which indicated that there was no functional divergence among primates FPRs. Our results suggest that primates lack the VNO-specific FPRs and the FPR expansion is not a common phenomenon in mammals outside rodent lineage, regardless of VNO complexity.

  8. Application of the genome editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Li, Min; Su, Bing

    2016-07-18

    In the past three years, RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from the microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system has been used to facilitate efficient genome editing in many model and non-model animals. However, its application in nonhuman primates is still at the early stage, though in view of the similarities in anatomy, physiology, behavior and genetics, closely related nonhuman primates serve as optimal models for human biology and disease studies. In this review, we summarize the current proceedings of gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 in nonhuman primates.

  9. Application of the genome editing tool CRISPR/Cas9 in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUO, Xin; LI, Min; SU, Bing

    2016-01-01

    In the past three years, RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from the microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) adaptive immune system has been used to facilitate efficient genome editing in many model and non-model animals. However, its application in nonhuman primates is still at the early stage, though in view of the similarities in anatomy, physiology, behavior and genetics, closely related nonhuman primates serve as optimal models for human biology and disease studies. In this review, we summarize the current proceedings of gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9 in nonhuman primates. PMID:27469252

  10. Los cromosomas sexuales en los Primates no sólo son X e Y

    OpenAIRE

    Steinberg, María Eugenia; Nieves, Mariela; Mudry, Marta Dolores

    2009-01-01

    En el Orden Primates se agrupan dos subórdenes, Strepsirrhini y Haplorrhini, donde las formas actuales del segundo comprenden a los Tarsiiformes junto a los Primates del Nuevo (Platyrrhini) y del Viejo Mundo (Catarrhini), incluyendo a Hominoidea en los últimos. En estos mamíferos el sistema de determinación sexual más extendido es el XX/XY, tal como se ha descrito en los Primates del Viejo Mundo, incluidos los humanos, de ahí el nombre de "human like". En los Platyrrhini actuales se observa l...

  11. A perceptual pitch boundary in a non-human primate

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    Olivier eJoly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pitch is an auditory percept critical to the perception of music and speech, and for these harmonic sounds, pitch is closely related to the repetition rate of the acoustic wave. This paper reports a test of the assumption that non-human primates and especially rhesus monkeys perceive the pitch of these harmonic sounds much as humans do. A new procedure was developed to train macaques to discriminate the pitch of harmonic sounds and thereby demonstrate that the lower limit for pitch perception in macaques is close to 30 Hz, as it is in humans. Moreover, when the phases of successive harmonics are alternated to cause a pseudo-doubling of the repetition rate, the lower pitch boundary in macaques decreases substantially, as it does in humans. The results suggest that both species use neural firing times to discriminate pitch, at least for sounds with relatively low repetition rates.

  12. Heterogeneity of life histories in a nonhuman primate population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández Pacheco, Raisa; Steiner, Uli

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the sources of variation in life histories, whether fixed (heritable) and/or dynamic differences, remains a fundamental task to address in order to understand the meaning and significance of phenotypic variation within populations. To test whether the variation among individual life h...... and fixed (adaptive) processes is crucial to predict ecological and evolutionary population dynamics, which is of particular importance for managed populations.......Identifying the sources of variation in life histories, whether fixed (heritable) and/or dynamic differences, remains a fundamental task to address in order to understand the meaning and significance of phenotypic variation within populations. To test whether the variation among individual life...... histories within a primate population is generated by density-dependent dynamics, the demographic data of Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques over 40 years and 7000 individuals was used. A multi-stage model using a first-order Markov process describing reproductive dynamics was constructed and annual entropy...

  13. DNA synthesis and cell division in the adult primate brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that the adult human brain is incapable of producing new neuron. Even cursory examination of neurologic, neuropathologic, or neurobiological textbooks published during the past 50 years will testify that this belief is deeply entrenched. In his classification of cell populations on the basis of their proliferative behavior, Leblond regarded neurons of the central nervous system as belonging to a category of static, nonrenewing epithelial tissue incapable of expanding or replenishing itself. This belief, however needs to re reexamined for two major reasons: First, as reviewed below, a number of reports have provided evidence of neurogenesis in adult brain of several vertebrate species. Second, the capacity for neurogenesis in the adult primate central nervous system has never been examined by modern methods. In this article the author described recent results from an extensive autoradiographic analysis performed on twelve rhesus monkeys injected with the specific DNA precursor [3H] thymidine at ages ranging from 6 postnatal months to 17 years

  14. Primate conservation: integrating communities through environmental education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Suzana M

    2010-05-01

    Environmental education has evolved over the years to respond to the varied complexities found in the different localities where it is practiced. In many parts of the world where biodiversity is rich, social conditions are poor, so educators have included sustainable development alternatives to better the environment and the livelihoods of local communities. Primate conservation education programs, which are often based in areas that face such challenges, have been a vanguard in creating means to integrate people with their natural environment and thus conquer supporters for the protection of natural habitats. In the search for effectiveness they have adopted evaluation methods to help assess what was offered. An example from Brazil is described in this commentary.

  15. Primate conservation: integrating communities through environmental education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Suzana M

    2010-05-01

    Environmental education has evolved over the years to respond to the varied complexities found in the different localities where it is practiced. In many parts of the world where biodiversity is rich, social conditions are poor, so educators have included sustainable development alternatives to better the environment and the livelihoods of local communities. Primate conservation education programs, which are often based in areas that face such challenges, have been a vanguard in creating means to integrate people with their natural environment and thus conquer supporters for the protection of natural habitats. In the search for effectiveness they have adopted evaluation methods to help assess what was offered. An example from Brazil is described in this commentary. PMID:19904751

  16. The climatic niche diversity of malagasy primates: a phylogenetic perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Kamilar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous researchers have posited that there should be a strong negative relationship between the evolutionary distance among species and their ecological similarity. Alternative evidence suggests that members of adaptive radiations should display no relationship between divergence time and ecological similarity because rapid evolution results in near-simultaneous speciation early in the clade's history. In this paper, we performed the first investigation of ecological diversity in a phylogenetic context using a mammalian adaptive radiation, the Malagasy primates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collected data for 43 extant species including: 1 1064 species by locality samples, 2 GIS climate data for each sampling locality, and 3 the phylogenetic relationships of the species. We calculated the niche space of each species by summarizing the climatic variation at localities of known occurrence. Climate data from all species occurrences at all sites were entered into a principal components analysis. We calculated the mean value of the first two PCA axes, representing rainfall and temperature diversity, for each species. We calculated the K statistic using the Physig program for Matlab to examine how well the climatic niche space of species was correlated with phylogeny. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that there was little relationship between the phylogenetic distance of Malagasy primates and their rainfall and temperature niche space, i.e., closely related species tend to occupy different climatic niches. Furthermore, several species from different genera converged on a similar climatic niche. These results have important implications for the evolution of ecological diversity, and the long-term survival of these endangered species.

  17. The intercalated nuclear complex of the primate amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikopoulos, Basilis; John, Yohan J; García-Cabezas, Miguel Ángel; Bunce, Jamie G; Barbas, Helen

    2016-08-25

    The organization of the inhibitory intercalated cell masses (IM) of the primate amygdala is largely unknown despite their key role in emotional processes. We studied the structural, topographic, neurochemical and intrinsic connectional features of IM neurons in the rhesus monkey brain. We found that the intercalated neurons are not confined to discrete cell clusters, but form a neuronal net that is interposed between the basal nuclei and extends to the dorsally located anterior, central, and medial nuclei of the amygdala. Unlike the IM in rodents, which are prominent in the anterior half of the amygdala, the primate inhibitory net stretched throughout the antero-posterior axis of the amygdala, and was most prominent in the central and posterior extent of the amygdala. There were two morphologic types of intercalated neurons: spiny and aspiny. Spiny neurons were the most abundant; their somata were small or medium size, round or elongated, and their dendritic trees were round or bipolar, depending on location. The aspiny neurons were on average slightly larger and had varicose dendrites with no spines. There were three non-overlapping neurochemical populations of IM neurons, in descending order of abundance: (1) Spiny neurons that were positive for the striatal associated dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32+); (2) Aspiny neurons that expressed the calcium-binding protein calbindin (CB+); and (3) Aspiny neurons that expressed nitric oxide synthase (NOS+). The unique combinations of structural and neurochemical features of the three classes of IM neurons suggest different physiological properties and function. The three types of IM neurons were intermingled and likely interconnected in distinct ways, and were innervated by intrinsic neurons within the amygdala, or by external sources, in pathways that underlie fear conditioning and anxiety. PMID:27256508

  18. Hormonal influences on sexually differentiated behavior in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Kim

    2005-04-01

    Sexually dimorphic behavior in nonhuman primates results from behavioral predispositions organized by prenatal androgens. The rhesus monkey has been the primary primate model for understanding the hormonal organization of sexually dimorphic behavior. Historically, female fetuses have received high prenatal androgen doses to investigate the masculinizing and defeminizing effects of androgens. Such treatments masculinized juvenile and adult copulatory behavior and defeminized female-typical sexual initiation to adult estrogen treatment. Testosterone and the nonaromatizable androgen, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, produced similar effects suggesting that estrogenic metabolites of androgens are not critical for masculinization and defeminization in rhesus monkeys. Long duration androgen treatments masculinized both behavior and genitalia suggesting that socializing responses to the females' male-like appearance may have produced the behavioral changes. Treatments limited to 35 days early or late in gestation differentially affected behavioral and genital masculinization demonstrating direct organizing actions of prenatal androgens. Recent studies exposed fetal females to smaller doses of androgens and interfered with endogenous androgens using the anti-androgen flutamide. Low dose androgen treatment only significantly masculinized infant vocalizations and produced no behavioral defeminization. Females receiving late gestation flutamide showed masculinized infant vocalizations and defeminized interest in infants. Both late androgen and flutamide treatment hypermasculinized some male juvenile behaviors. Early flutamide treatment blocked full male genital masculinization, but did not alter their juvenile or adult behavior. The role of neuroendocrine feedback mechanisms in the flutamide effects is discussed. Sexually differentiated behavior ultimately reflects both hormonally organized behavioral predispositions and the social experience that converts these predispositions

  19. High reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Le Foll

    Full Text Available Although tobacco appears highly addictive in humans, there has been persistent controversy about the ability of its psychoactive ingredient nicotine to induce self-administration behavior in laboratory animals, bringing into question nicotine's role in reinforcing tobacco smoking. Because of ethical difficulties in inducing nicotine dependence in naïve human subjects, we explored reinforcing effects of nicotine in experimentally-naive non-human primates given access to nicotine for periods of time up to two years. Five squirrel monkeys with no experimental history were allowed to intravenously self-administer nicotine by pressing one of two levers. The number of presses on the active lever needed to obtain each injection was fixed (fixed-ratio schedule or increased progressively with successive injections during the session (progressive-ratio schedule, allowing evaluation of both reinforcing and motivational effects of nicotine under conditions of increasing response cost. Over time, a progressive shift toward high rates of responding on the active lever, but not the inactive lever, developed. The monkeys' behavior was clearly directed toward nicotine self-administration, rather than presentation of environmental stimuli associated with nicotine injection. Both schedules of reinforcement revealed a high motivation to self-administer nicotine, with monkeys continuing to press the lever when up to 600 lever-presses were needed for each injection of nicotine. Thus, nicotine, by itself, in the absence of behavioral or drug-exposure history, is a robust and highly effective reinforcer of drug-taking behavior in a non-human primate model predictive of human behavior. This supports the use of nicotinic ligands for the treatment of smokers, and this novel preclinical model offers opportunities to test future medications for the treatment of nicotine dependence.

  20. Emergent patterns of social affiliation in primates, a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Puga-Gonzalez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Many patterns of affiliative behaviour have been described for primates, for instance: reciprocation and exchange of grooming, grooming others of similar rank, reconciliation of fights, and preferential reconciliation with more valuable partners. For these patterns several functions and underlying cognitive processes have been suggested. It is, however, difficult to imagine how animals may combine these diverse considerations in their mind. Although the co-variation hypothesis, by limiting the social possibilities an individual has, constrains the number of cognitive considerations an individual has to take, it does not present an integrated theory of affiliative patterns either. In the present paper, after surveying patterns of affiliation in egalitarian and despotic macaques, we use an individual-based model with a high potential for self-organisation as a starting point for such an integrative approach. In our model, called GrooFiWorld, individuals group and, upon meeting each other, may perform a dominance interaction of which the outcomes of winning and losing are self-reinforcing. Besides, if individuals think they will be defeated, they consider grooming others. Here, the greater their anxiety is, the greater their "motivation" to groom others. Our model generates patterns similar to many affiliative patterns of empirical data. By merely increasing the intensity of aggression, affiliative patterns in the model change from those resembling egalitarian macaques to those resembling despotic ones. Our model produces such patterns without assuming in the mind of the individual the specific cognitive processes that are usually thought to underlie these patterns (such as recordkeeping of the acts given and received, a tendency to exchange, memory of the former fight, selective attraction to the former opponent, and estimation of the value of a relationship. Our model can be used as a null model to increase our understanding of affiliative

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-roaming primates at the Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria and their zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaya, A W; Udendeye, U J

    2011-07-01

    A study on the gastrointestinal parasites among free-living and captive primates at the Afi Mountain, Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria was undertaken for the first time to ascertain their zoonotic implications. Faecal samples were subjected to direct smear, floatation, quantitative estimation of helminth eggs (epg) and oocysts (opg), larval isolation and identification by modified Baerman's technique and oocyst sporulation for specie identification. Out of the 108 primates examined, 75(69.44%) were found to be shedding the ova and oocysts of several gastrointestinal parasites of which, the mona monkeys (Cercopethicus mona) 16(80%) followed by the white collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) 7 (77.78) had the highest (p Balantidium coli, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostosoma duodenale and Cryptosporidium species. Similarly, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), Sclater's white-nosed monkey (Cercopethicus erythrotis sclateri), white-collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) and others, had Ascaris lumbricoides or Ancylostoma duodenale. All captive primates were more infected than those under free-roam. The young (< 12 months) and females had higher infection rates (p < 0.05) than their counterparts. In conclusion, the primates harboured several parasites of zoonotic importance. PMID:22308652

  2. Alterations in mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum from heart and skeletal muscle of horizontally casted primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordahl, L. A.; Stone, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Horizontally body-casted rhesus monkeys are used as an animal model in order to study the physiological changes known as cardiovascular deconditioning which occur during weightless conditions. No difference was found between the experimental and control animals in heart mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation which indicates that no apparent changes occurred in the primary energy-producing system of the heart. A marked increase in cytochrome oxidase activity was observed in the casted primate heart mitochondria compared to controls, while a 25% decrease in respiratory substrate-supported calcium uptake was found in casted primate heart mitochondria compared to controls. Sacroplasmic reticulum isolated from the primate hearts revealed marked changes in calcium transport activities. It is concluded that the marked depression in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum functions indicates altered calcium homeostasis in the casted-primate heart which could be a factor in cardiovascular deconditioning.

  3. Enhancing nonhuman primate care and welfare through the use of positive reinforcement training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laule, Gail; Whittaker, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are excellent subjects for the enhancement of care and welfare through training. The broad range of species offers tremendous behavioral diversity, and individual primates show varying abilities to cope with the stressors of captivity, which differ depending on the venue. Biomedical facilities include small single cages, pair housing, and breeding corrals with large social groups. Zoos have social groupings of differing sizes, emphasizing public display and breeding. Sanctuaries have nonbreeding groups of varying sizes and often of mixed species. In every venue, the primary objective is to provide good quality care, with minimal stress. Positive reinforcement training improves care and reduces stress by enlisting a primate's voluntary cooperation with targeted activities, including both husbandry and medical procedures. It can also improve socialization, reduce abnormal behaviors, and increase species-typical behaviors. This article reviews the results already achieved with positive reinforcement training and suggests further possibilities for enhancing primate care and welfare.

  4. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Enders, Allen C; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    invasive type. In haplorhine primates, there is differentiation of trophoblast at the blastocyst stage into syncytial and cellular trophoblast. Implantation involves syncytiotrophoblast that first removes the uterine epithelium then consolidates at the basal lamina before continuing into the stroma...

  5. Anthropoid primates from the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): Data on early anthropoid evolution and biogeography

    OpenAIRE

    Marivaux, Laurent; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Baqri, Syed Rafiqul Hassan; Benammi, Mouloud; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Crochet, Jean-Yves; De Franceschi, Dario; Iqbal, Nayyer; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Métais, Grégoire; Roohi, Ghazala; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2005-01-01

    Asian tarsiid and sivaladapid primates maintained relictual distributions in southern Asia long after the extirpation of their close Holarctic relatives near the Eocene–Oligocene boundary. We report here the discovery of amphipithecid and eosimiid primates from Oligocene coastal deposits in Pakistan that demonstrate that stem anthropoids also survived in southern Asia beyond the climatic deterioration that characterized the Eocene–Oligocene transition. These fossils provide data on temporal a...

  6. Socialization Strategies and Disease Transmission in Captive Colonies of Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Schapiro, Steven J.; Bernacky, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    In captive research environments for nonhuman primates (NHP), social housing strategies are often in conflict with protocols designed to minimize disease transmission. This is particularly true in breeding colonies, and is especially relevant when attempting to eliminate specific pathogens from a population of primates. Numerous strategies have been used to establish such specific pathogen free (SPF) breeding colonies (primarily of macaques), ranging from nursery rearing of neonates to single...

  7. Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Yoav Gilad; Molly Przeworski; Doron Lancet

    2004-01-01

    Olfactory receptor (OR) genes constitute the molecular basis for the sense of smell and are encoded by the largest gene family in mammalian genomes. Previous studies suggested that the proportion of pseudogenes in the OR gene family is significantly larger in humans than in other apes and significantly larger in apes than in the mouse. To investigate the process of degeneration of the olfactory repertoire in primates, we estimated the proportion of OR pseudogenes in 19 primate species by surv...

  8. Infanticide and infant defence by males--modelling the conditions in primate multi-male groups

    OpenAIRE

    Broom, M.; Borries, C.; A. Koenig

    2004-01-01

    Infanticide by primate males was considered rare if groups contain more than one adult male because, owing to lower paternity certainty, a male should be less likely to benefit from infanticide. Guided by recent evidence for strong variation of infanticide in primate multi-male groups, we modelled the conditions for when infanticide should occur for a group with a resident and an immigrant male. Setting the parameters (e.g. infant mortality, reduction of interbirth interval, life-time reprodu...

  9. Fluorescence in situ hybridization to chromosomes as a tool to understand human and primate genome evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wienberg, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    For the last 15 years molecular cytogenetic techniques have been extensively used to study primate evolution. Molecular probes were helpful to distinguish mammalian chromosomes and chromosome segments on the basis of their DNA content rather than solely on morphological features such as banding patterns. Various landmark rearrangements have been identified for most of the nodes in primate phylogeny while chromosome banding still provides helpful reference maps. Fluorescence in situ hybridizat...

  10. The use of non-human primates as animal models for the study of hepatitis viruses

    OpenAIRE

    C.L. Vitral; C.F.T. Yoshida; A.M.C. Gaspar

    1998-01-01

    Hepatitis viruses belong to different families and have in common a striking hepatotropism and restrictions for propagation in cell culture. The transmissibility of hepatitis is in great part limited to non-human primates. Enterically transmitted hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus) can induce hepatitis in a number of Old World and New World monkey species, while the host range of non-human primates susceptible to hepatitis viruses transmitted by the parenteral route (h...

  11. Developing a Comprehensive Social Psychology with Shared Explanations of Primate Social Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Vanman, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    Two primate social psychologies have developed in recent decades—one that focuses on the social behaviors of humans and the other on nonhuman primates. Despite the gains in knowledge in each field of social psychology, the two research traditions seem to be largely unaware of the other’s existence. Our common evolutionary ancestry makes this ignorance about the “other” social psychology especially troublesome for both fields. This article explores possible points of mutual interest that might...

  12. Current research on the organization and function of the visual system in primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaas JH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jon H Kaas, Pooja Balaram Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAll primates, including humans, are highly visual creatures.1–3 We rely heavily on visual cues for basic adaptive behaviors such as finding food, mates, and shelter; as well as more complex behaviors such as parental care and the formation of social hierarchies. Throughout the course of primate evolution, our dependence on visual cues has increased with each adaptive advantage acquired from visually guided behavior; and so has the demand for greater and more efficient processing of visual information in primate brains. Consequently, the number, size, and complexity of brain structures involved in visual processing has expanded dramatically in the primate order, far more than those of any other species in the mammalian lineage.2,4 As we have learned to interact with the world using visual cues, our brains have evolved to absorb, manipulate, and react to visual information in increasingly effective ways. Individual brain structures dedicated to vision in primates also frequently exhibit anatomical and functional specializations that are not present in other mammals. These adaptations are not present in most nonprimate mammals, partly because many species rely on other sensory modalities for their individual behaviors. Thus, understanding how we, as humans, perceive the visual world around us begins with learning how vision is processed in the primate brain. Furthermore, learning how vision in primates differs both structurally and functionally from vision in nonprimate mammals, and determining how those changes enable adaptive traits in the primate lineage, will allow us to understand the truly unique phenomenon of human visual behavior.

  13. Noise-Induced Frequency Modifications of Tamarin Vocalizations: Implications for Noise Compensation in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Cara F Hotchkin; Susan E Parks; Weiss, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that nonhuman primates have limited flexibility in the frequency content of their vocalizations, particularly when compared to human speech. Consistent with this notion, several nonhuman primate species have demonstrated noise-induced changes in call amplitude and duration, with no evidence of changes to spectral content. This experiment used broad- and narrow-band noise playbacks to investigate the vocal control of two call types produced by cotton-top tamarins (Sa...

  14. Variable responses of human and non-human primate gut microbiomes to a Western diet

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Katherine R.; Carl J Yeoman; Cerda, Gabriela; A. Schmitt, Christopher; Cramer, Jennifer Danzy; Miller, Margret E. Berg; Gomez, Andres; R. Turner, Trudy; Wilson, Brenda A.; Stumpf, Rebecca M.; Nelson, Karen E.; Bryan A White; Knight, Rob; Leigh, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Background The human gut microbiota interacts closely with human diet and physiology. To better understand the mechanisms behind this relationship, gut microbiome research relies on complementing human studies with manipulations of animal models, including non-human primates. However, due to unique aspects of human diet and physiology, it is likely that host-gut microbe interactions operate differently in humans and non-human primates. Results Here, we show that the human microbiome reacts di...

  15. On folivory, competition, and intelligence: generalism, overgeneralizations, and models of primate evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Sayers, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Considerations of primate behavioral evolution often proceed by assuming the ecological and competitive milieus of particular taxa via their relative exploitation of gross food types, such as fruits versus leaves. Although this “fruit/leaf dichotomy” has been repeatedly criticized, it continues to be implicitly invoked in discussions of primate socioecology and female social relationships, and explicitly invoked in models of brain evolution. An expanding literature suggests that such views ha...

  16. UniPrimer: A Web-Based Primer Design Tool for Comparative Analyses of Primate Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nomin Batnyam; Jimin Lee; Jungnam Lee; Seung Bok Hong; Sejong Oh; Kyudong Han

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequences of various primates have been released due to advanced DNA-sequencing technology. A combination of computational data mining and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to validate the data is an excellent method for conducting comparative genomics. Thus, designing primers for PCR is an essential procedure for a comparative analysis of primate genomes. Here, we developed and introduced UniPrimer for use in those studies. UniPrimer is a web-based tool that designs PCR-...

  17. Characterization of the Fecal Microbiome from Non-Human Wild Primates Reveals Species Specific Microbial Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Suleyman Yildirim; Yeoman, Carl J.; Maksim Sipos; Manolito Torralba; Brenda A Wilson; Goldberg, Tony L; Stumpf, Rebecca M.; Leigh, Steven R.; White, Bryan A.; Nelson, Karen E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Host-associated microbes comprise an integral part of animal digestive systems and these interactions have a long evolutionary history. It has been hypothesized that the gastrointestinal microbiome of humans and other non-human primates may have played significant roles in host evolution by facilitating a range of dietary adaptations. We have undertaken a comparative sequencing survey of the gastrointestinal microbiomes of several non-human primate species, with the goal of better...

  18. Novel adenoviruses in wild primates: a high level of genetic diversity and evidence of zoonotic transmissions.

    OpenAIRE

    Wevers, Diana; Metzger, Sonja; Babweteera, Fred; Bieberbach, Marc; Boesch, Christophe; Cameron, Kenneth; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Cranfield, Mike; Gray, Maryke; Harris, Laurie A.; Head, Josephine; Jeffery, Kathryn; Knauf, Sascha; Lankester, Felix; Siv Aina J. Leendertz

    2011-01-01

    Adenoviruses (AdVs) broadly infect vertebrate hosts, including a variety of nonhuman primates (NHPs). In the present study, we identified AdVs in NHPs living in their natural habitats, and through the combination of phylogenetic analyses and information on the habitats and epidemiological settings, we detected possible horizontal transmission events between NHPs and humans. Wild NHPs were analyzed with a pan-primate AdV-specific PCR using a degenerate nested primer set that targets the highly...

  19. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Giardia duodenalis ISOLATES FROM NONHUMAN PRIMATES HOUSED IN A BRAZILIAN ZOO

    OpenAIRE

    Erica Boarato David; Mariella Patti; Silvana Torossian Coradi; Teresa Cristina Goulart Oliveira-Sequeira; Paulo Eduardo Martins Ribolla; Semiramis Guimaraes

    2014-01-01

    Giardia infections in captive nonhuman primates (NHP) housed at a Brazilian zoo were investigated in order to address their zoonotic potential. Fresh fecal samples were collected from the floors of 22 enclosures where 47 primates of 18 different species were housed. The diagnosis of intestinal parasites after concentration by sedimentation and flotation methods revealed the following parasites and their frequencies: Giardia (18%); Entamoeba spp. (18%); Endolimax nana (4.5%); Iodamoeba spp. (4...

  20. Human and non-human primate genomes share hotspots of positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Enard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Among primates, genome-wide analysis of recent positive selection is currently limited to the human species because it requires extensive sampling of genotypic data from many individuals. The extent to which genes positively selected in human also present adaptive changes in other primates therefore remains unknown. This question is important because a gene that has been positively selected independently in the human and in other primate lineages may be less likely to be involved in human specific phenotypic changes such as dietary habits or cognitive abilities. To answer this question, we analysed heterozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the genomes of single human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and macaque individuals using a new method aiming to identify selective sweeps genome-wide. We found an unexpectedly high number of orthologous genes exhibiting signatures of a selective sweep simultaneously in several primate species, suggesting the presence of hotspots of positive selection. A similar significant excess is evident when comparing genes positively selected during recent human evolution with genes subjected to positive selection in their coding sequence in other primate lineages and identified using a different test. These findings are further supported by comparing several published human genome scans for positive selection with our findings in non-human primate genomes. We thus provide extensive evidence that the co-occurrence of positive selection in humans and in other primates at the same genetic loci can be measured with only four species, an indication that it may be a widespread phenomenon. The identification of positive selection in humans alongside other primates is a powerful tool to outline those genes that were selected uniquely during recent human evolution.

  1. Human and non-human primate genomes share hotspots of positive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enard, David; Depaulis, Frantz; Roest Crollius, Hugues

    2010-02-01

    Among primates, genome-wide analysis of recent positive selection is currently limited to the human species because it requires extensive sampling of genotypic data from many individuals. The extent to which genes positively selected in human also present adaptive changes in other primates therefore remains unknown. This question is important because a gene that has been positively selected independently in the human and in other primate lineages may be less likely to be involved in human specific phenotypic changes such as dietary habits or cognitive abilities. To answer this question, we analysed heterozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomes of single human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and macaque individuals using a new method aiming to identify selective sweeps genome-wide. We found an unexpectedly high number of orthologous genes exhibiting signatures of a selective sweep simultaneously in several primate species, suggesting the presence of hotspots of positive selection. A similar significant excess is evident when comparing genes positively selected during recent human evolution with genes subjected to positive selection in their coding sequence in other primate lineages and identified using a different test. These findings are further supported by comparing several published human genome scans for positive selection with our findings in non-human primate genomes. We thus provide extensive evidence that the co-occurrence of positive selection in humans and in other primates at the same genetic loci can be measured with only four species, an indication that it may be a widespread phenomenon. The identification of positive selection in humans alongside other primates is a powerful tool to outline those genes that were selected uniquely during recent human evolution. PMID:20140238

  2. Macroevolutionary dynamics and historical biogeography of primate diversification inferred from a species supermatrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S Springer

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships, divergence times, and patterns of biogeographic descent among primate species are both complex and contentious. Here, we generate a robust molecular phylogeny for 70 primate genera and 367 primate species based on a concatenation of 69 nuclear gene segments and ten mitochondrial gene sequences, most of which were extracted from GenBank. Relaxed clock analyses of divergence times with 14 fossil-calibrated nodes suggest that living Primates last shared a common ancestor 71-63 Ma, and that divergences within both Strepsirrhini and Haplorhini are entirely post-Cretaceous. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction of non-avian dinosaurs played an important role in the diversification of placental mammals. Previous queries into primate historical biogeography have suggested Africa, Asia, Europe, or North America as the ancestral area of crown primates, but were based on methods that were coopted from phylogeny reconstruction. By contrast, we analyzed our molecular phylogeny with two methods that were developed explicitly for ancestral area reconstruction, and find support for the hypothesis that the most recent common ancestor of living Primates resided in Asia. Analyses of primate macroevolutionary dynamics provide support for a diversification rate increase in the late Miocene, possibly in response to elevated global mean temperatures, and are consistent with the fossil record. By contrast, diversification analyses failed to detect evidence for rate-shift changes near the Eocene-Oligocene boundary even though the fossil record provides clear evidence for a major turnover event ("Grande Coupure" at this time. Our results highlight the power and limitations of inferring diversification dynamics from molecular phylogenies, as well as the sensitivity of diversification analyses to different species concepts.

  3. Did trichromatic color vision and red hair color coevolve in primates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, Jason M; Heesy, Christopher P; Bradley, Brenda J

    2013-07-01

    Reddish pelage and red hair ornaments have evolved many times, independently, during primate evolution. It is generally assumed that these red-coat phenotypes, like red skin phenotypes, play a role in sociosexual signaling and, thus evolved in tandem with conspecific color vision. This study examines the phylogenetic distribution of color vision and pelage coloration across the primate order to ask: (1) did red pelage and trichromacy coevolve; or (2) did trichromacy evolve first, and then subsequently red pelage evolved as an exaptation? We collected quantitative, color-corrected photographic color data for 142 museum research skins from 92 species representing 41 genera spanning all major primate lineages. For each species, we quantified the ratio of Red/Green values (from a RGB color model) at 20 anatomical landmarks. For these same species, we compiled data on color vision type (routine trichromatic, polymorphic, routine dichromatic, monochromatic) and data on variables that potentially covary with visual system (VS) and coloration, including activity pattern and body mass dimorphism (proxy for sexual selection). We also considered whether the long-term storage of research skins might influence coloration. Therefore, we included the time since the specimen was collected as an additional predictor. Analyzing the data with phylogenetic generalized least squares models, we found that the amount of red hair present in primates is associated with differences in VSs, but not in the direction expected. Surprisingly, trichromatic primate species generally exhibited less red hair compared to red-green colorblind species. Thus, our results do not support the general assumption that color vision and red pelage coloration are a coevolutionary product of sociosexual signaling in primates. In addition, we did not find an effect of activity pattern, body mass dimorphism, or time since collection on the redness of primate hair. Our results have important implications for the

  4. Towards Transgenic Primates:What can we learn from mouse genetics?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Phillip; L.; TSIEN; Joe; Z.

    2009-01-01

    Considering the great physiological and behavioral similarities with humans,monkeys represent the ideal models not only for the study of complex cognitive behavior but also for the preclinical research and development of novel therapeutics for treating human diseases.Various powerful genetic tech-nologies initially developed for making mouse models are being explored for generating transgenic primate models.We review the latest genetic engineering technologies and discuss the potentials and limitations for systematic production of transgenic primates.

  5. Evidence of public engagement with science: visitor learning at a zoo-housed primate research centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget M Waller

    Full Text Available Primate behavioural and cognitive research is increasingly conducted on direct public view in zoo settings. The potential of such facilities for public engagement with science is often heralded, but evidence of tangible, positive effects on public understanding is rare. Here, the effect of a new zoo-based primate research centre on visitor behaviour, learning and attitudes was assessed using a quasi-experimental design. Zoo visitors approached the primate research centre more often when a scientist was present and working with the primates, and reported greater awareness of primates (including conservation compared to when the scientist was not present. Visitors also reported greater perceived learning when the scientist was present. Installation of information signage had no main effect on visitor attitudes or learning. Visitors who interacted with the signage, however, demonstrated increased knowledge and understanding when asked about the specific information present on the signs (which was related to the ongoing facial expression research at the research centre. The findings show that primate behaviour research centres on public view can have a demonstrable and beneficial effect on public understanding of science.

  6. Properties of virion transactivator proteins encoded by primate cytomegaloviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Peter A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a betaherpesvirus that causes severe disease in situations where the immune system is immature or compromised. HCMV immediate early (IE gene expression is stimulated by the virion phosphoprotein pp71, encoded by open reading frame (ORF UL82, and this transactivation activity is important for the efficient initiation of viral replication. It is currently recognized that pp71 acts to overcome cellular intrinsic defences that otherwise block viral IE gene expression, and that interactions of pp71 with the cell proteins Daxx and ATRX are important for this function. A further property of pp71 is the ability to enable prolonged gene expression from quiescent herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 genomes. Non-human primate cytomegaloviruses encode homologs of pp71, but there is currently no published information that addresses their effects on gene expression and modes of action. Results The UL82 homolog encoded by simian cytomegalovirus (SCMV, strain Colburn, was identified and cloned. This ORF, named S82, was cloned into an HSV-1 vector, as were those from baboon, rhesus monkey and chimpanzee cytomegaloviruses. The use of an HSV-1 vector enabled expression of the UL82 homologs in a range of cell types, and permitted investigation of their abilities to direct prolonged gene expression from quiescent genomes. The results show that all UL82 homologs activate gene expression, and that neither host cell type nor promoter target sequence has major effects on these activities. Surprisingly, the UL82 proteins specified by non-human primate cytomegaloviruses, unlike pp71, did not direct long term expression from quiescent HSV-1 genomes. In addition, significant differences were observed in the intranuclear localization of the UL82 homologs, and in their effects on Daxx. Strikingly, S82 mediated the release of Daxx from nuclear domain 10 substructures much more rapidly than pp71 or the other proteins tested. All

  7. Evolution of pro-protamine P2 genes in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, J D; Dixon, G H

    1993-06-01

    Protamines P1 and P2 form a family of small basic peptides that represent the major sperm proteins in placental mammals. In human and mouse protamine P2 is one of the most abundant sperm proteins. The protamine P2 gene codes for a P2 precursor, pro-P2 which is later processed by proteolytic cleavages in its N-terminal region to form the mature P2 protamines. We have used polymerase chain amplification to directly sequence the pro-P2 genes of the five major primate families: red howler (Alouatta seniculus) is a New World monkey (Cebidae); the two macaque species, Macaca mulatta and M. nemistrina are Old World monkeys (Cercopithecidae), the gibbon, Hylobates lar, represents one branch of the apes (Hylobatidae); the orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus, gorilla, Gorilla gorilla and two species of chimpanzee Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes represent a second ape family (Pongidae). These pro-P2 genes are compared with that of human [Domenjoud, L., Nussbaum, G., Adham, I. M., Greeske, G. & Engel, W. (1990) Genomics 8, 127-133]. The overall size and organization of the genes are conserved within the group. The mean length of pro-P2 is 101 residues, with an increase to 102 in M. nemistrina and a decrease to 99 residues in red howler (A. seniculus). In gorilla and red howler one of two 79-bp tandem repeats that occurs 3' of the gene is deleted. Of the 101 deduced amino acids examined, an amino acid change occurs in one or more primates at 45 positions. Considering only the most recently diverged group, the human/gorilla/chimpanzee clade, this represents a very high mutation rate of 0.99 changes/100 sites in 10(6) years. This rapid mutation rate is characteristic of both members of the protamine gene family, P1 and P2. Consideration of the variable nature of the sequences at the multiple sites of proteolysis during the processing of the pro-P2 indicates either that there are several processing enzymes of differing specificities, or more likely that the folded structure of the pro-P2

  8. Cardiac sympathetic denervation in 6-OHDA-treated nonhuman primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Joers

    Full Text Available Cardiac sympathetic neurodegeneration and dysautonomia affect patients with sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD and are currently proposed as prodromal signs of PD. We have recently developed a nonhuman primate model of cardiac dysautonomia by iv 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA. Our in vivo findings included decreased cardiac uptake of a sympathetic radioligand and circulating catecholamines; here we report the postmortem characterization of the model. Ten adult rhesus monkeys (5-17 yrs old were used in this study. Five animals received 6-OHDA (50 mg/kg i.v. and five were age-matched controls. Three months post-neurotoxin the animals were euthanized; hearts and adrenal glands were processed for immunohistochemistry. Quantification of immunoreactivity (ir of stainings was performed by an investigator blind to the treatment group using NIH ImageJ software (for cardiac bundles and adrenals, area above threshold and optical density and MBF StereoInvestigator (for cardiac fibers, area fraction fractionator probe. Sympathetic cardiac nerve bundle analysis and fiber area density showed a significant reduction in global cardiac tyrosine hydroxylase-ir (TH; catecholaminergic marker in 6-OHDA animals compared to controls. Quantification of protein gene protein 9.5 (pan-neuronal marker positive cardiac fibers showed a significant deficit in 6-OHDA monkeys compared to controls and correlated with TH-ir fiber area. Semi-quantitative evaluation of human leukocyte antigen-ir (inflammatory marker and nitrotyrosine-ir (oxidative stress marker did not show significant changes 3 months post-neurotoxin. Cardiac nerve bundle α-synuclein-ir (presynaptic protein was reduced (trend in 6-OHDA treated monkeys; insoluble proteinase-K resistant α-synuclein (typical of PD pathology was not observed. In the adrenal medulla, 6-OHDA monkeys had significantly reduced TH-ir and aminoacid decarboxylase-ir. Our results confirm that systemic 6-OHDA dosing to nonhuman primates

  9. PrimiOtic and PrimiOtic Plus: novel probiotic for primates suffering from idiopathic chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Jaime L; Froberg-Fejko, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic chronic diarrhea of nonhuman primates is a major gastrointestinal disorder and a leading cause of serious morbidity in nonhuman primates kept in captivity. Many animals are not responsive to traditional treatments. Millions of dollars are spent annually on diagnosis and supportive care of these animals. Probiotics like Bio-Serv's PrimiOtic and PrimiOtic Plus can help to reduce the incidence of diarrhea in captive nonhuman primates by supporting the natural microflora in the gut. PMID:26398619

  10. Assessing olfactory performance in a New World primate, Saimiri sciureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, M; Hudson, R

    1993-01-01

    Using a task designed to simulate olfactory-guided foraging behavior, this study demonstrates for the first time that olfactory performance can be reliably assessed in squirrel monkeys. Small flip-top vials were fixed in random order to the arms of a climbing frame and equipped with odorized strips signalling either that they contained a peanut food reward (S+) or that they did not (S-), and three adult female monkeys were allowed 1 min to harvest as many baited nuts from this tree as possible. Given five 1-min trials per day, animals took between 15 and 25 days to reach the criterion of 80% correct choices, could readily transfer to new S+ or S- stimuli, and could remember the task even after a 1-month break. The precision and consistency of the monkeys' performance in tests of discrimination ability and sensitivity demonstrate the suitability of this paradigm for assessing olfactory function, and a first test of human subjects using the same cups and odorants showed that it may also be used to directly compare olfactory performance in human and nonhuman primates. PMID:8434074

  11. The prevalence of Microfilaria spp. in primates of colombian zoos

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    Rosmery Ladino De La Hortúa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Microfilaria spp in 266 human and non human primates of Colombian zoos located between 5 and 2850 meters over sea level (mosl was of 6.39% (17/266. Most of them were adult males Saguinus leucopus, Saguinus oedipus, Saimiri sciureus and Aotus sp; corresponding to Matecaña, Santa Fe and Santacruz zoos, located between 1.001-2.000 mosl. The microfilarias species observed in this study are morphologically compatible with Dipetalonema perstans and Microfilaria bolivarensis, using direct drop technique, Woo, extended of central blood and capillary dyed with Giemsa and Knott, The most sensible technique was extended of central blood dyed with Giemsa. The statistical program used was Epi info 6.1, to determinate prevalence by sex, age, species, zoo, technique and altitude, with a significance level of (P = 0.05. The Saguinus leucopus showed high quantities of microfilaremias with sickness signs, so they were considered reservoirs and / or porter of the microfilarias.

  12. Detection of non-primate hepaciviruses in UK dogs.

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    El-Attar, L M R; Mitchell, J A; Brooks Brownlie, H; Priestnall, S L; Brownlie, J

    2015-10-01

    Non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV) has been identified in dogs, horses, bats and wild rodents. The presence of NPHV in dogs outside of the USA however is yet to be established. Here we describe for the first time the detection of NPHV in the UK dog population (described throughout the manuscript as CnNPHV). We examined tissues collected from dogs housed in a rehoming kennel where respiratory disease was endemic. CnNPHV RNA was detected in the tracheal tissues of 48/210 dogs by RT-PCR, and in the liver, lung and/or tracheal tissues of 12/20 dogs. The presence of CnNPHV RNA, and its tropism was confirmed by in situ hybridisation. Histopathological examination demonstrated a trend toward higher histopathological scores in CnNPHV RNA positive respiratory tissues, although, this was not statistically significant. Our findings broaden the geographic distribution and our understanding of CnNPHV. Further evidence of CnNPHV replication in canids warrants investigation. PMID:26086431

  13. Comparison of experimental respiratory tularemia in three nonhuman primate species.

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    Glynn, Audrey R; Alves, Derron A; Frick, Ondraya; Erwin-Cohen, Rebecca; Porter, Aimee; Norris, Sarah; Waag, David; Nalca, Aysegul

    2015-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis, which is transmitted to humans most commonly by contact with infected animals, tick bites, or inhalation of aerosolized bacteria. F. tularensis is highly infectious via the aerosol route; inhalation of as few as 10-50 organisms can cause pneumonic tularemia. Left untreated, the pneumonic form has more than >30% case-fatality rate but with early antibiotic intervention can be reduced to 3%. This study compared tularemia disease progression across three species of nonhuman primates [African green monkey (AGM), cynomolgus macaque (CM), and rhesus macaque (RM)] following aerosolized F. tularensis Schu S4 exposure. Groups of the animals exposed to various challenge doses were observed for clinical signs of infection and blood samples were analyzed to characterize the disease pathogenesis. Whereas the AGMs and CMs succumbed to disease following challenge doses of 40 and 32 colony forming units (CFU), respectively, the RM lethal dose was 276,667 CFU. Following all challenge doses that caused disease, the NHPs experienced weight loss, bacteremia, fever as early as 4 days post exposure, and tissue burden. Necrotizing-to-pyogranulomatous lesions were observed most commonly in the lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Overall, the CM model consistently manifested pathological responses similar to those resulting from inhalation of F. tularensis in humans and thereby most closely emulates human tularemia disease. The RM model displayed a higher tolerance to infection and survived exposures of up to 15,593 CFU of aerosolized F. tularensis.

  14. Adaptations for social cognition in the primate brain.

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    Platt, Michael L; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L

    2016-02-01

    Studies of the factors affecting reproductive success in group-living monkeys have traditionally focused on competitive traits, like the acquisition of high dominance rank. Recent research, however, indicates that the ability to form cooperative social bonds has an equally strong effect on fitness. Two implications follow. First, strong social bonds make individuals' fitness interdependent and the 'free-rider' problem disappears. Second, individuals must make adaptive choices that balance competition and cooperation-often with the same partners. The proximate mechanisms underlying these behaviours are only just beginning to be understood. Recent results from cognitive and systems neuroscience provide us some evidence that many social and non-social decisions are mediated ultimately by abstract, domain-general neural mechanisms. However, other populations of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, amygdala and parietal cortex specifically encode the type, importance and value of social information. Whether these specialized populations of neurons arise by selection or through developmental plasticity in response to the challenges of social life remains unknown. Many brain areas are homologous and show similar patterns of activity in human and non-human primates. In both groups, cortical activity is modulated by hormones like oxytocin and by the action of certain genes that may affect individual differences in behaviour. Taken together, results suggest that differences in cooperation between the two groups are a matter of degree rather than constituting a fundamental, qualitative distinction. PMID:26729935

  15. Retroviruses and inflammatory myopathies in humans and primates.

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    Dalakas, M C

    1993-11-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1), the human foamy retrovirus and the simian immunodeficiency viruses have been associated with the development of an inflammatory myopathy in humans and primates. The myopathy caused by HIV and HTLV-1 is not due to direct infection of the muscle by these viruses, but rather due to an immunopathologic process triggered by the viruses, mediated by autoaggressive CD8+ cells in the context of MHC-class I antigen expression. This has been based on a series of studies utilizing immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, and co-cultivation of human myotubes with the viruses or with HIV-1 and HTLV-1-infected homologous lymphoid cells. Because the clinical, histological and immunological picture of patients with retroviral-associated inflammatory myopathies is identical to that of patients with retroviral-negative inflammatory myopathy, there is a reasonable possibility that retroviruses may be candidate viruses in triggering inflammatory myopathies. In recent years, the antiretroviral drug AZT (Zidovudine), commonly used for the treatment of AIDS, has been shown to cause a distinct mitochondrial myopathy characterized by depletion of the muscle mitochondrial DNA due to AZT's ability to inhibit the gamma-DNA polymerase of the mitochondrial matrix. Distinction of the AZT-myopathy is clinically important because it responds to discontinuation of AZT and to administration of another antiretroviral agent such as ddI or ddC.

  16. Gene Expression Profiling in the Hibernating Primate, Cheirogaleus Medius.

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    Faherty, Sheena L; Villanueva-Cañas, José Luis; Klopfer, Peter H; Albà, M Mar; Yoder, Anne D

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a complex physiological response that some mammalian species employ to evade energetic demands. Previous work in mammalian hibernators suggests that hibernation is activated not by a set of genes unique to hibernators, but by differential expression of genes that are present in all mammals. This question of universal genetic mechanisms requires further investigation and can only be tested through additional investigations of phylogenetically dispersed species. To explore this question, we use RNA-Seq to investigate gene expression dynamics as they relate to the varying physiological states experienced throughout the year in a group of primate hibernators-Madagascar's dwarf lemurs (genus Cheirogaleus). In a novel experimental approach, we use longitudinal sampling of biological tissues as a method for capturing gene expression profiles from the same individuals throughout their annual hibernation cycle. We identify 90 candidate genes that have variable expression patterns when comparing two active states (Active 1 and Active 2) with a torpor state. These include genes that are involved in metabolic pathways, feeding behavior, and circadian rhythms, as might be expected to correlate with seasonal physiological state changes. The identified genes appear to be critical for maintaining the health of an animal that undergoes prolonged periods of metabolic depression concurrent with the hibernation phenotype. By focusing on these differentially expressed genes in dwarf lemurs, we compare gene expression patterns in previously studied mammalian hibernators. Additionally, by employing evolutionary rate analysis, we find that hibernation-related genes do not evolve under positive selection in hibernating species relative to nonhibernators. PMID:27412611

  17. Chorionic gonadotropin and uterine dialogue in the primate

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    Strakova Zuzana

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Implantation is a complex spatio-temporal interaction between the growing embryo and the mother, where both players need to be highly synchronized to be able to establish an effective communication to ensure a successful pregnancy. Using our in vivo baboon model we have shown that Chorionic Gonadotropin (CG, as the major trophoblast derived signal, not only rescues the corpus luteum but also modulates the uterine environment in preparation for implantation. This response is characterized by an alteration in both the morphological and biochemical activity in the three major cell types: luminal and glandular epithelium and stromal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CG and factors from the ovary have a synergistic effect on the receptive endometrium. Novel local effects of CG which influence the immune system to permit the survival of the fetal allograft and prevent endometrial cell death are also discussed in this review. An alternate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activation pathway observed in epithelial endometrial cells and the possibility of differential expression of the CG/LH-R isoforms during gestation, open many questions regarding the mechanism of action of CG and its signal transduction pathway within the primate endometrium.

  18. A female signal reflects MHC genotype in a social primate

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    Benavides Julio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Males from many species are believed to advertise their genetic quality through striking ornaments that attract mates. Yet the connections between signal expression, body condition and the genes associated with individual quality are rarely elucidated. This is particularly problematic for the signals of females in species with conventional sex roles, whose evolutionary significance has received little attention and is poorly understood. Here we explore these questions in the sexual swellings of female primates, which are among the most conspicuous of mammalian sexual signals and highly variable in size, shape and colour. We investigated the relationships between two components of sexual swellings (size and shape, body condition, and genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC in a wild baboon population (Papio ursinus where males prefer large swellings. Results Although there was no effect of MHC diversity on the sexual swelling components, one specific MHC supertype (S1 was associated with poor body condition together with swellings of small size and a particular shape. The variation in swelling characteristics linked with the possession of supertype S1 appeared to be partially mediated by body condition and remained detectable when taking into account the possession of other supertypes. Conclusions These findings suggest a pathway from immunity genes to sexual signals via physical condition for the first time in females. They further indicate that mechanisms of sexual selection traditionally assigned to males can also operate in females.

  19. Polymorphism, monomorphism, and sequences in conserved microsatellites in primate species.

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    Blanquer-Maumont, A; Crouau-Roy, B

    1995-10-01

    Dimeric short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in the mammalian genome. Genetic variation at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis, for the identification of individuals, and may be useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. In this paper, we analyze the variability and the sequences of a segment including three microsatellites, first described in man, in several species of primates (chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, and macaque) using the heterologous primers (man primers). This region is located on the human chromosome 6p, near the tumor necrosis factor genes, in the major histocompatibility complex. The fact that these primers work in all species studied indicates that they are conserved throughout the different lineages of the two superfamilies, the Hominoidea and the Cercopithecidea, represented by the macaques. However, the intervening sequence displays intraspecific and interspecific variability. The sites of base substitutions and the insertion/deletion events are not evenly distributed within this region. The data suggest that it is necessary to have a minimal number of repeats to increase the rate of mutation sufficiently to allow the development of polymorphism. In some species, the microsatellites present single base variations which reduce the number of contiguous repeats, thus apparently slowing the rate of additional slippage events. Species with such variations or a low number of repeats are monomorphic. These microsatellite sequences are informative in the comparison of closely related species and reflect the phylogeny of the Old World monkeys, apes, and man. PMID:7563137

  20. Functional and cellular adaptation to weightlessness in primates

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    Bodine-Fowler, Sue C.; Pierotti, David J.; Talmadge, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Considerable data has been collected on the response of hindlimb muscles to unloading due to both spaceflight and hindlimb suspension. One generalized response to a reduction in load is muscle fiber atrophy, although not all muscles respond the same. Our understanding of how muscles respond to microgravity, however, has come primarily from the examination of hindlimb muscles in the unrestrained rate in space. The non-human primate spaceflight paradigm differs considerably from the rodent paradigm in that the monkeys are restrained, usually in a sitting position, while in space. Recently, we examined the effects of microgravity on muscles of the Rhesus monkey by taking biopsies of selected hindlimb muscles prior to and following spaceflights of 14 and 12 day durations (Cosmos 2044 and 2229). Our results revealed that the monkey's response to microgravity differs from that of the rat. The apparent differences in the atrophic response of the hindlimb muscles of the monkey and rat to spaceflight may be attributed to the following: (1) a species difference; (2) a difference in the manner in which the animals were maintained during the flight (i.e., chair restraint or 'free-floating'); and/or (3) an ability of the monkeys to counteract the effects of spaceflight with resistive exercise.

  1. A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development.

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    Bakken, Trygve E; Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Dalley, Rachel A; Royall, Joshua J; Lemon, Tracy; Shapouri, Sheila; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Bertagnolli, Darren; Bickley, Kristopher; Boe, Andrew; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Byrnes, Emi; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cate, Shelby; Chapin, Mike; Chen, Jefferey; Dee, Nick; Desta, Tsega; Dolbeare, Tim A; Dotson, Nadia; Ebbert, Amanda; Fulfs, Erich; Gee, Garrett; Gilbert, Terri L; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Ben; Gu, Guangyu; Hall, Jon; Haradon, Zeb; Haynor, David R; Hejazinia, Nika; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Howard, Robert; Jochim, Jay; Kinnunen, Marty; Kriedberg, Ali; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Luong, Lon; Mastan, Naveed; May, Ryan; Melchor, Jose; Mosqueda, Nerick; Mott, Erika; Ngo, Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana; Pendergraft, Julie; Potekhina, Lydia; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Roberts, Tyson; Rogers, Brandon; Roll, Kate; Rosen, David; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Shi, Shu; Sjoquist, Nathan; Sodt, Andy J; Townsend, Robbie; Velasquez, Lissette; Wagley, Udi; Wakeman, Wayne B; White, Cassandra; Bennett, Crissa; Wu, Jennifer; Young, Rob; Youngstrom, Brian L; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Hohmann, John G; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Molnár, Zoltán; Phillips, John W; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Amaral, David G; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed S

    2016-07-21

    The transcriptional underpinnings of brain development remain poorly understood, particularly in humans and closely related non-human primates. We describe a high-resolution transcriptional atlas of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) brain development that combines dense temporal sampling of prenatal and postnatal periods with fine anatomical division of cortical and subcortical regions associated with human neuropsychiatric disease. Gene expression changes more rapidly before birth, both in progenitor cells and maturing neurons. Cortical layers and areas acquire adult-like molecular profiles surprisingly late in postnatal development. Disparate cell populations exhibit distinct developmental timing of gene expression, but also unexpected synchrony of processes underlying neural circuit construction including cell projection and adhesion. Candidate risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders including primary microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia show disease-specific spatiotemporal enrichment within developing neocortex. Human developmental expression trajectories are more similar to monkey than rodent, although approximately 9% of genes show human-specific regulation with evidence for prolonged maturation or neoteny compared to monkey. PMID:27409810

  2. Unexpected demography in the recovery of an endangered primate population.

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    Strier, Karen B; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of the status of endangered species have focused on population sizes, often without knowledge of demographic and behavioral processes underlying population recovery. We analyzed demographic data from a 28-year study of a critically endangered primate, the northern muriqui, to investigate possible changes in demographic rates as this population recovered from near extirpation. As the population increased from 60 to nearly 300 individuals, its growth rate declined due to increased mortality and male-biased birth sex ratios; the increased mortality was not uniform across ages and sexes, and there has been a recent increase in mortality of prime-aged males. If not for a concurrent increase in fertility rates, the population would have stabilized at 200 individuals instead of continuing to grow. The unexpected increase in fertility rates and in adult male mortality can be attributed to the muriquis' expansion of their habitat by spending more time on the ground. The demographic consequences of this behavioral shift must be incorporated into management tactics for this population and emphasize the importance of understanding demographic rates in the recovery of endangered species. PMID:23028534

  3. Unexpected demography in the recovery of an endangered primate population.

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    Karen B Strier

    Full Text Available Assessments of the status of endangered species have focused on population sizes, often without knowledge of demographic and behavioral processes underlying population recovery. We analyzed demographic data from a 28-year study of a critically endangered primate, the northern muriqui, to investigate possible changes in demographic rates as this population recovered from near extirpation. As the population increased from 60 to nearly 300 individuals, its growth rate declined due to increased mortality and male-biased birth sex ratios; the increased mortality was not uniform across ages and sexes, and there has been a recent increase in mortality of prime-aged males. If not for a concurrent increase in fertility rates, the population would have stabilized at 200 individuals instead of continuing to grow. The unexpected increase in fertility rates and in adult male mortality can be attributed to the muriquis' expansion of their habitat by spending more time on the ground. The demographic consequences of this behavioral shift must be incorporated into management tactics for this population and emphasize the importance of understanding demographic rates in the recovery of endangered species.

  4. Optogenetics through windows on the brain in the nonhuman primate.

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    Ruiz, Octavio; Lustig, Brian R; Nassi, Jonathan J; Cetin, Ali; Reynolds, John H; Albright, Thomas D; Callaway, Edward M; Stoner, Gene R; Roe, Anna W

    2013-09-01

    Optogenetics combines optics and genetics to control neuronal activity with cell-type specificity and millisecond temporal precision. Its use in model organisms such as rodents, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans is now well-established. However, application of this technology in nonhuman primates (NHPs) has been slow to develop. One key challenge has been the delivery of viruses and light to the brain through the thick dura mater of NHPs, which can only be penetrated with large-diameter devices that damage the brain. The opacity of the NHP dura prevents visualization of the underlying cortex, limiting the spatial precision of virus injections, electrophysiological recordings, and photostimulation. Here, we describe a new optogenetics approach in which the native dura is replaced with an optically transparent artificial dura. This artificial dura can be penetrated with fine glass micropipettes, enabling precisely targeted injections of virus into brain tissue with minimal damage to cortex. The expression of optogenetic agents can be monitored visually over time. Most critically, this optical window permits targeted, noninvasive photostimulation and concomitant measurements of neuronal activity via intrinsic signal imaging and electrophysiological recordings. We present results from both anesthetized-paralyzed (optical imaging) and awake-behaving NHPs (electrophysiology). The improvements over current methods made possible by the artificial dura should enable the widespread use of optogenetic tools in NHP research, a key step toward the development of therapies for neuropsychiatric and neurological diseases in humans.

  5. The primate vaginal microbiome: comparative context and implications for human health and disease.

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    Stumpf, Rebecca M; Wilson, Brenda A; Rivera, Angel; Yildirim, Suleyman; Yeoman, Carl J; Polk, John D; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The primate body hosts trillions of microbes. Interactions between primate hosts and these microbes profoundly affect primate physiology, reproduction, health, survival, and ultimately, evolution. It is increasingly clear that primate health cannot be understood fully without knowledge of host-microbial interactions. Our goals here are to review what is known about microbiomes of the female reproductive tract and to explore several factors that influence variation within individuals, as well as within and between primate species. Much of our knowledge of microbial variation derives from studies of humans, and from microbes located in nonreproductive regions (e.g., the gut). We review work suggesting that the vaginal microbiota affects female health, fecundity, and pregnancy outcomes, demonstrating the selective potential for these agents. We explore the factors that correlate with microbial variation within species. Initial colonization by microbes depends on the manner of birth; most microbial variation is structured by estrogen levels that change with age (i.e., at puberty and menopause) and through the menstrual cycle. Microbial communities vary by location within the vagina and can depend on the sampling methods used (e.g., swab, lavage, or pap smear). Interindividual differences also exist, and while this variation is not completely understood, evidence points more to differences in estrogen levels, rather than differences in external physical environment. When comparing across species, reproductive-age humans show distinct microbial communities, generally dominated by Lactobacillus, unlike other primates. We develop evolutionary hypotheses to explain the marked differences in microbial communities. While much remains to be done to test these hypotheses, we argue that the ample variation in primate mating and reproductive behavior offers excellent opportunities to evaluate host-microbe coevolution and adaptation.

  6. Effects of the distribution of female primates on the number of males.

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    Laurel Mariah Carnes

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal distribution of females is thought to drive variation in mating systems, and hence plays a central role in understanding animal behavior, ecology and evolution. Previous research has focused on investigating the links between female spatiotemporal distribution and the number of males in haplorhine primates. However, important questions remain concerning the importance of spatial cohesion, the generality of the pattern across haplorhine and strepsirrhine primates, and the consistency of previous findings given phylogenetic uncertainty. To address these issues, we examined how the spatiotemporal distribution of females influences the number of males in primate groups using an expanded comparative dataset and recent advances in bayesian phylogenetic and statistical methods. Specifically, we investigated the effect of female distributional factors (female number, spatial cohesion, estrous synchrony, breeding season duration and breeding seasonality on the number of males in primate groups. Using bayesian approaches to control for uncertainty in phylogeny and the model of trait evolution, we found that the number of females exerted a strong influence on the number of males in primate groups. In a multiple regression model that controlled for female number, we found support for temporal effects, particularly involving female estrous synchrony: the number of males increases when females are more synchronously receptive. Similarly, the number of males increases in species with shorter birth seasons, suggesting that greater breeding seasonality makes defense of females more difficult for male primates. When comparing primate suborders, we found only weak evidence for differences in traits between haplorhines and strepsirrhines, and including suborder in the statistical models did not affect our conclusions or give compelling evidence for different effects in haplorhines and strepsirrhines. Collectively, these results demonstrate that

  7. Allelic lineages of the ficolin genes (FCNs are passed from ancestral to descendant primates.

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    Tina Hummelshøj

    Full Text Available The ficolins recognize carbohydrates and acetylated compounds on microorganisms and dying host cells and are able to activate the lectin pathway of the complement system. In humans, three ficolin genes have been identified: FCN1, FCN2 and FCN3, which encode ficolin-1, ficolin-2 and ficolin-3, respectively. Rodents have only two ficolins designated ficolin-A and ficolin-B that are closely related to human ficolin-1, while the rodent FCN3 orthologue is a pseudogene. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 have so far only been observed in humans. Thus, we performed a systematic investigation of the FCN genes in non-human primates. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of the FCN1-3 genes were sequenced in the following primate species: chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, rhesus macaque, cynomolgus macaque, baboon and common marmoset. We found that the exon organisation of the FCN genes was very similar between all the non-human primates and the human FCN genes. Several variations in the FCN genes were found in more than one primate specie suggesting that they were carried from one species to another including humans. The amino acid diversity of the ficolins among human and non-human primate species was estimated by calculating the Shannon entropy revealing that all three proteins are generally highly conserved. Ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 showed the highest diversity, whereas ficolin-3 was more conserved. Ficolin-2 and ficolin-3 were present in non-human primate sera with the same characteristic oligomeric structures as seen in human serum. Taken together all the FCN genes show the same characteristics in lower and higher primates. The existence of trans-species polymorphisms suggests that different FCN allelic lineages may be passed from ancestral to descendant species.

  8. Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.

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    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-02-01

    Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss.

  9. Possible fruit protein effects on primate communities in madagascar and the neotropics.

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    Jörg U Ganzhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ecological factors contributing to the evolution of tropical vertebrate communities are still poorly understood. Primate communities of the tropical Americas have fewer folivorous but more frugivorous genera than tropical regions of the Old World and especially many more frugivorous genera than Madagascar. Reasons for this phenomenon are largely unexplored. We developed the hypothesis that Neotropical fruits have higher protein concentrations than fruits from Madagascar and that the higher representation of frugivorous genera in the Neotropics is linked to high protein concentrations in fruits. Low fruit protein concentrations in Madagascar would restrict the evolution of frugivores in Malagasy communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature for nitrogen concentrations in fruits from the Neotropics and from Madagascar, and analyzed fruits from an additional six sites in the Neotropics and six sites in Madagascar. Fruits from the Neotropical sites contain significantly more nitrogen than fruits from the Madagascar sites. Nitrogen concentrations in New World fruits are above the concentrations to satisfy nitrogen requirements of primates, while they are at the lower end or below the concentrations to cover primate protein needs in Madagascar. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fruits at most sites in the Neotropics contain enough protein to satisfy the protein needs of primates. Thus, selection pressure to develop new adaptations for foods that are difficult to digest (such as leaves may have been lower in the Neotropics than in Madagascar. The low nitrogen concentrations in fruits from Madagascar may contribute to the almost complete absence of frugivorous primate species on this island.

  10. Deep hierarchies in the primate visual cortex: what can we learn for computer vision?

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    Krüger, Norbert; Janssen, Peter; Kalkan, Sinan; Lappe, Markus; Leonardis, Ales; Piater, Justus; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Antonio J; Wiskott, Laurenz

    2013-08-01

    Computational modeling of the primate visual system yields insights of potential relevance to some of the challenges that computer vision is facing, such as object recognition and categorization, motion detection and activity recognition, or vision-based navigation and manipulation. This paper reviews some functional principles and structures that are generally thought to underlie the primate visual cortex, and attempts to extract biological principles that could further advance computer vision research. Organized for a computer vision audience, we present functional principles of the processing hierarchies present in the primate visual system considering recent discoveries in neurophysiology. The hierarchical processing in the primate visual system is characterized by a sequence of different levels of processing (on the order of 10) that constitute a deep hierarchy in contrast to the flat vision architectures predominantly used in today's mainstream computer vision. We hope that the functional description of the deep hierarchies realized in the primate visual system provides valuable insights for the design of computer vision algorithms, fostering increasingly productive interaction between biological and computer vision research.

  11. SINE insertions in cladistic analyses and the phylogenetic affiliations of Tarsius bancanus to other primates.

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    Schmitz, J; Ohme, M; Zischler, H

    2001-01-01

    Transpositions of Alu sequences, representing the most abundant primate short interspersed elements (SINE), were evaluated as molecular cladistic markers to analyze the phylogenetic affiliations among the primate infraorders. Altogether 118 human loci, containing intronic Alu elements, were PCR analyzed for the presence of Alu sequences at orthologous sites in each of two strepsirhine, New World and Old World monkey species, Tarsius bancanus, and a nonprimate outgroup. Fourteen size-polymorphic amplification patterns exhibited longer fragments for the anthropoids (New World and Old World monkeys) and T. bancanus whereas shorter fragments were detected for the strepsirhines and the outgroup. From these, subsequent sequence analyses revealed three Alu transpositions, which can be regarded as shared derived molecular characters linking tarsiers and anthropoid primates. Concerning the other loci, scenarios are represented in which different SINE transpositions occurred independently in the same intron on the lineages leading both to the common ancestor of anthropoids and to T. bancanus, albeit at different nucleotide positions. Our results demonstrate the efficiency and possible pitfalls of SINE transpositions used as molecular cladistic markers in tracing back a divergence point in primate evolution over 40 million years old. The three Alu insertions characterized underpin the monophyly of haplorhine primates (Anthropoidea and Tarsioidea) from a novel perspective. PMID:11156996

  12. Genome-wide identification of human- and primate-specific core promoter short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushehri, A; Barez, M R Mashhoudi; Mansouri, S K; Biglarian, A; Ohadi, M

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports of a link between human- and primate-specific genetic factors and human/primate-specific characteristics and diseases necessitate genome-wide identification of those factors. We have previously reported core promoter short tandem repeats (STRs) of extreme length (≥6-repeats) that have expanded exceptionally in primates vs. non-primates, and may have a function in adaptive evolution. In the study reported here, we extended our study to the human STRs of ≥3-repeats in the category of penta and hexaucleotide STRs, across the entire human protein coding gene core promoters, and analyzed their status in several superorders and orders of vertebrates, using the Ensembl database. The ConSite software was used to identify the transcription factor (TF) sets binding to those STRs. STR specificity was observed at different levels of human and non-human primate (NHP) evolution. 73% of the pentanucleotide STRs and 68% of the hexanucleotide STRs were found to be specific to human and NHPs. AP-2alpha, Sp1, and MZF were the predominantly selected TFs (90%) binding to the human-specific STRs. Furthermore, the number of TF sets binding to a given STR was found to be a selection factor for that STR. Our findings indicate that selected STRs, the cognate binding TFs, and the number of TF set binding to those STRs function as switch codes at different levels of human and NHP evolution and speciation. PMID:27108803

  13. Globus Pallidus external segment neuron classification in freely moving rats: a comparison to primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liora Benhamou

    Full Text Available Globus Pallidus external segment (GPe neurons are well-characterized in behaving primates. Based on their firing properties, these neurons are commonly divided into two distinct groups: high frequency pausers (HFP and low frequency bursters (LFB. However, no such characterization has been made for behaving rats. The current study characterizes and categorizes extracellularly recorded GPe neurons in freely moving rats, and compares these results to those obtained by extracellular recordings in behaving primates using the same analysis methods. Analysis of our data recorded in rats revealed two distinct neuronal populations exhibiting firing-pattern characteristics that are similar to those obtained in primates. These characteristic firing patterns are conserved between species although the firing rate is significantly lower in rats than in primates. Significant differences in waveform duration and shape were insufficient to create a reliable waveform-based classification in either species. The firing pattern analogy may emphasize conserved processing properties over firing rate per-se. Given the similarity in GPe neuronal activity between human and non-human primates in different pathologies, our results encourage information transfer using complementary studies across species in the GPe to acquire a better understanding of the function of this nucleus in health and disease.

  14. Secondary expansion of the transient subplate zone in the developing cerebrum of human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Alvaro; Krsnik, Zeljka; Kostović, Ivica; Rakic, Pasko

    2016-08-30

    The subplate (SP) was the last cellular compartment added to the Boulder Committee's list of transient embryonic zones [Bystron I, Blakemore C, Rakic P (2008) Nature Rev Neurosci 9(2):110-122]. It is highly developed in human and nonhuman primates, but its origin, mode, and dynamics of development, resolution, and eventual extinction are not well understood because human postmortem tissue offers only static descriptive data, and mice cannot serve as an adequate experimental model for the distinct regional differences in primates. Here, we take advantage of the large and slowly developing SP in macaque monkey to examine the origin, settling pattern, and subsequent dispersion of the SP neurons in primates. Monkey embryos exposed to the radioactive DNA replication marker tritiated thymidine ([(3)H]dT, or TdR) at early embryonic ages were killed at different intervals postinjection to follow postmitotic cells' positional changes. As expected in primates, most SP neurons generated in the ventricular zone initially migrate radially, together with prospective layer 6 neurons. Surprisingly, mostly during midgestation, SP cells become secondarily displaced and widespread into the expanding SP zone, which becomes particularly wide subjacent to the association cortical areas and underneath the summit of its folia. We found that invasion of monoamine, basal forebrain, thalamocortical, and corticocortical axons is mainly responsible for this region-dependent passive dispersion of the SP cells. Histologic and immunohistochemical comparison with the human SP at corresponding fetal ages indicates that the same developmental events occur in both primate species.

  15. Genome-wide identification of human- and primate-specific core promoter short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushehri, A; Barez, M R Mashhoudi; Mansouri, S K; Biglarian, A; Ohadi, M

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports of a link between human- and primate-specific genetic factors and human/primate-specific characteristics and diseases necessitate genome-wide identification of those factors. We have previously reported core promoter short tandem repeats (STRs) of extreme length (≥6-repeats) that have expanded exceptionally in primates vs. non-primates, and may have a function in adaptive evolution. In the study reported here, we extended our study to the human STRs of ≥3-repeats in the category of penta and hexaucleotide STRs, across the entire human protein coding gene core promoters, and analyzed their status in several superorders and orders of vertebrates, using the Ensembl database. The ConSite software was used to identify the transcription factor (TF) sets binding to those STRs. STR specificity was observed at different levels of human and non-human primate (NHP) evolution. 73% of the pentanucleotide STRs and 68% of the hexanucleotide STRs were found to be specific to human and NHPs. AP-2alpha, Sp1, and MZF were the predominantly selected TFs (90%) binding to the human-specific STRs. Furthermore, the number of TF sets binding to a given STR was found to be a selection factor for that STR. Our findings indicate that selected STRs, the cognate binding TFs, and the number of TF set binding to those STRs function as switch codes at different levels of human and NHP evolution and speciation.

  16. Implications of genetics and current protected areas for conservation of 5 endangered primates in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijin; Liu, Guangjian; Roos, Christian; Wang, Ziming; Xiang, ZuoFu; Zhu, Pingfen; Wang, Boshi; Ren, Baoping; Shi, Fanglei; Pan, Huijuan; Li, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Most of China's 24-28 primate species are threatened with extinction. Habitat reduction and fragmentation are perhaps the greatest threats. We used published data from a conservation genetics study of 5 endangered primates in China (Rhinopithecus roxellana, R. bieti, R. brelichi, Trachypithecus francoisi, and T. leucocephalus); distribution data on these species; and the distribution, area, and location of protected areas to inform conservation strategies for these primates. All 5 species were separated into subpopulations with unique genetic components. Gene flow appeared to be strongly impeded by agricultural land, meadows used for grazing, highways, and humans dwellings. Most species declined severely or diverged concurrently as human population and crop land cover increased. Nature reserves were not evenly distributed across subpopulations with unique genetic backgrounds. Certain small subpopulations were severely fragmented and had higher extinction risk than others. Primate mobility is limited and their genetic structure is strong and susceptible to substantial loss of diversity due to local extinction. Thus, to maximize preservation of genetic diversity in all these primate species, our results suggest protection is required for all sub-populations. Key priorities for their conservation include maintaining R. roxellana in Shennongjia national reserve, subpopulations S4 and S5 of R. bieti and of R. brelichi in Fanjingshan national reserve, subpopulation CGX of T. francoisi in central Guangxi Province, and all 3 T. leucocephalus sub-populations in central Guangxi Province. PMID:26372167

  17. Abundance, diversity, and patterns of distribution of primates on the Tapiche River in Amazonian Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, C L; Leonard, S; Carter, S

    2001-06-01

    This work presents data on the relative diversity, abundance, and distribution patterns of primates in a 20 km2 area of the Tapiche River in the Peruvian Amazon. Population data were collected while the study area was both inundated and dry (March to September 1997) using conventional line-transect census techniques. Survey results reflected the presence of 11 primate species, but population parameters on only eight of the species will be presented, including saddleback tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis), Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis), brown capuchins (Cebus apella), white-fronted capuchins (Cebus albifrons), monk sakis (Pithecia monachus), red titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus), red uakaris (Cacajao calvus), and red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus). Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha), night monkeys (Aotus nancymaae), and pygmy marmosets (Callithrix pygmaea) were also seen in the area. The data for the smaller-bodied primates is similar to that reported almost 18 years earlier, but the data for the larger-bodied primates reflect a loss in the number of animals present in the area. Pressure from hunters and the timber industry may account for declining numbers of large-bodied primates, while it appears that natural features peculiar to the conservation area contribute to the patchy pattern of distribution. PMID:11376449

  18. High consumption of primates by pumas and ocelots in a remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J L; Paschoal, A M O; Massara, R L; Chiarello, A G

    2014-08-01

    We studied the diet of the ocelot and puma during the years 2007 and 2008 at the Feliciano Miguel Abdala Reserve, in Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. We collected 49 faecal samples (scats) from cats, and identified the species of cat from 23 of them by the analysis of the microstructure patterns of hairs found in their faeces: 17 scats of the puma (Puma concolor) and six of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). In the puma scats, we identified three species of primates (Brachyteles hypoxanthus, Alouatta guariba and Sapajus nigritus), the remains of which were found in eight of 17 collected (47.1%), representing 26.7% of items consumed. For the ocelot, we detected capuchin monkey (S. nigritus) remains in three of the six scats (50%), accounting for 18.7% of items consumed by ocelot. We were unable to identify the cat species in the remaining 26 faecal samples, but we were able to analyse the food items present. Primates were found in five of these 26 faeces (19.2%) and represented 10.2% of the items found. Although the sample size is limited, our results indicate a relatively high consumption of primates by felines. We believe that this high predation may be the result of the high local density of primates as well as the greater exposure to the risks of predation in fragmented landscapes, which tends to increase the incidence of the primates using the ground. PMID:25296212

  19. Crop damage by primates: quantifying the key parameters of crop-raiding events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Graham E; Hill, Catherine M

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifies number of individuals raiding and duration of raid as the primary parameters determining crop loss. Secondary factors include distance travelled onto farm, age composition of the raiding group, and whether raids are in series. Regression models accounted for greater proportions of variation in crop loss when increasingly crop and species specific. Parameter values varied across primate species, probably reflecting differences in raiding tactics or perceptions of risk, and thereby providing indices of how comfortable primates are on-farm. Median raiding-group sizes were markedly smaller than the typical sizes of social groups. The research suggests that key parameters of raiding events can be used to measure the behavioural impacts of deterrents to raiding. Furthermore, farmers will benefit most from methods that discourage raiding by multiple individuals, reduce the size of raiding groups, or decrease the amount of time primates are on-farm. This study demonstrates the importance of directly relating crop loss to the parameters of raiding events, using systematic observations of the behaviour of multiple primate species. PMID:23056378

  20. Crop damage by primates: quantifying the key parameters of crop-raiding events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham E Wallace

    Full Text Available Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifies number of individuals raiding and duration of raid as the primary parameters determining crop loss. Secondary factors include distance travelled onto farm, age composition of the raiding group, and whether raids are in series. Regression models accounted for greater proportions of variation in crop loss when increasingly crop and species specific. Parameter values varied across primate species, probably reflecting differences in raiding tactics or perceptions of risk, and thereby providing indices of how comfortable primates are on-farm. Median raiding-group sizes were markedly smaller than the typical sizes of social groups. The research suggests that key parameters of raiding events can be used to measure the behavioural impacts of deterrents to raiding. Furthermore, farmers will benefit most from methods that discourage raiding by multiple individuals, reduce the size of raiding groups, or decrease the amount of time primates are on-farm. This study demonstrates the importance of directly relating crop loss to the parameters of raiding events, using systematic observations of the behaviour of multiple primate species.

  1. Naturally acquired picornavirus infections in primates at the Dhaka zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberste, M Steven; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Maher, Kaija; Nix, W Allan; Engel, Gregory A; Begum, Sajeda; Hasan, Kamrul M; Oh, Gunwha; Pallansch, Mark A; Jones-Engel, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The conditions in densely populated Bangladesh favor picornavirus transmission, resulting in a high rate of infection in the human population. Data suggest that nonhuman primates (NHP) may play a role in the maintenance and transmission of diverse picornaviruses in Bangladesh. At the Dhaka Zoo, multiple NHP species are caged in close proximity. Their proximity to other species and to humans, both zoo workers and visitors, provides the potential for cross-species transmission. To investigate possible interspecies and intraspecies transmission of picornaviruses among NHP, we collected fecal specimens from nine NHP taxa at the Dhaka Zoo at three time points, August 2007, January 2008, and June 2008. Specimens were screened using real-time PCR for the genera Enterovirus, Parechovirus, and Sapelovirus, and positive samples were typed by VP1 sequencing. Fifty-two picornaviruses comprising 10 distinct serotypes were detected in 83 fecal samples. Four of these serotypes, simian virus 19 (SV19), baboon enterovirus (BaEV), enterovirus 112 (EV112), and EV115, have been solely associated with infection in NHP. EV112, EV115, and SV19 accounted for 88% of all picornaviruses detected. Over 80% of samples from cages housing rhesus macaques, olive baboons, or hamadryas baboons were positive for a picornavirus, while no picornaviruses were detected in samples from capped langurs or vervet monkeys. In contrast to our findings among synanthropic NHP in Bangladesh where 100% of the picornaviruses detected were of human serotypes, in the zoo population, only 15% of picornaviruses detected in NHP were of human origin. Specific serotypes tended to persist over time, suggesting either persistent infection of individuals or cycles of reinfection.

  2. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  3. Polymorphism of visual pigment genes in the muriqui (Primates, Atelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, M G; Pope, T R; Vogel, E R; Neitz, M; Dominy, N J

    2006-02-01

    Colour vision varies within the family Atelidae (Primates, Platyrrhini), which consists of four genera with the following cladistic relationship: {Alouatta[Ateles (Lagothrix and Brachyteles)]}. Spider monkeys (Ateles) and woolly monkeys (Lagothrix) are characteristic of platyrrhine monkeys in possessing a colour vision polymorphism. The polymorphism results from allelic variation of the single-locus middle-to-long wavelength (M/L) cone opsin gene on the X-chromosome. The presence in the population of alleles coding for different M/L photopigments results in a variety of colour vision phenotypes. Such a polymorphism is absent in howling monkeys (Alouatta), which, alone among platyrrhines, acquired uniform trichromatic vision similar to that of Old World monkeys, apes, and humans through opsin gene duplication. Dietary and morphological similarities between howling monkeys and muriquis (Brachyteles) raise the possibility that the two genera share a similar form of colour vision, uniform trichromacy. Yet parsimony predicts that the colour vision of Brachyteles will resemble the polymorphism present in Lagothrix and Ateles. Here we test this assumption. We obtained DNA from the blood or faeces of 18 muriquis and sequenced exons 3 and 5 of the M/L opsin gene. Our results affirm the existence of a single M/L cone opsin gene in the genus Brachyteles. We detected three alleles with predicted lambdamax values of 530, 550, and 562 nm. Two females were heterozygous and are thus predicted to have different types of M/L cone pigment. We discuss the implication of this result towards understanding the evolutionary ecology of trichromatic vision. PMID:16448420

  4. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory.

  5. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Cindy I; Huchard, Elise; Perret, Martine; Henry, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months) or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month). Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation) to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth) in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important reproductive

  6. Gene Expression Profiling in the Hibernating Primate, Cheirogaleus Medius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Sheena L.; Villanueva-Cañas, José Luis; Klopfer, Peter H.; Albà, M. Mar; Yoder, Anne D.

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is a complex physiological response that some mammalian species employ to evade energetic demands. Previous work in mammalian hibernators suggests that hibernation is activated not by a set of genes unique to hibernators, but by differential expression of genes that are present in all mammals. This question of universal genetic mechanisms requires further investigation and can only be tested through additional investigations of phylogenetically dispersed species. To explore this question, we use RNA-Seq to investigate gene expression dynamics as they relate to the varying physiological states experienced throughout the year in a group of primate hibernators—Madagascar’s dwarf lemurs (genus Cheirogaleus). In a novel experimental approach, we use longitudinal sampling of biological tissues as a method for capturing gene expression profiles from the same individuals throughout their annual hibernation cycle. We identify 90 candidate genes that have variable expression patterns when comparing two active states (Active 1 and Active 2) with a torpor state. These include genes that are involved in metabolic pathways, feeding behavior, and circadian rhythms, as might be expected to correlate with seasonal physiological state changes. The identified genes appear to be critical for maintaining the health of an animal that undergoes prolonged periods of metabolic depression concurrent with the hibernation phenotype. By focusing on these differentially expressed genes in dwarf lemurs, we compare gene expression patterns in previously studied mammalian hibernators. Additionally, by employing evolutionary rate analysis, we find that hibernation-related genes do not evolve under positive selection in hibernating species relative to nonhibernators. PMID:27412611

  7. A novel nonhuman primate model for influenza transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H Moncla

    Full Text Available Studies of influenza transmission are necessary to predict the pandemic potential of emerging influenza viruses. Currently, both ferrets and guinea pigs are used in such studies, but these species are distantly related to humans. Nonhuman primates (NHP share a close phylogenetic relationship with humans and may provide an enhanced means to model the virological and immunological events in influenza virus transmission. Here, for the first time, it was demonstrated that a human influenza virus isolate can productively infect and be transmitted between common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, a New World monkey species. We inoculated four marmosets with the 2009 pandemic virus A/California/07/2009 (H1N1pdm and housed each together with a naïve cage mate. We collected bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal wash samples from all animals at regular intervals for three weeks post-inoculation to track virus replication and sequence evolution. The unadapted 2009 H1N1pdm virus replicated to high titers in all four index animals by 1 day post-infection. Infected animals seroconverted and presented human-like symptoms including sneezing, nasal discharge, labored breathing, and lung damage. Transmission occurred in one cohabitating pair. Deep sequencing detected relatively few genetic changes in H1N1pdm viruses replicating in any infected animal. Together our data suggest that human H1N1pdm viruses require little adaptation to replicate and cause disease in marmosets, and that these viruses can be transmitted between animals. Marmosets may therefore be a viable model for studying influenza virus transmission.

  8. Reproductive resilience to food shortage in a small heterothermic primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy I Canale

    Full Text Available The massive energetic costs entailed by reproduction in most mammalian females may increase the vulnerability of reproductive success to food shortage. Unexpected events of unfavorable climatic conditions are expected to rise in frequency and intensity as climate changes. The extent to which physiological flexibility allows organisms to maintain reproductive output constant despite energetic bottlenecks has been poorly investigated. In mammals, reproductive resilience is predicted to be maximal during early stages of reproduction, due to the moderate energetic costs of ovulation and gestation relative to lactation. We experimentally tested the consequences of chronic-moderate and short-acute food shortages on the reproductive output of a small seasonally breeding primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus under thermo-neutral conditions. These two food treatments were respectively designed to simulate the energetic constraints imposed by a lean year (40% caloric restriction over eight months or by a sudden, severe climatic event occurring shortly before reproduction (80% caloric restriction over a month. Grey mouse lemurs evolved under the harsh, unpredictable climate of the dry forest of Madagascar and should thus display great potential for physiological adjustments to energetic bottlenecks. We assessed the resilience of the early stages of reproduction (mating success, fertility, and gestation to these contrasted food treatments, and on the later stages (lactation and offspring growth in response to the chronic food shortage only. Food deprived mouse lemurs managed to maintain constant most reproductive parameters, including oestrus timing, estrogenization level at oestrus, mating success, litter size, and litter mass as well as their overall number of surviving offspring at weaning. However, offspring growth was delayed in food restricted mothers. These results suggest that heterothermic, fattening-prone mammals display important

  9. Transcriptional reprogramming in nonhuman primate (rhesus macaque tuberculosis granulomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smriti Mehra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In response to Mtb infection, the host remodels the infection foci into a dense mass of cells known as the granuloma. The key objective of the granuloma is to contain the spread of Mtb into uninfected regions of the lung. However, it appears that Mtb has evolved mechanisms to resist killing in the granuloma. Profiling granuloma transcriptome will identify key immune signaling pathways active during TB infection. Such studies are not possible in human granulomas, due to various confounding factors. Nonhuman Primates (NHPs infected with Mtb accurately reflect human TB in clinical and pathological contexts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied transcriptomics of granuloma lesions in the lungs of NHPs exhibiting active TB, during early and late stages of infection. Early TB lesions were characterized by a highly pro-inflammatory environment, expressing high levels of immune signaling pathways involving IFNgamma, TNFalpha, JAK, STAT and C-C/C-X-C chemokines. Late TB lesions, while morphologically similar to the early ones, exhibited an overwhelming silencing of the inflammatory response. Reprogramming of the granuloma transcriptome was highly significant. The expression of approximately two-thirds of all genes induced in early lesions was later repressed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The transcriptional characteristics of TB granulomas undergo drastic changes during the course of infection. The overwhelming reprogramming of the initial pro-inflammatory surge in late lesions may be a host strategy to limit immunopathology. We propose that these host profiles can predict changes in bacterial replication and physiology, perhaps serving as markers for latency and reactivation.

  10. ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE HISTOCHEMISTRY OF THE THALAMUS IN THE PRIMATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the thalamus of the monkey.Methods Histochemical method was used to detect the acetylcholinesterase activity in the thalamus.Results Acetylcholinesterase was found to be inhomogeneous distribution in the primate thalamus and to reveal previously uncovered inhomogeneity within certain thalamic nuclei and their subdivisions. The medial, ventral and posterior nuclear groups displayed markedly uneven acetylcholinesterase reaction.In the mediodorsal nucleus,three distinct sbudivisions were revealed by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry, medial magnocellular part, ventral sector of central parvicellular part and dorsolateral sector of lateral pars multiformity showed weak, moderate and strong acetylcholinesterase activity, respectively. In the ventral nuclear group, acetylcholinesterase histochemistry was strong in the medial part of ventral posterior nucleus, moderate in the magnocellular part of ventral anterior, caudal, medial, oral and pars postrema parts of ventral lateral nucleus, as well as lateral part of ventral posterior nucleus, poor and weak in the inferior part of ventral posterior nucleus, par compacta of the medial part of ventral posterior nucleus and parvicellular part of ventral anterior nucleus. In the pulvinar nucleus, acetylcholinesterase reaction ranged from weak, moderate to strong in the parts of the oral, medial and lateral, as well as inferior of this nucleus, respectively. Regional variations of acetylcholinesterase activity within the thalamic nuclei and their subdivisions can help to identify them by acetylcholinesterase histochemistry. In addition, the dark patches of strong acetylcholinesterase activity contrasting with a lighter surrounding matrix were revealed within the parvicellular part and pars multiformis of mediodorsal nucleus, paracentral nucleus, central lateral nucleus, pars postrema part of ventral lateral nucleus and medial habenula nucleus, as well as

  11. Experimental Gastric Carcinogenesis in Cebus apella Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tanielly Cristina Raiol; Andrade Junior, Edilson Ferreira; Rezende, Alexandre Pingarilho; Carneiro Muniz, José Augusto Pereira; Lacreta Junior, Antonio Carlos Cunha; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Demachki, Samia; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of gastric carcinogenesis remains largely unknown. We established two gastric carcinogenesis models in New-World nonhuman primates. In the first model, ACP03 gastric cancer cell line was inoculated in 18 animals. In the second model, we treated 6 animals with N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU). Animals with gastric cancer were also treated with Canova immunomodulator. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical, including C-reactive protein, folic acid, and homocysteine, analyses were performed in this study. MYC expression and copy number was also evaluated. We observed that all animals inoculated with ACP03 developed gastric cancer on the 9th day though on the 14th day presented total tumor remission. In the second model, all animals developed pre-neoplastic lesions and five died of drug intoxication before the development of cancer. The last surviving MNU-treated animal developed intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma observed by endoscopy on the 940th day. The level of C-reactive protein level and homocysteine concentration increased while the level of folic acid decreased with the presence of tumors in ACP03-inoculated animals and MNU treatment. ACP03 inoculation also led to anemia and leukocytosis. The hematologic and biochemical results corroborate those observed in patients with gastric cancer, supporting that our in vivo models are potentially useful to study this neoplasia. In cell line inoculated animals, we detected MYC immunoreactivity, mRNA overexpression, and amplification, as previously observed in vitro. In MNU-treated animals, mRNA expression and MYC copy number increased during the sequential steps of intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis and immunoreactivity was only observed in intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Thus, MYC deregulation supports the gastric carcinogenesis process. Canova immunomodulator restored several hematologic measurements and therefore, can be applied during/after chemotherapy to increase the tolerability and

  12. Historical biogeography of the strepsirhine primates of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Lying some 400 km off the coast of southeastern Africa, Madagascar is the world's largest oceanic island. It has been in roughly the same position relative to its parent continent for 120 million years, and as a consequence its mammal fauna is unusual in composition, with a low number of major taxa but a high diversity at lower taxonomic levels. Among Madagascar's native terrestrial mammals, only the orders Primates, Rodentia, Carnivora and Insectivora are represented (plus, until recently, the enigmatic and endemic Bibymalagasia, and Artiodactyla in the form of semiaquatic pygmy hippopotamuses). This reflects the fact that terrestrial mammals are notoriously poor over-water dispersers; yet at the same time the ancestors of all of Madagascar's mammals had to have crossed a wide oceanic barrier to get to the island at various points during the Tertiary. Here I examine the palaeogeographic evidence for potential land bridge or 'stepping-stone' connections with adjacent continents from the Mesozoic through the Cenozoic, and review the fossil records and phylogenies of each of Madagascar's mammalian groups in an attempt to estimate the minimum number of crossings necessary to produce the island's current faunal composition. Probable monophyletic origins for each major group, and thus a smaller rather than a larger number of crossings of the Mozambique Channel, imply that this water barrier has acted as a powerful filter; so powerful that it is unclear whether any crossings would have been possible without some form of subaerial connection, however ephemeral, at least from time to time during the Tertiary. Clarification of how Madagascar's terrestrial mammal fauna may have originated is thus as likely to emerge from the geology of the seafloor surrounding the island as it is to come from the fossil record or from the internal and external relationships of its various components.

  13. The use of non-human primates as animal models for the study of hepatitis viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Vitral

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis viruses belong to different families and have in common a striking hepatotropism and restrictions for propagation in cell culture. The transmissibility of hepatitis is in great part limited to non-human primates. Enterically transmitted hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus can induce hepatitis in a number of Old World and New World monkey species, while the host range of non-human primates susceptible to hepatitis viruses transmitted by the parenteral route (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis delta virus is restricted to few species of Old World monkeys, especially the chimpanzee. Experimental studies on non-human primates have provided an invaluable source of information regarding the biology and pathogenesis of these viruses, and represent a still indispensable tool for vaccine and drug testing.

  14. Patterns of hemispheric specialization for a communicative gesture in different primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Hélène; Fagard, Jacqueline; Maugard, Anaïs; Briseño, Margarita; Fizet, Jonas; Canteloup, Charlotte; Defolie, Charlotte; Vauclair, Jacques

    2013-09-01

    We review four studies investigating hand preferences for grasping versus pointing to objects at several spatial positions in human infants and three species of nonhuman primates using the same experimental setup. We expected that human infants and nonhuman primates present a comparable difference in their pattern of laterality according to tasks. We tested 6 capuchins, 6 macaques, 12 baboons, and 10 human infants. Those studies are the first of their kind to examine both human infants and nonhuman primate species with the same communicative task. Our results show remarkable convergence in the distribution of hand biases of human infants, baboons and macaques on the two kinds of tasks and an interesting divergence between capuchins' and other species' hand preferences in the pointing task. They support the hypothesis that left-lateralized language may be derived from a gestural communication system that was present in the common ancestor of macaques, baboons and humans. PMID:23852567

  15. Opportunities and challenges in modeling human brain disorders in transgenic primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Charles G; Landman, Rogier; Zhou, Yang; Sharma, Jitendra; Hyman, Julia; Movshon, J Anthony; Qiu, Zilong; Roberts, Angela C; Roe, Anna Wang; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Huihui; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Feng; Desimone, Robert; Feng, Guoping

    2016-08-26

    Molecular genetic tools have had a profound impact on neuroscience, but until recently their application has largely been confined to a few model species, most notably mouse, zebrafish, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans. With the development of new genome engineering technologies such as CRISPR, it is becoming increasingly feasible to apply these molecular tools in a wider range of species, including nonhuman primates. This will lead to many opportunities for brain research, but it will also pose challenges. Here we identify some of these opportunities and challenges in light of recent and foreseeable technological advances and offer some suggestions. Our main focus is on the creation of new primate disease models for understanding the pathological mechanisms of brain disorders and for developing new approaches to effective treatment. However, we also emphasize that primate genetic models have great potential to address many fundamental questions about brain function, providing an essential foundation for future progress in disease research.

  16. Intestinal parasitism--protozoa and helminths--in primates at the Barcelona Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soledad Gómez, M; Gracenea, M; Montoliu, I; Feliu, C; Monleon, A; Fernandez, J; Enseñat, C

    1996-12-01

    The faunistic results regarding intestinal parasitism by protozoa and helminths in 21 primate species (three Cebidae, thirteen Cercopithecidae, one Hylobatidae, one Lemuridae, three Pongidae) are reported. The primate species were housed in four separate galleries. Six faecal samples of each host species were subjected to coprological analysis. Fifteen parasite species were detected: 11 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, E. chattoni, E. hartmanni, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Endolimax nana, Giardia intestinalis, Chilomastix mesnilii, Enteromonas hominis, Trichomonas intestinalis, Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis hominis) and 4 helminths (Ancylostoma sp., Strongyloides fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris trichiura). The results reveal certain parasitic similarities between host species housed in the same gallery; however, these primate species do not always carry identical parasite species. PMID:9210027

  17. Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) predation on primates in Caratinga Biological Station, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Rita De Cassia; Mendes, Sérgio Lucena

    2007-10-01

    This study demonstrates that ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) extensively use primates as a food resource at the Caratinga Biological Station (CBS) in Southeast Brazil. Analysis of 60 fecal samples collected over 4 years revealed predation upon the brown howler monkey (Alouatta guariba), the muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), and the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). The most frequent items found in the fecal samples analyzed were Calomys (n=16) and non-identified Aves (n=15), followed by A. guariba (n=12). Although Rodentia was the most common group consumed (n=52) Primates were found in 27% of total fecal samples and were the third most consumed group in relation to the total items. Particularly, predation of A. guariba by ocelots (20% of the total fecal samples) was not an isolated event; our results showed that this species was preyed on across several months. Predation on primates was far higher at CBS than at other sites where comparable studies have been carried out. PMID:17330310

  18. Good CoP, bad CoP? Interrogating the immune responses to primate lentiviral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasse, Per Johan; Moore, John P

    2012-10-01

    Correlates of protection (CoPs) against infection by primate lentiviruses remain undefined. Modest protection against HIV-1 was observed in one human vaccine trial, whereas previous trials and vaccine-challenge experiments in non-human primates have yielded inconsistent but intriguing results. Although high levels of neutralizing antibodies are known to protect macaques from mucosal and intravenous viral challenges, antibody or other adaptive immune responses associated with protection might also be mere markers of innate immunity or susceptibility. Specific strategies for augmenting the design of both human trials and animal experiments could help to identify mechanistic correlates of protection and clarify the influences of confounding factors. Robust protection may, however, require the combined actions of immune responses and other host factors, thereby limiting what inferences can be drawn from statistical associations. Here, we discuss how to analyze immune protection against primate lentiviruses, and how host factors could influence both the elicitation and effectiveness of vaccine-induced responses.

  19. Translational In Vivo Models for Women's Health: The Nonhuman Primate Endometrium--A Predictive Model for Assessing Steroid Receptor Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayden, Ov Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Macaques and baboons display physiological responses to steroid hormones that are similar to those of women. Herein, we describe various uses of nonhuman primates for preclinical studies on menstruation, endometriosis, and as a model system to evaluate reproductive therapies and contraceptives. Our goal is to outline the strengths of the nonhuman primate model for studies leading to improved therapies for women.

  20. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo.

  1. Analysis of dental root apical morphology: a new method for dietary reconstructions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, NoÉmie; Emonet, Edouard-Georges; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Guy, Franck; Tafforeau, Paul; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-01

    The reconstruction of paleo-diets is an important task in the study of fossil primates. Previously, paleo-diet reconstructions were performed using different methods based on extant primate models. In particular, dental microwear or isotopic analyses provided accurate reconstructions for some fossil primates. However, there is sometimes difficult or impossible to apply these methods to fossil material. Therefore, the development of new, independent methods of diet reconstructions is crucial to improve our knowledge of primates paleobiology and paleoecology. This study aims to investigate the correlation between tooth root apical morphology and diet in primates, and its potential for paleo-diet reconstructions. Dental roots are composed of two portions: the eruptive portion with a smooth and regular surface, and the apical penetrative portion which displays an irregular and corrugated surface. Here, the angle formed by these two portions (aPE), and the ratio of penetrative portion over total root length (PPI), are calculated for each mandibular tooth root. A strong correlation between these two variables and the proportion of some food types (fruits, leaves, seeds, animal matter, and vertebrates) in diet is found, allowing the use of tooth root apical morphology as a tool for dietary reconstructions in primates. The method was then applied to the fossil hominoid Khoratpithecus piriyai, from the Late Miocene of Thailand. The paleo-diet deduced from aPE and PPI is dominated by fruits (>50%), associated with animal matter (1-25%). Leaves, vertebrates and most probably seeds were excluded from the diet of Khoratpithecus, which is consistent with previous studies. PMID:22553124

  2. Conserving social-ecological systems in Indonesia: human-nonhuman primate interconnections in Bali and Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Erin P; Fuentes, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    An important question asked by primatologists and conservationists alike is: what is the relevance of primates and primate conservation for ecosystem conservation? The goal of this article is to contribute to this dialogue by advocating the use of a research perspective that focuses on the dynamics of human-nonhuman primate sympatry and interaction (i.e., ethnoprimatology) in order to better understand complex social-ecological systems and to inform their conservation management. This perspective/approach is based largely on the recognition that human primates are important components of all ecological systems and that niche construction is a fundamental feature of their adaptive success. To demonstrate the relevance of the human-nonhuman primate interface for ecosystem conservation, we provide examples from our research from two islands in the Indonesian archipelago: Bali and Sulawesi. In Bali, humans and long-tail macaques coexist in a system that creates favorable environments for the macaques. This anthropogenic landscape and the economic and ecological relationships between humans and monkeys on Bali provide insight into sustainable systems of human/nonhuman primate coexistence. In Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi, villagers and Tonkean macaques overlap in their use of both forest and cultivated resources. The finding that the Arenga pinnata palm is extremely important for both villagers and macaques points to a conservation management recommendation that may help protect the overall ecosystem; the cultivation and propagation of mutually important tree species at forest-agricultural ecotone as a means to curb crop raiding and to alleviate farmer's perceived need to clear additional forest. PMID:21104876

  3. Death among geladas (Theropithecus gelada): a broader perspective on mummified infants and primate thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fashing, Peter J; Nguyen, Nga; Barry, Tyler S; Goodale, C Barret; Burke, Ryan J; Jones, Sorrel C Z; Kerby, Jeffrey T; Lee, Laura M; Nurmi, Niina O; Venkataraman, Vivek V

    2011-05-01

    Despite intensive study in humans, responses to dying and death have been a neglected area of research in other social mammals, including nonhuman primates. Two recent reports [Anderson JR, Gillies A, Lock LC. 2010. Pan thanatology. Current Biology 20:R349-R351; Biro D, Humle T, Koops K, Souse C, Hayashi M, Matsuzawa T. 2010. Chimpanzee mothers at Bossou, Guinea carry the mummified remains of their dead infants. Current Biology 20:R351-R352] offered exciting new insights into behavior toward dying and dead conspecifics in our closest living relatives-chimpanzees. Here, we provide a comparative perspective on primate thanatology using observations from a more distant human relative-gelada monkeys (Theropithecus gelada)-and discuss how gelada reactions to dead and dying groupmates differ from those recently reported for chimpanzees. Over a 3.75-year study period, we observed 14 female geladas at Guassa, Ethiopia carrying dead infants from 1 hr to ≥48 days after death. Dead infants were carried by their mothers, other females in their group, and even by females belonging to other groups. Like other primate populations in which extended (>10 days) infant carrying after death has been reported, geladas at Guassa experience an extreme climate for primates, creating conditions which may favor slower rates of decomposition of dead individuals. We also witnessed the events leading up to the deaths of two individuals and the responses by groupmates to these dying individuals. Our results suggest that while chimpanzee mothers are not unique among primates in carrying their dead infants for long periods, seemingly "compassionate" caretaking behavior toward dying groupmates may be unique to chimpanzees among nonhuman primates (though it remains unknown whether such "compassionate" behavior occurs outside captivity). PMID:21432869

  4. Cranial vault thickness in primates: Homo erectus does not have uniquely thick vault bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Kimbel, William H

    2016-01-01

    Extremely thick cranial vaults have been noted as a diagnostic characteristic of Homo erectus since the first fossil of the species was identified, but relatively little work has been done on elucidating its etiology or variation across fossils, living humans, or extant non-human primates. Cranial vault thickness (CVT) is not a monolithic trait, and the responsiveness of its layers to environmental stimuli is unknown. We obtained measurements of cranial vault thickness in fossil hominins from the literature and supplemented those data with additional measurements taken on African fossil specimens. Total CVT and the thickness of the cortical and diploë layers individually were compared to measures of CVT in extant species measured from more than 500 CT scans of human and non-human primates. Frontal and parietal CVT in fossil primates was compared to a regression of CVT on cranial capacity calculated for extant species. Even after controlling for cranial capacity, African and Asian H. erectus do not have uniquely high frontal or parietal thickness residuals, either among hominins or extant primates. Extant primates with residual CVT thickness similar to or exceeding H. erectus (depending on the sex and bone analyzed) include Nycticebus coucang, Perodicticus potto, Alouatta caraya, Lophocebus albigena, Galago alleni, Mandrillus sphinx, and Propithecus diadema. However, the especially thick vaults of extant non-human primates that overlap with H. erectus values are composed primarily of cortical bone, while H. erectus and other hominins have diploë-dominated vault bones. Thus, the combination of thick vaults comprised of a thickened diploë layer may be a reliable autapomorphy for members of the genus Homo. PMID:26767964

  5. Analysis of dental root apical morphology: a new method for dietary reconstructions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, NoÉmie; Emonet, Edouard-Georges; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Guy, Franck; Tafforeau, Paul; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-01

    The reconstruction of paleo-diets is an important task in the study of fossil primates. Previously, paleo-diet reconstructions were performed using different methods based on extant primate models. In particular, dental microwear or isotopic analyses provided accurate reconstructions for some fossil primates. However, there is sometimes difficult or impossible to apply these methods to fossil material. Therefore, the development of new, independent methods of diet reconstructions is crucial to improve our knowledge of primates paleobiology and paleoecology. This study aims to investigate the correlation between tooth root apical morphology and diet in primates, and its potential for paleo-diet reconstructions. Dental roots are composed of two portions: the eruptive portion with a smooth and regular surface, and the apical penetrative portion which displays an irregular and corrugated surface. Here, the angle formed by these two portions (aPE), and the ratio of penetrative portion over total root length (PPI), are calculated for each mandibular tooth root. A strong correlation between these two variables and the proportion of some food types (fruits, leaves, seeds, animal matter, and vertebrates) in diet is found, allowing the use of tooth root apical morphology as a tool for dietary reconstructions in primates. The method was then applied to the fossil hominoid Khoratpithecus piriyai, from the Late Miocene of Thailand. The paleo-diet deduced from aPE and PPI is dominated by fruits (>50%), associated with animal matter (1-25%). Leaves, vertebrates and most probably seeds were excluded from the diet of Khoratpithecus, which is consistent with previous studies.

  6. Studying primate carpal kinematics in three dimensions using a computed-tomography-based markerless registration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Caley M; Leventhal, Evan L; Chivers, Spencer F; Marzke, Mary W; Wolfe, Scott W; Crisco, Joseph J

    2010-04-01

    The functional morphology of the wrist pertains to a number of important questions in primate evolutionary biology, including that of hominins. Reconstructing locomotor and manipulative capabilities of the wrist in extinct species requires a detailed understanding of wrist biomechanics in extant primates and the relationship between carpal form and function. The kinematics of carpal movement, and the role individual joints play in providing mobility and stability of the wrist, is central to such efforts. However, there have been few detailed biomechanical studies of the nonhuman primate wrist. This is largely because of the complexity of wrist morphology and the considerable technical challenges involved in tracking the movements of the many small bones that compose the carpus. The purpose of this article is to introduce and outline a method adapted from human clinical studies of three-dimensional (3D) carpal kinematics for use in a comparative context. The method employs computed tomography of primate cadaver forelimbs in increments throughout the wrist's range of motion, coupled with markerless registration of 3D polygon models based on inertial properties of each bone. The 3D kinematic principles involved in extracting motion axis parameters that describe bone movement are reviewed. In addition, a set of anatomically based coordinate systems embedded in the radius, capitate, hamate, lunate, and scaphoid is presented for the benefit of other primate functional morphologists interested in studying carpal kinematics. Finally, a brief demonstration of how the application of these methods can elucidate the mechanics of the wrist in primates illustrates the closer-packing of carpals in chimpanzees than in orangutans, which may help to stabilize the midcarpus and produce a more rigid wrist beneficial for efficient hand posturing during knuckle-walking locomotion.

  7. Foraging behaviour of the slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus lydekkerianus): implications for theories of primate origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekaris, K A I

    2005-09-01

    Members of the Order Primates are characterised by a wide overlap of visual fields or optic convergence. It has been proposed that exploitation of either insects or angiosperm products in the terminal branches of trees, and the corresponding complex, three-dimensional environment associated with these foraging strategies, account for visual convergence. Although slender lorises (Loris sp.) are the most visually convergent of all the primates, very little is known about their feeding ecology. This study, carried out over 10 (1/2) months in South India, examines the feeding behaviour of L. lydekkerianus lydekkerianus in relation to hypotheses regarding visual predation of insects. Of 1238 feeding observations, 96% were of animal prey. Lorises showed an equal and overwhelming preference for terminal and middle branch feeding, using the undergrowth and trunk rarely. The type of prey caught on terminal branches (Lepidoptera, Odonata, Homoptera) differed significantly from those caught on middle branches (Hymenoptera, Coleoptera). A two-handed catch accompanied by bipedal postures was used almost exclusively on terminal branches where mobile prey was caught, whereas the more common capture technique of one-handed grab was used more often on sturdy middle branches to obtain slow moving prey. Although prey was detected with senses other than vision, vision was the key sense used upon the final strike. This study strongly supports the notion that hunting for animal prey was a key ecological determinant in selecting for visual convergence early on in primate evolution. The extreme specialisations of slender lorises, however, suggest that early primates were not dedicated faunivores and lend further support to the emerging view that both insects and fruits were probably important components of the diet of basal primates, and that exploitation of fruits may account for other key primate traits. PMID:15970312

  8. Percussive technology in human evolution: an introduction to a comparative approach in fossil and living primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, Ignacio; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-11-19

    Percussive technology is part of the behavioural suite of several fossil and living primates. Stone Age ancestors used lithic artefacts in pounding activities, which could have been most important in the earliest stages of stone working. This has relevant evolutionary implications, as other primates such as chimpanzees and some monkeys use stone hammer-and-anvil combinations to crack hard-shelled foodstuffs. Parallels between primate percussive technologies and early archaeological sites need to be further explored in order to assess the emergence of technological behaviour in our evolutionary line, and firmly establish bridges between Primatology and Archaeology. What are the anatomical, cognitive and ecological constraints of percussive technology? How common are percussive activities in the Stone Age and among living primates? What is their functional significance? How similar are archaeological percussive tools and those made by non-human primates? This issue of Phil. Trans. addresses some of these questions by presenting case studies with a wide chronological, geographical and disciplinary coverage. The studies presented here cover studies of Brazilian capuchins, captive chimpanzees and chimpanzees in the wild, research on the use of percussive technology among modern humans and recent hunter-gatherers in Australia, the Near East and Europe, and archaeological examples of this behaviour from a million years ago to the Holocene. In summary, the breadth and depth of research compiled here should make this issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, a landmark step forward towards a better understanding of percussive technology, a unique behaviour shared by some modern and fossil primates.

  9. Type 2 Diabetes is a Delayed Late Effect of Whole-Body Irradiation in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Dendinger, Michael D.; Davis, Ashley T.; Register, Thomas C.; DeBo, Ryne; Dugan, Greg; Cline, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    One newly recognized consequence of radiation exposure may be the delayed development of diabetes and metabolic disease. We document the development of type 2 diabetes in a unique nonhuman primate cohort of monkeys that were whole-body irradiated with high doses (6.5–8.4 Gy) 5–9 years earlier. We report here a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in irradiated monkeys compared to age-matched nonirradiated monkeys. These irradiated diabetic primates demonstrate insulin resistance and hypertrig...

  10. Anthropoid primates from the Oligocene of Pakistan (Bugti Hills): Data on early anthropoid evolution and biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Baqri, Syed Rafiqul Hassan; Benammi, Mouloud; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Crochet, Jean-Yves; de Franceschi, Dario; Iqbal, Nayyer; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Métais, Grégoire; Roohi, Ghazala; Welcomme, Jean-Loup

    2005-01-01

    Asian tarsiid and sivaladapid primates maintained relictual distributions in southern Asia long after the extirpation of their close Holarctic relatives near the Eocene–Oligocene boundary. We report here the discovery of amphipithecid and eosimiid primates from Oligocene coastal deposits in Pakistan that demonstrate that stem anthropoids also survived in southern Asia beyond the climatic deterioration that characterized the Eocene–Oligocene transition. These fossils provide data on temporal and paleobiogeographic aspects of early anthropoid evolution and significantly expand the record of stem anthropoid evolution in the Paleogene of South Asia. PMID:15937103

  11. Sensing through friction: the biomechanics of texture perception in rodents and primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrégeas, Georges; Boubenec, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Rodents and primates possess an exquisite tactile sensitivity, which allows them to extract a wealth of information about their immediate environment. They can distinguish subtle differences in surface roughness through tactile exploration in a much more precise way than they can do visually. In both sensory systems, tactile information is contained in the sequence of deformation of the tactile organ--the facial hair for rodents (the whiskers), the digital skin for primates -- elicited by active rubbing on the probed surface (Figure 8.1). These deformations, registered by mechanosensitive neurons located in inner tissues, are processed by the central nervous system to produce a sensory representation of the surface...

  12. Cladistic relationships among primate higher categories: evidence of the fetal membranes and placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, W P

    1976-01-01

    Cladistic analysis of the total ontogenetic pattern of the fetal membranes and placenta in all extant primate superfamilies provides clear evidence of a strepsirhine-haplorhine dichotomy in the order Primates. The suborder Prosimii appears to be a paraphyletic taxon, based on the retention of numerous primitive character states in tarsiers and strepsirhines. Fetal membrane evidence supports the sister group relationship of Tarsiiformes and Anthropoidea in the suborder Haplorhini, based on their possession of shared derived characters. Morphogenetic patterns of the fetal membranes and placenta in haplorhines are consistent with the concept of a monophyletic origin of Anthropoidea from an ancestral tarsilform stock.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (Primates, Cheirogaleidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Aujard, Fabienne; Holota, Hélène; Murienne, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    We report the high-coverage complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the gray mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. The sequencing has been performed on an Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform, with a genome skimming strategy. The total length of this mitogenome is 16 963 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to those reported from other primate's mitochondrial genomes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will be useful for comparative genomics studies in primates.

  14. Plasticity and Recovery After Dorsal Column Spinal Cord Injury in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jamie L; Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-01

    Here, we review recent work on plasticity and recovery after dorsal column spinal cord injury in nonhuman primates. Plasticity in the adult central nervous system has been established and studied for the past several decades; however, capacities and limits of plasticity are still under investigation. Studies of plasticity include assessing multiple measures before and after injury in animal models. Such studies are particularly important for improving recovery after injury in patients. In summarizing work by our research team and others, we suggest how the findings from plasticity studies in nonhuman primate models may affect therapeutic interventions for conditions involving sensory loss due to spinal cord injury. PMID:27578996

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (Primates, Cheirogaleidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Aujard, Fabienne; Holota, Hélène; Murienne, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    We report the high-coverage complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the gray mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. The sequencing has been performed on an Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform, with a genome skimming strategy. The total length of this mitogenome is 16 963 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to those reported from other primate's mitochondrial genomes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will be useful for comparative genomics studies in primates. PMID:27158869

  16. A field observation on color selection by New World sympatric primates, Pithecia pithecia and Alouatta seniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Bernardo

    2002-04-01

    This work characterizes differences in selection of Talisia retusa fruits by two sympatric Neotropical primates, Pithecia pithecia (white-faced sakis) and Alouatta seniculus (red howlers). Color appears to be the criterion by which fruits were selected. Greenish fruits were mainly eaten by Pithecia, while yellowish fruits by Alouatta. The characteristics of these primates in relation to seed predation and seed dispersal are discussed in the context of the Talisia retusa fruit color spectrum. Furthermore, a possible differential acquisition of chemical components, like tannins, is hypothetically treated considering the variation in fruit color. PMID:12082298

  17. The role of mental rotations in primate-inspired robot navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkin, Ronald C

    2012-08-01

    The use of a primate's spatial ability of mental rotation to serve as a basis for robotic navigation has been almost entirely overlooked by the robotics community to date. In this paper, the role of this cognitive capacity is presented as an adjunct to existing robotic control systems, with the underlying approach being derived from studies of primate spatial cognition. Specifically, optical flow is used as a basis for transitory representations (snapshots) that are compared to an a priori visual goal to provide corrective course action for a robot when moving through the world. The underlying architecture and procedures are described.

  18. Cellular Scaling Rules for the Brains of an Extended Number of Primate Species

    OpenAIRE

    Gabi, Mariana; Collins, Christine E.; Wong, Peiyan; Torres, Laila B.; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2010-01-01

    What are the rules relating the size of the brain and its structures to the number of cells that compose them and their average sizes? We have shown previously that the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and the remaining brain structures increase in size as a linear function of their numbers of neurons and non-neuronal cells across 6 species of primates. Here we describe that the cellular composition of the same brain structures of 5 other primate species, as well as humans, conform to the scaling ...

  19. Gorilla and Orangutan Brains Conform to the Primate Cellular Scaling Rules: Implications for Human Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Kaas, Jon H.

    2011-01-01

    Gorillas and orangutans are primates at least as large as humans, but their brains amount to about one third of the size of the human brain. This discrepancy has been used as evidence that the human brain is about 3 times larger than it should be for a primate species of its body size. In contrast to the view that the human brain is special in its size, we have suggested that it is the great apes that might have evolved bodies that are unusually large, on the basis of our recent finding that ...

  20. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  1. Understanding species-level primate diversity in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Tattersall

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past couple of decades Madagascar has witnessed an explosion in the number of primate species generally recognized. Much of this proliferation can be traced less to increasing knowledge of the lemur fauna than to the complete replacement of biological notions of the species by the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC, which views species as irreducible diagnosable units. The consequent focus on autapomorphy (unique possession of morphological and molecular derived features as ‘the’ criterion for species recognition has led to the almost complete disappearance of lemur subspecies from Madagascar faunal lists; yet subspecies are an expected result of the evolutionary forces that gave rise to the island’s current pattern of biodiversity. Thanks in part to the perspective introduced by the PSC, it has become clear both that there is much more species-level diversity among Madagascar’s lemurs than was evident only a couple of decades ago, and that this diversity is much more complexly structured than we had thought. But it does not appear to be aptly reflected in the hard-line procedural adoption of the PSC across the board, a move that typically results in fifty-percent inflation in species numbers relative to those yielded by biological concepts. I argue here that the reflexive wholesale application of the PSC to Madagascar’s lemurs is inappropriate from both systematic and conservation standpoints, and that a return to biological species concepts, and to the corresponding criteria for species recognition, will allow us to attain a much fuller and more nuanced appreciation of lemur diversity at low taxonomic levels. RésuméDepuis la fin du siècle dernier, nous avons été les témoins d’une explosion du nombre d’espèces de primates à Madagascar. Cette profusion découle cependant bien moins de l’évolution de nos connaissances sur les lémuriens que de la substitution des concepts biologiques de l’espèce par le Concept

  2. SYNAPTOSOMAL LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE ISOENZYME COMPOSITION IS SHIFTED TOWARD AEROBIC FORMS IN PRIMATE BRAIN EVOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duka, Tetyana; Anderson, Sarah M.; Collins, Zachary; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Ely, John J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Wildman, Derek E.; Goodman, Morris; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2014-01-01

    With the evolution of a relatively large brain size in haplorhine primates (i.e., tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans), there have been associated changes in the molecular machinery that delivers energy to the neocortex. Here we investigated variation in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression and isoenzyme composition of the neocortex and striatum in primates using quantitative Western blotting and isoenzyme analysis of total homogenates and synaptosomal fractions. Analysis of isoform expression revealed that LDH in the synaptosomal fraction from both forebrain regions shifted towards a predominance of the heart-type, aerobic isoforms, LDHB, among haplorhines as compared to strepsirrhines (i.e., lorises and lemurs), while in total homogenate of neocortex and striatum there was no significant difference in the LDH isoenzyme composition between the primate suborders. The largest increase occurred in synapse-associated LDH-B expression in the neocortex, displaying an especially remarkable elevation in the ratio of LDH-B to LDH-A in humans. The phylogenetic variation in LDH-B to LDH-A ratio was correlated with species typical brain mass, but not encephalization quotient. A significant LDHB increase in the sub-neuronal fraction from haplorhine neocortex and striatum suggests a relatively higher rate of aerobic glycolysis that is linked to synaptosomal mitochondrial metabolism. Our results indicate that there is differential composition of LDH isoenzymes and metabolism in synaptic terminals that evolved in primates to meet increased energy requirements in association with brain enlargement. PMID:24686273

  3. The value of non-human primates in the development of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meer, P.J.K.; Kooijman, M.; Van Der Laan, J.W.; Moors, E.H.M.; Schellekens, H.

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is increasingly focusing on the development of biological therapeutics. These molecules generally cause no off-target toxicity and are highly species specific. Therefore, non-human primates (NHPs) are often the only relevant species in which to conduct regulatory safety t

  4. Social processes and disease in nonhuman primates: introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitanio, John P

    2012-06-01

    Most nonhuman primate species are remarkably social, but their social nature presents many challenges, including increased opportunities for pathogen transmission and development of disease (both physical and psychological). An interdisciplinary symposium was convened at the 2010 annual meeting of the American Society of Primatologists on the topic of social processes and disease in nonhuman primates, and four articles from that session, as well as a fifth that was separately solicited, appear in this special section. The articles reflect a variety of disciplines and perspectives that highlight the many ways that social processes can impact disease processes (and vice versa) in this highly social taxon. This is an increasingly active area of research interest as a consequence of technological developments and the availability of long-term field data. The continuing loss of primate habitat in the wild, climate change, and the need to manage high densities of primates in captivity, however, all add urgency to our need to better understand the bidirectional relationship between social factors and disease processes. PMID:22539268

  5. Variable postpartum responsiveness among humans and other primates with "cooperative breeding": A comparative and evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdy, Sarah B

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care".Until recently, evolutionists reconstructing mother-infant bonding among human ancestors relied on nonhuman primate models characterized by exclusively maternal care, overlooking the highly variable responsiveness exhibited by mothers in species with obligate reliance on allomaternal care and provisioning. It is now increasingly recognized that apes as large-brained, slow maturing, and nutritionally dependent for so long as early humans were, could not have evolved unless "alloparents" (group members other than genetic parents), in addition to parents, had helped mothers to care for and provision offspring, a rearing system known as "cooperative breeding." Here I review situation-dependent maternal responses ranging from highly possessive to permissive, temporarily distancing, rejecting, or infanticidal, documented for a small subset of cooperatively breeding primates. As in many mammals, primate maternal responsiveness is influenced by physical condition, endocrinological priming, prior experience and local environments (especially related to security). But mothers among primates who evolved as cooperative breeders also appear unusually sensitive to cues of social support. In addition to more "sapient" or rational decision-making, humankind's deep history of cooperative breeding must be considered when trying to understand the extremely variable responsiveness of human mothers. PMID:26518662

  6. COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY: PATTERN RECOGNITION OF BEHAVIORAL EVENTS IN THE NONHUMAN PRIMATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techniques used in computer graphics and pattern analysis have been applied to the tasks of observing, classifying, and recording spontaneous behavioral activities in the captive primate. The goal in designing this system was to provide a computer-based pattern recognition system...

  7. Neocortical calretinin neurons in primates: increase in proportion and microcircuitry structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj eDžaja

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this mini review we first point at the expansion of associative cortical areas in primates as well as at the intrinsic changes in the structure of the cortical column. There is a huge increase in proportion of glutamatergic cortical projecting neurons located in the upper cortical layers (II/III. In addition, inside this group a novel class of associative neurons becomes recognized that is important for both, inter-areal and intra-areal columnar integration. By overviewing the literature data we found that there might be also a 50% increase in proportion of neocortical GABAergic neurons between primates and rodents, principally reflecting a 4 to 5 fold increase in proportion of calretinin interneurons. In primates calretinin interneurons might represent 15% of the total neuron number in the upper layers of high order associative areas. Evaluating data about functional properties of their connectivity we hypothesize that an exponential increase in proportion of calretinin interneurons might lead to supra-linear growth in memory capacity of the associative neocortical network. An open question is do we have some new calretinin interneuron subtypes which might substantially change micro-circuitry structure of the primate cerebral cortex.

  8. Primate Conservation--An Evaluation of Two Different Educational Programs in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Brigitte; Braunbeck, Thomas; Randler, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Nearly all primate species are globally threatened. Conservation approaches need to focus on local people and users of resources from the habitats of the apes. Students worldwide should become aware of the context and relationships in school, and they should change their usage and behaviour as the ultimate goals. This study explored the…

  9. Birds have primate-like numbers of neurons in the forebrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowicz, Seweryn; Kocourek, Martin; Lučan, Radek K.; Porteš, Michal; Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Němec, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Some birds achieve primate-like levels of cognition, even though their brains tend to be much smaller in absolute size. This poses a fundamental problem in comparative and computational neuroscience, because small brains are expected to have a lower information-processing capacity. Using the isotropic fractionator to determine numbers of neurons in specific brain regions, here we show that the brains of parrots and songbirds contain on average twice as many neurons as primate brains of the same mass, indicating that avian brains have higher neuron packing densities than mammalian brains. Additionally, corvids and parrots have much higher proportions of brain neurons located in the pallial telencephalon compared with primates or other mammals and birds. Thus, large-brained parrots and corvids have forebrain neuron counts equal to or greater than primates with much larger brains. We suggest that the large numbers of neurons concentrated in high densities in the telencephalon substantially contribute to the neural basis of avian intelligence. PMID:27298365

  10. Are non-human primates capable of rhythmic entrainment? Evidence for the gradual audiomotor evolution hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Hugo; Honing, Henkjan

    2013-01-01

    We propose a decomposition of the neurocognitive mechanisms that might underlie interval-based timing and rhythmic entrainment. Next to reviewing the concepts central to the definition of rhythmic entrainment, we discuss recent studies that suggest rhythmic entrainment to be specific to humans and a selected group of bird species, but, surprisingly, is not obvious in non-human primates. On the basis of these studies we propose the gradual audiomotor evolution hypothesis that suggests that humans fully share interval-based timing with other primates, but only partially share the ability of rhythmic entrainment (or beat-based timing). This hypothesis accommodates the fact that non-human primates (i.e., macaques) performance is comparable to humans in single interval tasks (such as interval reproduction, categorization, and interception), but show differences in multiple interval tasks (such as rhythmic entrainment, synchronization, and continuation). Furthermore, it is in line with the observation that macaques can, apparently, synchronize in the visual domain, but show less sensitivity in the auditory domain. And finally, while macaques are sensitive to interval-based timing and rhythmic grouping, the absence of a strong coupling between the auditory and motor system of non-human primates might be the reason why macaques cannot rhythmically entrain in the way humans do.

  11. Leptospiral agglutinins in captive and free ranging non-human primates in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thayaparan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The proposed study was carried out to determine the extent of exposure to leptospirosis in non-human primates. Materials and Methods: Trapping of non-human primates was carried out opportunistically around the Bako National Park and the Matang Wildlife Center in the vicinity of human settlements and tourism areas of Sarawak. Blood samples were obtained from the saphenous vein to determine the presence of antibodies by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT to 17 serovars of Leptospira commonly found in Malaysia. Results: This study reports the screening of twelve primates (eight captive and four free ranging for leptospirosis. Eight of the 12 monkeys (66.6%; 95% CI 34.9-90.1 reacted against one or two serovars of Leptospira (Lai and Leptospira Lepto175. The serovar Lai is considered pathogenic for different mammals, including humans. Leptospira Lepto 175 has been identified as an intermediate strain and further studies are being undertaken on this serovar. Conclusion: These results are important as primates may act as reservoirs of Leptospira spp. for humans, which may potentially affect tourism (economic loss, conservation efforts and public health.

  12. Noise-Induced Frequency Modifications of Tamarin Vocalizations: Implications for Noise Compensation in Nonhuman Primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara F Hotchkin

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that nonhuman primates have limited flexibility in the frequency content of their vocalizations, particularly when compared to human speech. Consistent with this notion, several nonhuman primate species have demonstrated noise-induced changes in call amplitude and duration, with no evidence of changes to spectral content. This experiment used broad- and narrow-band noise playbacks to investigate the vocal control of two call types produced by cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus Oedipus. In 'combination long calls' (CLCs, peak fundamental frequency and the distribution of energy between low and high frequency harmonics (spectral tilt changed in response to increased noise amplitude and bandwidth. In chirps, peak and maximum components of the fundamental frequency increased with increasing noise level, with no changes to spectral tilt. Other modifications included the Lombard effect and increases in chirp duration. These results provide the first evidence for noise-induced frequency changes in nonhuman primate vocalizations and suggest that future investigations of vocal plasticity in primates should include spectral parameters.

  13. Detection of Weakly Conserved Ancestral Mammalian RegulatorySequences by Primate Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Chanan, Sumita; Cheng,Jan-Fang; Rubin, Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2006-06-01

    Genomic comparisons between human and distant, non-primatemammals are commonly used to identify cis-regulatory elements based onconstrained sequence evolution. However, these methods fail to detectcryptic functional elements, which are too weakly conserved among mammalsto distinguish from nonfunctional DNA. To address this problem, weexplored the potential of deep intra-primate sequence comparisons. Wesequenced the orthologs of 558 kb of human genomic sequence, coveringmultiple loci involved in cholesterol homeostasis, in 6 nonhumanprimates. Our analysis identified 6 noncoding DNA elements displayingsignificant conservation among primates, but undetectable in more distantcomparisons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that at least three ofthese 6 elements have regulatory function. Notably, the mouse orthologsof these three functional human sequences had regulatory activity despitetheir lack of significant sequence conservation, indicating that they arecryptic ancestral cis-regulatory elements. These regulatory elementscould still be detected in a smaller set of three primate speciesincluding human, rhesus and marmoset. Since the human and rhesus genomesequences are already available, and the marmoset genome is activelybeing sequenced, the primate-specific conservation analysis describedhere can be applied in the near future on a whole-genome scale, tocomplement the annotation provided by more distant speciescomparisons.

  14. First New World Primate Papillomavirus Identification in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil: Alouatta guariba papillomavirus 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Rodrigo Vellasco Duarte; de Souza, Alex Junior Souza; Silva, Allan Kaio; de Mello, Wyller Alencar; Nunes, Marcio Roberto T.; Júnior, João Lídio S. G. V.; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; de Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota; de Oliveira, Layanna Freitas; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; da Silva, Adriana Marques J.; Fries, Brigida Gomes; Summa, Maria Eugênia L.; de Sá, Lilian Rose M.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the first papillomavirus detected in a New World primate, howler monkey, Alouatta guariba clamitans papillomavirus 1 (AgPV1), from the Atlantic Forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27540053

  15. Mammalian Diversity and Matses Ethnomammalogy in Amazonian Peru. Part 1: Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Pazhoohi

    2011-01-01

    Review of Mammalian Diversity and Matses Ethnomammalogy in Amazonian Peru. Part 1: Primates. Robert S. Voss and David W. Fleck. 2011. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Number 351. Pp.81, 3 figures, 25 tables. Free at AMNH Digital Library ISSN 0003‐0090.

  16. Chewing on the trees: Constraints and adaptation in the evolution of the primate mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloro, Carlo; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; Carotenuto, Francesco; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza Leal; Passaro, Federico; Raia, Pasquale

    2015-07-01

    Chewing on different food types is a demanding biological function. The classic assumption in studying the shape of feeding apparatuses is that animals are what they eat, meaning that adaptation to different food items accounts for most of their interspecific variation. Yet, a growing body of evidence points against this concept. We use the primate mandible as a model structure to investigate the complex interplay among shape, size, diet, and phylogeny. We find a weak but significant impact of diet on mandible shape variation in primates as a whole but not in anthropoids and catarrhines as tested in isolation. These clades mainly exhibit allometric shape changes, which are unrelated to diet. Diet is an important factor in the diversification of strepsirrhines and platyrrhines and a phylogenetic signal is detected in all primate clades. Peaks in morphological disparity occur during the Oligocene (between 37 and 25 Ma) supporting the notion that an adaptive radiation characterized the evolution of South American monkeys. In all primate clades, the evolution of mandible size is faster than its shape pointing to a strong effect of allometry on ecomorphological diversification in this group.

  17. Know Your Monkey: Identifying Primate Conservation Challenges in an Indigenous Kichwa Community Using an Ethnoprimatological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ciara A; Alarcon-Valenzuela, Javiera; Patiño, Javier; Preziosi, Richard F; Sellers, William I

    2016-01-01

    Increasing pressure on tropical forests is continually highlighting the need to find new solutions that mitigate the impact of human populations on biodiversity. However, developing solutions that can tackle the drivers of anthropogenic pressure, or at least take them into account, hinges upon building a good understanding of the culture and perceptions of local people. This study aims to provide an overview of the ethnoprimatology of an indigenous Kichwa community in the Ecuadorian Amazon that maintains a traditional lifestyle but also has good access to markets. We examine whether primates are seen as a distinctive group and their relative importance as sources of bushmeat and as household pets. Pile-sorting exercises revealed that although locals generally group members of the order Primates together, tree-dwelling non-primates including sloths, coatis, kinkajous and tamanduas are also frequently classified as 'monkeys'. The perceived importance of primates to the forest and the community lay more in their potential as bushmeat, and only 1 respondent identified an ecological role for the group in terms of seed dispersal. Gaining a better understanding of local perceptions will allow for better-informed conservation decisions that are more aware of potential impacts and are more likely to gain community support. PMID:27093638

  18. A cellular and molecular model of response kinetics and adaptation in primate cones and horizontal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, Hans van

    2005-01-01

    A model for the sensitivity regulation in the primate outer retina is developed and validated using horizontal cell measurements from the literature. The main conclusion is that the phototransduction of the cones is the key factor regulating sensitivity. The model consists of a nonlinearity cascaded

  19. Birds have primate-like numbers of neurons in the forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowicz, Seweryn; Kocourek, Martin; Lučan, Radek K; Porteš, Michal; Fitch, W Tecumseh; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Němec, Pavel

    2016-06-28

    Some birds achieve primate-like levels of cognition, even though their brains tend to be much smaller in absolute size. This poses a fundamental problem in comparative and computational neuroscience, because small brains are expected to have a lower information-processing capacity. Using the isotropic fractionator to determine numbers of neurons in specific brain regions, here we show that the brains of parrots and songbirds contain on average twice as many neurons as primate brains of the same mass, indicating that avian brains have higher neuron packing densities than mammalian brains. Additionally, corvids and parrots have much higher proportions of brain neurons located in the pallial telencephalon compared with primates or other mammals and birds. Thus, large-brained parrots and corvids have forebrain neuron counts equal to or greater than primates with much larger brains. We suggest that the large numbers of neurons concentrated in high densities in the telencephalon substantially contribute to the neural basis of avian intelligence. PMID:27298365

  20. Sources of variation in hair cortisol in wild and captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Brown, Janine L; Jolly, Clifford J; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Rogers, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Robin M

    2016-04-01

    Hair cortisol analysis is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating adrenal function and chronic stress. However, the technique has only recently been applied widely to studies of wildlife, including primates, and there are numerous practical and technical factors that should be considered to ensure good quality data and the validity of results and conclusions. Here we report on various intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in hair cortisol measurements in wild and captive primates. Hair samples from both wild and captive primates revealed that age and sex can affect hair cortisol concentrations; these effects need to be controlled for when making comparisons between individual animals or populations. Hair growth rates also showed considerable inter-specific variation among a number of primate species. We describe technical limitations of hair analyses and variation in cortisol concentrations as a function of asynchronous hair growth, anatomical site of collection, and the amount and numbers of hair/s used for cortisol extraction. We discuss these sources of variation and their implications for proper study design and interpretation of results. PMID:26884274

  1. Chewing on the trees: Constraints and adaptation in the evolution of the primate mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloro, Carlo; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; Carotenuto, Francesco; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza Leal; Passaro, Federico; Raia, Pasquale

    2015-07-01

    Chewing on different food types is a demanding biological function. The classic assumption in studying the shape of feeding apparatuses is that animals are what they eat, meaning that adaptation to different food items accounts for most of their interspecific variation. Yet, a growing body of evidence points against this concept. We use the primate mandible as a model structure to investigate the complex interplay among shape, size, diet, and phylogeny. We find a weak but significant impact of diet on mandible shape variation in primates as a whole but not in anthropoids and catarrhines as tested in isolation. These clades mainly exhibit allometric shape changes, which are unrelated to diet. Diet is an important factor in the diversification of strepsirrhines and platyrrhines and a phylogenetic signal is detected in all primate clades. Peaks in morphological disparity occur during the Oligocene (between 37 and 25 Ma) supporting the notion that an adaptive radiation characterized the evolution of South American monkeys. In all primate clades, the evolution of mandible size is faster than its shape pointing to a strong effect of allometry on ecomorphological diversification in this group. PMID:26095445

  2. Molecular Identification of Entamoeba spp. in Captive Nonhuman Primates ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B.; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J.; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms. PMID:20573870

  3. Molecular Identification of Entamoeba spp. in Captive Nonhuman Primates ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Levecke, B.; Dreesen, Leentje; Dorny, Pierre; Verweij, Jaco J.; Vercammen, Francis; Casaert, Stijn; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the molecular identification of 520 Entamoeba-positive fecal samples from a large and diverse population of captive nonhuman primates (NHP). The results revealed the presence of Entamoeba histolytica (NHP variant only), E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, E. hartmanni, E. coli, and E. polecki-like organisms.

  4. Genome sequencing and comparison of two nonhuman primate animal models, the cynomolgus and Chinese rhesus macaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Guangmei; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong;

    2011-01-01

    The nonhuman primates most commonly used in medical research are from the genus Macaca. To better understand the genetic differences between these animal models, we present high-quality draft genome sequences from two macaque species, the cynomolgus/crab-eating macaque and the Chinese rhesus...

  5. Notas sueltas de José Antonio Valverde sobre taxonomía de Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Notas sueltas sobre taxonomía de Primates, que el autor utilizó para elaborar su conferencia "L'Evolution Humaine Apercue Generale", impartida en el Musèe de l'Homme de París, y patrocinada por la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, el 21 de marzo de 1963.

  6. Apuntes de José Antonio Valverde sobre cenogramas y cráneos de primates

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde Gómez, José Antonio, 1926-2003

    2008-01-01

    Apuntes sobre cenogramas y cráneos de primates, que el autor utilizó para elaborar su conferencia "L'Evolution Humaine Apercue Generale", impartida en el Musèe de l'Homme de París, y patrocinada por la Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, el 21 de marzo de 1963.

  7. Non-human primate regulatory T cells: Current biology and implications for transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Dons (Eefje); G. Raimondi (Giorgio); D.K.C. Cooper; A.W. Thomson (Angus)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractRegulatory T cells (Treg) offer potential for improving long-term outcomes in cell and organ transplantation. The non-human primate model is a valuable resource for addressing issues concerning the transfer of Treg therapy to the clinic. Herein, we discuss the properties of non-human pri

  8. Sources of variation in hair cortisol in wild and captive non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Nicolaas H; Brown, Janine L; Jolly, Clifford J; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Rogers, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Robin M

    2016-04-01

    Hair cortisol analysis is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating adrenal function and chronic stress. However, the technique has only recently been applied widely to studies of wildlife, including primates, and there are numerous practical and technical factors that should be considered to ensure good quality data and the validity of results and conclusions. Here we report on various intrinsic and extrinsic sources of variation in hair cortisol measurements in wild and captive primates. Hair samples from both wild and captive primates revealed that age and sex can affect hair cortisol concentrations; these effects need to be controlled for when making comparisons between individual animals or populations. Hair growth rates also showed considerable inter-specific variation among a number of primate species. We describe technical limitations of hair analyses and variation in cortisol concentrations as a function of asynchronous hair growth, anatomical site of collection, and the amount and numbers of hair/s used for cortisol extraction. We discuss these sources of variation and their implications for proper study design and interpretation of results.

  9. Know Your Monkey: Identifying Primate Conservation Challenges in an Indigenous Kichwa Community Using an Ethnoprimatological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ciara A; Alarcon-Valenzuela, Javiera; Patiño, Javier; Preziosi, Richard F; Sellers, William I

    2016-01-01

    Increasing pressure on tropical forests is continually highlighting the need to find new solutions that mitigate the impact of human populations on biodiversity. However, developing solutions that can tackle the drivers of anthropogenic pressure, or at least take them into account, hinges upon building a good understanding of the culture and perceptions of local people. This study aims to provide an overview of the ethnoprimatology of an indigenous Kichwa community in the Ecuadorian Amazon that maintains a traditional lifestyle but also has good access to markets. We examine whether primates are seen as a distinctive group and their relative importance as sources of bushmeat and as household pets. Pile-sorting exercises revealed that although locals generally group members of the order Primates together, tree-dwelling non-primates including sloths, coatis, kinkajous and tamanduas are also frequently classified as 'monkeys'. The perceived importance of primates to the forest and the community lay more in their potential as bushmeat, and only 1 respondent identified an ecological role for the group in terms of seed dispersal. Gaining a better understanding of local perceptions will allow for better-informed conservation decisions that are more aware of potential impacts and are more likely to gain community support.

  10. Ecomorphology of orbit orientation and the adaptive significance of binocular vision in primates and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesy, Christopher P

    2008-01-01

    Primates are characterized by forward-facing, or convergent, orbits and associated binocular field overlap. Hypotheses explaining the adaptive significance of these traits often relate to ecological factors, such as arboreality, nocturnal visual predation, or saltatory locomotion in a complex nocturnal, arboreal environment. This study re-examines the ecological factors that are associated with high orbit convergence in mammals. Orbit orientation data were collected for 321 extant taxa from sixteen orders of metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian mammals. These taxa were coded for activity pattern, degree of faunivory, and substrate preference. Results demonstrate that nocturnal and cathemeral mammals have significantly more convergent orbits than diurnal taxa, both within and across orders. Faunivorous eutherians (both nocturnal and diurnal) have higher mean orbit convergence than opportunistically foraging or non-faunivorous taxa. However, substrate preference is not associated with higher orbit convergence and, by extension, greater binocular visual field overlap. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that mammalian predators evolved higher orbit convergence, binocular vision, and stereopsis to counter camouflage in prey inhabiting a nocturnal environment. Strepsirhine primates have a range of orbit convergence values similar to nocturnal or cathemeral predatory non-primate mammals. These data are entirely consistent with the nocturnal visual predation hypothesis of primate origins. PMID:17878718

  11. Morphological and functional maturation of Leydig cells: from rodent models to primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K.J.; Huhtaniemi, I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leydig cells (LC) are the sites of testicular androgen production. Development of LC occurs in the testes of most mammalian species as two distinct growth phases, i.e. as fetal and pubertal/adult populations. In primates there are indications of a third neonatal growth phase. LC androgen

  12. Health Benefits of Animal Research: Medical and Behavioral Benefits from Primate Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Frederick A.; Yarbrough, Cathy J.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a sampling of the contributions of primate research to human health and welfare through discussions of: atherosclerosis; aging; endocrine and seasonality influences on reproductive behavior; emotional expression; communication; infectious diseases (viruses, polio, acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS; and others); cancer; the brain;…

  13. Morphometric and Statistical Analysis of the Palmaris Longus Muscle in Human and Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roqueline A. G. M. F. Aversi-Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The palmaris longus is considered a phylogenetic degenerate metacarpophalangeal joint flexor muscle in humans, a small vestigial forearm muscle; it is the most variable muscle in humans, showing variation in position, duplication, slips and could be reverted. It is frequently studied in papers about human anatomical variations in cadavers and in vivo, its variation has importance in medical clinic, surgery, radiological analysis, in studies about high-performance athletes, in genetics and anthropologic studies. Most studies about palmaris longus in humans are associated to frequency or case studies, but comparative anatomy in primates and comparative morphometry were not found in scientific literature. Comparative anatomy associated to morphometry of palmaris longus could explain the degeneration observed in this muscle in two of three of the great apes. Hypothetically, the comparison of the relative length of tendons and belly could indicate the pathway of the degeneration of this muscle, that is, the degeneration could be associated to increased tendon length and decreased belly from more primitive primates to those most derivate, that is, great apes to modern humans. In conclusion, in primates, the tendon of the palmaris longus increase from Lemuriformes to modern humans, that is, from arboreal to terrestrial primates and the muscle became weaker and tending to be missing.

  14. 78 FR 11521 - Control of Communicable Disease; Foreign-Requirements for Importers of Nonhuman Primates (NHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... requiring a special permit for importing cynomolgus, African green, and rhesus monkeys (55 FR 15210, April... a final rule at 78 FR 9828 establishing a user fee for filovirus testing of all nonhuman primates... zoonotic diseases of NHPs in quarantine, management of illnesses and deaths of unknown etiology,...

  15. Evolution of invasive placentation with special reference to non-human primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Pijnenborg, Robert

    2011-01-01

    and even tarsiers and New World monkeys show restricted trophoblast invasion. Moreover, a truly villous placenta occurs only in Old World monkeys and great apes. The two latter groups of haplorhine primates show varying degrees of trophoblast-uterine interaction, including differences in the extent...

  16. Anatomical network analysis shows decoupling of modular lability and complexity in the evolution of the primate skull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja Esteve-Altava

    Full Text Available Modularity and complexity go hand in hand in the evolution of the skull of primates. Because analyses of these two parameters often use different approaches, we do not know yet how modularity evolves within, or as a consequence of, an also-evolving complex organization. Here we use a novel network theory-based approach (Anatomical Network Analysis to assess how the organization of skull bones constrains the co-evolution of modularity and complexity among primates. We used the pattern of bone contacts modeled as networks to identify connectivity modules and quantify morphological complexity. We analyzed whether modularity and complexity evolved coordinately in the skull of primates. Specifically, we tested Herbert Simon's general theory of near-decomposability, which states that modularity promotes the evolution of complexity. We found that the skulls of extant primates divide into one conserved cranial module and up to three labile facial modules, whose composition varies among primates. Despite changes in modularity, statistical analyses reject a positive feedback between modularity and complexity. Our results suggest a decoupling of complexity and modularity that translates to varying levels of constraint on the morphological evolvability of the primate skull. This study has methodological and conceptual implications for grasping the constraints that underlie the developmental and functional integration of the skull of humans and other primates.

  17. Fast and non-invasive PCR sexing of primates: apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys and Strepsirrhines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Fredsted, Tina

    2006-01-01

    Background One of the key tools for determining the social structure of wild and endangered primates is the ability to sex DNA from small amounts of non-invasive samples that are likely to include highly degraded DNA. Traditional markers for molecular sex determination of primates are developed o...... amplification of X and Y fragments is useful for sexing DNA samples from all species of primates. Furthermore, since the amplified fragments are very short the method can be applied to fragmented DNA extracted from non-invasive samples.......Background One of the key tools for determining the social structure of wild and endangered primates is the ability to sex DNA from small amounts of non-invasive samples that are likely to include highly degraded DNA. Traditional markers for molecular sex determination of primates are developed...... on the basis of the human sequence and are often non-functional in distantly related primate species. Hence, it is highly desirable to develop markers that simultaneously detect Y- and X-chromosome specific sequences and also work across many species. Results A novel method for sex identification in primates...

  18. Silencing, positive selection and parallel evolution: busy history of primate cytochromes C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Pierron

    Full Text Available Cytochrome c (cyt c participates in two crucial cellular processes, energy production and apoptosis, and unsurprisingly is a highly conserved protein. However, previous studies have reported for the primate lineage (i loss of the paralogous testis isoform, (ii an acceleration and then a deceleration of the amino acid replacement rate of the cyt c somatic isoform, and (iii atypical biochemical behavior of human cyt c. To gain insight into the cause of these major evolutionary events, we have retraced the history of cyt c loci among primates. For testis cyt c, all primate sequences examined carry the same nonsense mutation, which suggests that silencing occurred before the primates diversified. For somatic cyt c, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses yielded the same tree topology. The evolutionary analyses show that a fast accumulation of non-synonymous mutations (suggesting positive selection occurred specifically on the anthropoid lineage root and then continued in parallel on the early catarrhini and platyrrhini stems. Analysis of evolutionary changes using the 3D structure suggests they are focused on the respiratory chain rather than on apoptosis or other cyt c functions. In agreement with previous biochemical studies, our results suggest that silencing of the cyt c testis isoform could be linked with the decrease of primate reproduction rate. Finally, the evolution of cyt c in the two sister anthropoid groups leads us to propose that somatic cyt c evolution may be related both to COX evolution and to the convergent brain and body mass enlargement in these two anthropoid clades.

  19. Eye size at birth in prosimian primates: life history correlates and growth patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Cummings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius, compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits

  20. Importance of achromatic contrast in short-range fruit foraging of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Melin, Amanda D; Aureli, Filippo; Schaffner, Colleen M; Vorobyev, Misha; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Kawamura, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Trichromatic primates have a 'red-green' chromatic channel in addition to luminance and 'blue-yellow' channels. It has been argued that the red-green channel evolved in primates as an adaptation for detecting reddish or yellowish objects, such as ripe fruits, against a background of foliage. However, foraging advantages to trichromatic primates remain unverified by behavioral observation of primates in their natural habitats. New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are an excellent model for this evaluation because of the highly polymorphic nature of their color vision due to allelic variation of the L-M opsin gene on the X chromosome. In this study we carried out field observations of a group of wild, frugivorous black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi frontatus, Gray 1842, Platyrrhini), consisting of both dichromats (n = 12) and trichromats (n = 9) in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. We determined the color vision types of individuals in this group by genotyping their L-M opsin and measured foraging efficiency of each individual for fruits located at a grasping distance. Contrary to the predicted advantage for trichromats, there was no significant difference between dichromats and trichromats in foraging efficiency and we found that the luminance contrast was the main determinant of the variation of foraging efficiency among red-green, blue-yellow and luminance contrasts. Our results suggest that luminance contrast can serve as an important cue in short-range foraging attempts despite other sensory cues that could be available. Additionally, the advantage of red-green color vision in primates may not be as salient as previously thought and needs to be evaluated in further field observations. PMID:18836576

  1. Degeneration of olfactory receptor gene repertories in primates: no direct link to full trichromatic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Atsushi; Go, Yasuhiro; Niimura, Yoshihito

    2010-05-01

    Odor molecules in the environment are detected by olfactory receptors (ORs), being encoded by a large multigene family in mammalian genomes. It is generally thought that primates are vision oriented and dependent weakly on olfaction. Previous studies suggested that Old World monkeys (OWMs) and hominoids lost many functional OR genes after the divergence from New World monkeys (NWMs) due to the acquisition of well-developed trichromatic vision. To examine this hypothesis, here we analyzed OR gene repertoires of five primate species including NWMs, OWMs, and hominoids for which high-coverage genome sequences are available, together with two prosimians and tree shrews with low-coverage genomes. The results showed no significant differences in the number of functional OR genes between NWMs (marmosets) and OWMs/hominoids. Two independent analyses, identification of orthologous genes among the five primates and estimation of the numbers of ancestral genes by the reconciled tree method, did not support a sudden loss of OR genes at the branch of the OWMs/hominoids ancestor but suggested a gradual loss in every lineage. Moreover, we found that humans retain larger numbers of ancestral OR genes that were in the common ancestor of NWMs/OWMs/hominoids than orangutans and macaques and that the OR gene repertoire in humans is more similar to that of marmosets than those of orangutans and macaques. These results suggest that the degeneration of OR genes in primates cannot simply be explained by the acquisition of trichromatic vision, and our sense of smell may not be inferior to other primate species. PMID:20061342

  2. Importance of achromatic contrast in short-range fruit foraging of primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Hiramatsu

    Full Text Available Trichromatic primates have a 'red-green' chromatic channel in addition to luminance and 'blue-yellow' channels. It has been argued that the red-green channel evolved in primates as an adaptation for detecting reddish or yellowish objects, such as ripe fruits, against a background of foliage. However, foraging advantages to trichromatic primates remain unverified by behavioral observation of primates in their natural habitats. New World monkeys (platyrrhines are an excellent model for this evaluation because of the highly polymorphic nature of their color vision due to allelic variation of the L-M opsin gene on the X chromosome. In this study we carried out field observations of a group of wild, frugivorous black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi frontatus, Gray 1842, Platyrrhini, consisting of both dichromats (n = 12 and trichromats (n = 9 in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. We determined the color vision types of individuals in this group by genotyping their L-M opsin and measured foraging efficiency of each individual for fruits located at a grasping distance. Contrary to the predicted advantage for trichromats, there was no significant difference between dichromats and trichromats in foraging efficiency and we found that the luminance contrast was the main determinant of the variation of foraging efficiency among red-green, blue-yellow and luminance contrasts. Our results suggest that luminance contrast can serve as an important cue in short-range foraging attempts despite other sensory cues that could be available. Additionally, the advantage of red-green color vision in primates may not be as salient as previously thought and needs to be evaluated in further field observations.

  3. Visual responses of ganglion cells of a New-World primate, the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B B; Silveira, L C; Yamada, E S; Hunt, D M; Kremers, J; Martin, P R; Troy, J B; da Silva-Filho, M

    2000-11-01

    1. The genetic basis of colour vision in New-World primates differs from that in humans and other Old-World primates. Most New-World primate species show a polymorphism; all males are dichromats and most females trichromats. 2. In the retina of Old-World primates such as the macaque, the physiological correlates of trichromacy are well established. Comparison of the retinae in New- and Old-World species may help constrain hypotheses as to the evolution of colour vision and the pathways associated with it. 3. Ganglion cell behaviour was recorded from trichromatic and dichromatic members of a New-World species (the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella) and compared with macaque data. Despite some differences in quantitative detail (such as a temporal response extended to higher frequencies), results from trichromatic animals strongly resembled those from the macaque. 4. In particular, cells of the parvocellular (PC) pathway showed characteristic frequency-dependent changes in responsivity to luminance and chromatic modulation, cells of the magnocellular (MC) pathway showed frequency-doubled responses to chromatic modulation, and the surround of MC cells received a chromatic input revealed on changing the phase of heterochromatically modulated lights. 5. Ganglion cells of dichromats were colour-blind versions of those of trichromats. 6. This strong physiological homology is consistent with a common origin of trichromacy in New- and Old-World monkeys; in the New-World primate the presence of two pigments in the middle-to-long wavelength range permits full expression of the retinal mechanisms of trichromatic vision. PMID:11432364

  4. Survey of 2014 behavioral management programs for laboratory primates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C

    2016-07-01

    The behavioral management of laboratory nonhuman primates in the United States has not been thoroughly characterized since 2003. This article presents the results of a survey behavioral management programs at 27 facilities and covering a total of 59,636 primates, 27,916 housed in indoor cages and 31,720 in group enclosures. The survey included questions regarding program structure, implementation, and methodology associated with social housing, positive reinforcement training, positive human interaction, exercise enclosures, and several categories of inanimate enrichment. The vast majority of laboratory primates are housed socially (83%). Since 2003, the proportion of indoor-housed primates reported to be housed singly has fallen considerably, from 59% to 35% in the facilities surveyed. The use of social housing remains significantly constrained by: 1) research protocol requirements, highlighting the value of closely involved IACUCs for harmonizing research and behavioral management; and 2) the unavailability of compatible social partners, underscoring the necessity of objective analysis of the methods used to foster and maintain compatibility. Positive reinforcement training appears to have expanded and is now used at all facilities responding to the survey. The use of enrichment devices has also increased in the participating facilities. For most behavioral management techniques, concerns over the possibility of negative consequences to animals are expressed most frequently for social housing and destructible enrichment, while skepticism regarding efficacy is limited almost exclusively to sensory enrichment. Behavioral management program staffing has expanded over time in the facilities surveyed, due not only to increased numbers of dedicated behavioral management technicians but also to greater involvement of animal care technicians, suggesting an increase in the integration of behavioral care into animal husbandry. Broad awareness of common practice may assist

  5. Large animal and primate models of spinal cord injury for the testing of novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Brian K; Streijger, Femke; Hill, Caitlin E; Anderson, Aileen J; Bacon, Mark; Beattie, Michael S; Blesch, Armin; Bradbury, Elizabeth J; Brown, Arthur; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Case, Casey C; Colburn, Raymond W; David, Samuel; Fawcett, James W; Ferguson, Adam R; Fischer, Itzhak; Floyd, Candace L; Gensel, John C; Houle, John D; Jakeman, Lyn B; Jeffery, Nick D; Jones, Linda Ann Truett; Kleitman, Naomi; Kocsis, Jeffery; Lu, Paul; Magnuson, David S K; Marsala, Martin; Moore, Simon W; Mothe, Andrea J; Oudega, Martin; Plant, Giles W; Rabchevsky, Alexander Sasha; Schwab, Jan M; Silver, Jerry; Steward, Oswald; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Guest, James D; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2015-07-01

    Large animal and primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) are being increasingly utilized for the testing of novel therapies. While these represent intermediary animal species between rodents and humans and offer the opportunity to pose unique research questions prior to clinical trials, the role that such large animal and primate models should play in the translational pipeline is unclear. In this initiative we engaged members of the SCI research community in a questionnaire and round-table focus group discussion around the use of such models. Forty-one SCI researchers from academia, industry, and granting agencies were asked to complete a questionnaire about their opinion regarding the use of large animal and primate models in the context of testing novel therapeutics. The questions centered around how large animal and primate models of SCI would be best utilized in the spectrum of preclinical testing, and how much testing in rodent models was warranted before employing these models. Further questions were posed at a focus group meeting attended by the respondents. The group generally felt that large animal and primate models of SCI serve a potentially useful role in the translational pipeline for novel therapies, and that the rational use of these models would depend on the type of therapy and specific research question being addressed. While testing within these models should not be mandatory, the detection of beneficial effects using these models lends additional support for translating a therapy to humans. These models provides an opportunity to evaluate and refine surgical procedures prior to use in humans, and safety and bio-distribution in a spinal cord more similar in size and anatomy to that of humans. Our results reveal that while many feel that these models are valuable in the testing of novel therapies, important questions remain unanswered about how they should be used and how data derived from them should be interpreted.

  6. Body size and the small branch niche: using marsupial ontogeny to model primate locomotor evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Liza J; Young, Jesse W; VandeBerg, John L

    2014-03-01

    Recently proposed ancestral locomotor and morphological 'stages' leading to the evolution of primates have emphasized small body size, and a transition from a clawed non-grasping stage, to a clawed, grasping stage with clawless opposable hallux, to a fully-nailed primate with grasping extremities. This evolutionary transition was presumably associated with frequent use of the small branch niche. To model elements of these evolutionary transitions, we investigate how body size, substrate size, substrate orientation and grasping morphology interact to influence quadrupedal kinematics within and between ontogenetic samples of two small-bodied marsupials, one arboreal (Petaurus breviceps) and the other mainly terrestrial (Monodelphis domestica). Longitudinal morphometric and kinematic data were collected from four juvenile P. breviceps (33-75 g) and two juvenile M. domestica (18-95 g) walking across poles of three diameters (2.5, 1.0, and 0.5 cm) and three orientations (horizontal, 30° incline, 30° decline). The two species responded similarly to some substrate conditions, but diverged in response to others. Kinematic divergence between the two species reflects Monodelphis' relatively shorter digits, reduced grasping ability and greater need for stabilizing mechanisms on narrow substrates. At a given relative body size or pole orientation, Monodelphis used higher limb duty factors, more limbs in support per stride, lower limb phases, and in some conditions, faster speeds compared with Petaurus. Interspecific differences were the least distinct on declined poles, highlighting the particular challenge of this substrate condition, even for arboreally adapted species. Small-bodied, arboreal primate ancestors would likely have employed the kinematic mechanisms common to our model taxa, but those with enhanced grasping adaptations would most likely not have required the increased level of stabilizing mechanisms exhibited by Monodelphis. Thus, using these two species

  7. The primate community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia: a model to decipher ecological partitioning among extinct species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Ramdarshan

    Full Text Available Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil, in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet. Cebus has a very diverse omnivorous diet, which is highlighted in this study, as it compares to both fruit and leaf eating taxa. In some cases, microwear results need to be supplemented by other methods. For example, dental microwear seems insufficient to distinguish between Pithecia and Chiropotes, which eat foods with similar physical properties. However, other methods (i.e. shearing quotients and body mass provide enough complimentary information to be able to highlight differences between the two taxa. On the other hand, dental microwear can highlight differences between primates which have similar diets, such as Saimiri and Saguinus. In this case, differences could be due to other exogenous factors.

  8. Primate population dynamics over 32.9 years at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanga, J S; Struhsaker, T T; Struhsaker, P J; Butynski, T M; Mitani, J C

    2011-10-01

    We present census data for eight primate species spanning 32.9 years along the same transect at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda, demonstrating major changes in the composition of the primate community. Correlated with an estimated decline of ∼89% in the red colobus population was an increase in encounter rates with chimpanzee parties. Our data, along with the unusually high rates of predation by chimpanzees on red colobus at Ngogo and the fact that the chimpanzee community at Ngogo is the largest ever recorded, support the conclusion that the red colobus decline was caused primarily by chimpanzee predation. This seems to be the first documented case of predation by one nonhuman primate causing the population decline in another. We evaluated disease and interspecific competition as other possible causes of the red colobus decline, but judged them to be relatively insignificant compared with predation by chimpanzees. Notable changes in encounter rates with other primate species may have resulted from forest expansion. Those for mangabeys, redtails, and black and white colobus increased significantly. Encounter rates increased for l'Hoest's monkeys too, but the increased sightings may have been an artifact of increased habituation. Sightings of blue monkey and baboon groups declined. There was no significant change in encounter rates for all species combined. The Ngogo primate community seemed to be in a nonequilibrium state, changing from one dominated by two species, a folivore (red colobus) and a frugivorous omnivore (redtails), to one dominated by three species of frugivorous omnivores (redtails, mangabeys, and chimpanzees). This study demonstrates the importance of long-term monitoring in understanding population dynamics and the role of intrinsic variables in shaping the species composition of a community. PMID:21557287

  9. Survey of 2014 behavioral management programs for laboratory primates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate C

    2016-07-01

    The behavioral management of laboratory nonhuman primates in the United States has not been thoroughly characterized since 2003. This article presents the results of a survey behavioral management programs at 27 facilities and covering a total of 59,636 primates, 27,916 housed in indoor cages and 31,720 in group enclosures. The survey included questions regarding program structure, implementation, and methodology associated with social housing, positive reinforcement training, positive human interaction, exercise enclosures, and several categories of inanimate enrichment. The vast majority of laboratory primates are housed socially (83%). Since 2003, the proportion of indoor-housed primates reported to be housed singly has fallen considerably, from 59% to 35% in the facilities surveyed. The use of social housing remains significantly constrained by: 1) research protocol requirements, highlighting the value of closely involved IACUCs for harmonizing research and behavioral management; and 2) the unavailability of compatible social partners, underscoring the necessity of objective analysis of the methods used to foster and maintain compatibility. Positive reinforcement training appears to have expanded and is now used at all facilities responding to the survey. The use of enrichment devices has also increased in the participating facilities. For most behavioral management techniques, concerns over the possibility of negative consequences to animals are expressed most frequently for social housing and destructible enrichment, while skepticism regarding efficacy is limited almost exclusively to sensory enrichment. Behavioral management program staffing has expanded over time in the facilities surveyed, due not only to increased numbers of dedicated behavioral management technicians but also to greater involvement of animal care technicians, suggesting an increase in the integration of behavioral care into animal husbandry. Broad awareness of common practice may assist

  10. Bonding, biophilia, biosynergy, and the future of primates in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Anthony L

    2011-03-01

    Human and nonhuman primates bond with one another in countless ways, and the results are varied and vital to the individuals and species involved. The manifesto that is the basis for the collection of essays in which this commentary is included proposes that the "human/nonhuman bonds that arise in primatological research and practice deserve and demand study and research." An essential corollary of this proposal is that the primatologists themselves must be studied. The aim of this essay is to explore the influence of human/nonhuman primate bonding on conservation practice and on the future of primates in the wild. This commentary applies the author's professional experience as a conservation psychologist and his research on the impact of profound interspecies bonds on human worldviews, attitudes, and behavior. It examines two general categories of bonds: those driven by Biophilia (human fascination with life) and those influenced by Biosynergy (mutual enrichment of life). It is the author's premise that biosynergy promotes complex collaborative interspecies bonds that broaden the conservationist's desire to enhance synergy among all organisms in an ecosystem. Conversely, biophilia induces relatively simple unidirectional bonds between humans and other animals that deepen the conservationist's desire to understand and protect certain species. This contrast raises some crucial questions. Do biophilia-driven bonds between conservationists and their favorite primates blind them to the synergistic needs of all species and impair their ability to work for sustained preservation of threatened habitat? Does biosynergy-based human/nature bonding enhance focus on conservation as an ecological science and thus ignore species-specific factors crucial to assure survival of endangered primates? How can both types of bonds be optimally applied to the conservation of wildlife and wilderness?

  11. Isolation and characterization of adenoviruses persistently shed from the gastrointestinal tract of non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumitra Roy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are important human pathogens that have been developed as vectors for gene therapies and genetic vaccines. Previous studies indicated that human infections with adenoviruses are self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts with evidence of some persistence in adenoid tissue. We sought to better understand the natural history of adenovirus infections in various non-human primates and discovered that healthy populations of great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans and macaques shed substantial quantities of infectious adenoviruses in stool. Shedding in stools from asymptomatic humans was found to be much less frequent, comparable to frequencies reported before. We purified and fully sequenced 30 novel adenoviruses from apes and 3 novel adenoviruses from macaques. Analyses of the new ape adenovirus sequences (as well as the 4 chimpanzee adenovirus sequences we have previously reported together with 22 complete adenovirus genomes available from GenBank revealed that (a the ape adenoviruses could clearly be classified into species corresponding to human adenovirus species B, C, and E, (b there was evidence for intraspecies recombination between adenoviruses, and (c the high degree of phylogenetic relatedness of adenoviruses across their various primate hosts provided evidence for cross species transmission events to have occurred in the natural history of B and E viruses. The high degree of asymptomatic shedding of live adenovirus in non-human primates and evidence for zoonotic transmissions warrants caution for primate handling and housing. Furthermore, the presence of persistent and/or latent adenovirus infections in the gut should be considered in the design and interpretation of human and non-human primate studies with adenovirus vectors.

  12. The primate community of Cachoeira (Brazilian Amazonia): a model to decipher ecological partitioning among extinct species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdarshan, Anusha; Alloing-Séguier, Thomas; Merceron, Gildas; Marivaux, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Dental microwear analysis is conducted on a community of platyrrhine primates from South America. This analysis focuses on the primate community of Cachoeira Porteira (Para, Brazil), in which seven sympatric species occur: Alouatta seniculus, Ateles paniscus, Cebus apella, Chiropotes satanas, Pithecia Pithecia, Saguinus midas, and Saimiri sciureus. Shearing quotients are also calculated for each taxon of this primate community. Dental microwear results indicate significant differences between taxa, but are somewhat insufficient when it comes to discriminating between ecologically similar taxa. The primates of Cachoeira Porteira all incorporate a certain amount of fruit in their diet, entailing a definite amount of inter-specific competition as they must share food resources. Alouatta is the most folivorous taxon of this community, which is corroborated by dental microwear analysis. Ateles, although of a similar size to Alouatta, limits inter-specific competition by incorporating more fruit in its diet. Cebus has a very diverse omnivorous diet, which is highlighted in this study, as it compares to both fruit and leaf eating taxa. In some cases, microwear results need to be supplemented by other methods. For example, dental microwear seems insufficient to distinguish between Pithecia and Chiropotes, which eat foods with similar physical properties. However, other methods (i.e. shearing quotients and body mass) provide enough complimentary information to be able to highlight differences between the two taxa. On the other hand, dental microwear can highlight differences between primates which have similar diets, such as Saimiri and Saguinus. In this case, differences could be due to other exogenous factors. PMID:22076156

  13. Putting the spotlight on internally displaced animals (IDAs): a survey of primate sanctuaries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayford, Hannah R; Farmer, Kay H

    2013-02-01

    As anthropogenic activity makes deeper incursions into forests, fragmenting habitat, wildlife is forced into closer proximity to humans leading to increased incidences of human-wildlife conflict and wildlife displacement. These same incursions facilitate poaching for the commercial trade in dead and live animals. As a direct result, the number of sanctuaries and internally displaced animals (IDAs) in need of sanctuary placement and rehabilitation are increasing. We focus on internally displaced primates given the prevalence of primate-focused facilities and anthropomorphic considerations surrounding this taxonomic group. Surveys were distributed globally to map the extent and range of native primate sanctuaries and species. Over 70 facilities care for more than 6,000 native primates comprising 64 species, with almost half listed as endangered or critically endangered. As not all sanctuaries were identified at the time of the survey distribution, we estimate that the actual number of facilities is closer to double this number with a captive population in excess of 10,000 individual primates. Native primate sanctuaries hold significant numbers of primates in long-term captive care, with less than half (37%) identified as candidates for release. The surveyed sanctuary population accounts for 35% of the world's captive primates, as compared to ISIS-registered (where ISIS is International Species Information System) zoological facilities, although we estimate that the actual population is closer to 58%. For some species, the sanctuary population represents the only population in captivity. We discuss the prevalence of range-state sanctuaries and their primate populations, and issues surrounding their future development and management. PMID:23097324

  14. Distinctive patterns of evolution of the δ-globin gene (HBD in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moleirinho

    Full Text Available In most vertebrates, hemoglobin (Hb is a heterotetramer composed of two dissimilar globin chains, which change during development according to the patterns of expression of α- and β-globin family members. In placental mammals, the β-globin cluster includes three early-expressed genes, ε(HBE-γ(HBG-ψβ(HBBP1, and the late expressed genes, δ (HBD and β (HBB. While HBB encodes the major adult β-globin chain, HBD is weakly expressed or totally silent. Paradoxically, in human populations HBD shows high levels of conservation typical of genes under strong evolutionary constraints, possibly due to a regulatory role in the fetal-to-adult switch unique of Anthropoid primates. In this study, we have performed a comprehensive phylogenetic and comparative analysis of the two adult β-like globin genes in a set of diverse mammalian taxa, focusing on the evolution and functional divergence of HBD in primates. Our analysis revealed that anthropoids are an exception to a general pattern of concerted evolution in placental mammals, showing a high level of sequence conservation at HBD, less frequent and shorter gene conversion events. Moreover, this lineage is unique in the retention of a functional GATA-1 motif, known to be involved in the control of the developmental expression of the β-like globin genes. We further show that not only the mode but also the rate of evolution of the δ-globin gene in higher primates are strictly associated with the fetal/adult β-cluster developmental switch. To gain further insight into the possible functional constraints that have been shaping the evolutionary history of HBD in primates, we calculated dN/dS (ω ratios under alternative models of gene evolution. Although our results indicate that HBD might have experienced different selective pressures throughout primate evolution, as shown by different ω values between apes and Old World Monkeys + New World Monkeys (0.06 versus 0.43, respectively, these estimates

  15. Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: the evolutionary history of anthropoid primate lice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Julie M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasitic sucking lice of primates are known to have undergone at least 25 million years of coevolution with their hosts. For example, chimpanzee lice and human head/body lice last shared a common ancestor roughly six million years ago, a divergence that is contemporaneous with their hosts. In an assemblage where lice are often highly host specific, humans host two different genera of lice, one that is shared with chimpanzees and another that is shared with gorillas. In this study, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of primate lice and infer the historical events that explain the current distribution of these lice on their primate hosts. Results Phylogenetic and cophylogenetic analyses suggest that the louse genera Pediculus and Pthirus are each monophyletic, and are sister taxa to one another. The age of the most recent common ancestor of the two Pediculus species studied matches the age predicted by host divergence (ca. 6 million years, whereas the age of the ancestor of Pthirus does not. The two species of Pthirus (Pthirus gorillae and Pthirus pubis last shared a common ancestor ca. 3–4 million years ago, which is considerably younger than the divergence between their hosts (gorillas and humans, respectively, of approximately 7 million years ago. Conclusion Reconciliation analysis determines that there are two alternative explanations that account for the current distribution of anthropoid primate lice. The more parsimonious of the two solutions suggests that a Pthirus species switched from gorillas to humans. This analysis assumes that the divergence between Pediculus and Pthirus was contemporaneous with the split (i.e., a node of cospeciation between gorillas and the lineage leading to chimpanzees and humans. Divergence date estimates, however, show that the nodes in the host and parasite trees are not contemporaneous. Rather, the shared coevolutionary history of the anthropoid primates and their lice contains

  16. of bullies and buddies : socio-spatial behavior and emotional regulation drives primate-like social complexity in silico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Groups of primates form complex spatial and social structures. Often, dominance rank is reflected in an individual's spatial position within the group, and individuals maintain individualized reciprocal relationships with affiliates, which reflect earlier interactions. The hypothesized underlying me

  17. Primates in biomedical research and their maintenance in captivity. I primati nella ricerca biomedica ed il loro allevamento in cattivita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monaco, V.

    1983-01-01

    This conference is intended to provide to biologists, phychologists, zoologists etc., some criteria on use of non-human primates in biomedical research and to assess their value in procedures and tests of products by a pharmaceutical industry (i.e., poliomyelitis vaccine). After a review of scientific achievements during last decades and of the possibility of development of use of primates for medical experimentation, a numerical estimation of the subjects employed in different countries and of the basic needs as indicated by OMS and EEC is reported. In an attempt to promote a programme for production of primates in Italy, this communication describes the project of primates breeding by using areas near electro-nuclear power stations. 5 refs.

  18. PrimaTB STAT-PAK Assay, a Novel, Rapid Lateral-Flow Test for Tuberculosis in Nonhuman Primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyashchenko, K.P.; Greenwald, R.; Esfandiari, J.; Greenwald, D.; Nacy, C.A.; Gibson, S.; Didier, P.J.; Washington, M.; Szczerba, P.; Motzel, S.; Handt, L.; Pollock, J.M.; McNair, J.; Andersen, P.; Langermans, J.A.M.; Verreck, F.; Ervin, S.; Ervin, F.; McCombs, C.

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most important zoonotic bacterial disease in nonhuman primates (NHP). The current diagnostic method, the intradermal palpebral tuberculin test, has serious shortcomings. We characterized antibody responses in NHP against Mycobacterium tuberculosis to identify immunodominant

  19. From cheetahs to chimpanzees: a comparative review of the drivers of human-carnivore conflict and human-primate conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Amy J

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict is a growing conservation threat, and is increasingly of importance to primate conservationists. Despite this, relatively little work has been done to date on the drivers of human-primate conflict, especially compared to other conflict-causing taxa such as large carnivores. However, the drivers of conflict are often very similar across species, so conflict researchers can learn important lessons from work conducted on other taxa. This paper discusses 8 key factors which are likely to affect how hostile people are towards wildlife and any damage they cause--6 of these are common to both carnivores and primates, while one is much more applicable to carnivores and the other is specific to primates. These conflict drivers involve numerous social and cultural factors, and highlight the importance of truly understanding the local drivers of conflict in order to develop effective mitigation strategies. PMID:23363596

  20. A NEW WORLD MONKEY MICROSATELLITE (AP74 HIGHLY CONSERVED IN PRIMATES AP74, un microsatélite de Monos del Nuevo Mundo altamente conservado en Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANA INÉS OKLANDER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Given their great variability, microsatellites or STRs became the most commonly used genetic markers over the last 15 years. The analysis of these markers requires minimum quantities of DNA, allowing the use of non invasive samples, such as feces or hair. We amplified the microsatellite Ap74 in blood and hair samples in order to analyze the levels of genomic conservation among a wide range of primates including: Lemur catta, Alouatta caraya, Ateles belzebuth, Ateles chamek, Pan troglodytes, Papio sp., and Homo sapiens. In all cases we obtained amplification products that exhibited similar size both in monkeys and human (oscillating between 126 and 176 bp, except in the lemur where the detected fragment presented a size of approximately 1000 bp. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences permitted the evaluation of the molecular modifications experienced during the evolutionary process in primates.Dado su alta variabilidad, los microsatélites o STR se convirtieron en los marcadores genéticos más ampliamente utilizados en los últimos 15 años. El análisis de estos marcadores requiere una mínima cantidad de ADN, permitiendo el uso de muestras no invasivas, tales como pelos o heces. Con el objetivo de analizar niveles de conservación genómica, amplificamos el microsatélite Ap74 en muestras de pelo y sangre de un amplio rango de primates incluyendo: Lemur catta, Alouatta caraya, Ateles belzebuth, Ateles chamek, Pan troglodytes, Papio sp., y Homo sapiens. En todos los casos obtuvimos productos de amplificación que exhibieron un tamaño similar (oscilando entre 126 y 176 pb, con excepción del lémur, donde el fragmento detectado presentó un tamaño de aproximadamente 1000 pb. El análisis de las secuencias nucleotídicas nos permitió evaluar las modificaciones moleculares ocurridas durante el proceso evolutivo en primates.

  1. of bullies and buddies : socio-spatial behavior and emotional regulation drives primate-like social complexity in silico

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Groups of primates form complex spatial and social structures. Often, dominance rank is reflected in an individual's spatial position within the group, and individuals maintain individualized reciprocal relationships with affiliates, which reflect earlier interactions. The hypothesized underlying mechanisms and the cognitive capacities thought necessary differ in their complexity. While primates have been shown to possess advanced socio-cognitive abilities, computer models have proven that co...

  2. The use of non-human primates in biomedical research: addressing the replacement impasse through the social dynamics of science

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Non-human primate experimentation provokes passionate and opposing exchanges, particularly in the UK. This disagreement contributes to an impasse which in turn has prevented the exploration of the important question, if and how primate research could be ended. This project aims to support the examination of this question of impasse presenting data on how it might be overcome by providing a novel and challenging perspective using a multi-method approach, and insights from science and technolog...

  3. Fecal microbiomes of non-human primates in Western Uganda reveal species-specific communities largely resistant to habitat perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Aleia I; Chapman, Colin A; Weny, Geoffrey; Tumukunde, Alex; Hyeroba, David; Klotz, Kelly; Koblings, Avery S; Mbora, David N M; Cregger, Melissa; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-04-01

    Primate gastrointestinal microbial communities are becoming increasingly appreciated for their relevance to comparative medicine and conservation, but the factors that structure primate "microbiomes" remain controversial. This study examined a community of primates in Kibale National Park, Uganda, to assess the relative importance of host species and location in structuring gastrointestinal microbiomes. Fecal samples were collected from primates in intact forest and from primates in highly disturbed forest fragments. People and livestock living nearby were also included, as was a geographically distant population of related red colobus in Kenya. A culture-free microbial community fingerprinting technique was used to analyze fecal microbiomes from 124 individual red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus), 100 individual black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza), 111 individual red-tailed guenons (Cercopithecus ascanius), 578 human volunteers, and 364 domestic animals, including cattle (Bos indicus and B. indicus × B. taurus crosses), goats (Caprus hircus), sheep (Ovis aries), and pigs (Sus scrofa). Microbiomes sorted strongly by host species, and forest fragmentation did not alter this pattern. Microbiomes of Kenyan red colobus sorted distinctly from microbiomes of Ugandan red colobus, but microbiomes from these two red colobus populations clustered more closely with each other than with any other species. Microbiomes from red colobus and black-and-white colobus were more differentiated than would be predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness of these two species, perhaps reflecting heretofore underappreciated differences in digestive physiology between the species. Within Kibale, social group membership influenced intra-specific variation among microbiomes. However, intra-specific variation was higher among primates in forest fragments than among primates in intact forest, perhaps reflecting the physical separation of fragments. These results suggest that, in this

  4. Evaluation of the neural function of nonhuman primates with spinal cord injury using an evoked potential-based scoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jichao; Ma, Mengjun; Xie, Zhongyu; Wang, Peng; Tang, Yong; Huang, Lin; Chen, Keng; Gao, Liangbin; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong; Zeng, Yuanshan

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) have been widely used in evaluation of the efficacy and safety of experimental restorative interventions before clinical trials. However, no objective methods are currently available for the evaluation of neural function in nonhuman primates. In our long-term clinical practice, we have used evoked potential (EP) for neural function surveillance during operation and accumulated extensive experience. In the present study, a nonhuman primate model of SCI was established in 6 adult cynomologus monkeys through spinal cord contusion injury at T8–T9. The neural function before SCI and within 6 months after SCI was evaluated based on EP recording. A scoring system including somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) was established for the evaluation of neural function of nonhuman primates with SCI. We compared the motor function scores of nonhuman primates before and after SCI. Our results showed that the EP below the injury level significantly changed during the 6 months after SCI. In addition, a positive correlation was identified between the EP scores and motor function. The EP-based scoring system is a reliable approach for evaluating the motor function changes in nonhuman primates with SCI. PMID:27629352

  5. Self-harm in laboratory-housed primates: where is the evidence that the Animal Welfare Act amendment has worked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcombe, Jonathan; Ferdowsian, Hope; Durham, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to psychological distress in primates in the laboratory is nonsocial housing; yet, available analyses suggest that little progress has been made in avoiding single-caging of these animals. Another way to assess psychological well being is to examine rates of self-abusive behavior in laboratory primates. If the AWA has been effective, then post-AWA self-harm rates might be lower than pre-AWA rates. However, when we attempted to determine those rates from published studies, data were too sparse to allow a rigorous statistical analysis; of 139 studies reporting primate self-harming behavior, only 9 contained data allowing estimation of self-harming behavior rates. We conclude that the current system of laboratory animal care and record keeping is inadequate to properly assess AWA impacts on primate psychological well being and that more is required to ensure the psychological well being of primates.

  6. Fast and non-invasive PCR sexing of primates: apes, Old World monkeys, New World monkeys and Strepsirrhines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredsted Tina

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the key tools for determining the social structure of wild and endangered primates is the ability to sex DNA from small amounts of non-invasive samples that are likely to include highly degraded DNA. Traditional markers for molecular sex determination of primates are developed on the basis of the human sequence and are often non-functional in distantly related primate species. Hence, it is highly desirable to develop markers that simultaneously detect Y- and X-chromosome specific sequences and also work across many species. Results A novel method for sex identification in primates is described using a triple primer PCR reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis of the sex-chromosomal isoforms of the ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat protein gene (UTX/UTY. By comparing genomic data from several mammals we identified the UTX/UTY locus as the best candidate for a universal primate sexing marker. Using data from several species we identified a XY-conserved region, a Y conserved region and an X conserved region. This enabled the design of a triple primer PCR setup that amplifies X and Y products of different length in a single PCR reaction. Conclusion This simple PCR amplification of X and Y fragments is useful for sexing DNA samples from all species of primates. Furthermore, since the amplified fragments are very short the method can be applied to fragmented DNA extracted from non-invasive samples.

  7. From Sweeping to the Caress: Similarities and Discrepancies between Human and Non-Human Primates' Pleasant Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Laura C

    2016-01-01

    Affective touch plays a key role in affiliative behavior, offering a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics, both in humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it has been speculated that the CT fiber system is a specific coding channel for affiliative touch that occurs during skin-to-skin interactions with conspecifics. In humans, this touch is commonly referred to as the caress, and its correlation with the CT fiber system has been widely demonstrated. It has been hypothesized that the sweeping touch that occurs during grooming in non-human primates may modulate the CT fibers, with recent preliminary studies on rhesus monkeys supporting this hypothesis. The present mini-review proposes a comparison between the pleasant touch, caress and sweeping of humans and non-human primates, respectively. The currently available data was therefore reviewed regarding (i) the correlation between pleasant touch and CT fibers both in humans and non-human primates, (ii) the autonomic effects, (iii) the encoding at the central nervous system, (iv) the development from early life to adulthood, and (v) the potential applications of pleasant touch in the daily lives of both humans and non-human primates. Moreover, by considering both the similarities and discrepancies between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, a possible evolutionary mechanism can be proposed that has developed from sweeping as a utilitarian action with affiliative meaning among monkeys, to the caress as a purely affective gesture associated with humans. PMID:27660620

  8. Evolutionary history of the PER3 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR: idiosyncratic aspect of primate molecular circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cal Sabino

    Full Text Available The PER3 gene is one of the clock genes, which function in the core mammalian molecular circadian system. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR locus in the 18th exon of this gene has been strongly associated to circadian rhythm phenotypes and sleep organization in humans, but it has not been identified in other mammals except primates. To better understand the evolution and the placement of the PER3 VNTR in a phylogenetical context, the present study enlarges the investigation about the presence and the structure of this variable region in a large sample of primate species and other mammals. The analysis of the results has revealed that the PER3 VNTR occurs exclusively in simiiforme primates and that the number of copies of the primitive unit ranges from 2 to 11 across different primate species. Two transposable elements surrounding the 18th exon of PER3 were found in primates with published genome sequences, including the tarsiiforme Tarsius syrichta, which lacks the VNTR. These results suggest that this VNTR may have evolved in a common ancestor of the simiiforme branch and that the evolutionary copy number differentiation of this VNTR may be associated with primate simiiformes sleep and circadian phenotype patterns.

  9. Cognitive competencies - Products of genes, experience, and technology. [for training of primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Duane M.; Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S.

    1992-01-01

    The paper examines methods used in studying cognitive competency in primates. Citing experiments on teaching language skills to chimpanzees, it is shown that some methods used for inquiry might lead to the cultivation and generation of new competencies, and specifically to the development of observational and relational learning skills. It is noted that methods can also limit the generality of conclusions; erroneous conclusions may be made based on certain generally accepted methods, whereby the research might be treatments that profoundly determine the assessment of dependent variables. Particular attention is given to the role of age in learning, showing that young primates can be taught the meaning of lexigrams and many specific tasks in much shorter time than adults; on the basis of these experiments, it was concluded that cultural gains did evolve primarily as a consequence of context within which infants were growing.

  10. Associations between primates and other mammals in a central Amazonian forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Peres, Carlos A

    2008-07-01

    Little information exists on mixed-species groups between primates and other mammals in Neotropical forests. In this paper, we describe three such associations observed during an extensive large-vertebrate survey in central Amazonia, Brazil. Mixed-species groups between a primate species and another mammal were observed on seven occasions between squirrel monkeys (Saimiri cf. ustus) and either South American coatis (Nasua nasua) or tayras (Eira barbara) and between brown capuchins (Cebus apella) and coatis. All associations were restricted to floodplain forest during its dry stage. We suggest that the associations involving the coatis are connected to foraging and vigilance but may be induced by a common alternative food resource at a time of food shortage. PMID:18306981

  11. Connections Matter: Social Networks and Lifespan Health in Primate Translational Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Brenda; Beisner, Brianne; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Vandeleest, Jessica; Jin, Jian; Hannibal, Darcy; Hsieh, Fushing

    2016-01-01

    Humans live in societies full of rich and complex relationships that influence health. The ability to improve human health requires a detailed understanding of the complex interplay of biological systems that contribute to disease processes, including the mechanisms underlying the influence of social contexts on these biological systems. A longitudinal computational systems science approach provides methods uniquely suited to elucidate the mechanisms by which social systems influence health and well-being by investigating how they modulate the interplay among biological systems across the lifespan. In the present report, we argue that nonhuman primate social systems are sufficiently complex to serve as model systems allowing for the development and refinement of both analytical and theoretical frameworks linking social life to health. Ultimately, developing systems science frameworks in nonhuman primate models will speed discovery of the mechanisms that subserve the relationship between social life and human health. PMID:27148103

  12. Stable gene transfer to the nervous system using a non-primate lentiviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrophanous, K; Yoon, S; Rohll, J; Patil, D; Wilkes, F; Kim, V; Kingsman, S; Kingsman, A; Mazarakis, N

    1999-11-01

    We have constructed a non-primate lentiviral vector system based on the equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV). This system is able to transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells, including primary cultured hippocampal neurons and neurons and glia in the adult rat central nervous system (CNS), at efficiencies comparable with HIV-based vectors. We demonstrate that the only EIAV proteins required for this activity are gag/pol and that the only accessory protein required for vector production is rev. In addition, we show that the pol encoded dUTPase activity that is found in all non-primate lentiviruses is not required. The vectors can be pseudotyped with a range of envelopes including rabies G and MLV 4070A and can be concentrated to high titres. The ability of EIAV to infect mitotically inactive cells makes this vector an attractive alternative to the immunodeficiency viruses for gene therapy. PMID:10602376

  13. La Fécondation In Vitro chez les primates non-humains : Exemple du Papio anubis

    OpenAIRE

    Lacoste, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Les techniques de procréation médicalement assistée (PMA), contrairement à d'autres domaines, se sont d'abord développées chez l'Homme puis ont été transposées chez les primates non-humains (PNH). Les premières tentatives de Fécondation In Vitro (FIV) et d'insémination artificielle (IA) chez les PNH datent des années 70-80. Un bilan succinct des tentatives et réussites dans ce domaine concernant les grands singes et les espèces de primates modèles en expérimentation animale seront présentées....

  14. A new world monkey microsatellite (ap74) highly conserved in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given their great variability, microsatellites or STRS became the most commonly used genetic markers over the last 15 years. The analysis of these markers requires minimum quantities of DNA, allowing the use of noninvasive samples, such as feces or hair. We amplified the microsatellite ap74 in blood and hair samples in order to analyze the levels of genomic conservation among a wide range of primates including: lemur catta, alouatta caraya, ateles belzebuth, ateles chamek, pan troglodytes, papio sp., and Homo sapiens. in all cases we obtained amplification products that exhibited similar size both in monkeys and human (oscillating between 126 and 176 bp), except in the lemur where the detected fragment presented a size of approximately 1000 bp. the analysis of the nucleotide sequences permitted the evaluation of the molecular modifications experienced during the evolutionary process in primates.

  15. Decreased Transcription Factor Binding Levels Nearby Primate Pseudogenes Suggest Regulatory Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Gavin M; Wilson, Michael D; Moses, Alan M

    2016-06-01

    Characteristics of pseudogene degeneration at the coding level are well-known, such as a shift toward neutral rates of nonsynonymous substitutions and gain of frameshift mutations. In contrast, degeneration of pseudogene transcriptional regulation is not well understood. Here, we test two predictions of regulatory degeneration along a pseudogenized lineage: 1) Decreased transcription factor (TF) binding and 2) accelerated evolution in putative cis-regulatory regions.We find evidence for decreased TF binding levels nearby two primate pseudogenes compared with functional liver genes. However, the majority of TF-bound sequences nearby pseudogenes do not show evidence for lineage-specific accelerated rates of evolution. We conclude that decreases in TF binding level could be a marker for regulatory degeneration, while sequence degeneration in primate cis-regulatory modules may be obscured by background rates of TF binding site turnover. PMID:26882985

  16. Distinct Expression Pattern of a Deafness Gene, KIAA1199, in a Primate Cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Makoto; Okano, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-01-01

    Deafness is one of the most common types of congenital impairments, and at least half of the cases are caused by hereditary mutations. Mutations of the gene KIAA1199 are associated with progressive hearing loss. Its expression is abundant in human cochlea, but interestingly the spatial expression patterns are different between mouse and rat cochleae; the pattern in humans has not been fully investigated. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of a nonhuman primate, common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), cochlea with a KIAA1199-specific antibody. In the common marmoset cochlea, KIAA1199 protein expression was more widespread than in rodents, with all epithelial cells, including hair cells, expressing KIAA1199. Our results suggest that the primate pattern of KIAA1199 expression is wider in comparison with rodents and may play an essential role in the maintenance of cochlear epithelial cells. PMID:27403418

  17. A New World Monkey microsatellite (AP74 higly conserved in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oklander Luciana Inés

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Given their great variability, microsatellites or STRPs became the most commonly used genetic markers over the last 15 years. The analysis of these markers requires minimum quantities of DNA, allowing the use of non invasive samples, such as feces or hair. We amplified the microsatellite Ap74 in blood and hair samples in order to analyze the levels of genomic conservation among a wide range of primates including: Lemur catta, Alouatta caraya, Ateles belzebuth, Ateles chamek, Pan troglodytes, Papio sp., and Homo sapiens. In all cases we obtained amplification products that exhibited similar size both in monkeys and human (oscillating between 126 and 176 bp, except in the lemur where the detected fragment presented a size of approximately 1000 bp. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences permitted the evaluation of the molecular modifications experienced during the evolutionary process in primates.

  18. A modular mind? A test using individual data from seven primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Amici

    Full Text Available It has long been debated whether the mind consists of specialized and independently evolving modules, or whether and to what extent a general factor accounts for the variance in performance across different cognitive domains. In this study, we used a hierarchical Bayesian model to re-analyse individual level data collected on seven primate species (chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans, gorillas, spider monkeys, brown capuchin monkeys and long-tailed macaques across 17 tasks within four domains (inhibition, memory, transposition and support. Our modelling approach evidenced the existence of both a domain-specific factor and a species factor, each accounting for the same amount (17% of the observed variance. In contrast, inter-individual differences played a minimal role. These results support the hypothesis that the mind of primates is (at least partially modular, with domain-specific cognitive skills undergoing different evolutionary pressures in different species in response to specific ecological and social demands.

  19. Nonhuman Primate Models of Addiction and PET Imaging: Dopamine System Dysregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Robert W.; Porrino, Linda J.; Nader, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of nonhuman primate models of cocaine addiction and the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the role of individual differences in vulnerability and how environmental and pharmacological variables can impact cocaine abuse. The chapter will describe studies related to the dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter system, and focus primarily on the D2-like DA receptor, the DA transporter and the use of fluorodeoxyglucose to better understand the neurop...

  20. PET Studies in Nonhuman Primate Models of Cocaine Abuse: Translational Research Related to Vulnerability and Neuroadaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Robert W.; Duke, Angela N.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The current review highlights the utility of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study the neurobiological substrates underlying vulnerability to cocaine addiction and subsequent adaptations following chronic cocaine self-administration in nonhuman primate models of cocaine abuse. Environmental (e.g., social rank) and sex-specific influences on dopaminergic function and sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of cocaine are discussed. Cocaine-related cognitive defic...

  1. Neuroanatomical limbic connections of the Locus coeruleus in the nonhuman primate

    OpenAIRE

    Ubero Martinez, Maria del Mar

    2016-01-01

    The present doctoral dissertation concerns the neuroanatomical organization of the LC in the primate brain; and it is more specifically focused on the limbic connections of the HF, amygdala (Amy) and PFC with the LC in order to better understand the role that this nucleus may have in cognitive processes. Rodent functional studies indicate that LC is activated by novel salient stimuli and directly modulate memory processing. This modulation likely involves connections between LC and the HF,...

  2. The primate connectome in context: Principles of connections of the cortical visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgetag, Claus C; Medalla, Maria; Beul, Sarah F; Barbas, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Which principles determine the organization of the intricate network formed by nerve fibers that link the primate cerebral cortex? We addressed this issue for the connections of primate visual cortices by systematically analyzing how the existence or absence of connections, their density as well as laminar patterns of projection origins and terminations are correlated with distance, similarity in cortical type as well as neuronal density or the thickness of cortical areas. Analyses were based on four extensive compilations of qualitative as well as quantitative data for connections of the primate visual cortical system in macaque monkeys (Felleman and Van Essen 1991; Barbas 1986; Barbas and Rempel-Clower 1997; Barone et al. 2000; Markov et al. 2014). Distance and thickness similarity were not consistently correlated with connection features, but similarity of cortical type, determined by qualitative features of laminar differentiation, or measured quantitatively as the areas' overall neuronal density, was a reliable predictor for the existence of connections between areas. Cortical type similarity was also consistently and closely correlated with characteristic laminar connection profiles: structurally dissimilar areas had origin and termination patterns that were biased to the upper or deep cortical layers, while similar areas showed more bilaminar origins and terminations. These results suggest that patterns of corticocortical connections of primate visual cortices are closely linked to the stratified architecture of the cerebral cortex. In particular, the regularity of laminar projection origins and terminations arises from the structural differences between cortical areas. The observed integration of projections with the intrinsic cortical architecture provides a structural basis for advanced theories of cortical organization and function. PMID:27083526

  3. The function and evolution of the restriction factor viperin in primates was not driven by lentiviruses

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    Lim Efrem S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viperin, also known as RSAD2, is an interferon-inducible protein that potently restricts a broad range of different viruses such as influenza, hepatitis C virus, human cytomegalovirus and West Nile virus. Viperin is thought to affect virus budding by modification of the lipid environment within the cell. Since HIV-1 and other retroviruses depend on lipid domains of the host cell for budding and infectivity, we investigated the possibility that Viperin also restricts human immunodeficiency virus and other retroviruses. Results Like other host restriction factors that have a broad antiviral range, we find that viperin has also been evolving under positive selection in primates. The pattern of positive selection is indicative of Viperin's escape from multiple viral antagonists over the course of primate evolution. Furthermore, we find that Viperin is interferon-induced in HIV primary target cells. We show that exogenous expression of Viperin restricts the LAI strain of HIV-1 at the stage of virus release from the cell. Nonetheless, the effect of Viperin restriction is highly strain-specific and does not affect most HIV-1 strains or other retroviruses tested. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous Viperin in a lymphocytic cell line did not significantly affect the spreading infection of HIV-1. Conclusion Despite positive selection having acted on Viperin throughout primate evolution, our findings indicate that Viperin is not a major restriction factor against HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Therefore, other viral lineages are likely responsible for the evolutionary signatures of positive selection in viperin among primates.

  4. Prevalence of Entamoeba species in captive primates in zoological gardens in the UK

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    Carl S. Regan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of amoebic infection in non-human primates (NHPs from six Zoological gardens in the United Kingdom. Initially, 126 faecal samples were collected from 37 individually identified NHPs at Twycross Zoo, UK, and were subjected to microscopic examination. A subsequent, nationwide experiment included 350 faecal samples from 89 individually identified NHPs and 73 unidentified NHPs from a number of UK captive wildlife facilities: Twycross Zoo (n = 60, Colchester Zoo (n = 3, Edinburgh Zoo (n = 6, Port Lympne Wild Animal Park (n = 58, Howletts Wild Animal Park (n = 31, and Cotswold Wildlife Park (n = 4. Samples were examined by PCR and sequencing using four specific primer sets designed to differentiate between the pathogenic E. histolytica, the non-pathogenic E. dispar, and non-pathogenic uninucleate cyst-producing Entamoeba species. In the first experiment, Entamoeba was detected in 30 primates (81.1%. Six (16.2% primates were infected with E. histolytica species complex. The highest carriage of Entamoeba species was found in Old World Colobinae primates. In the nationwide experiment, molecular analysis of faecal samples revealed notable rates of Entamoeba infection (101 samples, 28.9%, including one sample infected with E. histolytica, 14 samples with E. dispar, and 86 samples with uninucleated-cyst producing Entamoeba species. Sequences of positive uninucleated-cyst producing Entamoeba samples from Twycross Zoo clustered with the E. polecki reference sequences ST4 reported in Homo sapiens, and are widely separated from other Entamoeba species. These findings suggest a low prevalence of the pathogenic Entamoeba infection, but notable prevalence of non-pathogenic E. polecki infection in NHPs in the UK.

  5. Moonstruck primates: owl monkeys (Aotus need moonlight for nocturnal activity in their natural environment.

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    Eduardo Fernández-Duque

    Full Text Available Primates show activity patterns ranging from nocturnality to diurnality, with a few species showing activity both during day and night. Among anthropoids (monkeys, apes and humans, nocturnality is only present in the Central and South American owl monkey genus Aotus. Unlike other tropical Aotus species, the Azara's owl monkeys (A. azarai of the subtropics have switched their activity pattern from strict nocturnality to one that also includes regular diurnal activity. Harsher climate, food availability, and the lack of predators or diurnal competitors, have all been proposed as factors favoring evolutionary switches in primate activity patterns. However, the observational nature of most field studies has limited an understanding of the mechanisms responsible for this switch in activity patterns. The goal of our study was to evaluate the hypothesis that masking, namely the stimulatory and/or inhibitory/disinhibitory effects of environmental factors on synchronized circadian locomotor activity, is a key determinant of the unusual activity pattern of Azara's owl monkeys. We use continuous long-term (6-18 months 5-min-binned activity records obtained with actimeter collars fitted to wild owl monkeys (n =  10 individuals to show that this different pattern results from strong masking of activity by the inhibiting and enhancing effects of ambient luminance and temperature. Conclusive evidence for the direct masking effect of light is provided by data showing that locomotor activity was almost completely inhibited when moonlight was shadowed during three lunar eclipses. Temperature also negatively masked locomotor activity, and this masking was manifested even under optimal light conditions. Our results highlight the importance of the masking of circadian rhythmicity as a determinant of nocturnality in wild owl monkeys and suggest that the stimulatory effects of dim light in nocturnal primates may have been selected as an adaptive response to

  6. Social variables exert selective pressures in the evolution and form of primate mimetic musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Anne M; Li, Ly; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    Mammals use their faces in social interactions more so than any other vertebrates. Primates are an extreme among most mammals in their complex, direct, lifelong social interactions and their frequent use of facial displays is a means of proximate visual communication with conspecifics. The available repertoire of facial displays is primarily controlled by mimetic musculature, the muscles that move the face. The form of these muscles is, in turn, limited by and influenced by phylogenetic inertia but here we use examples, both morphological and physiological, to illustrate the influence that social variables may exert on the evolution and form of mimetic musculature among primates. Ecomorphology is concerned with the adaptive responses of morphology to various ecological variables such as diet, foliage density, predation pressures, and time of day activity. We present evidence that social variables also exert selective pressures on morphology, specifically using mimetic muscles among primates as an example. Social variables include group size, dominance 'style', and mating systems. We present two case studies to illustrate the potential influence of social behavior on adaptive morphology of mimetic musculature in primates: (1) gross morphology of the mimetic muscles around the external ear in closely related species of macaque (Macaca mulatta and Macaca nigra) characterized by varying dominance styles and (2) comparative physiology of the orbicularis oris muscle among select ape species. This muscle is used in both facial displays/expressions and in vocalizations/human speech. We present qualitative observations of myosin fiber-type distribution in this muscle of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and human to demonstrate the potential influence of visual and auditory communication on muscle physiology. In sum, ecomorphologists should be aware of social selective pressures as well as ecological ones, and that observed morphology might

  7. Patterns of co-speciation and host switching in primate malaria parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Garamszegi László

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The evolutionary history of many parasites is dependent on the evolution of their hosts, leading to an association between host and parasite phylogenies. However, frequent host switches across broad phylogenetic distances may weaken this close evolutionary link, especially when vectors are involved in parasites transmission, as is the case for malaria pathogens. Several studies suggested that the evolution of the primate-infective malaria lineages may be constrained by the...

  8. Detection of fruit and the selection of primate visual pigments for color vision

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, D.; Smith, A C; Vorobyev, M.; H. M. Buchanan-Smith

    2004-01-01

    Primates have X chromosome genes for cone photopigments with sensitivity maxima from 535 to 562 nm. Old World monkeys and apes (catarrhines) and the New World (platyrrhine) genus Alouatta have separate genes for 535-nm (medium wavelength; M) and 562-nm (long wavelength; L) pigments. These pigments, together with a 425-nm (short wavelength) pigment, permit trichromatic color vision. Other platyrrhines and prosimians have a single X chromosome gene but often with alleles for two or three M/L ph...

  9. Decoding an olfactory mechanism of kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in a primate

    OpenAIRE

    Charpentier Marie JE; Boulet Marylène; Drea Christine M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Like other vertebrates, primates recognize their relatives, primarily to minimize inbreeding, but also to facilitate nepotism. Although associative, social learning is typically credited for discrimination of familiar kin, discrimination of unfamiliar kin remains unexplained. As sex-biased dispersal in long-lived species cannot consistently prevent encounters between unfamiliar kin, inbreeding remains a threat and mechanisms to avoid it beg explanation. Using a molecular a...

  10. Maternal mediation, stress inoculation, and the development of neuroendocrine stress resistance in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Karen J.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Sundlass, Karan; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Lyons, David M.

    2006-01-01

    The stress inoculation hypothesis presupposes that brief intermittent stress exposure early in life induces the development of subsequent stress resistance in human and nonhuman primates. Rodent studies, however, suggest a role for maternal care rather than stress exposure per se (i.e., the maternal mediation hypothesis). To investigate these two hypotheses, we examined maternal care and the development of stress resistance after exposure to brief intermittent infant stress (IS), mother–infan...

  11. Primates and mouse NumtS in the UCSC Genome Browser

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese Francesco Maria; Simone Domenico; Attimonelli Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background NumtS (Nuclear MiTochondrial Sequences) are mitochondrial DNA sequences that, after stress events involving the mitochondrion, colonized the nuclear genome. Accurate mapping of NumtS avoids contamination during mtDNA PCR amplification, thus supplying reliable bases for detecting false heteroplasmies. In addition, since they commonly populate mammalian genomes (especially primates) and are polymorphic, in terms of presence/absence and content of SNPs, they may be used as ev...

  12. Male and female brain evolution is subject to contrasting selection pressures in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbar Robin IM

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The claim that differences in brain size across primate species has mainly been driven by the demands of sociality (the "social brain" hypothesis) is now widely accepted. Some of the evidence to support this comes from the fact that species that live in large social groups have larger brains, and in particular larger neocortices. Lindenfors and colleagues (BMC Biology 5:20) add significantly to our appreciation of this process by showing that there are striking differences between th...

  13. Beware of primate life history data: a plea for data standards and a repository.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Borries

    Full Text Available Life history variables such as the age at first reproduction and the interval between consecutive births are measures of investment in growth and reproduction in a particular population or species. As such they allow for meaningful comparisons of the speed of growth and reproduction between species and between larger taxa. Especially in primates such life history research has far reaching implications and has led for instance to the "grandmother hypothesis". Other links have been proposed with respect to dietary adaptations: Because protein is essential for growth and one of the primary sources of protein, leaves, occurs much less seasonally than fruits, it has been predicted that folivorous primates should grow faster compared to frugivorous ones. However, when comparing folivorous Asian colobines with frugivorous Asian macaques we recently documented a longer, instead of a shorter gestation length in folivores while age at first reproduction and interbirth interval did not differ. This supports earlier findings for Malagasy lemurs in which all life history variables tested were significantly longer in folivores compared to frugivores. Wondering why these trends were not apparent sooner, we tried to reconstruct our results for Asian primates with data from four popular life history compilations. However, this attempt failed; even the basic, allometric relationship with adult female body mass that is typical for life history variables could not be recovered. This negative result hints at severe problems with data quality. Here we show that data quality can be improved significantly by standardizing the variables and by controlling for factors such as nutritional conditions or infant mortality. Ideally, in the future, revised primate life history data should be collated in a central database accessible to everybody. In the long run such an initiative should be expanded to include all mammalian species.

  14. Organization and Evolution of Primate Centromeric DNA from Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence Data

    OpenAIRE

    Alkan, Can; Eichler, Evan E.; Ventura, Mario; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Rocchi, Mariano; Sahinalp, S Cenk

    2007-01-01

    Author Summary Centromeric DNA has been described as the last frontier of genomic sequencing; such regions are typically poorly assembled during the whole-genome shotgun sequence assembly process due to their repetitive complexity. This paper develops a computational algorithm to systematically extract data regarding primate centromeric DNA structure and organization from that ∼5% of sequence that is not included as part of standard genome sequence assemblies. Using this computational approac...

  15. Evolutionary deterioration of the vomeronasal pheromone transduction pathway in catarrhine primates

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jianzhi; Webb, David M

    2003-01-01

    Pheromones are water-soluble chemicals released and sensed by individuals of the same species to elicit social and reproductive behaviors or physiological changes; they are perceived primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in terrestrial vertebrates. Humans and some related primates possess only vestigial VNOs and have no or significantly reduced ability to detect pheromones, a phenomenon not well understood at the molecular level. Here we show that genes encoding the...

  16. Teasing apart the contributions of hard dietary items on 3D dental microtextures in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Ivan; Schulz, Ellen; Pinnow, Mona; Krohn, Susanne; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    3D dental microtexture analysis is a powerful tool for reconstructing the diets of extinct primates. This method is based on the comparison of fossils with extant species of known diet. The diets of primates are highly diversified and include fruits, seeds, grass, tree leaves, bark, roots, tubers, and animal resources. Fruits remain the main component in the diets of most primates. We tested whether the proportion of fruit consumed is correlated with dental microtexture. Two methods of microtexture analysis, the scale-sensitive fractal analysis (SSFA) and the Dental Areal Surface Texture Analysis (DASTA; after ISO/FDIS 25178-2), were applied to specimens of eight primate species (Alouatta seniculus, Gorilla gorilla, Lophocebus albigena, Macaca fascicularis, Pan troglodytes, Papio cynocephalus, Pongo abelii, Theropithecus gelada). These species largely differ in the mean annual proportion of fruit (from 0 to 90%) in their diet, as well as in their consumption of other hard items (seeds, bark, and insect cuticles) and of abrasive plants. We find the complexity and heterogeneity of textures (SSFA) to correlate with the proportion of fruits consumed. Textural fill volume (SSFA) indicates the proportion of both fruits and other hard items processed. Furthermore, anisotropy (SSFA) relates to the consumption of abrasive plants like grass and other monocots. ISO parameters valley height, root mean square height, material volume, density of peaks, and closed hill and dale areas (DASTA) describe the functional interaction between food items and enamel facets during mastication. The shallow, plastic deformation of enamel surfaces induced by small hard particles, such as phytoliths or dust, results in flat microtexture relief, whereas the brittle, deep fracture caused by large hard items such as hard seeds creates larger relief.

  17. The Impact of Cognitive Testing on the Welfare of Group Housed Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Whitehouse; Jérôme Micheletta; Powell, Lauren E.; Celia Bordier; Waller, Bridget M.

    2013-01-01

    Providing cognitive challenges to zoo-housed animals may provide enriching effects and subsequently enhance their welfare. Primates may benefit most from such challenges as they often face complex problems in their natural environment and can be observed to seek problem solving opportunities in captivity. However, the extent to which welfare benefits can be achieved through programmes developed primarily for cognitive research is unknown. We tested the impact of voluntary participation cognit...

  18. Scale-free foraging by primates emerges from their interaction with a complex environment

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Denis; Ramos-Fernández, Gabriel; Miramontes, Octavio; Mateos, José L.; Cocho, Germinal; Larralde, Hernán; Ramos, Humberto; Rojas, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Scale-free foraging patterns are widespread among animals. These may be the outcome of an optimal searching strategy to find scarce, randomly distributed resources, but a less explored alternative is that this behaviour may result from the interaction of foraging animals with a particular distribution of resources. We introduce a simple foraging model where individual primates follow mental maps and choose their displacements according to a maximum efficiency criterion, in a spatially disorde...

  19. Deficits of psychomotor and mnesic functions across aging in mouse lemur primates

    OpenAIRE

    Solène Languille; Jean-Luc Picq; Caroline Louis; Sophie Dix; Jean De Barry; Olivier Blin; Jill Richardson; Régis Bordet

    2015-01-01

    Owing to a similar cerebral neuro-anatomy, non-human primates are viewed as the most valid models for understanding cognitive deficits. This study evaluated psychomotor and mnesic functions of 41 young to old mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Psychomotor capacities and anxiety-related behaviors decreased abruptly from middle to late adulthood. However, mnesic functions were not affected in the same way with increasing age. While results of the spontaneous alternation task point to a progress...

  20. Habitat fragmentation is associated to gut microbiota diversity of an endangered primate: implications for conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Barelli; Davide Albanese; Claudio Donati; Massimo Pindo; Chiara Dallago; Francesco Rovero; Duccio Cavalieri; Kieran Michael Tuohy; Heidi Christine Hauffe; Carlotta De Filippo

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of agriculture is shrinking pristine forest areas worldwide, jeopardizing the persistence of their wild inhabitants. The Udzungwa red colobus monkey (Procolobus gordonorum) is among the most threatened primate species in Africa. Primarily arboreal and highly sensitive to hunting and habitat destruction, they provide a critical model to understanding whether anthropogenic disturbance impacts gut microbiota diversity. We sampled seven social groups inhabiting two forests (disturbe...

  1. Teasing apart the contributions of hard dietary items on 3D dental microtextures in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Ivan; Schulz, Ellen; Pinnow, Mona; Krohn, Susanne; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    3D dental microtexture analysis is a powerful tool for reconstructing the diets of extinct primates. This method is based on the comparison of fossils with extant species of known diet. The diets of primates are highly diversified and include fruits, seeds, grass, tree leaves, bark, roots, tubers, and animal resources. Fruits remain the main component in the diets of most primates. We tested whether the proportion of fruit consumed is correlated with dental microtexture. Two methods of microtexture analysis, the scale-sensitive fractal analysis (SSFA) and the Dental Areal Surface Texture Analysis (DASTA; after ISO/FDIS 25178-2), were applied to specimens of eight primate species (Alouatta seniculus, Gorilla gorilla, Lophocebus albigena, Macaca fascicularis, Pan troglodytes, Papio cynocephalus, Pongo abelii, Theropithecus gelada). These species largely differ in the mean annual proportion of fruit (from 0 to 90%) in their diet, as well as in their consumption of other hard items (seeds, bark, and insect cuticles) and of abrasive plants. We find the complexity and heterogeneity of textures (SSFA) to correlate with the proportion of fruits consumed. Textural fill volume (SSFA) indicates the proportion of both fruits and other hard items processed. Furthermore, anisotropy (SSFA) relates to the consumption of abrasive plants like grass and other monocots. ISO parameters valley height, root mean square height, material volume, density of peaks, and closed hill and dale areas (DASTA) describe the functional interaction between food items and enamel facets during mastication. The shallow, plastic deformation of enamel surfaces induced by small hard particles, such as phytoliths or dust, results in flat microtexture relief, whereas the brittle, deep fracture caused by large hard items such as hard seeds creates larger relief. PMID:22705031

  2. Mitochondrial insertions into primate nuclear genomes suggest the use of numts as a tool for phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazkani-Covo, Einat

    2009-10-01

    Homoplasy-free characters are a valuable and highly desired tool for molecular systematics. Nuclear sequences of mitochondrial origin (numts) are fragments of mitochondrial DNA that have been transferred into the nuclear genome. numts are passively captured into genomes and have no transposition activity, which suggests they may have utility as phylogenetic markers. Here, five fully sequenced primate genomes (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, rhesus macaque, and marmoset) are used to reconstruct the evolutionary dynamics of recent numt accumulation in a phylogenetic context. The status of 367 numt loci is used as categorical data, and a maximum parsimony approach is used to trace numt insertions on different branches of the taxonomically undisputed primate phylogenetic tree. The presence of a given numt in related taxa implies orthologous integration, whereas the absence of a numt indicates the plesiomorphic condition prior to integration. An average rate of 5.65 numts per 1 My is estimated on the tree, but insertion rates vary significantly on different branches. Two instances in which the presence-absence pattern of numts does not agree with the phylogenetic tree were identified. These events may be the result of either lineage sorting or reversal. Using the numts reported here to reconstruct primate phylogeny produces the canonical primate tree topology with high bootstrap support. Moreover, numts identified in gorilla Supercontigs were used to test the human-chimp-gorilla trichotomy, yielding a high level of support for the sister relationship of human and chimpanzee. These analyses suggest that numts are valuable phylogenetic markers that can be used for molecular systematics. It remains to be tested whether numts are useful at deeper phylogenetic levels. PMID:19578158

  3. Possible Fruit Protein Effects on Primate Communities in Madagascar and the Neotropics

    OpenAIRE

    Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Summer Arrigo-Nelson; Sue Boinski; An Bollen; Valentina Carrai; Abigail Derby; Giuseppe Donati; Andreas Koenig; Martin Kowalewski; Petra Lahann; Ivan Norscia; Sandra Y Polowinsky; Christoph Schwitzer; Stevenson, Pablo R.; Talebi, Mauricio G.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ecological factors contributing to the evolution of tropical vertebrate communities are still poorly understood. Primate communities of the tropical Americas have fewer folivorous but more frugivorous genera than tropical regions of the Old World and especially many more frugivorous genera than Madagascar. Reasons for this phenomenon are largely unexplored. We developed the hypothesis that Neotropical fruits have higher protein concentrations than fruits from Madagascar and th...

  4. Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: the evolutionary history of anthropoid primate lice

    OpenAIRE

    Allen Julie M; Light Jessica E; Reed David L; Kirchman Jeremy J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The parasitic sucking lice of primates are known to have undergone at least 25 million years of coevolution with their hosts. For example, chimpanzee lice and human head/body lice last shared a common ancestor roughly six million years ago, a divergence that is contemporaneous with their hosts. In an assemblage where lice are often highly host specific, humans host two different genera of lice, one that is shared with chimpanzees and another that is shared with gorillas. I...

  5. Superior olivary complex organization and cytoarchitecture may be correlated with function and catarrhine primate phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Hilbig, Heidegard; Beil, Boris; Hilbig, Henrik; Call, Josep; Bidmon, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    In the mammalian auditory system, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body and the lateral superior olive (MNTB-LSO system) contribute to binaural intensity processing and lateralization. Localization precision varies with the sound frequencies. As recency of common ancestry with human beings increases, primates have improved low-frequency sensitivity and reduced sensitivity to higher frequencies. The medial part of the MNTB is devoted to higher frequency processing. Thus, its high-frequency-...

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Adenoviruses Persistently Shed from the Gastrointestinal Tract of Non-Human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Soumitra; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Kryazhimskiy, Sergey; Grant, Rebecca; Calcedo, Roberto; Yuan, Xin; Keough, Martin; Sandhu, Arbans; Wang, Qiang; Medina-Jaszek, C. Angelica; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Wilson, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Adenoviruses are important human pathogens that have been developed as vectors for gene therapies and genetic vaccines. Previous studies indicated that human infections with adenoviruses are self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts with evidence of some persistence in adenoid tissue. We sought to better understand the natural history of adenovirus infections in various non-human primates and discovered that healthy populations of great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans) and m...

  7. Isolation and characterization of adenoviruses persistently shed from the gastrointestinal tract of non-human primates.

    OpenAIRE

    Soumitra Roy; Vandenberghe, Luk H.; Sergey Kryazhimskiy; Rebecca Grant; Roberto Calcedo; Xin Yuan; Martin Keough; Arbans Sandhu; Qiang Wang; C Angelica Medina-Jaszek; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Wilson, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Adenoviruses are important human pathogens that have been developed as vectors for gene therapies and genetic vaccines. Previous studies indicated that human infections with adenoviruses are self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts with evidence of some persistence in adenoid tissue. We sought to better understand the natural history of adenovirus infections in various non-human primates and discovered that healthy populations of great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans) and m...

  8. Expanding the functional human mitochondrial DNA database by the establishment of primate xenomitochondrial cybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Lesley; Moraes, Carlos T.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear and mitochondrial genomes coevolve to optimize approximately 100 different interactions necessary for an efficient ATP-generating system. This coevolution led to a species-specific compatibility between these genomes. We introduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from different primates into mtDNA-less human cells and selected for growth of cells with a functional oxidative phosphorylation system. mtDNA from common chimpanzee, pigmy chimpanzee, and gorilla were able to restore oxidative...

  9. Genomic deletions and precise removal of transposable elements mediated by short identical DNA segments in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Louie N van de Lagemaat; Gagnier, Liane; Medstrand, Patrik; Mager, Dixie L.

    2005-01-01

    Insertion of transposable elements is a major cause of genomic expansion in eukaryotes. Less is understood, however, about mechanisms underlying contraction of genomes. In this study, we show that retroelements can, in rare cases, be precisely deleted from primate genomes, most likely via recombination between 10- to 20-bp target site duplications (TSDs) flanking the retroelement. The deleted loci are indistinguishable from pre-integration sites, effectively reversing the insertion. Through h...

  10. Use of nonhuman primate models to investigate mechanisms of infection-associated preterm birth

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina M Adams Waldorf; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important direct cause of neonatal mortality and remains a major challenge for obstetrics and global health. Intrauterine infection causes approximately 50% of early preterm births. Animal models using pregnant mice, rabbits, or sheep, demonstrate the key link between infection and premature birth, but differ in mechanisms of parturition and placental structure from humans. The nonhuman primate (NHP) is a powerful model which emulates many features of human placentat...

  11. Conservation and Innovation of APOBEC3A Restriction Functions during Primate Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Richard N; Gable, Jacob T; Wittkopp, Cristina J; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-08-01

    LINE-1 (long interspersed element-1) retroelements are the only active autonomous endogenous retroelements in human genomes. Their retrotransposition activity has created close to 50% of the current human genome. Due to the apparent costs of this proliferation, host genomes have evolved multiple mechanisms to curb LINE-1 retrotransposition. Here, we investigate the evolution and function of the LINE-1 restriction factor APOBEC3A, a member of the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminase gene family. We find that APOBEC3A genes have evolved rapidly under diversifying selection in primates, suggesting changes in APOBEC3A have been recurrently selected in a host-pathogen "arms race." Nonetheless, in contrast to previous reports, we find that the LINE-1 restriction activity of APOBEC3A proteins has been strictly conserved throughout simian primate evolution in spite of its pervasive diversifying selection. Based on these results, we conclude that LINE-1s have not driven the rapid evolution of APOBEC3A in primates. In contrast to this conserved LINE-1 restriction, we find that a subset of primate APOBEC3A genes have enhanced antiviral restriction. We trace this gain of antiviral restriction in APOBEC3A to the common ancestor of a subset of Old World monkeys. Thus, APOBEC3A has not only maintained its LINE-1 restriction ability, but also evolved a gain of antiviral specificity against other pathogens. Our findings suggest that while APOBEC3A has evolved to restrict additional pathogens, only those adaptive amino acid changes that leave LINE-1 restriction unperturbed have been tolerated. PMID:27189538

  12. Images of photoreceptors in living primate eyes using adaptive optics two-photon ophthalmoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Jennifer J.; Masella, Benjamin; Dubra, Alfredo; Sharma, Robin; Yin, Lu; Merigan, William H.; Palczewska, Grazyna; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Williams, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In vivo two-photon imaging through the pupil of the primate eye has the potential to become a useful tool for functional imaging of the retina. Two-photon excited fluorescence images of the macaque cone mosaic were obtained using a fluorescence adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope, overcoming the challenges of a low numerical aperture, imperfect optics of the eye, high required light levels, and eye motion. Although the specific fluorophores are as yet unknown, strong in vivo intrins...

  13. Autologous Transplantation of Lentivector/Acid Ceramidase–Transduced Hematopoietic Cells in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Walia, Jagdeep S; Neschadim, Anton; Lopez-Perez, Orlay; Alayoubi, Abdulfatah; Fan, Xin; Carpentier, Stéphane; Madden, Melissa; Lee, Chyan-Jang; Cheung, Fred; Jaffray, David A.; Levade, Thierry; McCart, J Andrea; Jeffrey A Medin

    2011-01-01

    Farber disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that manifests due to acid ceramidase (AC) deficiencies and ceramide accumulation. We present a preclinical gene therapy study for Farber disease employing a lentiviral vector (LV-huAC/huCD25) in three enzymatically normal nonhuman primates. Autologous, mobilized peripheral blood (PB) cells were transduced and infused into fully myelo-ablated recipients with tracking for at least 1 year. Outcomes were assessed by measuring the AC speci...

  14. Mapping arealisation of the visual cortex of non-primate species: lessons for development and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihane eHomman-Ludiye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to integrate and interpret visual stimuli and build a representation of the surrounding environment, the visual cortex is organised in anatomically distinct and functionally unique areas. Each area processes a particular aspect of the visual scene, with the signal flowing from one area to the next in a bottom-up processing sequence. Areal borders can be demarcated both functionally by systematic electrophysiology mapping, and anatomically by sharp changes in cellular distribution and molecular expression profiles. Primates, including humans, are heavily dependent on vision, with approximately 50% of their neocortical surface dedicated to visual processing and possess many more visual areas than any other mammal, making them often the model of choice to study visual arealisation. However, the recent identification of differential gene expression profiles between cortices in a number of species has allowed for the introduction of non-primate animal models in the field to better understand development and evolution. Profiling the mosaic of visual areas in less complex species was pivotal in understanding the mechanisms responsible for patterning the developing neocortex, specifying area identity as well as the evolutionary events that have allowed for primates to develop more areas. In addition, species with fewer areas provide a simpler system in which to study and map cortical connectivity. In this review we focus on non-primate species that have contributed to elucidating the evolution and development of the visual cortex, including small nocturnal species and carnivores. We present the current understanding of the mechanisms supporting the establishment of areal borders during development and the limitations of the predominant mouse model and the need for alternate species.

  15. Parsimonious Determination of the Optimal Infectious Dose of a Pathogen for Nonhuman Primate Models.

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Roederer

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary Exposing nonhuman primates to infectious pathogens (such as tuberculosis, malaria, or the simian equivalent of HIV) is an important model for testing vaccines or other interventions designed to prevent infection or disease. In fact, demonstrating efficacy in animals is often a requirement before clinical testing in humans can be started. A critical variable in such testing is the dose of the pathogen used: this dose should be similar to what humans would encounter. Using too-hi...

  16. Phylogenetic evidence that two distinct Trichuris genotypes infect both humans and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana F Ravasi

    Full Text Available Although there has been extensive debate about whether Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura are separate species, only one species of the whipworm T. trichiura has been considered to infect humans and non-human primates. In order to investigate potential cross infection of Trichuris sp. between baboons and humans in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, we sequenced the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of adult Trichuris sp. worms isolated from five baboons from three different troops, namely the Cape Peninsula troop, Groot Olifantsbos troop and Da Gama Park troop. This region was also sequenced from T. trichiura isolated from a human patient from central Africa (Cameroon for comparison. By combining this dataset with Genbank records for Trichuris isolated from other humans, non-human primates and pigs from several different countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa, we confirmed the identification of two distinct Trichuris genotypes that infect primates. Trichuris sp. isolated from the Peninsula baboons fell into two distinct clades that were found to also infect human patients from Cameroon, Uganda and Jamaica (named the CP-GOB clade and China, Thailand, the Czech Republic, and Uganda (named the DG clade, respectively. The divergence of these Trichuris clades is ancient and precedes the diversification of T. suis which clustered closely to the CP-GOB clade. The identification of two distinct Trichuris genotypes infecting both humans and non-human primates is important for the ongoing treatment of Trichuris which is estimated to infect 600 million people worldwide. Currently baboons in the Cape Peninsula, which visit urban areas, provide a constant risk of infection to local communities. A reduction in spatial overlap between humans and baboons is thus an important measure to reduce both cross-transmission and zoonoses of helminthes in Southern Africa.

  17. Phylogenetic evidence that two distinct Trichuris genotypes infect both humans and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasi, Damiana F; O'Riain, Mannus J; Davids, Faezah; Illing, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Although there has been extensive debate about whether Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura are separate species, only one species of the whipworm T. trichiura has been considered to infect humans and non-human primates. In order to investigate potential cross infection of Trichuris sp. between baboons and humans in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, we sequenced the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of adult Trichuris sp. worms isolated from five baboons from three different troops, namely the Cape Peninsula troop, Groot Olifantsbos troop and Da Gama Park troop. This region was also sequenced from T. trichiura isolated from a human patient from central Africa (Cameroon) for comparison. By combining this dataset with Genbank records for Trichuris isolated from other humans, non-human primates and pigs from several different countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa, we confirmed the identification of two distinct Trichuris genotypes that infect primates. Trichuris sp. isolated from the Peninsula baboons fell into two distinct clades that were found to also infect human patients from Cameroon, Uganda and Jamaica (named the CP-GOB clade) and China, Thailand, the Czech Republic, and Uganda (named the DG clade), respectively. The divergence of these Trichuris clades is ancient and precedes the diversification of T. suis which clustered closely to the CP-GOB clade. The identification of two distinct Trichuris genotypes infecting both humans and non-human primates is important for the ongoing treatment of Trichuris which is estimated to infect 600 million people worldwide. Currently baboons in the Cape Peninsula, which visit urban areas, provide a constant risk of infection to local communities. A reduction in spatial overlap between humans and baboons is thus an important measure to reduce both cross-transmission and zoonoses of helminthes in Southern Africa.

  18. Environmental Modulation of Drug Taking: Nonhuman Primate Models of Cocaine Abuse and PET Neuroimaging

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, Michael A.; Banks, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    The current review highlights the importance of environmental variables on cocaine self-administration in nonhuman primate models of drug abuse. In addition to describing the behavioral consequences, potential mechanisms of action are discussed, based on imaging results using the non-invasive and translational technique of positron emission tomography (PET). In this review, the role of three environmental variables – both positive and negative - are described: alternative non-drug reinforcers...

  19. Functional definitions of parietal areas in human and non-human primates

    OpenAIRE

    Orban, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Establishing homologies between cortical areas in animal models and humans lies at the heart of translational neuroscience, as it demonstrates how knowledge obtained from these models can be applied to the human brain. Here, we review progress in using parallel functional imaging to ascertain homologies between parietal areas of human and non-human primates, species sharing similar behavioural repertoires. The human homologues of several areas along monkey IPS involved in action planning and ...

  20. Plasmodium coatneyi-infected rhesus monkeys: a primate modelfor human cerebral malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Masamichi Aikawa; Brown, Arthur E.; C. Dahlem Smith; Tatsuya Tegoshi; Russell J. Howard; Thomas H. Hasler; Yoshihiro Ito; William E. Colins; H. Kyle Webster

    1992-01-01

    Although several animal models for human cerebral malaria have been proposed in the past, name have shown pathological findings that are similar to those seen in humans. In order to develop an animal model for human cerebral malaria, we studied the pathology of brains of Plasmodium coatneyi (primate malaria parasite)-infected rhesus monkeys. Our study demonstrated parazitized erythrocyte (PRBC) sequestration and cytoadherence of knobs on PRBC to endothelial cells in cerebral microvessels of t...

  1. Trade-off between age of first reproduction and survival in a female primate

    OpenAIRE

    Blomquist, Gregory E.

    2009-01-01

    Trade-offs are central to life-history theory but difficult to document. Patterns of phenotypic and genetic correlations in rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta—a long-lived, slow-reproducing primate—are used to test for a trade-off between female age of first reproduction and adult survival. A strong positive genetic correlation indicates that female macaques suffer reduced adult survival when they mature relatively early and implies primate senescence can be explained, in part, by antagonistic p...

  2. The trade-off between number and size of offspring in humans and other primates

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Robert S.; GURVEN, MICHAEL; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J.

    2007-01-01

    Life-history theory posits a fundamental trade-off between number and size of offspring that structures the variability in parental investment across and within species. We investigate this ‘quantity–quality’ trade-off across primates and present evidence that a similar trade-off is also found across natural-fertility human societies. Restating the classic Smith–Fretwell model in terms of allometric scaling of resource supply and offspring investment predicts an inverse scaling relation betwe...

  3. New technique for studying reaction forces during primate behaviors on vertical substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyard, Christopher J; Schmitt, Daniel

    2004-12-01

    Recording reaction forces from primates during behaviors on vertical substrates, such as leaping, climbing, or biting trees, typically requires the design and construction of customized recording devices or mounting commercially available force platforms in a vertical position. The technical difficulties imposed by either option have hindered in vivo research on the kinetics of primate behaviors on vertical substrates. We describe a simple, inexpensive apparatus for recording forces from primate behaviors on vertical substrates. The apparatus includes an instrumented beam fastened directly to a horizontal force platform and a surrounding vertical substrate that does not contact the instrumented beam or platform. The contact piece at the end of the instrumented beam is positioned flush with the noninstrumented vertical substrate, and reaction forces elicited on this instrumented section are directed to the force platform. Because most of the vertical substrate is not instrumented, we can isolate and record forces from a single limb or jaw during a behavior. Biewener and Full ([1992] Biomechanics Structures and Positions: A Practical Approach; New York: Oxford University press, p. 45-73) gave seven criteria to consider when designing a customized force-recording device. Where appropriate, we tested if our apparatus met their criteria. The apparatus accurately records forces in three orthogonal directions, has low cross-talk, maintains a high frequency response, exhibits a linear response up to at least 200 Newtons, and displays a uniform response to a given force across the instrumented contact piece. Our design does not easily facilitate the identification of the point of force application. Therefore, joint moments cannot be easily calculated. This limitation, however, does not affect the apparatus's ability to accurately record the magnitude and direction of a force (as shown by other tests). We developed this apparatus to measure jaw forces during tree gouging in

  4. The evolution of culture: From primate social learning to human culture

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    Cultural transmission in our species works most of the time as a cumulative inheritance system allowing members of a group to incorporate behavioral features not only with a positive biological value but sometimes also with a neutral, or even negative, biological value. Most of models of dual inheritance theory and gene-culture coevolution suggest that an increase, either qualitative or quantitative, in the efficiency of imitation is the key factor to explain the transformation of primate soc...

  5. “Juggling” Behavior in Wild Hainan Gibbons, a New Finding in Nonhuman Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Huaiqing Deng; Jiang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Many species of primates use tools and manipulate objects. Environmental objects, such as sticks and branches, are used in locomotion, display, conflict, nesting, and foraging. This study presents observations regarding endangered male Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) selecting sticks and then throwing and catching them repeatedly. This act of Hainan gibbons was termed as “juggling” behavior. This study is the first record of branch use of this kind in free-living gibbons. While it is impos...

  6. Degeneration of the olfactory guanylyl cyclase D gene during primate evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Young

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mammalian olfactory system consists of several subsystems that detect specific sets of chemical cues and underlie a variety of behavioral responses. Within the main olfactory epithelium at least three distinct types of chemosensory neurons can be defined by their expression of unique sets of signal transduction components. In rodents, one set of neurons expresses the olfactory-specific guanylyl cyclase (GC-D gene (Gucy2d, guanylyl cyclase 2d and other cell-type specific molecules. GC-D-positive neurons project their axons to a small group of atypical "necklace" glomeruli in the olfactory bulb, some of which are activated in response to suckling in neonatal rodents and to atmospheric CO2 in adult mice. Because GC-D is a pseudogene in humans, signaling through this system appears to have been lost at some point in primate evolution. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used a combination of bioinformatic analysis of trace-archive and genome-assembly data and sequencing of PCR-amplified genomic DNA to determine when during primate evolution the functional gene was lost. Our analysis reveals that GC-D is a pseudogene in a large number of primate species, including apes, Old World and New World monkeys and tarsier. In contrast, the gene appears intact and has evolved under purifying selection in mouse, rat, dog, lemur and bushbaby. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that signaling through GC-D-expressing cells was probably compromised more than 40 million years ago, prior to the divergence of New World monkeys from Old World monkeys and apes, and thus cannot be involved in chemosensation in most primates.

  7. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Stephanie; Boyer, Doug M; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gilbert, Christopher C; Groenke, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans). Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21), tegulae (n = 4), and grooming claws (n = 10), and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7). Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae) and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  8. Evidence for a grooming claw in a North American adapiform primate: implications for anthropoid origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Maiolino

    Full Text Available Among fossil primates, the Eocene adapiforms have been suggested as the closest relatives of living anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans. Central to this argument is the form of the second pedal digit. Extant strepsirrhines and tarsiers possess a grooming claw on this digit, while most anthropoids have a nail. While controversial, the possible presence of a nail in certain European adapiforms has been considered evidence for anthropoid affinities. Skeletons preserved well enough to test this idea have been lacking for North American adapiforms. Here, we document and quantitatively analyze, for the first time, a dentally associated skeleton of Notharctus tenebrosus from the early Eocene of Wyoming that preserves the complete bones of digit II in semi-articulation. Utilizing twelve shape variables, we compare the distal phalanges of Notharctus tenebrosus to those of extant primates that bear nails (n = 21, tegulae (n = 4, and grooming claws (n = 10, and those of non-primates that bear claws (n = 7. Quantitative analyses demonstrate that Notharctus tenebrosus possessed a grooming claw with a surprisingly well-developed apical tuft on its second pedal digit. The presence of a wide apical tuft on the pedal digit II of Notharctus tenebrosus may reflect intermediate morphology between a typical grooming claw and a nail, which is consistent with the recent hypothesis that loss of a grooming claw occurred in a clade containing adapiforms (e.g. Darwinius masillae and anthropoids. However, a cladistic analysis including newly documented morphologies and thorough representation of characters acknowledged to have states constituting strepsirrhine, haplorhine, and anthropoid synapomorphies groups Notharctus tenebrosus and Darwinius masillae with extant strepsirrhines rather than haplorhines suggesting that the form of pedal digit II reflects substantial homoplasy during the course of early primate evolution.

  9. Our Origins: How and Why We Do and Do Not Differ from Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Peter

    Questions about human origins and uniqueness are at the core of unraveling the essential building blocks of human nature. Probably no other single topic has received more attention across the sciences and humanities than the question of what makes us human and how humans differ from other primates and animals. Evolutionary anthropologists can contribute important comparative evidence to this debate because they adopt a broad perspective that considers both the ancestors of the human species as well as its closest living biological relatives. In this chapter, I review some recent insights into human nature based on this perspective. My focus is on social behavior and its underlying adaptations and mechanisms, because this is the realm of man's most salient features. In contrast to many mainstream contributions on this topic, I emphasize shared behavioral similarities between humans and other primates and outline their underlying mechanisms. These behavioral features shared with other primates include much of our homeostatic behavior and many of our emotions and cognitive abilities, so that together they appear to represent the submerged part of an iceberg. I also briefly summarize some of the uniquely human traits forming the tip of the iceberg and outline current attempts to explain their origin. Accordingly, in this context shared intentionality represents a crucial psychological mechanism that may have been reinforced by a switch to a cooperative breeding system in early Homo evolution. In conclusion, this essay contends that the key essential building block defining human nature is like the core of a Russian doll, while all the outer layers represent our vertebrate, mammalian, and primate legacies.

  10. Crop Damage by Primates: Quantifying the Key Parameters of Crop-Raiding Events

    OpenAIRE

    Graham E Wallace; Hill, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflict often arises from crop-raiding, and insights regarding which aspects of raiding events determine crop loss are essential when developing and evaluating deterrents. However, because accounts of crop-raiding behaviour are frequently indirect, these parameters are rarely quantified or explicitly linked to crop damage. Using systematic observations of the behaviour of non-human primates on farms in western Uganda, this research identifies number of individuals raiding and ...

  11. The complexity of selection at the major primate β-defensin locus

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    Eastwood Hayden

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have examined the evolution of the genes at the major human β-defensin locus and the orthologous loci in a range of other primates and mouse. For the first time these data allow us to examine selective episodes in the more recent evolutionary history of this locus as well as the ancient past. We have used a combination of maximum likelihood based tests and a maximum parsimony based sliding window approach to give a detailed view of the varying modes of selection operating at this locus. Results We provide evidence for strong positive selection soon after the duplication of these genes within an ancestral mammalian genome. Consequently variable selective pressures have acted on β-defensin genes in different evolutionary lineages, with episodes both of negative, and more rarely positive selection, during the divergence of primates. Positive selection appears to have been more common in the rodent lineage, accompanying the birth of novel, rodent-specific β-defensin genes. These observations allow a fuller understanding of the evolution of mammalian innate immunity. In both the rodent and primate lineages, sites in the second exon have been subject to positive selection and by implication are important in functional diversity. A small number of sites in the mature human peptides were found to have undergone repeated episodes of selection in different primate lineages. Particular sites were consistently implicated by multiple methods at positions throughout the mature peptides. These sites are clustered at positions predicted to be important for the specificity of the antimicrobial or chemoattractant properties of β-defensins. Surprisingly, sites within the prepropeptide region were also implicated as being subject to significant positive selection, suggesting previously unappreciated functional significance for this region. Conclusions Identification of these putatively functional sites has important implications for our

  12. LINC00507 Is Specifically Expressed in the Primate Cortex and Has Age-Dependent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James D; Ward, Melanie; Chen, Bei Jun; Iyer, Anand M; Aronica, Eleonora; Janitz, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the appreciation of the role of non-coding RNA in the development of organism phenotype. It is possible to divide the non-coding elements of the transcriptome into three categories: short non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and long non-coding RNAs. Long non-coding RNAs are those transcripts that are greater than 200 nts in length and lack any significant open reading frames that produce proteins greater then 100 amino acids. Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are a subclass of long non-coding RNAs. In contrast to protein coding RNAs, lincRNAs are expressed in a more tissue- and species-specific manner. In particular, many lincRNAs are only conserved amongst higher primates. This coupled with the propensity of many lincRNAs to be expressed in the brain, suggests that they are in fact one of the major drivers of organism complexity. We analysed 39 lincRNAs that are expressed in the frontal cortex and identified LINC00507 as being expressed in a cortex-specific manner in non-human primates and humans. The expression patterns of LINC00507 appear to be age-dependent, suggesting it may be involved in brain development of higher primates. Moreover, the analysis of LINC00507 potential to bind ribosomes revealed that this previously identified non-coding transcript may harbour a micropeptide. PMID:27059230

  13. Bisphenol-A (BPA) Exposure Alters Endometrial Progesterone Receptor Expression in the Non-human Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldad, Tamir S.; Rahmani, Nora; Leranth, Csaba; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of BPA on endometrial PR expression in non-human primates and human cells. BPA is a xenoestrogen endocrine disruptor. Both BPA exposure and diminished progesterone action have been associated with pregnancy loss, endometriosis and endometrial hyperplasia/cancer. DESIGN Controlled trial in primates. SETTING University Animals African green monkeys INTERVENTIONS After oophorectomy, BPA (50μg/kg/day), estradiol, both or vehicle control were administered. . Estradiol and BPA were used in Ishikawa cells. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES PR expression using IHC and qPCR. RESULTS PR expression was increased in estradiol treated primates compared to controls. Exposure to the combination of estradiol and BPA resulted in decreased PR expression compared to estradiol exposure alone (p<0.01). In Ishikawa cells treated with estradiol, PR expression increased 5.1 fold, however, when Ishikawa cells were simultaneously treated with estradiol and BPA, PR expression was decreased to 0.6 fold that of cells treated with estradiol alone (p<0.05). CONCLUSION BPA alone functions as a weak estrogen. However, when administered with estradiol, BPA diminishes estradiol induced PR expression. The estrogen-like effect of BPA reported in exposed humans may be mediated by PR blockade and a resultant decrease in the estrogen inhibition normally imparted by progesterone. Diminished PR expression may underlie previous reports linking BPA exposure to endometrial dysfunction in humans. PMID:21536273

  14. Loss of olfactory receptor genes coincides with the acquisition of full trichromatic vision in primates.

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    Yoav Gilad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor (OR genes constitute the molecular basis for the sense of smell and are encoded by the largest gene family in mammalian genomes. Previous studies suggested that the proportion of pseudogenes in the OR gene family is significantly larger in humans than in other apes and significantly larger in apes than in the mouse. To investigate the process of degeneration of the olfactory repertoire in primates, we estimated the proportion of OR pseudogenes in 19 primate species by surveying randomly chosen subsets of 100 OR genes from each species. We find that apes, Old World monkeys and one New World monkey, the howler monkey, have a significantly higher proportion of OR pseudogenes than do other New World monkeys or the lemur (a prosimian. Strikingly, the howler monkey is also the only New World monkey to possess full trichromatic vision, along with Old World monkeys and apes. Our findings suggest that the deterioration of the olfactory repertoire occurred concomitant with the acquisition of full trichromatic color vision in primates.

  15. Closing the loop in primate prefrontal cortex: Inter-laminar processing

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    Ioan eOpris

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prefrontal cortical activity in the primate brain emerging from minicolumnar microcircuits plays a critical role in cognitive processes dealing with executive control of behavior. However, the specific operations of columnar laminar processing in prefrontal cortex are not completely understood. Here we show via implementation of unique microanatomical recording and stimulating arrays, that minicolumns in prefrontal cortex are involved in the executive control of behavior in rhesus macaque nonhuman primates performing a delayed match-to-sample (DMS task. Prefrontal cortical (PFC neurons demonstrate functional interactions between pairs of putative pyramidal cells within specified cortical layers via anatomically oriented minicolumns. Results reveal target-specific, spatially tuned firing between inter-laminar (layer 2/3 and layer 5 pairs of neurons participating in the gating of information during the decision making phase of the task with differential correlations between activity in layer 2/3 and layer 5 in the integration of spatial vs. object-specific information for correct task performance. Such inter-laminar processing was exploited by the interfacing of an online model which delivered stimulation to layer 5 locations in a pattern associated with successful performance thereby closing the columnar loop externally in a manner that mimicked normal processing in the same task. These unique technologies demonstrate that PFC neurons encode and process information via minicolumns which provides a closed loop form of executive function, hence disruption of such inter-laminar processing could form the bases for cognitive dysfunction in primate brain.

  16. Lymphoid neogenesis in skin of human hand, nonhuman primate, and rat vascularized composite allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautz, Theresa; Zelger, Bettina G; Nasr, Isam W; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Barth, Rolf N; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Brandacher, Gerald; Weissenbacher, Annemarie; Zelger, Bernhard; Cavadas, Pedro; Margreiter, Raimund; Lee, W P Andrew; Pratschke, Johann; Lakkis, Fadi G; Schneeberger, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of skin rejection in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA) remain incompletely understood. The formation of tertiary lymphoid organs (TLO) in hand transplantation has been recently described. We assess this phenomenon in experimental and clinical VCA rejection. Skin biopsies of human (n = 187), nonhuman primate (n = 11), and rat (n = 15) VCAs were analyzed for presence of TLO. A comprehensive immunohistochemical assessment (characterization of the cell infiltrate, expression of adhesion molecules) including staining for peripheral node addressin (PNAd) was performed and correlated with rejection and time post-transplantation. TLO were identified in human, nonhuman primate, and rat skin samples. Expression of PNAd was increased in the endothelium of vessels upon rejection in human skin (P = 0.003) and correlated with B- and T-lymphocyte numbers and LFA-1 expression. PNAd expression was observed at all time-points after transplantation and increased significantly after year 5. In nonhuman primate skin, PNAd expression was found during inflammatory conditions early and late after transplantation. In rat skin, PNAd expression was strongly associated with acute rejection and time post-transplantation. Lymphoid neogenesis and TLO formation can be uniformly found in experimental and human VCA. PNAd expression in vascular endothelium correlates with skin rejection and T- and B-cell infiltration.

  17. Perspectives on object manipulation and action grammar for percussive actions in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Misato

    2015-11-19

    The skill of object manipulation is a common feature of primates including humans, although there are species-typical patterns of manipulation. Object manipulation can be used as a comparative scale of cognitive development, focusing on its complexity. Nut cracking in chimpanzees has the highest hierarchical complexity of tool use reported in non-human primates. An analysis of the patterns of object manipulation in naive chimpanzees after nut-cracking demonstrations revealed the cause of difficulties in learning nut-cracking behaviour. Various types of behaviours exhibited within a nut-cracking context can be examined in terms of the application of problem-solving strategies, focusing on their basis in causal understanding or insightful intentionality. Captive chimpanzees also exhibit complex forms of combinatory manipulation, which is the precursor of tool use. A new notation system of object manipulation was invented to assess grammatical rules in manipulative actions. The notation system of action grammar enabled direct comparisons to be made between primates including humans in a variety of object-manipulation tasks, including percussive-tool use. PMID:26483528

  18. Pyramidal cells in prefrontal cortex: comparative observations reveal unparalleled specializations in neuronal structure among primate species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eElston

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The most ubiquitous neuron in the cerebral cortex, the pyramidal cell, is characterised by markedly different dendritic structure among different cortical areas. The complex pyramidal cell phenotype in granular prefrontal cortex (gPFC of higher primates endows specific biophysical properties and patterns of connectivity, which differ to those in other cortical regions. However, within the gPFC, data have been sampled from only a select few cortical areas. The gPFC of species such as human and macaque monkey includes more than 10 cortical areas. It remains unknown as to what degree pyramidal cell structure may vary among these cortical areas. Here we undertook a survey of pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral, medial and orbital gPFC of cercopethicid primates. We found marked heterogeneity in pyramidal cell structure within and between these regions. Moreover, trends for gradients in neuronal complexity varied among species. As neuron structure determines it’s computational abilities and memory storage capacity and connectivity, we propose that these specializations in the pyramidal cell phenotype are an important determinant of species specific executive cortical functions in primates.

  19. The vomeronasal complex of nocturnal strepsirhines and implications for the ancestral condition in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Eva C; Dennis, John C; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P; Durham, Emily L; Burrows, Anne M; Bonar, Christopher J; Steckler, Natalie K; Morrison, Edward E; Smith, Timothy D

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the vomeronasal organ in extant nocturnal strepsirhines as a model for ancestral primates. Cadaveric samples from 10 strepsirhine species, ranging from fetal to adult ages, were studied histologically. Dimensions of structures in the vomeronasal complex, such as the vomeronasal neuroepithelium (VNNE) and vomeronasal cartilage (VNC) were measured in serial sections and selected specimens were studied immunohistochemically to determine physiological aspects of the vomeronasal sensory neurons (VSNs). Osteological features corresponding to vomeronasal structures were studied histologically and related to 3-D CT reconstructions. The VNC consistently rests in a depression on the palatal portion of the maxilla, which we refer to as the vomeronasal groove (VNG). Most age comparisons indicate that in adults VNNE is about twice the length compared with perinatal animals. In VNNE volume, adults are 2- to 3-fold larger compared with perinatal specimens. Across ages, a strong linear relationship exists between VNNE dimensions and body length, mass, and midfacial length. Results indicate that the VNNE of nocturnal strepsirhines is neurogenic postnatally based on GAP43 expression. In addition, based on Olfactory Marker Protein expression, terminally differentiated VSNs are present in the VNNE. Therefore, nocturnal strepsirhines have basic similarities to rodents in growth and maturational characteristics of VSNs. These results indicate that a functional vomeronasal system is likely present in all nocturnal strepsirhines. Finally, given that osteological features such as the VNG are visible on midfacial bones, primate fossils can be assessed to determine whether primate ancestors possessed a vomeronasal complex morphologically similar to that of modern nocturnal strepsirhines. PMID:24249398

  20. Olfactory responsiveness to two odorous steroids in three species of nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Matthias; Wieser, Alexandra; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa

    2005-07-01

    Social communication by means of odor signals is widespread among mammals. In pigs, for example, the C19-steroids 5-alpha-androst-16-en-3-one and 5-alpha-androst-16-en-3-ol are secreted by the boar and induce the mating stance in the sow. In humans, the same substances have been shown to be compounds of body odor and are presumed to affect human behavior. Using an instrumental conditioning paradigm, we here show that squirrel monkeys, spider monkeys and pigtail macaques are able to detect androstenone at concentrations in the micromolar range and thus at concentrations at least as low as those reported in pigs and humans. All three species of nonhuman primates were considerably less sensitive to androstenol, which was detected at concentrations in the millimolar range. Additional tests, using a habituation-dishabituation paradigm, showed that none of the 10 animals tested per species was anosmic to the two odorous steroids. These results suggest that androstenone and androstenol may be involved in olfactory communication in the primate species tested and that the specific anosmia to these odorants found in approximately 30% of human subjects may be due to their reduced number of functional olfactory receptor genes compared with nonhuman primates. PMID:15961521

  1. Interaction of non-human primate complement and antibodies with hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Esteban; Marchi, Sylvia; Beierschmitt, Amy; Kearney, Michael; Francis, Stewart; VanNess, Kimberly; Vandenplas, Michel; Thrall, MaryAnna; Palmour, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Emergent hypermucoviscosity (HMV) phenotypes of Klebsiella pneumoniae have been associated with increased invasiveness and pathogenicity in primates. In this study, we investigated the interaction of African green monkeys (AGM) (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) complement and antibody with HMV and non-HMV isolates as in vitro models of primate infection. Significantly greater survival of HMV isolates was evident after incubation in normal serum or whole blood (p AGM donors when compared to non-HMV strains. Greater survival of HMV strains (p AGM leukocytes when complement was active (p AGM serum, nor washed whole blood effectively killed HMV isolates; however, assays using heparinized whole blood of seronegative donors significantly reduced viability of HMV and non-HMV strains. The lack of bacterial killing observed in seropositive donors treatments could be at least partially associated with low IgG2 present in these animals. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of klebsiellosis in primates and host immune response is necessary to identify surface molecules that can induce both opsonizing and bactericidal antibody facilitating killing of Klebsiella, and the development of vaccines in human and animals. PMID:26951091

  2. UniPrimer: A Web-Based Primer Design Tool for Comparative Analyses of Primate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomin Batnyam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome sequences of various primates have been released due to advanced DNA-sequencing technology. A combination of computational data mining and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay to validate the data is an excellent method for conducting comparative genomics. Thus, designing primers for PCR is an essential procedure for a comparative analysis of primate genomes. Here, we developed and introduced UniPrimer for use in those studies. UniPrimer is a web-based tool that designs PCR- and DNA-sequencing primers. It compares the sequences from six different primates (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque and designs primers on the conserved region across species. UniPrimer is linked to RepeatMasker, Primer3Plus, and OligoCalc softwares to produce primers with high accuracy and UCSC In-Silico PCR to confirm whether the designed primers work. To test the performance of UniPrimer, we designed primers on sample sequences using UniPrimer and manually designed primers for the same sequences. The comparison of the two processes showed that UniPrimer was more effective than manual work in terms of saving time and reducing errors.

  3. UniPrimer: A Web-Based Primer Design Tool for Comparative Analyses of Primate Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batnyam, Nomin; Lee, Jimin; Lee, Jungnam; Hong, Seung Bok; Oh, Sejong; Han, Kyudong

    2012-01-01

    Whole genome sequences of various primates have been released due to advanced DNA-sequencing technology. A combination of computational data mining and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to validate the data is an excellent method for conducting comparative genomics. Thus, designing primers for PCR is an essential procedure for a comparative analysis of primate genomes. Here, we developed and introduced UniPrimer for use in those studies. UniPrimer is a web-based tool that designs PCR- and DNA-sequencing primers. It compares the sequences from six different primates (human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, and rhesus macaque) and designs primers on the conserved region across species. UniPrimer is linked to RepeatMasker, Primer3Plus, and OligoCalc softwares to produce primers with high accuracy and UCSC In-Silico PCR to confirm whether the designed primers work. To test the performance of UniPrimer, we designed primers on sample sequences using UniPrimer and manually designed primers for the same sequences. The comparison of the two processes showed that UniPrimer was more effective than manual work in terms of saving time and reducing errors. PMID:22693428

  4. In utero recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer in mice, rats, and primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrero Luis

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer into the amniotic fluid using recombinant adenovirus vectors was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer of transgenes into the lungs and intestines. Adenovirus mediated in utero gene therapy, however, resulted in expression of the transgene for less than 30 days. Recombinant adenovirus associated viruses (rAAV have the advantage of maintaining the viral genome in daughter cells thus providing for long-term expression of transgenes. Methods Recombinant AAV2 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP was introduced into the amniotic sac of fetal rodents and nonhuman primates. Transgene maintenance and expression was monitor. Results Gene transfer resulted in rapid uptake and long-term gene expression in mice, rats, and non-human primates. Expression and secretion of the reporter gene, GFP, was readily demonstrated within 72 hours post-therapy. In long-term studies in rats and nonhuman primates, maintenance of GFP DNA, protein expression, and reporter gene secretion was documented for over one year. Conclusions Because only multipotential stem cells are present at the time of therapy, these data demonstrated that in utero gene transfer with AAV2 into stem cells resulted in long-term systemic expression of active transgene roducts. Thus, in utero gene transfer via the amniotic fluid may be useful in treatment of gene disorders.

  5. A novel system of polymorphic and diverse NK cell receptors in primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Averdam

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two main classes of natural killer (NK cell receptors in mammals, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR and the structurally unrelated killer cell lectin-like receptors (KLR. While KIR represent the most diverse group of NK receptors in all primates studied to date, including humans, apes, and Old and New World monkeys, KLR represent the functional equivalent in rodents. Here, we report a first digression from this rule in lemurs, where the KLR (CD94/NKG2 rather than KIR constitute the most diverse group of NK cell receptors. We demonstrate that natural selection contributed to such diversification in lemurs and particularly targeted KLR residues interacting with the peptide presented by MHC class I ligands. We further show that lemurs lack a strict ortholog or functional equivalent of MHC-E, the ligands of non-polymorphic KLR in "higher" primates. Our data support the existence of a hitherto unknown system of polymorphic and diverse NK cell receptors in primates and of combinatorial diversity as a novel mechanism to increase NK cell receptor repertoire.

  6. Generation and reactivation of T-cell receptor A joining region pseudogenes in primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, C.; Lanchbury, J.S. [Guy`s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Otting, N. [Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk (Netherlands)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    Tandemly duplicated T-cell receptor (Tcr) AJ (J{alpha}) segments contribute significantly to TCRA chain junctional region diversity in mammals. Since only limited data exists on TCRA diversity in nonhuman primates, we examined the TCRAJ regions of 37 chimpanzee and 71 rhesus macaque TCRA cDNA clones derived from inverse polymerase chain reaction on peripheral blood mononuclear cell cDNA of healthy animals. Twenty-five different TCRAJ regions were characterized in the chimpanzee and 36 in the rhesus macaque. Each bears a close structural relationship to an equivalent human TCRAJ region. Conserved amino acid motifs are shared between all three species. There are indications that differences between nonhuman primates and humans exist in the generation of TCRAJ pseudogenes. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the various characterized TCRAJ of each species are reported and we compare our results to the available information on human genomic sequences. Although we provide evidence of dynamic processes modifying TCRAJ segments during primate evolution, their repertoire and primary structure appears to be relatively conserved. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Sequence of a New World primate insulin having low biological potency and immunoreactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of the insulin gene of the owl or night monkey (Aotus trivirgatus), a New World primate, is similar to that of the human gene. The sequences of these two genes and flanking regions possess 84.3% homology. An unusual feature of the owl monkey gene is the partial duplication and insertion of a portion of the A-chain coding sequence into the 3' untranslated region. The insulin gene of this primate also lacks a region of tandem repeats that is present in the 5' flanking region of the human and chimpanzee genes. Owl monkey preproinsulin has 85.5% identity with the human insulin precursor and is the most divergent of the primate insulins/preproinsulins yet described. The differences between owl monkey and human preproinsulin include three substitutions in the signal peptide, two in the B chain, seven in the C peptide, and three in the A chain. One of these replacements is the conservative substitution of valine for isoleucine a position A2, an invariant site in all other vertebrate insulins and insulin-like growth factors. The substitutions in owl monkey insulin at B9, B27, A2, A4, and A17 alter its structure so that it has only 20% of the receptor-binding activity and 1% of the affinity with guinea pig anti-porcine insulin antibodies as compared to human insulin

  8. Sequence of a New World primate insulin having low biological potency and immunoreactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seino, S.; Steiner, D.F.; Bell, G.I.

    1987-11-01

    The organization of the insulin gene of the owl or night monkey (Aotus trivirgatus), a New World primate, is similar to that of the human gene. The sequences of these two genes and flanking regions possess 84.3% homology. An unusual feature of the owl monkey gene is the partial duplication and insertion of a portion of the A-chain coding sequence into the 3' untranslated region. The insulin gene of this primate also lacks a region of tandem repeats that is present in the 5' flanking region of the human and chimpanzee genes. Owl monkey preproinsulin has 85.5% identity with the human insulin precursor and is the most divergent of the primate insulins/preproinsulins yet described. The differences between owl monkey and human preproinsulin include three substitutions in the signal peptide, two in the B chain, seven in the C peptide, and three in the A chain. One of these replacements is the conservative substitution of valine for isoleucine a position A2, an invariant site in all other vertebrate insulins and insulin-like growth factors. The substitutions in owl monkey insulin at B9, B27, A2, A4, and A17 alter its structure so that it has only 20% of the receptor-binding activity and 1% of the affinity with guinea pig anti-porcine insulin antibodies as compared to human insulin.

  9. A novel system of polymorphic and diverse NK cell receptors in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averdam, Anne; Petersen, Beatrix; Rosner, Cornelia; Neff, Jennifer; Roos, Christian; Eberle, Manfred; Aujard, Fabienne; Münch, Claudia; Schempp, Werner; Carrington, Mary; Shiina, Takashi; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Knaust, Florian; Coggill, Penny; Sehra, Harminder; Beck, Stephan; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Reinhardt, Richard; Walter, Lutz

    2009-10-01

    There are two main classes of natural killer (NK) cell receptors in mammals, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and the structurally unrelated killer cell lectin-like receptors (KLR). While KIR represent the most diverse group of NK receptors in all primates studied to date, including humans, apes, and Old and New World monkeys, KLR represent the functional equivalent in rodents. Here, we report a first digression from this rule in lemurs, where the KLR (CD94/NKG2) rather than KIR constitute the most diverse group of NK cell receptors. We demonstrate that natural selection contributed to such diversification in lemurs and particularly targeted KLR residues interacting with the peptide presented by MHC class I ligands. We further show that lemurs lack a strict ortholog or functional equivalent of MHC-E, the ligands of non-polymorphic KLR in "higher" primates. Our data support the existence of a hitherto unknown system of polymorphic and diverse NK cell receptors in primates and of combinatorial diversity as a novel mechanism to increase NK cell receptor repertoire. PMID:19834558

  10. Primate-specific ORF0 contributes to retrotransposon-mediated diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denli, Ahmet M; Narvaiza, Iñigo; Kerman, Bilal E; Pena, Monique; Benner, Christopher; Marchetto, Maria C N; Diedrich, Jolene K; Aslanian, Aaron; Ma, Jiao; Moresco, James J; Moore, Lynne; Hunter, Tony; Saghatelian, Alan; Gage, Fred H

    2015-10-22

    LINE-1 retrotransposons are fast-evolving mobile genetic entities that play roles in gene regulation, pathological conditions, and evolution. Here, we show that the primate LINE-1 5'UTR contains a primate-specific open reading frame (ORF) in the antisense orientation that we named ORF0. The gene product of this ORF localizes to promyelocytic leukemia-adjacent nuclear bodies. ORF0 is present in more than 3,000 loci across human and chimpanzee genomes and has a promoter and a conserved strong Kozak sequence that supports translation. By virtue of containing two splice donor sites, ORF0 can also form fusion proteins with proximal exons. ORF0 transcripts are readily detected in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from both primate species. Capped and polyadenylated ORF0 mRNAs are present in the cytoplasm, and endogenous ORF0 peptides are identified upon proteomic analysis. Finally, ORF0 enhances LINE-1 mobility. Taken together, these results suggest a role for ORF0 in retrotransposon-mediated diversity. PMID:26496605

  11. Fruit availability, frugivore satiation and seed removal in 2 primate-dispersed tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiarison, Sandra; Forget, Pierre-Michel

    2011-09-01

    During a mast-fruiting event we investigated spatial variability in fruit availability, consumption, and seed removal at two sympatric tree species, Manilkara bidentata and M. huberi (Sapotaceae) at Nouragues Natural Reserve, French Guiana. We addressed the question of how Manilkara density and fruits at the community level might be major causes of variability in feeding assemblages between tree species. We thus explored how the frugivore assemblages differed between forest patches with contrasting relative Manilkara density and fruiting context. During the daytime, Alouatta seniculus was more often observed in M. huberi crowns at Petit Plateau (PP) with the greatest density of Manilkara spp. and the lowest fruit diversity and availability, whereas Cebus apella and Saguinus midas were more often observed in M. bidentata crowns at both Grand Plateau (GP), with a lowest density of M. bidentata and overall greater fruit supply, and PP. Overall, nearly 53% and 15% of the M. bidentata seed crop at GP and PP, respectively, and about 47% of the M. huberi seed crop were removed, otherwise either spit out or defecated beneath trees, or dropped in fruits. Small-bodied primates concentrated fallen seeds beneath parent trees while large-bodied primate species removed and dispersed more seeds away from parents. However, among the latter, satiated A. seniculus wasted seeds under conspecific trees at PP. Variations in feeding assemblages, seed removal rates and fates possibly reflected interactions with extra-generic fruit species at the community level, according to feeding choice, habitat preferences and ranging patterns of primate species. PMID:21910838

  12. Late Middle Eocene primate from Myanmar and the initial anthropoid colonization of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Beard, K Christopher; Kyaw, Aung Aung; Soe, Aung Naing; Sein, Chit; Lazzari, Vincent; Marivaux, Laurent; Marandat, Bernard; Swe, Myat; Rugbumrung, Mana; Lwin, Thit; Valentin, Xavier; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2012-06-26

    Reconstructing the origin and early evolutionary history of anthropoid primates (monkeys, apes, and humans) is a current focus of paleoprimatology. Although earlier hypotheses frequently supported an African origin for anthropoids, recent discoveries of older and phylogenetically more basal fossils in China and Myanmar indicate that the group originated in Asia. Given the Oligocene-Recent history of African anthropoids, the colonization of Africa by early anthropoids hailing from Asia was a decisive event in primate evolution. However, the fossil record has so far failed to constrain the nature and timing of this pivotal event. Here we describe a fossil primate from the late middle Eocene Pondaung Formation of Myanmar, Afrasia djijidae gen. et sp. nov., that is remarkably similar to, yet dentally more primitive than, the roughly contemporaneous North African anthropoid Afrotarsius. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that Afrasia and Afrotarsius are sister taxa within a basal anthropoid clade designated as the infraorder Eosimiiformes. Current knowledge of eosimiiform relationships and their distribution through space and time suggests that members of this clade dispersed from Asia to Africa sometime during the middle Eocene, shortly before their first appearance in the African fossil record. Crown anthropoids and their nearest fossil relatives do not appear to be specially related to Afrotarsius, suggesting one or more additional episodes of dispersal from Asia to Africa. Hystricognathous rodents, anthracotheres, and possibly other Asian mammal groups seem to have colonized Africa at roughly the same time or shortly after anthropoids gained their first toehold there.

  13. Glutamate neurons are intermixed with midbrain dopamine neurons in nonhuman primates and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, David H.; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Bing; Barker, David J.; Mód, László; Szocsics, Péter; Silva, Afonso C.; Maglóczky, Zsófia; Morales, Marisela

    2016-01-01

    The rodent ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) contain dopamine neurons intermixed with glutamate neurons (expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 2; VGluT2), which play roles in reward and aversion. However, identifying the neuronal compositions of the VTA and SNC in higher mammals has remained challenging. Here, we revealed VGluT2 neurons within the VTA and SNC of nonhuman primates and humans by simultaneous detection of VGluT2 mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; for identification of dopamine neurons). We found that several VTA subdivisions share similar cellular compositions in nonhuman primates and humans; their rostral linear nuclei have a high prevalence of VGluT2 neurons lacking TH; their paranigral and parabrachial pigmented nuclei have mostly TH neurons, and their parabrachial pigmented nuclei have dual VGluT2-TH neurons. Within nonhuman primates and humans SNC, the vast majority of neurons are TH neurons but VGluT2 neurons were detected in the pars lateralis subdivision. The demonstration that midbrain dopamine neurons are intermixed with glutamate or glutamate-dopamine neurons from rodents to humans offers new opportunities for translational studies towards analyzing the roles that each of these neurons play in human behavior and in midbrain-associated illnesses such as addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27477243

  14. Incorporating the gut microbiota into models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian gut is home to a diverse community of microbes. Advances in technology over the past two decades have allowed us to examine this community, the gut microbiota, in more detail, revealing a wide range of influences on host nutrition, health, and behavior. These host-gut microbe interactions appear to shape host plasticity and fitness in a variety of contexts, and therefore represent a key factor missing from existing models of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution. However, current studies of the gut microbiota tend to include limited contextual data or are clinical, making it difficult to directly test broad anthropological hypotheses. Here, I review what is known about the animal gut microbiota and provide examples of how gut microbiota research can be integrated into the study of human and non-human primate ecology and evolution with targeted data collection. Specifically, I examine how the gut microbiota may impact primate diet, energetics, disease resistance, and cognition. While gut microbiota research is proliferating rapidly, especially in the context of humans, there remain important gaps in our understanding of host-gut microbe interactions that will require an anthropological perspective to fill. Likewise, gut microbiota research will be an important tool for filling remaining gaps in anthropological research.

  15. Good CoP, bad CoP? Interrogating the immune responses to primate lentiviral vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klasse Per

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correlates of protection (CoPs against infection by primate lentiviruses remain undefined. Modest protection against HIV-1 was observed in one human vaccine trial, whereas previous trials and vaccine-challenge experiments in non-human primates have yielded inconsistent but intriguing results. Although high levels of neutralizing antibodies are known to protect macaques from mucosal and intravenous viral challenges, antibody or other adaptive immune responses associated with protection might also be mere markers of innate immunity or susceptibility. Specific strategies for augmenting the design of both human trials and animal experiments could help to identify mechanistic correlates of protection and clarify the influences of confounding factors. Robust protection may, however, require the combined actions of immune responses and other host factors, thereby limiting what inferences can be drawn from statistical associations. Here, we discuss how to analyze immune protection against primate lentiviruses, and how host factors could influence both the elicitation and effectiveness of vaccine-induced responses.

  16. On balance: weighing harms and benefits in fundamental neurological research using nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Gardar; Clausen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    One of the most controversial areas of animal research is the use of nonhuman primates for fundamental research. At the centre of the controversy is the question of whether the benefits of research outweigh the harms. We argue that the evaluation of harms and benefits is highly problematic. We describe some common procedures in neurological research using nonhuman primates and the difficulties in evaluating the harm involved. Even if the harm could be quantified, it is unlikely that it could be meaningfully aggregated over different procedures, let alone different animals. A similar problem arises for evaluating benefits. It is not clear how benefits could be quantified, and even if they could be, values for different aspects of expected benefits cannot be simply added up. Sorting harms and benefits in three or four categories cannot avoid the charge of arbitrariness and runs the risk of imposing its structure on the moral decision. The metaphor of weighing or balancing harms and benefits is inappropriate for the moral decision about whether to use nonhuman primates for research. Arguing that the harms and benefits in this context are incommensurable, we suggest describing the moral consideration of harms and benefits as a coherent trade-off. Such a decision does not require commensurability. It must be well-informed about the suffering involved and the potential benefits, it must be consistent with the legal, regulatory and institutional framework within which it is made, and it must cohere with other judgments in relevant areas. PMID:26351063

  17. The suprarenal glands of a prosimian primate, the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrmicheal, S W; Haines, D E; Pinkstaff, C A

    1975-02-01

    The gross relationships and light microscopic anatomy of the suprarenal gland of a prosimian primate, Galago senegalensis, is described. The left gland is located medial to the pole of the left kidney in a fascial compartment of its own. The right suprarenal is located medial to the pole of the right kidney in intimate apposition to the liver and inferior vena cava. The capsule of the right gland blends with the capsule of the right lobe of the liver and is also contiguous with the adventitia of the inferior vena cava. The histologic appearance of the gland is similar to that of other primate genera. The zona glomerulosa is poorly developed; the zona fasciculata is composed of cell cords and is relatively well developed and the zona reticularis shows no unusual characteristics. The organization of the lipid content of the various cortical zones show a considerable different pattern than previously reported. The zona glomerulosa contains numerous large lipid droplets. In contrast to the bi-laminar pattern of lipid deposition seen in other primates, the Galgo shows three distinct layers of lipid droplets in the zona fasciculata. The zona reticularis has a moderate population of lipid droplets essentially similar to that reported in most other forms. The medulla, except for a sparse number of centrally displaced zona reticularis cells, is completely devoid of lipid deposits. The junction of the zona reticularis and medulla is distinct, although a connective tissue capsule is not present.

  18. Dental senescence in a long-lived primate links infant survival to rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen J.; Arrigo-Nelson, Summer J.; Pochron, Sharon T.; Semprebon, Gina M.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Primates tend to be long-lived, and, except for humans, most primate females are able to reproduce into old age. Although aging in most mammals is accompanied by dental senescence due to advanced wear, primates have low-crowned teeth that wear down before old age. Because tooth wear alters crown features gradually, testing whether early dental senescence causes reproductive senescence has been difficult. To identify whether and when low-crowned teeth compromise reproductive success, we used a 20-year field study of Propithecus edwardsi, a rainforest lemur from Madagascar with a maximum lifespan of >27 years. We analyzed tooth wear in three dimensions with dental topographic analysis by using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology. We report that tooth wear exposes compensatory shearing blades that maintain dental function for 18 years. Beyond this age, female fertility remains high; however infants survive only if lactation seasons have elevated rainfall. Therefore, low-crowned teeth accommodate wear to a point, after which reproductive success closely tracks environmental fluctuations. These results suggest a tooth wear-determined, but rainfall-mediated, onset of reproductive senescence. Additionally, our study indicates that even subtle changes in climate may affect reproductive success of rainforest species. PMID:16260727

  19. Glutamate neurons are intermixed with midbrain dopamine neurons in nonhuman primates and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, David H; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Bing; Barker, David J; Mód, László; Szocsics, Péter; Silva, Afonso C; Maglóczky, Zsófia; Morales, Marisela

    2016-01-01

    The rodent ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) contain dopamine neurons intermixed with glutamate neurons (expressing vesicular glutamate transporter 2; VGluT2), which play roles in reward and aversion. However, identifying the neuronal compositions of the VTA and SNC in higher mammals has remained challenging. Here, we revealed VGluT2 neurons within the VTA and SNC of nonhuman primates and humans by simultaneous detection of VGluT2 mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; for identification of dopamine neurons). We found that several VTA subdivisions share similar cellular compositions in nonhuman primates and humans; their rostral linear nuclei have a high prevalence of VGluT2 neurons lacking TH; their paranigral and parabrachial pigmented nuclei have mostly TH neurons, and their parabrachial pigmented nuclei have dual VGluT2-TH neurons. Within nonhuman primates and humans SNC, the vast majority of neurons are TH neurons but VGluT2 neurons were detected in the pars lateralis subdivision. The demonstration that midbrain dopamine neurons are intermixed with glutamate or glutamate-dopamine neurons from rodents to humans offers new opportunities for translational studies towards analyzing the roles that each of these neurons play in human behavior and in midbrain-associated illnesses such as addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. PMID:27477243

  20. From "junk" to gene: curriculum vitae of a primate receptor isoform gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Silke S; Männel, Daniela N; Hehlgans, Thomas; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2004-08-20

    Exonization of Alu retroposons awakens public opinion, particularly when causing genetic diseases. However, often neglected, alternative "Alu-exons" also carry the potential to greatly enhance genetic diversity by increasing the transcriptome of primates chiefly via alternative splicing.Here, we report a 5' exon generated from one of the two alternative transcripts in human tumor necrosis factor receptor gene type 2 (p75TNFR) that contains an ancient Alu-SINE, which provides an alternative N-terminal protein-coding domain. We follow the primate evolution over the past 63 million years to reconstruct the key events that gave rise to a novel receptor isoform. The Alu integration and start codon formation occurred between 58 and 40 million years ago (MYA) in the common ancestor of anthropoid primates. Yet a functional gene product could not be generated until a novel splice site and an open reading frame were introduced between 40 and 25 MYA on the catarrhine lineage (Old World monkeys including apes).

  1. Animal Welfares of Laboratory Non-Human Primates%非人灵长类动物实验中的动物福利

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乾生

    2003-01-01

    While comparing non-human primates with human beings, it is not hard to conclude certain similarities between these two based on aspects such as morphological anatomy, biochemistry functioning and so on. As a result, nonhuman primates often play an important role in life scientific researches. These primates are always used as "Stand-Ins"for human beings. In the processes of toxicological testing of new drugs, some drugs, especially drugs of genic projects or biological medicines are requiring uses of primates as part of the new drug testing. Therefore, the morality and ethics of using non-human primates have to be emphasised by people. After all, this is one of the issues that concerns with the expectations of meeting the international scientific research standards by our national laboratory animal sciences.In fact, the moral and ethical problems of non-human primates experiments is related to the matters of animal welfares.

  2. Tuberculosis in non-human primates of Assam: use of PrimaTB STAT-PAK Assay for detection of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Nath

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is the most important zoonotic bacterial disease in nonhuman primates. The present study investigated 27 carcasses of non human primates of Assam State Zoo and Department of Forest and Environment, Govt. of Assam during the period from August 2007 to November 2009. Six positive tuberculosis cases were recorded. For detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, three serum samples of free ranging non human primates of Kaziranga National Park were tested by using PrimaTB STAT-PAK Assay kit and all three samples showed negative result. The study suggests that captive non human primates should be screened regularly to control the spread of the diseas

  3. Primate genotyping via high resolution melt analysis: rapid and reliable identification of color vision status in wild lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Rachel L; Spriggs, Amanda N; MacFie, Tammie S; Baden, Andrea L; Irwin, Mitchell T; Wright, Patricia C; Louis, Edward E; Lawler, Richard R; Mundy, Nicholas I; Bradley, Brenda J

    2016-10-01

    Analyses of genetic polymorphisms can aid our understanding of intra- and interspecific variation in primate sociality, ecology, and behavior. Studies of primate opsin genes are prime examples of this, as single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the X-linked opsin gene underlie variation in color vision. For primate species with polymorphic trichromacy, genotyping opsin SNVs can generally indicate whether individual primates are red-green color-blind (denoted homozygous M or homozygous L) or have full trichromatic color vision (heterozygous ML). Given the potential influence of color vision on behavior and fitness, characterizing the color vision status of study subjects is becoming commonplace for many primate field projects. Such studies traditionally involve a multi-step sequencing-based method that can be costly and time-consuming. Here we present a new reliable, rapid, and relatively inexpensive method for characterizing color vision in primate populations using high resolution melt analysis (HRMA). Using lemurs as a case study, we characterized variation at exons 3 and/or 5 of the X-linked opsin gene for 87 individuals representing nine species. We scored opsin genotypes and color vision status using both traditional sequencing-based methods as well as our novel melting-curve based HRMA protocol. For each species, the melting curves of varying genotypes (homozygous M, homozygous L, heterozygous ML) differed in melting temperature and/or shape. Melting curves for each sample were consistent across replicates, and genotype-specific melting curves were consistent across DNA sources (blood vs. feces). We show that opsin genotypes can be quickly and reliably scored using HRMA once lab-specific reference curves have been developed based on known genotypes. Although the protocol presented here focuses on genotyping lemur opsin loci, we also consider the larger potential for applying this approach to various types of genetic studies of primate populations.

  4. EVOLUCIÓN DEL CONFLICTO SOCIAL Y DE SU RESOLUCIÓN EN PRIMATES NO HUMANOS Evolution of Social Conflict and its Resolution in Non Human Primates

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    ALBA LETICIA PÉREZ RUIZ

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es analizar, desde una aproximación evolutiva, el comportamiento social de los primates, para explorar el significado del conflicto agresivo y de la reconciliación como su principal mecanismo de resolución dentro del contexto social intraespecífico. La vida en un grupo social de primates implica costos y beneficios para los miembros del grupo. Además, la convivencia en grupo permite el desarrollo de relaciones sociales complejas entre los miembros del grupo. Dado que la socialización genera competencia y conflictos que pueden implicar comportamientos agresivos, la agresión es costosa no solo en términos de gasto de energía y relaciones sociales sino también en términos de daño físico. Con base en esto, la selección natural deberá favorecer la agresión solo en los casos en los que el valor de los beneficios sea mayor que el de los costos. La agresión impone costos tanto al agresor como al receptor de la agresión. Por ello, es de esperar que la selección natural favorecerá a los individuos que disminuyan los costos de la agresión, pero al mismo tiempo favorecerá a los individuos que usen -adecuadamente- los episodios agonistas para ganar acceso a los recursos o para resolver conflictos en su favor. El conflicto generado entre los oponentes por un episodio agresivo puede implicar altos costos en términos de vínculos sociales, de ahí que hayan evolucionado distintos mecanismos de resolución de conflicto, como es el caso del comportamiento reconciliatorio, donde la cooperación tiene un importante papel como causa y consecuencia de la reconciliación.The purpose of this article is to analyze, from an evolutionary approach, the social behavior of primates, to explore the meaning of aggressive conflict and reconciliation, its main mechanism of resolution, within an intraspecific social context. Life among a primate social group supposes costs and benefits to its members. Group life allows as well

  5. Primate diversity, habitat preferences, and population density estimates in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R B; Painter, R L; Taber, A B

    1998-01-01

    This report documents primate communities at two sites within Noel Kempff Mercado National Park in northeastern Santa Cruz Department, Bolivia. Diurnal line transects and incidental observations were employed to survey two field sites, Lago Caiman and Las Gamas, providing information on primate diversity, habitat preferences, relative abundance, and population density. Primate diversity at both sites was not particularly high, with six observed species: Callithrix argentata melanura, Aotus azarae, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, A. seniculus, and Ateles paniscus chamek. Cebus showed no significant habitat preferences at Lago Caiman and was also more generalist in use of forest strata, whereas Ateles clearly preferred the upper levels of structurally tall forest. Callithrix argentata melanura was rarely encountered during surveys at Lago Caiman, where it preferred low vine forest. Both species of Alouatta showed restricted habitat use and were sympatric in Igapo forest in the Lago Caiman area. The most abundant primate at both field sites was Ateles, with density estimates reaching 32.1 individuals/km2 in the lowland forest at Lago Caiman, compared to 14.1 individuals/km2 for Cebus. Both Ateles and Cebus were absent from smaller patches of gallery forest at Las Gamas. These densities are compared with estimates from other Neotropical sites. The diversity of habitats and their different floristic composition may account for the numerical dominance of Ateles within the primate communities at both sites. PMID:9802511

  6. Type 2 Diabetes is a Delayed Late Effect of Whole-Body Irradiation in Nonhuman Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Dendinger, Michael D.; Davis, Ashley T.; Register, Thomas C.; DeBo, Ryne; Dugan, Greg; Cline, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    One newly recognized consequence of radiation exposure may be the delayed development of diabetes and metabolic disease. We document the development of type 2 diabetes in a unique nonhuman primate cohort of monkeys that were whole-body irradiated with high doses (6.5–8.4 Gy) 5–9 years earlier. We report here a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in irradiated monkeys compared to age-matched nonirradiated monkeys. These irradiated diabetic primates demonstrate insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia, however, they lack the typical obese presentation of primate midlife diabetogenesis. Surprisingly, body composition analyses by computed tomography indicated that prior irradiation led to a specific loss of visceral fat mass. Prior irradiation led to reductions in insulin signaling effectiveness in skeletal muscle and higher monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 levels, indicative of increased inflammation. However, there was an absence of large defects in pancreatic function with radiation exposure, which has been documented previously in animal and human studies. Monkeys that remained healthy and did not become diabetic in the years after irradiation were significantly leaner and smaller, and were generally smaller and younger at the time of exposure. Irradiation also resulted in smaller stature in both diabetic and nondiabetic monkeys, compared to nonirradiated age-matched controls. Our study demonstrates that diabetogenesis postirradiation is not a consequence of disrupted adipose accumulation (generalized or in ectopic depots), nor generalized pancreatic failure, but suggests that peripheral tissues such as the musculature are impaired in their response to insulin exposure. Ongoing inflammation in these animals appears to be a consequence of radiation exposure and can interfere with insulin signaling. The reasons that some animals remain protected from diabetes as a late effect of irradiation are not clear, but may be related to body size. The translational

  7. Natural selection and molecular evolution in primate PAX9 gene, a major determinant of tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tiago V; Salzano, Francisco M; Mostowska, Adrianna; Trzeciak, Wieslaw H; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Chies, José A B; Saavedra, Carmen; Nagamachi, Cleusa; Hurtado, Ana M; Hill, Kim; Castro-de-Guerra, Dinorah; Silva-Júnior, Wilson A; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira

    2006-04-11

    Large differences in relation to dental size, number, and morphology among and within modern human populations and between modern humans and other primate species have been observed. Molecular studies have demonstrated that tooth development is under strict genetic control, but, the genetic basis of primate tooth variation remains unknown. The PAX9 gene, which codes for a paired domain-containing transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of mammal dentition, has been associated with selective tooth agenesis in humans and mice, which mainly involves the posterior teeth. To determine whether this gene is polymorphic in humans, we sequenced approximately 2.1 kb of the entire four-exon region (exons 1, 2, 3 and 4; 1,026 bp) and exon-intron (1.1 kb) boundaries of 86 individuals sampled from Asian, European, and Native American populations. We provided evidence that human PAX9 polymorphisms are limited to exon 3 only and furnished details about the distribution of a mutation there in 350 Polish subjects. To investigate the pattern of selective pressure on exon 3, we sequenced ortholog regions of this exon in four species of New World monkeys and one gorilla. In addition, orthologous sequences of PAX9 available in public databases were also analyzed. Although several differences were identified between humans and other species, our findings support the view that strong purifying selection is acting on PAX9. New World and Old World primate lineages may, however, have different degrees of restriction for changes in this DNA region.

  8. Nicotinic receptors in non-human primates: Analysis of genetic and functional conservation with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey-Kendrick, Lyndsey E; Ford, Matthew M; Allen, Daicia C; Kuryatov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Jon; Wilhelm, Larry; Grant, Kathleen A; Spindel, Eliot R

    2015-09-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are highly conserved between humans and non-human primates. Conservation exists at the level of genomic structure, protein structure and epigenetics. Overall homology of nAChRs at the protein level is 98% in macaques versus 89% in mice, which is highly relevant for evaluating subtype-specific ligands that have different affinities in humans versus rodents. In addition to conservation at the protein level, there is high conservation of genomic structure in terms of intron and exon size and placement of CpG sites that play a key role in epigenetic regulation. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shows that while the majority of SNPs are not conserved between humans and macaques, some functional polymorphisms are. Most significantly, cynomolgus monkeys express a similar α5 nAChR Asp398Asn polymorphism to the human α5 Asp398Asn polymorphism that has been linked to greater nicotine addiction and smoking related disease. Monkeys can be trained to readily self-administer nicotine, and in an initial study we have demonstrated that cynomolgus monkeys bearing the α5 D398N polymorphism show a reduced behavioral sensitivity to oral nicotine and tend to consume it in a different pattern when compared to wild-type monkeys. Thus the combination of highly homologous nAChR, higher cortical functions and capacity for complex training makes non-human primates a unique model to study in vivo functions of nicotinic receptors. In particular, primate studies on nicotine addiction and evaluation of therapies to prevent or overcome nicotine addiction are likely to be highly predictive of treatment outcomes in humans. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25661700

  9. Nasopalatine ducts and flehmen behavior in the mandrill: reevaluating olfactory communication in Old World primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Marie J E; Mboumba, Sylvère; Ditsoga, Claude; Drea, Christine M

    2013-07-01

    Compared to other modes of communication, chemical signaling between conspecifics generally has been overlooked in Old World primates, despite the presence in this group of secretory glands and scent-marking behavior, as well as the confirmed production and perception of olfactory signals. In other mammalian species, flehmen is a behavior thought to transport primarily nonvolatile, aqueous-soluble odorants via specialized ducts to the vomeronasal organ (VNO). By contrast, Old World primates are traditionally thought to lack a functional VNO, relying instead on the main olfactory system to process volatile odorants from their environment. Here, in the mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx), we document unusual morphological and behavioral traits that typically are associated with the uptake of conspecific chemical cues for processing by an accessory olfactory system. Notably, we confirmed that both sexes possess open nasopalatine ducts and, in response to the presentation of conspecific odorants, we found that both sexes showed stereotyped behavior consistent with the flehmen response. If, as in other species, flehmen in the mandrill serves to mediate social or reproductive information, we expected its occurrence to vary with characteristics of either the signaler or receiver. Flehmen, particularly in a given male, occurred most often in response to odorants derived from male, as opposed to female, conspecifics. Moreover, odorants derived during the breeding season elicited more flehmen responses than did odorants collected during the birthing season. Lastly, odorants from reproductively cycling females also elicited more responses than did odorants from contracepted females. Although confirming a link between the nasopalatine ducts, flehmen behavior, and olfactory processing in mandrills would require further study, our observations provide new information to suggest anatomical variability within Old World primates, calling further attention to the underappreciated role of

  10. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hevezi

    Full Text Available Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM procured fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology.

  11. Models of stress in nonhuman primates and their relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold S; Hamel, Amanda F

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

  12. Cranial anatomy of Paleogene Micromomyidae and implications for early primate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Jonathan I; Chester, Stephen G B; Silcox, Mary T

    2016-07-01

    Paleogene micromomyids are small (∼10-40 g) euarchontan mammals with primate-like molars and postcrania suggestive of committed claw-climbing positional behaviors, similar to those of the extant arboreal treeshrew, Ptilocercus. Based primarily on evidence derived from dental and postcranial morphology, micromomyids have alternately been allied with plesiadapiforms, Dermoptera (colugos), or Primatomorpha (Primates + Dermoptera) within Euarchonta. Partial crania described here of Paleocene Dryomomys szalayi and Eocene Tinimomys graybulliensis from the Clarks Fork Basin of Wyoming are the first known for the family Micromomyidae. The cranium of D. szalayi exhibits a distinct, small groove near the lateral extreme of the promontorium, just medial to the fenestra vestibuli, the size of which suggests that the internal carotid artery was non-functional, as has been inferred for paromomyid and plesiadapid plesiadapiforms, but not for Eocene euprimates, carpolestids, and microsyopids. On the other hand, D. szalayi is similar to fossil euprimates and plesiadapoids in having a bullar morphology consistent with an origin that is at least partially petrosal, unlike that of paromomyids and microsyopids, although this interpretation will always be tentative in fossils that lack exhaustive ontogenetic data. Micromomyids differ from all other known plesiadapiforms in having an inflated cochlear part of the bony labyrinth and a highly pneumatized squamosal and mastoid region with associated septa. Cladistic analyses that include new cranial data, regardless of how bullar composition is coded in plesiadapiforms, fail to support either Primatomorpha or a close relationship between micromomyids and dermopterans, instead suggesting that micromomyids are among the most primitive known primates. PMID:27343772

  13. Evolution of the DAZ gene and the AZFc region on primate Y chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jane-Fang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azoospermia Factor c (AZFc region of the human Y chromosome is a unique product of segmental duplication. It consists almost entirely of very long amplicons, represented by different colors, and is frequently deleted in subfertile men. Most of the AZFc amplicons have high sequence similarity with autosomal segments, indicating recent duplication and transposition to the Y chromosome. The Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ gene within the red-amplicon arose from an ancestral autosomal DAZ-like (DAZL gene. It varies significantly between different men regarding to its copy number and the numbers of RNA recognition motif and DAZ repeat it encodes. We used Southern analyses to study the evolution of DAZ and AZFc amplicons on the Y chromosomes of primates. Results The Old World monkey rhesus macaque has only one DAZ gene. In contrast, the great apes have multiple copies of DAZ, ranging from 2 copies in bonobos and gorillas to at least 6 copies in orangutans, and these DAZ genes have polymorphic structures similar to those of their human counterparts. Sequences homologous to the various AZFc amplicons are present on the Y chromosomes of some but not all primates, indicating that they arrived on the Y chromosome at different times during primate evolution. Conclusion The duplication and transposition of AZFc amplicons to the human Y chromosome occurred in three waves, i.e., after the branching of the New World monkey, the gorilla, and the chimpanzee/bonobo lineages, respectively. The red-amplicon, one of the first to arrive on the Y chromosome, amplified by inverted duplication followed by direct duplication after the separation of the Old World monkey and the great ape lineages. Subsequent duplication/deletion in the various lineages gave rise to a spectrum of DAZ gene structure and copy number found in today's great apes.

  14. Estado poblacional y distribución de los primates no humanos en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novo, Nelson M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los monos del Nuevo Mundo ofrecen modelos para estudiar paralelismos que ayudan a elucidar principios generales aplicables a todos los primates, y modelar el comportamiento de homínidos tempranos. En la Argentina encontramos cuatro especies de primates, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta fusca y Aotus azarai. El último estudio sobre su situación poblacional fue publicado en 1994. En este trabajo presentamos una actualización del estado poblacional en Argentina y nuestras evaluaciones poblacionales de A.caraya en las Provincias del Chaco y Corrientes. Solo existen datos para 4 poblaciones de A. caraya en zonas no protegidas, 1 población de A. azarai en zonas no protegidas, 1 población de C. apella en el PN Iguazú y no existen datos para A. fusca una especie incluida en cites II. Las poblaciones de A. caraya bajo estudio (n=4 aumentaron probablemente como consecuencia de un incremento de los bosques secundarios, como resultado de la deforestación. Existen 7 Parques Nacionales que representan menos del 4 % de la superficie de selvas que contienen primates y no hay relevamientos poblacionales en los mismos. Nuestros resultados indican una situación incierta para las restantes tres especies en Argentina. Ante la falta de control y protección de sus habitats, recomendamos realizar estudios comparativos a largo plazo en zonas protegidas y zonas no protegidas. Estos estudios nos permiten develar patrones y principios validos que no pueden ser identificados solamente con el estudio de la especie humana.

  15. Group size, grooming and fission in primates: a modeling approach based on group structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile; Couzin, Iain D

    2011-03-21

    In social animals, fission is a common mode of group proliferation and dispersion and may be affected by genetic or other social factors. Sociality implies preserving relationships between group members. An increase in group size and/or in competition for food within the group can result in decrease certain social interactions between members, and the group may split irreversibly as a consequence. One individual may try to maintain bonds with a maximum of group members in order to keep group cohesion, i.e. proximity and stable relationships. However, this strategy needs time and time is often limited. In addition, previous studies have shown that whatever the group size, an individual interacts only with certain grooming partners. There, we develop a computational model to assess how dynamics of group cohesion are related to group size and to the structure of grooming relationships. Groups' sizes after simulated fission are compared to observed sizes of 40 groups of primates. Results showed that the relationship between grooming time and group size is dependent on how each individual attributes grooming time to its social partners, i.e. grooming a few number of preferred partners or grooming equally or not all partners. The number of partners seemed to be more important for the group cohesion than the grooming time itself. This structural constraint has important consequences on group sociality, as it gives the possibility of competition for grooming partners, attraction for high-ranking individuals as found in primates' groups. It could, however, also have implications when considering the cognitive capacities of primates.

  16. Threonine 53 in α-synuclein is conserved in long-living non-primate animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Hedegaard, Claus; Bertelsen, Mads Frost;

    2009-01-01

    associated with increased oligomerization toxicity leading to familial early-onset PD in humans. The amino acid in position 53 in α-synuclein is an alanine in humans, great apes and Old World primates. However, this amino acid is a threonine in the α-synuclein of all other examined species, including New......α-Synuclein is the main constituent of Lewy bodies in familial and sporadic cases of Parkinson's disease (PD). Autosomal dominant point mutations, gene duplications or triplications in the α-synuclein (SNCA) gene cause hereditary forms of PD. One of the α-synuclein point mutations, Ala53Thr, is...

  17. Oral and Conjunctival Exposure of Nonhuman Primates to Low Doses of Ebola Makona Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mire, Chad E.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Agans, Krystle N.; Deer, Daniel J.; Fenton, Karla A.; Geisbert, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primate (NHP) models of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection primarily use parenteral or aerosol routes of exposure. Uniform lethality can be achieved in these models at low doses of EBOV (≤100 plaque-forming units [PFU]). Here, we exposed NHPs to low doses of EBOV (Makona strain) by the oral or conjunctival routes. Surprisingly, animals exposed to 10 PFU by either route showed no signs of disease. Exposure to 100 PFU resulted in illness and/or lethal infection. These results suggest that these more natural routes require higher doses of EBOV to produce disease or that there may be differences between Makona and historical strains. PMID:27284090

  18. Non-human primate models of SIV infection and CNS neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kenneth; Lackner, Andrew; Mallard, Jaclyn

    2016-08-01

    Non-human primate models of AIDS and neuroAIDS are the premiere model of HIV infection of the CNS and neuropathogenesis. This review discusses current SIV infection models of neuroAIDS emphasizing findings in the last two years. Consistent in these findings is the interplay between host factors that regulate immune responses to virus and viral replication. Several rapid models of AIDS with consistent CNS pathogenesis exist, each of which modulates by antibody treatment or viruses that cause rapid immune suppression and replicate well in macrophages. Consistent in all of these models are data underscoring the importance of monocyte and macrophage activation, infection and accumulation in the CNS. PMID:27544476

  19. MicroRNA silencing in primates: towards development of novel therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Andreas; Lindow, Morten; Kauppinen, Sakari

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) comprise an abundant class of small noncoding RNAs that act as important posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. Accumulating evidence showing that aberrantly expressed miRNAs play important roles in human cancers underscores them as potential targets for therapeutic ...... intervention. Recent reports on efficient miRNA silencing in rodents and nonhuman primates using high-affinity targeting by chemically modified antisense oligonucleotides highlight the utility of such compounds in the development of miRNA-based cancer therapeutics....

  20. Severe Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity in Primates After a Common Recreational Dose Regimen of MDMA (``Ecstasy'')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricaurte, George A.; Yuan, Jie; Hatzidimitriou, George; Cord, Branden J.; McCann, Una D.

    2002-09-01

    The prevailing view is that the popular recreational drug (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or ``ecstasy'') is a selective serotonin neurotoxin in animals and possibly in humans. Nonhuman primates exposed to several sequential doses of MDMA, a regimen modeled after one used by humans, developed severe brain dopaminergic neurotoxicity, in addition to less pronounced serotonergic neurotoxicity. MDMA neurotoxicity was associated with increased vulnerability to motor dysfunction secondary to dopamine depletion. These results have implications for mechanisms of MDMA neurotoxicity and suggest that recreational MDMA users may unwittingly be putting themselves at risk, either as young adults or later in life, for developing neuropsychiatric disorders related to brain dopamine and/or serotonin deficiency.