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Sample records for chrysenes

  1. Magnetic and superconducting phases in RE-doped chrysene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerath, Franziska; Carretta, Pietro; Artioli, Gianluca A.; Malavasi, Lorenzo [Pavia Univ. (Italy); CNISM, Pavia (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    We present the first magnetic susceptibility, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin rotation (μSR) investigations of rare earth (RE) doped Chrysene, (RE=Sm, Eu and La), a promising candidate for a new superconducting (SC) hydrocarbon material. The magnetic susceptibility of pure Chrysene is only weakly temperature dependent, its zero-field μSR measurements indicate a high fraction of Muonium formation and its {sup 1}H-NMR spectra and relaxation rates are determined by the dominant nuclear dipolar interactions. The NMR, μSR and susceptibility measurements on the RE-doped compounds show different behaviors, thus confirming the formation of REChrysene phases. Indications of superconductivity are present in La- and Sm-doped Chrysene with SC transition temperatures of 6 K and 4-7 K, respectively. While LaChrysene exhibits a rather high SC volume fraction (∼ 30 %), the one of SmChrysene is always very small. The pressure and magnetic field dependence of T{sub c} of LaChrysene is very similar to the one of LaPhenanthrene, but has to be discussed in the context of a possible spurious fcc La phase, which shows similar SC properties. Such an effect can be excluded for SmChrysene. Susceptibility, NMR and μSR measurements on EuChrysene on the other hand evidence the onset of a magnetic order involving Eu ions.

  2. A tetra-substituted chrysene: orientation of multiple electrophilic substitution and use of a tetra-substituted chrysene as a blue emitter for OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, Alex S; Marshall, William J; Fish, Brian M; Bryman, Lois M; Wang, Ying

    2008-05-28

    The first tetra-substituted non-fused chrysene, 3,6,9,12-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl)chrysene with blue electroluminescence at 450 nm, and with a radiance of 500 cd m(-2), was synthesized by a two-step procedure: direct bromination of chrysene in trimethyl phosphate, followed by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of tetrabromochrysene and tert-butylphenylboronic acid . PMID:18473056

  3. Identification of Metabolic Intermediates in Microbial Degradation of Chrysene by Armillaria sp. F022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Hadibarata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To degrade chrysene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH, Armillaria sp. F022, a fungus collected from a soil, was used. Maximal degradation (77% was obtained when Armillaria sp. F022 was incubated in cultures agitated at 120 rpm for 30 days, as compared to just 41% degradation in stationary culture. Furthermore, the degradation of chrysene was affected by the addition of surfactants. The mechanism of degradation was determined through identification of the intermediates. Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase produced by Armillaria sp. F022 were detected in the culture. The highest level of activity was shown by 1,2-dioxygenase after 20 days (143.6 U l-1. Theseligninolytic and dioxygenase enzymes played an important role in the oxidation of chrysene. Chrysene was indeed degraded by Armillaria sp. F022 through several intermediates, chrysenequinone, 2-((1E,3E-4-carboxy-3-hydroxybuta-1,3-dien-1-yl-1-naphthoic acid , 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, and gentisic acid.Keywords : Biodegradation, Chrysene, Metabolites, Armillaria sp. F022

  4. Geometrical structures and electronic properties of Sm, K-doped chrysene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Simulations of Physical System Division Team

    The discovery of superconductivity in potassium-doped picene (KxC22H14) has revitalized the research interest in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and a large variety of PAHs superconductors have been reported afterwards, such as phenanthrene, coronene and 1,2;8, 9-dibenzopentacene. Recently a new PAHs superconductor, Sm-doped chrysene, with Tc 5 K was reported experimentally whose precise nature is still unknown. In this work, crystal structure search and electronic structure of A-doped chrysene, Ax -C18H12 (A=Sm, K), have been studied by the ?rst-principles density-functional theory using the projector augmented wave method based on the generalized gradient approximation implemented in the VASP package. We also include with van der Waals (vdW) corrections in the calculations, thus clarifying the dopant atoms positions and optimized crystal structures of doped superconducting chrysene. Our findings represent a significant step toward the understanding of superconductivity of PAHs.

  5. Synchronous scanning phosphorimetry for the selective determination of chrysene: a metrological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. M. C. da Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Room-temperature phosphorimetry was used to quantify trace levels of chrysene in sugar-cane spirits and in fish bile. A selective phosphorescence enhancer (AgNO3 and synchronous scanning allowed the detection of ng amounts of chrysene. Accuracy (113 ± 17% and selectivity was evaluated using the CRM-NIST-1647d - Priority Pollutant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in acetonitrile. Analysis of sugar-cane spirit samples enabled recovery of 108 ± 18% which agreed with the one achieved using HPLC. Method's uncertainty was equivalent to 3.4 ng of the analyte, however, the analyte pre-concentration (SPE improved sensibility and minimized the relative uncertainty. Characterization and homogeneity studies in fish bile were also performed.

  6. Effects of methylated chrysenes on AhR-dependent and -independent toxic events in rat liver epithelial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machala, M.; Šindlerová, Lenka; Pěnčíková, K.; Krčmář, P.; Topinka, Jan; Milcová, Alena; Nováková, Zuzana; Kozubík, Alois; Vondráček, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 247, 2-3 (2008), s. 93-101. ISSN 0300-483X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/05/0595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702; CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : methylated chrysenes * aryl hydrocarbon receptor * genotoxicity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.836, year: 2008

  7. Tissue Distribution, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of the Environmental Pollutant Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan-Wan; El-Bayoumy, Karam; Aliaga, Cesar; Awad, Alaa S; Gowda, Krishne; Amin, Shantu; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2015-07-20

    Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBP), a representative example of the class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is known to induce tumors in multiple organ sites including the ovary, lung, mammary glands, and oral cavity in rodents. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the levels of DBP and its metabolites that reach and retain the levels for an extended time in the target organs as well as the capacity of these organs to metabolize this carcinogen to active metabolites that can damage DNA may account for its tissue selective tumorigenicity. Therefore, we used the radiolabeled [(3)H] DBP to accurately assess the tissue distribution, excretion, and pharmacokinetics of this carcinogen. We also compared the levels of DBPDE-DNA adducts in a select target organ (ovary) and nontarget organs (kidney and liver) in mice treated orally with DBP. Our results showed that after 1 week, 91.40 ± 7.23% of the radioactivity was recovered in the feces; the corresponding value excreted in the urine was less than 2% after 1 week. After 24 h, the stomach had the highest radioactivity followed by the intestine and the liver; however, after 1 week, levels of the radioactivity in these organs were the lowest among tissues examined including the ovary and liver; the pharmacokinetic analysis of DBP was conducted using a one compartment open model. The level of (-)-anti-trans-DBPDE-dA in the ovaries (8.91 ± 0.08 adducts/10(7) dA) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than the levels of adducts in kidneys (0.69 ± 0.09 adducts/10(7) dA) and livers (0.63 ± 0.11 adducts/10(7) dA). Collectively, the results of the tissue distribution and pharmacokinetic analysis may not fully support our hypothesis, but the capacity of the target organs vs nontarget organs to metabolize DBP to active intermediates that can damage DNA may account for its tissue selective tumorigenicity. PMID:26034881

  8. Impact of dissolved humic acid on the bioavailability of acenaphthene and chrysene assessed by membrane-based passive samplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is known to reduce the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aqueous environments. This reduction occurs as a result of adsorption to DOC, apparently reducing the freely dissolved concentration of HOCs. In the present study, triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) were used to measure the uptake of acenaphthene and chrysene in the presence of commercial humic acid (HA) at different concentrations (0―15 mg C·L-1) under controlled laboratory conditions. Apparent uptake rate constants for PAHs in TECAM and medaka were compared and DOC-water partition coefficients (KDOCs) of two PAHs were calculated with different sampling methods by model fit. Results showed that HA present in water significantly reduced the uptake of PAHs in TECAM and medaka. The obtained values of log KDOC of acenaphthene and chrysene measured by TECAM were 4.63 and 5.83, respectively, whereas biologically determined values were 4.52 and 5.76, respectively. These log KDOC values were comparable to earlier published KDOCs toward commercial HA, thereby indicating that TECAM accumulated only the freely dissolved fraction of chemicals and uptake PAHs in a manner similar to that of fish. All these results suggested that the TECAM method can provide a good means for assessing the impact of DOC on bioavailability of PAHs in the aqueous environment.

  9. Synthesis of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon marked with carbon-14: (b, d e f) dibenzo-chrysene 14C-7,14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (b, d e f) dibenzo-chrysene C-7,14 has been synthesized from radioactive carbon dioxide and the organic magnesium compound derived from 1,5 dibromo naphthalene. The product has been purified by a very precise series of fractionated chromatographs on alumina having a chromatographic activity. This has necessitated the development of a special technique. (author)

  10. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Medaka embryos were exposed to alkyl chrysenes and benzo[a]anthracenes (BAA). • Concentrations were kept constant by partition controlled delivery. • Chrysene was not toxic within solubility limits, in contrast to BAA. • Alkylation increased the toxicity of chrysene and BAA. • Toxicity was related to hydrophobicity and to specific modes of action. - Abstract: Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and log Kow values provided a rough estimation of structure–activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but Kow alone did not provide a complete

  11. Toxic effects upon exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (chrysene) in scallop Chlamys farreri during the reproduction period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Meng; Pan, Luqing; Jin, Qian

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to investigate potential toxic effects of chrysene (CHR) on mature scallop Chlamys farreri during the reproduction period, using indicators of antioxidant defences and oxidative stress. Scallops were exposed to 0.2, 0.8 and 3.2μg/L waterborne CHR for 21 days, at day 10 scallops were induced to spawn. At days 1, 3, 6, 10, 11, 15 and 21, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PC) and DNA strand breaks in digestive glands were examined by separately analysing male and female scallops. During the pre-spawn period, Levels of enzymatic activities and oxidative stress were all induced by the exposure to CHR for females and males. GST activity presented a good time- and dose-dependent relationship only in males, and GSH content showed a dose-dependent manner in both sexes. During the post-spawn period, different trends were observed, while PC contents maintained growth in time- and dose-dependent manner. Overall, males were more sensitive than females to CHR exposure in enzyme activities, and correspondingly, females suffered from more serious oxidative damages. Both GSH and PC contents seemed to be potential biomarkers for PAH exposure. These results will offer the information on toxicity of CHR in this species, and ensure the influence of gender and reproductive status on PAH detoxification metabolism. PMID:27131750

  12. Arsenite Interacts with Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) at Low Levels to Suppress Bone Marrow Lymphoid Progenitors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Peace C; Lauer, Fredine T; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G; Burchiel, Scott W

    2015-07-01

    Arsenite (As(+3)) and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), a polycyclic aromatic hyrdrocarbon (PAH), are found in nature as environmental contaminants. Both are known to individually suppress the immune system of humans and mice. In order to determine their potential interactive and combined immunosuppressive effects, we examined murine bone marrow (BM) immune progenitor cells' responses following combined oral exposures at very low levels of exposure to As(+3) and DBC. Oral 5-day exposure to DBC at 1 mg/kg (cumulative dose) was found to suppress mouse BM lymphoid progenitor cells, but not the myeloid progenitors. Previously established no-effect doses of As(+3) in drinking water (19 and 75 ppb for 30 days) produced more lymphoid suppression in the bone marrow when mice were concomitantly fed a low dose of DBC during the last 5 days. The lower dose (19 ppb) As(+3) had a stronger suppressive effect with DBC than the higher dose (75 ppb). Thus, the interactive toxicity of As(+3) and DBC in vivo could be As(+3) dose dependent. In vitro, the suppressive interaction of As(+3) and DBC was also evident at low concentrations (0.5 nM), but not at higher concentrations (5 nM) of As(+3). These studies show potentially important interactions between As(+3) and DBC on mouse BM at extremely low levels of exposure in vivo and in vitro. PMID:25739538

  13. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongkang [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Morandi, Garrett D. [School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Brown, R. Stephen [School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Snieckus, Victor; Rantanen, Toni [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Jørgensen, Kåre B. [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway); Hodson, Peter V., E-mail: peter.hodson@queensu.ca [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Medaka embryos were exposed to alkyl chrysenes and benzo[a]anthracenes (BAA). • Concentrations were kept constant by partition controlled delivery. • Chrysene was not toxic within solubility limits, in contrast to BAA. • Alkylation increased the toxicity of chrysene and BAA. • Toxicity was related to hydrophobicity and to specific modes of action. - Abstract: Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and log K{sub ow} values provided a rough estimation of structure–activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but K{sub ow} alone did not provide

  14. Differential modulation of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis: Maternal diets rich in indole-3-carbinol versus sulforaphane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciferous vegetable components have been documented to exhibit anticancer properties. Targets of action span multiple mechanisms deregulated during cancer progression, ranging from altered carcinogen metabolism to the restoration of epigenetic machinery. Furthermore, the developing fetus is highly susceptible to changes in nutritional status and to environmental toxicants. Thus, we have exploited a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis to assess the impact of maternal dietary supplementation on cancer risk in offspring. In this study, transplacental and lactational exposure to a maternal dose of 15 mg/Kg B.W. of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) resulted in significant morbidity of offspring due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. As in previous studies, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, feed to the dam at 100, 500 or 1000 ppm), derived from cruciferous vegetables, dose-dependently reduced lung tumor multiplicity and also increased offspring survival. Brussels sprout and broccoli sprout powders, selected for their relative abundance of I3C and the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), respectively, surprisingly enhanced DBC-induced morbidity and tumorigenesis when incorporated into the maternal diet at 10% wt/wt. Purified SFN, incorporated in the maternal diet at 400 ppm, also decreased the latency of DBC-dependent morbidity. Interestingly, I3C abrogated the effect of SFN when the two purified compounds were administered in equimolar combination (500 ppm I3C and 600 ppm SFN). SFN metabolites measured in the plasma of neonates positively correlated with exposure levels via the maternal diet but not with offspring mortality. These findings provide justification for further study of the safety and bioactivity of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals at supplemental concentrations during the perinatal period. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation may modulate cancer risk in a mouse model of lymphoma. • Cruciferous vegetables may not contain sufficient I3C

  15. Differential modulation of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis: Maternal diets rich in indole-3-carbinol versus sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorey, Lyndsey E.; Madeen, Erin P. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Atwell, Lauren L.; Ho, Emily [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Pereira, Clifford B. [Department of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Cruciferous vegetable components have been documented to exhibit anticancer properties. Targets of action span multiple mechanisms deregulated during cancer progression, ranging from altered carcinogen metabolism to the restoration of epigenetic machinery. Furthermore, the developing fetus is highly susceptible to changes in nutritional status and to environmental toxicants. Thus, we have exploited a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis to assess the impact of maternal dietary supplementation on cancer risk in offspring. In this study, transplacental and lactational exposure to a maternal dose of 15 mg/Kg B.W. of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) resulted in significant morbidity of offspring due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. As in previous studies, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, feed to the dam at 100, 500 or 1000 ppm), derived from cruciferous vegetables, dose-dependently reduced lung tumor multiplicity and also increased offspring survival. Brussels sprout and broccoli sprout powders, selected for their relative abundance of I3C and the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), respectively, surprisingly enhanced DBC-induced morbidity and tumorigenesis when incorporated into the maternal diet at 10% wt/wt. Purified SFN, incorporated in the maternal diet at 400 ppm, also decreased the latency of DBC-dependent morbidity. Interestingly, I3C abrogated the effect of SFN when the two purified compounds were administered in equimolar combination (500 ppm I3C and 600 ppm SFN). SFN metabolites measured in the plasma of neonates positively correlated with exposure levels via the maternal diet but not with offspring mortality. These findings provide justification for further study of the safety and bioactivity of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals at supplemental concentrations during the perinatal period. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation may modulate cancer risk in a mouse model of lymphoma. • Cruciferous vegetables may not contain sufficient I3C

  16. Synthesis of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon marked with carbon-14: (b, d e f) dibenzo-chrysene {sup 14}C-7,14; Synthese d'un hydrocarbure aromatique polycyclique marque au carbone 14: le dibenzo (b, d e f) chrysene {sup 14}C-7,14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelain, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    (b, d e f) dibenzo-chrysene C-7,14 has been synthesized from radioactive carbon dioxide and the organic magnesium compound derived from 1,5 dibromo naphthalene. The product has been purified by a very precise series of fractionated chromatographs on alumina having a chromatographic activity. This has necessitated the development of a special technique. (author) [French] Le dibenzo (b, d e f) chrysene 14C-7,14 a ete synthetise au depart de gaz carbonique radioactif et de bis-organomagnesien derive du dibromo-1,5 naphtalene. Le produit a ete purifie par une serie de chromatographies fractionnees sur alumine d'activite chromatographique tres precise. Ceci a fait l'objet d'une mise au point de technique. (auteur)

  17. Benchmark theoretical study of the ionization energies, electron affinities and singlet–triplet energy gaps of azulene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and perylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Electronic properties of aromatic hydrocarbons are computed at benchmark levels. ► Electron correlation has a very strong influence on the computed results. ► The role of structural relaxation and zero-point vibrations is highlighted. ► We approach chemical accuracy, using the principles of a focal point analysis. -- Abstract: The vertical and adiabatic singlet–triplet energy gaps, electron affinities and ionization energies of azulene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, and perylene are computed by applying the principles of a focal point analysis onto a series of single-point calculations at the level of Hartree–Fock theory, second-, third-, and fourth-order Møller–Plesset perturbation theory, as well as coupled cluster theory including single, double and perturbative triple excitations, in conjunction with correlation consistent basis sets of improving quality. Results are supplemented with an extrapolation to the limit of an asymptotically complete basis set. According to our best estimates, azulene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, and perylene exhibit adiabatic singlet–triplet energy gaps of 1.79, 2.92, 2.22, 2.79 and 1.71 eV, respectively. In the same order, the corresponding adiabatic electron affinities (EAs) amount to 0.71, −0.08, −0.40, 0.24, and 0.87 eV, whereas benchmark values equal to 7.43, 8.01, 7.48, 7.66 and 7.15 eV, are found for the adiabatic ionization energies.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by 32P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique pattern of

  19. The anharmonic quartic force field infrared spectra of five non-linear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and triphenylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Cameron J; Candian, Alessandra; Huang, Xinchuan; Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Oomens, Jos; Mattioda, Andrew L; Buma, Wybren Jan; Lee, Timothy J; Tielens, Alexander G G M

    2016-08-28

    The study of interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) relies heavily on theoretically predicted infrared spectra. Most earlier studies use scaled harmonic frequencies for band positions and the double harmonic approximation for intensities. However, recent high-resolution gas-phase experimental spectroscopic studies have shown that the harmonic approximation is not sufficient to reproduce experimental results. In our previous work, we presented the anharmonic theoretical spectra of three linear PAHs, showing the importance of including anharmonicities into the theoretical calculations. In this paper, we continue this work by extending the study to include five non-linear PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and triphenylene), thereby allowing us to make a full assessment of how edge structure, symmetry, and size influence the effects of anharmonicities. The theoretical anharmonic spectra are compared to spectra obtained under matrix isolation low-temperature conditions, low-resolution, high-temperature gas-phase conditions, and high-resolution, low-temperature gas-phase conditions. Overall, excellent agreement is observed between the theoretical and experimental spectra although the experimental spectra show subtle but significant differences. PMID:27586928

  20. Synthesis, microsome-mediated metabolism, and identification of major metabolites of environmental pollutant naphtho(8,1,2-ghi)chrysene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.K.; Gowdahalli, K.; Gimbor, M.; Amin, S. [Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Naphtho(8,1,2-ghi)chrysene, commonly known as naphtho(1,2-e)pyrene (N(1,2-e)P) is a widespread environmental pollutant, identified in coal tar extract, air borne particulate matter, marine sediment, cigarette smoke condensate, and vehicle exhaust. Herein, we determined the ability of rat liver microsomes to metabolize N(1,2-e)P and an unequivocal assignment of the metabolites by comparing them with independently,synthesized standards. We developed the synthesis of both the fjord region and the K-region dihydrodiols and various phenolic derivatives for metabolite identification. In summary, N(1,2-e)P trans-11, 12-dihydrodiol was the major metabolite formed along with N(1,2-e)P 4,5-trtins-dihydrodiol and 12-OH-N(1,2-e)P on exposure of rat liver microsomes to N(1,2-e)P. The presence of N(1,2-e)P in the environment and formation of fjord region dihydrodiol 14 as a major metabolite in in vitro metabolism studies strongly suggest the role of N(1,2-e)P as a potential health hazard.

  1. Nanoparticle Self-Assembled Grain Like Curcumin Conjugated ZnO: Curcumin Conjugation Enhances Removal of Perylene, Fluoranthene, and Chrysene by ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussawi, Rasha N.; Patra, Digambara

    2016-04-01

    Curcumin conjugated ZnO, referred as Zn(cur)O, nanostructures have been successfully synthesized, these sub-micro grain-like structures are actually self-assemblies of individual needle-shaped nanoparticles. The nanostructures as synthesized possess the wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO and exhibit very good crystalline quality. FT-Raman and TGA analysis establish that Zn(cur)O is different from curcumin anchored ZnO (ZnO@cur), which is prepared by physically adsorbing curcumin on ZnO surfaces. Chemically Zn(cur)O is more stable than ZnO@cur. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates Zn(cur)O have more impurities compared to ZnO@cur. The solid-state photoluminescence of Zn(cur)O has been investigated, which demonstrates that increase of curcumin concentration in Zn(cur)O suppresses visible emission of ZnO prepared through the same method, this implies filling ZnO defects by curcumin. However, at excitation wavelength 425 nm the emission is dominated by fluorescence from curcumin. The study reveals that Zn(cur)O can remove to a far extent high concentrations of perylene, fluoranthene, and chrysene faster than ZnO. The removal depends on the extent of curcumin conjugation and is found to be faster for PAHs having smaller number of aromatic rings, particularly, it is exceptional for fluoranthene with 93% removal after 10 minutes in the present conditions. The high rate of removal is related to photo-degradation and a mechanism has been proposed.

  2. Transcriptional Profiling of Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-induced Spleen Atrophy Provides Mechanistic Insights into its Immunotoxicity in MutaMouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Long, Alexandra S; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Gagné, Rémi; Kennedy, Dean A; Phillips, David H; Arlt, Volker M; White, Paul A; Yauk, Carole L

    2016-01-01

    Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) is the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) examined to date. We investigated the immunotoxicity of DBC, manifested as spleen atrophy, following acute exposure of adult MutaMouse males by oral gavage. Mice were exposed to 0, 2.0, 6.2, or 20.0 mg DBC /kg-bw per day, for 3 days. Genotoxic endpoints (DBC-DNA adducts and lacZ mutant frequency in spleen and bone marrow, and red blood cell micronucleus frequency) and global gene expression changes were measured. All of the genotoxicity measures increased in a dose-dependent manner in spleen and bone marrow. Gene expression analysis showed that DBC activates p53 signaling pathways related to cellular growth and proliferation, which was evident even at the low dose. Strikingly, the expression profiles of DBC exposed mouse spleens were highly inversely correlated with the expression profiles of the only published toxicogenomics dataset of enlarged mouse spleen. This analysis suggested a central role for Bnip3l, a pro-apoptotic protein involved in negative regulation of erythroid maturation. RT-PCR confirmed expression changes in several genes related to apoptosis, iron metabolism, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling that are regulated in the opposite direction during spleen atrophy versus benzo[a]pyrene-mediated splenomegaly. In addition, benchmark dose modeling of toxicogenomics data yielded toxicity estimates that are very close to traditional toxicity endpoints. This work illustrates the power of toxicogenomics to reveal rich mechanistic information for immunotoxic compounds and its ability to provide information that is quantitatively similar to that derived from standard toxicity methods in health risk assessment. PMID:26496743

  3. Nanoparticle Self-Assembled Grain Like Curcumin Conjugated ZnO: Curcumin Conjugation Enhances Removal of Perylene, Fluoranthene, and Chrysene by ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussawi, Rasha N.; Patra, Digambara

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin conjugated ZnO, referred as Zn(cur)O, nanostructures have been successfully synthesized, these sub-micro grain-like structures are actually self-assemblies of individual needle-shaped nanoparticles. The nanostructures as synthesized possess the wurtzite hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO and exhibit very good crystalline quality. FT-Raman and TGA analysis establish that Zn(cur)O is different from curcumin anchored ZnO (ZnO@cur), which is prepared by physically adsorbing curcumin on ZnO surfaces. Chemically Zn(cur)O is more stable than ZnO@cur. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates Zn(cur)O have more impurities compared to ZnO@cur. The solid-state photoluminescence of Zn(cur)O has been investigated, which demonstrates that increase of curcumin concentration in Zn(cur)O suppresses visible emission of ZnO prepared through the same method, this implies filling ZnO defects by curcumin. However, at excitation wavelength 425 nm the emission is dominated by fluorescence from curcumin. The study reveals that Zn(cur)O can remove to a far extent high concentrations of perylene, fluoranthene, and chrysene faster than ZnO. The removal depends on the extent of curcumin conjugation and is found to be faster for PAHs having smaller number of aromatic rings, particularly, it is exceptional for fluoranthene with 93% removal after 10 minutes in the present conditions. The high rate of removal is related to photo-degradation and a mechanism has been proposed. PMID:27080002

  4. The influence of ATM, ATR, DNA-PK inhibitors on the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene on human hepatocellular cancer cell line HepG2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spryszyńska, Sylwia; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna; Ferlińska, Magdalena; Roszak, Joanna; Nocuń, Marek; Stępnik, Maciej

    2015-09-01

    The effect of inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase related kinases (PIKK): ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) on the response of HepG2 human liver cancer cells to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) was investigated. High cytotoxicity of DBC (IC50=0.1μM) was observed after 72h incubation. PIKK inhibitors: KU55933 (5μM), NU7026 (10μM) or caffeine (1 and 2mM) when used alone did not significantly influence the cytotoxicity. However, two combinations: KU55933/NU7026 and caffeine/NU7026 significantly increased HepG2 viability (by 25%) after treatment with DBC at 0.5μM. The cytoprotective effect was confirmed by cell cycle and apoptosis/necrosis analysis. DNA damage level after exposure to DBC assessed by comet assay (single strand breaks) showed a long persistence and significant decrease after incubation of the cells in the presence the inhibitors (the combination of KU55933+NU7026 showed the strongest effect). Weak induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by DBC (0.5μM) was observed. Although, KU55933 and NU7026 when used alone did not increase ROS levels in the cells, their combination induced the ROS increase and moderately enhanced ROS generation by DBC. We propose a mechanism how cells with damaged DNA after exposure to DBC and under the condition of PIKK inhibition, may be at higher risk of undergoing malignant transformation. PMID:26338538

  5. Analysis of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-deoxyadenosine adducts in wild-type and cytochrome P450 1b1 knockout mice using stable-isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Tod A; Morré, Jeff; Lauer, Fredine T; McQuistan, Tammie J; Hummel, Jessica M; Burchiel, Scott W; Williams, David E

    2015-04-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC; also known as dibenzo[a,l]pyrene), is a potent carcinogen in animal models and a class 2A human carcinogen. Recent investigations into DBC-mediated toxicity identified DBC as a potent immunosuppressive agent similar to the well-studied immunotoxicant 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). DBC, like DMBA, is bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1 and forms the reactive metabolite DBC-11,12-diol-13,14-epoxide (DBCDE). DBCDE is largely responsible for the genotoxicity associated with DBC exposure. The immunosuppressive properties of several PAHs are also linked to genotoxic mechanisms. Therefore, this study was designed to identify DBCDE-DNA adduct formation in the spleen and thymus of wild-type and cytochrome P450 1b1 (Cyp1b1) knockout (KO) mice using a highly sensitive stable-isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS method. Stable-isotope dilution UHPLC-MS/MS identified the major DBC adducts (±)-anti-cis-DBCDE-dA and (±)-anti-trans-DBCDE-dA in the lung, liver, and spleen of both WT and Cyp1b1 KO mice. However, adduct formation in the thymus was below the level of quantitation for our method. Additionally, adduct formation in Cyp1b1 KO mice was significantly reduced compared to wild-type (WT) mice receiving DBC via oral gavage. In conclusion, the current study identifies for the first time DBCDE-dA adducts in the spleen of mice supporting the link between genotoxicity and immunosuppression, in addition to supporting previous studies identifying Cyp1b1 as the primary CYP involved in DBC bioactivation to DBCDE. The high levels of DBC-DNA adducts identified in the spleen, along with the known high levels of Cyp1b1 expression in this organ, supports further investigation into DBC-mediated immunotoxicity. PMID:25868132

  6. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 192 - Listed Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS Pt. 192, App...-chloro-) Chromium and compounds, N.O.S. Chrysene Citrus red No. 2 (2-Naphthalenol, 1- -) Coal...

  7. Oxidation of PAHs in water solutions by ultraviolet radiation combined with hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Olejnik; Jacek S. Miller; Stanisław Ledakowicz

    1999-01-01

    The destruction of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and fluorene in aqueous solution using advanced oxidation process H2O2/UV was investigated. The influence of pH, initial hydrogen peroxide and radical scavenger concentrations on the reaction rate was studied. The oxidation reactions most rapidly run in neutral and acidic solution at optimal hydrogen peroxide concentration (ca. 0.01 M). The degradation of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene follows radical reac...

  8. Occurence of chlorinated aromatic compounds in filter deposits of an incinerator plant for radioactive waste. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic chlorination of chrysene, pyrene and fluoranthene yields complex mixtures of partly isomeric chlorine substituted PAHs. Their distribution resembles that of chlorine compounds previously found in filter deposits of an incineration plant for radioactive waste. In the micro fluctuation test these chlorinated products are strong mutagens to Salmonella typhimurium even without enzymatic activation. Frameshift mutations as well as basepair alterations take place. (Author)

  9. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobacco smoke and other parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, J.; Stoikidou, M.;

    2001-01-01

    tobacco smoke (ETS), namely (i) declared times of exposure to ETS during the 24 h prior to blood donation, (ii) plasma cotinine levels and (iii) chrysene/benzo[g,h,i]perylene ratios in the profile of personal PAH exposure. Furthermore, among the Halkida campus area subjects (but not the remaining subjects...

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    for the detection of 24 PAHs in barbecued meat. In total, 203 commercially barbecued meat samples (beef, pork, chicken, salmon and lamb) and 15 samples barbecued during controlled time and heat conditions were included. The sum of PAH4 (benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene and benzo......[b]fluoranthene) was highest for a pork tenderloin (195 μg/kg) and lowest for chicken breast (0.1 μg/kg) and controlled barbecued meat (...

  11. Report on the inter-laboratory comparison organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for the validation of a method for quantifying the four EU marker PAHs in Food

    OpenAIRE

    LERDA Donata; LOPEZ SANCHEZ Patricia; Szilagyi, Szilard; Wenzl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The European Union Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (EU-RL PAHs), operated by the Institute for Reference Materials and Methods (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre (JRC), organised a method validation study by inter-laboratory comparison (ILC-MVS) for evaluating the effectiveness of a method based for the determination of the four marker PAHs (benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and chrysene in different food commodities within the scope of Commis...

  12. 8,9-DIHYDROXY-8,9-DIHYDRODIBENZO[A,L]PYRENE IS A POTENT MORPHOLOGICAL CELL-TRANSFORMING AGENT IN C3H10T1/2C18 MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS IN THE ABSENCE OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comparative genotoxic effects of racemic trans-8,9dihydroxy-8,9-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (trans- DB[a,l]P8,9-diol), the metabolic K-region dihydrodiol of dibenzo[a,l] pyrene (DB[a,l]P) (dibenzo[def,p]chrysene) and DB[a,l]P in transformable mouse embryo C3HIOT1/2C18 (C3HIOT1/...

  13. Biodegradation of naphthalene and anthracene by chemo-tactically active rhizobacteria of populus deltoides

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Bisht; Piyush Pandey; Anchal Sood; Shivesh Sharma; Bisht, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Several naphthalene and anthracene degrading bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, which were growing in non-contaminated soil. Among these, four isolates, i.e. Kurthia sp., Micrococcus varians, Deinococcus radiodurans and Bacillus circulans utilized chrysene, benzene, toluene and xylene, in addition to anthracene and naphthalene. Kurthia sp and B. circulans showed positive chemotactic response for naphthalene and anthracene. The mean growth rate constant (K) of isolat...

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian preserved food products in oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 preserved food products in oil including foods such as vegetables in oil, fish in oil and oil-based sauces obtained from the Italian market. The benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from <0.04 to 0.40 µg kg(-1), and 72.9% of the samples showed detectable levels of this compound. The highest contamination level was observed for chrysene with three additional PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[c]fluorene) giving mean values higher than the mean value for benzo[a]pyrene. Chrysene was detected in all the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.80 µg kg(-1) (median 0.31 µg kg(-1)). The contamination expressed as PAH4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), for which the maximum tolerable limit has been set by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011, varied between 0.10 and 2.94 µg kg(-1). PMID:26886159

  15. Hydrostatic pressure effect on charge transport properties of phenacene organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao P; Shim, Ji Hoon

    2016-05-18

    We investigate the charge transport properties of phenacene organic semiconductors including phenanthrene, chrysene and picene using density functional theory (DFT) calculations under hydrostatic pressure. Under compression, the crystal structures of the three materials are altered and thus, a decrease in the intermolecular distances gives changes in charge transport properties while the molecular structures remain stable. As a result of the applied pressure, the mobilities of these materials increase dramatically. Chrysene shows a transition from a p-type semiconductor to an ambipolar semiconductor at around 2.0 GPa. Interestingly, chrysene favors electron transport at above 3.0 GPa. On the other hand, both phenanthrene and picene exhibit hole transport characteristics under high pressure. Between 3.1 and 4.3 GPa, the picene crystal is found to transform from an anisotropic mobility to an isotropic mobility in the ab plane. We also found that, the bulk modulus representing the resistance of the material under pressure compression follows a linear relationship with molecular length. PMID:27146786

  16. Synthesis and Photoirradiation of Isomeric Ethylchrysenes by UVA Light Leading to Lipid Peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are widespread genotoxic environmental pollutants. We have recently demonstrated that photoirradiation of PAHs leads to cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and induction of lipid peroxidation. In this paper we report the synthesis of all the six isomeric ethylchrysenes and the study of light-induced lipid peroxidation by these ethylchrysenes. 5-Ethylchrysene was synthesized by reaction of 5-keto-5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,10a-octahydrochrysene with CH3CH2MgBr followed by dehydration catalyzed by p-toluenesulfonic acid and dehydrogenation with DDQ in benzene. 1- and 4-Ethylchrysenes were similarly prepared by reaction of 1-keto-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydrochrysene and 4-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrochrysenes, respectively with CH3CH2MgBr followed by dehydration and dehydrogenation. Direct acetylation of chrysene followed by Wolff-Kishner or Clemmensen reduction resulted in the formation of 2-, 3-, and 6-ethylchrysenes in 4%, 16%, and 43% yields, respectively. Photoirradiation of these compounds with 7 and 21 J/cm2 UVA light in the presence of methyl linoleate all resulted in lipid peroxidation. For comparison, photoirradiation of 4-methylchrysene and 5-methylchrysene was similarly conducted. For irradiation at a UVA light dose of 21 J/cm2, the level of induced lipid peroxidation is in the order 4-methylchrysene = 5-methylchrysene = 5-ethylchrysene = 4-ethylchrysene = chrysene > 1-ethylchrysene = 2-ethylchrysene > 3-ethylchrysene > 6-ethylchrysene. Compared with chrysene, these results indicate that the ethyl group at C4 or C5 position either slightly enhances or has no effect on the light-induced lipid peroxidation, while at C1-, C2-, C3-, or C6 position reduces light-induced lipid peroxidation.

  17. Identification and quantification of seven fused aromatic rings C26H14peri-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Ruiz-Morales, Yosadara; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-04-15

    A methodology for the characterization of groups of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a combination of normal phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (NPLC/UV-vis) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the identification and quantification of seven fused aromatic rings C26H14peri-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, in standard reference material (SRM) 1597a, complex mixture of PAHs from coal tar. The NPLC/UV-vis isolated the fractions based on the number of aromatic carbons and the GC/MS allowed the identification and quantification of five of the nine C26H14 PAH isomers; naphtho[1,2,3,4-ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,pqr]perylene, naphtho[8,1,2-bcd]perylene, and dibenzo[cd,lm]perylene using a retention time comparison with authentic reference standards. For the other four benzenoid isomers with no available reference standards the following two approaches were used. First, the annellation theory was used to achieve the potential identification of benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene, and second, the elution distribution in the GC fractions was used to support the potential identification of benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene and to reach the tentative identifications of dibenzo[a,ghi]perylene, naphtho[7,8,1,2,3-pqrst]pentaphene, and anthra[2,1,9,8-opqra]naphthacene. It is the first time that naphtho[1,2,3,4-ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,pqr]perylene, naphtho[8,1,2-bcd]perylene, and dibenzo[cd,lm]perylene are quantified, and the first time that benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene is potentially identified, in any sample, in any context. PMID:26976350

  18. Oil pollution in the surface water of the Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Bayram; Güven, Kasim C.; Nesimigil, Filiz; Cumali, Selin; Dede, Ayhan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Oil pollution in the surface water of the Aegean Sea was investigated from the Çanakkale Strait (Dardanelles) to the Marmaris Harbour, during 17-25 April in 2005. The oil pollution of samples was determined by UVF, through various crude oils and also chrysene as references materials. The oil pollution in water was ranged from 6.17 μg/L at Datca to 59.58 μg/L at Kusadasi through Russian crude oil equivalent. The highest polluted areas were Babakale-Kusadasi Bay, West of Giadoros Islan...

  19. Temperature Effects on Retention and Separation of PAHs in Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Using Columns Packed with Fully Porous and Core-Shell Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Waterlot; Anaïs Goulas

    2016-01-01

    Effects of temperature on the reversed-phase chromatographic behavior of PAHs were investigated on three columns. The first was the recent C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm) packed with 5 µm core-shell particles while the others were more conventional C18 columns (250 mm × 4.6 mm) packed with fully porous particles. Among the 16 PAHs studied, special attention has been paid to two pairs of PAHs, fluorene/acenaphthene and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene, which often present coeluting problems. Due to th...

  20. Structural Characterizations of Novel Non-Linear Poly aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Pooja Prakashkumar

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents the structural characterisation of three, non-linear,polyaromatic hydrocarbons - chrysene and 4,10-dichlorochrysene and 4,10-dibromochrysene. 4,10-Dichlorochrysene and 4,10-dibromochrysenewere obtained from a novel benzannulation reaction of their respective 2,6-diallylnaphthalene-1,5-diyl bis(2,2,2-trihaloroacetates) - the “BHQ reaction”. Single crystal X-ray diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction studies on these compounds were conducted in order to determine the effe...

  1. Oil pollution in surface water of the Turkish side of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Bayram; Altuğ, Gülşen; Çiftçi, Mine Çardak and Pelin S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Oil pollution of the South part of the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea was investigated at 48 stations from the Bozburun Peninsula to İskenderun buy, during 17-28 August 2006.The highly carbon concentration of the samples was determined by UVF by using Iraq crude oil and also chrysene as references materials. The oil pollution in examined sea water was 4.16 µg/L in Antalya Bay and 100.33 µg/L in Iskenderun through Iraq crude oil equivalent. The highest polluted areas are Iskenderun,...

  2. Oil Pollution of Eastern Mediterranean Sea, South of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bildaci, Isik; Ünlü, Selma; Güven, Kasim Cemal

    2000-01-01

    Abstract In our earlier work oil pollution of east Turkish Mediterranean area was determined before and after service of Iraq -Yumurtalik export pipeline in 1997. In this paper oil pollution amount is given in the same area in 1999. The highest pollution was found as 2690 .tg/L at Botas and 629.60 gg/L at Mersin. The determination was made by using Iraqian and Iranian crude oils as reference material. The oil amount was found lower when chrysene was used as a reference. The low amount o...

  3. Oil pollution in the surface water of Sakarya RiverSakarya Nehri yüzey suyu petrol kirliliği

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Esra Billur Balcıoğlu and Bayram

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this paper the oil pollution was investigated seasonally in the mouth and 4 stations of Sakarya River water during February 2008- January 2009. The oil pollution levels were determined by UVF, using Russian crude oil and chrysene as reference materials. The maximum oil level in river water was found as 37.47 μg/L at station 2 in November-2008 and 45.38 μg/L at station 4 in April- 2008. The highest polluted area in all time is the station 2 where fishing vessels and yachts stations...

  4. PAH in tea and coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna; Højgård, Arne

    2013-01-01

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts.Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying o...

  5. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site. PMID:27245129

  6. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J

    1979-09-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil. PMID:513150

  7. Potential Metabolic Activation of a Representative C2-Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 6-Ethylchrysene Associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. C2-Chrysenes are representative PAHs present in crude oil and could contaminate the food chain. We describe the metabolism of a C2-chrysene regioisomer, 6-ethylchrysene (6-EC), in human HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. 6-EC-tetraol isomers were identified as signature metabolites of the diol-epoxide pathway. O-Monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine(NAC)-6-EC-ortho-quinone were discovered as signature metabolites of the ortho-quinone pathway. Potential dual metabolic activation of 6-EC involving the formation of bis-electrophiles, i.e., a mono-diol-epoxide and a mono-ortho-quinone within the same structure, bis-diol-epoxides, and bis-ortho-quinones was observed as well. The identification of 6-EC-tetraol, O-monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and NAC-6-EC-ortho-quinone supports potential metabolic activation of 6-EC by P450 and AKR enzymes followed by metabolic detoxification of the ortho-quinone through interception of its redox cycling capability by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase enzymes. The tetraols and catechol conjugates could be used as biomarkers of human exposure to 6-EC resulting from oil spills. PMID:27054409

  8. Ethanol-enhanced bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioremediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is highly challenging because of the low solubility and strong sorption properties of PAHs to soil organic matter. Two PAH-contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites were pretreated with ethanol to enhance the bioavailability of PAH compounds. The biodegradation of various PAHs in the pretreated soils was assessed using soil slurry reactor studies. The time needed to degrade 90% of the total PAH in the pretreated soils was at least 5 days faster than soils that were not pretreated with ethanol. A distinctive advantage with the pretreatment of soils with ethanol was the enhanced removal of 4-ring compounds such as chrysene. Approximately 90% of chrysene in the ethanol-treated soils were removed within 15 days while soils without pretreatment needed more than 30 days to obtain similar removal levels. After 35 days of biotreatment in the slurry reactors, approximately 40% of benzo(a)pyrene were removed in the ethanol-treated soils while only 20% were removed in soils not pretreated with ethanol

  9. Multi-source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using simultaneous linear equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaite, Irina; Semenov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    A new approach to identify multiple sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to evaluate the source contributions to atmospheric deposition of particulate PAHs is proposed. The approach is based on differences in concentrations of sums of PAHs with the same molecular weight among the sources. The data on PAHs accumulation in snow as well as the source profiles were used for calculations. Contributions of aluminum production plant, oil-fired central heating boilers, and residential wood and coal combustion were calculated using the linear mixing models. The concentrations of PAH pairs such as Benzo[b]fluorantene + Benzo[k]fluorantene and Benzo[g,h,i]perylene + Indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene normalized to Benzo[a]antracene + Chrysene were used as tracers in mixing equations. The results obtained using ratios of sums of PAHs were compared with those obtained using molecular diagnostic ratios such as Benzo[a]antracene/Chrysene and Benzo[g,h,i]perylene/Indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. It was shown that the results obtained using diagnostic ratios as tracers are less reliable than results obtained using ratios of sums of PAHs. Funding was provided by Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences grant No. 8 (2012-2014).

  10. Potential Metabolic Activation of a Representative C2-Alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon 6-Ethylchrysene Associated with the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in Human Hepatoma (HepG2) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Meng; Mesaros, Clementina; Zhang, Suhong; Blair, Ian A; Penning, Trevor M

    2016-06-20

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is the major human health hazard associated with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. C2-Chrysenes are representative PAHs present in crude oil and could contaminate the food chain. We describe the metabolism of a C2-chrysene regioisomer, 6-ethylchrysene (6-EC), in human HepG2 cells. The structures of the metabolites were identified by HPLC-UV-fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS. 6-EC-tetraol isomers were identified as signature metabolites of the diol-epoxide pathway. O-Monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and N-acetyl-l-cysteine(NAC)-6-EC-ortho-quinone were discovered as signature metabolites of the ortho-quinone pathway. Potential dual metabolic activation of 6-EC involving the formation of bis-electrophiles, i.e., a mono-diol-epoxide and a mono-ortho-quinone within the same structure, bis-diol-epoxides, and bis-ortho-quinones was observed as well. The identification of 6-EC-tetraol, O-monomethyl-O-monosulfonated-6-EC-catechol, its monohydroxy products, and NAC-6-EC-ortho-quinone supports potential metabolic activation of 6-EC by P450 and AKR enzymes followed by metabolic detoxification of the ortho-quinone through interception of its redox cycling capability by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase enzymes. The tetraols and catechol conjugates could be used as biomarkers of human exposure to 6-EC resulting from oil spills. PMID:27054409

  11. Metabolism and excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rat and in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, J; Grimmer, G

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have shown to be an important class of environmental and occupational carcinogens. By balancing the carcinogenic potential PAH were found to predominantly contribute to the biological activity of environmental matter such as vehicle exhaust, used motor oil, and hard-coal combustion effluents. Due to the individual ratio of toxifying and detoxifying processes PAH-exposure measurements are not appropriate to be used for risk assessment without any further information on their metabolic fate. Accordingly, metabolite profiles of phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene have been recorded in both tar-pitch exposed Wistar rats and coke plant workers. The results show that metabolite profiles are invariant individual parameters which, however, vary from one individual to another. Significant differences with regard to the ratio of k-region and non-k-region hydroxylation of phenanthrene have been observed in a greater number of coke plant workers. This ratio might be helpful for risk assessment studies since it reflects the various cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase isoforms participating in the metabolism of PAH. Studies of this kind can only be carried out with substrates possessing several nonequivalent double bonds (phenanthrene, chrysene) whereas pyrene--commonly used for biomonitoring--does not satisfy this condition. The excretion rate (excretion versus exposure) seems to be an individual parameter. PMID:9167056

  12. Highly selective detection of oil spill polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using molecularly imprinted polymers for marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupadam, Reddithota J; Nesterov, Evgueni E; Spivak, David A

    2014-06-15

    Im*plications due to oil spills on marine ecosystems have created a great interest toward developing more efficient and selective materials for oil spill toxins detection and remediation. This research paper highlights the application of highly efficient molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) adsorbents based on a newly developed functional crosslinker (N,O-bismethacryloyl ethanolamine, NOBE) for detection of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seawater. The binding capacity of MIP for oil spill toxin pyrene is 35 mg/g as compared to the value of 3.65 mg/g obtained using a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). The selectivity of all three high molecular weight PAHs (pyrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene) on the NOBE-MIP shows an excellent selective binding with only 5.5% and 7% cross-reactivity for chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively. Not only is this particularly significant because the rebinding solvent is water, which is known to promote non-selective hydrophobic interactions; the binding remains comparable under salt-water conditions. These selective and high capacity adsorbents will find wide application in industrial and marine water monitoring/remediation. PMID:24759433

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollutants in groundwater from coal gangue stack area: characteristics and origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X W; Zhong, N N; Hu, D M; Liu, Z Z; Zhang, Z H

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the leachate from the gangue and 20 groundwater samples, which were collected from the 12th Coal Mine around gangue piles in Henan Province, China, were determined by SPE-GC-MS. The characteristics of PAHs pollutants in groundwater were investigated, and compared with the concentrations of PAHs in the leachate from different weathered gangues to discuss the pollution effects of PAHs from coal gangue on groundwater. The results showed that total concentrations of the 16 EPA preferentially controlled PAHs ranged from 146.9 ng/L to 1220.6 ng/L.The components of PAHs such as chrysene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b + k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]-pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were fairly high. The 2-4 rings PAHs such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and chrysene were dominant in groundwater, which was similar to those of the leachate from the different weathered gangues. Therefore, it should be paid much more attention on the transport of lower ring numbered PAHs leached by rains from the coal mines after landfilling and dumping. Based on the spatial distribution of PAHs and the high concentrations of PAHs with 2-4 rings in groundwater and leaching samples, there might be other pollution sources of PAHs except for penetration from coal gangue into groundwater in the Pingdingshan coal mine area. PMID:19273905

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) pollutants in groundwater from coal gangue stack area: characteristics and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.W.; Zhong, N.N.; Hu, D.M.; Liu, Z.Z.; Zhang, Z.H. [China University of Petrology, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the leachate from the gangue and 20 groundwater samples, which were collected from the 12th Coal Mine around gangue piles in Henan Province, China, were determined by SPE-GC-MS. The characteristics of PAHs pollutants in groundwater were investigated, and compared with the concentrations of PAHs in the leachate from different weathered gangues to discuss the pollution effects of PAHs from coal gangue on groundwater. The results showed that total concentrations of the 16 EPA preferentially controlled PAHs ranged from 146.9 ng/L to 1220.6 ng/L. The components of PAHs such as chrysene, benzo(a) anthracene, benzo(b+k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)-pyrene, and dibenz(a,h) anthracene were fairly high. The 2-4 rings PAHs such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and chrysene were dominant in groundwater, which was similar to those of the leachate from the different weathered gangues. Therefore, it should be paid much more attention on the transport of lower ring numbered PAHs leached by rains from the coal mines after landfilling and dumping. Based on the spatial distribution of PAHs and the high concentrations of PAHs with 2-4 rings in groundwater and leaching samples, there might be other pollution sources of PAHs.

  15. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil.

  16. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fugitive PM10 emissions from an integrated iron and steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaparde, V V; Bhanarkar, A D; Majumdar, Deepanjan; Rao, C V Chalapati

    2016-08-15

    Fugitive emissions of PM10 (particles <10μm in diameter) and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were monitored in the vicinity of coking unit, sintering unit, blast furnace and steel manufacturing unit in an integrated iron and steel plant situated in India. Concentrations of PM10, PM10-bound total PAHs, benzo (a) pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs were found to be highest around the sintering unit. Concentrations of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were recorded to be highest in the coking unit whereas 5-and 6-ring PAHs were found to be highest in other units. The following indicatory PAHs were identified: indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene, benzo (k) fluoranthene in blast furnace unit; indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene, chrysene in sintering unit; Anthracene, fluoranthene, chrysene in coking unit and acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene in steel making unit. Total-BaP-TEQ (Total BaP toxic equivalent quotient) and BaP-MEQ (Total BaP mutagenic equivalent quotient) concentration levels ranged from 2.4 to 231.7ng/m(3) and 1.9 to 175.8ng/m(3), respectively. BaP and DbA (dibenzo (a,h) anthracene) contribution to total-BaP-TEQ was found to be the highest. PMID:27099996

  17. Polycyclic aromatic compounds in cod (Gadus morhua) from the Northwest Atlantic and St. Lawrence Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellou, J; Upshall, C; Payne, J F; Hodson, P V

    1994-05-01

    There is limited information available on levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in major fish populations including populations from the Northwest Atlantic. The cod (Gadus morhua) stocks off eastern Canada form the basis of one of the world's most important fisheries. Muscle tissues of cod collected from Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO) management Divisions 2J, 3K and 3Ps off Newfoundland and Labrador, as well as three contaminated sites in the Gulf of St. Lawrence were analyzed for total polycyclic aromatic (PAC) by fluorimetry. Concentrations were determined in terms of crude oil and chrysene equivalents in line with recommendations of the International Oceanographic Commission. Overall, relatively low concentrations of PAC were found, the highest values generally being below 0.1 microgram/g (dry weight) in terms of chrysene equivalents. Similarly, only trace levels of a few PAH were detected in composite samples analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is of interest that the highest levels of PAC were found in fish from NAFO Division 3K, while concentrations in fish from the two contiguous zones, 2J and 3Ps, as well as the Gulf of St. Lawrence, were similar. Division 3K is a major fishing zone and it is important to determine if trawler fleets are important sources of hydrocarbons derived from fossil fuels, in this and similar fishing areas of the world's oceans. PMID:8016631

  18. The use of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) alkyl homologues in determining petroleum source identification and weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques utilizing double ratio plots of selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) alkyl homologues were used to identify and distinguish crude oils and refined petroleum products from each other and to distinguish petroleum sources in complex pollutant regimes. Petroleum samples were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into saturated and aromatic (PAH) hydrocarbon fractions. The saturated hydrocarbon fractions were then analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) to obtain a resolved/unresolved alkane fingerprint of each oil. The aromatic fractions of the oils were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for PAH and selected alkyl homologues. Comparisons of the saturated hydrocarbon fingerprints indicated that some oils were indistinguishable based on the alkane fingerprint alone. Another double ratio plot of the alkyl chrysenes and alkyl dibenzothiophenes was effective in establishing the weathering of oil in environmental samples which were processed using the same analytical techniques, since the dibenzothiophenes are degraded more rapidly than the chrysenes. The application of selected ratios in oil spill source identification in complex environmental samples from Suisin Bay California and Boston Harbor are discussed. The use of ratios to measure the extent of weathering in oil spill samples from Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska is examined

  19. CHANGES THE CONCENTRATION OF SELECTED PAHs IN URBAN SOILS FERTILIZED WITH MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Wydro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the content of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in urban soils fertilized with municipal sewage sludge. The factors in the experiment were three lawns along the main roads in Bialystok (in Popieluszki, Hetmanska and Raginisa Strs., doses of sewage sludge (0 – control; 75 and 150 Mg/ha and two years of study (2011 and 2012. The studied parameters were monitored at the end of the growing season (in October 2011 and 2012 by determining fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene in soil samples. Furthermore, the dehydrogenase activity, the pH and organic carbon content of the soil were determined. Obtained content of studied PAHs in the urban soil does not exceed those contained in the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of September 9th, 2002 on soil quality standards and ground quality standards. The concentration of pyrene and chrysene differed significantly depending on the time of sampling and the localization. It has been shown that fertilization of soil sewage sludge revealed reduction of pyrene concentration in soil. Among 5 tested PAHs compounds, benzo[a]pyrene was the most dominant compound both in samples collected in 2011 and 2012 (28 and 27% respectively.

  20. Dibenzanthracenes and benzochrysenes elicit both genotoxic and nongenotoxic events in rat liver 'stem-like' cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular weight 278 are a group of PAHs that are mostly not covered by the current monitoring programs, despite their relative abundance in environmental samples and possible carcinogenicity. Although benzo[g]chrysene (BgChry) and dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBahA) have been for a long time studied as genotoxic, tumour-initiating compounds, little is known about the potential tumour-promoting effects of this group of PAHs. In the present study, we investigated their impact on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), induction of enzymes involved in metabolic activation of PAHs, disruption of cell cycle control in confluent cell population and inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), using the rat liver epithelial cell line WB-F344 as a model of liver progenitor cells. We found that BgChry was the weakest inducer of the AhR-mediated activity, while relative potencies of benzo[b]chrysene (BbChry) and benzo[c]chrysene (BcChry) were comparable to the previously reported values for dibenzanthracenes. All compounds increased expression of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1, and aldo-keto reductase 1C9. BgChry was found to induce high amounts of DNA adducts, which corresponded with induction of p53 phosphorylation at Ser15, apoptosis and accumulation of cells in S-phase of cell cycle, leading to a decrease in cell numbers. All other compounds were found to stimulate cell proliferation in contact-inhibited WB-F344 cells in a dose-dependent manner. We found that only BgChry, and to a lesser extent also BcChry, inhibited GJIC at high concentrations. Taken together, dibenzanthracenes and benzochrysenes, with exception of BgChry, seem to act primarily through deregulation of cell proliferation in liver epithelial cells, which is related to their relatively high AhR-mediated activity. The disruption of cell cycle control might contribute to their carcinogenic effects, as well as to carcinogenicity of complex

  1. Distribution and sources of bioaccumulative air pollutants at Mezquital Valley, Mexico, as reflected by the atmospheric plant Tillandsia recurvata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Chang Martínez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mezquital Valley (MV, a Mexican wastewater-based agricultural and industrial region, is a ''hot spot'' of regulated air pollutants emissions, but the concurrent unregulated ones, like hazardous metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, remain undocumented. A biomonitoring survey with the epiphytic Tillandsia recurvata was conducted there to detect spatial patterns and potential sources of 20 airborne elements and 15 PAH. The natural δ13C and δ15N ratios of this plant helped in source identification. The regional mean concentrations of most elements was two (Cr to over 40 times (Ni, Pb, V higher than reported for Tillandsia in other countries. Eleven elements, pyrene and chrysene had 18–214% higher mean concentration at the industrial south than at the agricultural north of MV. The total quantified PAH (mean, 572 ng g−1; range, 142.6–2568 were composed by medium (65%, phenanthrene to chrysene, low (28%, naphthalene to fluorene and high molecular weight compounds (7%, Benzo(bfluoranthene to indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene. The δ13C (mean, −14.6‰; range, −5.7 to −13.7‰ was lower (<−15‰ near the major petroleum combustion sources. The δ15N (mean, −3.0‰; range, −9.9 to 3.3‰ varied from positive at agriculture/industrial areas to negative at rural sites. Factor analysis provided a five-factor solution for 74% of the data variance: (1 crustal rocks, 39.5% (Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Sr, Ti; (2 soils, 11.3%, contrasting contributions from natural (Mg, Mn, Zn and saline agriculture soils (Na; (3 cement production and fossil fuel combustion, 9.8% (Ca, Ni, V, chrysene, pyrene; (4 probable agricultural biomass burning, 8.1% (K and benzo(g,h,iperylene, and (5 agriculture with wastewater, 5.2% (δ15N and P. These results indicated high deposition of bioaccumulative air pollutants at MV, especially at the industrial area. Since T. recurvata reflected the regional differences in exposition, it is recommended as a biomonitor for comparisons

  2. Contamination of agricultural lands by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Tver region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhidkin, Andrey; Koshovskii, Timur; Gennadiev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study sources and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the agriculture soils within areas without intensive contaminations. Our studied object was soil and snow cover in the taiga zone (Tver region, Russia). A total of 52 surface (0-30 cm) and 31 subsurface (30-50 cm) soil samples, and 13 snow samples were collected in 35 soil pits, located in forest, crop and layland soils. Studied concentrations of the following 11 individual compounds: two-ring compounds (diphenyl and naphthalene homologues); three-ring compounds (fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene); four-ring compounds (chrysene, pyrene, tetraphene); five-ring compounds (perylene, benzo[a]pyrene); and six-ring compounds (benzo[ghi]perylene). Analyses made by specrtofluorometry method at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The total concentrations of all PAHs in soil samples ranged from 9 to 770 ng*g‑1 with a median of 96 ng*g‑1. The sum of high molecular weight PAHs was significantly lower than the sum of low molecular weight PAHs in the studied soils. The phenanthrene concentration was highest and ranged from 1.2 to 720 ng*g‑1 (medium 72 ng*g‑1). Compared PAHs reserves in snow cover (μg*m-2) with the reserves in topsoil layer (μg*m-2 in the upper 30 cm). Low molecular weight PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene, diphenyl, naphthalene) reserves in snow was less than 20% from the reserves in the soil surface layer. High molecular weight PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, perylene, pyrene and tetraphene) reserves in snow was about 50-70% from the reserves in soil surface layer. High molecular weight PAHs (benzo[ghi]perylene and anthracene) reserves in snow was more than in topsoil. PAHs vertical distribution in soil profiles was statistically examined. The total concentration of all PAHs decreased with depth in all studied forest soils. In the arable soils was no significant trend in domination of PAHs total concentrations in the plowing and subsoil layers. The ratio of

  3. Bacterial degradation of recalcitrant PAHs: metabolic studies and application to pyrene degradation in a freshwater sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouanneau, Y.; Demaneche, S.; Meyer, Ch.; Willison, J.C. [CEA-Grenoble, UMR 5092 CNRS-CEA-UJF, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    Cost-effective bio-remediation strategies have been proposed to remove toxic chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), from contaminated sites. However, the efficiency of these strategies is often limited, due to the resistance of certain chemicals to microbial degradation. Our studies deal with the biodegradation of four-ring PAHs using two recently isolated bacteria, Mycobacterium strain 6PY1, which can mineralize pyrene and phenanthrene, and Sphingomonas strain CHY-1, which mineralizes chrysene and various three-ring PAHs. The metabolic pathways for the biodegradation of PAHs have been investigated using GC-MS to identify and assay metabolites. Also, several enzymes involved in PAH catabolism have been identified by a combination of proteomic and genetic approaches. In Mycobacterium 6PY1, two ring-hydroxylating di-oxygenases which catalyze the initial attack of PAHs have been overproduced in E. coli, isolated and characterized. The selectivity of the two enzymes showed marked differences, since one di-oxygenase preferentially oxidized 2- or 3- ring PAHs whereas the other attacked pyrene and 3-ring PAHs exclusively. In Sphingomonas CHY-1, a single di-oxygenase, called PhnI, was found to convert seven PAHs, including chrysene, to the corresponding dihydro-diols. It is the first enzyme to be described which is able to attack the four-ring PAHs chrysene and benz[a]anthracene.. The fate of pyrene was examined in a sediment taken from a freshwater lake of the French Alps. Experiments were carried out in microcosms containing a layer of sediment which was spiked with {sup 14}C-pyrene. Pyrene mineralization was monitored over 61 days by measuring the {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolved from the microcosms. Some microcosms were planted with young reeds (Phragmites australis), while other were inoculated with Mycobacterium 6PY1. P. australis reeds promoted a significant increase of pyrene degradation, which most likely resulted from a root-mediated increase of

  4. Bacterial degradation of recalcitrant PAHs: metabolic studies and application to pyrene degradation in a freshwater sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost-effective bio-remediation strategies have been proposed to remove toxic chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), from contaminated sites. However, the efficiency of these strategies is often limited, due to the resistance of certain chemicals to microbial degradation. Our studies deal with the biodegradation of four-ring PAHs using two recently isolated bacteria, Mycobacterium strain 6PY1, which can mineralize pyrene and phenanthrene, and Sphingomonas strain CHY-1, which mineralizes chrysene and various three-ring PAHs. The metabolic pathways for the biodegradation of PAHs have been investigated using GC-MS to identify and assay metabolites. Also, several enzymes involved in PAH catabolism have been identified by a combination of proteomic and genetic approaches. In Mycobacterium 6PY1, two ring-hydroxylating di-oxygenases which catalyze the initial attack of PAHs have been overproduced in E. coli, isolated and characterized. The selectivity of the two enzymes showed marked differences, since one di-oxygenase preferentially oxidized 2- or 3- ring PAHs whereas the other attacked pyrene and 3-ring PAHs exclusively. In Sphingomonas CHY-1, a single di-oxygenase, called PhnI, was found to convert seven PAHs, including chrysene, to the corresponding dihydro-diols. It is the first enzyme to be described which is able to attack the four-ring PAHs chrysene and benz[a]anthracene.. The fate of pyrene was examined in a sediment taken from a freshwater lake of the French Alps. Experiments were carried out in microcosms containing a layer of sediment which was spiked with 14C-pyrene. Pyrene mineralization was monitored over 61 days by measuring the 14CO2 evolved from the microcosms. Some microcosms were planted with young reeds (Phragmites australis), while other were inoculated with Mycobacterium 6PY1. P. australis reeds promoted a significant increase of pyrene degradation, which most likely resulted from a root-mediated increase of oxygen diffusion

  5. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  6. Betulin 3,28-di-O-tosylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uldis Peipiņš

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C44H62O6S2 {systematic name: (1R,3aS,5aR,5bR,7aR,9S,11aR,11bR,13aR,13bR-5a,5b,8,8,11a-pentamethyl-1-(prop-1-en-2-yl-3a-[(tosyloxymethyl]icosahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]chrysen-9-yl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate}, was obtained by tosylation of naturally occurring betulin. All the cyclohexane rings adopt chair conformations and the cyclopentane ring adopts a twisted envelope conformation, with the C atom bearing the tosylmethyl substituent forming the flap. In the crystal, molecules form a three-dimensional network through multiple weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  7. Determination of sensitivity limit in quantative analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Gc-ms

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    Marjanović Nikola J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The limit of detection (LOD and the limit of quantitation (LOQ for 16 individual PAHs from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA list (naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene antrachene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(aanthracene, chrysene benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, dibenzo(a,h anthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene and indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene were determined by Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. Determination was performed by SCAN (digital linear scanning and SIM (selected ion monitoring techniques preceded by the optimization of the experimental factors. The limit of detection obtained by the SCAN technique was in the range of 0.179 – 15.236 ng, and the quantitation limit in the range of 1.017 – 50.788 ng. SIM technique enabled LOD and LOQ in the range of 0.036 – 13.886 pg and 0.119 – 46.287 pg respectively.

  8. Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs Present in Smoked Fish from Ghana

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    Linda M.N. Palm

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH in smoked Scomba japonicus sampled from some Ghanaian markets. By way of preparation, smoked fish comes into contact with smoke or extremely high temperature which are potential sources of PAH generation. Levels of 20 individual PAHs including acenaphthene, acenaphtyelene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(aanthracene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(epyrene, benzo(ghiperylene, benzo(jfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, chrysene, cyclopenta(cdpyrene, dibenzo(ahanthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1, 2, 3-cdpyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were determined in 34 smoked fish samples using gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detector. Benzo(apyrene, which is one of the very few PAHs for which a legal limit exists in different types of food matrices inaddition to other high molecular weight PAHs suspected to be carcinogens, were detected in most samples.

  9. Formation and destruction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in the flaring of the biogas collected from an automotive shredded residues landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Raboni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of the combustion in an enclosed flare of the biogas collected from an automotive shredded residues landfill. The results demonstrate that at 1,000°C and long combustion, several synthesis reactions lead to the formation of 4 to 6 rings of PAHs. This formation also involves the formation of compounds such as benzo(g,h,iperylene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene and dibenzo(a,hanthracene not present in raw biogas. However, the compounds most likely to form in combustion are benzo (a anthracene and benzo (b fluoranthene. The only exception is chrysene which is significantly destroyed. The experience has proved the total lack of formation of PAHs with only 2 and 3 aromatic rings.

  10. Content comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in traditionally smoked freshwater fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pietrzak-Fiećko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the content of chosen PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene in meat of different freshwater fish species that were traditionally (directly smoked. The survey covered 16 freshwater fish samples of four species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, carp (Cyprinus carpio, vendace (Coregonus albula and eel (Anguilla anguilla. Average content of sum of four PAHs in meat of trout, carp, vendace and eel was: 2.73, 8.23, 6.45 and 3.65 µg/kg of meat, respectively. Maximum levels of chosen PAHs in meat of examined fish species were not exceeded by any of the samples. Conducted studies confirmed that meat of traditionally smoked trout, carp, vendace and eel is safe in terms of content of the analysed PAHs.

  11. Induction of active melanocytes in mouse skin by carcinogens: a new method for detection of skin carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, K; Inui, N; Takeuchi, T

    1981-01-01

    Application of potent skin carcinogens, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, induced numerous dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-positive cells in the interfollicular epidermis of C57BL/6 mice in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Chrysene, a weak skin carcinogen, and croton oil, a tumor promoter, also induced 3--4 times more dopa-positive cells than acetone. Liver carcinogens, such as 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and N-2-acetylaminofluorene, and non-carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and pyrene, did not induce increase in these cells. These results indicate that increase in the number of dopa-positive cells after application of chemicals is well correlated with the abilities of these compounds to induce skin carcinogenesis and suppress sebaceous glands. PMID:7273337

  12. Biodegradation of marine surface floating crude oil in a large-scale field simulated experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Mutai; Sun, Peiyan; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xinping; Wang, Lina; Cao, Lixin; Li, Fujuan

    2014-08-01

    Biodegradation of marine surface floating crude oil with hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, rhamnolipid biosurfactants, and nutrients was carried out by a large-scale field simulated experiment in this paper. After a 103 day experiment, for n-alkanes, the maximum biodegradation rate reached 71% and the results showed hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, rhamnolipid biosurfactants, and nutrients have a comprehensive effect. It also showed that rhamnolipid biosurfactants could shorten the biodegradation time through an emulsifying function; the nutrients could greatly increase the biodegradation rate by promoting HDB production. For PAHs, the chrysene series had higher weathering resistance. For the same series, the weathering resistance ability is C1- biosurfactants or nutrients, respectively. Except for C14, C15 and C16 sesquiterpanes, most of the steranes and terpanes had high antibiodegradability. PMID:24931448

  13. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Andrew C; Bell, Thomas; Heywood, Chloe A; Smith, J A C; Thompson, Ian P

    2007-05-01

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. PMID:17084494

  14. (E-17β,19-Epoxymethano-17,23,24-tridemethyl-4-nor-5β,18α-olean-3-one oxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Froelich

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the pentacyclic triterpenoide skeleton of the title molecule, C27H43NO2 [systematic name: (3E,3aS,5aR,5bR,7aR,11R,11aR,11bR,13aR,13bR-5a,5b,10,10,13b-pentamethylicosahydro-1H-11,7a-(epoxymethanocyclopenta[a]chrysen-3-one oxime], the five-membered ring A has an envelope conformation, while the six-membered rings B–E adopt chair conformations. Rings A and B are cis-fused. The hydroximino group has an E configuration. Strong intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into helical chains.

  15. (E)-17β,19-Epoxy­methano-17,23,24-tridemethyl-4-nor-5β,18α-olean-3-one oxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Anna; Kazakova, Oxana B.; Tolstikov, Genrikh; Gzella, Andrzej K.

    2009-01-01

    In the penta­cyclic triterpenoide skeleton of the title mol­ecule, C27H43NO2 [systematic name: (3E,3aS,5aR,5bR,7aR,11R,11aR,11bR,13aR,13bR)-5a,5b,10,10,13b-penta­methyl­icosa­hydro-1H-11,7a-(epoxy­methano)cyclo­penta­[a]chrysen-3-one oxime], the five-membered ring A has an envelope conformation, while the six-membered rings B–E adopt chair conformations. Rings A and B are cis-fused. The hydroximino group has an E configuration. Strong inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into helical chains. PMID:21583127

  16. (E)-17β,19-Epoxy-methano-17,23,24-tridemethyl-4-nor-5β,18α-olean-3-one oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Anna; Kazakova, Oxana B; Tolstikov, Genrikh; Gzella, Andrzej K

    2009-01-01

    In the penta-cyclic triterpenoide skeleton of the title mol-ecule, C(27)H(43)NO(2) [systematic name: (3E,3aS,5aR,5bR,7aR,11R,11aR,11bR,13aR,13bR)-5a,5b,10,10,13b-penta-methyl-icosa-hydro-1H-11,7a-(epoxy-methano)cyclo-penta-[a]chrysen-3-one oxime], the five-membered ring A has an envelope conformation, while the six-membered rings B-E adopt chair conformations. Rings A and B are cis-fused. The hydroximino group has an E configuration. Strong inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into helical chains. PMID:21583127

  17. Sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in marine sediment from Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of parent and alkyl Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in marine sediment samples collected from Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park, Sabah were determined by using GC-MS. The ratio of anthracene to anthracene plus phenanthrene, fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene, benz[a]anthracene to benz[a]anthracene plus chrysene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene to indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene plus benzo[g,h,i]perylene, compounds were used to identify the sources of PAHs pollution. The total concentration of parent and alkyl PAHs are ranged from 121.7 to 191.5 ng/ g dry weight. The concentrations of PAHs pollution in sediments were categorised as a moderate polluted. The ratio values of PAHs compound indicate the origin source of PAHs pollutions in marine sediment sample of Tuanku Abdul Rahman National Park were originated from fossil fuel combustion (pyrolytic). (author)

  18. Water pollution treatability: a molecular engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strier, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    Estimated effluent limits for priority nonpesticide organic pollutants, such as phenol and carbon tetrachloride, were developed from the physical-chemical properties (molecular weight, boiling point, and water solubility) and the biochemical oxidizability of these pollutants. These properties were used to develop a separate treatment model (or system) for each pollutant from the following unit treatment processes: steam- or air-stripping; oil/water separation; filtration-diatomaceous or dual media; biochemical oxidation; and activated-carbon adsorption. Pollutants with highest treatability (1.0 jg/1. in the effluent) were generally high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons, e.g., chrysene and benzo(a) pyrene; those with the lowest treatability (100-1000 jg/1. in the effluent) were generally low molecular weight, water-soluble compounds, e.g., acrylo nitrile and vinyl chloride. Solubilities were directly related to the estimated theoretical effluent limitations; partition coefficients and bioconcentration factors were inversely related.

  19. PAHs in corn grains submitted to drying with firewood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Rafael Friedrich; Dionello, Rafael Gomes; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Barrionuevo, Simone; Radunz, Lauri Lourenço; Reichert Júnior, Francisco Wilson

    2017-01-15

    Grain drying using firewood as fuel for air heating, with direct fire, is still widely used in Brazil. The combustion of organic material, such as wood, can generate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known to have carcinogenic potential. In the present work corn grain drying was carried out at three drying air temperatures: 60°C, 60/80°C and 80°C. Following the drying process, the presence and quantification of PAH in the corn grains was investigated. After extracting the PAHs of the matrix, the material was subjected to analysis by gas chromatography with mass detector. he results showed the presence of seven compounds: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene. PMID:27542463

  20. Biodegradation of naphthalene and anthracene by chemo-tactically active rhizobacteria of populus deltoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Bisht

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several naphthalene and anthracene degrading bacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of Populus deltoides, which were growing in non-contaminated soil. Among these, four isolates, i.e. Kurthia sp., Micrococcus varians, Deinococcus radiodurans and Bacillus circulans utilized chrysene, benzene, toluene and xylene, in addition to anthracene and naphthalene. Kurthia sp and B. circulans showed positive chemotactic response for naphthalene and anthracene. The mean growth rate constant (K of isolates were found to increase with successive increase in substrate concentration (0.5 to 1.0 mg/50ml. B. circulans SBA12 and Kurthia SBA4 degraded 87.5% and 86.6% of anthracene while, Kurthia sp. SBA4, B. circulans SBA12, and M. varians SBA8 degraded 85.3 %, 95.8 % and 86.8 % of naphthalene respectively after 6 days of incubation as determined by HPLC analysis.

  1. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape. PMID:26855226

  2. Fingerprinting hydrocarbons in the biological resources of the Exxon Valdez spill area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure has been developed that discriminates Exxon Valdez crude from other sources of hydrocarbons found in Prince Williams Sound and the Gulf of Alaska. The procedure uses polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to fingerprint sample extracts. The relative abundances of alkylated phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes, and chrysenes are used to differentiate Exxon Valdez crude and its weathering products from other hydrocarbons. Saturate fraction distributions are used to confirm the PAH identification whenever possible. The procedure has been applied to the more than 1,500 PAH analyses of tissues reported by the Oil Spill Health Task Force, formed after the spill to assess subsistence food safety, and nearly 4,700 PAH analyses of biological samples in PWSOIL, the government's damage-assessment chemistry database. These two datasets constitute the largest collection of hydrocarbon analyses of biological samples form the spill-impact zone. 70 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Filtration d’une huile dopée avec quatre hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAP sur des plaques garnies en charbon actif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidani Marion

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Powdered activated carbon is used in oils and fats refining to bleach and purify vegetable oils and fish oils. Actually, this powder makes it possible to detoxify crude fish oils and to eliminate contaminants like PAH, dioxin and PCB. Nevertheless, the powdered activated carbon used is painful because it is pulverulent. Nowadays, producers advise filtration plates filled with this powder. The aim of this study is to check the efficiency of such plates in the PAH elimination and verify the respect of the new 2011 regulation (2 μg/kg for benzo(apyrene, 10 μg/kg for the sum of benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo (aanthracene and chrysene.

  4. Modeling of experimental data on trace elements and organic compounds content in industrial waste dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoliński, Adam; Drobek, Leszek; Dombek, Václav; Bąk, Andrzej

    2016-11-01

    The main objective of the study presented was to investigate the differences between 20 mine waste dumps located in the Silesian Region of Poland and Czech Republic, in terms of trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contents. The Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis were applied in exploration of the studied data. Since the data set was affected by outlying objects, the employment of a relevant analysis strategy was necessary. The final PCA model was constructed with the use of the Expectation-Maximization iterative approach preceded by a correct identification of outliers. The analysis of the experimental data indicated that three mine waste dumps located in Poland were characterized by the highest concentrations of dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene, and six objects located in Czech Republic and three objects in Poland were distinguished by high concentrations of chrysene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene. Three of studied mine waste dumps, one located in Czech Republic and two in Poland, were characterized by low concentrations of Cr, Ni, V, naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthen, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(g,h,i)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and indeno (1.2.3-cd) pyrene in comparison with the remaining ones. The analysis contributes to the assessment and prognosis of ecological and health risks related to the emission of trace elements and organic compounds (PAHs) from the waste dumps examined. No previous research of similar scope and aims has been reported for the area concerned. PMID:27497349

  5. Hard Cap Espresso Machines in Analytical Chemistry: What Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2016-06-21

    A hard cap espresso machine has been used in combination with liquid chromatography with molecular fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils and sediments providing appropriate extraction efficiencies and quantitative results. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benz[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were used as target compounds. It should be mentioned that the pairs benz[a]anthracene-chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene-benz[ghi]perylene peaks coelute under the employed chromatographic conditions; thus, those compounds were determined together. PAHs were extracted from 5.0 g of soil, previously homogenized, freeze-dried, and sieved to 250 μm, with 50 mL of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile in water at a temperature of 72 ± 3 °C. The proposed procedure is really fast, with an extraction time of 11 s, and it reduces the required amount of organic solvent to do the sample preparation. The obtained limit of detection for the evaluated PAHs was from 1 to 38 μg kg(-1). Recoveries were calculated using clean soils spiked with 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg kg(-1) PAHs with values ranging from 81 to 121% and good precision with relative standard deviation values lower than 30%. The method was validated using soil and sediment certified reference materials and also using real samples by comparison with ultrasound-assisted extraction, as reference methodology, obtaining statistically comparable results. Thus, the use of hard cap espresso machines in the analytical laboratories offers tremendous possibilities as low cost extraction units for the extraction of solid samples. PMID:27224000

  6. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3–4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites. - Highlights: • AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and sediments were newly determined using EDA. • Novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs for AhR activity were established. • Three to four ring PAHs were identified to be major AhR agonists in crude oil. • Parent and alkyl-PAHs explained ∼18% of the total AhR-mediated potencies of crude oil. • AhR-mediated potencies apparently decreased by the timely weathering processes. - “Major AhR agonists were identified three to four ring PAHs in crude oil and sediments determined by use of effect-directed analysis.”

  7. A detailed kinetic modeling study of toluene oxidation in a premixed laminar flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Z; Pitz, W J; Fournet, R; Glaude, P; Battin-Leclerc, F

    2009-12-18

    An improved chemical kinetic model for the toluene oxidation based on experimental data obtained in a premixed laminar low-pressure flame with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques has been proposed. The present mechanism consists of 273 species up to chrysene and 1740 reactions. The rate constants of reactions of toluene, decomposition, reaction with oxygen, ipso-additions and metatheses with abstraction of phenylic H-atom are updated; new pathways of C{sub 4} + C{sub 2} species giving benzene and fulvene are added. Based on the experimental observations, combustion intermediates such as fulvenallene, naphtol, methylnaphthalene, acenaphthylene, 2-ethynylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, 1-methylphenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene are involved in the present mechanism. The final toluene model leads to an overall satisfactory agreement between the experimentally observed and predicted mole fraction profiles for the major products and most combustion intermediates. The toluene depletion is governed by metathese giving benzyl radicals, ipso-addition forming benzene and metatheses leading to C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3} radicals. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the unimolecular decomposition via the cleavage of a C-H bond has a strong inhibiting effect, while decomposition via C-C bond breaking, ipso-addition of H-atom to toluene, decomposition of benzyl radicals and reactions related to C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3} radicals have promoting effect for the consumption of toluene. Moreover, flow rate analysis is performed to illustrate the formation pathways of mono- and polycyclic aromatics.

  8. Bioaccessibility of AhR-active PAHs in sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill: Application of Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Yim, Un Hyuk; Ha, Sung Yong; Shim, Won Joon; Jeon, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Choi, Kyungho; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2016-02-01

    Bioaccessibility of toxic substances in sedimentary residual oil is a crucial factor that needs to be considered for accurate risk assessments posed by oil spills. However, information on oil weathering processes and bioaccessibility of residual oil is often not sufficient and clear. In the present study, bioaccessibility of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coastal sediments near the site of the Hebei Spirit oil spill (Korea, 2007) was assessed by Tenax extraction in effect-directed analysis (EDA). Sediment samples collected 6 years after the oil spill were extracted using Soxhlet or Tenax, and EDA was performed using a battery of H4IIE-luc bioassay and GC/MSD analysis. Concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Soxhlet extracts ranged from 210 to 53,000 μg kg(-1) dry mass. However, concentrations of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in Tenax extracts were approximately 20-fold less compared to those in Soxhlet extracts. In Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, the major AhR-active PAHs were identified as C1-chrysene, C3-chrysene, and C4-phenanthrene. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQ(PAHs)) explained 31% and 60% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQ concentrations in Soxhlet and Tenax extracts, respectively. Overall, bioaccessibility of PAHs and alkyl-PAHs in sedimentary residual oils depended on hydrophobicity (log K(ow)) and degree of weathering of crude oil. The results of the present study provide further evidence in support of the biological and ecological recoveries of oil spill sites. PMID:26408977

  9. Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO2 by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula

  10. WATER AS A REAGENT FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira S. Jayaweera; Montserrat Marti-Perez; Jordi Diaz-Ferrero; Angel Sanjurjo

    2001-03-29

    SRI International is conducting experiments to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology or hot water extraction (HWE) technology for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. Most current remediation practices either fail to remove the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in petroleum-contaminated sites, are too costly, or require the use of organic solvents at the expense of additional contamination and with the added cost of recycling solvents. Hydrothermal extraction offers the promise of efficiently extracting PAHs and other kinds of organics from contaminated soils at moderate temperatures and pressures, using only water and inorganic salts such as carbonate. SRI has conducted experiments to measure the solubility and rate of solubilization of selected PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, 9,10-dimethylanthracene) in water using SRI's hydrothermal optical cell with the addition of varying amounts of sodium carbonate to evaluate the efficiency of the technology for removing PAHs from the soil. SRI data shows a very rapid increase in solubility of PAHs with increase in temperature in the range 25-275 C. SRI also measured the rate of solubilization, which is a key factor in determining the reactor parameters. SRI results for fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and 9,10-dimethylanthracene show a linear relationship between rate of solubilization and equilibrium solubility. Also, we have found the rate of solubilization of pyrene at 275 C to be 6.5 ppm/s, indicating that the equilibrium solubilization will be reached in less than 3 min at 275 C; equilibrium solubility of pyrene at 275 C is 1000 ppm. Also, pyrene and fluoranthene appear to have higher solubilities in the presence of sodium carbonate. In addition to this study, SRI studied the rate of removal of selected PAHs from spiked samples under varying conditions (temperature, pore sizes, and pH). We have found a higher removal of PAHs in the presence of sodium carbonate in both sand

  11. Profile distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of drained peatlands after wildfires (Moscow region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibart, Anna; Gennadiev, Alexander; Koshovskii, Timur; Kovach, Roman

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) are formed in different natural and anthropogenic processes and could be found in many landscape components. These compounds are carcinogenic and belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants. The anthropogenic sources of PAHs are well-studied, but insufficient data are available on the hightemperature production of PAHs in natural processes. For example, natural fires are frequently related to the PAHs sources in landscapes, but very little factual data are on this topic. The soils of drained peatlands affected by catastrophic wildfires of 2010 and 2002 were studied in the Eastern part of Moscow Region (Russia). A total of 14 profiles of histosols and histic podsols were investigated. These series included soils of plots subjected to fires of different intensities and age, as well as soils of the background plots. Soil samples were taken from genetic horizons and from every 10 cm. The samples were analyzed for the contents of 14 prevailing individual compounds: fluorene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, anthracene, tetraphene, benz[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benzo[e]pyrene, coronene, dibenztiophene, triphenilene, benz(k)fluorantene. Morfological properties of soils after wildfires on drained peatlands were changed dramatically, the horizons of ash and char instead of organic layers were formed. These new horizons differ in the capability of PAHs accumulation. The char horizons have the highest concentrations of PAHs - up to 300 ng/g because of incomplete burning of organic matter in this sites, and the ash horizons, where the complete burning occured, contain only 10 ng/g PAHs. The highest concentrations of PAHs in soil profiles were detected after recent fires, and in cases of thick peat layers. After the combustion of peat chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, benz[e]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, benz(k)fluorantene and tetraphene accumulated in soils. This is mainly the group of 4-6-nuclear compounds. The formation of

  12. Effects of crude oil exposure on bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of adult and larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L(-1 after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L(-1 after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50 for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L(-1 after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L(-1 after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1 A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2 larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3 some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators.

  13. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bunde, Kristi L. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Tod A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); McQuistan, Tammie J. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Applied Statistics and Computational Modeling, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Tilton, Susan C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs.

  14. Assessment of Fish Habitat, Water Quality, and Selected Contaminants in Streambed Sediments in Noyes Slough, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Burrows, Robert L.; Richmond, Sharon A.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001-2002, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled streambed sediment at 23 sites, measured water quality at 26 sites, and assessed fish habitat for the entire length of Noyes Slough, a 5.5-mile slough of the Chena River in Fairbanks, Alaska. These studies were undertaken to document the environmental condition of the slough and to provide information to the public for consideration in plans to improve environmental conditions of the waterway. The availability of physical habitat for fish in the slough does not appear to be limited, although some beaver dams and shallow water may restrict movement, particularly during low flow. Elevated water temperatures in summer and low dissolved-oxygen concentrations are the principle factors adversely affecting water quality in Noyes Slough. Increased flow mitigated poor water-quality conditions and reduced the number of possible fish barriers. Flow appears to be the most prominent mechanism shaping water quality and fish habitat in Noyes Slough. Streambed sediment samples collected at 23 sites in 2001 were analyzed for 24 trace elements. Arsenic, lead, and zinc were the only trace elements detected in concentrations that exceed probable effect levels for the protection of aquatic life. The background concentration for arsenic in Noyes Slough is naturally elevated because of significant concentrations of arsenic in local bedrock and ground water. Sources of the zinc and lead contamination are uncertain, however both lead and zinc are common urban contaminants. Streambed-sediment samples from 12 sites in 2002 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The concentration of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate of 2,600 micrograms per kilogram (?g/kg) for one sample from the site above Aurora Drive approached the aquatic-life criterion of 2,650 ?g/kg. Low concentrations of p-cresol, chrysene, and fluoranthene were detected in most of the sediment samples. The

  15. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K; Bunde, Kristi L; Harper, Tod A; McQuistan, Tammie J; Löhr, Christiane V; Bramer, Lisa M; Waters, Katrina M; Tilton, Susan C; Krueger, Sharon K; Williams, David E; Baird, William M

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. PMID:26049101

  16. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs

  17. Public health assessment for Ralph Gray Trucking Company (A/K/A Westminster Tract No. 2633), Westminster, Orange County, California, region 9. CERCLIS No. CAD981995947. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-18

    The Ralph D. Gray Trucking site consists of 73 homes in west Orange County, California. Records suggest that oil refinery wastes were originally deposited there in the 1930s and then were redeposited in three locations during housing development in the late 1950s. The buried oil refinery waste are located in the backyards of approximately 29 residences. Seeps of tar-like material have surfaced in some of the yards. Chemical analysis of the waste material has shown that it contains volatile aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes; polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like benzo(a)pyrene, phenanthrene, and chrysene; thiophene derivatives, which include smelly, sulfur-containing compounds; some trace metals like arsenic and chromium; and high levels of sulfate. The preliminary public health assessment identifies two potential exposure pathways of health concern at the Ralph D. Gray Trucking site. Residents may be exposed to waste contaminants from eating vegetables or fruits grown in their yards. The most likely contaminants to assimilate into vegetation are the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chromium, arsenic, and lead, but no actual chemical analyses have been conducted of any fruits and vegetables. Site residents, especially children, may incidentally/accidentally ingest or have skin contact with the waste material or with contaminated surface soil and thus be exposed to a number of contaminants.

  18. Source characterization using compound composition and stable carbon isotope ratio of PAHs in sediments from lakes, harbor, and shipping waterway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular compositions and compound specific stable carbon isotope ratios of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) isolated from sediments were used to characterize possible sources of contamination at an urban lake, a harbor, a shipping waterway, and a relatively undisturbed remote lake in the northwest United States. Total PAH concentrations in urban lake sediments ranged from 66.0 to 16,500 μg g-1 dry wt. with an average of 2600 μg g-1, which is ∼ 50, 100, and 400 times higher on average than PAH in harbor (48 μg g-1 on average), shipping waterway (26 μg g-1), and remote lake (7 μg g-1) sediments, respectively. The PAH distribution patterns, methyl phenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios, and a pyrogenic index at the sites suggest a pyrogenic origin for PAHs. Source characterization using principal component analysis and various molecular indices including C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, C3-dibenzothiophenes/C3-phenanthrenes, and C2-chrysenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratios, was able to differentiate PAH deposited in sediments from the four sites. The uniqueness of the source of the sediment PAHs from urban lake was also illustrated by compound specific stable carbon isotope analysis. It was concluded that urban lake sediments are accumulating PAH from sources that are unique from contamination detected at nearby sites in the same watershed

  19. Characterizing priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in particulate matter from diesel and palm oil-based biodiesel B15 combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Nestor Y.; Milquez, Harvey Andrés; Sarmiento, Hugo

    2011-11-01

    A set of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) associated with particulate matter (PM), emitted by a diesel engine fueled with petroleum diesel and a 15%-vol. palm oil methyl ester blend with diesel (B15), were determined. PM was filtered from a sample of the exhaust gas with the engine running at a steady speed and under no load. PAH were extracted from the filters using the Soxhlet technique, with dichloromethane as solvent. The extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography using a flame ionization detector (FID). No significant difference was found between PM mass collected when fueled with diesel and B15. Ten of the 16 PAH concentrations were not reduced by adding biodiesel: Benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, chrysene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene, naphthalene and phenanthrene. The acenaphthene, acenaphthylene and anthracene concentrations were 45%-80% higher when using diesel, whereas those for benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene and pyrene were 30%-72% higher when using the B15 blend. Even though the 16 priority-PAH cumulative concentration increased when using the B15 blend, the total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration was not different for both fuels.

  20. Hydrocarbon degradation potential in reference soils and soils contaminated with jet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum degradation in surface and subsurface soils is affected by such factors as moisture content, pH, soil type, soil organics, temperature, and oxygen concentrations. In this paper, the authors determine the degradation rates of 14C-labeled hydrocarbons added to soils collected from a contaminated surface site, contaminated subsurface sites, and a clean reference site. The radiolabeled hydrocarbons used include benzene, toluene, naphthalene, 1-methynaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, anthracene, chrysene, and hexadecane. Microbial degradation rates were based on determination of mineralization rates (production of 14CO2) of hydrocarbons that were added to soil samples. Since water was added and oxygen was not limiting, the hydrocarbon rates determined are likely to be higher than those occurring in situ. Using radiolabeled hydrocarbons, information can be provided on differences in the degradation rates of various petroleum compounds in different types of soils at a site, on possible production of petroleum metabolites in the soil, and on the importance of anaerobic petroleum degradation and the effects of nutrient, water, and surfactant addition on biodegradation rates

  1. Organic compounds downstream from a treated-wastewater discharge near Dallas, Texas, March 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszka, P.M.; Barber, L.B., II; Schroeder, M.P.; Becker, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water and streambed-sediment samples were collected on March 9 and 10,1987 from one site upstream and three sites downstream of the discharge from a municipal wastewater-treatment plant on Rowlett Creek near Dallas, Texas. To extract and separate organic compounds, purgeand-trap, closed-loop stripping, and pH-adjusted solvent extraction methods were used for water samples; and a Soxhlet-solvent extraction method was used for streambed sediment. These methods were combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify organic compounds in Rowlett Creek. Results from this study confirm the persistence of many organic compounds in water as far as 13.5 kilometers downstream of the wastewater discharge. These include: (1) the volatile organic compounds chloroform, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, tetrachloroethene, and trichloroethene; (2) several linear alkylbenzene compounds, octyl phenol, and a tetramethylbutyl phenol isomer that are related to detergent use; (3) 9-phenyl-9H-carbazole, a compound related to coal tars and coal combustion residues; and (4) caffeine. The only compound present in water in concentrations greater than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels for drinking water was tetrachloroethene (6.0 micrograms per liter) in a sample collected 13.5 kilometers downstream from the waste water discharge. Compounds identified from the streambed-sediment samples include a xylene isomer at 7.7 kilometers downstream and chrysene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and a xylene isomer at 13.5 kilometers downstream from the wastewater discharge.

  2. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in umbilical cord blood of human neonates from Guiyu, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unregulated electronic-waste recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Guiyu, China. We evaluated the body burden of seven carcinogenic PAHs and potential health risks for neonates. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from Guiyu (n = 103), and the control area of Chaonan (n = 80), China. PAHs in UCB were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The median ∑ 7c-PAH concentration was 108.05 ppb in UCB samples from Guiyu, vs. 79.36 ppb in samples from Chaonan. Residence in Guiyu and longer cooking time of food during the gestation period were significant factors contributing to the ∑ 7c-PAH level. Benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were found to correlate with reduced neonatal height and gestational age. Infants experiencing adverse birth outcomes, on the whole, displayed higher BaA, Chr, and BaP levels compared to those with normal outcomes. We conclude that maternal PAH exposure results in fetal accumulation of toxic PAHs, and that such prenatal exposure correlates with adverse effects on neonatal health.

  3. 人类胰腺癌组织中多环芳烃含量的测定及意义%The detection and significance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in human pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuntao Liu; Limin Lun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the occurrence of human pancreatic cancer.Methods: PAHs in human pancreatic cancer, adjacent pancreatic cancer tissues and tissues without pancreatic cancer were extracted by ultrasonic extraction (UE).And then the extracts were cleaned up by solid phase extraction and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence spectroscopy.Results: Four kinds of PAHs were detected, which were chrysene, 2-methylanthracene, pyrene and benzo (a) pyrene.The contents of the four PAHs were not statistically significant between pancreatic cancer and adjacent tissues (P > 0.05).The contents of 2-methylanthracene, pyrene and benzo (a) pyrene in pancreatic cancer and adjacent tissues were higher than tissues without pancreatic cancer, the differences were statistically significant (P 0.05).Conclusion: PAHs were found in human pancreatic tissues.Human pancreatic tissues have extremely strong ability of bio-concentrating PAHs.PAHs might play an important role in the occurrence of human pancreatic cancer.

  4. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. PMID:17268774

  5. Comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons level between suspended solid and sediment samples of Pengkalan Chepa River, Kelantan state, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Noor Zuhartini Md; Babaheidari, Seyedreza Hashemi; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi

    2015-09-01

    Sixteen type of common Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which consist of naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]-perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]-pyrene and dibenz[a,h]-anthracene in suspended solid and sediment samples of Pengkalan Chepa River, Kelantan state, Malaysia were investigated. The analysis samples were taken from six different sites of Pengkalan Chepa River during sunny day. The samples were subjected to a series of pre-treatment before the level of PAHs can be determined. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was the prime method for the analysis of PAHs level. A total of 16 PAHs concentration in suspended solid of the whole Pengkalan Chepa River was found to be 2144.6 ng/g dry weights. This concentration was about eight times more than 16 PAHs concentration in sediment which found to be 266.5 ng/g dry weights.

  6. Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil from a Typical Contaminated Urban Coking Sites in Shenyang City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wei; Zhang, Le; Li, Yue; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Shuxian; Ji, Lan; Dan, Su

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the level of PAH pollution in typical contaminated coking sites in Shenyang. Sixty surface soil samples were collected from an area of 1.3 × 10(5) m(2) polluted by PAHs. The concentrations, sources and possible health risks of 16 PAHs in the area were analyzed. The average content of Σ16 PAHs was 6.1 × 10(3) mg/kg. In oral intake, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) presented the largest exposure risk (hazard quotient HQ = 1.17 × 10(-5)), followed by dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DbA) (HQ = 1.14 × 10(-5)). The non-carcinogenic hazard indices and carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were arranged in the order of BaP > DbA > benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) > benz(a)anthracene (BaA) > indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (InP) > benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF) > chrysene (Chr). Bap and DbA were the principal pollution sources, followed by BbF, BaA, InP, BkF and Nap successively. Oral intake was the main route of PAH entry into the human body. PMID:26508427

  7. Source apportionment of traffic emissions of particulate matter using tunnel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mao, Hongjun; Prain, Hunter Douglas; Bull, Ian D.

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to quantify exhaust/non-exhaust emissions and the uncertainties associated with them by combining innovative motorway tunnel sampling and source apportionment modelling. Analytical techniques ICP-AES and GC-MS were used to identify the metallic and organic composition of PM10, respectively. Good correlation was observed between Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Sb and change in traffic volume. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organics varies significantly at the entrance and exit site of the tunnel, with fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and benzothiazole having the highest incremented concentrations. The application of Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis helped to identify the emission sources for 82% of the total PM10 mass inside the tunnel. Identified sources include resuspension (27%), diesel exhaust emissions (21%), petrol exhaust emissions (12%), brake wear emissions (11%) and road surface wear (11%). This study shows that major health related chemical species of PM10 originate from non-exhaust sources, further signifying the need for legislation to reduce these emissions.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at traffic and urban background sites of northern Greece: source apportionment of ambient PAH levels and PAH-induced lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoli, Evangelia; Kouras, Athanasios; Karagkiozidou, Olga; Argyropoulos, Georgios; Voutsa, Dimitra; Samara, Constantini

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen particle-phase PAHs, including nine >4-ring congeners [Benz[a]anthracene (BaAn), Chrysene (Chry), Benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), Benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), Benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (dBaAn), Benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BghiPe), Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (IP)], listed by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) as class 1, class 2A, and 2B carcinogens, plus four ≤4-ring congeners [Phenanthrene (Ph), Anthracene (An), Fluoranthene (Fl), Pyrene (Py)], were concurrently measured in inhalable and respirable particle fractions (PM10 and PM2.5) at a heavy-traffic and an urban background site in Thessaloniki, northern Greece, during the warm and the cold period of the year. Carcinogenic and mutagenic potencies of the PAH-bearing particles were calculated, and the inhalation cancer risk (ICR) for local population was estimated. Finally, Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modeling was employed for the source apportionment of ambient PAH levels and the estimated lung cancer risk. Resulted inhalation cancer risk during winter was found to be equivalent in the city center and the urban background area suggesting that residential wood burning may offset the benefits from minor traffic emissions. PMID:26490935

  9. Wastewater Irrigation: Persistent Organic Pollutans in Soil and Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin AYDIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Treated or untreated wastewaters, used for irrigation purpose, contain various persistent organic pollutants. The long use of these waters for irrigation purpose results in deposition of the pollutants in soil, contaminates products and has adverse health affect on the human through food chain, and biologic activity of flora and fauna. The wastewaters of Konya were conveyed to the Salt Lake through the main drainage channel without any treatment until 2010.  During the arid period, the wastewater in the main drainage channel was used for irrigation and the products were cultivated. In this work, persistent organic pollutants i.e., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, acenaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene are determined in wastewater irrigated agricultural soil samples and the wheat samples cultivated in the region. High alkaline properties and clay structure of Konya soil were determined. These properties of soil result in the accumulation of contaminants in top soil layer used for agricultural production. On the other hand, PCB and PAH compounds were determined in comparable concentrations in well water irrigated reference soils with wastewater irrigated soils. PCB and PAH sources other than wastewater irrigation was evidenced for the study field.

  10. Spatial variation and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoro Duke

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available An investigative study on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils of different sampling stations in Effurun metropolis and its environs of the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria was carried out with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Among the 16 US EPA priority PAHs determined, pyrene was observed to be the most abundant compound at all sites (20 %, followed by fluoranthene (14 %, phenanthrene (12 %, chrysene (10 % and benzo(ghiperylene (6 %. High concentrations of pyrene could be attributed to anthropogenic source such as industrial and vehicular emissions. On the other hand, naphthalene, acenathalene and anthracene accounted for 3.2 %, 1.6 %, and 1.1 %, respectively. The observed trend: Refinery > Ekpan > Enerhen > Water Resources > Alegbo > Ugborikoko > Ugboroke could be attributed to the density of industrial and commercial activities in each area. Clear differences in the total PAH between urban/industrial and rural areas were observed. The results showed that PAH levels in soils from heavily industrial sites were higher in concentrations to the effect that Refinery locations were comparatively higher than all other locations. The higher levels of PAHs observed in the Refinery location are clear indications of combustion emissions and gas flaring from fractionating towers.

  11. Distribution, Levels, and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Some Water Bodies along the Coastal Belt of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kofi Essumang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and distribution of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were determined in six water bodies along the coastal belt of Ghana using gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC/FID. The average total PAHs recorded are from the Pra estuary, 6.3 μg/L; Benya lagoon, 7.5 μg/L; Sakumono lagoon, 10.1 μg/L; lower Volta estuary, 26.3 μg/L; Keta lagoon, 10.6 μg/L; and Narkwa lagoon, 16.1 μg/L.The 12 PAHs that were well distributed in all the coastal waters analyzed include naphthalene, pyrene, fluorene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, acephnaphthalene, acephnaphthene, 1-methylphenanthrene, 2,3,5-trimethylnaphthalene, chrysene, biphenyl, and phenanthrene. The presence of benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(aanthracene, and benzo(j,kfluoranthene in some of the water bodies is a source of concern as they have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA as probable human carcinogens. These water bodies are used for fishing and for some domestic purposes by the people living around them, thereby exposing them to some dangers and the risk of getting cancer. The human health cancer risk assessment carried out also indicates that there is the possibility of some users of the water bodies getting cancer in their lifetime.

  12. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in umbilical cord blood of human neonates from Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yongyong; Huo, Xia [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Wu, Kusheng [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Liu, Junxiao; Zhang, Yuling [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: xuxj@stu.edu.cn [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2012-06-15

    Unregulated electronic-waste recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Guiyu, China. We evaluated the body burden of seven carcinogenic PAHs and potential health risks for neonates. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from Guiyu (n = 103), and the control area of Chaonan (n = 80), China. PAHs in UCB were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The median N-Ary-Summation 7c-PAH concentration was 108.05 ppb in UCB samples from Guiyu, vs. 79.36 ppb in samples from Chaonan. Residence in Guiyu and longer cooking time of food during the gestation period were significant factors contributing to the N-Ary-Summation 7c-PAH level. Benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were found to correlate with reduced neonatal height and gestational age. Infants experiencing adverse birth outcomes, on the whole, displayed higher BaA, Chr, and BaP levels compared to those with normal outcomes. We conclude that maternal PAH exposure results in fetal accumulation of toxic PAHs, and that such prenatal exposure correlates with adverse effects on neonatal health.

  13. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  14. Metabolism and macromolecular binding of benzo(a)pyrene and its noncarcinogenic isomer benzo(e)pyrene in cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkirk, J.K.; MacLeod, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is thought to result from the metabolic formation of a highly reactive intermediate, 7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-oxy-B(a)P which subsequently interacts with cellular macromolecules to produce neoplasia. Evidence has been presented implicating similar bay-region diol-epoxides as the ultimate carcinogenic forms of benz(a)anthracene, 7-methyl-benz(a)anthracene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and chrysene. Benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P), on the other hand, is relatively inert when tested for carcinogenicity on mouse skin and rat trachea and when tested for mutagenicity in a mammalian system. This B(e)P molecule contains two (equivalent) bay regions and quantum mechanical model calculations suggest that 9,10-dihydrodiol-11,12-oxy-B(e)P can easily form a reactive bay-region-adjacent carbonium ion. In order to explain the noncarcinogenicity of B(e)P in the context of the bay region theory, we have studied the metabolism of B(e)P by rat liver microsomes and by cultured hamster embryo fibroblasts. In both systems, the major metabolic pathways involve the K-region of B(e)P, with little or no attack on the isolated benzo ring. These results suggest that the lack of carcinogenicity of B(e)P may reflect its preferred mode of interaction with the cellular metabolic machinery.

  15. Effects of storage on sediment toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and chemistry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E.; Brandon, D.L.; Lee, C.R.; Jarvis, A.S.; Rhett, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Current guidance on storage of sediments for bioassay/bioaccumulation tests requires that samples be held at 4 C and used within 2 weeks of collection. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of sediment storage for 40 weeks on sediment toxicity, bioaccumulation potential, and chemical analyses. Toxicity and bioaccumulation tests were conducted five times during 40 weeks of storage. Chemical analyses were performed three times during this period. The data indicate that sediments can be held for longer than 2 to 4 weeks, in many cases, without significant effect on test results. However, results of the study also show that tests performed at different times can produce different results. This study showed that a sediment that was toxic to mysids remained toxic during 16 weeks of sediment storage. Two sediments that were toxic initially continued to show significant toxicity after 8 and 16 weeks of sediment storage. One sediment, not toxic initially or at 4 weeks, changed during storage, becoming significantly toxic compared to the Atlantic Ocean (Ref) sediment. The bioaccumulation results showed that certain sediment contaminants (lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs), generally do not reveal a statistical change in bioaccumulation, relative to Ref animals, during 16 weeks of sediment storage. Other PAHs, including phenanthrene, anthracene, benzo (a) anthracene, and chrysene, did change in bioaccumulation potential during storage.

  16. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM2.5 accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM2.5-10 fraction (17.6%) and >PM10 fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10-3 life-time lung cancer risk

  17. Is this Diesel mine? Advances in forensic identification using source specific markers of petroleum releases into the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scally, K. [General Manager, Alcontrol Laboratories Ireland, Dublin (Ireland); Nathanail, P. [Nottingham Univ., Course Director, Land Quality Management Group (United Kingdom); Jones, J. [Technical Director, Alcontrol Laboratories Chester (United Kingdom); Keogh, M. [Lecturer in Science, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT) (Ireland); Keaveney, G. [Lecturer in Science, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology (GMIT), Dublin Road, Galway (Ireland)

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in forensic hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis have enabled specific markers found in diesel to be characterised and identified. Fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques include the recognition of distribution patterns of hydrocarbons which include the alkylated naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzo-thiophene, fluorene, chrysene and phenol isomers; analysis of 'source-specific marker' compounds, individual saturated hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes (n-C{sub 5} through n-C{sub 40}), alkyl-cyclohexane homologues series, and the recalcitrant isoprenoids: pristane and phytane; the determination of diagnostic ratios of specific petroleum and non-petroleum constituents; and the application of various statistical and numerical analysis tools. A spill sample was analysed to identify the possible source and origin of the petroleum contaminant (diesel). Samples were subjected to analysis by gas chromatography, utilising both flame ionisation and time of flight mass spectral detection techniques (TOF-MS) in comparison to known reference materials. The analysis showed the diesel came from the suspected source. This allowed the regulator to prosecute. (authors)

  18. Is this Diesel mine? Advances in forensic identification using source specific markers of petroleum releases into the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in forensic hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis have enabled specific markers found in diesel to be characterised and identified. Fingerprinting and data interpretation techniques include the recognition of distribution patterns of hydrocarbons which include the alkylated naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzo-thiophene, fluorene, chrysene and phenol isomers; analysis of 'source-specific marker' compounds, individual saturated hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes (n-C5 through n-C40), alkyl-cyclohexane homologues series, and the recalcitrant isoprenoids: pristane and phytane; the determination of diagnostic ratios of specific petroleum and non-petroleum constituents; and the application of various statistical and numerical analysis tools. A spill sample was analysed to identify the possible source and origin of the petroleum contaminant (diesel). Samples were subjected to analysis by gas chromatography, utilising both flame ionisation and time of flight mass spectral detection techniques (TOF-MS) in comparison to known reference materials. The analysis showed the diesel came from the suspected source. This allowed the regulator to prosecute. (authors)

  19. Assessment of the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of sediment spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rončević, Srđan; Spasojević, Jelena; Maletić, Snežana; Jazić, Jelena Molnar; Isakovski, Marijana Kragulj; Agbaba, Jasmina; Grgić, Marko; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-02-01

    Large amounts of sediment are dredged globally every year. This sediment is often contaminated with low concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and other organic pollutants. Some of this sediment is disposed of on land, creating a need for risk assessment of the sediment disposal method, to minimize the degradation of environmental quality and prevent risks to human health. Evaluating the available fractions of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is very important, as in the presence of various organisms, they are believed to be easily subject to the processes of bioaccumulation, biosorption and transformation. In order to determine the applicability of applying these methods for the evaluation of pollutant bioavailability in sediments, the desorption kinetics from the sediment of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of Tenax and XAD4 were examined over the course of 216 h. Changes in the PAH concentrations in dredged sediments using five different seed plants during a short time of period (10 days) were also followed. Using chemical extraction techniques with Tenax and XAD4, a time of around 24 h is enough to achieve equilibrium for all four PAHs. Results showed good agreement between the seed accumulation and PAH extraction methods with both agents. If we compare the two extraction techniques, XAD4 gave better results for phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene, and Tenax gave better results for chrysene. PMID:26490893

  20. [Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the working environment during aluminum production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeźnicki, S; Przybylski, H

    1996-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to a group od chemicals responsible, to a great extent, for the contamination of the industrial and ambient air. A number of industrial processes such as coke production, coal tar processing, production of electric energy and certain rubber goods as well as metallurgy, especially aluminium metallurgy with its anodes made of coal tar pitch are the major sources of PAH emission. An attempt was made to determine PAH concentrations at selected workposts at an aluminium production plant. Breathing zone air samples were collected by individual dosimetry. Coal tar pitch volatiles were determined by a gravimetric method and individual PAHs by HPLC. The presence of naphtalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, triphenylene, benzo/a/anthracene, chrysene, benzo/a/pyrene, benzo/b/fluorenthene, benzo/k/fluoranthene, benzo/a/pyrene, dibenzo/a,h/anthracene, benzo/g,h,i/perylene and indeno/1,2,3-c,d/pyrene was identified at all investigated workposts. The highest concentrations of benzo/a/pyrene and coal tar pitch volatiles were found at workposts of crane operators which is due to the character of the work performed. The replacement of "wet" anode material by the "dry" one should contribute to improving of the working conditions. PMID:8834591

  1. Induction of secondary metabolism by environmental pollutants: metabolization of pyrene and formation of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin by Crinipellis stipitaria JK 364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In submerged cultures, when grown in the presence of pyrene, the saprophytic and plant inhabiting basidiomycete Crinipellis stipitaria was found to produce 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-isocoumarin. The amount of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin formed depended on the concentration of pyrene in the medium. In cultures incubated without pyrene or with less than 2.5 mg/l no formation of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin was observed. Besides pyrene, chrysene, anotther four ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, induced isocoumarin formation whereas anthracene, phenanthrene or fluoranthene were not effective. During metabilization experiments with [4,5,9,10-14C]pyrene (0.4 mCi (14.8 kBq)/mmol), labelled 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylsiocoumarin (specific activity 15 μCi (0.6 kBq)/mmol) was identified. When C. stipitaria JK 364 was incubated for 14 days with 5 μCi (0.2 kBq) sodium [2-14C]acetate and 10 mg/l pyrene, labelled 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin was isolated from the culture. The results are in agreement with the polyketide origin of the isocoumarin and proof the breakdown of pyrene to acetate which is a central intermediate in the pathway from pyrene to 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin. (orig.)

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  3. Characterization of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban atmosphere of central-southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    2015-12-01

    Over 1-year period, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter PM10 have been monitored for the first time in the atmosphere of Ciudad Real, situated at the central-southern Spain. PM10-bound PAHs were collected using a high-volume sampler from autumn 2012 to summer 2013 and were analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The most abundant PAHs were pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. The ∑PAH concentrations in Ciudad Real were 888, 368, 259 and 382 pg m(-3) for winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons, respectively. The diurnal variation of PAH was also investigated presenting the highest concentrations during the evening (19:00-23:00). Benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 110 pg m(-3), these values are lower than the target value proposed by the European legislation, 1 ng m(-3). Diagnostic ratios were used to identify potential sources of PAHs. Results suggest that vehicle emissions are the major source of identified PAHs, with a higher contribution of diesel engines although other anthropogenic sources could also have an impact on the PAH levels. PMID:26201660

  4. Concentration dependence of biotransformation in fish liver S9: Optimizing substrate concentrations to estimate hepatic clearance for bioaccumulation assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Justin C; Allard, Gayatri N; Otton, S Victoria; Campbell, David A; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2015-12-01

    In vitro bioassays to estimate biotransformation rate constants of contaminants in fish are currently being investigated to improve bioaccumulation assessments of hydrophobic contaminants. The present study investigates the relationship between chemical substrate concentration and in vitro biotransformation rate of 4 environmental contaminants (9-methylanthracene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver S9 fractions and methods to determine maximum first-order biotransformation rate constants. Substrate depletion experiments using a series of initial substrate concentrations showed that in vitro biotransformation rates exhibit strong concentration dependence, consistent with a Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. The results indicate that depletion rate constants measured at initial substrate concentrations of 1 μM (a current convention) could underestimate the in vitro biotransformation potential and may cause bioconcentration factors to be overestimated if in vitro biotransformation rates are used to assess bioconcentration factors in fish. Depletion rate constants measured using thin-film sorbent dosing experiments were not statistically different from the maximum depletion rate constants derived using a series of solvent delivery-based depletion experiments for 3 of the 4 test chemicals. Multiple solvent delivery-based depletion experiments at a range of initial concentrations are recommended for determining the concentration dependence of in vitro biotransformation rates in fish liver fractions, whereas a single sorbent phase dosing experiment may be able to provide reasonable approximations of maximum depletion rates of very hydrophobic substances. PMID:26077187

  5. Senyawa polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbon (PAH dalam air laut di Teluk Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs compound at Jakarta Bay seawater were carried out on July 2011. The objectives of this research were to measure the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compound, concentration of individual PAH compound, and to identify sources of PAH compound in seawater. PAH compound concentration was measured by Gas Chromatography (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound were identified by diagnostic ratio analysis. The results show that the concentration of PAH compound in the middle of Jakarta Bay was higher compared to the west and the east. In the west and middle of Jakarta Bay, it is found that 11 PAH types, and 10 types in the east. Individual PAH compound dominated by high moleculer weight of PAH Benzo(aAnthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(bFluoranthene, Benzo(aPyrene, dan Indeno(123-cd Pyrene. The results of PAH compound ratio individual analysis showed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound at Jakarta Bay seawater came from oil spill and incomplete combustion mixture of organic material such as wood, grass, fuel oil, and fuel industry combustion activity.

  6. Senyawa polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbon (PAH dalam air laut di Teluk Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs compound at Jakarta Bay seawater were carried out on July 2011. The objectives of this research were to measure the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compound, concentration of individual PAH compound, and to identify sources of PAH compound in seawater. PAH compound concentration was measured by Gas Chromatography (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound were identified by diagnostic ratio analysis. The results show that the concentration of PAH compound in the middle of Jakarta Bay was higher compared to the west and the east. In the west and middle of Jakarta Bay, it is found that 11 PAH types, and 10 types in the east. Individual PAH compound dominated by high moleculer weight of PAH Benzo(aAnthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(bFluoranthene, Benzo(aPyrene, dan Indeno(123-cd Pyrene. The results of PAH compound ratio individual analysis showed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound at Jakarta Bay seawater came from oil spill and incomplete combustion mixture of organic material such as wood, grass, fuel oil, and fuel industry combustion activity.

  7. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract

  8. Unsubstituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in extracts of coal fly ash from the fly ash test cell in Montour, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) was used to identify and to quantify trace amounts of selected, unsubstituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) present in extracts of coal fly ash from the solid waste disposal test cell at Montour, Pennsylvania. Isotope dilution experiments using deuterated analogs of polyaromatic hydrocarbons demonstrated that the concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and anthracene were lower than 1 ng/g of fly ash. Isotope dilution experiments demonstrated that benzo[a]pyrene could be detected at concentrations as high as 1 ng/g when an isotopic carrier was used at a concentration of 125 ng/g in the analytical method. Maximum concentrations of fluorene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene were conservatively estimated to be 3 ng/g of fly ash, using a 95 percent confidence interval based on analytical precision of ±1 ng/g of fly ash. Concentrations of phenanthrene were found to range from 6 to 38 ng/g of fly ash with a mean concentration of 14 ng/g of fly ash. Two sources of phenanthrene were speculated: incomplete combustion of phenanthrene in the coal furnace and addition of phenanthrene to the fly ash after collection by electrostatic precipitators

  9. Characterization and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Biodegradation of recalcitrant toxic organics under radioactive conditions. → Biodegradation of PAHs of varying size and complexity in mixed waste streams. → Validation of radiation-tolerance and performance of the isolated organisms. - Abstract: PAH degrading Pseudomonad and Alcaligenes species were isolated from landfill soil and mine drainage in South Africa. The isolated organisms were mildly radiation tolerant and were able to degrade PAHs in simulated nuclear wastewater. The radiation in the simulated wastewater, at 0.677 Bq/μL, was compatible to measured values in wastewater from a local radioisotope manufacturing facility, and was enough to inhibit metabolic activity of known PAH degraders from soil such as Pseudomonas putida GMP-1. The organic constituents in the original radioactive waste stream consisted of the full range of PAHs except fluoranthene. Among the observed PAHs in the nuclear wastewater from the radioisotope manufacturing facility, acenaphthene and chrysene predominated-measured at 25.1 and 14.2 mg/L, respectively. Up to sixteen U.S.EPA priority PAHs were detected at levels higher than allowable limits in drinking water. The biodegradation of the PAHs was limited by the solubility of the compounds. This contributed to the observed faster degradation rates in low molecular weight (LMW) compounds than in high molecular weight compounds.

  10. Uptake, translocation, and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the potential for plants to take up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils and the possibility of PAH movement from soils into vegetation at waste disposal sites associated with manufactured gas plants (MGP). Studies published since 1983 are considered in conjunction with previous publications and literature reviews on PAH uptake by vegetation. These studies indicate that the extent to which sorption to roots occurs is likely to be influenced by species-specific properties of the plant, physicochemical properties of each PAH, soil properties, and biodegradation rates of the PAHs in soil. PAHs containing five or more rings may sorb to plant roots but are not expected to be translocated to foliage in other than trace quantities. Uptake of naphthalene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene by roots has been reported in the literature. In addition, eight PAHs of three and four rings (acenapthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene) were isolated from leaves and roots of four plant species collected near a coal tar disposal trench in eastern Tennessee. A total concentration of 5519 ng/g was observed for the eight PAHs in roots of lamb's quarters. Coal tar, in soil, was implicated as the source of PAHs in the four plant species

  11. Pyrogenic changes in iron-illuvial podzols in the middle taiga of the Komi Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymov, A. A.; Dubrovsky, Yu. A.; Gabov, D. N.

    2014-02-01

    The changes in the morphological, physicochemical, and chemical properties of iron-illuvial podzols under middle-taiga dwarf shrub-green moss pine forests in the first months after fires are examined. It is shown that forest fires are accompanied by changes in the morphology of the litter horizons, their compaction, and by changes in the chemical properties of the soils. The data on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) indicate a significant increase in the contents of chrysene, fluorene, naphthalene, pyrene, and anthracene in the Opyr(L) horizon in comparison with the litters in the background pine forest. The total PAH content in the O(F)pyr horizon increases mainly at the expense of di- and tri-nuclear PAHs (naphthalene and fluorene). The mineral soil horizons in the burnt area become enriched in the most mobile amphiphilic fractions of the organic matter, which is seen from the increase in the absolute and relative contents of the hydrophilic fractions, which might be represented by the products of combustion of fresh plant remains and litter.

  12. Temperature-mediated polymorphism in molecular crystals: The impact on crystal packing and charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Stevens, Loah A.

    2015-01-13

    We report a novel synthesis to ultra high purity 7,14-bis((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)dibenzo[b,def]-chrysene (TMS-DBC) and the use of this material in the growth of single crystals by solution and vapor deposition techniques. We observe that the substrate temperature has a dramatic impact on the crystal growth, producing two distinct polymorphs of TMS-DBC; low temperature (LT) fine red needles and high temperature (HT) large yellow platelets. Single crystal X-ray crystallography confirms packing structures where the LT crystals form a 1D slipped-stack structure, while the HT crystals adopt a 2D brickwork motif. These polymorphs also represent a rare example where both are extremely stable and do not interconvert to the other crystal structure upon solvent or thermal annealing. Single crystal organic field-effect transistors of the LT and HT crystals show that the HT 2D brickwork motif produces hole mobilities as high as 2.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, while the mobility of the 1D structure is significantly lower, at 0.028 cm2 V-1 s-1. Electronic-structure calculations indicate that the superior charge transport in the brickwork polymorph in comparison to the slipped-stack polymorph is due to the presence of an increased dimensionality of the charge migration pathways.

  13. Reconnaissance of water quality at a US Department of Energy site, Pinellas County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario

    1985-01-01

    Sanitary and industrial wastes at the Pinellas Plant of the U.S. Department of Energy, prior to December 1982, were combined, treated, and disposed of by ponding and spray irrigation on a 10-acre tract within the plant site. Prior to 1972, the treated wastes were released to surface drainage features. An electromagnetic survey for ground conductivity was made to identify changes in the ground conductivity that may be due to the spray irrigation disposal operations. Water samples from four test wells drilled into the surficial aquifer and the two disposal ponds and bottom material from the ponds were analyzed for priority and nonpriority pollutants, total organic carbon, volatile organic carbon, herbicides, insecticides, trace metals, nutrients, and major constituents. Overall, concentrations of constituents in the water samples were (1) less than the detection limits, (2) within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency quality criteria for water, or (3) within the range of results for a designated background water-quality site. Concentrations of 12 priority pollutants were found to be considerably above detection limits. Concentrations of these compounds, mostly coal-tar derivatives, ranged from 220 to 5,500 micrograms per kilogram; the detection limit for these compounds is 10 micrograms per kilogram. Included in these compounds were anthracene, pyrenes, and chrysene. (USGS)

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock

  15. Effects of grilling procedures on levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in grilled meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Kim, Su-Yeon; Moon, Jung-Sik; Kim, Sheen-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Yoon, Hae-Jung

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are chemicals formed when muscle meat is cooked using high-temperature methods, such as grilling directly over an open flame. PAHs have been found to be mutagenic-that is, they cause changes in DNA that may increase the risk of cancer. We investigated the effects of grilling procedures on the level of 4 PAHs; benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). PAHs were extracted and determined by gas chromatography with mass detection (GC-MS). With regard to barbecuing successive meat samples with the same batch of burning charcoal, it was observed that stable combustion contribute to reduction of PAHs. Significant reductions in the sum of the four PAHs were observed through treatments which removed meat drippings and smoke with alternative grilling apparatus. The sums of 4 PAHs were reduced 48-89% with dripping removed and 41-74% with the smoke removal treatment in grilled pork and beef meats than conventional grilling. We investigated the components of meats drippings. The major constituent of meat dripping was fat. The most important factor contributing to the production of PAHs in grilling was smoke resulting from incomplete combustion of fat dripped onto the fire. PMID:26776018

  16. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crumb tyre rubber catalysed by rutile TiO2 under UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Huang, Linyue; Lou, Lan-Lan; Chang, Yue; Dong, Yanling; Wang, Huan; Liu, Shuangxi

    2015-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crumb tyre rubber were firstly degraded under UV irradiation in the presence of rutile TiO2 and hydrogen peroxide. The effects of light intensity, catalyst amount, oxidant amount, initial pH value, co-solvent content, and reaction time on degradation efficiency of typical PAHs in crumb tyre rubber were studied. The results indicated that UV irradiation, rutile TiO2, and hydrogen peroxide were beneficial to the degradation of PAHs and co-solvent could accelerate the desorption of PAHs from crumb tyre rubber. Up to 90% degradation efficiency of total 16 PAHs could be obtained in the presence of rutile TiO2 (1 wt%) and hydrogen peroxide (1.0 mL) under 1800 µW cm(-2) UV irradiation for 48 h. The high molecular weight PAHs (such as benz(a)pyrene) were more difficult to be degraded than low molecular weight PAHs (such as phenanthrene, chrysene). Moreover, through the characterization of reaction solution and degradation products via GC-MS, it was proved that the PAHs in crumb tyre rubber were successfully degraded. PMID:25323028

  17. Occurrence of tar balls on the beaches of Fernando de Noronha Island, South Equatorial Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista Neto, José Antônio; da Costa Campos, Thomas Ferreira; de Andrade, Carala Danielle Perreira; Sichel, Susanna Eleonora; da Fonseca, Estefan Monteiro; Motoki, Akihisa

    2014-12-01

    This work reports on the widespread occurrence of tar balls on a pebble beach of Sueste Bay on Fernando de Noronha Island, a Brazilian national marine park and a preserve in the South Equatorial Atlantic. Environmental regulations preclude regular visitors to the Sueste Bay beach, and the bay is a pristine area without any possible or potential sources of petroleum in the coastal zone. In this work, these tar balls were observed for the first time as they occurred as envelopes around beach pebbles. They are black in color, very hard, have a shell and coral fragment armor, and range in average size from 2 to 6 cm. The shape of the majority of the tar balls is spherical, but some can also be flattened ellipsoids. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses of the collected samples revealed the characteristics of a strongly weathered material, where only the most persistent compounds were detected: chrysene, benzo(b,k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a,h)antracene and benzo(a)pyrene. PMID:24848490

  18. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from soil: a comparison between bioremoval and supercritical fluids extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua-Allieri, M A; Ávila-Chávez, M A; Trejo, A; Meléndez-Estrada, J

    2012-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic substances which are resistant to environmental degradation due to their highly hydrophobic nature. Soils contaminated with PAHs pose potential risks to human and ecological health, therefore concern over their adverse effects have resulted in extensive studies on their removal from contaminated soils. The main purpose of this study was to compare experimental results of PAHs removal, from a natural certified soil polluted with PAHs, by biological methods (using bioaugmentation and biostimulation in a solid-state culture) with those from supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), using supercritical ethane as solvent. The comparison of results between the two methods showed that maximal removal of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, and chrysene was performed using bioremediation; however, for the rest of the PAHs considered (fluoranthene, pyrene, and benz(a)anthracene) SFE resulted more efficient. Although bioremediation achieved higher removal ratios for certain hydrocarbons and takes advantage of the increased rate of natural biological processes, it takes longer time (i.e. 36 d vs. half an hour) than SFE and it is best for 2-3 PAHs rings. PMID:22197016

  19. Optimization of supercritical fluid extraction by carbon dioxide with organic modifiers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from urban particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librando, Vito; Tomaselli, Gaetano; Tringali, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    The main advantages of using supercritical fluids for the extractions of organic pollutants from environmental matrix is that they are inexpensive, contaminant free, and less costly to dispose safely than organic solvents. In this work, a series of extraction experiments were carried out using CO2 as supercritical fluid on a certified sample of "Urban dust" (NIST S.R.M. 1649a) to optimize the analytical parameters with the aim of investigating the extraction limit of organic pollutant by using an almost "organic solvent-free" technique. The certified sample contains small concentrations of several organic pollutants, as PAH and PCB. The initial tests of extraction were carried out with only CO2 in supercritical phase, by maintaining the temperature at 50 degrees C and 80 degrees C and by making the pressure vary between 230 bar and 600 bar. The effect of three organic modifiers (methanol, n-hexane and toluene), added at 5% in volume, has been considered. The yield of recovery has been estimated for anthracene, fluoranthene, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene by GC-MS according to the increasing molecular weight. PMID:16485662

  20. Comparison of Atmospheric Travel Distances of Several PAHs Calculated by Two Fate and Transport Models (The Tool and ELPOS with Experimental Values Derived from a Peat Bog Transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Thuens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia fate and transport models are used to evaluate the long range transport potential (LRTP of organic pollutants, often by calculating their characteristic travel distance (CTD. We calculated the CTD of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and metals using two models: the OECD POV& LRTP Screening Tool (The Tool, and ELPOS. The absolute CTDs of PAHs estimated with the two models agree reasonably well for predominantly particle-bound congeners, while discrepancies are observed for more volatile congeners. We test the performance of the models by comparing the relative ranking of CTDs with the one of experimentally determined travel distances (ETDs. ETDs were estimated from historical deposition rates of pollutants to peat bogs in Eastern Canada. CTDs and ETDs of PAHs indicate a low LRTP. To eliminate the high influence on specific model assumptions and to emphasize the difference between the travel distances of single PAHs, ETDs and CTDs were analyzed relative to the travel distances of particle-bound compounds. The ETDs determined for PAHs, Cu, and Zn ranged from 173 to 321 km with relative uncertainties between 26% and 46%. The ETDs of two metals were shorter than those of the PAHs. For particle-bound PAHs the relative ETDs and CTDs were similar, while they differed for Chrysene.

  1. Validation of an analytical method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high efficiency liquid chromatography in PM10 and PM2,5 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical method was validated for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM2,5 particles collected from air by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was validated. The PAHs analyzed in the methodology include: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Acenaphthene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, Benzo (a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo (b)fluoranthene, Benzo (k)fluoranthene, Benzo (a)pyrene, Dibenzo (a, h)anthracene, Benzo (g, h, i)perylene and Indeno (1,2,3-CD)pyrene. For these compounds, the detection limit and quantification limit have been between 0,02 and 0,1 mg/l. An equipment DIONEX, ICS 3000 model is used, that has two in series detectors: one ultraviolet model VWD-1, and fluorescence detector, model RF-2000, separating the different absorption and emission signals for proper identification of individual compounds. For all the compounds analyzed, the recovery factor has found not significantly different from each other and the repeatability and reproducibility has been to be suitable for an analytical method, especially for the lighter PAHs. (author)

  2. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Hao [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: luhaozju@163.com; Zhu Lizhong [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: zlz@zju.edu.cn; Chen Shuguang [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310028 (China)], E-mail: chenshuguang@zju.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM{sub 2.5} accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM{sub 2.5-10} fraction (17.6%) and >PM{sub 10} fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10{sup -3} life-time lung cancer risk.

  3. Assessment of Geogenic Contaminants in Water Co-Produced with Coal Seam Gas Extraction in Queensland, Australia: Implications for Human Health Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stearman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic compounds in Australian coal seam gas produced water (CSG water are poorly understood despite their environmental contamination potential. In this study, the presence of some organic substances is identified from government-held CSG water-quality data from the Bowen and Surat Basins, Queensland. These records revealed the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in 27% of samples of CSG water from the Walloon Coal Measures at concentrations <1 µg/L, and it is likely these compounds leached from in situ coals. PAHs identified from wells include naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene. In addition, the likelihood of coal-derived organic compounds leaching to groundwater is assessed by undertaking toxicity leaching experiments using coal rank and water chemistry as variables. These tests suggest higher molecular weight PAHs (including benzo[a]pyrene leach from higher rank coals, whereas lower molecular weight PAHs leach at greater concentrations from lower rank coal. Some of the identified organic compounds have carcinogenic or health risk potential, but they are unlikely to be acutely toxic at the observed concentrations which are almost negligible (largely due to the hydrophobicity of such compounds. Hence, this study will be useful to practitioners assessing CSG water related environmental and health risk.

  4. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Andrew C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: acsi@ceh.ac.uk; Bell, Thomas [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom); Heywood, Chloe A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom); Smith, J.A.C. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian P. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract.

  5. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna;

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However......, both benzo[a]pyrene and PAH4 concentrations were more than ten times lower for coffee beans than for tea leaves. Highest levels were found for PAH4 of solid instant coffee (5.1 μg/kg). Data were used to calculate the exposure of benzo[a]pyrene (15%) and sum of PAH4 (10%) from tea and coffee...

  6. PAH in Some Brands of Tea and Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navaratnam, Marin Arosha; Jewula, J.;

    2015-01-01

    The presence of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea and coffee were investigated with focus on four PAHs (PAH4), classified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators; benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo[a]pyrene (Ba......P). PAH4 from samples of 18 brands of tea leaves and 13 brands of coffee were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by highly automated clean up steps for gel permeation chromatography (SX-3) and solid phase extraction (500mg silica). GC-MS were applied for detection of PAH4. The limit...... of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.1–0.3 μg/kg with recoveries from 94–106% for PAH4. Concentrations of PAH4 followed the pattern of the total sum of 25 PAHs with higher concentrations with a maximum of 115 μg/kg in tea leaves compared to 5.1 μg/kg in coffee. The highest PAH4 levels were found in black tea...

  7. Pelagic tar, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons and plastic distribution in the Cretan Sea, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornilios, S.; Drakopoulos, P.G.; Dounas, C. [Institute of Marine Biology of Crete, Iraklio (Greece). Environmental Dept.

    1998-12-01

    During the first cruise of R/V 'Philia' in July 1997 within the framework of the TALOS programme supported by the Greek Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Works, the sampling of floating tar, litter and sea water for dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) was carried out in the Cretan Sea. Analysis of these data has allowed a first assessment of the status of floating marine pollution in the region. DDPH measurements showed a mean concentration of 0.145 {mu}g/l of chrysene equivalents (n = 24). Tar and plastics concentrations were in the range of 1-4280 and 0-1160 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, respectively. Mean pelagic tar concentration was 318 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, more than two times higher than what was reported for the area in previous studies. Based on in situ hydrographic observations there is strong evidence that most of the floating tar enters the Cretan Sea through the Ionian Sea. (author)

  8. Pelagic tar, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons and plastic distribution in the Cretan Sea, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornilios, S.; Drakopoulos, P.G.; Dounas, C. [Institute of Marine Biology of Crete, Iraklio (Greece). Environmental Dept.

    1998-12-01

    During the first cruise of R/V `Philia` in July 1997 within the framework of the TALOS programme supported by the Greek Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Works, the sampling of floating tar, litter and sea water for dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) was carried out in the Cretan Sea. Analysis of these data has allowed a first assessment of the status of floating marine pollution in the region. DDPH measurements showed a mean concentration of 0.145 {mu}g/l of chrysene equivalents (n = 24). Tar and plastics concentrations were in the range of 1-4280 and 0-1160 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, respectively. Mean pelagic tar concentration was 318 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, more than two times higher than what was reported for the area in previous studies. Based on in situ hydrographic observations there is strong evidence that most of the floating tar enters the Cretan Sea through the Ionian Sea. (author)

  9. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred P M

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. A simple methodological validation of the gas/particle fractionation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air requires the tedious experimental steps of both sampling and pretreatment (e.g., extraction or clean-up). To replace pre-existing conventional methods, a simple, rapid, and novel technique was developed to measure gas-particle fractionation of PAH in ambient air based on ‘sorbent tube-thermal desorption-gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (ST-TD-GC-MS)’. The separate collection and analysis of ambient PAHs were achieved independently by two serially connected STs. The basic quality assurance confirmed good linearity, precision, and high sensitivity to eliminate the need for complicated pretreatment procedures with the detection limit (16 PAHs: 13.1 ± 7.04 pg). The analysis of real ambient PAH samples showed a clear fractionation between gas (two-three ringed PAHs) and particulate phases (five-six ringed PAHs). In contrast, for intermediate (four ringed) PAHs (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene), a highly systematic/gradual fractionation was established. It thus suggests a promising role of ST-TD-GC-MS as measurement system in acquiring a reliable database of airborne PAH.

  11. Quantitative determination of hydroxy polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudneh, Million B; Benskin, Jonathan P; Grace, Richard; Hamilton, M Coreen; Magee, Brian H; Hoeger, Glenn C; Forsberg, Norman D; Cosgrove, John R

    2016-07-01

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method was developed for quantitative analysis of hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). Four hydroxy metabolites of known and suspected carcinogenic PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), and chrysene (CRY)) were selected as suitable biomarkers of PAH exposure and associated risks to human health. The analytical method included enzymatic deconjugation, liquid - liquid extraction, followed by derivatization with methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and instrumental analysis. Photo-induced oxidation of target analytes - which has plagued previously published methods - was controlled by a combination of minimizing exposure to light, employing an antioxidant (2-mercaptoethanol) and utilizing a nitrogen atmosphere. Stability investigations also indicated that conjugated forms of the analytes are more stable than the non-conjugated forms. Accuracy and precision of the method were 77.4-101% (<4.9% RSD) in synthetic urine and 92.3-117% (<15% RSD) in human urine, respectively. Method detection limits, determined using eight replicates of low-level spiked human urine, ranged from 13 to 24pg/mL. The method was successfully applied for analysis of a pooled human urine sample and 78 mouse urine samples collected from mice fed with PAH-contaminated diets. In mouse urine, greater than 94% of each analyte was present in its conjugated form. PMID:27266337

  12. Effect of roasting conditions on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in ground Arabica coffee and coffee brew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Maloug, Saber; Leveque, Anne-Sophie; Delteil, Corine; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valérie

    2007-11-14

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, using both dark (20 min) and light (5 min) roasting conditions. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Also, coffee brews, obtained using an electric coffee maker, were analyzed for final estimation of PAH transfer coefficients to the infusion. Formation of phenanthrene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene in coffee beans was observed at temperatures above 220 degrees C, whereas formation of pyrene and chrysene required 260 degrees C. Low levels of benzo[g,h,i]perylene were also noted for dark roasting under 260 degrees C, with simultaneous partial degradation of three-cycle PAHs, suggesting that transformation of low molecular PAHs to high molecular PAHs occurs as the roasting degree is increased. The PAH transfer to the infusion was quite moderate (<35%), with a slightly lower extractability for dark-roasted coffee as compared to light-roasted coffee. PMID:17941690

  13. Modeling the formation of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during the roasting of Arabica coffee samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houessou, Justin Koffi; Goujot, Daniel; Heyd, Bertrand; Camel, Valerie

    2008-05-28

    Roasting is a critical process in coffee production, as it enables the development of flavor and aroma. At the same time, roasting may lead to the formation of nondesirable compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, Arabica green coffee beans from Cuba were roasted under controlled conditions to monitor PAH formation during the roasting process. Roasting was performed in a pilot-spouted bed roaster, with the inlet air temperature varying from 180 to 260 degrees C, for roasting conditions ranging from 5 to 20 min. Several PAHs were determined in both roasted coffee samples and green coffee samples. Different models were tested, with more or less assumptions on the chemical phenomena, with a view to predict the system global behavior. Two kinds of models were used and compared: kinetic models (based on Arrhenius law) and statistical models (neural networks). The numbers of parameters to adjust differed for the tested models, varying from three to nine for the kinetic models and from five to 13 for the neural networks. Interesting results are presented, with satisfactory correlations between experimental and predicted concentrations for some PAHs, such as pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and anthracene. PMID:18433138

  14. Validation of analytical conditions for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatemala-Morales, Guadalupe María; Beltrán-Medina, Elisa Alejandra; Murillo-Tovar, Mario Alfonso; Ruiz-Palomino, Priscilla; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique

    2016-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of significant interest due to their genotoxicity in humans. PAHs quantification in coffee is complex since some of its compounds interfere in the chromatographic analysis, which hinders the reliable determination of the PAHs. Analytical conditions for the ultrasound extraction, purification and quantification of 16 PAHs in roasted coffee were studied. The better extraction efficiency of benzo[a]pyrene (68%) from ground-roasted coffee was achieved with a solvent ratio of Hex:MC (9:1 v/v) and three extraction periods of 20 min, followed by alkaline saponification and purification of the extracts. The detection limits were 0.85-39.32 ng mL(-1), and the quantification limits from 2.84 to 131.05 ng mL(-1), obtained for fluoranthene and chrysene, respectively. The extraction was effective for most of the analytes, with recoveries of 39.8% dibenzo[ah]anthracene and 69.0% benzo[b]fluoranthene. For coffee roasted in a spouted bed reactor, the summation of the 16 PAHs ranged from 3.5 to 16.4 μg kg(-1). PMID:26617012

  15. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: Environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Adriana C., E-mail: ABejarano@researchplanning.co [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States); Michel, Jacqueline [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU{sub FCV,43}). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU{sub FCV,43} values: no-risk (<=1), low (>1-<=2), low-medium (>2-<=3), medium (>3-<=5) and high-risk (>5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU{sub FCV,43} > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30-<60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. - Risk Assessment of PAHs in shoreline sediments 12 years after the Gulf War oil spill.

  16. MONITORING POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SEDIMENT POREWATER BY SPMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚先; 张勇; 庄一廷; Ka-FaiPoon; MichaelH.W.Lam; 洪华生; RudolfS.S.Wu

    2001-01-01

    A new mimic biological Semi-permeable Membrane Device (SPMD) introduced for sampling organic pollutants yielded satisfactory results when it was frrst used as a passive sampler to concentrate and determine 16 kinds of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by means of capillary GC on an HP 5890 GC-FID in coastal sediment perewater. The concentration of PAHs in sediment porewater for naphthalene(N), acenaphthlene(AL), acenaphthene (AE), fluorene (F), phenaphthene(P), anthracene(A), fluoranthene(FA), pyrene(Py), benzo[a]anthracene(B[a]A), chrysene(Chr), benzo[b] fluor- anthene(B[b]F), benzo[k]fluoranthene(B[k]F), benzo[a]pyrene(B[a]P),indeno[1,2,3,-cd]-Pyrene(I[123]P), dibenz[a,h]anthracene(D[ab]A) and benzo[g,h,i] perylene(B[ghi]P) were:50.36, under detection limits(UD), 18.19, 8.41, 8.40, 1.44, UD, 8.01, 524.15, 168.47, 50.13,123.66, 63.48, 27.40, 82.04 and 58,81 ng/L, respectively.

  17. Toxic by-products from the combustion of Kraft lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Rafael; Esperanza, Mar; García, Angela Nuria

    2003-08-01

    Lignin samples, sub-product in the Kraft process of cellulose from eucalyptus wood, were burnt in a laboratory scale furnace at different residence temperatures and with distinct fuel-rich atmospheres. The yields of CO, CO(2), eight light hydrocarbons (methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, acetylene, butane, etc.) and 60 semi-volatile+volatile compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, indene, naphthalene, dibenzofuran, phenanthrene, chrysene, etc.) were determined, with nominal reactor temperatures between 800 and 1100 degrees C and residence times of the volatiles evolved and formed between 4 and 7 s. The collection of the gases and volatiles evolved was carried out with a Tedlar bag and by XAD-4 resin respectively, comparing the data obtained in both cases. The emission factor (mg/kg) of the CO was between 2500 and 90000, and under the poor-oxygen atmosphere, the emission factors of many by-toxic products were greater than 100 mg/kg. A pyrolysis run was also performed, obtaining emission factors between 30 and 3000 mg/kg, facilitating its identification. The behaviour of different compounds in the combustion runs was discussed considering three groups in accordance with their stability vs. oxygen, and two groups vs. temperature. PMID:12781238

  18. Key high molecular weight PAH-degrading bacteria in a soil consortium enriched using a sand-in-liquid microcosm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauler, Margalida; Vila, Joaquim; Nieto, José María; Grifoll, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    A novel biphasic system containing mineral medium and sand coated with a biologically weathered creosote-PAH mixture was developed to specifically enrich the high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (HMW PAH)-degrading community from a creosote-polluted soil. This consortium (UBHP) removed 70 % of the total HMW PAHs and their alkyl-derivatives in 12 weeks. Based on a combined culture-dependent/independent approach, including clone library analysis, detection of catabolic genes, metabolomic profiles, and characterization of bacterial isolates, 10 phylotypes corresponding to five major genera (Sphingobium, Sphingomonas, Achromobacter, Pseudomonas, and Mycobacterium) were pointed out as key players within the community. In response to exposure to different single PAHs, members of sphingomonads were associated to the utilization of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene, while the degradation of pyrene was mainly associated to low-abundance mycobacteria. In addition to them, a number of uncultured phylotypes were detected, being of special relevance a group of Gammaproteobacteria closely related to a group previously associated with pyrene degradation that were here related to benzo(a)anthracene degradation. The overall environmental relevance of these phylotypes was confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis of the microbial community shift in the creosote-polluted soil during a lab-scale biostimulation. PMID:26637425

  19. Toxicity of photoactivated PAHs to early lifestages of endangered fish and fathead minnows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The San Juan River Basin, located in the Four Corners area of the southwestern US, contains some of the largest oil and gas reserves in the US. The basin is also critical habitat for several native fishes, including the endangered Colorado squawfish and razorback sucker. Proposed expansion of oil and gas development in the San Juan basin has sparked concerns that potential increases in PAH loading may jeopardize these and other native fishes. Previous acute exposures of juvenile fish to fluoranthene, anthracene, pyrene, and chrysene showed that LC50 values for the two endangered species were within a factor of 2 of those for fathead minnows, However, subsequent experiments showed that fathead minnow fry were far more sensitive than juvenile fish. In response to this finding, additional exposures to fluoranthene and UV were conducted using early life stages of the endangered fish and fathead minnows. These experiments confirmed that fry were several-fold more sensitive to photoactivated PAH toxicity than were juvenile fish; in addition, the authors found that fry responded much more quickly to PAH/UV exposure. These findings, coupled with other environmental factors, suggest that early life stages of fish may be particularly susceptible to photoactivated PAH toxicity in the field

  20. Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar PAHs [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3050, 1610, 1300, 1150, and 885 cm-1 (3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns) is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) hypothesis. This hypothesis is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few PAHs. The fundamental vibrations of PAHs and PAH-like species which determine the ir and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar ir band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited PAHs which have been excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described in general and the ir fluorescence from one PAH, chrysene, is traced in detail. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that PAHs containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission. 43 refs., 11 figs

  1. Polycyclic aromatic compounds in oils derived from the fluidised bed pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Nazzal, Jamal M. [Department of Fuel and Energy, The University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-01

    Oil shale was pyrolysed in a 10 cm diameterx100 cm high fluidised bed reactor with nitrogen as the fluidising gas at pyrolysis temperatures of 400, 450, 520, 570 and 620C. The gases were analysed by packed column gas chromatography. The condensed pyrolytic oils were analysed for their content of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), sulphur-PAH (PASH) and nitrogen-PAH (PANH). The oils were fractionated into chemical classes using mini-column liquid chromatography followed by analysis using capillary column gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection (GC/FID) and capillary column GC with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for identification and quantification of PAH. PASH and PANH were identified in the chemical class fractions using capillary column GC with selective detection and GC/MS. The pyrolytic shale oils were found to contain significant concentrations of PAH, PASH and PANH. The concentrations of PAC were increased with increasing reactor temperature and residence time. The PAH consisted mainly of naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene and their alkylated homologues, and lower concentrations of fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene. The PASH identified included benzothiophene, and dibenzothiophene, and the PANH identified including indole and carbazole and their alkylated derivatives. Some of the PAC identified have been reported to be mutagenic and/or carcinogenic

  2. Pyrolysis of oil shales: influence of particle grain size on polycyclic aromatic compounds in the derived shale oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, P.T.; Nazzal, J.M. [University of Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Fuel and Energy

    1999-06-01

    Oil shales of different particle grain sizes were pyrolysed in a 10 cm diameter x 100 cm high fluidized-bed reactor under both a nitrogen and a steam atmosphere. The oil shales were from the Kimmeridge clay of Jurassic age from the UK. The influence of particle grain size on the yield and composition of the oil and gases was determined. The gases were analysed for H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and other hydrocarbons to C{sub 4}. The condensed oils were analysed for their content of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), sulphur-PAH (PASH) and nitrogen-PAH (PANH). The oil yield increased with increasing particle grain size. The derived shale oils contained significant concentrations of PAH, PASH and PANH. The concentration of PAC increased with decreasing particle grain size. The PAH consisted mainly of naphthalene, fluorene and phenanthrene and their alkylated homologues, and lower concentrations of fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene. The PASH identified included benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene, and the PANH identified included indole, carbazole and their alkylated derivatives. Increased secondary reactions linked to the formation of PAC were indicated by the alkene/alkane ratio. The effect of steam was to significantly increase the yield of oil and also to increase the concentration of PAH, PASH and PANH in the derived shale oil compared with using nitrogen as the sweep gas. (author)

  3. Pelagic tar, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons and plastic distribution in the Cretan Sea, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first cruise of R/V 'Philia' in July 1997 within the framework of the TALOS programme supported by the Greek Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Works, the sampling of floating tar, litter and sea water for dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) was carried out in the Cretan Sea. Analysis of these data has allowed a first assessment of the status of floating marine pollution in the region. DDPH measurements showed a mean concentration of 0.145 μg/l of chrysene equivalents (n = 24). Tar and plastics concentrations were in the range of 1-4280 and 0-1160 μg/m2, respectively. Mean pelagic tar concentration was 318 μg/m2, more than two times higher than what was reported for the area in previous studies. Based on in situ hydrographic observations there is strong evidence that most of the floating tar enters the Cretan Sea through the Ionian Sea. (author)

  4. Growth of rhodococcus S1 on anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpim, S; Pickard, M A

    1996-03-01

    Three slow-growing bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for growth on anthracene, using creosote-contaminated soil as the inoculum. Organisms were shown to use anthracene by the production of a clear zone around the colony after a mineral salts agar plate was sprayed with anthracene. All three bacteria were nonmotile, nonsporulating, gram-positive rods and stained acid-fast. Physiological and biochemical tests, GC content, and cell wall lipid patterns of whole cell methanolysates indicated that they belonged to the Nocardia-Mycobacterium-Rhodococcus group. On the basis of these characteristics and pyrolysis gas chromatography, they were assigned to the genus Rhodococcus. Growth of the isolates was slow on crystalline anthracene, giving a doubling time of 1.5-3 days, and they grew mainly on the crystal surface. When anthracene was supplied by precipitation from a solvent, doubling time was reduced to 1 day. All three isolates mineralized anthracene but not phenanthrene or naphthalene, nor could they grow on naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, fluoranthene, acenaphthene, pyrene, chrysene, or naphthacene as sole carbon source. One isolate, Rhodococcus S1, was able to use 2-methylanthracene or 2-chloroanthracene as carbon source but not 1- or 9-substituted analogs. These results suggest that the initial enzyme attacking anthracene in these isolates has a narrow substrate specificity. PMID:8868237

  5. Major gaseous and PAH emissions from a fluidized-bed combustor firing rice husk with high combustion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experimental work investigated major gaseous (CO and NOx) and PAH emissions from a 400 kWth fluidized-bed combustor with a cone-shaped bed (referred to as 'conical FBC') firing rice husk with high, over 99%, combustion efficiency. Experimental tests were carried out at the fuel feed rate of 80 kg/h for different values of excess air (EA). As revealed by the experimental results, EA had substantial effects on the axial CO and NOx concentration profiles and corresponding emissions from the combustor. The concentration (mg/kg-ash) and specific emission (μg/kW h) of twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were quantified in this work for different size fractions of ash emitted from the conical FBC firing rice husk at EA = 20.9%. The total PAHs emission was found to be predominant for the coarsest ash particles, due to the effects of a highly developed internal surface in a particle volume. The highest emission was shown by acenaphthylene, 4.1 μg/kW h, when the total yield of PAHs via fly ash was about 10 μg/kW h. (author)

  6. Diffusive exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons across the air-water interface of the Patapsco River, an urbanized subestuary of the Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamford, H.A.; Offenberg, J.H.; Larsen, R.K.; Ko, F.C.; Baker, J.E. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Air-water exchange fluxes of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined along a transect in the Patapsco River from the Inner Harbor of Baltimore, MD, to the mainstem of the northern Chesapeake Bay. Sampling took place at six sites during three sampling intensives (June 1996, February 1997, and July 1997) and at one site every ninth day between March 1997 and March 1998 to measure spatial, daily, and annual variability in the fluxes. The direction and magnitude of the daily fluxes of individual PAHs were strongly influenced by the wind speed and direction, by the air temperature, and by the highly variable PAH concentrations in the gas and dissolved phases. Individual fluxes ranged from 14,200 ng m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1} net volatilization of fluorene during high winds to 11,400 ng m{sup {minus}2} day{sup {minus}1} net absorption of phenanthrene when prevailing winds blowing from the northwest across the city of Baltimore elevated gaseous PAH concentrations over the water. The largest PAH volatilization fluxes occurred adjacent to the stormwater discharges, driven by elevated dissolved PAH concentrations in surface waters. Estimated annual volatilization fluxes ranged from 1.1 {micro}g m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} for chrysene to 800 {micro}g m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1} for fluorene.

  7. Accumulation and bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a nearshore estuarine environment near a Pensacola (Florida) creosote contamination site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J.F.; Dresler, P.V.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term accumulation of creosote wastes at a wood-preserving facility near Pensacola, Florida, has produced high levels of organic contamination of groundwaters near Pensacola Bay. Impacts of this contamination on the nearshore environment of the bay were examined by analysis of water, sediment and tissues of two mollusc species. One of the species (Thais haemastoma) was native to the study area. Individuals of the other test species (Crassostrea virginica) were placed in cages at the test sites for a 6-week period. Contamination at the nearshore estuarine sites was assessed by comparison to a control site in an uncontaminated area of the bay, as well as a small stream which forms a direct surface-water link between the creosote storage ponds and the bay. The study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the primary components of creosote. Very little PAH in water or in the surface layer of estuarine sediments was detected, despite heavy pollution of the stream sediments. This is attributed to various degradation processes which attack the PAH compounds once they discharge into the estuary, and to the likelihood of intermittent and localised release of contaminants to the estuary. Examination of sediment cores and mollusc tissues, which provide a record integrated over time and space, revealed some accumulation of a few PAH, notably fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. In the sediments, the highest concentrations of these compounds appeared below the surface, within a depth range of 8-13 cm. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene in both mollusc species was up to ten times greater at test sites than at the control site. This contrasts with naphthalene, the bioaccumulation of which was no greater at test sites than at the control site. These differences in bioaccumulation factors relate to structural chemistry of the compounds which control their solubility, bioavailability, susceptibility to degradation

  8. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, L.; Helgeson, H.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1998-12-01

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for {approximately}360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17{alpha}(H)- and 17{beta}(H)-hopanes, 5{alpha}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{beta}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{alpha}(H),14{beta}(H)-, and 5{beta}(H),14{beta}(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms

  9. Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Laurent; Helgeson, Harold C.

    1998-12-01

    To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for ˜360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17α(H)- and 17β(H)-hopanes, 5α(H),14α(H)-, 5β(H),14α(H)-, 5α(H),14β(H)-, and 5β(H),14β(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. Calculations of this kind permit comprehensive

  10. Collection-efficient, axisymmetric vacuum sublimation module for the purification of solid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael; Paul, Elizabeth; Katovic, Vladimir

    2015-11-01

    A vacuum sublimation module of axisymmetric geometry was developed and employed to purify solid-phase materials. The module provides certain practical advantages and it comprises: a metering valve, glass collector, glass lower body, main seal, threaded bushing, and glass internal cartridge (the latter to contain starting material). A complementary process was developed to de-solvate, sublime, weigh, and collect solid chemical materials exemplified by oxalic acid, ferrocene, pentachlorobenzene, chrysene, and urea. The oxalic acid sublimate was analyzed by titration, melting range, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and its (aqueous phase) electrolytically generated gas. The analytical data were consistent with a high-purity, anhydrous oxalic acid sublimate. Cyclic voltammograms of 0.11 mol. % oxalic acid in water displayed a 2.1 V window on glassy carbon electrode beyond which electrolytic decomposition occurs. During module testing, fifteen relatively pure materials were sublimed with (energy efficient) passive cooling and the solid-phase recovery averaged 95 mass %. Key module design features include: compact vertical geometry, low-angle conical collector, uniformly compressed main seal, modest power consumption, transparency, glovebox compatibility, cooling options, and preferential conductive heat transfer. To help evaluate the structural (module) heat transfer, vertical temperature profiles along the dynamically evacuated lower body were measured versus electric heater power: for example, an input of 18.6 W generated a temperature 443-K at the bottom. Experimental results and engineering calculations indicate that during sublimation, solid conduction is the primary mode of heat transfer to the starting material. PMID:26628150

  11. Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Cigarette Smoke%卷烟烟气中多环芳烃的分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国安; 王复; 李桂贞; 谢焰; 杜向东

    2001-01-01

    通过二次柱层析纯化和富集卷烟烟气中多环芳烃,用气相色谱/质谱法进行多环芳烃的定性和定量分析。在卷烟烟气中检测了蒽,菲,荧蒽,芘,苯并[a]蒽,FDD8,苯并荧蒽,苯并[e]芘,苯并[a]芘等多环芳烃,其浓度在8~391ng/支之间,多环芳烃回收率在80%以上。在此基础上测定了3种不同焦油含量的卷烟烟气中的多环芳烃,发现卷烟烟气中多环芳烃含量与焦油含量有良好的相关性。%Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cigarette smoke were purified and enriched using flash column chromatography, and then measured by GC-MS. Anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a] anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthene, benzo[e] pyrene and benzo[a] pyrene in cigarette smoke were analyzed, and their concentrations were found to be 8~391 ng/cigarette. Recovery of PAHs was over 80%. Cigarettes of 3 different tar levels were measured and excellent interdependency was found between PAHs concentration and tar level.

  12. New observations on PAH pollution in old heavy industry cities in northeastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the distinctive PAHs adsorbed on street dust near various industries in the three typical industrialized cities of Daqing (DQ), Harbin (HEB) and Jilin (JL) in northeastern China. The mean ∑PAHs concentrations in street dust of DQ, HEB and JL were 1.84, 4.87, 12.38 μg/g, respectively. Typical petroleum resource city DQ had higher proportions of low and medium ringed PAHs with higher proportions of phenanthrene (Phe), naphthalene (Nap), fluoranthene (Flua) and chrysene (Chr) at industrial sites. Typical chemical processing city JL had higher proportions of medium and high ringed PAHs with higher proportions of Flua, benz[a]anthracene (BaA), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at industrial sites. Phe, Flua, Pyr and Chr were four major PAHs from most studied industries. The distinctive PAH emissions from the ferroalloy plant were BaA and BaP. BaA and BaP concentrations decreased by 90% at sites more than 2 km away from the ferroalloy plant. - Highlights: • Industry types determined PAH pollution characteristics at industrial sites. • Petroleum resource city Daqing had more low and medium ringed PAHs. • Phe, Flua, Pyr and Chr were major PAHs at most studied industrial sites. • The distinctive PAH emissions from the ferroalloy plant were BaA and BaP. • The major industry pollution impact radius was found to be about 2 km. - This paper investigated the signature of PAH contamination in street dust from 3 cities with contrasting industries

  13. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

  14. Content determination and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in fish tissue samples from Perhentian Island, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in three fish species with different feeding habits and habitat for examples Lolong (Selar boops), Kerisi (Nemipterus peronii) dan Mengkarong (Trachinocephalus myops) from offshore of Perhentian Island, Malaysia was determined. Three individuals from each species were taken at random and the PAHs contents were determined in the muscles. Ten PAH compounds, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene were determined. PAH in fish tissues was extracted using Soxhlet method and detected using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The level of PAH in fish tissue ranged from 17.89 - 42.18 ng/ g wet weight and 393.98 - 511.07 ng/ g lipid weight. The order of PAH concentration in wet weight was Kerisi (511.07 ng/ g)> Mengkarong (409.50 ng/ g)> Lolong (393.98 ng/ g) but in terms of lipid weight, the order was Kerisi (511.07 ng/ g)> Mengkarong (409.50 ng/ g)> Lolong (393.98 ng/ g). Kerisi has the lowest lipid content of 3.5 % compared to Lolong (6.5 %) and Mengkarong (10.3 %). No obvious significant difference (p > 0.05) of PAH levels in three fish species was observed (ANOVA, p > 0.05). There was no significant relationship between lipid content and PAH accumulation in fish. Based on fish consumption rate of 142.2 g/ day, the Potency Equivalent Concentration (PEC), which is a carcinogenic potency value for PAH, was found to be ranged from 0.41 - 0.63 ng/ g wet weight in all three species of fish. This value is below the limit set by USEPA, which is 0.67 ng/ g wet weight for human consumption. (author)

  15. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bladder cancer: evaluation from a gene-environment perspective in a hospital-based case-control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Navarro, Patricio; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Camacho, María; Álvarez-León, Eva E; Valencia-Santana, Jorge A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to bladder cancer. Objective: To evaluate the role of PAHs in bladder cancer, PAHs serum levels were measured in patients and controls from a case-control study. Methods: A total of 140 bladder cancer patients and 206 healthy controls were included in the study. Sixteen PAHs were analyzed from the serum of subjects by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Serum PAHs did not appear to be related to bladder cancer risk, although the profile of contamination by PAHs was different between patients and controls: pyrene (Pyr) was solely detected in controls and chrysene (Chry) was exclusively detected in the cases. Phenanthrene (Phe) serum levels were inversely associated with bladder cancer (OR = 0·79, 95%CI = 0·64–0·99, P = 0·030), although this effect disappeared when the allelic distribution of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms of the population was introduced into the model (multinomial logistic regression test, P = 0·933). Smoking (OR = 3·62, 95%CI = 1·93–6·79, P<0·0001) and coffee consumption (OR = 1·73, 95%CI = 1·04–2·86, P = 0·033) were relevant risk factors for bladder cancer. Conclusions: Specific PAH mixtures may play a relevant role in bladder cancer, although such effect seems to be highly modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25291984

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ultrafine particles of diesel exhaust fumes – The use of ultrafast liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szewczyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article presents the results of the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the fine particles fraction emitted from 3 types of diesel fuels using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography. Material and Methods: Samples of diesel Eco, Verwa and Bio exhaust combustion fumes were generated at the model station which consisted of a diesel engine from the 2007 Diesel TDI 2.0. Personal Cascade Sioutas Impactor (PCSI with Teflon filters was used to collect samples of exhaust fume ultrafine particles. PAHs adsorbed on particulate fractions were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC/FL. Results: Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene present the highest concentration in the particulate matter emitted by an engine. The total contents of fine particles collected during engine operation on fuels Eco, Verwa and Bio were 134.2 μg/g, 183.8 μg/g and 153.4 μg/g, respectively, which makes 75%, 90% and 83% of the total PAHs, respectively. The highest content of benzo(apyrene determined in particles emitted during the combustion of fuels Eco and Bio was 1.5 μg/g and 1 μg/g, respectively. Conclusions: The study of the PAH concentration in the particles of fine fraction below 0.25 μm emitted from different fuels designed for diesel engines indicate that the exhaust gas content of carcinogens, including PAHs deposited on particulates, is still significant, regardless of the fuel. Application of ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the analysis of PAHs in the particles emitted in the fine fraction of diesel exhaust allowed to shorten the analysis time from 35 min to 8 min. Med Pr 2014;65(5:601–608

  17. Naphthalimides Induce G2 Arrest Through the ATM-Activated Chk2-Executed Pathway in HCT116 Cells

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    Hong Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalimides, particularly amonafide and 2-(2-dimethylamino-6-thia-2-aza-benzo[def]chrysene-1,3-diones (R16, have been identified to possess anticancer activities and to induce G2-M arrest through inhibiting topoisomerase II accompanied by Chk1 degradation. The current study was designed to precisely dissect the signaling pathway(s responsible for the naphthalimide-induced cell cycle arrest in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Using phosphorylated histone H3 and mitotic protein monoclonal 2 as mitosis markers, we first specified the G2 arrest elicited by the R16 and amonafide. Then, R16 and amonafide were revealed to induce phosphorylation of the DNA damage sensor ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM responding to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Inhibition of ATM by both the pharmacological inhibitor caffeine and the specific small interference RNA (siRNA rescued the G2 arrest elicited by R16, indicating its ATM-dependent characteristic. Furthermore, depletion of Chk2, but not Chk1 with their corresponding siRNA, statistically significantly reversed the R16- and amonafide-triggered G2 arrest. Moreover, the naphthalimides phosphorylated Chk2 in an ATM-dependent manner but induced Chk1 degradation. These data indicate that R16 and amonafide preferentially used Chk2 as evidenced by the differential ATM-executed phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Thus, a clear signaling pathway can be established, in which ATM relays the DNA DSBs signaling triggered by the naphthalimides to the checkpoint kinases, predominantly to Chk2,which finally elicits G2 arrest. The mechanistic elucidation not only favors the development of the naphthalimides as anticancer agents but also provides an alternative strategy of Chk2 inhibition to potentiate the anticancer activities of these agents.

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the membranes of fatty acid vesicles. The goal was to determine whether PAH could function as a stabilizing agent, similar to the role that cholesterol plays in membranes today. We studied vesicle size distribution, critical vesicle concentration and permeability of the bilayers using C6-C10 fatty acids mixed with amphiphilic PAH derivatives such as 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid and 1,4 chrysene quinone. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) spectroscopy was used to measure the size distribution of vesicles and incorporation of PAH species was established by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. We employed conductimetric titration to determine the minimal concentration at which fatty acids could form stable vesicles in the presence of PAHs. We found that oxidized PAH derivatives can be incorporated into decanoic acid (DA) vesicle bilayers in mole ratios up to 1:10 (PAH:DA). Vesicle size distribution and critical vesicle concentration were largely unaffected by PAH incorporation, but 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid lowered the permeability of fatty acid bilayers to small solutes up to 4-fold. These data represent the first indication of a cholesterol-like stabilizing effect of oxidized PAH derivatives in a simulated prebiotic membrane.

  19. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the different species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion from others origins of particulate matter (vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach of source tracking.

  20. [Characterization of PAHs in fly ashes from coke production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Bai, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Qiang

    2013-03-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ashes from coking, PAHs in ashes from three coke production plants were analyzed with GC-MS, and the distribution characteristics of PAHs and potential toxicity risk were discussed. The sum of 16 EPA prior PAHs varied from 8.17 x 10(2) to 5.17 x 10(3) microg x g(-1). PAH contents from the coke oven (stamp charging) with the height of 3.2 m were two times higher than those from the one (top charging) with the height of 6.0 m, and PAHs in ashes from coal charging were significantly higher than those from coke pushing in the same plant. Four-ring and five-ring PAHs were the dominant species in ashes from coking and the sum of them accounted for more than 80.00% of total PAHs. Chrysene (Chr), benzo [a] anthracene (BaA) and benzo [b] fluoranthene (BbF) were abundant in all ash samples. The content of total BaP-based toxic equivalency (BaPeq) ranged from 1.64 x 10(2) to 9.57 x 10(2) microg x g(-1). From the carcinogenic point of view, besides benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), dibenz [a,h] anthracene (DbA) contributed most to the overall toxicity of PAHs, followed by BaA and BbF. BaPeq concentration from coal charging was 5.21-fold higher than that from coke pushing, indicating that different reuse ways should be considered based on their specific toxicity profiles of PAHs. PMID:23745428

  1. Panel study on indoor exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons in relation to DNA damage biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Koppen

    2015-06-01

    Naphthalene - a possible carcinogenic (IARC group 2B compound - was in both seasons relatively the most important PAH in indoor air (70-80%. More heavy carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs were – mainly in summer – hard to detect. In house dust mainly the 3 and 4-ring phenanthrene, fluorene, pyrene and the 4- and 5-ring structures chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene made the most important contribution to the EPA-PAH mixture. All PAH fractions in house dust were highest in winter time. DNA breaks in MWBC - but not of the whole white blood cells fraction - of the inhabitants were strongly associated with air as wells as house dust v-PAHs and c-PAHs, i.e. between 13 to 25% increase in number of breaks for doubling of the indoor PAH concentration. The indoor air v-PAHs were also associated with oxidative damage measured in whole blood and urine, respectively via the FPG comet assay and 8-oxodG. In the same way, also oxidized sites in whole blood, but not in MWBC correlated with NO2, PM10 and O3 concentrations 7 days before blood collection. Aside from lymphocytes and monocytes, which are present in the MWBC - and have a half-life of weeks to months - whole blood also contains a considerable amount of granulocytes, which have a rather short half-life of some days. In conclusion: DNA damage in isolated MWBC and the whole white blood cell fraction reflected the inhabitants’ exposure to indoor PAHs, although with different sensitivity.

  2. Emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of different residential coals in North China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wen X. [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: wxliu@urban.pku.edu.cn; Dou Han; Wei, Zhi C.; Chang Biao; Qiu, Wei X.; Liu Yuan; Tao Shu [Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-02-01

    Emission properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion of six residential coals in North China were investigated. The results indicated that, the total emission factors (EFs) for 15 PAH species in gaseous and particulate phases ranged from 52.8 to 1434.8 mg/kg with a decreasing sequence of local bituminous coals and anthracite coals, and honeycomb briquettes were largely dependent on the raw coals used to produce them. Particulate phase, dominated by median or high molecular weight components, made a major contribution (68.8% - 76.5%) to the total EFs for bituminous coals, while gaseous phase with principal low molecular weight species accounted for most (86.3% - 97.9%) of the total EFs for anthracite coals. The phase partitioning of PAH emission for honeycomb briquettes was similarly dependent on the crude coals. The total EFs, phase partitioning and component profiles of emitted PAHs were mainly influenced by the inner components of the studied coals. Burning mode and flue number on household coal-stoves also affected the emission characteristics by means of the oxygen supply. A sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene(BaP)-equivalent carcinogenic power and total toxicity potency expressed in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin(TCDD) toxic equivalence exhibited that bituminous coals and produced honeycomb briquettes had remarkably elevated values. Fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene from anthracite coals showed higher levels of BaP-based toxic equivalent factor, though the other toxicity indices were rather low for this type of coal.

  3. Considerations for risk-based corrective action at contaminated gas works sites: examples from Canada and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardisty, P.E.; Sevigny, J.H.; Croft, R.C.; Bracken, R.A.; Hobby, R. [Komex Clarke Bond, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Risk-based corrective action programmes for contaminated gas works sites focus on organic and inorganic compounds posing potential health effects to humans and/or ecological receptors. These programmes include an understanding of the nature and extent of contamination, transport and fate in appropriate pathways, toxicological effects to human health and the environment, and remedial options. Potential risk-generating substances at gas works sites in the United Kingdom and Canada include coal tar and tar residues, spent oxides, sulphur compounds, and heavy metals. Organic compounds found in coal tar can include monocyclic (e.g. benzene, phenols) and polycyclic (e.g. naphthalene, chrysene) aromatic hydrocarbons. Tar and some of its components are carcinogenic. Metals and sulphur may be present at gas works sites. Sulphur contaminated soils can have depressed pH, which can lead to metals mobilization, and contaminated groundwater. Metals can be of concern in soils and groundwater, as can spent oxides from town gas manufacturing. These may include varying proportions of cyanide, either as relatively immobile complexed ferro-ferric cyanide (i.e. blue billy), or as more mobile and toxic free cyanide. Aquifers and surface water bodies can be pathways for dissolved metals or organic compounds with elevated aqueous solubilities. Some components of coal tar have appreciable vapour pressures and may emit odours if in near-surface soils, pathways exist via dermal contact or ingestion. Case histories from two coal gasification sites, one in the UK and one in Canada, are presented and discussed. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Atmospheric behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a Japanese remote background site, Noto peninsula, from 2004 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Hakamata, Mariko; Sato, Kousuke; Okada, Yumi; Yang, Xiaoyang; Tatematsu, Michiya; Toriba, Akira; Kameda, Takayuki; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-11-01

    Total suspended particulates were collected at a Japanese remote background site (Noto Air Monitoring Station; NAMS) on the Noto Peninsula from September 2004 to June 2014. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particulates (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The mean total concentrations of the nine PAHs in the cold season (November to May for the years 2004-2014) was 670 pg m-3 (range 37-4100 pg m-3). The mean total concentration in the warm season (June to October for the same period) was 170 pg m-3 (range 31-960 pg m-3). The atmospheric PAH level at NAMS decreased in recent years, although no significant change was found in the warm season. An analysis of meteorological conditions showed that the atmospheric PAHs at NAMS were long range transported from Northeast China in the cold seasons and were contributed to by Japanese domestic sources in the warm seasons. Lower concentration ratios of reactive PAHs to their isomers at NAMS also supported these results. Activities associated with the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2008 and reconstruction after the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake may have contributed to the yearly variations of atmospheric PAH levels at NAMS during the period 2007-2009. Source control measures implemented by the Chinese and Japanese governments appear to have been effective in decreasing the atmospheric PAH levels at NAMS in recent years.

  5. A screening method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water by headspace SPME with GC-FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuazagoitia, D.; Millan, E.; Garcia, R. [Univ. of Pais Vasco, Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2007-11-15

    A simple method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) was developed. In order to obtain the convenient experimental conditions for HS-SPME extraction an experimental design with two steps was accomplished. A 2{sup 6-2} fractional factorial design and central composite design (CCD) considering three significant factors were used. Naphthalene, anthracene and fluoranthene were chosen as representatives of two, three and four aromatic rings, and the global response of three PAHs was used for the results, evaluation. The chosen extraction conditions were: 85 {mu}m polyacrylate fibre; 50 C temperature; 60 min time; 20 mL-dissolution volume (in 40 mL glass vial); without salt addition; and 2 min desorption time. The procedure was extended to other seven PAHs (acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(a)anthracene) and the analytical characteristics were checked. The limit of detection (LOD) was from 0.08 (anthracene) to 0.20 {mu}g L{sup -1} (naphthalene). The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD in %) using 50 {mu}g L{sup -1} of each analyte ranged from 6.8 to 17 %. The method was applied to the analysis of the surface waters and leaching waters of contaminated soils from Gipuzkoa (North Spain). The PAHs were not detected in surface water samples. Most of the PAHs were found in the leachates from contaminated soils showing a maximum global value of 75.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. (orig.)

  6. Diurnal variation of particle-bound PAHs in an urban area of Spain using TD-GC/MS: Influence of meteorological parameters and emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elorduy, I.; Elcoroaristizabal, S.; Durana, N.; García, J. A.; Alonso, L.

    2016-08-01

    Short -term particulate concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 were determined in the urban area of Bilbao (Spain). The analysis was performed by thermal desorption coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS), which enabled to use three diurnal periods of 8 h sampling basis time resolution. A total of 105 PM10 samples were collected during 5 months in 2013. Diurnal average concentration of total PAHs (∑13 PAHs) ranged from 1.18 to 9.78 ng m-3; and from 0.06 to 0.70 ng m-3 for benzo[a]pyrene. The presence of high concentrations of benzo[b]fluoranthene, pyrene, fluoranthene and chrysene, and the significant PAHs diurnal variations due to the sampling period, pointed out the influence of mixing anthropogenic sources and meteorological conditions. The diurnal pattern of source contributions was assessed by binary diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis (PCA). These results showed the prevalence of pyrogenic sources coming from traffic and coal/coke combustion sources. Moreover, the PCA differentiated a diurnal pattern of source contributions. The influence of meteorological factors was studied by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Three factors, temperature, wind speed and atmospheric pressure, were identified as the most significant ones affecting diurnal PAHs concentrations. Finally, PCA of the PAHs levels, regulated atmospheric pollutants and meteorological parameters showed that diurnal PAHs concentrations were mainly influenced by variations in the emission sources, atmospheric oxidants such as ozone, and temperature conditions. These results provide further insight into the PAHs diurnal patterns in urban areas by using higher temporal resolutions.

  7. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  8. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane induces G1 arrest and apoptosis in human acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndsey E Shorey

    Full Text Available Certain bioactive food components, including indole-3-carbinol (I3C and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM from cruciferous vegetables, have been shown to target cellular pathways regulating carcinogenesis. Previously, our laboratory showed that dietary I3C is an effective transplacental chemopreventive agent in a dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC-dependent model of murine T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. The primary objective of the present study was to extend our chemoprevention studies in mice to an analogous human neoplasm in cell culture. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that I3C or DIM may be chemotherapeutic in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL cells. Treatment of the T-ALL cell lines CCRF-CEM, CCRF-HSB2, SUP-T1 and Jurkat with DIM in vitro significantly reduced cell proliferation and viability at concentrations 8- to 25-fold lower than the parent compound I3C. DIM (7.5 µM arrested CEM and HSB2 cells at the G(1 phase of the cell cycle and 15 µM DIM significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells in all T-ALL lines. In CEM cells, DIM reduced protein expression of cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4, CDK6 and D-type cyclin 3 (CCND3; DIM also significantly altered expression of eight transcripts related to human apoptosis (BCL2L10, CD40LG, HRK, TNF, TNFRSF1A, TNFRSF25, TNFSF8, TRAF4. Similar anticancer effects of DIM were observed in vivo. Dietary exposure to 100 ppm DIM significantly decreased the rate of growth of human CEM xenografts in immunodeficient SCID mice, reduced final tumor size by 44% and increased the apoptotic index compared to control-fed mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate a potential for therapeutic application of DIM in T-ALL.

  9. Sources appointment and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments of Erhai Lake, a low-latitude and high-altitude lake in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezhong, Yuan; Enlou, Zhang; Qi, Lin; Rong, Wang; Enfeng, Liu

    2016-03-01

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed from the surficial sediments in Erhai Lake, a plateau lake in China. The results showed that except for acenaphthylene (Ace) Ace and Dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DBA), the central region contained individual PAHs at concentrations lower than those in other lake regions. Total concentration of the PAHs (ΣPAHs) in the sediments from Erhai Lake ranged from 32.42 to 558.53 mg/kg with a mean value of 256.70 mg/kg. The maximum value of ΣPAHs was observed in the north region of the lake and more than 10-fold higher than the minimum values. Moreover, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, especially 5-ring PAHs, accounted for higher ratios up to 76 % relative to other PAHs compound in almost all sampling sites. Molecular diagnostic ratios including anthtacene (Ant)/(Ant + phenanthrene (Phe)), fluoranthene (Flt)/(Flt + pyrene (Pyr)), benz(a)anthracene (BaA)/(BaA + chrysene (Chr)), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (IPY)/(IPY + benz(g,h,i)perylene (BPE)) were recorded at all sampling sites and indicated that the origin of PAHs in Erhai Lake was predominately pyrolytic. Furthermore, principal component analysis with component dominating by HMW PAHs showed that combustion origins were the primary contamination sources of PAHs in the sediments of Erhai Lake. Finally, ecological risk assessment indicated that the sediments from Erhai Lake are exposed to potential low risk for ΣPAHs, and the ecological risk decreases in the order of northern region > southern region > central region. PMID:26507728

  10. Airborne exposures to PAH and PM2.5 particles for road paving workers applying conventional asphalt and crumb rubber modified asphalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, R R; Wallingford, K M; Williams, R W; House, D E; Lewtas, J

    1998-01-01

    Personal exposure monitoring was conducted for road paving workers in three states. A research objective was to characterize and compare occupational exposures to fine respirable particles (asphalt and asphalt containing crumb rubber from shredded tires. Workers not exposed to asphalt fume were also included for comparison (to support the biomarker component of this study). The rubber content of the crumb rubber modified (CRM) asphalt at the three study sites was 12, 15, and 20%. A comparison of some specific job categories from two sites indicates greater potential carcinogenic PAH exposures during CRM asphalt work, however, the site with the greatest overall exposures did not indicate any differences for specific jobs. A statistical analysis of means for fine particle, pyrene and total carcinogenic PAH personal exposure shows, with two exceptions, there were no differences in exposures for these three measurement variables. One site shows significantly elevated pyrene exposure for CRM asphalt workers and another site similarly shows greater carcinogenic PAH exposure for CRM asphalt workers. Conventional and CRM asphalt worker airborne exposures to the PAH carcinogen marker, BaP, were very low with concentrations comparable to ambient air in many cities. However, this study demonstrates that asphalt road paving workers are exposed to elevated airborne concentrations of a group of unknown compounds that likely consist of the carcinogenic PAHs benz(a)anthracene, chrysene and methylated derivatives of both. The research described in this article has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. PMID:9577752

  11. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils. PMID:26498812

  12. Occurrence of gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban atmosphere: study of sources and ambient temperature effect on the gas/particle concentration and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsapakis, Manolis [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, EL-71409 Heraklion (Greece); Stephanou, Euripides G. [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL), Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, EL-71409 Heraklion (Greece)]. E-mail: stephanou@chemistry.uoc.gr

    2005-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban region (Heraklion, Greece) and processes that govern their atmospheric fate were studied from November 2000 until February 2002. Sixteen samples were collected, by using an artifact-free sampling device, on a monthly basis and the concentration of PAHs in gas and particulate phase was determined. The most abundant members (gas + particles) were phenanthrene (20.0 {+-} 7.0 ng m{sup -3}), fluoranthene (6.5 {+-} 1.7 ng m{sup -3}), pyrene (6.6 {+-} 2.4 ng m{sup -3}), and chrysene (3.1 {+-} 1.5 ng m{sup -3}). Total concentration (gas + particulate) of PAH ranged from 44.3 to 129.2 ng m{sup -3}, with a mean concentration of 79.3 ng m{sup -3}. Total concentration of PAHs in gas phase ranged from 31.4 to 84.7 ng m{sup -3} with non-observable seasonal variation. Conversely, maximum PAH concentrations in the particulate phase occurred during winter months. Particulate concentration varied from 11.4 to 44.9 ng m{sup -3}, with an average of 25.2 ng m{sup -3}. PAH distribution between gas and particulate phase was in agreement with the sub-cooled vapor pressure. Shift in gas/particle distribution due to difference in ambient temperature elucidated to some extent the seasonal variation of the concentration of PAHs in particles. - Capsule: Ambient PAH partitioning between gas and particle phases vary between compounds and with environmental conditions.

  13. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Susan C; Siddens, Lisbeth K; Krueger, Sharon K; Larkin, Andrew J; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Baird, William M; Waters, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC > BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P < .05) for DNA damage, apoptosis, response to chemical stimulus, and interferon gamma signaling resulted in the highest classification accuracy with leave-one-out cross validation. This pathway-driven approach was successfully utilized to distinguish early regulatory events during initiation prognostic for tumor outcome and provides proof-of-concept for using short-term initiation studies to classify carcinogenic potential of environmental PAH mixtures. These data further provide a 'source-to-outcome' model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures. PMID:25908611

  14. HPLC Measurement of the DNA Oxidation Biomarker, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine, in Cultured Cells and Animal Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Kennedy, Dean A; Gagné, Remi; White, Taryn; Long, Alexandra S; Yauk, Carole L; White, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with many physiological and pathological processes, as well as xenobiotic metabolism, leading to the oxidation of biomacromolecules, including DNA. Therefore, efficient detection of DNA oxidation is important for a variety of research disciplines, including medicine and toxicology. A common biomarker of oxidatively damaged DNA is 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo; often erroneously referred to as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dGuo or 8-oxo-dG)). Several protocols for 8-oxo-dGuo measurement by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) have been described. However, these were mainly applied to purified DNA treated with pro-oxidants. In addition, due to methodological differences between laboratories, mainly due to differences in analytical equipment, the adoption of published methods for detection of 8-oxo-dGuo by HPLC-ED requires careful optimization by each laboratory. A comprehensive protocol, describing such an optimization process, is lacking. Here, a detailed protocol is described for the detection of 8-oxo-dGuo by HPLC-ED, in DNA from cultured cells or animal tissues. It illustrates how DNA sample preparation can be easily and rapidly optimized to minimize undesirable DNA oxidation that can occur during sample preparation. This protocol shows how to detect 8-oxo-dGuo in cultured human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells (i.e., A549 cells) treated with the oxidizing agent KBrO3, and from the spleen of mice exposed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dibenzo(def,p)chrysene (DBC, formerly known as dibenzo(a,l)pyrene, DalP). Overall, this work illustrates how an HPLC-ED methodology can be readily optimized for the detection of 8-oxo-dGuo in biological samples. PMID:26273842

  15. Origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lake sediments of the Mackenzie Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, John V; Marsh, Philip; Akre, Christine J; Peru, Kerry M; Lesack, Lance

    2002-08-01

    The concentrations and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed in sediment cores from among 14 lakes from three regions comprising a transect across the central Mackenzie Delta. PAHs were consistently found in the lake sediments, with parent concentrations in the 20-200 ng/g range. Concentrations were generally independent of depth in the sediment cores and this pattern was similar among the 3 regions of the delta. Concentrations increased in a westerly direction among the regions. For some lakes, the concentration of PAHs decreased with decreasing flooding frequency, and decreasing sedimentation rates. For the latter, maximum concentrations occurred at shallower depths within the sediment cores as flooding frequency among the lakes decreased. The distributions of C0-C4 alkylated 2- and 3- ring PAHs were consistent with a petrogenic origin, while the corresponding distribution of 4-ring PAHs appears to be more consistent with a biogenic or pyrogenic origin. Based on relative contributions to the overall PAH budget, a petrogenic source appears to be dominant. However, the pyrene/fluoranthene ratio is more consistent with a source derived from peat. The alkylated PAH profiles are inconsistent with those in the Athabasca River system, and supports a previously published hypothesis that the contribution of PAHs from the Athabasca oil sands to the lower Mackenzie River is minimal. A double ratio plot of chrysene vs dibenzothiophene, diagnostic of weathering, suggests most weathering occurred before the sediments were deposited in the lakes, while a double ratio plot of dibenzothiophene vs phenanthrene suggests a common source of PAHs across the delta, despite differing water sources from east to west across the delta. PAH inputs to the delta appear to mirror sediment inputs documented in previous work, where high sediment input from the Mackenzie mainstem during high floods dominates the delta sediment influx and masks any influence of the

  16. A Potential Impact on the Chemical Composition in the Marine Boundary Layer in the Arctic Ocean by Ship Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Wang, X.; Blum, J. D.; Sun, L.

    2005-12-01

    Samples of aerosols in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Arctic Ocean were collected aboard R/V ()Xuelong during the summer on the Second Chinese Arctic Research Expedition (July-September, 2003). Chemical compositions including major and trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aerosol particles were analyzed. Results showed that significant amounts of S, Fe, V and Ni are emitted from ship diesel engines and contaminate the ambient air. The total amount of Fe, which plays a significant role in the ocean ()biological pump, emitted from ships in the Arctic is estimated at 4.33-A106 kg yr-1. Sulfur emitted into the atmosphere may be transformed to sulfur acid and result in a chlorine depletion in sea-salt. Because the global inventory of sulfur from ship exhausts is large and halogens may have important consequences in possible tropospheric ozone destruction, the role of ships in effecting halogen depression in sea-salt should be evaluated. For organic compounds, 17 PAHs including Fluoranthene, Phenanthrene, Chrysene, Indeno[123-cd]pyrene, Pyrene, Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Benzo[ghi]pyrene, Naphthalene, Benzo[a]anthracene, Benzo[k]fluoranthene, Coronene, Fluorene, Benzo[a]pyrene, Acenaphthene, Anthracene, Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and Acenaphthylene were detected. The average levels of subspecies of PAHs in ambient air ranged from 0.003 to 0.089 ng/m3. Among the 17 PAHs, fluoranthene had a relative high level, while the level of acenaphthylene was relative low. The aerosols contaminated by the ship, which were commonly excluded in previous investigations, thus provide an opportunity to investigate and understand the role of ship emissions in the atmospheric chemistry of the marine boundary layer, especially in the Arctic Ocean.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons, dissolved and dispersed in four coastal environments of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four coastal ecosystems with contrasting characteristics were sampled in Costa Rica (2000-2002). Oil pollution status, expressed as the fraction of dissolved dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons related to chrysene equivalents, was determined by the molecular fluorescence analytical technique. A total of 130 water samples were taken, from the Caribbean (Moin Bay), and from the Pacific (Bahia Culebra, Gulf of Nicoya and Dulce Gulf). On one occasion, seven samples along the Puntarenas Estuary were also analysed. In Moin the mean and standard desviation were 0.10 μg·L-1 ± 0.18 μg·L-1, ranging from non detectable (nd) to 0.65 μg·L-1. For the Pacific ecosystems the total range was from nd to 0.37 μg·L-1. In Bahia Culebra no fluorescence signals were obtained. In the Gulf of Nicoya the mean and standard desviation were 0.04 μg·L-1 ± 0.09 μg·L-1, from nd to 0.33 μg·L-1. Values in Dulce Gulf were 0.05 μg·L-1 ± 0.11 μg·L-1, from nd to 0.37 μg·L-1. Along the Puntarenas estuary the range was 0.17 to 5.91 μg·L-1, with a mean of 1.21 μg·L-1 and a standard desviation of ± 2.10 μg·L-1. The four coastal ecosystems had concentrations below the 10 μg·L-1 limit for polluted oceanic areas. The Puntarenas Estuary reflects the influence of anthropogenic activities from and around the City of Puntarenas. These levels are considered low for inshore waters. (Author)

  18. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1 the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mesozooplankton communities, (2 the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3 the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4 the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20, dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1 and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1 to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  19. Elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from smoked sausages by migration into polyethylene packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semanová, Jana; Skláršová, Božena; Šimon, Peter; Šimko, Peter

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this work was a study of interactions between a smoked meat product and plastic packaging to find a possibility of elimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from smoked sausages by migration into the packaging. Smoked meat sausages were packed into o-polyamide/low density polyethylene laminated film and content of four PAH was determined at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min by HPLC. During this time, total PAH4 content decreased from 30.1 to 5.7 μg/kg, benzo[a]anthracene decreased from 11.5 to 2.1 μg/kg, chrysene from 9.4 to 1.9 μg/kg, benzo[b]fluoranthene from 5.3 to 0.6 μg/kg and benzo[a]pyrene from 3.9 to 1.1 μg/kg while PAH4 content in non-packed sausages remained at a constant level. So, while sausages did not meet European safety limits set for PAH4 content of 12 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene before packaging, these limits were met at the end of the experiment. This decrease was brought about by migration of PAH4 from sausages into low density polyethylene packaging bulk and the measure of decrease can be predicted by a kinetic equation, making it possible to calculate PAH content equal to any time of experiment as well as the time of interaction necessary to fulfil EU legislative limits. PMID:26868540

  20. Emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of different residential coals in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emission properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion of six residential coals in North China were investigated. The results indicated that, the total emission factors (EFs) for 15 PAH species in gaseous and particulate phases ranged from 52.8 to 1434.8 mg/kg with a decreasing sequence of local bituminous coals and anthracite coals, and honeycomb briquettes were largely dependent on the raw coals used to produce them. Particulate phase, dominated by median or high molecular weight components, made a major contribution (68.8% - 76.5%) to the total EFs for bituminous coals, while gaseous phase with principal low molecular weight species accounted for most (86.3% - 97.9%) of the total EFs for anthracite coals. The phase partitioning of PAH emission for honeycomb briquettes was similarly dependent on the crude coals. The total EFs, phase partitioning and component profiles of emitted PAHs were mainly influenced by the inner components of the studied coals. Burning mode and flue number on household coal-stoves also affected the emission characteristics by means of the oxygen supply. A sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene(BaP)-equivalent carcinogenic power and total toxicity potency expressed in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin(TCDD) toxic equivalence exhibited that bituminous coals and produced honeycomb briquettes had remarkably elevated values. Fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene from anthracite coals showed higher levels of BaP-based toxic equivalent factor, though the other toxicity indices were rather low for this type of coal

  1. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 2.5 was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8–6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM2.5 were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  2. Phytoassessment of a 5-Month Old Waste Engine Oil Polluted Soil after Augmentation with Pleurotus tuberregium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckley Ikhajiagbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a bioassessment of the effects of of substrate microbial augmentation on the bioremediation of Waste Engine Oil (WEO polluted soil. Four different concentrations of WEO in soil on weight basis were obtained by thoroughly mixing WEO in measured soil: 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0% w/w. The unpolluted soil was used as the control (0% w/w experiment. The set up was left for 5 months without physically disturbing the soil. After 5 months, the soils were first amended with sawdust and then inoculated with mycelia of Pleurotus tuberregium. Nine months after bioaugmentation (9 MAB there was total (100% remediation of some PAH compounds (benzo(aanthracene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(g,h,iperylene, benzo(kfluoranthene, chrysene, dibenzo(a,hanthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,dpyrene was recorded. Significant (p = 0.05 decreases in heavy metal concentration from 5-9 MAB resulted in significant reductions in Hazard Quotients (HQ, which implied less possibility for ecological risk for heavy metal constituents. Phytoassessment of the polluted soil was carried at 5MAP, and results showed that virtually all the cowpea seedlings died within 2 weeks. Only those seedlings in unpolluted soils survived. Nine months after readjustment of soil treatments, all cowpea plants survived up to fruiting, with grain yields in the most polluted soil being 15.25 g/plant compared to 26.01 g/plant in the control experiment. Although heavy metals were minimally accumulated in leaves and seeds of cowpea, bioaccumulation was not significant when Bioaccumulation Quotients (BQ were computed, with BQ value ranges as 0.01-0.05 in seeds and 0.0 -0.80 in leaves. Hydrocarbons was detected in cowpea leaves but not in the seeds.

  3. Oils from different depth in the Alagoas sub-basin distribution and concentration; Oleos em diferentes profundidades na sub-bacia Alagoas: distribuicao e econcentracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboucas, Lucia M.C.; Sant' Ana, Antonio E.G.; Sabino, Adilson R.; Nogueira, Fred A.R.; Moraes, Reinaldo J.R.; Crispim, Alessandre [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia . Lab. de Analises de Biomarcadores e Semioquimicos]. E-mail: lmcr@qui.ufal.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the distribution and the concentration of n-alkane homologue series and the HPA compounds in 22 oils from Alagoas sub-basin, Pilar Field, Brazil. The n-alkane profile of whole oil gas chromatograms (CG-FID) to light, medium and heave oils represented no-biodegraded oils. The light and medium oils have n-alkane distribution with a maximum in nC{sub 10} and nC{sub 17}. The ration pristine/phytane (P/F) between 1,5 and 2,7 suggest Lacustrine origin. The nalkane distribution from the heavy oils show two maximum between nC{sub 15} and nC{sub 23}. The concentrations of n-alkane are different to all the 22 oils. The F2 fraction classified as light (API>39), medium (36chrysene, mono- and triaromatic steroid, benzohopane and their alkyl derivates, were identified in the oils. (author)

  4. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ from others origins of particulate matter (like vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach to source tracking.

  5. Soil pollution by PAHs in urban soils: a comparison of three European cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, E; Romero, A S; Maqueda, C; Madrid, L; Ajmone-Marsan, F; Grcman, H; Davidson, C M; Hursthouse, A S; Villaverde, J

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of urban soil from three European cities: Glasgow (UK), Torino (Italy) and Ljubljana (Slovenia). Fifteen PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene) were measured in urban soil samples, using harmonised sampling, sample extraction and analyte quantification methods. Although the mean concentration of each PAH in urban soils of each city showed a wide range of values, high levels of contamination were only evident in Glasgow, where the sum of concentrations of 15 PAHs was in the range 1487-51,822 microg kg(-1), cf. ranges in the other two cities were about ten-fold lower (89.5-4488 microg kg(-1)). The three predominant PAHs were phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene, with the sum of these compounds about 40% of the total PAH content. These data, together with some special molecular indices based on ratios of selected PAHs, suggest pyrogenic origins, especially motor vehicle exhausts, to be the major sources of PAHs in urban soils of the three cities. The largest concentrations for PAHs were often found in sites close to the historic quarters of the cities. Overall, the different climatic conditions, the organic carbon contents of soil, and the source apportionment were the dominant factors affecting accumulation of PAHs in soil. PMID:17726562

  6. Succession of Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Metabolic Community Characteristics during In Vitro Bioslurry Treatment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringelberg, David B.; Talley, Jeffrey W.; Perkins, Edward J.; Tucker, Samuel G.; Luthy, Richard G.; Bouwer, Edward J.; Fredrickson, Herbert L.

    2001-01-01

    Dredged harbor sediment contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was removed from the Milwaukee Confined Disposal Facility and examined for in situ biodegradative capacity. Molecular techniques were used to determine the successional characteristics of the indigenous microbiota during a 4-month bioslurry evaluation. Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), multiplex PCR of targeted genes, and radiorespirometry techniques were used to define in situ microbial phenotypic, genotypic, and metabolic responses, respectively. Soxhlet extractions revealed a loss in total PAH concentrations of 52%. Individual PAHs showed reductions as great as 75% (i.e., acenapthene and fluorene). Rates of 14C-PAH mineralization (percent/day) were greatest for phenanthrene, followed by pyrene and then chrysene. There was no mineralization capacity for benzo[a]pyrene. Ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid analysis revealed a threefold increase in total microbial biomass and a dynamic microbial community composition that showed a strong correlation with observed changes in the PAH chemistry (canonical r2 of 0.999). Nucleic acid analyses showed copies of genes encoding PAH-degrading enzymes (extradiol dioxygenases, hydroxylases, and meta-cleavage enzymes) to increase by as much as 4 orders of magnitude. Shifts in gene copy numbers showed strong correlations with shifts in specific subsets of the extant microbial community. Specifically, declines in the concentrations of three-ring PAH moieties (i.e., phenanthrene) correlated with PLFA indicative of certain gram-negative bacteria (i.e., Rhodococcus spp. and/or actinomycetes) and genes encoding for naphthalene-, biphenyl-, and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase degradative enzymes. The results of this study suggest that the intrinsic biodegradative potential of an environmental site can be derived from the polyphasic characterization of the in situ microbial community. PMID:11282603

  7. Mass spectrometric analysis with cluster projectiles and coincidence counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    Methods for maximizing the amount of secondary ion information, per primary projectile, are described. The method is based on time-of-flight mass spectrometry and event-by-event coincidence counting. The information obtained from coincidence counting time-of-flight mass spectrometry includes: (a) surface composition, (b) relative concentrations, and (c) degree of intermolecular mixing. The technique was applied to the study of an important new class of polymers: polymer blends. Secondary ion mass spectrometry, when applied to the analysis of synthetic polymers, induces backbone fragmentation which is characteristic of the homopolymer. The characteristic fingerprint peaks from polystyrene and poly(vinyl methyl ether) were used to identify the presence of these two polymers in a polymer blend. The percent coincidence between the characteristic secondary ions from each component of the blend were used to determine both the relative concentration and the degree of molecular mixing. Results indicate molecular segregation of the two polymers on the film surface. The largest degree of segregation was determined for the phase separated blends. The performance of this technique depends on the desorption efficiency of the primary projectiles. In practice one seeks primary ions which are surface sensitive, have controllable parameters such as size, velocity, and charge state, and generate high secondary ion yields. Focus was placed on the use of keV organic cluster projectiles to meet these criteria. Of interest to this study were C[sub 18] (chrysene), C[sub 24] (coronene), and C[sub 60] (buckminster-fulleren). Results indicate enhanced secondary ion yields for C[sub 60]. For example, when CsI is bombarded with 30 keV C[sub 60], the yields for I[sup [minus

  8. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Lotte [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Buczynska, Anna [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Walgraeve, Christophe [Research group EnVOC, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, UGent, Gent (Belgium); Delcloo, Andy [Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Van Grieken, Rene [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman [Research group EnVOC, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, UGent, Gent (Belgium); De Backer, Hugo [Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Nemery, Benoit, E-mail: ben.nemery@med.kuleuven.be [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  9. Substrate Bioaugmentation of Waste Engine Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beckley Ikhajiagbe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the impact of substrate microbial augmentation on the bioremediation of Waste Engine Oil (WEO polluted soil. Five different concentrations of WEO in soil on weight basis were obtained by thoroughly mixing WEO in measured soil: 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0% w/w. The unpolluted soil was used as the control (0% w/w experiment. The set up was left for 5 months without physically disturbing the soil. After 5 months, the soils were first amended with sawdust and then inoculated with mycelia of Pleurotus tuberregium. Significant (p = 0.05 decreases in soil physicochemical parameters were recorded 9 months after bioaugmentation (9 MAB, excepting total organic carbon and total nitrogen, which showed significant increases throughout the experiment period. Total (100% remediation of some PAH compounds - benzo(aanthracene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(g,h,iperylene, benzo(kfluoranthene, chrysene, dibenzo(a,hanthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,dpyrene - was recorded. Over sixty per cent (66.22% of total individual PAH compounds were completely (100% remediated. Achromobacter sp., Clostridium sp., Sarcina sp., Micrococcus sp., Nocardia sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor sp., Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus and Geotrichum sp. were dominant microorganism species in the WEO polluted soil. Significant decreases in heavy metal concentration resulted in significant reductions in Environmental Risk Factor (ERF, which implied less possibility for ecological risk for heavy metal constituents. ERF presupposes that Pb (ERF range, -69.30 to -14.97 and V (ERF range, -0.01 to 0.86 were significant potential ecological threats at 5MAP, but at 9 MAB, ERF value had decreased, with ERF ranges for Pb and V being 5.64 to 32.64 and 1.70 to 1.83, respectively.

  10. Developmental toxicity of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish is differentially dependent on AH receptor isoforms and hepatic cytochrome P4501A metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from fossil fuels are ubiquitous contaminants and occur in aquatic habitats as highly variable and complex mixtures of compounds containing 2 to 6 rings. For aquatic species, PAHs are generally accepted as acting through either of two modes of action: (1) 'dioxin-like' toxicity mediated by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which controls a battery of genes involved in PAH metabolism, such as cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and (2) 'nonpolar narcosis', in which tissue uptake is dependent solely on hydrophobicity and toxicity is mediated through non-specific partitioning into lipid bilayers. As part of a systematic analysis of mechanisms of PAH developmental toxicity in zebrafish, we show here that three tetracyclic PAHs (pyrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene) activate the AHR pathway tissue-specifically to induce distinct patterns of CYP1A expression. Using morpholino knockdown of ahr1a, ahr2, and cyp1a, we show that distinct embryolarval syndromes induced by exposure to two of these compounds are differentially dependent on tissue-specific activation of AHR isoforms or metabolism by CYP1A. Exposure of embryos with and without circulation (silent heart morphants) resulted in dramatically different patterns of CYP1A induction, with circulation required to deliver some compounds to internal tissues. Therefore, biological effects of PAHs cannot be predicted simply by quantitative measures of AHR activity or a compound's hydrophobicity. These results indicate that current models of PAH toxicity in fish are greatly oversimplified and that individual PAHs are pharmacologically active compounds with distinct and specific cellular targets

  11. Assessing the long-term weathering of petroleum on shorelines : uses of conserved components for calibrating loss and bioremediation potential, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoreline samples from the Exxon Valdez oil spill were used to study the limitations and strengths of different conserved components as markers based on a 17-year field monitoring program. Approximately 100 oil samples collected from the shoreline in Prince William Sound, Alaska from 1999-2006 had been analyzed for internal markers such as chrysenes, terpanes, steranes and triaromatic steroids and then used to assess the biodegradation of the spilled petroleum. The specific biomarkers used in this study were selected to exclude those that might be generated via biodegradation and were chosen from those having the most significant concentrations in the extracts. Concentrations of the recovered weathered oil compounds were quantified and the concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) components were measured in the aromatic fractions. The extent of PAH weathering was subsequently calculated as a percentage loss of total PAH in order to calculate a bioremediation index to evaluate if an oil at a given shoreline may be amenable to bioremediation (or nutrient addition) to accelerate removal of remaining PAH. In order to compare the extent of weathering over the 17 years since the spill, chemical analyses were performed for samples from 1989-1991 for which no biomarkers were measured. The weathering of the oil has progressed in such a way that most of the remaining oil is now highly weathered. The trend of increasing biodegradation with time indicates that given sufficient time, the oil will continue to degrade naturally until all of the PAH components are consumed. The most stable biomarker compounds to quantify the loss of PAH or other oil components was shown to be C29R-stigmastane. 35 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  12. Emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction based on deep eutectic solvent: An extraction method for the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezeli, Tahere; Daneshfar, Ali; Sahraei, Reza

    2015-12-18

    In this study, for the first time, a simple, inexpensive and sensitive method named emulsification liquid-liquid microextraction based on deep eutectic solvent (ELLME-DES) was used for the extraction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene (BTE) and seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples. In a typical experiment, 100μL of DES (as water-miscible extraction solvent) was added to 1.5mL of sample solution containing target analytes. A homogeneous solution was formed immediately. Injection of 100μL of THF (as emulsifier agent) into homogeneous solution provided a turbid state. After extraction, phase separation (aqueous phase/DES rich phase) was performed by centrifugation. DES rich phase was withdrawn by a micro-syringe and submitted to isocratic reverse-phase HPLC with UV detection. Under optimum conditions obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (DF), the calibration graphs were linear in the concentration range from 10 to 200μg/L for benzene, 10-400μg/L for toluene, 1-400μg/L for ethylbenzene, biphenyl, chrysene and fluorene, and 0.1-400μg/L for anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, phenanthrene and pyrene. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) and limits of detection were 0.9924-0.9997 and 0.02-6.8μg/L, respectively. This procedure was successfully applied to the determination of target analytes in spiked water samples. The relative mean recoveries ranged from 93.1 to 103.3%. PMID:26614169

  13. Natural attenuation in contaminated soils with hydrocarbons; Atenuacion natural en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona Ramirez, L.; Iturbide Arguelles, R. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    A contaminated soil experiment was performed using simples from a refinery, containing oil derivative hydrocarbons, specifically those with high concentrations of polyaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). The testing consisted in 7 pans with 7 kg of soil, the preparation of 6 pans under specific conditions and one as a blank, the conditions were: water content (15 y 30%), addition a non-ionic surfactant. The process consisted in the daily aeration and water control of the samples. The PAH were analyzed: anthracene, benzo(a) pyrene, chrysene, phenanthrene and naphthalene. The results after 8 weeks showed a gradual degradation of PAH, indicating a better removal obtained when the water content was 30% with nutrients addition. [Spanish] Se realizo un experimento con suelo contaminado proveniente de una refineria, el cual contaba con hidrocarburos derivados de petroleo, especificamente con concentraciones elevadas de hidrocarburos poliaromaticos (HAP). El estudio consistio en preparar 7 cajones con 7 kg de suelo, cada uno con las siguientes condiciones: S1suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos y 15% de contenido de agua. S2 suelo contaminado con hidrocarburo y adicion de Nitrogeno y Fosforo (N y P) con 15% de contenido de agua. S3 suelo contaminado con hidrocarburo y adicion de N y P mas un surfactante no ionico, Emulgin W600, con 15% de contenido de agua. S4 igual a S1 pero con 30% de contenido de agua. S5 igual a S2, con 30% de contenido de agua. S6 igual S3 con 30% de contenido de agua. S7 suelo contaminado testigo, sin control de humedad y sin aireacion. La experimentacion consistio en airear el suelo diariamente y controlar el contenido de agua de manera que este fuera constante. Los resultados, indican que la mejor remocion se obtuvo para el contenido de agua de 30%, con adicion de nutrientes y surfactante. Los compuestos con mayor eficiencia de remocion para todas las opciones son naftaleno y antraceno. Por lo tanto, de acuerdo con los resultados, los compuestos

  14. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Potrykus

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the contents and patternsof selected organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons- PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides- DDT in the southern part of the Baltic Sea proper, using bluemussels, Mytilus trossulus, as sentinel organisms. The musselswere collected from the Baltic Sea off Poland. The sampling programmefocused on the mouths of the rivers Odra and Vistula, locatedrespectively in the Pomeranian Bay and the Gulf of Gdansk, bothknown to be under anthropogenic pressure.    The analyses of PCBs and DDT were performed by GC-ECD, thatof PAHs by GC-MS. Mussels from both the Vistula and Odra estuarieswere found to contain higher levels of organic contaminants (PAHs,PCBs, DDT; 29.7 ng g-1 w.w. (wet weight,22.3 ng g-1 w.w., 11.2 ng g-1 w.w. respectively as compared tothe reference point (PAHs - 8.6 ng g-1 w.w., PCBs - 1.9 ng g-1 w.w., DDT - 1.3 ng g-1 w.w.. These results confirm the direct influence of land-based pollutionsources on the content of organic pollutants (PAHs, PCBs, andDDT in the southern Baltic Sea, and point to the Gulf of Gdanskas the area most under threat.    P/A and Fluo/Py ratios indicate that in all the mussels analysed, the contaminants were derived mainly from pyrolitic combustion.The mussels collected along the Polish coast of the Baltic containmostly tetra-aromatic isomers (fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(aanthracene and chrysene, penta-aromatic isomers (benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(efluorene, benzo(apyrene and dibenzo(a,h-anthraceneand hexa-aromatics (indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene andbenzo(ghiperylene rather than di- and tri-aromatics (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene. As regards PCBs, the Baltic mussels containmostly the more highly chlorinated congeners (penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls.The PCB / pp' DDE and PAH / pp' DDE ratios indicate the predominance of PCBs and PAHs over agriculturally derived DDE in both the Pomeranian Bay and

  15. The differences in transformation mechanism in natural and anthropogenic PAH in environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    mg/L): Naphthalene-269,65; Acenaphthene+Fluorene -10,71; Phenanthrene-167,27; Anthracene-2,47; Fluoranthene-170,76; Benzo (a) anthracene-10,61; Chrysene-66,59; Benzo (b) fluoranthene-25,65; Benzo (k) fluoranthene-3,22; Benzo (a) pyrene-0,49; Dibenzo (a, h) anthracene-18,68; Indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene-6,13. For comparison were investigated near 50 samples of oil polluted soils selected from oilfield sites and was determined background level of PAH around of oilfields in radius of 700-1000 m

  16. Significance of cytochrome P450 system responses and levels of bile fluorescent aromatic compounds in marine wildlife following oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationships among cytochrome P450 induction in marine wildlife species, levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC) in their bile, the chemical composition of the inducing compounds, the significance of the exposure pathway, and any resulting injury, as a consequence of exposure to crude oil following a spill, are reviewed. Fish collected after oil spills often show increases in cytochrome P450 system activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), that are correlated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the oil. There is also some evidence for increases in bile FAC and induction of cytochrome P450 in marine birds and mammals after oil spills. However, when observed, increases in these exposure indicators are transitory and generally decrease to background levels within one year after the exposure. Laboratory studies have shown induction of cytochrome P450 systems occurs after exposure of fish to crude oil in water, sediment or food. Most of the PAH found in crude oil (dominantly 2- and 3-ring PAH) are not strong inducers of cytochrome P450. Exposure to the 4-ring chrysenes or the photooxidized products of the PAH may account for the cytochrome P450 responses in fish collected from oil-spill sites. The contribution of non-spill background PAH, particularly combustion-derived (pyrogenic) PAH, to bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses can be confounding and needs to be considered when evaluating oil spill effects. The ubiquity of pyrogenic PAH makes it important to fully characterize all sources of PAH, including PAH from natural resources, e.g. retene, in oil spill studies. In addition, such parameters as species, sex, age, ambient temperature and season need to be taken into account. While increases in fish bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses, can together, be sensitive general indicators of PAH exposure after an oil spill, there is little unequivocal evidence to suggest a linkage to

  17. Validación de un método de análisis para la determinación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia en partículas PM10 Y PM2,5 Validation of an analytical method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high efficiency liquid chromatography in PM10 and PM2, 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Murillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se validó un método analítico para la determinación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos presentes en partículas PM10 y PM 2,5 recolectadas en el aire mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR. Los HPA incluidos en la metodología comprenden: Naftaleno, Acenaftileno, Fluoreno, Acenafteno, Fenantreno, Antraceno, Fluoranteno, Pireno, Benzo (aantraceno, Criseno, Benzo (bfluoranteno, Benzo (kfluoranteno, Benzo (apireno, Dibenzo (a,h antraceno, Benzo (g,h,iperileno y Indeno (1,2,3- C.D pireno. Para estos compuestos, los límites de detección y cuantificación estuvieron entre 0,02 y 0,1 mg/l utilizando un equipo marca Dionex modelo ICS- 3000, el cual consta de dos detectores en serie, un ultravioleta modelo VWD-1 y un detector de fluorescencia modelo RF-2000, permitiendo diferenciar las distintas señales de absorción y emisión para la debida identificación de los distintos compuestos. Para todos los compuestos analizados, el factor de recuperación resultó no ser significativamente diferente de uno y la repetibilidad y reproducibilidad resultó ser adecuada para un método analítico, especialmente para los HPA más ligeros.An analytical method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM 2.5 par ticles collected from air by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was validated. The PAHs analyzed in the methodology include: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Acenaphthene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, fluoranthene,pyrene,Benzo(aanthracene,Chrysene, Benzo (bfluoranthene, Benzo (kfluoranthene, Benzo (apyrene Dibenzo (a, hanthracene, Benzo (g, h, iperylene and Indeno (1,2,3-CDpyrene. For these compounds, the detection limit and quantification limit were between 0,02 and 0,1 mg/l using a DIONEX ICS 3000 model cromatograph, that has two in serie detectors: UV/Vis and Fluorescense, separating the different absorption and emission signals for proper identification of individual compounds. For all the compounds

  18. Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Degrading Bacteria in the Desert Soil of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil samples of different levels of oil pollutants were collected from Kuwait's Burgan Oil Field, near an oil lake. The samples represented, highly polluted (8.0% w/w), moderately polluted (2.1%-3.4%) and slightly polluted (2.1%-3.4%) and slightly polluted (0.5- 0.8%). The aromatic fractions of the collected samples were in the range of (0.21-2.57g/100g) soil. (GC) analysis of the aromatic fractions of the resolution of the different individual (PAHs) revealed the presence of (16) different (PAHs) resolved from the aromatic fraction of the highly polluted sample (S3). (15), (14) and (13) individual (PAHs) were identified soil samples (S5), (S2) and (S1, S4, S6) respectively. The most frequent (PAH) was indeno (1, 2, 3-c, d) pyrene (22.5%-45.11%) followed chrysene (13.6%-19.48%). Eight carcinogenic (PAHs) were resolved from the aromatic fractions of the polluted samples. Total carcinogenic (PAHs) recorded in this study were in this study were in the range of (11.53) (forS4) - (510.98) (for S3) ppm. The counts of (CFU) of aromatic degraders (AD) were in the range of (3x10) - (110x 10) (CFU/g) soil (with a percent of (2.2%-69.6%)). The results show that, higher counts of (AD) were recorded from a highly polluted sample (S3), followed by the moderately polluted samples; total of (51) bacteria, that gave presumptive positive biodegradation activities, were isolated and identified (45.1%) of them were isolated and identified. (45.1%) of them were isolated from the highly polluted sample (S3). Total of (13) different species were identified of which Micrococcus luteus was more frequent (23.5) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (19.6%) and Bacillus subtilis (11.8%). The three Pseudomonas species collectively were presented by (11.8%). Five different species proved to be of good activities, they are: Bacillus brevis, Bacillus lichenoformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas flourescens. The ability of five species and their mixture was

  19. Structural investigations of the ferredoxin and terminal oxygenase components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson David T

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial step involved in oxidative hydroxylation of monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds by the microorganism Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain B1 (B1, previously known as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain B1 and Beijerinckia sp. strain B1, is performed by a set of multiple terminal Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases. These enzymes share a single electron donor system consisting of a reductase and a ferredoxin (BPDO-FB1. One of the terminal Rieske oxygenases, biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO-OB1, is responsible for B1's ability to dihydroxylate large aromatic compounds, such as chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene. Results In this study, crystal structures of BPDO-OB1 in both native and biphenyl bound forms are described. Sequence and structural comparisons to other Rieske oxygenases show this enzyme to be most similar, with 43.5 % sequence identity, to naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. While structurally similar to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase, the active site entrance is significantly larger than the entrance for naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase. Differences in active site residues also allow the binding of large aromatic substrates. There are no major structural changes observed upon binding of the substrate. BPDO-FB1 has large sequence identity to other bacterial Rieske ferredoxins whose structures are known and demonstrates a high structural homology; however, differences in side chain composition and conformation around the Rieske cluster binding site are noted. Conclusion This is the first structure of a Rieske oxygenase that oxidizes substrates with five aromatic rings to be reported. This ability to catalyze the oxidation of larger substrates is a result of both a larger entrance to the active site as well as the ability of the active site to accommodate larger substrates. While the biphenyl ferredoxin is structurally similar to other Rieske ferredoxins, there are distinct changes in the amino acids near

  20. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de, E-mail: andressa@ctaa.embrapa.br [Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos, Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Sergio Machado [Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Glauco Correa da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using GC/FID, USEPA METHOD 8021B - Aromatic and halogenated volatiles by gas chromatography using photoionization and/or electrolytic conductivity detectors e USEPA METHOD 8270C - Semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to identify: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene , fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benze[a]anthracene and chrysene; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). After characterization of the engine lubricating oil after use allows us to evaluate engine wear and determine oil change interval. (author)

  1. Are coastal resources of NW Portugal fingerprinting hydrocarbons released from the Prestige accident?; Estan los recursos costeros del NO de Portugal mostrando las huellas especificas de los hidrocarburos derramados por el Prestige?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Ana Maria; Micaelo, Cristina; Vale, Carlos [Instituto de Investigacion Agraria y de Pesca IPIMAR, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-03-15

    Seventy-one samples of mussels, sardine, hake, blue whiting and pouting from the NW Portuguese coast, collected between 18 November 2002 and 6 January 2003, were analyzed for total hydrocarbons, individual n-alkanes and major isoprenoids, pristane and phytane. Hydrocarbons (expressed on chrysene equivalents) registered in whole soft tissues of mussels were below 0.5 milligrams g{sup -}1, with a few exceptions (maximum 1.6 milligrams g{sup -}1). Relatively low levels and sporadic enhanced values were also found in fish fillet samples. In spite of this, analyses of individual n-alkanes and major isoprenoids showed that 10-61 % of the samples (according to the species) exhibited these compounds in the proportions of the Prestige fuel signature. Similar diagnostic ratios in biological samples and Prestige fuel and n-alkane composition corroborate the fingerprint hypothesis in coastal resources from NW Portugal. [Spanish] Se analizaron los hidrocarburos totales, n-alcanos individuales e isoprenoides mayores, pristano y fitano, en 71 muestras de mejillones, sardina, merluza, bacaladilla y faneca de la costa NO de Portugal, recolectadas entre el 18 de noviembre de 2002 y el 6 de enero de 2003. Las concentraciones de hidrocarburos (expresadas en equivalentes de criseno) registradas en los tejidos blandos de los mejillones fueron menores a 0.5 miligramos g{sup -}1, salvo algunas excepciones (maximo 1.6 miligramos g{sup -}1). En las muestras de filetes de pescado tambien se encontraron niveles bajos e incrementos esporadicos de hidrocarburos. A pesar de ello, los analisis de n-alcanos individuales e isoprenoides mayores mostraron que entre el 10 y 61 % de las muestras (dependiendo de la especie) tuvieron estos compuestos en las mismas proporciones que la huella especifica del fuel del Prestige. Las razones diagnosticas similares en muestras biologicas y en el fuel del Prestige y la composicion de n-alcanos corroboran la hipotesis de la huella especifica dejada por este

  2. Color encoded microbeads-based flow cytometric immunoassay for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food contamination caused by chemical hazards such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a worldwide public health concern and requires continuous monitoring. The chromatography-based analysis methods for POPs are accurate and quite sensitive but they are time-consuming, laborious and expensive. Thus, there is a need for validated simplified screening tools, which are inexpensive, rapid, have automation potential and can detect multiple POPs simultaneously. In this study we developed a flow cytometry-based immunoassay (FCIA) using a color-encoded microbeads technology to detect benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in buffer and food extracts as a starting point for the future development of rapid multiplex assays including other POPs in food, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). A highly sensitive assay for BaP was obtained with an IC50 of 0.3 μg L-1 using a monoclonal antibody (Mab22F12) against BaP, similar to the IC50 of a previously described enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the same Mab. Moreover, the FCIA was 8 times more sensitive for BaP compared to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassay (BIA) using the same reagents. The selectivity of the FCIAs was tested, with two Mabs against BaP for 25 other PAHs, including two hydroxyl PAH metabolites. Apart from BaP, the FCIAs can detect PAHs such as indenol[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), and chrysene (CHR) which are also appointed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators of PAH contamination in food. The FCIAs results were in agreement with those obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the detection of PAHs in real food samples of smoked carp and wheat flour and has great potential for the future routine application of this assay in a simplex or multiplex format in combination with simplified extraction procedure which are

  3. Exposure of children to air pollution in the industrial zone of Metropolitan Area of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugica-Alvarez, Violeta; Quintanilla-Vega, Betsabé; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Alvarado-Cruz, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    An air quality monitoring in three schools located in the most important industrial zone at the Northeast of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) was conducted in order to determine the exposure of children to toxics contained in PM10. Particles were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), organic and elemental carbon by ICP-AES, GC-MS and TOT (Sunset lab) respectively. Average concentration of PM10 was 108.4±11.6 μg/m3. Most abundant metals were Fe, Zn and Pb with concentrations ranged by 1.1-5.4 μg/m3, 0.3-2 μg/m3, and 0.18-0.63 μg/m3 respectively; the sum of the seventeen PAHs varied from 1.4 to 3.3 ng/m3 where most abundant PAH were indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The sum of the seven carcinogenic PAH contributed in average with the 48% of the total mixture. Carcinogenic potential of PAH were obtained using toxic equivalent factors determined by Nisbet and La Goy which varied from 0.3 to 0.6 ng/ m3 of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BAPeq), this value is lower than the standard proposed for the European Community of 1 ng/ m3, but higher than the standard from the United Kingdom of 0.25 ng/ m3. Principal component analysis for source apportionment showed that vehicular and industrial emissions are the main sources of PM in the zone. In general, the concentrations of particles as well as concentration of metals and PAHs are lower than concentrations measured six year before, showing that the established measures have improved the air quality. Nevertheless these PM10 concentrations exceeded frequently the Mexican Standard and children are especially susceptible due to the higher risk to develop diseases if the exposure occurs at early age.

  4. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    /FID, USEPA METHOD 8021B - Aromatic and halogenated volatiles by gas chromatography using photoionization and/or electrolytic conductivity detectors e USEPA METHOD 8270C - Semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to identify: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene , fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benze[a]anthracene and chrysene; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). After characterization of the engine lubricating oil after use allows us to evaluate engine wear and determine oil change interval. (author)

  5. Long term observations of PM2.5-associated PAHs: Comparisons between normal and episode days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Wenkai; Zhang, Ruiqin; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2015-03-01

    The pollution characteristic of fine particular matter (PM2.5) and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are currently drawing a great deal of interest because of their influence on environment and health. In this study, PM2.5 was collected from 2011 to 2013 (n = 188) in a suburban area of Zhengzhou, China. 16-PAHs were analyzed to determine the concentration, seasonal variation and potential sources during normal days and episode events. The total mass of 16 PAHs and PM2.5 were in the range of 7-961 ng m-3 and 55-697 μg m-3, with a 3-year average of 174 ng m-3 and 194 μg m-3 respectively. Winter is most polluted for both PM2.5 and PAHs. Average PAH and PM2.5 concentrations during three episode events are 454 ng m-3 and 453 μg m-3, respectively, much higher than values during normal days (299 ng m-3 and 180 μg m-3, respectively). Ratios of Σ16PAH/PM2.5 varied with seasons and concentrations of PM2.5, but showed a negative correlation with PM2.5 concentrations during episode events. The dominant components of PAHs are Benzo[b]fluoranthene, Chrysene, Fluoranthene, and Benzo[k]fluoranthene, Benz[a]anthracene, Pyrene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and their total concentrations vary from 27 to 342 ng m-3, accounting for 58-82% (average = 73%) of 16 PAHs. The Benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) concentration obtained was 9.4 ng m-3 (3-year average), exceeding nearly one order of magnitude of ambient air BaP standard (annual average: 1.0 ng m-3) in China. Diagnose ratios and Positive Matrix Factorization results show that coal combustion, vehicles, coking plant, and biomass burning are main sources for PAHs in this area. The high concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs, especially during episode events, reflected a potential health problem for nearby public and the necessity of air pollution control for both stationary and mobile sources.

  6. Accumulation and Clearance of PAHs and CYP1A Levels in Farmed Green Mussels (Perna viridis L. from a Coastal Industrial Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varaporn Cholumpai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Green mussels (Perna viridis L. that inhabit along coastal areas with established petro-chemical industries are likely to be exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons. In year 2011, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs accumulated (i.e. total of 16 PAH congeners in three different sizes of farmed mussels in the Maptaphut industrial estate which is an industrial park in the Gulf of Thailand. The levels of mean total PAHs (0.4303 ± 0.3067 µg/g dry weight in large sized (consumable size mussels were 16 and 8 times higher than medium and small sized mussels. Levels of total carcinogenic PAHs (0.0311± 0.0310 µg/g dry weight in consumable size mussels were 15 and 11 times higher compared to medium and small sized mussels. Two carcinogenic PAHs (i.e. chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene were detected in all sized mussels. The ratio of high molecular weight versus low molecular weight PAHs in all sized mussels indicated the presence of pyrogenic PAHs contamination over petrogenic PAHs in this coastal area. Further studies were carried out in year 2012 involved depuration in consumable sized mussels and effects on the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A biomarker were analyzed over a 30 day depuration period. The half-life was five days for total PAH burden (0.4765 ± 0.0615 µg/g dry weight, which included four non-carcinogenic PAHs. After 10, 15 and 30 days depuration in clean water, the mean total PAHs levels decreased gradually but yet significantly (0.2501 ± 0.0186, 0.1350 ± 0.0122 and 0.1554 ± 0.0353 µg/g dry weight, respectively compared to the PAH levels at day 0. Levels of CYP1A declined accordingly and at 30 days depuration CYP1A protein levels were significantly reduced by almost 3-fold compared the PAH levels in mussels from the Maptaphut industrial estate. The results show that farmed green mussels reared for human consumptions are exposed to PAHs including carcinogenic PAHs and that clearance of these PAHs is evident at 30 days depuration. This study

  7. Distribution patterns, infiltration and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound PAHs in indoor and outdoor air in cold zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Song, Wei-Wei; Ma, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li-Yan; Ma, Wan-Li; Li, Wen-Long; Li, Yi-Fan; Wang, Feng-Yan; Qi, Mei-Yun; Lv, Na; Wang, Ding-Zhen; Khan, Afed Ulla

    2016-07-01

    In this study we investigated the distribution patterns, infiltration and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound PAHs in indoor and outdoor air done in Harbin city, northeastern China. Simultaneous indoor and outdoor sampling was done to collect 264 PM2.5 samples from four sites during winter, summer, and spring. Infiltration of PAHs into indoors was estimated using Retene, Benzo [ghi]perylene and Chrysene as reference compounds, where the latter compound was suggested to be a good estimator and subsequently used for further calculation of infiltration factors (IFs). Modeling with positive matrix factorization (PMF5) and estimation of diagnostic isomeric ratios were applied for identifying sources, where coal combustion, crop residues burning and traffic being the major contributors, particularly during winter. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) has been utilized to show the distribution patterns of individual PAH congeners. LDA showed that, the greatest seasonal variability was attributed to high molecular weight compounds (HMW PAHs). Potential health risk of PAHs exposure was assessed through relative potency factor approach (RPF). The levels of the sum of 16 US EPA priority PAHs during colder months were very high, with average values of 377 ± 228 ng m(-)(3) and 102 ± 75.8 ng m(-)(3), for the outdoors and indoors, respectively. The outdoor levels reported to be 19 times higher than the outdoor concentrations during warmer months (summer + spring), while the indoor concentrations were suggested to be 9 times and 10 times higher than that for indoor summer (average 11.73 ± 4 ng m(-3)) and indoor spring (9.5 ± 3.3 ng m(-3)). During nighttime, outdoor PAHs revealed wider range of values compared to datytime which was likely due to outdoor temperature, a weather parameter with the strongest negative influence on ∑16PAHs compared to low impact of relative humidity and wind speed. PMID:27108365

  8. Bioaccumulation surveillance in Milford Haven Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langston, W J; O'Hara, S; Pope, N D; Davey, M; Shortridge, E; Imamura, M; Harino, H; Kim, A; Vane, C H

    2012-01-01

    Biomonitoring of contaminants (metals, organotins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs) was undertaken in Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) and a reference site in the Tywi Estuary (St Ishmael/Ferryside) during 2007-2008. Bioindicator species encompassed various uptake routes-Fucus vesiculosus (dissolved contaminants); Littorina littorea (grazer); Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule (suspension feeders); and Hediste (=Nereis) diversicolor (sediments). Differences in feeding and habitat preference have subtle implications for bioaccumulation trends though, with few exceptions, contaminant burdens in MHW were higher than the Tywi reference site, reflecting inputs. Elevated metal concentrations were observed at some MHW sites, whilst As and Se (molluscs and seaweed) were consistently at the higher end of the UK range. However, for most metals, distributions in MH biota were not exceptional. Several metal-species combinations indicated increases in bioavailability upstream, which may reflect the influence of geogenic/land-based sources-perhaps enhanced by lower salinity. TBT levels in MH mussels were below OSPAR toxicity thresholds and in the Tywi were close to zero. Phenyltins were not accumulated appreciably in M. edulis, whereas some H. diversicolor populations appear subjected to localized (historical) sources. PAHs in H. diversicolor were distributed evenly across most of MHW, although acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene were highest at one site near the mouth; naphthalenes in H. diversicolor were enriched in the mid-upper Haven (a pattern seen in M. edulis for most PAHs). Whilst PAH (and PCB) concentrations in MH mussels were mostly above reference and OSPAR backgrounds, they are unlikely to exceed ecotoxicological thresholds. Bivalve Condition indices (CI) were highest at the Tywi reference site and at the seaward end of MH, decreasing upstream-giving rise to several significant (negative) relationships between CI and body burdens

  9. Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs em aguardentes PHAs in spirits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bettin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A presença de hidrocarbonetos aromáticos polinucleares (HPAs em aguardentes foi investigada por cromatografia líquida (CLAE após sua prévia extração em fase sólida (SPE. A separação foi realizada em uma coluna Supelco, LCPAH-octadecil silano (25cm x 4,6mm x 5mm com gradiente acetonitrila/água e a quantificação utilizando detector de fluorescência. Os HPAs (naftaleno; acenaftaleno; fluoreno; fenantreno; antraceno; fluoranteno; pireno; 1,2- benzo(epireno; criseno; benzo(epireno; 2,3-benzo(aantraceno; 1,2-benzo(bfluoranteno; benzo(kfluoranteno; dibenzo(a,hantraceno; benzo(apireno; benzo(ghipirileno foram identificados e quantificados em vinte e oito amostras de aguardentes de cana. Os resultados experimentais para as amostras de aguardentes (cachaças são analisados em termos de análises de componentes principais (PCA objetivando a diferenciação entre o perfil das aguardentes produzidas a partir de cana-de-açúcar queimada e não-queimada.The presence of PHAs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocabons in spirits has been investigated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after solid phase extraction (SPE. The separation was achieved with a Supelco LCPAH-octadecil silane column [25cm x 4,6mm x 5mm] and acetonitrile/water elution gradient and the quantification using a fluorescence detector. The PHAs (naphthalene; acenaphthene; fluorene; phenantrene; anthracene; phuorantene; pyrene; 1,2-benzo(epyrene; chrysene; benzo(epyrene; 2,3-benzo(aanthracene; 1,2-benzo(bphluoranthene; benzo(kfluoranthene; dibenzo(a,hanthracene; benzo(apyreno; benzo(ghipyrilene were quantifed in twenty eight samples of sugar cane spirits. All the experimental data for sugar cane spirit have been analyzed through principal components analysis (PCA aiming to compare the chemical profile of beverages produced from burned and not burned sugar cane.

  10. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnath Singh

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001 was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001 as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001 among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs

  11. Colémbolos (Hexapoda como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México Collembola (Hexapoda as quality bioindicators of the hydrocarburans polluted soils in Southestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Uribe-Hernández

    2010-04-01

    , equitativity (J' and the similarity index (S. We also performed the following soil analyses: total petroleum hydrocarbon content (HTP, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content (HAP, porosity, pH, CE, MO, N, P, K, CIC, and texture. In contaminated areas, HTP exceeded the safe limits sets by Mexican environmental legislation. In all studied areas we observed Collembola, mites, and dipteran larvae. The variation in abundance and diversity of these insects can be used as biondicators of the level of contamination and quality of the soil. We found very low abundances of Crustacea, Formicidae, Aranae, Diptera, Pseudoscopionida, and Diplopoda. The Collembola families that were most widely distributed were Sminthurididae and Isotomidae. Our correlation analysis showed that their diversity is affected by HAP level (fluoranthene, naphfhalene, pyrene, chrysene and phenanthrene.

  12. Hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos em margarina, creme vegetal e maionese Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in margarine, vegetable cream and mayonnaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sílvia F. O. CAMARGO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Hidrocarbonetos aromáticos policíclicos (HAPs são um grupo de compostos que têm sido objeto de muitas pesquisas devido ao seu potencial tóxico. Neste estudo, margarinas, cremes vegetais e maioneses disponíveis no mercado brasileiro foram analisadas quanto ao teor de pireno, fluoranteno, benzo(aantraceno, criseno, benzo(bfluoranteno, benzo(kfluoranteno, benzo(apireno e dibenzo(a,hantraceno. A metodologia analítica envolveu extração líquido-líquido, limpeza em coluna de sílica gel e determinação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de fluorescência. Níveis variáveis de contaminação foram encontrados em marcas diferentes do mesmo produto e em lotes diferentes da mesma marca. O teor médio de HAPs totais encontrados esteve na faixa de 4,1 a 7,1mig/kg em cremes vegetais, de 1,7 a 3,9mig/kg em margarinas e de 1,0 a 21,7mig/kg em maioneses. Em geral, os produtos que declaravam conter óleo de milho em sua formulação mostraram os maiores níveis de contaminação. Com base nestes resultados e na importância de gorduras, óleos e produtos derivados como fonte de ingestão de HAPs, recomenda-se aos produtores de margarinas, cremes vegetais e maioneses que iniciem o controle da contaminação dos óleos vegetais utilizados na elaboração destes produtos, de forma a reduzir a exposição do consumidor à quantidades excessivas de compostos potencialmente carcinogênicos.Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of compounds that have been the subject of much concern due to their toxic potential. In this study, margarine’s, vegetable cream and mayonnaise available on the Brazilian market were analyzed for pyrene, chrysene, benzo(apyrene, benzo(bfluoranthene and dibenzo(a,hanthracene. The analytical methodology involved liquid-liquid extraction, clean-up on silica gel column and determination by high performance liquid chromatography using fluorescence detector. Variable levels of contamination were

  13. 北京地区表层土壤中多环芳烃的分布特征及污染源分析%Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in topsoil of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张枝焕; 卢另; 贺光秀; 彭旭阳; 朱雷; 王新伟; 焦煦

    2011-01-01

    根据北京地区不同环境功能区62个样品的分析结果,讨论了研究区表层土壤中多环芳烃的分布特征及污染源类型.结果表明:(1)研究区表层土壤中检测到的多环芳烃主要包括萘、苊、菲、惹烯、三芴、荧蒽、芘、(屈)、苯并蒽、苯并[b]荧蒽、苯并[K]荧蒽、苯并[e]芘、苯并[a]芘、苝、二苯并[a,h]蒽、茚并[1,2,3-cd]芘、苯并[g,h,i]苝及其同系物;(2)不同环境功能区表层土壤中多环芳烃的组成及质量分数均存在一定的差别,16种优先控制的多环芳烃质量分数为175.1~10 344ng·g-1,其中城市中心区表层土壤中多环芳烃的质量分数最高,交通干线附近、工矿企业附近表层土壤中PAHs的质量分数较高,林地、果园和农田表层土壤中PAHs的质量分数较低;(3)表层土壤中PAHs既有来源于石油源,也有来源于化石燃料燃烧产物的,但不同功能区二者贡献存在差别,其中农业用地(林地、果园、农田)中PAHs主要来源于石油源(或部分来源于土壤母岩中的有机质),城区、交通干线附近及工矿企业附近表层土壤中PAHs污染源以化石燃料燃烧产物输入为主.%Sixty-two topsoil samples collected in Beijing were detected and analyzed.The distribution and contamination sources of Polyeyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds (PAHs) were discussed.The results showed that (1) many kinds of PAHs in topsoil samples of Beijing were found, mainly including naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, retene, fluorene, dibenzofuran,dibenzothiophene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzanthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene,benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and their homologous compounds;(2) the composition and concentration of PAHs in topsoil samples from different environmental function areas were different.The concentration of sixteen prior pollutants PAHs was between 175

  14. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (‑48.4%), Ni (‑41.4%), Co (‑36.9%), Cu (‑35.7%), Mn (‑34.3%), Cd (‑33.2%), and Pb (‑30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the

  15. Scavenging ratio of polycyclic aromatic compounds in rain and snow at the Athabasca oil sands region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Athabasca oil sands industry in northern Alberta, Canada is a possible source of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs. Monitored PACs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, alkylated PAHs, and dibenzothiophenes, in precipitation and in air at three near-source sites in the Fort MacKay and Fort McMurray area during May 2011 to August 2012 were analyzed to generate a database of scavenging (or washout ratios (Wt for PACs scavenged by both snow and rain. Median precipitation and air concentrations of parent PAHs over the May 2011 to August 2012 period ranged from 0.3–184.9 (chrysene ng L−1 and 0.01–3.9 (naphthalene ng m−3, respectively, which were comparable to literature values. Higher concentrations in precipitation and air were observed for alkylated PAHs and dibenzothiophenes. The median precipitation and air concentrations were 11.3–646.7 (C3-fluoranthene/pyrene ng L−1 and 0.21–16.9 (C3-naphthalene ng m−3, respectively, for alkylated PAHs, and 8.5–530.5 (C4-dibenzothiophene ng L−1 and 0.13–6.6 (C2-dibenzothiophene ng m−3 for dibenzothiophenes and their alkylated derivatives. Median Wt over the measurement period were 6100–1.1 × 106 from snow scavenging and 350–2.3 × 105 from rain scavenging depending on the PAC species. Median Wt for parent PAHs were within the range of those observed at other urban and suburban locations. But Wt for acenaphthylene in snow samples was 2–7 times higher. Some individual snow and rain samples exceeded literature values by a factor of 10. Wt for benzo(apyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, and benzo(g,h,iperylene in snow samples had reached 107, which is the maximum for PAH snow scavenging ratios reported in literature. From the analysis of data subsets, Wt for particulate-phase dominant PACs were 14–20 times greater than gas-phase dominant PACs in snow samples and 7–20 times greater than gas-phase dominant PACs in rain samples. Wt from snow scavenging was ∼9 times greater

  16. 天津西青区不同功能区土壤中多环芳烃分布特征研究%Distribution Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Different Functional Zones of Soils from Xiqing District in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪; 罗铭; 张茜; 戴礼洪; 刘岩; 王璐; 刘潇威

    2012-01-01

    towns respectively. Not all the 16 PAHs were detected in all 24 samples. Principal component analysis was used to identify the pollution sources of PAHs.The variance contribution rate of top three factors was 91.3%, High-molecular PAHs from burning sources dominated at the first principal component, while, the second principal component mainly attributed to the low molecular PAHs from petroleum pollution sources. Correlation of organic compound with PAHs in soils has also been studied: there existed significant linear correlations between soil organic matters and PAHs(R2=0.613 ) and soil organic matters most closely correlated with chrysen(R2=0.665), indicating that soil organic matter was one of the important factors affecting the PAHs in soil. However, near the serious pollution source of PAHs, the concentration of PAHs in the soils was probably determined by the pollution source and other complicated factors of soils. According to European PAHs risk grading standards, Zhongbei town was moderately polluted, Yangliuqing town and Zhangjiawo town were at light pollution level, Xinkou town was unpolluted.

  17. Determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil by HPLC%HPLC测定鄱阳湖湿地土壤中15种多环芳烃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平华; 曾祥晖

    2014-01-01

    Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil, by using acetone and hexane(1︰1)as the extraction solvent,extraction of 40min by ultrasonic extraction method, the total amount of solvent is 70 mL (10 g samples), chromatographic conditions: the injection volume was 20μL,flow rate 1 mL/min,temperature 30℃,the appropriate mobile phase gradient elution program and the fluorescence detector wave length conversion program.The concentrations of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil has been determinated by HPLC. The contents of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil is Naphthalene, 92.45;Acenaphthene,not detected;Fluorene, 9.90;Phenanthrene, 91.75;Anthracene,119.67;Fluoranthene,not detected;Pyrene,81.51;Benzo (a) anthracene, 13.26;Chrysene,6.79;Benzo (b) fluoranthene,4.53;Benzo (k) fluoranthene,7.76;Benzo (a) pyrene,not detected;Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene,7.74;Benzo(g,h,i)perylene,not detected;Indeno (123-cd) pyrene,not detected. The standard addition recovery of this method was 76.8%-115.1%, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 1.3%-5.8%, with good accuracy and precision. The established method can used to determinate the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil. It provide the basis for further study of pollution characteristics and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Poyang Lake wetland soil.%测定鄱阳湖湿地土壤中多环芳烃的含量,采用丙酮+正己烷(1︰1)为提取溶剂,超声提取40 min,总溶剂量为70 mL(10 g样品),色谱条件为进样量为20μL、流量为1 mL/min、柱温30℃,采用适当的流动相梯度淋洗程序与荧光检测器波长变换程序,高效液相色谱法测定鄱阳湖湿地土壤中15种多环芳烃的含量。结果表明:鄱阳湖湿地土壤中15种多环芳烃的含量为(ng/g):萘,92.45;苊,未检出;芴,9.90;菲,91.75;蒽,119

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (pah) In The Bulk Precipitation of The Seine Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelay-Massei, A.; Ollivon, D.; Garban, B.; Chevreuil, M.

    The evolution of industry and the rising of population have resulted in deep changes in the quality of the environment. Nowadays much more often the attention of analysts is focused on the presence of organic pollutants in precipitation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or pesticides. Atmospheric inputs play a significant role in semivolatile chemicals cycling and alter so the hydrological cycle. PAHs are semi- volatile organic contaminants of great environmental concern because of their car- cinogenic properties. PAHs are produced primarily during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Major sources of PAHs to urban atmosphere include au- tomobile traffic, home heating, municipal incinerators and industrial emissions. De- spite their production in urban and industrial sites, PAHs occur at high concentra- tions in rural areas due to their persistence and ability to be transported over long distances. The aim of this investigation was to obtain information about occurrence of organic trace components in precipitation in the Seine Estuary. It was also of in- terest to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PAHs in the bulk (wet and dry) deposition occurring in the estuary region and to estimate PAH deposition flux on watershed (urban, industrial or rural). Precipitation samples were collected at four locations in the Seine Estuary: the first is an industrial site (Le Havre), two are urban sites (Rouen, representative of urban area influenced by heavy traffic and Notre-Dame de Gravenchon, near from an industrial center) and the last one is ru- ral (Evreux). Each of the sites is located close to a meteorological station. Sam- pling is performed weekly since March 2001. In our analytical conditions, "total PAH" includes 15 compounds: naphthalene (NAP), acenaphtene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), anthracene (ANT), fluoranthene (FTH), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (Bk

  19. 超声波萃取-同步荧光法测定土壤中的多环芳烃研究%Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soft by way of supersonic extraction and synchronous fluorescence spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立芳; 项小燕; 章汝平

    2011-01-01

    -breeding garden soil were mainly dominated by benzo [a] pyrene and fluoranthene, whereas in the Long-zhou Industrial Park in soil were mainly dominated by benzo [a] pyrene, fluoranthene, but benzo [k] fluoranthene, carbazole and chrysene, are used in the soil of Longyan Sande Cement Plant,where the soils were mainly dominated by benzo [a] pyrene, fluoranthene, the Philippines and Anthracene. Since the method is simple and convenient in use, as well as easily be identified and quantitatively determined, it is favorable for the simultaneous, multi-component applications with no need of pre-separation. What is more, real samples will so be made respondent and available upon the direct call.%采用超声波萃取-恒波长同步荧光法测定了土壤中的多环芳烃(PAHs).对超声波萃取和同步荧光法的测定条件进行优化,考察方法的线性相关性、准确性和加标回收率,确定优化条件为:二氯甲烷/正已烷(1∶1),体积每次30 mL分两次提取,提取时间为60 min,样品不需纯化,直接可用于同步荧光分析.超声波萃取效率高,萃取时间短.采用恒波长同步荧光法对多环芳烃进行定性定量,相关系数r>0.9981,检测限0.052~12.37 ng,标准偏差0.017% ~ 4.12%,回收率68.2%~109.9%.采用超声萃取-同步荧光法测定了龙岩市区不同功能区土壤中的多环芳烃.结果表明,闽西监狱良种繁殖园土样中含有苯并[a]芘和荧蒽,龙洲工业园土样中含有苯并[a]芘、荧蒽、苯并[k]荧葸、咔唑和,龙岩三德水泥厂土样中含有苯并[a]芘、荧葸、菲和蒽.该法简便快速,无需对混合物进行分离就可实现多组分的同时鉴别和定量测定.

  20. 百色市工业区表层土壤中多环芳烃污染特征及来源分析%Characteristics and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface soil from industrial areas of Baise, Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史兵方; 吴启琳; 欧阳辉祥; 刘细祥; 张金磊; 左卫元

    2014-01-01

    To expand and improve the database of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution signatures in different environmental samples from sites in China, surface soil samples were collected from five industrial areas of Baise, a prefecture-level city of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The concentration and composition of 16 PAHs listed for prior control by the US EPA were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Selected diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis were used to identify possible sources of soil PAHs. Concentrations of∑16 PAHs in the present study were shown to vary greatly, and ranged from 18.7 to 6347 μg/kg, depending on the sampling location. The highest concentrations ofΣ16 PAHs were observed in Power plant 2 soils with a value of 1923.4μg/kg. Compared with domestic and foreign research, PAH pollution in the five Baise industrial areas reached medium to high levels. Soil PAH concentrations showed a strong Power plant 2-Power plant 1-Refinery-Lubricants plant-Cement plant gradient. Four-and five-ring PAHs, which have strong carcinogenic mutagenicity and distortion, dominated in the industrial areas with power plants and lubricant plants, while two-and three-ring PAHs dominated the surface soil near cement plants. Among the PAHs detected in the study-area soil, benz[a]anthracene (BaA), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), chrysene (Chr), and fluoranthene (Fla) were the major pollutants occurring above standard levels. The study also suggested that the major sources of soil PAHs in Baise were coal and petroleum combustion (45.0%) and petroleum leakage (18.2%), or a combination of the two (36.8%).%为完善我国实地的不同的PAHs污染特征数据库,系统采集了百色市5个工业区表层土壤样品,利用HPLC分析了16种US EPA 优控 PAHs 的含量和组分特征,运用同分异构体比率法和主成分因子载荷法揭示其污染来源.结果表明,工业区土壤中 PAHs 总含量范围在18

  1. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    keine weiteren Zellteilungen mehr durch. Daher sind DNA-Schäden in diesen Zellen ein sehr geringes Risiko für den Organismus. Soweit die reaktiven Metabolite in diesen Zellen gefangen bleiben, kann die Bioaktivierung in diesen Zellen und die Bildung von Addukten als protektiv betrachten werden, da letztere nach wenigen Tagen mit den toten Zellen in das Darmlumen abgegeben werden. Für den Vergleich der Bioaktiverung von Promutagenen durch die Form 1B1 des Menschen und der Ratte wurden aus V79 Lungenfibroblasten des Chinesischen Hamsters abgeleitete Zellinien hergestellt, die je eine der beiden Formen stabil exprimieren. Damit standen 1B1-profiziente Indikatorzellen für den HPRT-Genmutationstest zur Verfügung, und die 1B1-abhängige Bioaktivierung konnte in einem System untersucht werden, die dem eukaryontischen Organismus näher steht als die für die Ames-Tests verwendeten Bakterien. So war z.B. die Sulfotransferase wie im Gewebe im Zytoplasma lokalisiert. Als Modellsubstanzen wurden hierbei die bereits in TA1538-h1B1 mutagen wirkenden benzylischen Alkohole 6-Hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyren und 4-Hydroxycyclopenta-[def]chrysen getestet. Da die Sensitivität einer Sulfotransferase-exprimierenden V79-Zellinie sowohl durch die Menge an Sulfotransferase als auch durch die Verfügbarkeit des Sulfodonors limitiert sein könnte, wurden die Mutagenitätsexperimente mit V79-r1B1-Zellinien durchgeführt, die sich in ihrer Enzymaktivität um das Zwanzigfache unterschieden: V79-r1B1/A und -/B. Eine starke Erhöhung der Mutantenfrequenz wurde nur in der hoch exprimierenden Zellinie V79-r1B1/A (1019 ± 224 pmol/mg/min) beobachtet, so da eine gravierende Beeinträchtigung der Sensitivität durch einen Mangel an Kosubstrat ausgeschlossen wurde. In der niedriger exprimierenden Zellinie V79-r1B1/B (57 ± 9 pmol/mg/min) war nur mit 6-Hydroxymethylbenzo[a]pyren ein schwacher Anstieg der Mutantenfrequenz zu erkennen, der mit 0,3 µM bei einer in etwa 100fach höheren Konzentration begann