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Sample records for chrysenes

  1. Growth study on chrysene degraders isolated from polycyclic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... naphthalene, crude oil, kerosene, diesel and engine oil as sole carbon ... (P< 0.05) in the growth of these organisms on chrysene as sole carbon and energy source when .... minimal salt plates free of chrysene were included.

  2. Growth study on chrysene degraders isolated from polycyclic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... naphthalene, crude oil, kerosene, diesel and engine oil as sole carbon source. None could ... (1994) using chrysene as sole carbon and energy source. ..... Hydrocarbon balance of a site which had been highly and chronically.

  3. Orthogonal 4,10 and 6,12 substitution of dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene polycyclic aromatic small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Koldemir, Unsal

    2017-07-14

    A series of new polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds based on (4,10-disubstituted-dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dione) and 4,10 di-substituted 6,12-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene are reported with tunable electronic properties through varied molecular architecture. Starting with an inexpensive commercially available textile dye known as Vat Orange #3, (4,10-dibromo-dibenzo[def,mno] chrysene-6,12-dione) we extended the conjugation at the 4- and 10-positions by the attachment of both electron rich and deficient hexylvinylphthalimide, thiophene, hexylthiophene, triphenylamine, and hexylbithiophene aromatic groups, and studied the resultant optoelectronic properties. By applying various synthetic metal-catalyzed reactions, soluble dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene and dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dione derivatives were achieved with optical edge band gaps between 2.30 eV and 1.65 eV.

  4. Orthogonal 4,10 and 6,12 substitution of dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene polycyclic aromatic small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Koldemir, Unsal; Tinkham, Jonathan S.; Johnson, Robert; Lim, Bogyu; Yemam, Henok A.; Gagnon, Kevin J.; Parkin, Sean; Sellinger, Alan

    2017-01-01

    A series of new polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds based on (4,10-disubstituted-dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dione) and 4,10 di-substituted 6,12-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene are reported with tunable electronic properties through varied molecular architecture. Starting with an inexpensive commercially available textile dye known as Vat Orange #3, (4,10-dibromo-dibenzo[def,mno] chrysene-6,12-dione) we extended the conjugation at the 4- and 10-positions by the attachment of both electron rich and deficient hexylvinylphthalimide, thiophene, hexylthiophene, triphenylamine, and hexylbithiophene aromatic groups, and studied the resultant optoelectronic properties. By applying various synthetic metal-catalyzed reactions, soluble dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene and dibenzo[def,mno]chrysene-6,12-dione derivatives were achieved with optical edge band gaps between 2.30 eV and 1.65 eV.

  5. Synchronous scanning phosphorimetry for the selective determination of chrysene: a metrological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra L. M. C. da Cunha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Room-temperature phosphorimetry was used to quantify trace levels of chrysene in sugar-cane spirits and in fish bile. A selective phosphorescence enhancer (AgNO3 and synchronous scanning allowed the detection of ng amounts of chrysene. Accuracy (113 ± 17% and selectivity was evaluated using the CRM-NIST-1647d - Priority Pollutant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in acetonitrile. Analysis of sugar-cane spirit samples enabled recovery of 108 ± 18% which agreed with the one achieved using HPLC. Method's uncertainty was equivalent to 3.4 ng of the analyte, however, the analyte pre-concentration (SPE improved sensibility and minimized the relative uncertainty. Characterization and homogeneity studies in fish bile were also performed.

  6. Synthesis of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon marked with carbon-14: (b, d e f) dibenzo-chrysene 14C-7,14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelain, G.

    1965-01-01

    (b, d e f) dibenzo-chrysene C-7,14 has been synthesized from radioactive carbon dioxide and the organic magnesium compound derived from 1,5 dibromo naphthalene. The product has been purified by a very precise series of fractionated chromatographs on alumina having a chromatographic activity. This has necessitated the development of a special technique. (author) [fr

  7. Application of response surface methodology for rapid chrysene biodegradation by newly isolated marine-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jwalant K; Ghevariya, Chirag M; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2014-11-01

    For the first time, Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D, a marine-derived ascomycete fungus isolated from historically contaminated crude oil polluted shoreline of Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard, at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat has been reported showing the rapid and enhanced biodegradation of chrysene, a four ringed high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Mineral Salt Broth (MSB) components such as ammonium tartrate and glucose along with chrysene, pH and trace metal solution have been successfully optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD). A validated, two-step optimization protocol has yielded a substantial 93.10% chrysene degradation on the 4(th) day, against unoptimized 56.37% degradation on the 14(th) day. The results depict 1.65 fold increase in chrysene degradation and 1.40 fold increase in biomass with a considerable decrement in time. Based on the successful laboratory experiments, C. lunatus strain CHR4D can thus be predicted as a potential candidate for mycoremediation of HMW PAHs impacted environments.

  8. Preliminary physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowell, Susan Ritger; Amin, Shantu G.; Anderson, Kim A.; Krishnegowda, Gowdahalli; Sharma, Arun K.; Soelberg, Jolen J.; Williams, David E.; Corley, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants generated as byproducts of natural and anthropogenic combustion processes. Despite significant public health concern, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling efforts for PAHs have so far been limited to naphthalene, plus simpler PK models for pyrene, nitropyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The dearth of published models is due in part to the high lipophilicity, low volatility, and myriad metabolic pathways for PAHs, all of which present analytical and experimental challenges. Our research efforts have focused upon experimental approaches and initial development of PBPK models for the prototypic PAH, B[a]P, and the more potent, albeit less studied transplacental carcinogen, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC). For both compounds, model compartments included arterial and venous blood, flow limited lung, liver, richly perfused and poorly perfused tissues, diffusion limited fat, and a two compartment theoretical gut (for oral exposures). Hepatic and pulmonary metabolism was described for both compounds, as were fractional binding in blood and fecal clearance. Partition coefficients for parent PAH along with their diol and tetraol metabolites were estimated using published algorithms and verified experimentally for the hydroxylated metabolites. The preliminary PBPK models were able to describe many, but not all, of the available data sets, comprising multiple routes of exposure (oral, intravenous) and nominal doses spanning several orders of magnitude. Supported by Award Number P42 ES016465 from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. -- Highlights: ► We present PBPK models for benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC). ► B[a]P model accurately predicts data from multiple sources over a wide dose range. ► DBC model was based on the B[a]P model as less chemical specific data is available. ► DBC model accurately predicted preliminary

  9. Assessment of soil screening levels due to ingestion and dermal absorption of chrysene and benzo[k]fluoranthene and appropriate remediation method for Dorson Abad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitipour, Saeid; Firouzbakht, Saeid; Mirzaee, Ehsan; Alimohammadi, Masoumeh

    2014-06-01

    For years, the Dorson Abad region has been extremely polluted by Tehran Oil Refinery due to leaking from its underground pipelines, storage tanks, and evaporation ponds. To assess the concentrations of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds, soil samples were collected from the grounds at and adjacent to a polluted stream located in the study area. The samples were then analyzed, and the results revealed that 12 of the 16 USEPA PAHs were noticeably present in the soil, which, among them, benzo[k]fluoranthene and chrysene had the highest concentrations with averages of 357.17 and 173.38 mg/kg, respectively. A comparison of the obtained concentrations with the soil screening levels indicated that both benzo[k]fluoranthene and chrysene concentrations were substantially higher than EPA screening level values, signifying the necessity of soil remediation for these contaminants in the area. Techniques such as soil washing/flushing, high temperature thermal desorption, and solidification/stabilization were investigated for treatment of the contaminated soil; solidification/stabilization is recommended as an applicable and cost-effective remediation method for Dorson Abad due to the size of the region, relatively low cost of the binder (cement), and low volatility of benzo[k]fluoranthene and chrysene.

  10. Synthesis, crystal structure and photo physical properties of isomeric fluorinated s-shaped polyaromatic dibenzo[c,l]chrysene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriguchi, Tetsuji; Tabuchi, Daichi; Yakeya, Daisuke; Tsuge, Akihiko; Jalli, Venkataprasad; Yoza, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    Two s-shaped fluorinated isomeric polyaromatic dibenzo[c,l]chrysene derivatives have been synthesized by a two step process using the Wittig, Heck and iodine promoted cyclization reactions. These cyclized compounds were characterized by 1H NMR and EI-MS. Further, absolute configurations of isomeric 4a and 4b were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Compound 4a crystallized under monoclinic system with space group P21/c and compound 4b crystallized under monoclinic system with space group Cc. They have good solubility in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform and THF. Photophysical properties of 4a and 4b were evaluated by using UV-Visible and Fluorescence spectrophotometer. Compounds 4a and 4b showed strong absorption maximum wavelength at 317 nm. The emission spectra of 4a and 4b displayed sharp peaks in the visible region from 417 to 441 nm. The shape of the UV-Visible and Fluorescence spectra of 4a and 4b looks almost identical. But compound 4a exhibited better fluorescence intensity than compound 4b. This difference may be due to the difference in the configuration of compounds 4a and 4b.

  11. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongkang [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Morandi, Garrett D. [School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Brown, R. Stephen [School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Snieckus, Victor; Rantanen, Toni [Department of Chemistry, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); Jørgensen, Kåre B. [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger, 4036 Stavanger (Norway); Hodson, Peter V., E-mail: peter.hodson@queensu.ca [Department of Biology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada); School of Environmental Studies, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L3N6 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Medaka embryos were exposed to alkyl chrysenes and benzo[a]anthracenes (BAA). • Concentrations were kept constant by partition controlled delivery. • Chrysene was not toxic within solubility limits, in contrast to BAA. • Alkylation increased the toxicity of chrysene and BAA. • Toxicity was related to hydrophobicity and to specific modes of action. - Abstract: Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and log K{sub ow} values provided a rough estimation of structure–activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but K{sub ow} alone did not provide

  12. Differential modulation of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis: Maternal diets rich in indole-3-carbinol versus sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shorey, Lyndsey E.; Madeen, Erin P. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Atwell, Lauren L.; Ho, Emily [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Pereira, Clifford B. [Department of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Dashwood, Roderick H. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Cruciferous vegetable components have been documented to exhibit anticancer properties. Targets of action span multiple mechanisms deregulated during cancer progression, ranging from altered carcinogen metabolism to the restoration of epigenetic machinery. Furthermore, the developing fetus is highly susceptible to changes in nutritional status and to environmental toxicants. Thus, we have exploited a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis to assess the impact of maternal dietary supplementation on cancer risk in offspring. In this study, transplacental and lactational exposure to a maternal dose of 15 mg/Kg B.W. of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) resulted in significant morbidity of offspring due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. As in previous studies, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, feed to the dam at 100, 500 or 1000 ppm), derived from cruciferous vegetables, dose-dependently reduced lung tumor multiplicity and also increased offspring survival. Brussels sprout and broccoli sprout powders, selected for their relative abundance of I3C and the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), respectively, surprisingly enhanced DBC-induced morbidity and tumorigenesis when incorporated into the maternal diet at 10% wt/wt. Purified SFN, incorporated in the maternal diet at 400 ppm, also decreased the latency of DBC-dependent morbidity. Interestingly, I3C abrogated the effect of SFN when the two purified compounds were administered in equimolar combination (500 ppm I3C and 600 ppm SFN). SFN metabolites measured in the plasma of neonates positively correlated with exposure levels via the maternal diet but not with offspring mortality. These findings provide justification for further study of the safety and bioactivity of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals at supplemental concentrations during the perinatal period. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation may modulate cancer risk in a mouse model of lymphoma. • Cruciferous vegetables may not contain sufficient I3C

  13. Differential modulation of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene transplacental carcinogenesis: Maternal diets rich in indole-3-carbinol versus sulforaphane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shorey, Lyndsey E.; Madeen, Erin P.; Atwell, Lauren L.; Ho, Emily; Löhr, Christiane V.; Pereira, Clifford B.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Williams, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Cruciferous vegetable components have been documented to exhibit anticancer properties. Targets of action span multiple mechanisms deregulated during cancer progression, ranging from altered carcinogen metabolism to the restoration of epigenetic machinery. Furthermore, the developing fetus is highly susceptible to changes in nutritional status and to environmental toxicants. Thus, we have exploited a mouse model of transplacental carcinogenesis to assess the impact of maternal dietary supplementation on cancer risk in offspring. In this study, transplacental and lactational exposure to a maternal dose of 15 mg/Kg B.W. of dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) resulted in significant morbidity of offspring due to an aggressive T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. As in previous studies, indole-3-carbinol (I3C, feed to the dam at 100, 500 or 1000 ppm), derived from cruciferous vegetables, dose-dependently reduced lung tumor multiplicity and also increased offspring survival. Brussels sprout and broccoli sprout powders, selected for their relative abundance of I3C and the bioactive component sulforaphane (SFN), respectively, surprisingly enhanced DBC-induced morbidity and tumorigenesis when incorporated into the maternal diet at 10% wt/wt. Purified SFN, incorporated in the maternal diet at 400 ppm, also decreased the latency of DBC-dependent morbidity. Interestingly, I3C abrogated the effect of SFN when the two purified compounds were administered in equimolar combination (500 ppm I3C and 600 ppm SFN). SFN metabolites measured in the plasma of neonates positively correlated with exposure levels via the maternal diet but not with offspring mortality. These findings provide justification for further study of the safety and bioactivity of cruciferous vegetable phytochemicals at supplemental concentrations during the perinatal period. - Highlights: • Dietary supplementation may modulate cancer risk in a mouse model of lymphoma. • Cruciferous vegetables may not contain sufficient I3C

  14. Synthesis of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon marked with carbon-14: (b, d e f) dibenzo-chrysene {sup 14}C-7,14; Synthese d'un hydrocarbure aromatique polycyclique marque au carbone 14: le dibenzo (b, d e f) chrysene {sup 14}C-7,14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatelain, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    (b, d e f) dibenzo-chrysene C-7,14 has been synthesized from radioactive carbon dioxide and the organic magnesium compound derived from 1,5 dibromo naphthalene. The product has been purified by a very precise series of fractionated chromatographs on alumina having a chromatographic activity. This has necessitated the development of a special technique. (author) [French] Le dibenzo (b, d e f) chrysene 14C-7,14 a ete synthetise au depart de gaz carbonique radioactif et de bis-organomagnesien derive du dibromo-1,5 naphtalene. Le produit a ete purifie par une serie de chromatographies fractionnees sur alumine d'activite chromatographique tres precise. Ceci a fait l'objet d'une mise au point de technique. (auteur)

  15. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hongkang; Morandi, Garrett D; Brown, R Stephen; Snieckus, Victor; Rantanen, Toni; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Hodson, Peter V

    2015-02-01

    Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and logKow values provided a rough estimation of structure-activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but Kow alone did not provide a complete explanation of the chronic toxicity of alkyl PAHs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol and dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol in rodent and human hepatic microsomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Mehinagic, Denis; Nag, Subhasree; Crowell, Susan R.; Corley, Richard A.

    2017-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are contaminants that are ubiquitously found in the environment, produced through combustion of organic matter or petrochemicals, and many of which are procarcinogens. The prototypic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and the highly carcinogenic dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) are metabolically activated by isoforms of the P450 enzyme superfamily producing benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (B[a]P diol), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-11,12 diol (DBC diol). Each of these diols can be further metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to highly reactive diol-epoxide metabolites that readily react with DNA or by phase II conjugation facilitating excretion. To complement prior in vitro metabolism studies with parent B[a]P and DBC, both phase I metabolism and phase II glucuronidation of B[a]P diol and DBC diol were measured in hepatic microsomes from female B6129SF1/J mice, male Sprague-Dawley rats, and female humans. Metabolic parameters, including intrinsic clearance and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were calculated from substrate depletion data. Mice and rats demonstrated similar B[a]P diol phase I metabolic rates. Compared to rodents, human phase I metabolism of B[a]P diol demonstrated lower overall metabolic capacity, lower intrinsic clearance at higher substrate concentrations (>0.14 µM), and higher intrinsic clearance at lower substrate concentrations (<0.07 µM). Rates of DBC diol metabolism did not saturate in mice or humans and were highest overall in mice. Higher affinity constants and lower capacities were observed for DBC diol glucuronidation compared to B[a]P diol glucuronidation; however, intrinsic clearance values for these compounds were consistent within each species. Kinetic parameters reported here will be used to extend physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to include the disposition of B[a]P and DBC metabolites in animal models and humans to support future human health risk assessments.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew; Krueger, Sharon K.; Bradfield, Christopher A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C.; Pereira, Cliff B.; Löhr, Christiane V.; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Williams, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by 32 P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique pattern of

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as skin carcinogens: Comparison of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene and three environmental mixtures in the FVB/N mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K.; Larkin, Andrew [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Bradfield, Christopher A. [McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Waters, Katrina M.; Tilton, Susan C. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Pereira, Cliff B. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Deptartment of Statistics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H. [Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, MRC-HPA Centre for Environment and Health, King' s College London, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), was compared to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC) and combinations of three environmental PAH mixtures (coal tar, diesel particulate and cigarette smoke condensate) using a two stage, FVB/N mouse skin tumor model. DBC (4 nmol) was most potent, reaching 100% tumor incidence with a shorter latency to tumor formation, less than 20 weeks of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) promotion compared to all other treatments. Multiplicity was 4 times greater than BaP (400 nmol). Both PAHs produced primarily papillomas followed by squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma in situ. Diesel particulate extract (1 mg SRM 1650b; mix 1) did not differ from toluene controls and failed to elicit a carcinogenic response. Addition of coal tar extract (1 mg SRM 1597a; mix 2) produced a response similar to BaP. Further addition of 2 mg of cigarette smoke condensate (mix 3) did not alter the response with mix 2. PAH-DNA adducts measured in epidermis 12 h post initiation and analyzed by {sup 32}P post‐labeling, did not correlate with tumor incidence. PAH‐dependent alteration in transcriptome of skin 12 h post initiation was assessed by microarray. Principal component analysis (sum of all treatments) of the 922 significantly altered genes (p < 0.05), showed DBC and BaP to cluster distinct from PAH mixtures and each other. BaP and mixtures up-regulated phase 1 and phase 2 metabolizing enzymes while DBC did not. The carcinogenicity with DBC and two of the mixtures was much greater than would be predicted based on published Relative Potency Factors (RPFs). -- Highlights: ► Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), 3 PAH mixtures, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were compared. ► DBC and 2 PAH mixtures were more potent than Relative Potency Factor estimates. ► Transcriptome profiles 12 hours post initiation were analyzed by microarray. ► Principle components analysis of alterations revealed treatment-based clustering. ► DBC gave a unique

  19. Equatorenes: synthesis and properties of chiral naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and pyrene possessing bis(1-adamantyl) groups at the peri-position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Koji; Oyamada, Naohiro; Xia, Sheng; Kobayashi, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Maeda, Hiroaki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Kwon, Eunsang

    2013-11-06

    Chiral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing bis(1-adamantyl) groups at the peri-positions, named equatorenes, were synthesized in optically pure form starting from optically pure 4,5-bis(1-adamantyl)-8-methoxy-1-naphthol. A sequential Diels-Alder reaction of furan and arynes generated from 1,2-bromotriflates provided tricyclic and tetracyclic epoxides, and acid-catalyzed aromatization gave phenanthrol and chrysenol. Deoxygenation reactions involving the hydrogenolysis of triflates gave 1,8-bis(1-adamantyl)naphthalene, 1,10-bis(1-adamantyl)phenanthrene, and 1,12-bis(1-adamantyl)chrysene. 3,4-Bis(1-adamantyl)pyrene was synthesized from phenanthrol by Sonogashira coupling and Pt-catalyzed cyclization. Essentially no racemization occurred during the synthesis. X-ray analysis indicated the distorted naphthalene moiety possessing the peri-diadamantyl groups and the flat structure of the other benzene rings. UV-vis analysis of the equatorenes showed considerable redshifts compared with that of the corresponding achiral arenes. Electrochemical analysis of the naphthalene and pyrene indicated that the distortion decreased the highest occupied molecular orbital stability with no marked effect on the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy level, and the origin was discussed on the basis of calculation results.

  20. Hypomethylated Fgf3 is a potential biomarker for early detection of oral cancer in mice treated with the tobacco carcinogen dibenzo[def,p]chrysene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Wan Sun

    Full Text Available Genetic and epigenetic alterations observed at end stage OSCC formation could be considered as a consequence of cancer development and thus changes in normal or premalignant tissues which had been exposed to oral carcinogens such as Dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBP may better serve as predictive biomarkers of disease development. Many types of DNA damage can induce epigenetic changes which can occur early and in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore we used ERRBS to generate genome-scale, single-base resolution DNA methylomes from histologically normal oral tissues of mice treated with DBP under experimental conditions known to induce maximum DNA damage which is essential for the development of OSCC induced by DBP in mice. After genome-wide correction, 30 and 48 differentially methylated sites (DMS were identified between vehicle control and DBP treated mice using 25% and 10% differences in methylation, respectively. RT-PCR was further performed to examine the expressions of nine selected genes. Among them, Fgf3, a gene frequently amplified in head and neck cancer, showed most prominent and significant gene expression change (2.4× increases, despite the hypomethylation of Fgf3 was identified at >10kb upstream of transcription start site. No difference was observed in protein expression between normal oral tissues treated with DBP or vehicle as examined by immunohistochemistry. Collectively, our results indicate that Fgf3 hypomethylation and gene overexpression, but not protein expression, occurred in the early stage of oral carcinogenesis induced by DBP. Thus, Fgf3 hypomethylation may serve as a potential biomarker for early detection of OSCC.

  1. Human Microdosing with Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of Dibenzo[ def,p ]chrysene and Metabolites by UPLC Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madeen, Erin P.; Ognibene, Ted J.; Corley, Richard A.; McQuistan, Tammie J.; Henderson, Marilyn C.; Baird, William M.; Bench, Graham; Turteltaub, Ken W.; Williams, David E.

    2016-10-17

    Metabolism is a key health risk factor following exposures to pro-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), an IARC classified 2A probable human carcinogen. Human exposure to PAHs occurs primarily from the diet in non-smokers. However, little data is available on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans of high molecular weight PAHs (≥4 aromatic rings), including DBC. We previously determined the pharmacokinetics of DBC in human volunteers orally administered a micro-dose (29 ng; 5 nCi) of [14C]-DBC by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis of total [14C] in plasma and urine. In the current study, we utilized a novel “moving wire” interface between ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and AMS to detect and quantify parent DBC and its major metabolites. The major [14C] product identified in plasma was unmetabolized [14C]-DBC itself, (Cmax= 18.5 ± 15.9 fg/mL, Tmax= 2.1 ± 1.0 h), whereas the major metabolite was identified as [14C]-(+/-)-DBC-11,12-diol (Cmax= 2.5 ± 1.3 fg/mL, Tmax= 1.8 h). Several minor species of [14C]-DBC metabolites were also detected for which no reference standards were available. Free and conjugated metabolites were detected in urine with [14C]-(+/-)-DBC-11,12,13,14-tetraol isomers identified as the major metabolites, 56.3% of which were conjugated (Cmax= 35.8 ± 23.0 pg/pool, Tmax= 6-12 h pool). [14C]-DBC-11,12-diol, of which 97.5% was conjugated, was also identified in urine (Cmax= 29.4 ± 11.6 pg/pool, Tmax= 6-12 h pool). Parent [14C]-DBC was not detected in urine. This is the first dataset to assess metabolite profiles and associated pharmacokinetics of a carcinogenic PAH in human volunteers at an environmentally relevant dose, providing the data necessary for translation of high dose animal models to humans for translation of environmental health risk assessment.

  2. THE EFFECT OF SALINITY ON THE PHOTOLYSIS OF CHRYSENE ADSORBED TO A SMECTITE CLAY. (R827397)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. From bifluorenylidene dianion to dibenzo[g,p]chrysene dianion: sensitivity of anisotropy changes to bonding structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenhar, R.; Beust, R.; Hagen, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the C-26 series having similar bonding structure yield dianions upon reduction with lithium metal. Anisotropy changes, revealed from an advanced charge distribution analysis performed on these dianions, show a correlation to the bonding structure...

  4. From bifluorenylidene dianion to dibenzo[g,p]chrysene dianion: sensitivity of anisotropy changes to bonding structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenhar, R.; Beust, R.; Hagen, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    of the dianions. Electron counting and orbital considerations rationalize this correlation in terms of aromatic/anti-aromatic behaviour that is mixed into the character of the aromatic PAH upon reduction. Predictions made regarding relative stability based on this correlation were successfully tested against......Five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the C-26 series having similar bonding structure yield dianions upon reduction with lithium metal. Anisotropy changes, revealed from an advanced charge distribution analysis performed on these dianions, show a correlation to the bonding structure...... calculation and experiment. The anisotropy change is suggested as a valid index for the reduction-induced change in the aromatic character of PAHs, which is applicable for both aromatic and anti-aromatic changes....

  5. WHY DOES 5-METHYL CHRYSENE INTERACT WITH DNA LIKE BOTH A PLANAR AND A NON-PLANAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON? QUANTUM MECHANICAL STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a large class of anthropogenic chemicals found in the environment. Some class members are potent animal carcinogens while other similar class members show little carcinogenic activity. When considering a series of in vitro studies of the int...

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in selected species of fish and prawn form northwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehta, P.; Kadam, A.N.; Gajbhiye, S.N.; Desai, B.N.

    of the method was in he range of 36.9-78.5% for 1-10 mu g.g/1, wet wt chrysene concentrations. The levels observed were low ranging from 0.2 to 10.0 mu g.g/1 (wet wt, chrysene equivalent units). The most abundant species Johnius glaucus and Coilia dussumieri...

  7. Regiospecifically Fluorinated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Julia-Kocienski Olefination and Oxidative Photocyclization. Effect of Fluorine Atom Substitution on Molecular Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shaibal; Sinha, Saikat; Pradhan, Padmanava; Caruso, Alessio; Liebowitz, Daniel; Parrish, Damon; Rossi, Miriam; Zajc, Barbara

    2016-05-20

    A modular synthesis of regiospecifically fluorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is described. 1,2-Diarylfluoroalkenes, synthesized via Julia-Kocienski olefination (70-99% yields), were converted to isomeric 5- and 6-fluorobenzo[c]phenanthrene, 5-and 6-fluorochrysene, and 9- and 10-benzo[g]chrysene (66-83% yields) by oxidative photocyclization. Photocyclization to 6-fluorochrysene proceeded more slowly than conversion of 1-styrylnaphthalene to chrysene. Higher fluoroalkene dilution led to a more rapid cyclization. Therefore, photocyclizations were performed at higher dilutions. To evaluate the effect of fluorine atom on molecular shapes, X-ray data for 5- and 6-fluorobenzo[c]phenanthrene, 6-fluorochrysene, 9- and 10-fluorobenzo[g]chrysene, and unfluorinated chrysene as well as benzo[g]chrysene were obtained and compared. The fluorine atom caused a small deviation from planarity in the chrysene series and decreased nonplanarity in the benzo[c]phenanthrene derivatives, but its influence was most pronounced in the benzo[g]chrysene series. A remarkable flattening of the molecule was observed in 9-fluorobenzo[g]chrysene, where the short 2.055 Å interatomic distance between bay-region F-9 and H-8, downfield shift of H-8, and a 26.1 Hz coupling between F-9 and C-8 indicate a possible F-9···H-8 hydrogen bond. In addition, in 9-fluorobenzo[g]chrysene, the stacking distance is short at 3.365 Å and there is an additional interaction between the C-11-H and C-10a of a nearby molecule that is almost perpendicular.

  8. Biodegradation of PAHs by fungi in contaminated-soil containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAH) benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a) fluoranthene, benzo(a) pyrene, chrysene and phenanthrene in a soil that was sterilized and inoculated with the nonligninolytic fungi, Fusarium flocciferum and Trichoderma spp. and the ligninolytic fungi, ...

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and n-Alkanes in beaked sea snake Enhydrina schistose (Daudin, 1803) from the Mandovi Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mote, S.; RanjeetKumar; Naik, B.G.; Ingole, B.S.

    , occur in high abundances (Voris H K 1985; Aaron Lobo et al. 2004) Present study demonstrates the tissue specific distribution of 15 EPA priority PAHs and 27 n-alkanes compounds in two individuals of E. schistose. We used GC-MS for analysis, which... in 20 ml dichloromethane/hexane (1:3 v/v) with surrogate internal standard (SIS) 20 ppm-200μl Tetracosane-d50 for alkane, 5ppm-200μl Chrysene-d12 for PAHs were spiked and transferred to 5% H2O deactivated silica gel column (1 cm i.dx 9 cm). Elution...

  10. 76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ..., including any sludge, spill residue, ash, emission control dust, or leachate, remains a hazardous waste... water for use as a cleaning agent. The slop oil waste is thereby diluted and hazardous constituents are... separation sludges that are listed as hazardous wastes due to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead and...

  11. Temperature and pressure effects on solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide and retention in supercritical fluid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.W.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1997-01-01

    Solubilities of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured with a procedure based on a direct on-line combination of a saturation cell to a flame ionization detector. Acenaphthene, anthrance and chrysene were selected as the test solutes. A method was

  12. Potential of glycerol and soybean oil for bioremediation of weathered oily-sludge contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, T.C.F.; Franca, F.P. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica], E-mail: fpfranca@eq.ufrj.br; Oliveira, F.J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    The bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil was investigated on laboratory scale. This work evaluated the effect of co-substrate addition in tropical climate soil highly contaminated with oily residue. Glycerol and soybean oil were used as auxiliary co-substrates for contaminant degradation. Three different concentrations of co-substrate were tested, and the experiments were carried out over 60 days. The following parameters were monitored: humidity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria, total fungi, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and the concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene and chrysene. The soil supplementation with renewable co-substrates improved the efficiency of the biodegradation TPH, with removals of 85% and 83% for glycerol and soybean oil, respectively, compared to a 55% removal yielded by the biodegradation process without supplementation. The use of glycerol increased Chrysene and Benzo[a]pyrene biodegradation by 50%, while soybean oil supplementation increased their removal by 36%. (author)

  13. Photoionization Efficiencies of Five Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K Olof; Campbell, Matthew F; Elvati, Paolo; Schrader, Paul E; Zádor, Judit; Richards-Henderson, Nicole K; Wilson, Kevin R; Violi, Angela; Michelsen, Hope A

    2017-06-15

    We have measured photoionization-efficiency curves for pyrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, perylene, and coronene in the photon energy range of 7.5-10.2 eV and derived their photoionization cross-section curves in this energy range. All measurements were performed using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation generated at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The VUV radiation was used for photoionization, and detection was performed using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. We measured the photoionization efficiency of 2,5-dimethylfuran simultaneously with those of pyrene, fluoranthene, chrysene, perylene, and coronene to obtain references of the photon flux during each measurement from the known photoionization cross-section curve of 2,5-dimethylfuran.

  14. Screening of ectomycorrhizal fungi for degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Luellemann, A.; Huettermann, A.; Majcherczyk, A. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Forstbotanik

    2000-07-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to 16 species (27 strains) were tested for their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): Phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Cultivated on a complex liquid medium, most of the fungi tested were able to metabolise these compounds. Approximately 50% of the benzo[a]pyrene was removed by strains of Amanita excelsa, Leccinum versipelle, Suillus grevillei, S. luteus, and S. variegatus during a 4-week incubation period. The same amount of phenanthrene was also metabolised by A. muscaria, Paxillus involutus, and S. grevillei. The degradation of the other two PAHs was, for the most part, less effective. Only S. grevillei was able to remove 50% of the pyrene, whereas Boletus edulis and A. muscaria removed 35% of the chrysene. (orig.)

  15. Synchronous fluorescence based biosensor for albumin determination by cooperative binding of fluorescence probe in a supra-biomolecular host-protein assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Digambara

    2010-01-15

    A synchronous fluorescence probe based biosensor for estimation of albumin with high sensitivity and selectivity was developed. Unlike conventional fluorescence emission or excitation spectral measurements, synchronous fluorescence measurement offered exclusively a new synchronous fluorescence peak in the shorter wavelength range upon binding of chrysene with protein making it an easy identification tool for albumin determination. The cooperative binding of a fluorescence probe, chrysene, in a supramolecular host-protein assembly during various albumin assessments was investigated. The presence of supramolecular host molecules such as beta-cyclodextrin, curucurbit[6]uril or curucurbit[7]uril have little influence on sensitivity or limit of detection during albumin determination but reduced dramatically interference from various coexisting metal ion quenchers/enhancers. Using the present method the limit of detection for BSA and gamma-Globulin was found to be 0.005 microM which is more sensitive than reported values. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reference range levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the US population by measurement of urinary monohydroxy metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grainger, James; Huang, Wenlin; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Pirkle, James; Caudill, Samuel P.; Wang, Richard Y.; Needham, Larry L.; Sampson, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/Id-HRMS) method for measuring 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites representing seven parent PAHs in 3 mL of urine at low parts-per-trillion levels. PAH levels were determined in urine samples collected in 1999 and 2000 from approximately 2400 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and, for the first time, reference range values were calculated for these metabolites in the US population. Using this GC/ID-HRMS method, we found detectable concentrations for monohydroxy metabolite isomers of fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene, benzo[c]phenanthrene, and benz[a]anthracene. Some monohydroxy metabolite isomers of benzo[c]phenanthrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene exhibited low detection frequencies that did not allow for geometric mean calculations. Our study results enabled us to establish a reference range for the targeted PAHs in the general US population

  17. Persistence profile of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in shallow and deep Gulf waters and sediments: Effect of water temperature and sediment–water partitioning characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tansel, B.; Fuentes, C.; Sanchez, M.; Predoi, K.; Acevedo, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The half-lives of PAHs in the deep waters (over 1000 m) are about twice longer than the shallow areas (100–150 m). ► In the water column, anthracene levels can decrease by 50% within 1–2 days. ► The half-lives of the PAHs in the sediments are significantly longer than those in the water column. ► The half-life of pyrene in the shallow and deep sediments is 9 and 16 years, respectively. - Abstract: Persistence profiles of selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed depending on temperature variations in the water column and water–sediment interactions in the Gulf of Mexico. The PAHs studied include anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. The half-lives of PAHs in the deep waters (over 1000 m) are about twice as long as those in the shallow areas (100–150 m), and almost 2.5 times as long as those in the top layer (0–10 m) of the water column. The half-lives of the PAHs in the sediments are significantly longer. Among the PAHs studied, chrysene is the most persistent in the water column, and pyrene is the most persistent in the sediments. The half-life of chrysene in the shallow and deep waters is over 2.5 and about 5 years, respectively. For pyrene, the half-life in the shallow and deep sediments is about 9 and 16 years, respectively.

  18. Modulation of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and glutathione S-transferase activities in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing two to four rings: implications in biomonitoring aquatic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K

    2010-08-01

    Despite ubiquity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the tropical environments, little information is available concerning responses of tropical fish to PAHs and associated toxicity. In the present study, effects of five PAHs containing two to four aromatic rings on hepatic CYP1A dependent ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activities in Nile tilapia, a potential fish species for biomonitoring pollution in tropical waters, were evaluated. Results showed that EROD activities were induced by the PAHs containing four aromatic rings (pyrene and chrysene) in a dose dependent manner. However PAHs with two to three aromatic rings (naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluoranthene) caused no effect or inhibition of EROD activities depending on the dose and the duration. Fluoranthene was the most potent inhibitor. SDH results demonstrated that high doses of fluoranthene induced hepatic damage. GST activity was induced by the lowest dose of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and chrysene but high doses had no effect. The results indicate that induction of EROD enzyme in Nile tilapia is a useful biomarker of exposure to PAHs such as pyrene and chrysene. However EROD inhibiting PAHs such as fluoranthene in the natural environment may modulate the EROD inducing potential of other PAHs thereby influencing PAH exposure assessments.

  19. Assessment of cancer and noncancer health risks from exposure to PAHs in street dust in the Tamale Metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiri, Samuel; Cobbina, Samuel J; Armah, Frederick A; Luginaah, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a broader initiative to characterize, quantify and assess the human health risk associated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust along the Trans-ECOWAS highway in West Africa. In the first part, PAHs were characterized and quantified in low- and high-traffic zones. In this study, cancer and noncancer human health risks from exposure to (PAHs) in street dust in the Tamale metropolis, Ghana were assessed in accordance with the USEPA risk assessment guidelines. The results of the study as obtained from inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), benzo [k] fluoranthene (BkF) and chrysene via central tendency exposure parameters (CTE) by trespassers (street hawkers including children and adults) in street dust within low traffic zones in the Tamale metropolis are 1.6E-02, 4.7E-02, 1.8E-03, and 1.6E-04 respectively. For reasonable maximum exposure parameters (RME), risk values of 1.2E-01, 3.5E-01, 1.3E-02 and 1.2E-03 respectively were obtained for benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene. Hazard index for acenaphthene, anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorine, naphthalene and pyrene in the CTE and RME scenarios were 2.2, 3.E-01, 2.6, 2.6, 100, 38 and 12, 1.7,15, 14, 550, 210 respectively. Generally, the cancer health risk associated with inhalation of benzo [a] anthracene, benzo [a] pyrene, benzo [k] fluoranthene and chrysene revealed that resident adults and children in the Tamale metropolis are at risk from exposure to these chemicals. The results of this preliminary assessment that quantified PAH related health risks along this part of the Trans-ECOWAS highway revealed that, there is the need for regulatory agencies to put in comprehensive measures to mitigate the risks posed to these categories of human receptors.

  20. Identification and quantification of seven fused aromatic rings C26H14 peri-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Ruiz-Morales, Yosadara; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-04-15

    A methodology for the characterization of groups of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a combination of normal phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (NPLC/UV-vis) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the identification and quantification of seven fused aromatic rings C26H14 peri-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, in standard reference material (SRM) 1597a, complex mixture of PAHs from coal tar. The NPLC/UV-vis isolated the fractions based on the number of aromatic carbons and the GC/MS allowed the identification and quantification of five of the nine C26H14 PAH isomers; naphtho[1,2,3,4-ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,pqr]perylene, naphtho[8,1,2-bcd]perylene, and dibenzo[cd,lm]perylene using a retention time comparison with authentic reference standards. For the other four benzenoid isomers with no available reference standards the following two approaches were used. First, the annellation theory was used to achieve the potential identification of benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene, and second, the elution distribution in the GC fractions was used to support the potential identification of benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene and to reach the tentative identifications of dibenzo[a,ghi]perylene, naphtho[7,8,1,2,3-pqrst]pentaphene, and anthra[2,1,9,8-opqra]naphthacene. It is the first time that naphtho[1,2,3,4-ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,pqr]perylene, naphtho[8,1,2-bcd]perylene, and dibenzo[cd,lm]perylene are quantified, and the first time that benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene is potentially identified, in any sample, in any context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in hydromorphic soils of Centla swamps, Tabasco, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz G, G.; Botello, A.V.; Ponce V, G.; Camara C, J.

    1996-01-01

    The first soil horizon of 11 sampling stations located in the limits of the Bitzal and the Usumacinta rivers which cross the Centla biosphere reserve in Tabasco state were analyzed. Physico-chemical analysis to determine the soils properties were done and the concentration as well as the identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was carried out by means of gas chromatography with high resolution capillary columns. The highest individual values for PAHs correspond to pyrene, chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene. This implies a risk for human health due to their carcinogenic properties. (Author)

  2. Field measurements of the atmospheric dry deposition fluxes and velocities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaya, Belén; Zúñiga-Rival, Javier; Ojeda, María-José; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi

    2014-05-20

    The atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured, for the first time, in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Depositional fluxes for fine (0.7-2.7 μm) and coarse (>2.7 μm) aerosol fractions were simultaneously determined with the suspended aerosol phase concentrations, allowing the determination of PAH deposition velocities (vD). PAH dry deposition fluxes (FDD) bound to coarse aerosols were higher than those of fine aerosols for 83% of the measurements. Average FDD for total (fine + coarse) Σ16PAHs (sum of 16 individual PAHs) ranged from 8.33 ng m(-2)d(-1) to 52.38 ng m(-2)d(-1). Mean FDD for coarse aerosol's individual PAHs ranged between 0.13 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Perylene) and 1.96 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Methyl Pyrene), and for the fine aerosol fraction these ranged between 0.06 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Dimethyl Pyrene) and 1.25 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Methyl Chrysene). The estimated deposition velocities went from the highest mean vD for Methyl Chrysene (0.17-13.30 cm s(-1)), followed by Dibenzo(ah)Anthracene (0.29-1.38 cm s(-1)), and other high MW PAHs to minimum values of vD for Dimethyl Pyrene (oceans.

  3. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. Biomarkers of genotoxicity of air pollution (the AULIS project): bulky DNA adducts in subjects with moderate to low exposures to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their relationship to environmental tobacco smoke and other parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, P.; Topinka, J.; Stoikidou, M.

    2001-01-01

    The levels of bulky DNA adducts were measured by (32)P-post-labelling in lymphocytes of 194 non-smoking students living in the city of Athens and the region of Halkida, Greece, once in the winter and again in the following summer. Personal exposures to particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydroc...... with an enhancement of adduct levels and the effect was strengthened when only individuals unexposed to ETS were taken into consideration. No significant effects were observed for other dietary parameters or factors reflecting exposure to air pollution....... surroundings with a minimal burden of urban air pollution. The remaining Halkida subjects had intermediate levels, while Athens subjects showed the lowest levels. This trend, which was observed over both monitoring seasons, consistently paralleled the variation in three markers of exposure to environmental......) positive correlations were observed between DNA adducts and (i) measured personal exposures to chrysene or benzo[a]pyrene, (ii) time of declared ETS exposure and (iii) chrysene/benzo[g,h,i] perylene ratios. These correlations suggest that, for a group suffering minimal exposure to urban air pollution...

  5. Embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    Egg surface applications of microliter quantities of crude and refined oils of high aromatic content are embryotoxic to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and other avian species; applications of aliphatic hydrocarbons have virtually no effect. Mallard eggs at 72 h of development were exposed to a mixture of aromatic hydrocarbons or to aromatic compounds representative to those present in crude oil to assess their toxicity. The class composition of the mixture was similar to that of South Louisiana crude oil, an American Petroleum Institute reference oil. Application of 20 microliter of the mixture reduced embryonic survival by nearly 70%. The temporal pattern of embryonic death was similar to that after exposure to South Louisiana crude oil. Embryonic growth was stunted, as reflected by weight, crown-rump length, and bill length, and there was a significant increase in the incidence of abnormal survivors. When individual classes of aromatic hydrocarbons were tested, tetracyclics caused some embryonic death at the concentrations in the mixture. When classes were tested in all possible combinations of two, no combination appeared to be as toxic as the entire mixture. Addition of the tetracyclic compound chrysene to the aromatic mixture considerably enhanced embryotoxicity, but could not completely account for the toxicity of the crude oil. The presence of additional unidentified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as methylated derivatives of polycyclic aromatic compounds such as chrysene may further account for the embryotoxicity of the crude oil.

  6. The use of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) alkyl homologues in determining petroleum source identification and weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.; Sauer, T.C.; Wong, W.M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Techniques utilizing double ratio plots of selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) alkyl homologues were used to identify and distinguish crude oils and refined petroleum products from each other and to distinguish petroleum sources in complex pollutant regimes. Petroleum samples were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) into saturated and aromatic (PAH) hydrocarbon fractions. The saturated hydrocarbon fractions were then analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) to obtain a resolved/unresolved alkane fingerprint of each oil. The aromatic fractions of the oils were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for PAH and selected alkyl homologues. Comparisons of the saturated hydrocarbon fingerprints indicated that some oils were indistinguishable based on the alkane fingerprint alone. Another double ratio plot of the alkyl chrysenes and alkyl dibenzothiophenes was effective in establishing the weathering of oil in environmental samples which were processed using the same analytical techniques, since the dibenzothiophenes are degraded more rapidly than the chrysenes. The application of selected ratios in oil spill source identification in complex environmental samples from Suisin Bay California and Boston Harbor are discussed. The use of ratios to measure the extent of weathering in oil spill samples from Prince William Sound and the Gulf of Alaska is examined

  7. Structure of hydrocarbonoclastic nitrate-reducing bacterial communities in bioturbated coastal marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffert, Magalie; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert

    2014-09-01

    The organisation of denitrifying microorganisms in oil-polluted bioturbated sediments was investigated in mesocosms under conditions as closer as possible to that observed in the environment. Molecular and culture-dependent approaches revealed that denitrifying Gammaproteobacteria were abundant in oil-polluted and bioturbated sediments suggesting that they may play a key role in hydrocarbon degradation in the environment. T-RFLP and gene libraries analyses targeting nirS gene showed that denitrifying microbial communities structure was slightly affected by either the addition of Hediste diversicolor or crude oil revealing the metabolic versatility of denitrifying microorganisms. From oil-polluted sediments, distinct denitrifying hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial consortia were obtained by enrichment cultures on high molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (dibenzothiophene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene) under nitrate-reducing conditions. Interestingly, molecular characterisation of the consortia showed that the denitrifying communities obtained from oiled microcosms with addition of H. diversicolor were different to that observed without H. diversicolor addition, especially with fluoranthene and chrysene revealing the bacterial diversity involved in the degradation of these PAHs. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydroxypropyl cyclic β-(1 → 2)-D-glucans and epichlorohydrin β-cyclodextrin dimers as effective carbohydrate-solubilizers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Min; Jeong, Daham; Piao, Jinglan; Kim, Kyoungtea; Nguyen, Andrew Bao Loc; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Im Soon; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Jung, Seunho

    2015-01-12

    The removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by soil washing using water is extremely difficult due to their intrinsic hydrophobic nature. In this study, the effective aqueous solubility enhancements of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by chemically modified hydroxypropyl rhizobial cyclic β-(1 → 2)-D-glucans and epichlorohydrin β-cyclodextrin dimer have been investigated for the first time. In the presence of hydroxypropyl cyclic β-(1 → 2)-D-glucans, the solubility of benzo[a]pyrene is increased up to 38 fold of its native solubility. The solubility of pyrene and phenanthrene dramatically increased up to 160 and 359. Coronene, chrysene, perylene, and fluoranthene also show an increase of 11, 23, 23, and 97 fold, respectively, of enhanced solubility by complexation with synthetic epichlorohydrin β-cyclodextrin dimer. The physicochemical properties of the complex are characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry. Utilizing a scanning electron microscopy, the morphological structures of native benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, phenanthrene, coronene, chrysene, perylene, fluoranthene and their complex with novel carbohydrate-solubilizers are studied. These results elucidate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are able to form an efficient complex with hydroxypropyl cyclic β-(1 → 2)-D-glucans and β-cyclodextrin dimer, suggesting the potential usage of chemically modified novel carbohydrate-solubilizers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution and sources of bioaccumulative air pollutants at Mezquital Valley, Mexico, as reflected by the atmospheric plant Tillandsia recurvata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano García, A.; Medina Coyotzin, C.; Rojas Amaro, A.; López Veneroni, D.; Martínez, L. Chang; Sosa Iglesias, G.

    2009-09-01

    Mezquital Valley (MV), a Mexican wastewater-based agricultural and industrial region, is a "hot spot" of regulated air pollutants emissions, but the concurrent unregulated ones, like hazardous metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), remain undocumented. A biomonitoring survey with the epiphytic Tillandsia recurvata was conducted there to detect spatial patterns and potential sources of 20 airborne elements and 15 PAH. The natural δ13C and δ15N ratios of this plant helped in source identification. The regional mean concentration of most elements was two (Cr) to over 40 times (Ni, Pb, V) higher than reported for Tillandsia in other countries. Eleven elements, pyrene and chrysene had 18-214% higher mean concentration at the industrial south than at the agricultural north of MV. The total quantified PAH (mean, 572 ng g-1; range, 143-2568) were composed by medium (65%, phenanthrene to chrysene), low (28%, naphthalene to fluorene) and high molecular weight compounds (7%, Benzo(b)fluoranthene to indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene). The δ13C (mean, -14.6‰; range, -15.7‰ to -13.7‰) was consistently lower than -15‰ near the major petroleum combustion sources. The δ15N (mean, -3.0‰; range, -9.9‰ to 3.3‰) varied from positive at agriculture/industrial areas to negative at rural sites. Factor analysis provided a five-factor solution for 74% of the data variance: 1) crustal rocks, 39.5% (Al, Ba, Cu, Fe, Sr, Ti); 2) soils, 11.3%, contrasting contributions from natural (Mg, Mn, Zn) and saline agriculture soils (Na); 3) cement production and fossil fuel combustion, 9.8% (Ca, Ni, V, chrysene, pyrene); 4) probable agricultural biomass burning, 8.1% (K and benzo(g,h,i)perylene), and 5) agriculture with wastewater, 5.2% (δ15N and P). These results indicated high deposition of bioaccumulative air pollutants at MV, especially at the industrial area. Since T. recurvata reflected the regional differences in exposition, it is recommended as a biomonitor for comparisons

  10. An In Silico Study on the Isomers of Pentacene: The Case for Air-Stable and Alternative C22H14 Acenes for Organic Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Lin, Long

    2017-04-13

    Pentacene is one of the most investigated candidates for organic thin film transistor (OTFT) applications over the last few decades even though it unstable in air (E g = 1.80 eV), owing in part to its planar nature and high charge-transfer mobilities as both a single crystal (35 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) and as a thin-film (3.0 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ). Until now, picene is the only isomer of pentacene to be investigated for organic electronic applications, due to its greater stability (E g = 4.21 eV) and high-charge transfer mobility (3.0 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ); even benefiting from oxygen doping. In the present study, a total of 12 fused-ring isomers (including pentacene, picene and ten other structures) of the formula C 22 H 14 were analyzed and investigated for their electronic and optical properties for worth in OTFT applications. We screened several pure and hybrid DFT functionals against the experimental frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) of pentacene, then deployed Marcus Theory, Koopmans' Theorem and Green's function with the P3 electron propagator variant, for the internal hole reorganization energy, the hole transfer integral (via the "splitting-in-dimer method" at d = 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 Å), the charge transfer rate constant, and vertical ionization energies. Using these as a basis, we studied pentacene's isomers and found that the four nonplanar structures, namely, benzo[g]chrysene (3), naphtho[c]phenanthrene (7), benzo[c]chrysene (11) and dibenzo[c,c']phenthrene (12), are (I) more stable than pentacene, by up to 2 eV, and (II) have relatively similar ionization energies (7.5-7.6 eV) to those of picene's experimental value (7.51 eV). The largest charge transfer rates at 3.5 Å dimer separations were given by the isomers benzo[b]chrysene 4, naphtha[c]phenanthrene 7, dibenzo[a,c]anthracene 8 and benzo[a]tetracene 10 and found to be 2.92, 1.72, 1.30, and 3.09 × 10 14 s -1 respectively. In comparison to that of pentacene (K CT = 3.97 × 10 14 s -1 ), these unusual isomers are

  11. Interpretative approaches to identifying sources of hydrocarbons in complex contaminated environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; Brown, J.S.; Boehm, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    Recent advances in analytical instrumental hardware and software have permitted the use of more sophisticated approaches in identifying or fingerprinting sources of hydrocarbons in complex matrix environments. In natural resource damage assessments and contaminated site investigations of both terrestrial and aquatic environments, chemical fingerprinting has become an important interpretative tool. The alkyl homologues of the major polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., phenanthrenes/anthracenes, dibenzothiophenes, chrysenes) have been found to the most valuable hydrocarbons in differentiating hydrocarbon sources, but there are other hydrocarbon analytes, such as the chemical biomarkers steranes and triterpanes, and alkyl homologues of benzene, and chemical methodologies, such as scanning UV fluorescence, that have been found to be useful in certain environments. This presentation will focus on recent data interpretative approaches for hydrocarbon source identification assessments. Selection of appropriate targets analytes and data quality requirements will be discussed and example cases including the Arabian Gulf War oil spill results will be presented

  12. Validation of a phytoremediation computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corapcioglu, M.Y.; Sung, K.; Rhykerd, R.L.; Munster, C.; Drew, M.

    1999-01-01

    The use of plants to stimulate remediation of contaminated soil is an effective, low-cost cleanup method which can be applied to many different sites. A phytoremediation computer model has been developed to simulate how recalcitrant hydrocarbons interact with plant roots in unsaturated soil. A study was conducted to provide data to validate and calibrate the model. During the study, lysimeters were constructed and filled with soil contaminated with 10 [mg kg -1 ] TNT, PBB and chrysene. Vegetated and unvegetated treatments were conducted in triplicate to obtain data regarding contaminant concentrations in the soil, plant roots, root distribution, microbial activity, plant water use and soil moisture. When given the parameters of time and depth, the model successfully predicted contaminant concentrations under actual field conditions. Other model parameters are currently being evaluated. 15 refs., 2 figs

  13. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Olenycz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz(aanthracene, chrysene, benzo(bfluoranthene, benzo(kfluoranthene, benzo(apyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cdpyrene, dibenz(a,hanthracene, benzo(g,h,iperylene at 17 sampling sites to assess their relative bioavailabilities in coastal waters around Europe. Because of the temporal differences in PCBs and PAHs concentrations, data were adjusted using Seasonal Variation Coefficients (SVC before making large-scale spatial comparisons. The highest concentrations of PCBs were found near estuaries of large rivers flowing through urban areas and industrial regions. Elevated bioavailabilities of PAHs occurred in the vicinity of large harbors, urban areas, and regions affected by petroleum pollution as well as in some remote locations, which indicated long-range atmospheric deposition.

  14. A headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguinaga, N.; Campillo, N.; Vinas, P.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [University of Murcia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    A sensitive and solvent-free method for the determination of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene, with up to four aromatic rings, in milk samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection has been developed. A polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber was chosen and used at 75 C for 60 min. Detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 5 ng L{sup -1} were attained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound and the milk sample under analysis. The proposed method was applied to ten different milk samples and the presence of six of the analytes studied in a skimmed milk with vegetal fiber sample was confirmed. The reliability of the procedure was verified by analyzing two different certified reference materials and by recovery studies. (orig.)

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels and risk assessment for food from service facilities in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Woong; Jeong, Jun-Hyun; Her, Jae-Young; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2017-06-01

    In this study, levels of benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene in 412 food items collected from food service facilities in Korea were analysed. The concentrations of the eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged 0.13-0.48 μg/kg. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in all food samples were foods regulated by European Union legislation. PAH contents were employed to conduct exposure and risk assessment. The chronic daily intake of PAHs from 412 food samples was 5.48 × 10 -6 -4.70 ×x 10 -4  µg-TEQ BaP /kg/day with margins of exposure of 1.04 × 10 9 -1.16 × 10 11 .

  16. PAHs in corn grains submitted to drying with firewood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Rafael Friedrich; Dionello, Rafael Gomes; Peralba, Maria do Carmo Ruaro; Barrionuevo, Simone; Radunz, Lauri Lourenço; Reichert Júnior, Francisco Wilson

    2017-01-15

    Grain drying using firewood as fuel for air heating, with direct fire, is still widely used in Brazil. The combustion of organic material, such as wood, can generate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known to have carcinogenic potential. In the present work corn grain drying was carried out at three drying air temperatures: 60°C, 60/80°C and 80°C. Following the drying process, the presence and quantification of PAH in the corn grains was investigated. After extracting the PAHs of the matrix, the material was subjected to analysis by gas chromatography with mass detector. he results showed the presence of seven compounds: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene and chrysene. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacteria from wheat and cucurbit plant roots metabolize PAHs and aromatic root exudates: Implications for rhizodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Cairn S; Smets, Barth F

    2017-10-03

    The chemical interaction between plants and bacteria in the root zone can lead to soil decontamination. Bacteria that degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been isolated from the rhizospheres of plant species with varied biological traits; however, it is not known what phytochemicals promote contaminant degradation. One monocot and two dicotyledon plants were grown in PAH-contaminated soil from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. A phytotoxicity assay confirmed greater soil decontamination in rhizospheres when compared to bulk soil controls. Bacteria were isolated from plant roots (rhizobacteria) and selected for growth on anthracene and chrysene on PAH-amended plates. Rhizosphere isolates metabolized 3- and 4-ring PAHs and PAH catabolic intermediates in liquid incubations. Aromatic root exudate compounds, namely flavonoids and simple phenols, were also substrates for isolated rhizobacteria. In particular, the phenolic compounds-morin, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic acid-appear to be linked to bacterial degradation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs in the rhizosphere.

  18. Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonchan, S.; Britz, M.L.; Stanley, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in liquid media and soil by bacteria (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VUN 10,010 and bacterial consortium VUN 10,009) and a fungus (Penicillium janthinellum VUO 10,201) that were isolated from separate creosote- and manufactured-gas plant-contaminated soils. The bacteria could use pyrene as their sole carbon and energy source in a basal salts medium (BSM) and mineralized significant amounts of benzo[a]pyrene cometabolically when pyrene was also present in BSM. P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 could not utilize any high-molecular-weight PAH as sole carbon and energy source but could partially degrade these if cultured in a nutrient broth. Although small amounts of chrysene, benz[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were degraded by axenic cultures of these isolates in BSM containing a single PAH, such conditions did not support significant microbial growth or PAH mineralization. However, significant degradation of, and microbial growth on, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene, each as a single PAH in BSM, occurred when P. janthinellum VUO 10,201 and either bacterial consortium VUN 10,009 or S. maltophilia VUN 10,010 were combined in the one culture, i.e., fungal-bacterial cocultures: 25% of the benzo[a]pyrene was mineralized to CO 2 by these cocultures over 49 days, accompanied by transient accumulation and disappearance of intermediates detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Inoculation of fungal-bacterial cocultures into PAH-contaminated soil resulted in significantly improved degradation of high-molecular-weight PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene mineralization, and reduction in the mutagenicity of organic soil extracts, compared with the indigenous microbes and soil amended with only axenic inocula

  19. In vitro biotransformation rates in fish liver S9: effect of dosing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung-Shan; Lee, Danny H Y; Delafoulhouze, Maximilien; Otton, S Victoria; Moore, Margo M; Kennedy, Chris J; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2014-08-01

    In vitro biotransformation assays are currently being explored to improve estimates of bioconcentration factors of potentially bioaccumulative organic chemicals in fish. The present study compares thin-film and solvent-delivery dosing techniques as well as single versus multiple chemical dosing for measuring biotransformation rates of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver S9. The findings show that biotransformation rates of very hydrophobic substances can be accurately measured in thin-film sorbent-dosing assays from concentration-time profiles in the incubation medium but not from those in the sorbent phase because of low chemical film-to-incubation-medium mass-transfer rates at the incubation temperature of 13.5 °C required for trout liver assays. Biotransformation rates determined by thin-film dosing were greater than those determined by solvent-delivery dosing for chrysene (octanol-water partition coefficient [KOW ] =10(5.60) ) and benzo[a]pyrene (KOW  =10(6.04) ), whereas there were no statistical differences in pyrene (KOW  =10(5.18) ) biotransformation rates between the 2 methods. In sorbent delivery-based assays, simultaneous multiple-chemical dosing produced biotransformation rates that were not statistically different from those measured in single-chemical dosing experiments for pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene but not for chrysene. In solvent-delivery experiments, multiple-chemical dosing produced biotransformation rates that were much smaller than those in single-chemical dosing experiments for all test chemicals. While thin-film sorbent-phase and solvent delivery-based dosing methods are both suitable methods for measuring biotransformation rates of substances of intermediate hydrophobicity, thin-film sorbent-phase dosing may be more suitable for superhydrophobic chemicals. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P.; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-01-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3–4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites. - Highlights: • AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and sediments were newly determined using EDA. • Novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs for AhR activity were established. • Three to four ring PAHs were identified to be major AhR agonists in crude oil. • Parent and alkyl-PAHs explained ∼18% of the total AhR-mediated potencies of crude oil. • AhR-mediated potencies apparently decreased by the timely weathering processes. - “Major AhR agonists were identified three to four ring PAHs in crude oil and sediments determined by use of effect-directed analysis.”

  1. Conversion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on diesel particulate matter upon exposure to ppm levels of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vaeck, L.; Van Cauwenberghe, K.

    Diesel exhaust particlulate matter samples were collected from a dilution tunnel using a Hi-Vol cascade impactor. The fraction of the aerosol with aerodynamic diameter below 0.5 μm, retained on the glass fiber back-up filter, was exposed to a flow of ozonised particle free air for periods of 0.5-4 h (1.5 ppm of O 3, flow rate about 40 m 3 h -1). Both exposed and non-exposed reference niters were Soxhlet-extracted with benzene and methanol, and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fraction (PAH) was isolated by a liquid-liquid partition procedure described in the literature, using cyclohexane and dimethylformamid-water as solvents, modified for quantitative recovery of PAH. The conversion yields of PAH upon exposure to O 3 were determined by single ion monitoring mass spectrometry using a fused silica capillary column for their separation. Significant conversion was observed for PAH from molecular weight 226 to 276. Approximate half lives are of the order of 0.5-1 h for most PAH measured. This high reactivity of PAH on a carbonaceous matrix is probably related to the large specific surface of soot particles as well as to their high adsorptive capacity for gaseous compounds. Lower molecular weight PAH up to chrysene also undergo important physical losses by volatilisation and the extent to which chemical transformations occurred could not be determined accurately. Different reactivities are observed for several isomeric pairs of PAH: benzo(a)pyrene is much faster converted than benzo(e)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene reacts faster than chrysene. The benzo-fluoranthenes are most resistant toward O 3 attack. The implications of these results with respect to atmospheric degradation of PAH, as well as to the occurrence of artefactual conversion upon Hi-Vol sampling are discussed.

  2. Half-lives of PAHs and temporal microbiota changes in commonly used urban landscaping materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja I. Roslund

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs accumulate in urban soils, and PAH contamination can change soil microbial community composition. Environmental microbiota is associated with human commensal microbiota, immune system and health. Therefore, studies investigating the degradation of PAHs, and the consequences of soil pollution on microbial communities in urban landscaping materials, are crucial. Methods Four landscaping materials (organic matter 1, 2, 13 and 56% were contaminated with PAHs commonly found at urban sites (phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(bfluoranthene in PAH concentrations that reflect urban soils in Finland (2.4 µg g -1 soil dry weight. PAHs were analyzed initially and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Half-lives of PAHs were determined based on 12-weeks degradation. Bacterial communities were analyzed at 1 and 12 weeks after contamination using Illumina MiSeq 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. Results Half-lives ranged from 1.5 to 4.4 weeks for PAHs with relatively low molecular weights (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene in landscaping materials containing 1–2% organic matter. In contrast, in materials containing 13% and 56% organic matter, the half-lives ranged from 2.5 to 52 weeks. Shorter half-lives of phenanthrene and fluoranthene were thus associated with low organic matter content. The half-life of pyrene was inversely related to the relative abundance of Beta-, Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria, and diversity of Bacteroidetes and Betaprotebacteria. Compounds with higher molecular weights followed compound-specific patterns. Benzo(bfluoranthene was resistant to degradation and half-life of chrysene was shorter when the relative abundance of Betaproteobacteria was high. Temporal microbiota changes involved increase in the relative abundance of Deltaproteobacteria and decrease in genera Flavobacterium and Rhodanobacter. Exposure to PAHs seems to adjust

  3. Cytochrome P450 1b1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-induced skin carcinogenesis: Tumorigenicity of individual PAHs and coal-tar extract, DNA adduction and expression of select genes in the Cyp1b1 knockout mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddens, Lisbeth K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bunde, Kristi L. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Tod A. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); McQuistan, Tammie J. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Löhr, Christiane V. [Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Applied Statistics and Computational Modeling, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Waters, Katrina M. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Tilton, Susan C. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); and others

    2015-09-01

    FVB/N mice wild-type, heterozygous or null for Cyp 1b1 were used in a two-stage skin tumor study comparing PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), and coal tar extract (CTE, SRM 1597a). Following 20 weeks of promotion with TPA the Cyp 1b1 null mice, initiated with DBC, exhibited reductions in incidence, multiplicity, and progression. None of these effects were observed with BaP or CTE. The mechanism of Cyp 1b1-dependent alteration of DBC skin carcinogenesis was further investigated by determining expression of select genes in skin from DBC-treated mice 2, 4 and 8 h post-initiation. A significant reduction in levels of Cyp 1a1, Nqo1 at 8 h and Akr 1c14 mRNA was observed in Cyp 1b1 null (but not wt or het) mice, whereas no impact was observed in Gst a1, Nqo 1 at 2 and 4 h or Akr 1c19 at any time point. Cyp 1b1 mRNA was not elevated by DBC. The major covalent DNA adducts, dibenzo[def,p]chrysene-(±)-11,12-dihydrodiol-cis and trans-13,14-epoxide-deoxyadenosine (DBCDE-dA) were quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS 8 h post-initiation. Loss of Cyp1 b1 expression reduced DBCDE-dA adducts in the skin but not to a statistically significant degree. The ratio of cis- to trans-DBCDE-dA adducts was higher in the skin than other target tissues such as the spleen, lung and liver (oral dosing). These results document that Cyp 1b1 plays a significant role in bioactivation and carcinogenesis of DBC in a two-stage mouse skin tumor model and that loss of Cyp 1b1 has little impact on tumor response with BaP or CTE as initiators. - Highlights: • Cyp1b1 null mice exhibit lower skin cancer sensitivity to DBC but not BaP or CTE. • Cyp1b1 expression impacts expression of other PAH metabolizing enzymes. • cis/trans-DBCDE-dA ratio significantly higher in the skin than the spleen, lung or liver • Potency of DBC and CTE in mouse skin is higher than predicted by RPFs.

  4. Sources of sedimentary PAHs in tropical Asian waters: differentiation between pyrogenic and petrogenic sources by alkyl homolog abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Mahua; Togo, Ayako; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Murakami, Michio; Takada, Hideshige; Zakaria, Mohamad P; Chiem, Nguyen H; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Prudente, Maricar; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Bhattacharya, Badal; Mishra, Pravakar; Tana, Touch Seang

    2009-02-01

    We collected surface sediment samples from 174 locations in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and the Philippines and analyzed them for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hopanes. PAHs were widely distributed in the sediments, with comparatively higher concentrations in urban areas (Sigma PAHs: approximately 1000 to approximately 100,000 ng/g-dry) than in rural areas ( approximately 10 to approximately 100g-dry), indicating large sources of PAHs in urban areas. To distinguish petrogenic and pyrogenic sources of PAHs, we calculated the ratios of alkyl PAHs to parent PAHs: methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P), methylpyrenes+methylfluoranthenes to pyrene+fluoranthene (MPy/Py), and methylchrysenes+methylbenz[a]anthracenes to chrysene+benz[a]anthracene (MC/C). Analysis of source materials (crude oil, automobile exhaust, and coal and wood combustion products) gave thresholds of MP/P=0.4, MPy/Py=0.5, and MC/C=1.0 for exclusive combustion origin. All the combustion product samples had the ratios of alkyl PAHs to parent PAHs below these threshold values. Contributions of petrogenic and pyrogenic sources to the sedimentary PAHs were uneven among the homologs: the phenanthrene series had a greater petrogenic contribution, whereas the chrysene series had a greater pyrogenic contribution. All the Indian sediments showed a strong pyrogenic signature with MP/P approximately 0.5, MPy/Py approximately 0.1, and MC/C approximately 0.2, together with depletion of hopanes indicating intensive inputs of combustion products of coal and/or wood, probably due to the heavy dependence on these fuels as sources of energy. In contrast, sedimentary PAHs from all other tropical Asian cities were abundant in alkylated PAHs with MP/P approximately 1-4, MPy/Py approximately 0.3-1, and MC/C approximately 0.2-1.0, suggesting a ubiquitous input of petrogenic PAHs. Petrogenic contributions to PAH homologs varied among the countries: largest in Malaysia

  5. Effects of Crude Oil Exposure on Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Survival of Adult and Larval Stages of Gelatinous Zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Chai, Chao; Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L−1 after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L−1 after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L−1 after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L−1 after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1) A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2) larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3) some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators. PMID:24116004

  6. Validation of an analytical method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high efficiency liquid chromatography in PM10 and PM2,5 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Murillo, Jorge; Chaves Villalobos, Maria del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method was validated for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM2,5 particles collected from air by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was validated. The PAHs analyzed in the methodology include: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Acenaphthene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, Benzo (a)anthracene, Chrysene, Benzo (b)fluoranthene, Benzo (k)fluoranthene, Benzo (a)pyrene, Dibenzo (a, h)anthracene, Benzo (g, h, i)perylene and Indeno (1,2,3-CD)pyrene. For these compounds, the detection limit and quantification limit have been between 0,02 and 0,1 mg/l. An equipment DIONEX, ICS 3000 model is used, that has two in series detectors: one ultraviolet model VWD-1, and fluorescence detector, model RF-2000, separating the different absorption and emission signals for proper identification of individual compounds. For all the compounds analyzed, the recovery factor has found not significantly different from each other and the repeatability and reproducibility has been to be suitable for an analytical method, especially for the lighter PAHs. (author) [es

  7. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, M.T.; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M.C.; Mejuto, M.C.; Cela, Rafael [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Instituto de Investigacion y Analisis Alimentario, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials. (orig.)

  8. Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar PAHs [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3050, 1610, 1300, 1150, and 885 cm -1 (3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns) is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) hypothesis. This hypothesis is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few PAHs. The fundamental vibrations of PAHs and PAH-like species which determine the ir and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar ir band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited PAHs which have been excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described in general and the ir fluorescence from one PAH, chrysene, is traced in detail. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that PAHs containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission. 43 refs., 11 figs

  9. Infrared absorption and emission characteristics of interstellar PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The mid-infrared interstellar emission spectrum with features at 3050, 1610, 1300, 1150, and 885 cm/sup -1/ (3.28, 6.2, 7.7, 8.7 and 11.3 microns) is discussed in terms of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) hypothesis. This hypothesis is based on the suggestive, but inconclusive comparison between the interstellar emission spectrum with the infrared absorption and Raman spectra of a few PAHs. The fundamental vibrations of PAHs and PAH-like species which determine the ir and Raman properties are discussed. Interstellar ir band emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited PAHs which have been excited by ultraviolet photons. The excitation/emission process is described in general and the ir fluorescence from one PAH, chrysene, is traced in detail. Generally, there is sufficient energy to populate several vibrational levels in each mode. Molecular vibrational potentials are anharmonic and emission from these higher levels will fall at lower frequencies and produce weak features to the red of the stronger fundamentals. This process is also described and can account for some spectroscopic details of the interstellar emission spectra previously unexplained. Analysis of the interstellar spectrum shows that PAHs containing between 20 and 30 carbon atoms are responsible for the emission. 43 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in thirty typical soil profiles in the Yangtze River Delta region, east China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, L.F.; Luo, Y.M.; Zhang, H.B.; Li, Q.B.; Wu, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified in 30 soil profiles from the Yangtze River Delta Region, in east China. Relative concentrations of PAH compounds with different benzene rings and ratios of fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene and benz(a)anthracene to benz(a)anthracene plus chrysene were used to identify the possible sources of soil PAHs. Total concentrations of 15 PAHs in topsoils ranged from 8.6 to 3881 μg kg -1 with an average of 397 μg kg -1 . Half of the soil samples were considered to be contaminated with PAHs (>200 μg kg -1 ) and two sampling sites were heavily polluted by PAHs with concentrations >1000 μg kg -1 . Phenanthrene was found in soils below a depth of 100 cm in half of the sampling sites, but the detectable ratio of benzo(a)pyrene decreased sharply from 100% in topsoil to 0 in the 4th horizon. - The information was provided on levels, distributions, and possible sources of PAHs in the soils of Yangtze River Delta area

  11. Biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution by moss bags: Discriminating urban-rural structure in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, F; Giordano, S; Di Palma, A; Spagnuolo, V; De Nicola, F; Adamo, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we investigated the possibility to use moss bags to detect pollution inputs - metals, metalloids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - in sites chosen for their different land use (agricultural, urban/residential scenarios) and proximity to roads (sub-scenarios), in a fragmented conurbation of Campania (southern Italy). We focused on thirty-nine elements including rare earths. For most of them, moss uptake was higher in agricultural than in urban scenarios and in front road sites. Twenty PAHs were analyzed in a subset of agricultural sites; 4- and 5-ringed PAHs were the most abundant, particularly chrysene, fluoranthene and pyrene. Overall results indicated that investigated pollutants have a similar spatial distribution pattern over the entire study area, with road traffic and agricultural practices as the major diffuse pollution sources. Moss bags proved a very sensitive tool, able to discriminate between different land use scenarios and proximity to roads in a mixed rural-urban landscape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: Environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Adriana C., E-mail: ABejarano@researchplanning.co [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States); Michel, Jacqueline [Research Planning Inc., 1121 Park St., Columbia, SC 29201 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU{sub FCV,43}). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU{sub FCV,43} values: no-risk (<=1), low (>1-<=2), low-medium (>2-<=3), medium (>3-<=5) and high-risk (>5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU{sub FCV,43} > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30-<60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. - Risk Assessment of PAHs in shoreline sediments 12 years after the Gulf War oil spill.

  13. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke. An Historical Perspective of Several Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the significant advancements in fractionation, analytical, and characterization technologies since the early 1960s, hundreds of components of complex mixtures have been accurately characterized without the necessity of actually isolating the individual component. This has been particularly true in the case of the complex mixtures tobacco and tobacco smoke. Herein, an historical account of a mid-1950 situation concerning polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in cigarette smoke is presented. While the number of PAHs identified in tobacco smoke has escalated from the initial PAH, azulene, identified in 1947 to almost 100 PAHs identified by late 1963 to more than 500 PAHs identified by the late 1970s, the number of PAHs isolated individually and characterized by several of the so-called classical chemical means (melting point, mixture melting point, derivative preparation and properties in the mid-1950s and since is relatively few, 14 in all. They were among 44 PAHs identified in cigarette mainstream smoke and included the following PAHs ranging from bicyclic to pentacyclic: Acenaphthylene, 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene, anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, fluoranthene, 9H-fluorene, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. One of them, benzo[a]pyrene, was similarly characterized in another study in 1959 by Hoffmann.

  14. Concentration dependence of biotransformation in fish liver S9: Optimizing substrate concentrations to estimate hepatic clearance for bioaccumulation assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Justin C; Allard, Gayatri N; Otton, S Victoria; Campbell, David A; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2015-12-01

    In vitro bioassays to estimate biotransformation rate constants of contaminants in fish are currently being investigated to improve bioaccumulation assessments of hydrophobic contaminants. The present study investigates the relationship between chemical substrate concentration and in vitro biotransformation rate of 4 environmental contaminants (9-methylanthracene, pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver S9 fractions and methods to determine maximum first-order biotransformation rate constants. Substrate depletion experiments using a series of initial substrate concentrations showed that in vitro biotransformation rates exhibit strong concentration dependence, consistent with a Michaelis-Menten kinetic model. The results indicate that depletion rate constants measured at initial substrate concentrations of 1 μM (a current convention) could underestimate the in vitro biotransformation potential and may cause bioconcentration factors to be overestimated if in vitro biotransformation rates are used to assess bioconcentration factors in fish. Depletion rate constants measured using thin-film sorbent dosing experiments were not statistically different from the maximum depletion rate constants derived using a series of solvent delivery-based depletion experiments for 3 of the 4 test chemicals. Multiple solvent delivery-based depletion experiments at a range of initial concentrations are recommended for determining the concentration dependence of in vitro biotransformation rates in fish liver fractions, whereas a single sorbent phase dosing experiment may be able to provide reasonable approximations of maximum depletion rates of very hydrophobic substances. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Adriana C; Michel, Jacqueline

    2010-05-01

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU(FCV,43)). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU(FCV,43) values: no-risk (1 - 2 - 3 - 5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU(FCV,43) > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30 - oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Atmospheric Travel Distances of Several PAHs Calculated by Two Fate and Transport Models (The Tool and ELPOS with Experimental Values Derived from a Peat Bog Transect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Thuens

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia fate and transport models are used to evaluate the long range transport potential (LRTP of organic pollutants, often by calculating their characteristic travel distance (CTD. We calculated the CTD of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and metals using two models: the OECD POV& LRTP Screening Tool (The Tool, and ELPOS. The absolute CTDs of PAHs estimated with the two models agree reasonably well for predominantly particle-bound congeners, while discrepancies are observed for more volatile congeners. We test the performance of the models by comparing the relative ranking of CTDs with the one of experimentally determined travel distances (ETDs. ETDs were estimated from historical deposition rates of pollutants to peat bogs in Eastern Canada. CTDs and ETDs of PAHs indicate a low LRTP. To eliminate the high influence on specific model assumptions and to emphasize the difference between the travel distances of single PAHs, ETDs and CTDs were analyzed relative to the travel distances of particle-bound compounds. The ETDs determined for PAHs, Cu, and Zn ranged from 173 to 321 km with relative uncertainties between 26% and 46%. The ETDs of two metals were shorter than those of the PAHs. For particle-bound PAHs the relative ETDs and CTDs were similar, while they differed for Chrysene.

  17. Determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P

    1963-01-01

    At the present time, the method of choice for the determination of polynuclear hydrocarbons appears to be the following, (a) extraction of the benzene-soluble fraction from the gross collected particulate matter, (b) one pass through a chromatographic column of partially deactivated alumina, (c) spectral examination of the fractions and (d) the application of appropriate chemical tests as indicated by the previous step. Using this method, the presence of pyrene, fluoranthene, one of the benzofluorenes, chrysens, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, anthanthrene, and coronene was demonstrated in the air of numerous American cities, and benzo(a)pyrene was measured at some 130 sites. Invaluable as such accurate determinations may be for research purposes, they are still too costly and time-consuming for routine survey purposes. While studies on the subject are by no means complete, they indicate the validity of piperonal chloride test as a general index of polycyclic hydrocarbons. This procedure is described in this paper. 7 references.

  18. Design strategy for air-stable organic semiconductors applicable to high-performance field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Takimiya et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic structure of air-stable, high-performance organic field-effect transistor (OFET material, 2,7-dipheneyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (DPh-BTBT, was discussed based on the molecular orbital calculations. It was suggested that the stability is originated from relatively low-lying HOMO level, despite the fact that the molecule contains highly π-extended aromatic core ([1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene, BTBT with four fused aromatic rings like naphthacene. This is rationalized by the consideration that the BTBT core is not isoelectronic with naphthacene but with chrysene, a cata-condensed phene with four benzene rings. It is well known that the acene-type compound is unstable among its structural isomers with the same number of benzene rings. Therefore, polycyclic aromatic compounds possessing the phene-substructure will be good candidates for stable organic semiconductors. Considering synthetic easiness, we suggest that the BTBT-substructure is the molecular structure of choice for developing air-stable organic semiconductors.

  19. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bin Qi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(apyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  20. Quantitation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH4) in cocoa and chocolate samples by an HPLC-FD method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raters, Marion; Matissek, Reinhard

    2014-11-05

    As a consequence of the PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, named benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) maximum levels permitted in cocoa beans and derived products as of 2013, an high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method (HPLC-FD) was developed and adapted to the complex cocoa butter matrix to enable a simultaneous determination of PAH4. The resulting analysis method was subsequently successfully validated. This method meets the requirements of Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011 regarding analysis methods criteria for determining PAH4 and is hence most suitable for monitoring the observance of the maximum levels applicable under Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011. Within the scope of this work, a total of 218 samples of raw cocoa, cocoa masses, and cocoa butter from several sample years (1999-2012), of various origins and treatments, as well as cocoa and chocolate products were analyzed for the occurrence of PAH4. In summary, it is noted that the current PAH contamination level of cocoa products can be deemed very slight overall.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Bangladeshi vegetables and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Amzad; Hoque, Mohammad Zahirul

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur as contaminants in different types of food predominantly from environmental pollution, food packaging and food processing and the levels found depend on the source of the contamination. PAHs emissions from automobile traffic and industry activities were shown to influence the PAHs levels and profiles in vegetables and fruits grown nearby. The present study was carried out to determine the levels of PAHs in samples of tomato, cabbage and apple, collected from six different places of urban and rural areas of plantation in Dhaka city. Eight PAHs listed in the priority pollutant of US Environment Protection Agency and regarded as carcinogens were analyzed in this study. The analytical method involved saponification with methanolic KOH, liquid-liquid extraction with cyclohexane, clean-up on silica gel column and determination by Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The mean levels of total PAHs were 9.50 μg/kg in tomato, 8.86 μg/kg in cabbage and 4.05 μg/kg in apple. Of the carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)anthracene was the most representative, being found in 89% of all samples analysed. Chrysene was not detected in any sample. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Large-scale risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shoreline sediments from Saudi Arabia: Environmental legacy after twelve years of the Gulf war oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Adriana C.; Michel, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    A large-scale assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill was performed for 2002-2003 sediment samples (n = 1679) collected from habitats along the shoreline of Saudi Arabia. Benthic sediment toxicity was characterized using the Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmark Toxic Unit approach for 43 PAHs (ESBTU FCV,43 ). Samples were assigned to risk categories according to ESBTU FCV,43 values: no-risk (≤1), low (>1-≤2), low-medium (>2-≤3), medium (>3-≤5) and high-risk (>5). Sixty seven percent of samples had ESBTU FCV,43 > 1 indicating potential adverse ecological effects. Sediments from the 0-30 cm layer from tidal flats, and the >30-<60 cm layer from heavily oiled halophytes and mangroves had high frequency of high-risk samples. No-risk samples were characterized by chrysene enrichment and depletion of lighter molecular weight PAHs, while high-risk samples showed little oil weathering and PAH patterns similar to 1993 samples. North of Safaniya sediments were not likely to pose adverse ecological effects contrary to sediments south of Tanaqib. Landscape and geomorphology has played a role on the distribution and persistence in sediments of oil from the Gulf War. - Risk Assessment of PAHs in shoreline sediments 12 years after the Gulf War oil spill.

  3. Optimization and validation of a method using UHPLC-fluorescence for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cold-pressed vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Simone Alves da; Sampaio, Geni Rodrigues; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva

    2017-04-15

    Among the different food categories, the oils and fats are important sources of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a group of organic chemical contaminants. The use of a validated method is essential to obtain reliable analytical results since the legislation establishes maximum limits in different foods. The objective of this study was to optimize and validate a method for the quantification of four PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene] in vegetable oils. The samples were submitted to liquid-liquid extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction, and analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. Under the optimized conditions, the validation parameters were evaluated according to the INMETRO Guidelines: linearity (r2 >0.99), selectivity (no matrix interference), limits of detection (0.08-0.30μgkg -1 ) and quantification (0.25-1.00μgkg -1 ), recovery (80.13-100.04%), repeatability and intermediate precision (analysis of PAHs in the vegetable oils evaluated. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum-contaminated soil using thermal desorption technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silkebakken, D.M.; Davis, H.A.; Ghosh, S.B.; Beardsley, G.P.

    1995-01-01

    The remediation of petroleum-contaminated soil typically requires the selection of a treatment option that addresses the removal of both volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), primarily BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) compounds, can be readily removed from the soil by a variety of well-established technologies. The semivolatile organic compounds, especially the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) that are characteristic of petroleum-contaminated soil, are not as amenable to conventional treatment. Low temperature thermal volatilization (LTTV) can be a viable treatment technology depending on the initial contaminant concentrations present and applicable cleanup objectives that must be attained. A-two-phase treatability study was conducted at 14 former underground storage tank (UST) sites to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of LTTV for remediation of approximately 31,000 tons of PAH-contaminated soil. The PAHs of primary concern included benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenz(a,h) anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. During Phase 1, LTTV operational parameters were varied by trial-and-error and changes in soil treatment effectiveness were monitored. Phase B of the treatability study incorporated the appropriate treatment regime established during Phase 1 to efficiently remediate the remaining contaminated soil

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Mcdonald, G. D.; Wing, Michael R.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Arakawa, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    PAHs are important components of the interstellar medium and carbonaceous chondrites, but have never been identified in the reducing atmospheres of the outer solar system. Incompletely characterized complex organic solids (tholins) produced by irradiating simulated Titan atmospheres reproduce well the observed UV/visible/IR optical constants of the Titan stratospheric haze. Titan tholin and a tholin generated in a crude simulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter are examined by two-step laser desorption/multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry. A range of two- to four-ring PAHs, some with one to four alkylation sites, are identified, with a net abundance of about 0.0001 g/g (grams per gram) of tholins produced. Synchronous fluorescence techniques confirm this detection. Titan tholins have proportionately more one- and two-ring PAHs than do Jupiter tholins, which in turn have more four-ring and larger PAHs. The four-ringed PAH chrysene, prominent in some discussions of interstellar grains, is found in Jupiter tholins.

  6. Influence of infrared final cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendirci, Perihan; Icier, Filiz; Kor, Gamze; Onogur, Tomris Altug

    2014-06-01

    Effects of infrared cooking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in ohmically pre-cooked beef meatballs were investigated. Samples were pre-cooked in a specially designed-continuous type ohmic cooking at a voltage gradient of 15.26V/cm for 92s. Infrared cooking was applied as a final cooking method at different combinations of heat fluxes (3.706, 5.678, 8.475kW/m(2)), application distances (10.5, 13.5, 16.5cm) and application durations (4, 8, 12min). PAHs were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a fluorescence detector. The total PAH levels were detected to be between 4.47 and 64μg/kg. Benzo[a] pyrene (B[a]P) and PAH4 (sum of B[a]P, chrysene (Chr), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F)) levels detected in meatballs were below the EC limits. Ohmic pre-cooking followed by infrared cooking may be regarded as a safe cooking procedure of meatballs from a PAH contamination point of view. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Paul W; Kolian, Steve R; Warby, Richard A F; Bouldin, Jennifer L; Subra, Wilma A; Porter, Scott A

    2013-08-15

    We examined the geographic extent of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in sediment, seawater, biota, and seafood during/after the BP/Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (April 20-July 15, 2010; 28.736667°N, -88.386944°W). TPH, PAHs, and 12 compound classes were examined, particularly C1-benzo(a)anthracenes/chrysenes, C-2-/C-4-phenanthrenes/anthracenes, and C3-naphthalenes. Sediment TPH, PAHs, and all classes peaked near Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas. Seawater TPH peaked off Pensacola; all of the above classes peaked off the Mississippi River, Louisiana and Galveston. Biota TPH and PAHs peaked near the Mississippi River; C-3 napthalenes peaked near the spill site. Seafood TPH peaked near the spill site, with PAHs and all classes peaking near Pensacola. We recommend that oil concentrations continued to be monitored in these media well after the spill has ceased to assist in defining re-opening dates for fisheries; closures should be maintained until hydrocarbon levels are deemed within appropriate limits. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of liquid-liquid-vapour phase behaviour on coke formation from model coke precusors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Shaw, J.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-08-01

    Catalysts used in the hydroprocessing of heavy feedstocks deactivate due to coke deposition. Although the mechanism for coke formation is not fully understood, condensation reactions of polynuclear aromatic compounds present in the feeds are a key aspect. The effect of coke deposition on catalyst performance is typically modelled using accelerated aging agents comprising model coke precursors. Mixtures employed in such studies polynuclear aromatic compounds such as anthracene as the coke precursor, and long chain alkanes such as hexadecane as a diluent. We show in this paper that binary and pseudo binary mixtures of polynuclear aromatic compounds and n-alkanes present TYPE II, TYPE IV, or TYPE III phase behaviour according to the van Konynenburg and Scott (1980) phase projection nomenclature, Incubation periods and the apparent autocatalytic effects associated with coke deposition in such systems are explained through a combination of high temperature phase equilibrium experiments and computations with the model systems n-alkane + anthracene + hydrogen, n-alkane + pyrene + hydrogen, and n-alkane + dibenzo[a,k]chrysene + hydrogen. (au)

  9. Characterization and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in radioactive wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikilili, Phumza V.; Nkhalambayausi-Chirwa, Evans M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Biodegradation of recalcitrant toxic organics under radioactive conditions. → Biodegradation of PAHs of varying size and complexity in mixed waste streams. → Validation of radiation-tolerance and performance of the isolated organisms. - Abstract: PAH degrading Pseudomonad and Alcaligenes species were isolated from landfill soil and mine drainage in South Africa. The isolated organisms were mildly radiation tolerant and were able to degrade PAHs in simulated nuclear wastewater. The radiation in the simulated wastewater, at 0.677 Bq/μL, was compatible to measured values in wastewater from a local radioisotope manufacturing facility, and was enough to inhibit metabolic activity of known PAH degraders from soil such as Pseudomonas putida GMP-1. The organic constituents in the original radioactive waste stream consisted of the full range of PAHs except fluoranthene. Among the observed PAHs in the nuclear wastewater from the radioisotope manufacturing facility, acenaphthene and chrysene predominated-measured at 25.1 and 14.2 mg/L, respectively. Up to sixteen U.S.EPA priority PAHs were detected at levels higher than allowable limits in drinking water. The biodegradation of the PAHs was limited by the solubility of the compounds. This contributed to the observed faster degradation rates in low molecular weight (LMW) compounds than in high molecular weight compounds.

  10. Mechanism-Based Classification of PAH Mixtures to Predict Carcinogenic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Susan C; Siddens, Lisbeth K; Krueger, Sharon K; Larkin, Andrew J; Löhr, Christiane V; Williams, David E; Baird, William M; Waters, Katrina M

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that relative potency factors and DNA adduct measurements are inadequate for predicting carcinogenicity of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PAH mixtures, particularly those that function through alternate pathways or exhibit greater promotional activity compared to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Therefore, we developed a pathway-based approach for classification of tumor outcome after dermal exposure to PAH/mixtures. FVB/N mice were exposed to dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), BaP, or environmental PAH mixtures (Mix 1-3) following a 2-stage initiation/promotion skin tumor protocol. Resulting tumor incidence could be categorized by carcinogenic potency as DBC > BaP = Mix2 = Mix3 > Mix1 = Control, based on statistical significance. Gene expression profiles measured in skin of mice collected 12 h post-initiation were compared with tumor outcome for identification of short-term bioactivity profiles. A Bayesian integration model was utilized to identify biological pathways predictive of PAH carcinogenic potential during initiation. Integration of probability matrices from four enriched pathways (P PAH mixtures. These data further provide a 'source-to-outcome' model that could be used to predict PAH interactions during tumorigenesis and provide an example of how mode-of-action-based risk assessment could be employed for environmental PAH mixtures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    The formation of 2-4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Source characterization using compound composition and stable carbon isotope ratio of PAHs in sediments from lakes, harbor, and shipping waterway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moonkoo; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.; Qian, Yaorong

    2008-01-01

    Molecular compositions and compound specific stable carbon isotope ratios of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) isolated from sediments were used to characterize possible sources of contamination at an urban lake, a harbor, a shipping waterway, and a relatively undisturbed remote lake in the northwest United States. Total PAH concentrations in urban lake sediments ranged from 66.0 to 16,500 μg g -1 dry wt. with an average of 2600 μg g -1 , which is ∼ 50, 100, and 400 times higher on average than PAH in harbor (48 μg g -1 on average), shipping waterway (26 μg g -1 ), and remote lake (7 μg g -1 ) sediments, respectively. The PAH distribution patterns, methyl phenanthrene/phenanthrene ratios, and a pyrogenic index at the sites suggest a pyrogenic origin for PAHs. Source characterization using principal component analysis and various molecular indices including C2-dibenzothiophenes/C2-phenanthrenes, C3-dibenzothiophenes/C3-phenanthrenes, and C2-chrysenes/C2-phenanthrenes ratios, was able to differentiate PAH deposited in sediments from the four sites. The uniqueness of the source of the sediment PAHs from urban lake was also illustrated by compound specific stable carbon isotope analysis. It was concluded that urban lake sediments are accumulating PAH from sources that are unique from contamination detected at nearby sites in the same watershed

  13. Effect of non-aqueous phase liquid on biodegradation of PAHs in spilled oil on tidal flat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kose, T.; Miyagishi, A.; Mukai, T.; Takimoto, K.; Okada, M.

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradation rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in spilled oil stranded on tidal flats were studied using model reactors to clarify the effects of NAPL on the biodegradation of PAHs in stranded oil on tidal flat with special emphasis on the relationship between dissolution rates of PAHs into water and viscosity of NAPL. Biodegradation of PAHs in NAPL was limited by the dissolution rates of PAHs into water. Biodegradation rate of chrysene was smaller than that for acenaphthene and phenanthrene due to the smaller dissolution rates. Dissolution rates of PAHs in fuel oil C were smaller than those in crude oil due to high viscosity of fuel oil C. Therefore, biodegradation rates of PAHs in fuel oil C were smaller than those in crude oil. Biodegradation rates of PAHs in NAPL with slow decrease rate like fuel oil C were slower than those in NAPL with rapid decrease like crude oil. The smaller decrease rate of fuel oil C than crude oil was due to higher viscosity of fuel oil C. Therefore, not only the dissolution rate of PAHs but also the decrease rates of NAPL were important factors for the biodegradation of PAHs. (author)

  14. Senyawa polisiklik aromatik hidrokarbon (PAH dalam air laut di Teluk Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs compound at Jakarta Bay seawater were carried out on July 2011. The objectives of this research were to measure the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH compound, concentration of individual PAH compound, and to identify sources of PAH compound in seawater. PAH compound concentration was measured by Gas Chromatography (Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound were identified by diagnostic ratio analysis. The results show that the concentration of PAH compound in the middle of Jakarta Bay was higher compared to the west and the east. In the west and middle of Jakarta Bay, it is found that 11 PAH types, and 10 types in the east. Individual PAH compound dominated by high moleculer weight of PAH Benzo(aAnthracene, Chrysene, Benzo(bFluoranthene, Benzo(aPyrene, dan Indeno(123-cd Pyrene. The results of PAH compound ratio individual analysis showed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons compound at Jakarta Bay seawater came from oil spill and incomplete combustion mixture of organic material such as wood, grass, fuel oil, and fuel industry combustion activity.

  15. Temperature-mediated polymorphism in molecular crystals: The impact on crystal packing and charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Stevens, Loah A.; Goetz, Katelyn P.; Fonari, Alexandr; Shu, Ying; Williamson, Rachel M.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Coropceanu, Veaceslav P.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Collis, Gavin E.

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel synthesis to ultra high purity 7,14-bis((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)dibenzo[b,def]-chrysene (TMS-DBC) and the use of this material in the growth of single crystals by solution and vapor deposition techniques. We observe that the substrate temperature has a dramatic impact on the crystal growth, producing two distinct polymorphs of TMS-DBC; low temperature (LT) fine red needles and high temperature (HT) large yellow platelets. Single crystal X-ray crystallography confirms packing structures where the LT crystals form a 1D slipped-stack structure, while the HT crystals adopt a 2D brickwork motif. These polymorphs also represent a rare example where both are extremely stable and do not interconvert to the other crystal structure upon solvent or thermal annealing. Single crystal organic field-effect transistors of the LT and HT crystals show that the HT 2D brickwork motif produces hole mobilities as high as 2.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, while the mobility of the 1D structure is significantly lower, at 0.028 cm2 V-1 s-1. Electronic-structure calculations indicate that the superior charge transport in the brickwork polymorph in comparison to the slipped-stack polymorph is due to the presence of an increased dimensionality of the charge migration pathways.

  16. Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in umbilical cord blood of human neonates from Guiyu, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yongyong; Huo, Xia [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Wu, Kusheng [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Department of Preventive Medicine, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Liu, Junxiao; Zhang, Yuling [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: xuxj@stu.edu.cn [Analytic Cytology Laboratory and the Key Immunopathology Laboratory of Guangdong Province, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2012-06-15

    Unregulated electronic-waste recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Guiyu, China. We evaluated the body burden of seven carcinogenic PAHs and potential health risks for neonates. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from Guiyu (n = 103), and the control area of Chaonan (n = 80), China. PAHs in UCB were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The median N-Ary-Summation 7c-PAH concentration was 108.05 ppb in UCB samples from Guiyu, vs. 79.36 ppb in samples from Chaonan. Residence in Guiyu and longer cooking time of food during the gestation period were significant factors contributing to the N-Ary-Summation 7c-PAH level. Benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were found to correlate with reduced neonatal height and gestational age. Infants experiencing adverse birth outcomes, on the whole, displayed higher BaA, Chr, and BaP levels compared to those with normal outcomes. We conclude that maternal PAH exposure results in fetal accumulation of toxic PAHs, and that such prenatal exposure correlates with adverse effects on neonatal health.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock

  18. Symmetrized density matrix renormalization group algorithm for low-lying excited states of conjugated carbon systems: Application to 1,12-benzoperylene and polychrysene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodhan, Suryoday; Ramasesha, S.

    2018-05-01

    The symmetry adapted density matrix renormalization group (SDMRG) technique has been an efficient method for studying low-lying eigenstates in one- and quasi-one-dimensional electronic systems. However, the SDMRG method had bottlenecks involving the construction of linearly independent symmetry adapted basis states as the symmetry matrices in the DMRG basis were not sparse. We have developed a modified algorithm to overcome this bottleneck. The new method incorporates end-to-end interchange symmetry (C2) , electron-hole symmetry (J ) , and parity or spin-flip symmetry (P ) in these calculations. The one-to-one correspondence between direct-product basis states in the DMRG Hilbert space for these symmetry operations renders the symmetry matrices in the new basis with maximum sparseness, just one nonzero matrix element per row. Using methods similar to those employed in the exact diagonalization technique for Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) models, developed in the 1980s, it is possible to construct orthogonal SDMRG basis states while bypassing the slow step of the Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization procedure. The method together with the PPP model which incorporates long-range electronic correlations is employed to study the correlated excited-state spectra of 1,12-benzoperylene and a narrow mixed graphene nanoribbon with a chrysene molecule as the building unit, comprising both zigzag and cove-edge structures.

  19. HIGH-RESOLUTION IR ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE 3 μ m REGION: ROLE OF PERIPHERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Buma, Wybren Jan [University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huang, Xinchuan [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Lee, Timothy J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035-1000 (United States); Oomens, Jos, E-mail: w.j.buma@uva.nl [Radboud University, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3 μ m absorption band. For this purpose, we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950–3150 cm{sup −1} range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3 μ m region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive data set of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3 μ m band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3 μ m emission plateau.

  20. A new application of passive samplers as indicators of in-situ biodegradation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, Angel; Alary, Claire; Criquet, Justine; Billon, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a method for evaluating the in-situ degradation of nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) in sediments is presented. The methodology is adapted from the passive sampler technique, which commonly uses the dissipation rate of labeled compounds loaded in passive sampler devices to sense the environmental conditions of exposure. In the present study, polymeric passive samplers (made of polyethylene strips) loaded with a set of labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and nitro-PAH were immersed in sediments (in field and laboratory conditions) to track the degradation processes. This approach is theoretically based on the fact that a degradation process induces a steeper concentration gradient of the labeled compounds in the surrounding sediment, thereby increasing their compound dissipation rates compared with their dissipation in abiotic conditions. Postulating that the degradation magnitude is the same for the labeled compounds loaded in polyethylene strips and for their native homologs that are potentially present in the sediment, the field degradation of 3 nitro-PAH (2-nitro-fluorene, 1-nitro-pyrene, 6-nitro-chrysene) was semi-quantitatively analyzed using the developed method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa; Pala, Mauro; Bonaccurso, Bruna; Stella, Anna; Redaelli, Anna; Paola, Gaudenzio; Valerio, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated

  2. Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster needles as passive samplers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccardo, Maria Teresa [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: chimamb@istge.it; Pala, Mauro [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Bonaccurso, Bruna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Stella, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Redaelli, Anna [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy); Paola, Gaudenzio [Botany Department, Genoa University, C.so Dogali 1 canc., 16136 Genova (Italy); Valerio, Federico [Environmental Chemistry Laboratory, National Cancer Research Institute, Genova. L.go Rosanna Benzi n. 10, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2005-01-01

    Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analysed in pine needles of different ages (from 6 to 30 months) collected from two species, Pinus nigra and Pinus pinaster, in seven sites located along a transect from a suburban to a rural area of Genoa (Italy). In all sites and for both species, concentrations of more volatile PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene) were higher than those for other less volatile PAHs, which are preferentially sorbed to airborne particulates (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzofluoranthenes, benzo[a]pyrene). Concentrations of total PAHs found in P. nigra in the rural sites were, on the average, 2.3 times higher than those in P. pinaster growing nearby. In both pine species, concentrations of volatile PAHs increased according to needle age. Annual trends of other PAHs were more variable, with a general decrease in older needles. P. pinaster needles are shown to be more reliable passive samplers, since they are more resistant to plant diseases, and considerable variation in PAH concentration was observed in P. nigra needles with moulds and fungi. - The suitability of the pine needles as passive air samplers for persistent trace organics is demonstrated.

  3. Source apportionment of traffic emissions of particulate matter using tunnel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mao, Hongjun; Prain, Hunter Douglas; Bull, Ian D.

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to quantify exhaust/non-exhaust emissions and the uncertainties associated with them by combining innovative motorway tunnel sampling and source apportionment modelling. Analytical techniques ICP-AES and GC-MS were used to identify the metallic and organic composition of PM10, respectively. Good correlation was observed between Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Sb and change in traffic volume. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organics varies significantly at the entrance and exit site of the tunnel, with fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and benzothiazole having the highest incremented concentrations. The application of Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis helped to identify the emission sources for 82% of the total PM10 mass inside the tunnel. Identified sources include resuspension (27%), diesel exhaust emissions (21%), petrol exhaust emissions (12%), brake wear emissions (11%) and road surface wear (11%). This study shows that major health related chemical species of PM10 originate from non-exhaust sources, further signifying the need for legislation to reduce these emissions.

  4. Oxidation kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsey, Steven P; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, James F

    2010-04-01

    The reactivity of permanganate towards polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well known but little kinetic information is available. This study investigated the oxidation kinetics of a selected group of coal tar creosote compounds and alkylbenzenes in water using permanganate, and the correlation between compound reactivity and physical/chemical properties. The oxidation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, carbazole isopropylbenzene, ethylbenzene and methylbenzene closely followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. The oxidation of pyrene was initially very rapid and did not follow pseudo first-order kinetics at early times. Fluoranthene was only partially oxidized and the oxidation of anthracene was too fast to be captured. Biphenyl, dibenzofuran, benzene and tert-butylbenzene were non-reactive under the study conditions. The oxidation rate was shown to increase with increasing number of polycyclic rings because less energy is required to overcome the aromatic character of a polycyclic ring than is required for benzene. Thus the rate of oxidation increased in the series naphthalenepermanganate. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Trace Metals in Arctic Aerosols: Long-Range Atmospheric Transport, Photochemical Degradation/Production at Polar Sunrise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Yanase, Ayako; Barrie, Leonard A

    2017-08-15

    The distributions, correlations, and source apportionment of aromatic acids, aromatic ketones, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace metals were studied in Canadian high Arctic aerosols. Nineteen PAHs including minor sulfur-containing heterocyclic PAH (dibenzothiophene) and major 6 carcinogenic PAHs were detected with a high proportion of fluoranthene followed by benzo[k]fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. However, in the sunlit period of spring, their concentrations significantly declined likely due to photochemical decomposition. During the polar sunrise from mid-March to mid-April, benzo[a]pyrene to benzo[e]pyrene ratios significantly dropped, and the ratios diminished further from late April to May onward. These results suggest that PAHs transported over the Arctic are subjected to strong photochemical degradation at polar sunrise. Although aromatic ketones decreased in spring, concentrations of some aromatic acids such as benzoic and phthalic acids increased during the course of polar sunrise, suggesting that aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized to result in aromatic acids. However, PAHs do not act as the major source for low molecular weight (LMW) diacids such as oxalic acid that are largely formed at polar sunrise in the arctic atmosphere because PAHs are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude less abundant than LMW diacids. Correlations of trace metals with organics, their sources, and the possible role of trace transition metals are explained.

  6. Temperature-mediated polymorphism in molecular crystals: The impact on crystal packing and charge transport

    KAUST Repository

    Stevens, Loah A.

    2015-01-13

    We report a novel synthesis to ultra high purity 7,14-bis((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)dibenzo[b,def]-chrysene (TMS-DBC) and the use of this material in the growth of single crystals by solution and vapor deposition techniques. We observe that the substrate temperature has a dramatic impact on the crystal growth, producing two distinct polymorphs of TMS-DBC; low temperature (LT) fine red needles and high temperature (HT) large yellow platelets. Single crystal X-ray crystallography confirms packing structures where the LT crystals form a 1D slipped-stack structure, while the HT crystals adopt a 2D brickwork motif. These polymorphs also represent a rare example where both are extremely stable and do not interconvert to the other crystal structure upon solvent or thermal annealing. Single crystal organic field-effect transistors of the LT and HT crystals show that the HT 2D brickwork motif produces hole mobilities as high as 2.1 cm2 V-1 s-1, while the mobility of the 1D structure is significantly lower, at 0.028 cm2 V-1 s-1. Electronic-structure calculations indicate that the superior charge transport in the brickwork polymorph in comparison to the slipped-stack polymorph is due to the presence of an increased dimensionality of the charge migration pathways.

  7. Sample preparation of sewage sludge and soil samples for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on one-pot microwave-assisted saponification and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, M Teresa; Pensado, Luis; Casais, M Carmen; Mejuto, M Carmen; Cela, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    A microwave-assisted sample preparation (MASP) procedure was developed for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge and soil samples. The procedure involved the simultaneous microwave-assisted extraction of PAHs with n-hexane and the hydrolysis of samples with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Because of the complex nature of the samples, the extracts were submitted to further cleaning with silica and Florisil solid-phase extraction cartridges connected in series. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were considered in the study. Quantification limits obtained for all of these compounds (between 0.4 and 14.8 microg kg(-1) dry mass) were well below of the limits recommended in the USA and EU. Overall recovery values ranged from 60 to 100%, with most losses being due to evaporation in the solvent exchange stages of the procedure, although excellent extraction recoveries were obtained. Validation of the accuracy was carried out with BCR-088 (sewage sludge) and BCR-524 (contaminated industrial soil) reference materials.

  8. Pelagic tar, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons and plastic distribution in the Cretan Sea, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornilios, S.; Drakopoulos, P.G.; Dounas, C. [Institute of Marine Biology of Crete, Iraklio (Greece). Environmental Dept.

    1998-12-01

    During the first cruise of R/V `Philia` in July 1997 within the framework of the TALOS programme supported by the Greek Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Works, the sampling of floating tar, litter and sea water for dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) was carried out in the Cretan Sea. Analysis of these data has allowed a first assessment of the status of floating marine pollution in the region. DDPH measurements showed a mean concentration of 0.145 {mu}g/l of chrysene equivalents (n = 24). Tar and plastics concentrations were in the range of 1-4280 and 0-1160 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, respectively. Mean pelagic tar concentration was 318 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, more than two times higher than what was reported for the area in previous studies. Based on in situ hydrographic observations there is strong evidence that most of the floating tar enters the Cretan Sea through the Ionian Sea. (author)

  9. Pelagic tar, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons and plastic distribution in the Cretan Sea, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornilios, S.; Drakopoulos, P.G.; Dounas, C. [Institute of Marine Biology of Crete, Iraklio (Greece). Environmental Dept.

    1998-12-01

    During the first cruise of R/V 'Philia' in July 1997 within the framework of the TALOS programme supported by the Greek Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Works, the sampling of floating tar, litter and sea water for dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) was carried out in the Cretan Sea. Analysis of these data has allowed a first assessment of the status of floating marine pollution in the region. DDPH measurements showed a mean concentration of 0.145 {mu}g/l of chrysene equivalents (n = 24). Tar and plastics concentrations were in the range of 1-4280 and 0-1160 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, respectively. Mean pelagic tar concentration was 318 {mu}g/m{sup 2}, more than two times higher than what was reported for the area in previous studies. Based on in situ hydrographic observations there is strong evidence that most of the floating tar enters the Cretan Sea through the Ionian Sea. (author)

  10. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Badu-Tawiah, Abraham K.; Li, Anyin; Soparawalla, Santosh; Roqan, Iman S.; Cooks, Robert Graham

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Indigenous production of biosurfactant and degradation of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rashedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Iranian oil wells. The biosurfactant production of bacteria isolates was evaluated and confirmed using hemolysis and emulsification tests. The biodegradation of crude oil was studied using GC and HPLC analysis. A total of 45 strains have been isolated. These strains showed less than a 40 mN m-1 reduction in surface tension. The effects of different pH (4.2-9.2, salinity concentrations (1%-15%, and temperatures (25-50 in biosurfactant production of isolated strains were evaluated. One of the strains (Bacillus sp. NO.4 showed a high salt tolerance and a successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH range. Its maximum biomass production (about 3.1 g L-1 dry weight was achieved after 60 hours of growth. The surface tension of the culture broth dropped rapidly after inoculation and reached its lowest value (36 mN m-1 during the exponential phase after about 36-48 hours of growth. The study of the GC graphs showed that higher aliphatic reduction occurred in fractions with C14 to C24 hydrocarbons. The depicted results of the HPLC graphs indicated a 100% degradation of chrysene and fluorine. In this study, we demonstrated the useful capacities of the isolates in removing oil pollutants and their application in MEOR in vitro.

  12. Synthesis of extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by oxidative tandem spirocyclization and 1,2-aryl migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Zhanqiang; Si, Weili; Oniwa, Kazuaki; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori; Jin, Tienan

    2017-04-01

    The extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have received significant interdisciplinary attention due to their semiconducting applications in diverse organic electronics as well as intriguing structural interests of well-defined graphene segments. Herein, a highly efficient oxidative spirocyclization and 1,2-aryl migration tandem synthetic method for the construction of extended polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been developed. The CuCl-catalyst/PhCO3 tBu or DDQ oxidation system in the presence of trifluoroacetic acid enables the selective single-electron oxidation to take place preferentially at the more electron-rich alkene moiety of o-biphenylyl-substituted methylenefluorenes, giving rise to the subsequent tandem process. A variety of structurally diverse extended PAHs including functionalized dibenzo[g,p]chrysenes, benzo[f]naphtho[1,2-s]picene, hexabenzo[a,c,fg,j,l,op]tetracene, tetrabenzo[a,c,f,m]phenanthro[9,10-k]tetraphene, tetrabenzo[a,c,f,k]phenanthro[9,10-m]tetraphene, tetrabenzo[a,c,f,o]phenanthro[9,10-m]picene and S-type helicene have been readily synthesized.

  13. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Andrew C.; Bell, Thomas; Heywood, Chloe A.; Smith, J.A.C.; Thompson, Ian P.

    2007-01-01

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract

  14. Phytoremediation of mixed-contaminated soil using the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum: Evidence of histidine as a measure of phytoextractable nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Andrew C. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: acsi@ceh.ac.uk; Bell, Thomas [Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS (United Kingdom); Heywood, Chloe A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom); Smith, J.A.C. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RB (United Kingdom); Thompson, Ian P. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology-Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3SR (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this study we examine the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the ability of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum to phytoextract nickel from co-contaminated soil. Planted and unplanted mesocosms containing the contaminated soils were repeatedly amended with sorbitan trioleate, salicylic acid and histidine in various combinations to enhance the degradation of two PAHs (phenanthrene and chrysene) and increase nickel phytoextraction. Plant growth was negatively affected by PAHs; however, there was no significant effect on the phytoextraction of Ni per unit biomass of shoot. Exogenous histidine did not increase nickel phytoextraction, but the histidine-extractable fraction of soil nickel showed a high correlation with phytoextractable nickel. These results indicate that Alyssum lesbiacum might be effective in phytoextracting nickel from marginally PAH-contaminated soils. In addition, we provide evidence for the broader applicability of histidine for quantifying and predicting Ni phytoavailability in soils. - Alyssum lesbiacum was shown to phytoextract nickel from PAH-contaminated soils from which the pool of nickel accessed for phytoextraction is closely modelled by a histidine-soil extract.

  15. Uptake, translocation, and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, B.T.; Hoylman, A.M.

    1992-12-01

    A review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the potential for plants to take up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils and the possibility of PAH movement from soils into vegetation at waste disposal sites associated with manufactured gas plants (MGP). Studies published since 1983 are considered in conjunction with previous publications and literature reviews on PAH uptake by vegetation. These studies indicate that the extent to which sorption to roots occurs is likely to be influenced by species-specific properties of the plant, physicochemical properties of each PAH, soil properties, and biodegradation rates of the PAHs in soil. PAHs containing five or more rings may sorb to plant roots but are not expected to be translocated to foliage in other than trace quantities. Uptake of naphthalene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene by roots has been reported in the literature. In addition, eight PAHs of three and four rings (acenapthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene) were isolated from leaves and roots of four plant species collected near a coal tar disposal trench in eastern Tennessee. A total concentration of 5519 ng/g was observed for the eight PAHs in roots of lamb's quarters. Coal tar, in soil, was implicated as the source of PAHs in the four plant species

  16. Evolution of potential ecological impacts of the bottom sediment from the Gulf of Gemlik; Marmara Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, Selma; Alpar, Bedri

    2009-12-01

    The eastern and southern coasts of the Gulf of Gemlik, a resort in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey, are under the influence of rapid ecotourism development, direct domestic and industrial discharges via rivers and outfalls, surface run-off, drainage from ports and shipping. According to sediment quality criteria in use around the world, sediment quality in the gulf shows a broad spectrum. It is more related by direct input, rather than by the type of sediment, and excluding inner port and southern coasts, it does not exert adverse biological effects yet. The total PAH concentrations range from 51 to 13,482 ng/g dry weight with the mean value of 1,850 ng/g dry weight (n = 61). The elevated values of the total toxic Benzo[a]pyrene equivalency (TEQcarc), with a maximum of 1,838 ng/g dry weight, were found at the inner harbor of Gemlik, possibly posing hazard to benthic organisms. Among the different PAHs, the contribution to the total TEQcarc decreased as the following order: Benzo[a]pyrene (43.6%) > Benzo[k]fluoranthene (36.0%) > Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (35.1%) > Benzo[b]fluoranthene (20.0%) > Chrysene + Triphenylene (18.9%) > Benzo[a]anthracene (12.5%).

  17. Remediation of Wheat-Straw-Biochar on Petroleum-Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Wen-ying

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochar was made from wheat straw at 300 ℃ for 3, 6, 8 hours respectively. The productivity, pH, ash content and C, H, N content of these biochar were compared. The surface morphology of the 300 ℃-6 h biochar was characterized, and it was used to remediate the petroleum-polluted soil of Dagang oil field. Results showed that, as the extension of pyrolisis time, the productivity of biochar decreased, pH increased, ash content increased, H/C decreased. But productivity, pH, ash content and H/C changed significantly from 3 h to 6 h, unsignificantly from 6 h to 8 h. C content showed a downward trend after the first rise. After remediation of biochar for 14 and 28 days, the TPH degradation rate were 45.48% and 46.88% respectively, higher than control group. After 14 days remediation, content of naphthalene, acenaphthene, Benzo [a] anthracene, chrysene, Benzo [b] fluoranthene, Benzo [k] fluoranthene, Benzo [a] pyrene, Indene and [1,2,3-CD] pyrene were decreased to various degrees, with the Benzo [a] pyrene content decreased by 98.18%, and the degradation rate of other PAH higher than control group. After 28 days remediation however, content of these PAH showed a rising trend. It suggested that pyrolisis time had influence on biochar’ s characteristics, and 300 ℃-6 h biochar could be used to remediate petroleum-polluted soil.

  18. Major gaseous and PAH emissions from a fluidized-bed combustor firing rice husk with high combustion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janvijitsakul, Kasama; Kuprianov, Vladimir I.

    2008-01-01

    This experimental work investigated major gaseous (CO and NO x ) and PAH emissions from a 400 kW th fluidized-bed combustor with a cone-shaped bed (referred to as 'conical FBC') firing rice husk with high, over 99%, combustion efficiency. Experimental tests were carried out at the fuel feed rate of 80 kg/h for different values of excess air (EA). As revealed by the experimental results, EA had substantial effects on the axial CO and NO x concentration profiles and corresponding emissions from the combustor. The concentration (mg/kg-ash) and specific emission (μg/kW h) of twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, were quantified in this work for different size fractions of ash emitted from the conical FBC firing rice husk at EA = 20.9%. The total PAHs emission was found to be predominant for the coarsest ash particles, due to the effects of a highly developed internal surface in a particle volume. The highest emission was shown by acenaphthylene, 4.1 μg/kW h, when the total yield of PAHs via fly ash was about 10 μg/kW h. (author)

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Hui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Wu, Chunfei, E-mail: c.wu@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Onwudili, Jude A. [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Meng, Aihong [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yanguo, E-mail: zhangyg@tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Williams, Paul T., E-mail: p.t.williams@leeds.ac.uk [Energy Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  20. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hao; Zhu Lizhong; Chen Shuguang

    2008-01-01

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM 2.5 accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM 2.5-10 fraction (17.6%) and >PM 10 fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks. - Concentrations of PAHs in the air of selected public places in Hangzhou correspond to 10 -3 life-time lung cancer risk

  1. A novel approach for characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Jan H.; Tomasi, Giorgio; Scofield, Arthur de Lemos; Meniconi, Maria de Fatima Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    A novel multivariate method based on principal component analysis of pre-processed sections of chromatograms is used to characterize the complex PAH pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Five distinct sources of 3- to 6-ring PAHs could be revealed. The harbour is the most contaminated site in the bay, its plume stretches in a South West to North East direction and the chemical profile indicates mainly pyrogenic sources mixed with a fraction of high-molecular-weight petrogenic PAHs. Rio Sao Joao de Meriti is the second largest source of PAHs, and introduces mainly a fraction of low-molecular-weight petrogenic PAHs from the western region of Rio de Janeiro. The sites close to the ruptured pipeline at the Duque de Caxias Refinery show a distinctive pollution pattern indicating a heavy petroleum fraction. The method also led to the identification of new potential indicator ratios also involving coeluting peaks (e.g., triphenylene and chrysene). - A novel multivariate method is used to characterize the complex PAH pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Brazil.

  2. Molecular Tracers of Saturated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Inputs into Central Park Lake, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAN, BEIZHAN; ABRAJANO, TEOFILO A.; BOPP, RICHARD F.; CHAKY, DAMON A.; BENEDICT, LUCILLE A.; CHILLRUD, STEVEN N.

    2011-01-01

    Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides 210Pb and 137Cs were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on 210Pb matches very well with the time constraints provided by 137Cs. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions from softwood combustion, whereas both Fl/(Fl + Py) and 1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP can be used to discriminate among wood, coal, and petroleum combustion sources. Combined use of these ratios suggests that in New York City, wood combustion dominated 100 years ago, with a shift to coal combustion occurring from the 1900s to the 1950s. Petroleum use began around the 1920s and has dominated since the 1940s. PMID:16201624

  3. Assessment of the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of sediment spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rončević, Srđan; Spasojević, Jelena; Maletić, Snežana; Jazić, Jelena Molnar; Isakovski, Marijana Kragulj; Agbaba, Jasmina; Grgić, Marko; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-02-01

    Large amounts of sediment are dredged globally every year. This sediment is often contaminated with low concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and other organic pollutants. Some of this sediment is disposed of on land, creating a need for risk assessment of the sediment disposal method, to minimize the degradation of environmental quality and prevent risks to human health. Evaluating the available fractions of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is very important, as in the presence of various organisms, they are believed to be easily subject to the processes of bioaccumulation, biosorption and transformation. In order to determine the applicability of applying these methods for the evaluation of pollutant bioavailability in sediments, the desorption kinetics from the sediment of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of Tenax and XAD4 were examined over the course of 216 h. Changes in the PAH concentrations in dredged sediments using five different seed plants during a short time of period (10 days) were also followed. Using chemical extraction techniques with Tenax and XAD4, a time of around 24 h is enough to achieve equilibrium for all four PAHs. Results showed good agreement between the seed accumulation and PAH extraction methods with both agents. If we compare the two extraction techniques, XAD4 gave better results for phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene, and Tenax gave better results for chrysene.

  4. Pelagic tar, dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons and plastic distribution in the Cretan Sea, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornilios, S.; Drakopoulos, P.G.; Dounas, C.

    1998-01-01

    During the first cruise of R/V 'Philia' in July 1997 within the framework of the TALOS programme supported by the Greek Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Works, the sampling of floating tar, litter and sea water for dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPH) was carried out in the Cretan Sea. Analysis of these data has allowed a first assessment of the status of floating marine pollution in the region. DDPH measurements showed a mean concentration of 0.145 μg/l of chrysene equivalents (n = 24). Tar and plastics concentrations were in the range of 1-4280 and 0-1160 μg/m 2 , respectively. Mean pelagic tar concentration was 318 μg/m 2 , more than two times higher than what was reported for the area in previous studies. Based on in situ hydrographic observations there is strong evidence that most of the floating tar enters the Cretan Sea through the Ionian Sea. (author)

  5. Isolation and characterization of a novel polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacterium, Paenibacillus sp. KBC101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, M.; Ezaki, S.; Suzuki, N.; Kurane, R. [Kubota Corporation, Ryuugasaki City (Japan). Biotechnology Research Centre

    2005-07-01

    The biphenyl-utilizing bacterial strain KBC101 has been newly isolated from soil. Biphenyl-grown cells of KBC101 efficiently degraded di- to nonachlorobiphenyls. The isolate was identified as Paenibacillus sp. with respect to its 16S rDNA sequence and fatty acid profiles, as well as various biological and physiological characteristics. In the case of highly chlorinated biphenyl (polychlorinated biphenyl; PCB) congeners, the degradation activities of this strain were superior to those of the previously reported strong PCB degrader, Rhodococcus sp. RHA1. Recalcitrant coplanar PCBs, such as 3,4,3',4'-CB, were also efficiently degraded by strain KBC101 cells. This is the first report of a representative of the genus Paenibacillus capable of degrading PCBs. In addition to growth of biphenyl, strain KBC101 could grow on dibenzofuran, xanthene, benzophenone, anthrone, phenanthrene, napthalene, fluorene, fluoranthene, and chrysene as sole sources of carbon and energy. Paenibacillus sp. strain KBC101 presented heterogeneous degradation profiles toward various aromatic compounds. (orig.)

  6. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3-micrometers Region: Role of Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3-micrometers absorption band. To this purpose we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 per cm range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations, and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3-micrometers region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive dataset of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly-condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3-micrometers band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3-micrometers emission plateau.

  7. Induction of secondary metabolism by environmental pollutants: metabolization of pyrene and formation of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin by Crinipellis stipitaria JK 364

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, B.; Kremer, S.; Sterner, O.; Anke, H.

    1995-01-01

    In submerged cultures, when grown in the presence of pyrene, the saprophytic and plant inhabiting basidiomycete Crinipellis stipitaria was found to produce 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-isocoumarin. The amount of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin formed depended on the concentration of pyrene in the medium. In cultures incubated without pyrene or with less than 2.5 mg/l no formation of 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin was observed. Besides pyrene, chrysene, anotther four ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, induced isocoumarin formation whereas anthracene, phenanthrene or fluoranthene were not effective. During metabilization experiments with [4,5,9,10- 14 C]pyrene (0.4 mCi (14.8 kBq)/mmol), labelled 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylsiocoumarin (specific activity 15 μCi (0.6 kBq)/mmol) was identified. When C. stipitaria JK 364 was incubated for 14 days with 5 μCi (0.2 kBq) sodium [2- 14 C]acetate and 10 mg/l pyrene, labelled 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin was isolated from the culture. The results are in agreement with the polyketide origin of the isocoumarin and proof the breakdown of pyrene to acetate which is a central intermediate in the pathway from pyrene to 6,8-dihydroxy-3-methylisocoumarin. (orig.)

  8. Hydrocarbon degradation potential in reference soils and soils contaminated with jet fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.F.; Hoeppel, R.

    1991-01-01

    Petroleum degradation in surface and subsurface soils is affected by such factors as moisture content, pH, soil type, soil organics, temperature, and oxygen concentrations. In this paper, the authors determine the degradation rates of 14 C-labeled hydrocarbons added to soils collected from a contaminated surface site, contaminated subsurface sites, and a clean reference site. The radiolabeled hydrocarbons used include benzene, toluene, naphthalene, 1-methynaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, anthracene, chrysene, and hexadecane. Microbial degradation rates were based on determination of mineralization rates (production of 14 CO 2 ) of hydrocarbons that were added to soil samples. Since water was added and oxygen was not limiting, the hydrocarbon rates determined are likely to be higher than those occurring in situ. Using radiolabeled hydrocarbons, information can be provided on differences in the degradation rates of various petroleum compounds in different types of soils at a site, on possible production of petroleum metabolites in the soil, and on the importance of anaerobic petroleum degradation and the effects of nutrient, water, and surfactant addition on biodegradation rates

  9. Regional modelling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: WRF-Chem-PAH model development and East Asia case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Qing; Lammel, Gerhard; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Chen, Ying; Přibylová, Petra; Teich, Monique; Zhang, Yuxuan; Zheng, Guangjie; van Pinxteren, Dominik; Zhang, Qiang; Herrmann, Hartmut; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Spichtinger, Peter; Su, Hang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Cheng, Yafang

    2017-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are hazardous pollutants, with increasing emissions in pace with economic development in East Asia, but their distribution and fate in the atmosphere are not yet well understood. We extended the regional atmospheric chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research Forecast model with Chemistry module) to comprehensively study the atmospheric distribution and the fate of low-concentration, slowly degrading semivolatile compounds. The WRF-Chem-PAH model reflects the state-of-the-art understanding of current PAHs studies with several new or updated features. It was applied for PAHs covering a wide range of volatility and hydrophobicity, i.e. phenanthrene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene, in East Asia. Temporally highly resolved PAH concentrations and particulate mass fractions were evaluated against observations. The WRF-Chem-PAH model is able to reasonably well simulate the concentration levels and particulate mass fractions of PAHs near the sources and at a remote outflow region of East Asia, in high spatial and temporal resolutions. Sensitivity study shows that the heterogeneous reaction with ozone and the homogeneous reaction with the nitrate radical significantly influence the fate and distributions of PAHs. The methods to implement new species and to correct the transport problems can be applied to other newly implemented species in WRF-Chem.

  10. Hydrocarbon analysis using desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    KAUST Repository

    Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark

    2013-07-01

    Characterization of the various petroleum constituents (hydronaphthalenes, thiophenes, alkyl substituted benzenes, pyridines, fluorenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) was achieved under ambient conditions without sample preparation by desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI). Conditions were chosen for the DAPCI experiments to control whether ionization was by proton or electron transfer. The protonated molecule [M+H]+ and the hydride abstracted [MH]+ form were observed when using an inert gas, typically nitrogen, to direct a lightly ionized plasma generated by corona discharge onto the sample surface in air. The abundant water cluster ions generated in this experiment react with condensed-phase functionalized hydrocarbon model compounds and their mixtures at or near the sample surface. On the other hand, when naphthalene was doped into the DAPCI gas stream, its radical cation served as a charge exchange reagent, yielding molecular radical cations (M+) of the hydrocarbons. This mode of sample ionization provided mass spectra with better signal/noise ratios and without unwanted side-products. It also extended the applicability of DAPCI to petroleum constituents which could not be analyzed through proton transfer (e.g., higher molecular PAHs such as chrysene). The thermochemistry governing the individual ionization processes is discussed and a desorption/ionization mechanism is inferred. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  11. The impact of vegetation on sedimentary organic matter composition and PAH desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie [North Carolina State University, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, 2800 Faucette Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)], E-mail: elizabeth_nichols@ncsu.edu; Gregory, Samuel T.; Musella, Jennifer S. [North Carolina State University, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, 2800 Faucette Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    Relationships between sedimentary organic matter (SOM) composition and PAH desorption behavior were determined for vegetated and non-vegetated refinery distillate waste sediments. Sediments were fractionated into size, density, and humin fractions and analyzed for their organic matter content. Bulk sediment and humin fractions differed more in organic matter composition than size/density fractions. Vegetated humin and bulk sediments contained more polar organic carbon, black carbon, and modern (plant) carbon than non-vegetated sediment fractions. Desorption kinetics of phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, and C{sub 3}-phenanthrene/anthracenes from humin and bulk sediments were investigated using Tenax beads and a two-compartment, first-order kinetic model. PAH desorption from distillate waste sediments appeared to be controlled by the slow desorbing fractions of sediment; rate constants were similar to literature values for k{sub slow} and k{sub veryslow}. After several decades of plant colonization and growth (Phragmites australis), vegetated sediment fractions more extensively desorbed PAHs and had faster desorption kinetics than non-vegetated sediment fractions. - Plants alter sediment organic matter composition and PAH desorption behavior.

  12. The impact of vegetation on sedimentary organic matter composition and PAH desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Elizabeth Guthrie; Gregory, Samuel T.; Musella, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    Relationships between sedimentary organic matter (SOM) composition and PAH desorption behavior were determined for vegetated and non-vegetated refinery distillate waste sediments. Sediments were fractionated into size, density, and humin fractions and analyzed for their organic matter content. Bulk sediment and humin fractions differed more in organic matter composition than size/density fractions. Vegetated humin and bulk sediments contained more polar organic carbon, black carbon, and modern (plant) carbon than non-vegetated sediment fractions. Desorption kinetics of phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, and C 3 -phenanthrene/anthracenes from humin and bulk sediments were investigated using Tenax beads and a two-compartment, first-order kinetic model. PAH desorption from distillate waste sediments appeared to be controlled by the slow desorbing fractions of sediment; rate constants were similar to literature values for k slow and k veryslow . After several decades of plant colonization and growth (Phragmites australis), vegetated sediment fractions more extensively desorbed PAHs and had faster desorption kinetics than non-vegetated sediment fractions. - Plants alter sediment organic matter composition and PAH desorption behavior

  13. PAH in tea and coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navarantem, Marin; Adamska, Joanna

    For food regulation in the European Union maximum limits on other foods than tea and coffee includes benzo[a]pyrene and the sum of PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene and benzo[b]fluoranthene). This study includes analysis of the above mentioned PAH in both, tea leaves, coffee...... beans and ready-to-drink preparations. Compared to other food matrices (e.g. fish), the analytical methods were challenged by the hot water extracts. Preparation of tea includes roasting and drying of the tea leaves using combustion gases from burning wood, oil, or coal. These are responsible...... for accumulation of PAH in tea leaves. Different varieties of tea leaves were analyzed and highest concentrations were found in leaves from mate and black tea with maximum concentrations of 32 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene and 115 μg/kg for the sum of PAH4. Also, coffee beans are roasted during processing. However...

  14. PAH in Some Brands of Tea and Coffee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Navaratnam, Marin Arosha; Jewula, J.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of 25 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea and coffee were investigated with focus on four PAHs (PAH4), classified by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators; benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and benzo[a]pyrene (Ba......P). PAH4 from samples of 18 brands of tea leaves and 13 brands of coffee were extracted by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) followed by highly automated clean up steps for gel permeation chromatography (SX-3) and solid phase extraction (500mg silica). GC-MS were applied for detection of PAH4. The limit...... of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.1–0.3 μg/kg with recoveries from 94–106% for PAH4. Concentrations of PAH4 followed the pattern of the total sum of 25 PAHs with higher concentrations with a maximum of 115 μg/kg in tea leaves compared to 5.1 μg/kg in coffee. The highest PAH4 levels were found in black tea...

  15. A source mixing model to apportion PAHs from coal tar and asphalt binders in street pavements and urban aquatic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, M.J.; Depree, C.V. [National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    Present-day and more than 30 years old road and footpath pavements from Auckland, New Zealand were analysed for PAHs to test the hypothesis that coal tar based pavement binders contribute to unusually high PAH concentrations in adjacent stream and estuarine sediments Total PAH ({Sigma}{sub 28}PAH) concentrations in the dichloromethane-soluble fraction ('binder'), comprising 5-10% of pavement mass, were as high as 200 000 mg kg{sup -1}(10 000 mg kg{sup -1} in binder + aggregate) Older and deeper pavement layers were strongly pyrogenic, whereas pavement layers from recently sealed roads had a more petrogenic composition and more than 1000 times lower Sigma(28)PAH concentrations. Source identification analysis using three PAH isomer ratio pairs (benz(a)anthracene/(benz(a)anthracene + chrysene), benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene + benzo(e)pyrene)), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/(indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene) revealed low PAH (bitumen) pavements to have consistently lower isomer ratios than high PAH (coal tar) samples. A concentration-weighted mixing model, with coal tar and bitumen as source materials, explained more than 80% of the variance in isomer ratios and enveloped the entire PAH compositional and concentration range encountered PAH composition and concentrations in adjacent stream sediments ({gt} 15 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight) were consistent with diluted coal tar material as a principal PAH source. Due to the very high PAH concentrations of coal tar, a coal tar content of as little as 0.01% of total sediment mass can account for more than 90% of PAH concentrations in adjacent stream sediments.

  16. Simple Bioremediation Treatments for the Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the Polluted Desert Soil of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Gounaim, Marzooq Yousuf; Abu-Shady, Abdulsatar

    2004-01-01

    A soil microcosm test was designed to evaluate the influence of mixing polluted desert soil with clay soil (which is used as an amendment material and for immobilization of bacterial cells) on the biodegradation of petroleum polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Residual PAHs in this type of polluted soil were quantified by using GC analysis. At the begining of experiment 16 PAHs were resolved, of which the mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds flouranthene and pyrene were more frequent than the otherPAHs (14% and 12.4% respectively). Results of total PAH biodegradation show that mixing this polluted desert soil with clay soil or its water extract stimulated the biodegradation of 85.8%-89.1% of these compounds. This is contrast to 61.7%-75.5% in the absence of clay soil. Moreover when the mixed bacterial culture was immobilized in this clay soil 94.4% of total of total PAHs were degraded. On the other hand, the free cells of mixed culture succeeded to remove only 75.5% of these compounds. In this study the six-ranged PAHs were completely degraded in the presence of clay soil. A particularly notable distinction between the immobilized culture (T3) and other treatment in this biodegradation study is the greater efficiency of the immobilized culture to degrade the individuals of the 16 PAHs, especially the carcinogenic compounds: flouranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a) pyrene and dibenzo (a,h) anthracene. These results lead to the conclusion that mixing the polluted desert soil with clay soil and/or its water extract seems to be a simple cost effective bioremediation method. (author)

  17. Occurrence, sources and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around oil wells in the border regions between oil fields and suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Wen; Li, Tian-Yuan; Ji, Lei; Wang, Lei-Lei; Zheng, Li-Wen; Wang, Jia-Ning; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-08-15

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical region where oil fields generally overlap cities and towns, leading to complex soil contamination from both the oil fields and human activities. To clarify the distribution, speciation, potential sources and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of border regions between oil fields and suburbs of the YRD, 138 soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected among 12 sampling sites located around oil wells with different extraction histories. The 16 priority control PAHs (16PAHs), as selected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were extracted via an accelerated solvent extraction and detected by GC-MS. The results showed that soils of the study area were generally polluted by the 16PAHs. Among these pollutions, chrysene and phenanthrene were the dominant components, and 4-ring PAHs were the most abundant. A typical temporal distribution pattern of the 16PAHs was revealed in soils from different sampling sites around oil wells with different exploitation histories. The concentrations of total 16PAHs and high-ring PAHs (HPAHs) both increased with the extraction time of the nearby oil wells. Individual PAH ratios and PCA method revealed that the 16PAHs in soil with newly developed oil wells were mainly from petroleum pollutants, whereas PAHs in soils around oil wells with a long exploitation history were probably from petroleum contamination; combustion of petroleum, fuel, and biomass; and degradation and migration of PAHs from petroleum. Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the health risks of the 7 carcinogenic PAHs and 9 non-carcinogenic PAHs in the study area. The results indicated that ingestion and dermal contact were the predominant pathways of exposure to PAH residues in soils. Both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic burden of the 16PAHs in soils of the oil field increased significantly with exploitation time of nearby oil wells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  18. Toxicity of effluents from gasoline stations oil-water separators to early life stages of zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Romulo Nepomuceno; Mariz, Célio Freire; Paulo, Driele Ventura de; Carvalho, Paulo S M

    2017-07-01

    Used petroleum hydrocarbons and gasoline stations runoff are significant sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to aquatic ecosystems. Samples of the final effluent of oil-water-separators were collected at gasoline stations in the metropolitan region of Recife, Brazil, before release to sewage or rainwater systems. Effluent soluble fractions (ESF) were prepared and bioassays were performed according to the Fish Embryo Toxicity Test. The test involved exposing zebrafish Danio rerio embryos to dilutions of the ESFs for 96 h, with daily examination of lethality and sublethal morphological effects integrated through the General Morphology Score (GMS), based on the achievement of developmental hallmarks. Frequencies of abnormalities were recorded after exposures. ESF LC50-96h (lethal concentration to 50% of exposed embryos) in the most toxic effluent achieved 8.9% (v/v), equivalent to 11 μg phenanthrene equivalents L -1 . GMS scores indicated significantly delayed embryo-larval development at ESF dilutions of 10% and 20% from effluents of all gas stations. Major abnormalities detected after the 96 h exposure included the presence of a yolk sac not fully absorbed coupled with the lack of an inflated swim bladder, lack of both pectoral fins, and the failure to develop a protruding mouth. Effective equivalent PAH concentrations that induce a 50% frequency of larvae without an inflated swim bladder (EC50) were 4.9 μg phenanthrene L -1 , 21.8 μg naphthalene L -1 , and 34.1 μg chrysene L -1 . This study shows that PAHs in ESFs from gas stations oil water separators are toxic to zebrafish, contributing to the toxicity of urban storm waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) skin permeation rates change with simultaneous exposures to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Spring, Philipp; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Jimenez, Silvia; Sutter, Benjamin; Vernez, David; Berthet, Aurelie

    2018-05-01

    Road construction workers are simultaneously exposed to two carcinogens; solar ultraviolet (UV-S) radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bitumen emissions. The combined exposure may lead to photogenotoxicity and enhanced PAH skin permeation rates. Skin permeation rates (J) for selected PAHs in a mixture (PAH-mix) or in bitumen fume condensate (BFC) with and without UV-S co-exposures were measured with in vitro flow-through diffusion cells mounted with human viable skin and results compared. Possible biomarkers were explored. Js were greater with UV-S for naphthalene, anthracene, and pyrene in BFC (0.08-0.1 ng/cm 2 /h) compared to without (0.02-0.26 ng/cm 2 /h). This was true for anthracene, pyrene, and chrysene in the PAH-mix. Naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the PAH-mix had greater Js without (0.97-13.01 ng/cm 2 /h) compared to with UV-S (0.40-6.35 ng/cm 2 /h). Time until permeation (T lags ) in the PAH-mix were generally shorter compared to the BFC, and they ranged from 1 to 13 h. The vehicle matrix could potentially be the reason for this discrepancy as BFC contains additional not identified substances. Qualitative interpretation of p53 suggested a dose-response with UV-S, and somewhat with the co-exposures. MMP1, p65 and cKIT were not exploitable. Although not statistically different, PAHs permeate human viable skin faster with simultaneous exposures to UV. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) INTO CENTRAL PARK LAKE, NEW YORK CITY, OVER A CENTURY OF DEPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Beizhan; Bopp, Richard F.; Abrajano, Teofilo A.; Chaky, Damon; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Relative contributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from combustion sources of wood, petroleum, and coal were computed in sediments from Central Park Lake in New York City (NY, USA) by chemical mass balance based on several reliable source indicators. These indicators are the ratio of retene to the sum of retene and chrysene, the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene (DMP) to 1,7-DMP and 2,6-DMP, and the ratio of fluroanthene to fluroanthene and pyrene. The authors found that petroleum combustion–derived PAH fluxes generally followed the historical consumption data of New York State. Coal combustion-derived PAH flux peaked approximately in the late 1910s, remained at a relatively high level over the next 3 decades, then rapidly declined from the 1950s to the 1960s; according to historical New York State coal consumption data, however, there was a 2-peak trend, with peaks around the early 1920s and the mid-1940s. The 1940s peak was not observed in Central Park Lake, most likely because of the well-documented shift from coal to oil as the major residential heating fuel in New York City during the late 1930s. It was widely believed that the decreased PAH concentrations and fluxes in global sediments during the last century resulted from a major energy shift from coal to petroleum. The data, however, show that this shift occurred from 1945 through the 1960s and did not result in an obvious decline. The sharpest decrease, which occurred in the 1970s was not predominantly related to coal usage but rather was the result of multiple factors, including a decline in petroleum usage largely, the introduction of low sulfur–content fuel in New York City, and the introduction of emission-control technologies. PMID:24375577

  1. A role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Ryoichi; Okamura, Kazumasa; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-0934 (Japan); Kakishima, Hiroshi [Research Planning Department, Eiken Chemical Co. Ltd., 5-26-20 Oji, Kita-ku, Tokyo 114-0002 (Japan); Mizokami, Atsushi [School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8641 (Japan); Burnstein, Kerry L. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33101, Miami (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) on the antiandrogenic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in LNCaP cells. The PAHs used in this study were chrysene (Chr), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), anthracene (Ant) and pyrene (Pyr). Chr, BkF and BaP acted as AhR agonists in LNCaP cells, while Ant and Pyr did not. The antiandrogenic effects of the PAHs were evaluated on the basis of regulation of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA and protein levels by 5{alpha}-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Chr, BkF and BaP exhibited an antiandrogenic effect, but Ant and Pyr did not. {alpha}-Naphthoflavone ({alpha}-NF), an AhR antagonist, reversed the antiandrogen action of Chr, BkF and BaP, suggesting a requirement for activated AhR. The antiandrogenic PAHs did not significantly decrease androgen receptor (AR) levels or cellular DHT concentrations. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that Chr, BkF and BaP inhibited the binding of AR in nuclear extracts to oligonucleotide probes containing the AR-responsive element (ARE), whereas Ant and Pyr had no effect. The antiandrogenic PAHs elevated mRNA levels of c-fos and c-jun. Since activator protein-1 (AP-1), a heterodimer of c-jun and c-fos proteins, is known to inhibit binding of AR to ARE by protein-protein interaction with AR, the findings in the present study suggest a possible involvement of AP-1 in the antiandrogenic effects of PAHs acting as AhR agonists. These results suggest that AhR can stimulate AP-1 expression resulting in inhibition of the binding of AR to ARE in the transcription regulatory region of target genes such as PSA. (orig.)

  2. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachon Q, Jorge; Garcia L, Hector; Bustos L, Martha; Bravo A, Humberto; Sosa E, Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were determined in particulate matter with a <10 mm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in three industrial municipalities of the metropolitan zone of Bogota City (MZBC). The 12 samples of greatest concentration of PM10 collected between 2001 and 2002 at the stations of atmospheric monitoring of Cundinamarca secretary of health (SSC), in the municipalities of Soacha, Sibate and Cajica, were analyzed. The results were correlated with emissions in the area, by means of emission factors and environmental agencies information. The particulate matter results for the analyzed period show concentrations that exceed the air quality standard of the US environmental protection agency EPA on several occasions at the Soacha municipality, whereas the air quality in the Sibate and Cajica municipalities did not show that to be the case. Despite the reduced number of samples and sampling sites, we believe that the reported profiles can be considered a valid estimation of the average air quality of the MZBC. The identified PAH species were: phenanthrene(Phe), anthracene(Ant), fluoranthene(Fla), pyrene(Pyr), benzo(a)anthracene (Baa), chrysene(chr), benzo(ghi)perylene(BgP) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene(Ind). It was not possible to quantify naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthy-lene(Acy), acenaphthene(Ace), nor fluorene(Flu), being light and volatile hydrocarbons with greater presence in the gaseous phase of the air. The correlation of PAH with source emissions shows mobile sources to be the main origin. The intervals of concentration of both individual PAH and the total species were similar to the ones usually found in other industrial zones of the world. PAHs correlations allowed pinpointing common emission sources between Soacha and Sibate municipalities

  3. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

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    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1 the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mesozooplankton communities, (2 the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3 the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4 the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20, dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1 and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1 to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  4. Statistical forensic methodology for oil spill source identification using two-tailed student's t approach. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.

    2007-01-01

    A thorough chemical characterization of oil must be conducted following an oil spill in order to determine the source of the oil, to distinguish the spilled oil from background hydrocarbons and to quantitatively evaluate the extent of impact of the spill. Gas chromatography, flame ionization and mass spectrometry analysis was used in conjunction with statistical data analysis to determine the source of a spill that occurred in 2004 in a harbor in the Netherlands. Three oil samples were collected from the harbor spill, where a thick layer of oil was found between a bunker boat and the quay next to the bunker centre. The 3 samples were sent to different laboratories for a round robin test to defensively correlate the spilled oil to the suspected source candidates. The source characterization and identification was validated by quantitative evaluation of 5 petroleum-characteristic alkylated PAH homologous series (naphthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, fluorene and chrysene), pentacyclic biomarkers, bicyclic sesquiterpanes and diamondoid compounds. The use of biomarkers for identifying the source of spilled oils has also increased in recent years due to their specificity and high resistance to biodegradation. There was no strong difference among the 3 oil samples according to radar plots of diagnostic ratios of PAHs, isoprenoids, biomarkers, bicyclic sesquiterpanes and diamondoids. The two-tailed unpaired student's t-tests provided strong evidence for which ship was responsible for the oil spill incident. However, it was cautioned that although two-tailed unpaired student's t-tests along with oil fingerprinting successfully identified the spill source, the method has limitations. Experimental results showed that the spilled oil and two source candidates were quite similar in both chemical fingerprints and concentration profiles for determined target hydrocarbons. 17 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in beached plastic pellets from Mumbai coast, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HB Jayasiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available PAHs are a class of ubiquitous pollutants which consist of two or more fused benzene rings in various arrangements. A number of PAH compounds are known carcinogens and bioaccumulate and biomagnify. These compounds originate naturally as well as anthropogenically through oil spills, incineration of waste and combustion of fossil fuels and wood. The environmental consequence of Plastic pellets is the sorption organic pollutants on their surface from the sea surface microlayer (SML where the hydrophobic contaminants are known to be enriched. The plastic pellets were collected along the recent high tide line from four beaches of Mumbai coast bimonthly during May 2011 - March 2012. A total of 72 pools of plastic pellets were extracted, fractionated and analysed by Gas Chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer to evaluate the extent and sources of 16 PAHs. The mean ΣPAH concentration in pellets was 9202.30±114.89 ng g-1 with a wide range (35.4-46191.58 ng g-1. The concentration of fluorene was found to be the highest (1606.30±251.54 ng g-1 followed by anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. The ΣPAH concentration was significantly varied among months and there was no significant difference among sites at  p=0.05. The 2-3 aromatic ring compounds accounted for 60% of the total PAHs in pellets of Mumbai coast while 4 rings and 5-6 rings compounds accounted for 26 and 14%, respectively. The ratio of low and high molecular weight PAHs indicated that the contamination by petrogenic sources was predominant over the pyrogenic ones in plastic pellets suggesting oil pollution in coastal area of Mumbai.Keywords: plastic pellets, PAHs, Mumbai, sources

  6. Naphthalimides Induce G2 Arrest Through the ATM-Activated Chk2-Executed Pathway in HCT116 Cells

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    Hong Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Naphthalimides, particularly amonafide and 2-(2-dimethylamino-6-thia-2-aza-benzo[def]chrysene-1,3-diones (R16, have been identified to possess anticancer activities and to induce G2-M arrest through inhibiting topoisomerase II accompanied by Chk1 degradation. The current study was designed to precisely dissect the signaling pathway(s responsible for the naphthalimide-induced cell cycle arrest in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. Using phosphorylated histone H3 and mitotic protein monoclonal 2 as mitosis markers, we first specified the G2 arrest elicited by the R16 and amonafide. Then, R16 and amonafide were revealed to induce phosphorylation of the DNA damage sensor ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM responding to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. Inhibition of ATM by both the pharmacological inhibitor caffeine and the specific small interference RNA (siRNA rescued the G2 arrest elicited by R16, indicating its ATM-dependent characteristic. Furthermore, depletion of Chk2, but not Chk1 with their corresponding siRNA, statistically significantly reversed the R16- and amonafide-triggered G2 arrest. Moreover, the naphthalimides phosphorylated Chk2 in an ATM-dependent manner but induced Chk1 degradation. These data indicate that R16 and amonafide preferentially used Chk2 as evidenced by the differential ATM-executed phosphorylation of Chk1 and Chk2. Thus, a clear signaling pathway can be established, in which ATM relays the DNA DSBs signaling triggered by the naphthalimides to the checkpoint kinases, predominantly to Chk2,which finally elicits G2 arrest. The mechanistic elucidation not only favors the development of the naphthalimides as anticancer agents but also provides an alternative strategy of Chk2 inhibition to potentiate the anticancer activities of these agents.

  7. Oils from different depth in the Alagoas sub-basin distribution and concentration; Oleos em diferentes profundidades na sub-bacia Alagoas: distribuicao e econcentracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboucas, Lucia M.C.; Sant' Ana, Antonio E.G.; Sabino, Adilson R.; Nogueira, Fred A.R.; Moraes, Reinaldo J.R.; Crispim, Alessandre [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Biotecnologia . Lab. de Analises de Biomarcadores e Semioquimicos]. E-mail: lmcr@qui.ufal.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the distribution and the concentration of n-alkane homologue series and the HPA compounds in 22 oils from Alagoas sub-basin, Pilar Field, Brazil. The n-alkane profile of whole oil gas chromatograms (CG-FID) to light, medium and heave oils represented no-biodegraded oils. The light and medium oils have n-alkane distribution with a maximum in nC{sub 10} and nC{sub 17}. The ration pristine/phytane (P/F) between 1,5 and 2,7 suggest Lacustrine origin. The nalkane distribution from the heavy oils show two maximum between nC{sub 15} and nC{sub 23}. The concentrations of n-alkane are different to all the 22 oils. The F2 fraction classified as light (API>39), medium (36chrysene, mono- and triaromatic steroid, benzohopane and their alkyl derivates, were identified in the oils. (author)

  8. Ideal versus real automated twin column recycling chromatography process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Leal, Mike; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin

    2017-07-28

    The full baseline separation of two compounds (selectivity factors αchromatography is used to confirm that the speed-resolution performance of the TCRSP is intrinsically superior to that of the single-column process. This advantage is illustrated in this work by developing an automated TCRSP for the challenging separation of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) isomers (benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene) in the reversed-phase retention mode at pressure smaller than 5000psi. The columns used are the 3.0mm×150mm column packed with 3.5μm XBridge BEH-C 18 material (α=1.010) and the 3.0mm or 4.6mm×150mm columns packed with the same 3.5μm XSelect HSST 3 material (α=1.025). The isocratic mobile phase is an acetonitrile-water mixture (80/20, v/v). Remarkably, significant differences are observed between the predicted retention times and efficiencies of the ideal TCRSP (given by the number of cycles multiplied by the retention time and efficiency of one column) and those of the real TCRSP. The fundamental explanation lies in the pressure-dependent retention of these PAHs or in the change of their partial molar volume as they are transferred from the mobile to the stationary phase. A revisited retention and efficiency model is then built to predict the actual performance of real TCRSPs. The experimental and calculated resolution data are found in very good agreement for a change, Δv m =-10cm 3 /mol, of the partial molar volume of the two PAH isomers upon transfer from the acetonitrile-water eluent mixture to the silica-C 18 stationary phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonradiological chemical pathway analysis and identification of chemicals of concern for environmental monitoring at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanton, M.L.; Cooper, A.T.; Castleton, K.J.

    1995-11-01

    Pacific Northwest's Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is an ongoing effort tot design, review, and conducted monitoring on and off the Hanford site. Chemicals of concern that were selected are listed. Using modeled exposure pathways, the offsite cancer incidence and hazard quotient were calculated and a retrospective pathway analysis performed to estimate what onsite concentrations would be required in the soil for each chemical of concern and other detected chemicals that would be required to obtain an estimated offsite human-health risk of 1.0E-06 cancer incidence or 1.0 hazard quotient. This analysis indicates that current nonradiological chemical contamination occurring on the site does not pose a significant offsite human-health risk; the highest cancer incidence to the offsite maximally exposed individual was from arsenic (1.76E-10); the highest hazard quotient was chromium(VI) (1.48E-04). The most sensitive pathways of exposure were surfacewater and aquatic food consumption. Combined total offsite excess cancer incidence was 2.09E-10 and estimated hazard quotient was 2.40E-04. Of the 17 identified chemicals of concern, the SESP does not currently (routinely) monitor arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, bis(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP), and chrysene. Only 3 of the chemicals of concern (arsenic, BEHP, chloroform) could actually occur in onsite soil at concern high enough to cause a 1.0E-06 excess cancer incidence or a 1.0 hazard index for a given offsite exposure pathway. During the retrospective analysis, 20 other chemicals were also evaluated; only vinyl chloride and thallium could reach targeted offsite risk values

  10. Integrated Use of n-Alkanes and PAH to Evaluate the Anthropogenic Hydrocarbon Sources and the Toxicity Assessment of Surface Sediments from the Southwestern Coasts of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golshan Shirneshan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH compounds and normal alkanes form a large group of undegradable environmental contaminats. This study aims to determine the sources and distribution of oil pollution (PAH compounds and normal alkanes in the sediments of the southwestern coastal areas of the Caspian Sea and to compare their levels with the relevant standards. For this purpose, 18 surface sediment samples were collected from depths of 10, 20, and 50 meters along two transects in the vertical direction located in the coastal areas of Sangachin and Hashtpar (Gilan Province. The samples were then examined using mass-spectrometric gas chromatography. The origins of n-alkanes were identified using CPI index (0.76-0.95, U/R (3.30‒6.57, and Pristane/Phytane (0.21‒0.42. The sources of PAHs were determined using the index ratios of LMW/HMW (1.93‒13.37, Phenanthrene/Anthracene (11.44‒ 16.7, Chrysene/Benzo (a anthracene (4.69‒10/33, Fluoranthene/Pyrene (0.53‒0.69, and MP/P (0.05‒0.08. Results confirmed the dominant petrogenic source of the hydrocarbons found in the region. The total concentrations of 30 aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs in the sediments ranged from 823.8 to 3899.5 µg/g and from 626.95 to 3842.5362 ng/g, respectively. Comparison of the measured PAH concentrations with US sediment quality guidelines revealed that the levels of naphthalene, fluorine, Acenaphthylene, and Acenaphthene exceeded the ERLs at stations with depths of 50m in Sangachin and Hashtpar while comparisons with Canadian standards indicated that they were higher than PELs at all the stations sampled. A major point of great concern is the high concentration of naphthalene as the most toxic PAH compound, which naturally warrants due attention to adopt appropriate management programs.

  11. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the membranes of fatty acid vesicles. The goal was to determine whether PAH could function as a stabilizing agent, similar to the role that cholesterol plays in membranes today. We studied vesicle size distribution, critical vesicle concentration and permeability of the bilayers using C6-C10 fatty acids mixed with amphiphilic PAH derivatives such as 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid and 1,4 chrysene quinone. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) spectroscopy was used to measure the size distribution of vesicles and incorporation of PAH species was established by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. We employed conductimetric titration to determine the minimal concentration at which fatty acids could form stable vesicles in the presence of PAHs. We found that oxidized PAH derivatives can be incorporated into decanoic acid (DA) vesicle bilayers in mole ratios up to 1:10 (PAH:DA). Vesicle size distribution and critical vesicle concentration were largely unaffected by PAH incorporation, but 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid lowered the permeability of fatty acid bilayers to small solutes up to 4-fold. These data represent the first indication of a cholesterol-like stabilizing effect of oxidized PAH derivatives in a simulated prebiotic membrane.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitrated derivatives associated with PM10 from Kraków city during heating season

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    Styszko Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs, their nitro-derivatives (NPAHs and hundreds of other organic compounds are present in ambient air in gas and particulate form. PAHs and NPAHs originate from diesel and gasoline exhaust emission and other combustion sources. NPAHs are also formed through the nitration of parent PAHs in the atmosphere. Concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs in the particulate matter fraction PM10 collected in the centre of Kraków (27.01.2014 – 17.02.2014 were investigated. The thirteen PAHs and four NPAHs: fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, 2-nitrofluorene, 9-nitroanthracene, 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene were extracted from particulate matter and analysed applying the GC/MS technique. Depending on the compounds the relative recoveries ranged from 72 to 94%. The concentrations of PM10 in the study period ranged between 23.5 and 153.8 μg·m-3. The average concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs ranged from 26.6 to 276.4 ng·m-3 and from 0.6 to 9.1 ng·m-3, respectively. The highest concentrations were observed for benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, pyrene and fluoranthene. The average concentration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP, which is a marker for the particle-bound atmospheric PAHs, was 9.5 ng·m-3. The concentrations of 3-nitrofluoranthene and 1-nitropyrene were below the quantification limits of the method (< MQL.

  13. Characteristics of PAHs in farmland soil and rainfall runoff in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongguang; Xu, Mengmeng; Liu, Aifeng; Tian, Yong; Zhao, Zongshan

    2017-10-14

    Rainfall runoff can remove certain amounts of pollutants from contaminated farmland soil and result in a decline in water quality. However, the leaching behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with rainfall have been rarely reported due to wide variations in the soil compositions, rainfall conditions, and sources of soil PAHs in complex farmland ecosystems. In this paper, the levels, spatial distributions, and composition profiles of PAHs in 30 farmland soil samples and 49 rainfall-runoff samples from the Tianjin region in 2012 were studied to investigate their leaching behaviors caused by rainfall runoff. The contents of the Σ 16 PAHs ranged from 58.53 to 3137.90 μg/kg in the soil and 146.58 to 3636.59 μg/L in the runoff. In total, most of the soil sampling sites (23 of 30) were contaminated, and biomass and petroleum combustion were proposed as the main sources of the soil PAHs. Both the spatial distributions of the soil and the runoff PAHs show a decreasing trend moving away from the downtown, which suggested that the leaching behaviors of PAHs in a larger region during rainfall may be mainly affected by the compounds themselves. In addition, 4- and 5-ring PAHs are the dominant components in farmland soil and 3- and 4-ring PAHs dominate the runoff. Comparisons of the PAH pairs and enrichment ratios showed that acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and fluoranthene were more easily transferred into water systems from soil than benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and indeno[123-cd]pyrene, which indicated that PAHs with low molecular weight are preferentially dissolved due to their higher solubility compared to those with high molecular weight.

  14. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bladder cancer: evaluation from a gene-environment perspective in a hospital-based case-control study in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Navarro, Patricio; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Camacho, María; Álvarez-León, Eva E; Valencia-Santana, Jorge A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been linked to bladder cancer. Objective: To evaluate the role of PAHs in bladder cancer, PAHs serum levels were measured in patients and controls from a case-control study. Methods: A total of 140 bladder cancer patients and 206 healthy controls were included in the study. Sixteen PAHs were analyzed from the serum of subjects by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results: Serum PAHs did not appear to be related to bladder cancer risk, although the profile of contamination by PAHs was different between patients and controls: pyrene (Pyr) was solely detected in controls and chrysene (Chry) was exclusively detected in the cases. Phenanthrene (Phe) serum levels were inversely associated with bladder cancer (OR = 0·79, 95%CI = 0·64–0·99, P = 0·030), although this effect disappeared when the allelic distribution of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms of the population was introduced into the model (multinomial logistic regression test, P = 0·933). Smoking (OR = 3·62, 95%CI = 1·93–6·79, P<0·0001) and coffee consumption (OR = 1·73, 95%CI = 1·04–2·86, P = 0·033) were relevant risk factors for bladder cancer. Conclusions: Specific PAH mixtures may play a relevant role in bladder cancer, although such effect seems to be highly modulated by polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25291984

  15. A screening method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons determination in water by headspace SPME with GC-FID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuazagoitia, D.; Millan, E.; Garcia, R. [Univ. of Pais Vasco, Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2007-11-15

    A simple method for determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) with gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) was developed. In order to obtain the convenient experimental conditions for HS-SPME extraction an experimental design with two steps was accomplished. A 2{sup 6-2} fractional factorial design and central composite design (CCD) considering three significant factors were used. Naphthalene, anthracene and fluoranthene were chosen as representatives of two, three and four aromatic rings, and the global response of three PAHs was used for the results, evaluation. The chosen extraction conditions were: 85 {mu}m polyacrylate fibre; 50 C temperature; 60 min time; 20 mL-dissolution volume (in 40 mL glass vial); without salt addition; and 2 min desorption time. The procedure was extended to other seven PAHs (acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo(a)anthracene) and the analytical characteristics were checked. The limit of detection (LOD) was from 0.08 (anthracene) to 0.20 {mu}g L{sup -1} (naphthalene). The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD in %) using 50 {mu}g L{sup -1} of each analyte ranged from 6.8 to 17 %. The method was applied to the analysis of the surface waters and leaching waters of contaminated soils from Gipuzkoa (North Spain). The PAHs were not detected in surface water samples. Most of the PAHs were found in the leachates from contaminated soils showing a maximum global value of 75.5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. (orig.)

  16. Bioremediation of a tropical clay soil contaminated with diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Spinelli, Alessandra C O; Kato, Mario T; de Lima, Edmilson S; Gavazza, Savia

    2012-12-30

    The removal of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tropical clay soil contaminated with diesel oil was evaluated. Three bioremediation treatments were used: landfarming (LF), biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation with bioaugmentation (BSBA). The treatment removal efficiency for the total PAHs differed from the efficiencies for the removal of individual PAH compounds. In the case of total PAHs, the removal values obtained at the end of the 129-day experimental period were 87%, 89% and 87% for LF, BS and BSBA, respectively. Thus, the efficiency was not improved by the addition of nutrients and microorganisms. Typically, two distinct phases were observed. A higher removal rate occurred in the first 17 days (P-I) and a lower rate occurred in the last 112 days (P-II). In phase P-I, the zero-order kinetic parameter (μg PAH g(-1) soil d(-1)) values were similar (about 4.6) for all the three treatments. In P-II, values were also similar but much lower (about 0.14). P-I was characterized by a sharp pH decrease to less than 5.0 for the BS and BSBA treatments, while the pH remained near 6.5 for LF. Concerning the 16 individual priority PAH compounds, the results varied depending on the bioremediation treatment used and on the PAH species of interest. In general, compounds with fewer aromatic rings were better removed by BS or BSBA, while those with 4 or more rings were most effectively removed by LF. The biphasic removal behavior was observed only for some compounds. In the case of naphthalene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene, removal occurred mostly in the P-I phase. Therefore, the best degradation process for total or individual PAHs should be selected considering the target compounds and the local conditions, such as native microbiota and soil type. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Carbon nanotube-based benzyl polymethacrylate composite monolith as a solid phase extraction adsorbent and a stationary phase material for simultaneous extraction and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rifai, Asma'a; Aqel, Ahmad; Wahibi, Lamya Al; ALOthman, Zeid A; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed-Yacine

    2018-02-02

    A composite of multi-walled carbon nanotubes incorporated into a benzyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate porous monolith was prepared, characterized and used as solid phase adsorbent and as stationary phase for simultaneous extraction and separation of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by nano-liquid chromatography analysis. The extraction and chromatographic parameters were optimized with regard to the extraction efficiency and the quality of chromatographic analytes separation. Under the optimized conditions, all PAHs were separated in 13 min with suitable resolution values (Rs = 1.74-3.98). Addition of a small amount of carbon nanotubes (0.1% with respect to monomers) to the polymerization mixture increased the efficiency for the separation column to over 41,700 plates m -1 for chrysene at flow rate of 0.5 μL min -1 . The method showed a wide linear range (1-500 μg L -1 with R 2 more than 0.9938), acceptable extraction repeatability (RSDs extraction cartridges) and satisfactory detection limits (0.02-0.22 μg L -1 ). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples. After a simple extraction procedure with preconcentration factor equal to 100, the average recovery values in ultra-pure, tap and sea water samples were found to be in the range 81.3-95.4% with %RSD less than 6.4. Again, the presence of carbon nanotubes (0.3% relatively to monomers) in native polymer enhanced the extraction performance for the solid phase adsorbent up to 78.4%. The application of the monoliths modified with CNTs in extraction and nano-scale liquid chromatography for analysis of environmental samples offered several advantages; it demonstrated an acceptable precision, low detection limits, good reproducibility, satisfying recoveries and wide dynamic linear ranges. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Conditions of persistent oil on beaches in Prince William Sound 26 years after the Exxon Valdez spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Mandy R.; Maselko, Jacek; Heintz, Ron A.; Fugate, Corey J.; Holland, Larry

    2018-01-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez grounded on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling an estimated 10.8 million gallons of crude oil. Contrary to early projections, subsequent studies over several decades have shown subsurface oil persisting on impacted beaches. Here we present findings from a lingering oil survey conducted during the summer of 2015 at a small set of beaches in Prince William Sound known to have persistent subsurface Exxon Valdez oil. The objectives of the survey were to estimate how much oil remains at these sites, the oil composition, and oil retention rates compared to previous studies. Results from the survey found lingering oil was present at 8 of 9 sites that were revisited. Surveys revealed little evidence of change in oil area or mass over the last 14 years, nor has there been a change in the distribution of oiling intensities or their location on the beach. Detailed analysis of the oil indicated it has not weathered since 2001. Subsurface oils collected in 2015 have enriched concentrations of phenanthrenes and chrysenes relative to oil originating in the cargo hold indicating that buried oil has retained some toxic potential over the last two decades, but it is not currently bioavailable. Subsurface oil appears to be sequestered in sediments and protected from hydrological washing and low oxygen and nutrient levels inhibiting biodegradation. These findings are consistent with previous surveys and predictive geomorphic models suggesting the estimated 0.6% Exxon Valdez oil remaining is sequestered and not bioavailable unless disturbed and will likely persist in the environment on a decadal scale.

  19. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Trichoderma species: a mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, German; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2015-12-01

    Fungi belonging to Trichoderma genus are ascomycetes found in soils worldwide. Trichoderma has been studied in relation to diverse biotechnological applications and are known as successful colonizers of their common habitats. Members of this genus have been well described as effective biocontrol organisms through the production of secondary metabolites with potential applications as new antibiotics. Even though members of Trichoderma are commonly used for the commercial production of lytic enzymes, as a biological control agent, and also in the food industry, their use in xenobiotic biodegradation is limited. Trichoderma stands out as a genus with a great range of substrate utilization, a high production of antimicrobial compounds, and its ability for environmental opportunism. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the research of Trichoderma species as potent and efficient aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms, as well as aimed to provide insight into its potential role in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with heavy hydrocarbons. Several Trichoderma species are associated with the ability to metabolize a variety of both high and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. PAH-degrading species include Trichoderma hamatum, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma reesei, Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma virens, and Trichoderma asperellum using alternate enzyme systems commonly seen in other organisms, such as multicooper laccases, peroxidases, and ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Within these species, T. asperellum stands out as a versatile organism with remarkable degrading abilities, high tolerance, and a remarkable potential to be used as a remediation agent in polluted soils.

  20. Chemical characterization and stable carbon isotopic composition of particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons issued from combustion of 10 Mediterranean woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from particulate matter emitted during wood combustion and to determine, for the first time, the isotopic signature of PAHs from nine wood species and Moroccan coal from the Mediterranean Basin. In order to differentiate sources of particulate-PAHs, molecular and isotopic measurements of PAHs were performed on the set of wood samples for a large panel of compounds. Molecular profiles and diagnostic ratios were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS and molecular isotopic compositions (δ13C of particulate-PAHs were determined by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS. Wood species present similar molecular profiles with benz(aanthracene and chrysene as dominant PAHs, whereas levels of concentrations range from 1.8 to 11.4 mg g−1 OC (sum of PAHs. Diagnostic ratios are consistent with reference ratios from literature but are not sufficient to differentiate the species of woods. Concerning isotopic methodology, PAH molecular isotopic compositions are specific for each species and contrary to molecular fingerprints, significant variations of δ13C are observed for the panel of PAHs. This work allows differentiating wood combustion (with δ13CPAH = −28.7 to −26.6‰ from others origins of particulate matter (like vehicular exhaust using isotopic measurements but also confirms the necessity to investigate source characterisation at the emission in order to help and complete source assessment models. These first results on woodburnings will be useful for the isotopic approach to source tracking.

  1. Single-laboratory validation of a saponification method for the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in edible oils by HPLC-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdoğan, Abdullah; Buttinger, Gerhard; Wenzl, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An analytical method is reported for the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF) and chrysene (CHR)) in edible oils (sesame, maize, sunflower and olive oil) by high-performance liquid chromatography. Sample preparation is based on three steps including saponification, liquid-liquid partitioning and, finally, clean-up by solid phase extraction on 2 g of silica. Guidance on single-laboratory validation of the proposed analysis method was taken from the second edition of the Eurachem guide on method validation. The lower level of the working range of the method was determined by the limits of quantification of the individual analytes, and the upper level was equal to 5.0 µg kg(-1). The limits of detection and quantification of the four PAHs ranged from 0.06 to 0.12 µg kg(-1) and from 0.13 to 0.24 µg kg(-1). Recoveries of more than 84.8% were achieved for all four PAHs at two concentration levels (2.5 and 5.0 µg kg(-1)), and expanded relative measurement uncertainties were below 20%. The performance of the validated method was in all aspects compliant with provisions set in European Union legislation for the performance of analytical methods employed in the official control of food. The applicability of the method to routine samples was evaluated based on a limited number of commercial edible oil samples.

  2. Membrane solid-phase extraction: Field application for isolation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, E.T.; Koleis, J.C.; Gates, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) membranes (M-SPE) were used to isolate microgram-per-liter to nanogram-per-liter quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 4- to 8-liter ground-water samples from a crude-oil-contaminated ground-water site near Bemidji, Minnesota. The M-SPE method was evaluated (1) under laboratory conditions using reagent water fortified with individual PAH at 1.23 micrograms per liter, and (2) at the Bemidji site. At the site, ground-water samples were processed and PAH isolated using a M-SPE system connected directly to the well pump. Following sample isolation, all M-SPE samples were extracted using dichloromethane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring. Operationally, the M-SPE method provided a simple means to isolate PAH on site at the wellhead, particularly for anoxic water samples. Acceptable recoveries, ranging from 56 to over 100 percent, were observed for lower molecular weight PAH (naphthalene to pyrene) using the M-SPE method. Recoveries using M-SPE were somewhat lower, but reproducible, for higher molecular weight PAH (chrysene to benzo[ghi]perylene), ranging from 18 to 56 percent. M-SPE provides the capability to collect and field isolate PAH from a sufficiently large number of samples to identify environmental chemical processes occurring at individual compound concentrations of 50 to 1,200 nanograms per liter. Using M-SPE, the potential for facilitated transport of PAH by in situ-derived dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was evaluated at the site. Plots comparing DOC and PAH concentrations indicate that PAH concentrations increase exponentially with linear increases in DOC concentrations

  3. Seasonal Variations and Sources of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in Chengdu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the air of Chengdu, a southwest city of China, were determined from March 2015 to February 2016. Here, two diagnostic ratios (DR were determined and a principal component analysis/multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR analysis was performed to identify the sources of PAHs during the four seasons. The gaseous and particle phase samples were analyzed separately. The sampled air had a gas-to particle ratio of 4.21, and between 18.7% and 31.3% of the total detected PAHs were found in the particulate phase. The total concentration of all 16-PAHs combined (gas + particles varied from 176.94 in summer to 458.95 ng·m−3 in winter, with a mean of 300.35 ± 176.6 ng·m−3. In the gas phase, phenanthrene(Phe was found at the highest concentrations in all four seasons, while benzo[b]fluoranthene(BbF and (in winter chrysene(Chr were the highest in the particle phase. The DR of Fluroanthene (Flua/(Flua + Pyrene (Pyr was higher in the gas phase than in the particle phase, while the Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene(IcdP/(IcdP + Benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP ratio was more variable in the gas than that in the particle phase. The main sources for both phases were a mixture of liquid fossil fuel combustion and the burning of biomass and coal, with clear seasonal variation. Principal Component Analysis/Multiple Linear Regression (PCA/MLR analysis identified the main PAH sources as coal burning (52% with motor vehicle exhaust and coke (48% in spring; coal (52%, coke (21%, and motor vehicle exhaust (27% in summer; coal (47%, vehicle exhaust (34%, and coke (19% in autumn; and coal (58% and vehicle exhaust (42% in winter.

  4. 32P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in liver of wild English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanasi, U.; Reichert, W.L.; Stein, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The 1-butanol adduct enhancement version of the 32P-postlabeling assay was used to measure the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in the marine flatfish, English sole (Parophrys vetulus), sampled from the Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound, WA, where they are exposed to high concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and exhibit an elevated prevalence of hepatic neoplasms. Hepatic DNA was also analyzed from English sole from a reference area (Useless Bay, WA) and from reference English sole treated with organic-solvent extracts of sediments from the two contaminated sites. Autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatograms of 32P-labeled hepatic DNA digests from English sole from the contaminated sites exhibited up to three diagonal radioactive zones, which were not present in autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatogram maps of 32P-labeled DNA digests from English sole from the reference site. These diagonal radioactive zones contained several distinct spots as well as what appeared to be multiple overlapping adduct spots. The levels (nmol of adducts/mol of nucleotides) of total DNA adducts for English sole from Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor were 26 +/- 28 (DS) and 17 +/- 9.6, respectively. All autoradiograms of DNA from fish from the contaminated sites exhibited a diagonal radioactive zone where DNA adducts of chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, formed in vitro using English sole hepatic microsomes, were shown to chromatograph. English sole treated with extracts of the contaminated sediments had adduct profiles generally similar to those for English sole from the respective contaminated sites

  5. Toxicological and chemical characterization of the process stream materials and gas combustion products of an experimental low-btu coal gasifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, J M; Hanson, R L; Royer, R E; Clark, C R; Henderson, R F

    1984-04-01

    The process gas stream of an experimental pressurized McDowell-Wellman stirred-bed low-Btu coal gasifier, and combustion products of the clean gas were characterized as to their mutagenic properties and chemical composition. Samples of aerosol droplets condensed from the gas were obtained at selected positions along the process stream using a condenser train. Mutagenicity was assessed using the Ames Salmonella mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay (TA98, with and without rat liver S9). All materials required metabolic activation to be mutagenic. Droplets condensed from gas had a specific mutagenicity of 6.7 revertants/microgram (50,000 revertants/liter of raw gas). Methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, and nitrogen-containing compounds were positively identified in a highly mutagenic fraction of raw gas condensate. While gas cleanup by the humidifier-tar trap system and Venturi scrubber led to only a small reduction in specific mutagenicity of the cooled process stream material (4.1 revertants/microgram), a significant overall reduction in mutagenicity was achieved (to 2200 revertants/liter) due to a substantial reduction in the concentration of material in the gas. By the end of gas cleanup, gas condensates had no detectable mutagenic activity. Condensates of combustion product gas, which contained several polycyclic aromatic compounds, had a specific mutagenicity of 1.1 revertants/microgram (4.0 revertants/liter). Results indicate that the process stream material is potentially toxic and that care should be taken to limit exposure of workers to the condensed tars during gasifier maintenance and repair and to the aerosolized tars emitted in fugitive emissions. Health risks to the general population resulting from exposure to gas combustion products are expected to be minimal.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons modulate cell proliferation in rat hepatic epithelial stem-like WB-F344 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chramostova, Katerina; Vondracek, Jan; Sindlerova, Lenka; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Kozubik, Alois; Machala, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Although many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as potent mutagens and carcinogens, relatively little is known about their role in the tumor promotion. It is known that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can induce release of rat hepatic oval epithelial cells from contact inhibition by a mechanism possibly involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation. Many PAHs are AhR ligands and are known to act as transient inducers of AhR-mediated activity. In this study, effects of 19 selected PAHs on proliferation of confluent rat liver epithelial WB-F344 cells were investigated. Non-mutagens that are weak activators or nonactivators of AhR-mediated activity had no effect on cell proliferation. Relatively strong or moderate AhR ligands with low mutagenic potencies, such as benzofluoranthenes, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene, were found to increase cell numbers, which corresponded to an increased percentage of cells entering S-phase. Strong mutagens, including benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, increased a percentage of cells in S-phase without inducing a concomitant increase in cell numbers. The treatment with mutagenic PAHs was associated with an increased DNA synthesis and induction of cell death, which corresponded with the activation of p53 tumor suppressor. Apoptosis was blocked by pifithrin-α, the chemical inhibitor of p53. Both weakly and strongly mutagenic PAHs known as AhR ligands were found to induce significant increase of cytochrome P4501A activity, suggesting a presence of functional AhR. The results of the present study seem to suggest that a release from contact inhibition could be a part of tumor promoting effects of AhR-activating PAHs; however, the genotoxic effects of some PAHs associated with p53 activation might interfere with this process

  7. Acute changes in pulse pressure in relation to constituents of particulate air pollution in elderly persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Lotte [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Buczynska, Anna [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Walgraeve, Christophe [Research group EnVOC, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, UGent, Gent (Belgium); Delcloo, Andy [Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Molecular Science Institute, School of Chemistry, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Van Grieken, Rene [Departement of Chemistry, UA, Wilrijk (Belgium); Demeestere, Kristof; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman [Research group EnVOC, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, UGent, Gent (Belgium); De Backer, Hugo [Royal Meteorological Institute, Brussels (Belgium); Nemery, Benoit, E-mail: ben.nemery@med.kuleuven.be [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Nawrot, Tim S. [Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Unit of Lung Toxicology, K.U.Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2012-08-15

    An increased pulse pressure (difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure) suggests aortic stiffening. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of both particulate matter (PM) mass and composition on blood pressure, among elderly persons. We carried out a panel study in persons living in elderly homes in Antwerp, Belgium. We recruited 88 non-smoking persons, 70% women with a mean age of 83 years (standard deviation: 5.2). Blood pressure was measured and a blood sample was collected on two time points, which were chosen so that there was an exposure contrast in ambient PM exposure. The elemental content of the collected indoor and outdoor PM{sub 2.5} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 {mu}m) mass concentration was measured. Oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) on outdoor PM{sub 10} (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 {mu}m) were measured. Each interquartile range increase of 20.8 {mu}g/m Superscript-Three in 24-h mean outdoor PM{sub 2.5} was associated with an increase in pulse pressure of 4.0 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 1.8-6.2), in persons taking antihypertensive medication (n=57), but not in persons not using antihypertensive medication (n=31) (p for interaction: 0.02). Vanadium, iron and nickel contents of PM{sub 2.5} were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, among persons on antihypertensive medication. Similar results were found for indoor concentrations. Of the oxy-PAHs, chrysene-5,6-dione and benzo[a]pyrene-3,6-dione were significantly associated with increases in systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. In elderly, pulse pressure was positively associated with acute increases in outdoor and indoor air pollution, among persons taking antihypertensive medication. These results might form a mechanistic pathway linking air pollution as a trigger of cardiovascular events.

  8. Relationship between total polar components and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fried edible oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ke-Jing; Liu, Yu-Lan; Liu, Hai-Lan

    2017-09-01

    Deep-fried dough sticks (a Chinese traditional breakfast) were fried individually in peanut, sunflower, rapeseed, rice bran, soybean and palm oil without any time lag for 32 h (64 batches fried, each for 30 min) and fried oil samples were obtained every 2 h. The frying-induced changes in the levels of total polar compounds (TPC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated by edible oil polar compounds (EOPC) fast separation chromatographic system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The correlations were analysed of TPC with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), TPC and PAH4 (benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) as well as TPC with PAH16 (USEPA 16 PAHs). The results revealed that the levels of TPC and PAHs in fried oil considerably increased with frying time, and the type of oil affected their formation, which could inform the choice of oil for frying. The total BaP equivalents (∑BaPeq) concentrations in fresh oil and in oil whose TPC exceeded 27% were 2.14-13.48 and 5.78-10.80 μg kg -1 , respectively, which means that the carcinogenic potency of frying oil was more pronounced than that of fresh oil. In addition, the TPC concentration was significantly correlated with the concentrations of the sum of the 16 PAHs, PAH4 and BaP, so that the levels of PAHs could be predicted according to the levels of TPC in fried oil. In European standards, the rejection point for TPC in frying oil should be recalculated when considered PAHs. In all, the concentration of PAHs is a vital factor for ensuring the safety of frying oil.

  9. Effects of soil water saturation on sampling equilibrium and kinetics of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pil-Gon; Roh, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Yongseok; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Passive sampling can be applied for measuring the freely dissolved concentration of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) in soil pore water. When using passive samplers under field conditions, however, there are factors that might affect passive sampling equilibrium and kinetics, such as soil water saturation. To determine the effects of soil water saturation on passive sampling, the equilibrium and kinetics of passive sampling were evaluated by observing changes in the distribution coefficient between sampler and soil (K sampler/soil ) and the uptake rate constant (k u ) at various soil water saturations. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) passive samplers were deployed into artificial soils spiked with seven selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In dry soil (0% water saturation), both K sampler/soil and k u values were much lower than those in wet soils likely due to the contribution of adsorption of PAHs onto soil mineral surfaces and the conformational changes in soil organic matter. For high molecular weight PAHs (chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene), both K sampler/soil and k u values increased with increasing soil water saturation, whereas they decreased with increasing soil water saturation for low molecular weight PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene). Changes in the sorption capacity of soil organic matter with soil water content would be the main cause of the changes in passive sampling equilibrium. Henry's law constant could explain the different behaviors in uptake kinetics of the selected PAHs. The results of this study would be helpful when passive samplers are deployed under various soil water saturations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atmospheric behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at a Japanese remote background site, Noto peninsula, from 2004 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Hakamata, Mariko; Sato, Kousuke; Okada, Yumi; Yang, Xiaoyang; Tatematsu, Michiya; Toriba, Akira; Kameda, Takayuki; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-11-01

    Total suspended particulates were collected at a Japanese remote background site (Noto Air Monitoring Station; NAMS) on the Noto Peninsula from September 2004 to June 2014. Nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the particulates (fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. The mean total concentrations of the nine PAHs in the cold season (November to May for the years 2004-2014) was 670 pg m-3 (range 37-4100 pg m-3). The mean total concentration in the warm season (June to October for the same period) was 170 pg m-3 (range 31-960 pg m-3). The atmospheric PAH level at NAMS decreased in recent years, although no significant change was found in the warm season. An analysis of meteorological conditions showed that the atmospheric PAHs at NAMS were long range transported from Northeast China in the cold seasons and were contributed to by Japanese domestic sources in the warm seasons. Lower concentration ratios of reactive PAHs to their isomers at NAMS also supported these results. Activities associated with the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2008 and reconstruction after the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake may have contributed to the yearly variations of atmospheric PAH levels at NAMS during the period 2007-2009. Source control measures implemented by the Chinese and Japanese governments appear to have been effective in decreasing the atmospheric PAH levels at NAMS in recent years.

  11. Novel Palm Fatty Acid Functionalized Magnetite Nanoparticles for Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction of Trace Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Environmental Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozi, Siti Khalijah Mahmad; Nodeh, Hamid Rashidi; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Manan, Ninie Suhana Abdul; Mohamad, Sharifah

    2017-07-01

    A novel adsorbent, palm fatty acid coated magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (MNP-FA) was successfully synthesized with immobilization of the palm fatty acid onto the surface of MNPs. The successful synthesis of MNP-FA was further confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses and water contact angle (WCA) measurement. This newly synthesized MNP-FA was applied as magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) adsorbent for the enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), namely fluoranthene (FLT), pyrene (Pyr), chrysene (Cry) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from environmental samples prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography- Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis. The MSPE method was optimized by several parameters such as amount of sorbent, desorption solvent, volume of desorption solvent, extraction time, desorption time, pH and sample volume. Under the optimized conditions, MSPE method provided a low detection limit (LOD) for FLT, Pyr, Cry and BaP in the range of 0.01-0.05 ng mL -1 . The PAHs recoveries of the spiked leachate samples ranged from 98.5% to 113.8% with the RSDs (n = 5) ranging from 3.5% to 12.2%, while for the spiked sludge samples, the recoveries ranged from 81.1% to 119.3% with the RSDs (n = 5) ranging from 3.1% to 13.6%. The recyclability study revealed that MNP-FA has excellent reusability up to five times. Chromatrographic analysis demonstrated the suitability of MNP-FA as MSPE adsorbent for the efficient extraction of PAHs from environmental samples.

  12. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  13. [Simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filter by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Li; Ruan, Yibin; Wang, Weiwei; Ji, Houwei; Wan, Qiang; Lin, Fucheng; Liu, Jian

    2017-10-08

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filter was developed by isotope internal standard combined with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The cigarette filters were extracted with dichloromethane, and the extract was filtered with 0.22 μm organic phase membrane. The samples were isolated by DB-5MS column (30 m×0.25 mm, 0.25 μm) and detected using multiple reaction monitoring mode of electron impact source under positive ion mode. The linearities of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (acenapthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, ben[ a ]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[ b ]fluoranthene, benzo[ k ]fluoranthene, benzo[ a ]pyrene, dibenzo[ a,h ]anthracene, benzo[ g,h,i ]perylene and indeno[1,2,3- c,d ]pyrene) were good, and the correlation coefficients ( R 2 ) ranged from 0.9914 to 0.9999. The average recoveries of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 81.6%-109.6% at low, middle and high spiked levels, and the relative standard deviations were less than 16%, except that the relative standard deviation of fluorene at the low spiked level was 19.2%. The limits of detection of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 0.02 to 0.24 ng/filter, and the limits of quantification were 0.04 to 0.80 ng/filter. The method is simple, rapid, accurate, sensitive and reproducible. It is suitable for the quantitative analysis of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette filters.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of the Canadian River floodplain in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, F.; Wade, T.L.; Sericano, J.L.; Mohanty, B.P.; Smith, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in soil, plants, and water may impart negative eff ects on ecosystem and human health. We quantified the concentration and distribution of 41 PAH (n = 32), organic C, total N, and S (n = 140) and investigated PAH sources using a chronosequence of floodplain soils under a natural vegetation succession. Soil samples were collected between 0- and 260-cm depth in bare land (the control), wetland, forest, and grassland areas near a closed municipal landfill and an active asphalt plant (the contaminant sources) in the north bank of the Canadian River near Norman, OK. Principal component, cluster, and correlation analyses were used to investigate the spatial distribution of PAH, in combination with diagnostic ratios to distinguish pyrogenic vs. petrogenic PAH suites. Total PAH concentration (??PAH) had a mean of 1300 ng g-1, minimum of 16 ng g-1, and maximum of 12,000 ng g-1. At 0- to 20-cm depth, ??PAH was 3500 ?? 1600 ng g-1 (mean ?? 1 SE) near the contaminant sources. The most common compounds were nonalkylated, high molecular weight PAH of pyrogenic origin, i.e., fluoranthene (17%), pyrene (14%), phenanthrene (9%), benzo(b)fluoranthene (7%), chrysene (6%), and benzo(a)anthracene (5%). ??PAH in the control (130 ?? 23 ng g -1) was comparable to reported concentrations for the rural Great Plains. Perylene had a unique distribution pattern suggesting biological inputs. The main PAH contamination mechanisms were likely atmospheric deposition due to asphalt production at the 0- to 20-cm depth and past landfill operations at deeper depths. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  15. Comment on: Negative ions, molecular electron affinity and orbital structure of cata-condensed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Rustem V. Khatymov, Mars V. Muftakhov and Pavel V. Shchukin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edward S; Chen, Edward C M

    2018-02-15

    The anion mass spectral lifetimes for several aromatic hydrocarbons reported in the subject article were related to significantly different electron affinities. The different values are rationalized using negative ion mass spectral data. Electron affinities for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are reported from the temperature dependence of unpublished electron capture detector data. These are compared with published values and the largest values are assigned to the ground state. The ground state adiabatic electron affinities: (eV) pentacene, 1.41 (3); tetracene, 1.058 (5); benz(a)pyrene, 0.82 (4); benz(a) anthracene, 0.69 (2) anthracene, 0.68 (2); and pyrene, 0.59 (1) are used to assign excited state adiabatic electron affinities: (eV) tetracene: 0.88 (4); anthracene 0.53 (1); pyrene, 0.41 (1); benz(a)anthracene, 0.39 (10); chrysene, 0.32 (1); and phenanthrene, 0.12 (2) and ground state adiabatic electron affinities: (eV) dibenz(a,j)anthracene, 0.69 (3); dibenz(a,h)anthracene, 0.68 (3); benz(e)pyrene, 0.60 (3); and picene, 0.59 (3) from experimental data. The lifetime of benz(a)pyrene is predicted to be larger than 150 μs and for benzo(c)phenanthrene and picene about 40 μs, from ground state adiabatic electron affinities. The assignments of adiabatic electron affinities of aromatic hydrocarbons determined from electron capture detector and mass spectrometric data to ground and excited states are supported by constant electronegativities. A set of consistent ground state adiabatic electron affinities for 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is related to lifetimes from the subject article. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A rhodium(III) complex for high-affinity DNA base-pair mismatch recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junicke, Henrik; Hart, Jonathan R.; Kisko, Jennifer; Glebov, Oleg; Kirsch, Ilan R.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2003-01-01

    A rhodium(III) complex, rac-[Rh(bpy)2phzi]3+ (bpy, 2,2′-bipyridine; phzi, benzo[a]phenazine-5,6-quinone diimine) has been designed as a sterically demanding intercalator targeted to destabilized mismatched sites in double-helical DNA. The complex is readily synthesized by condensation of the phenazine quinone with the corresponding diammine complex. Upon photoactivation, the complex promotes direct strand scission at single-base mismatch sites within the DNA duplex. As with the parent mismatch-specific reagent, [Rh(bpy)2(chrysi)]3+ [chrysene-5,6-quinone diimine (chrysi)], mismatch selectivity depends on the helix destabilization associated with mispairing. Unlike the parent chrysi complex, the phzi analogue binds and cleaves with high affinity and efficiency. The specific binding constants for CA, CC, and CT mismatches within a 31-mer oligonucleotide duplex are 0.3, 1, and 6 × 107 M−1, respectively; site-specific photocleavage is evident at nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, the specificity, defined as the ratio in binding affinities for mispaired vs. well paired sites, is maintained. The increase in affinity is attributed to greater stability in the mismatched site associated with stacking by the heterocyclic aromatic ligand. The high-affinity complex is also applied in the differential cleavage of DNA obtained from cell lines deficient in mismatch repair vs. those proficient in mismatch repair. Agreement is found between photocleavage by the mismatch-specific probes and deficiency in mismatch repair. This mismatch-specific targeting, therefore, offers a potential strategy for new chemotherapeutic design. PMID:12610209

  17. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) present in sampled cooked food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm Naa-Dedei, L.M.

    2010-07-01

    The study was conducted to determine the levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the following traditionally prepared food: smoked and grilled Scomba japonicus, grilled meat (khebab) and bread sampled from some Ghanaian markets. By way of preparation of traditional food, some food comes into direct contact with smoke or extremely high temperature which are potential sources of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon generation. Levels of 20 individual Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons including acenaphthene, acenaphtyelene, anthanthrene, anthracene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(ghi)perylene, benzo(j)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, chrysene, cyclopenta(cd)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene were determined in 11 smoked and 5 grilled fish, 4 grilled pieces of meat and 3 loaves of baked bread using gas chromatographic techniques with flame ionization detector. Benzo(a)pyrene, which is one of the few PAH for which a legal limit exists in different types of food matrices and other high molecular weight PAHs suspected to be carcinogenic have been detected in high concentrations in most samples. Bread samples gave mean polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 20.39 μg/kg while khebab samples gave mean polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon concentrations of up to 67.61 μg/kg. There was positive correlation of 0.987 between levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in khebab samples from locations Osu and Atomic down. There was a positive correlation in the concentrations of the high molecular weight PAHs in all smoked fishes from four locations with values between 0.954 and 0.999 for the correlation between any two groups. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration determined in smoked fish samples deceased in terms of location according to the order Winneba > Madina > Chorkor > Ada.

  18. Three-peak standard white organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunping; Wei, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Standard white organic light-emitting device (OLED) lighting provides a warm and comfortable atmosphere and shows mild effect on melatonin suppression. A high-efficiency red OLED employing phosphorescent dopant has been investigated. The device generates saturated red emission with Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.66, 0.34), characterized by a low driving voltage of 3.5 V and high external quantum efficiency of 20.1% at 130 cd m-2. In addition, we have demonstrated a two-peak cold white OLED by combining with a pure blue emitter with the electroluminescent emission of 464 nm, 6, 12-bis{[N-(3,4-dimethylpheyl)-N-(2,4,5-trimethylphenyl)]} chrysene (BmPAC). It was found that the man-made lighting device capable of yielding a relatively stable color emission within the luminance range of 1000-5000 cd m-2. And the chromaticity coordinates, varying from (0.25, 0.21) to (0.23, 0.21). Furthermore, an ultrathin layer of green-light-emitting tris (2-phenylpyridinato)iridium(Ⅲ) Ir(ppy)3 in the host material was introduced to the emissive region for compensating light. By appropriately controlling the layer thickness, the white light OLED achieved good performance of 1280 cd m-2 at 5.0 V and 5150 cd m-2 at 7.0 V, respectively. The CIE coordinates of the emitted light are quite stable at current densities from 759 cd m-2 to 5150 cd m-2, ranging from (0.34, 0.37) to (0.33, 0.33).

  19. Oxidation kinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by permanganate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsey, S.P.; Thomson, N.R.; Barker, J.F. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2010-04-15

    The reactivity of permanganate towards polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons (PAHs) is well known but little kinetic information is available. This study investigated the oxidation kinetics of a selected group of coal tar creosote compounds and alkylbenzenes in water using permanganate, and the correlation between compound reactivity and physical/chemical properties. The oxidation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, carbazole isopropylbenzene, ethylbenzene and methylbenzene closely followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. The oxidation of pyrene was initially very rapid and did not follow pseudo first-order kinetics at early times. Fluoranthene was only partially oxidized and the oxidation of anthracene was too fast to be captured. Biphenyl, dibenzofuran, benzene and tert-butylbenzene were non-reactive under the study conditions. The oxidation rate was shown to increase with increasing number of polycyclic rings because less energy is required to overcome the aromatic character of a polycyclic ring than is required for benzene. Thus the rate of oxidation increased in the series naphthalene < phenanthrene < pyrene. The rate of side chain reactivity is controlled by the C-H bond strength. For the alkyl substituted benzenes an excellent correlation was observed between the reaction rate coefficients and bond dissociation energies, but for the substituted PAHs the relationship was poor. A trend was found between the reaction rate coefficients and the calculated heats of complexation indicating that significant ring oxidation occurred in addition to side chain oxidation. Clar's aromatic sextet theory was used to predict the relative stability of arenes towards ring oxidation by permanganate.

  20. Methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their metabolites are important contributors to the overall estrogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Monika M; Engwall, Magnus; Denison, Michael S; Larsson, Maria

    2018-02-01

    In the present study 42 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were investigated for their estrogenic potential using the VM7Luc4E2 transactivation assay. Relative potencies were determined for mass-balance analysis. In addition, compounds were tested in combination with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182,780 (ICI) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist/CYP1A1 inhibitor α-naphthoflavone. Luciferase induction and CYP1A1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity were measured to assess whether the estrogenic activity was elicited by the compound itself and/or by its metabolites. Relative potencies ranged between 10 -7 and 10 -4 . The ability of ICI to decrease luciferase activity stimulated by all compounds indicated that the induction responses were ER-dependent. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist/CYP1A1 inhibitor α-naphthoflavone decreased luciferase induction and EROD activity by several compounds, including the methylated chrysenes, suggesting that metabolites of these chemicals contributed to ER activation. Several PACs, such as acridine and its derivatives, appear to directly activate the ER. Furthermore, extracts of soils from industrial areas were examined using this bioassay, and estrogenic activity was detected in all soil samples. Mass-balance analysis using a combination of relative potencies and chemical analysis of the samples suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs, such as 1- and 3-methylchrysene, are important contributors to the overall estrogenic activity. However, these results revealed that a considerable proportion of the estrogenic activity in the soil remained unexplained, indicating the presence of other significant estrogenic compounds. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:385-397. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not

  2. Common y-intercept and single compound regressions of gas-particle partitioning data vs 1/T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F.

    Confidence intervals are placed around the log Kp vs 1/ T correlation equations obtained using simple linear regressions (SLR) with the gas-particle partitioning data set of Yamasaki et al. [(1982) Env. Sci. Technol.16, 189-194]. The compounds and groups of compounds studied include the polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons phenanthrene + anthracene, me-phenanthrene + me-anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[ a]fluorene + benzo[ b]fluorene, chrysene + benz[ a]anthracene + triphenylene, benzo[ b]fluoranthene + benzo[ k]fluoranthene, and benzo[ a]pyrene + benzo[ e]pyrene (note: me = methyl). For any given compound, at equilibrium, the partition coefficient Kp equals ( F/ TSP)/ A where F is the particulate-matter associated concentration (ng m -3), A is the gas-phase concentration (ng m -3), and TSP is the concentration of particulate matter (μg m -3). At temperatures more than 10°C from the mean sampling temperature of 17°C, the confidence intervals are quite wide. Since theory predicts that similar compounds sorbing on the same particulate matter should possess very similar y-intercepts, the data set was also fitted using a special common y-intercept regression (CYIR). For most of the compounds, the CYIR equations fell inside of the SLR 95% confidence intervals. The CYIR y-intercept value is -18.48, and is reasonably close to the type of value that can be predicted for PAH compounds. The set of CYIR regression equations is probably more reliable than the set of SLR equations. For example, the CYIR-derived desorption enthalpies are much more highly correlated with vaporization enthalpies than are the SLR-derived desorption enthalpies. It is recommended that the CYIR approach be considered whenever analysing temperature-dependent gas-particle partitioning data.

  3. Sedimentary record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a sediment core from a maar lake, Northeast China: evidence in historical atmospheric deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yu-Feng; Sun, Jian-Lin; Ni, Hong-Gang; Guo, Jian-Yang

    2012-09-01

    A maar lake is an excellent ecosystem to study the atmospheric deposition of pollutants, as its contaminants are primarily by atmospheric deposition. In this study, a sediment core from Sihailongwan Maar Lake, Northeast China, was collected and the historical atmospherically deposited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed. The concentrations of TPAHs (the sum of the US EPA proposed 16 priority PAHs, excluding naphthalene and pyrene) ranged from 473.9 to 2289 ng g(-1) with a slow increasing stage in the deeper sediments and a sharp increasing stage in the upper sediments. The input rate of TPAHs, especially that of PAH(9) (the sum of fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, dibenzo(ah)anthrathene, and benzo(ghi)perylene), correlated well to the Chinese historical socioeconomic data. This indicates that sediment PAHs were mainly derived from human activities and PAH(9) can be regarded as a better indicator of the local socioeconomic development. Source identification suggested that PAHs were originated primarily from mixed sources (e.g., coal and biomass burning and petroleum combustion), except for perylene which was mostly of diagenetic origin. In addition, the down-core PAHs profile clearly illustrated that PAHs sources in Northeast China experienced a transformation from low- and moderate temperature to high-temperature combustion processes, especially after the late 1980s. Additionally, an ecological risk assessment using two redefined biological thresholds (TEQ(ERL) and TEQ(ERM)) indicated that most of the PAHs measured in the present sediment core would not cause an immediate toxic effect; only FLU and PHEN are a potential source of concern for biological impairment.

  4. Chemical Contaminants Found in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athey, S. N.; Seaton, P. J.; Mead, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    Plastic is becoming increasingly more abundant in the marine environment. Plastic ingestion has been shown to be a source of exposure to a variety of harmful compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), bisphenol A (BPA), and phthalates, which are known for their negative physiological effects on the endocrine system as well as their ability to adsorb and leach from plastic into the bodies of marine organisms. The physiological effects of these compounds on loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) still remain unknown. This study investigated the presence of toxicants on marine plastic samples collected from Bermuda, the Sargasso Sea, and the North Atlantic Ocean. Gas chromatography/triple quadruple mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed PAHs were present on many plastic debris samples. Plastic additives such as phthalates and (BPA) were also found. ΣPAH concentrations for anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene for 2013 environmental plastic samples averaged 26.7ng/g of plastic. This study also examined the presence of these compounds in fluids from the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine from two adult loggerhead turtles. GC/MS analysis also showed the presence of BPA and phthalates on plastic samples, as well as in two out of the six gastrointestinal fluids samples. Average ΣPAH concentration for GI fluids for the loggerheads in the study was 58.7 ng/mL. This study showed plastic could be a significant source of PAHs in sea turtles and the first to detect PAHs in sea turtle GI fluid. Loggerhead sea turtles are a long living species and could accumulate high concentrations of these endocrine-disrupting chemicals throughout their lifetime.

  5. Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs em aguardentes PHAs in spirits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bettin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A presença de hidrocarbonetos aromáticos polinucleares (HPAs em aguardentes foi investigada por cromatografia líquida (CLAE após sua prévia extração em fase sólida (SPE. A separação foi realizada em uma coluna Supelco, LCPAH-octadecil silano (25cm x 4,6mm x 5mm com gradiente acetonitrila/água e a quantificação utilizando detector de fluorescência. Os HPAs (naftaleno; acenaftaleno; fluoreno; fenantreno; antraceno; fluoranteno; pireno; 1,2- benzo(epireno; criseno; benzo(epireno; 2,3-benzo(aantraceno; 1,2-benzo(bfluoranteno; benzo(kfluoranteno; dibenzo(a,hantraceno; benzo(apireno; benzo(ghipirileno foram identificados e quantificados em vinte e oito amostras de aguardentes de cana. Os resultados experimentais para as amostras de aguardentes (cachaças são analisados em termos de análises de componentes principais (PCA objetivando a diferenciação entre o perfil das aguardentes produzidas a partir de cana-de-açúcar queimada e não-queimada.The presence of PHAs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocabons in spirits has been investigated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after solid phase extraction (SPE. The separation was achieved with a Supelco LCPAH-octadecil silane column [25cm x 4,6mm x 5mm] and acetonitrile/water elution gradient and the quantification using a fluorescence detector. The PHAs (naphthalene; acenaphthene; fluorene; phenantrene; anthracene; phuorantene; pyrene; 1,2-benzo(epyrene; chrysene; benzo(epyrene; 2,3-benzo(aanthracene; 1,2-benzo(bphluoranthene; benzo(kfluoranthene; dibenzo(a,hanthracene; benzo(apyreno; benzo(ghipyrilene were quantifed in twenty eight samples of sugar cane spirits. All the experimental data for sugar cane spirit have been analyzed through principal components analysis (PCA aiming to compare the chemical profile of beverages produced from burned and not burned sugar cane.

  6. Hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos em resíduos sólidos industriais: uma avaliação preliminar do risco potencial de contaminação ambiental e humana em áreas de disposição de resíduos Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in industrial solid waste: a preliminary evaluation of the potential risk of environmental and human contamination in waste disposal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina L. S. Sisinno

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A disposição adequada dos resíduos sólidos é importante para evitar que os mesmos se transformem em fonte de contaminação ambiental e humana. A NBR 10.004 - Classificação de Resíduos - lista vários hidrocarbonetos policíclicos aromáticos (HPAs e indica que, a presença de pelo menos um deles na massa bruta do resíduo é suficiente para classificá-lo como resíduo perigoso. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a presença de HPAs em amostras de resíduos sólidos provenientes de alguns segmentos industriais, para se obter uma avaliação preliminar do potencial de contaminação que estes resíduos podem representar, caso não recebam destino adequado. Pelo menos um dos HPAs previstos na NBR 10.004 (benzo[a]antraceno, benzo[a]pireno, benzo[b]fluoranteno, benzo[k]fluoranteno, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pireno, criseno ou fluoranteno foi identificado em todos os resíduos estudados, classificando-os como perigosos. Nossos resultados indicam que todos os resíduos estudados continham HPAs de importância toxicológica, o que implica que sua disposição final seja feita em locais adequados para minimizar os riscos à saúde humana e ambiental oriundos das áreas de disposição de resíduos.Proper solid waste disposal is important to avoid human and environmental contamination. The NBR 10,004 Waste Classification lists several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and indicates that the presence of at least one PAH in a waste sample is enough to classify it as hazardous. The aim of this study was a preliminary evaluation of PAHs in solid waste samples from selected industries to obtain a preliminary overview of their potential for contamination in case of improper disposal. One or more PAHs listed in NBR 10,004 (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, chrysene, or fluoranthene were found in all samples, thus leading to their classification as hazardous waste. Our results showed

  7. Validación de un método de análisis para la determinación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos por cromatografía líquida de alta eficiencia en partículas PM10 Y PM2,5 Validation of an analytical method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by high efficiency liquid chromatography in PM10 and PM2, 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herrera Murillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se validó un método analítico para la determinación de hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos presentes en partículas PM10 y PM 2,5 recolectadas en el aire mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR. Los HPA incluidos en la metodología comprenden: Naftaleno, Acenaftileno, Fluoreno, Acenafteno, Fenantreno, Antraceno, Fluoranteno, Pireno, Benzo (aantraceno, Criseno, Benzo (bfluoranteno, Benzo (kfluoranteno, Benzo (apireno, Dibenzo (a,h antraceno, Benzo (g,h,iperileno y Indeno (1,2,3- C.D pireno. Para estos compuestos, los límites de detección y cuantificación estuvieron entre 0,02 y 0,1 mg/l utilizando un equipo marca Dionex modelo ICS- 3000, el cual consta de dos detectores en serie, un ultravioleta modelo VWD-1 y un detector de fluorescencia modelo RF-2000, permitiendo diferenciar las distintas señales de absorción y emisión para la debida identificación de los distintos compuestos. Para todos los compuestos analizados, el factor de recuperación resultó no ser significativamente diferente de uno y la repetibilidad y reproducibilidad resultó ser adecuada para un método analítico, especialmente para los HPA más ligeros.An analytical method for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM 2.5 par ticles collected from air by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was validated. The PAHs analyzed in the methodology include: Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Fluorene, Acenaphthene, Phenanthrene, Anthracene, fluoranthene,pyrene,Benzo(aanthracene,Chrysene, Benzo (bfluoranthene, Benzo (kfluoranthene, Benzo (apyrene Dibenzo (a, hanthracene, Benzo (g, h, iperylene and Indeno (1,2,3-CDpyrene. For these compounds, the detection limit and quantification limit were between 0,02 and 0,1 mg/l using a DIONEX ICS 3000 model cromatograph, that has two in serie detectors: UV/Vis and Fluorescense, separating the different absorption and emission signals for proper identification of individual compounds. For all the compounds

  8. Color encoded microbeads-based flow cytometric immunoassay for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meimaridou, Anastasia; Haasnoot, Willem; Noteboom, Linda; Mintzas, Dimitrios; Pulkrabova, Jana; Hajslova, Jana; Nielen, Michel W.F.

    2010-01-01

    Food contamination caused by chemical hazards such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is a worldwide public health concern and requires continuous monitoring. The chromatography-based analysis methods for POPs are accurate and quite sensitive but they are time-consuming, laborious and expensive. Thus, there is a need for validated simplified screening tools, which are inexpensive, rapid, have automation potential and can detect multiple POPs simultaneously. In this study we developed a flow cytometry-based immunoassay (FCIA) using a color-encoded microbeads technology to detect benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in buffer and food extracts as a starting point for the future development of rapid multiplex assays including other POPs in food, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). A highly sensitive assay for BaP was obtained with an IC 50 of 0.3 μg L -1 using a monoclonal antibody (Mab22F12) against BaP, similar to the IC 50 of a previously described enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using the same Mab. Moreover, the FCIA was 8 times more sensitive for BaP compared to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensor immunoassay (BIA) using the same reagents. The selectivity of the FCIAs was tested, with two Mabs against BaP for 25 other PAHs, including two hydroxyl PAH metabolites. Apart from BaP, the FCIAs can detect PAHs such as indenol[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IP), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), and chrysene (CHR) which are also appointed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) as suitable indicators of PAH contamination in food. The FCIAs results were in agreement with those obtained with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the detection of PAHs in real food samples of smoked carp and wheat flour and has great potential for the future routine application of this assay in a simplex or multiplex format in combination with simplified extraction procedure which are

  9. Natural attenuation in contaminated soils with hydrocarbons; Atenuacion natural en suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona Ramirez, L; Iturbide Arguelles, R [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-06-01

    A contaminated soil experiment was performed using simples from a refinery, containing oil derivative hydrocarbons, specifically those with high concentrations of polyaromathic hydrocarbons (PAH). The testing consisted in 7 pans with 7 kg of soil, the preparation of 6 pans under specific conditions and one as a blank, the conditions were: water content (15 y 30%), addition a non-ionic surfactant. The process consisted in the daily aeration and water control of the samples. The PAH were analyzed: anthracene, benzo(a) pyrene, chrysene, phenanthrene and naphthalene. The results after 8 weeks showed a gradual degradation of PAH, indicating a better removal obtained when the water content was 30% with nutrients addition. [Spanish] Se realizo un experimento con suelo contaminado proveniente de una refineria, el cual contaba con hidrocarburos derivados de petroleo, especificamente con concentraciones elevadas de hidrocarburos poliaromaticos (HAP). El estudio consistio en preparar 7 cajones con 7 kg de suelo, cada uno con las siguientes condiciones: S1suelo contaminado con hidrocarburos y 15% de contenido de agua. S2 suelo contaminado con hidrocarburo y adicion de Nitrogeno y Fosforo (N y P) con 15% de contenido de agua. S3 suelo contaminado con hidrocarburo y adicion de N y P mas un surfactante no ionico, Emulgin W600, con 15% de contenido de agua. S4 igual a S1 pero con 30% de contenido de agua. S5 igual a S2, con 30% de contenido de agua. S6 igual S3 con 30% de contenido de agua. S7 suelo contaminado testigo, sin control de humedad y sin aireacion. La experimentacion consistio en airear el suelo diariamente y controlar el contenido de agua de manera que este fuera constante. Los resultados, indican que la mejor remocion se obtuvo para el contenido de agua de 30%, con adicion de nutrientes y surfactante. Los compuestos con mayor eficiencia de remocion para todas las opciones son naftaleno y antraceno. Por lo tanto, de acuerdo con los resultados, los compuestos

  10. Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Degrading Bacteria in the Desert Soil of Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Gounaim, M.; Diab, A.; Al-Hilali, A.; Abu-Shady, A. Sattar

    2005-01-01

    Soil samples of different levels of oil pollutants were collected from Kuwait's Burgan Oil Field, near an oil lake. The samples represented, highly polluted (8.0% w/w), moderately polluted (2.1%-3.4%) and slightly polluted (2.1%-3.4%) and slightly polluted (0.5- 0.8%). The aromatic fractions of the collected samples were in the range of (0.21-2.57g/100g) soil. (GC) analysis of the aromatic fractions of the resolution of the different individual (PAHs) revealed the presence of (16) different (PAHs) resolved from the aromatic fraction of the highly polluted sample (S3). (15), (14) and (13) individual (PAHs) were identified soil samples (S5), (S2) and (S1, S4, S6) respectively. The most frequent (PAH) was indeno (1, 2, 3-c, d) pyrene (22.5%-45.11%) followed chrysene (13.6%-19.48%). Eight carcinogenic (PAHs) were resolved from the aromatic fractions of the polluted samples. Total carcinogenic (PAHs) recorded in this study were in this study were in the range of (11.53) (forS4) - (510.98) (for S3) ppm. The counts of (CFU) of aromatic degraders (AD) were in the range of (3x10) - (110x 10) (CFU/g) soil (with a percent of (2.2%-69.6%)). The results show that, higher counts of (AD) were recorded from a highly polluted sample (S3), followed by the moderately polluted samples; total of (51) bacteria, that gave presumptive positive biodegradation activities, were isolated and identified (45.1%) of them were isolated and identified. (45.1%) of them were isolated from the highly polluted sample (S3). Total of (13) different species were identified of which Micrococcus luteus was more frequent (23.5) followed by Bacillus licheniformis (19.6%) and Bacillus subtilis (11.8%). The three Pseudomonas species collectively were presented by (11.8%). Five different species proved to be of good activities, they are: Bacillus brevis, Bacillus lichenoformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas flourescens. The ability of five species and their mixture was

  11. Induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 mRNAs by nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in various human tissue-derived cells: chemical-, cytochrome P450 isoform-, and cell-specific differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwanari, M.; Nakajima, M.; Yokoi, T. [Div. of Drug Metabolism, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan); Kizu, R.; Hayakawa, K. [Lab. of Hygienic Chemistry, Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    Nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) are found in diesel exhaust and ambient air. NPAHs as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to have mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine-disruptive effects. In the present study, the inducibility of the human cytochrome P450-1 (CYP1) family by NPAHs was compared with those produced by their parent PAHs and some reductive metabolites, amino-PAHs. Furthermore, to investigate the differences in the inducibility of the CYP1 family in human tissues, various human tissue-derived cell lines, namely HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), ACHN (renal carcinoma), A549 (lung carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), LS-180 (colon carcinoma), HT-1197 (bladder carcinoma), HeLa (cervix of uterus adenocarcinoma), OMC-3 (ovarian carcinoma), and NEC14 (testis embryonal carcinoma), were treated with NPAHs, PAHs, or amino-PAHs. The mRNA levels of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 were determined with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cell lines were classified into two groups: CYP1 inducible cell lines, comprising HepG2, MCF-7, LS-180, and OMC-3 cells, and CYP1 non-inducible cell lines, comprising ACHN, A549, HT-1197, HeLa, and NEC14 cells. In inducible cell lines, the induction profile of chemical specificity was similar for CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1, although the extent of induction differed among the cell lines and for the CYP isoforms. Pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, 1-aminopyrene, 1,3-, 1,6-, and 1,8-dinitropyrenes slightly induced CYP1 mRNAs, but 1,3-dinitropyrene produced a 6-fold induction of CYP1A1 mRNA in MCF-7 cells. 2-Nitrofluoranthene and 3-nitrofluoranthene exhibited stronger inducibility than fluoranthene in the inducible cell lines. 6-Nitrochrysene induced CYP1 mRNAs to the same extent or more potently than chrysene. The induction potencies of 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were weaker than those of their parents benzo[a]pyrene and benz[a]anthracene, respectively. This

  12. Significance of cytochrome P450 system responses and levels of bile fluorescent aromatic compounds in marine wildlife following oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.F.; Anderson, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among cytochrome P450 induction in marine wildlife species, levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC) in their bile, the chemical composition of the inducing compounds, the significance of the exposure pathway, and any resulting injury, as a consequence of exposure to crude oil following a spill, are reviewed. Fish collected after oil spills often show increases in cytochrome P450 system activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), that are correlated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the oil. There is also some evidence for increases in bile FAC and induction of cytochrome P450 in marine birds and mammals after oil spills. However, when observed, increases in these exposure indicators are transitory and generally decrease to background levels within one year after the exposure. Laboratory studies have shown induction of cytochrome P450 systems occurs after exposure of fish to crude oil in water, sediment or food. Most of the PAH found in crude oil (dominantly 2- and 3-ring PAH) are not strong inducers of cytochrome P450. Exposure to the 4-ring chrysenes or the photooxidized products of the PAH may account for the cytochrome P450 responses in fish collected from oil-spill sites. The contribution of non-spill background PAH, particularly combustion-derived (pyrogenic) PAH, to bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses can be confounding and needs to be considered when evaluating oil spill effects. The ubiquity of pyrogenic PAH makes it important to fully characterize all sources of PAH, including PAH from natural resources, e.g. retene, in oil spill studies. In addition, such parameters as species, sex, age, ambient temperature and season need to be taken into account. While increases in fish bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses, can together, be sensitive general indicators of PAH exposure after an oil spill, there is little unequivocal evidence to suggest a linkage to

  13. Monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srogi, K

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic compounds with two or more fused aromatic rings. They have a relatively low solubility in water, but are highly lipophilic. Most of the PAHs with low vapour pressure in the air are adsorbed on particles. When dissolved in water or adsorbed on particulate matter, PAHs can undergo photodecomposition when exposed to ultraviolet light from solar radiation. In the atmosphere, PAHs can react with pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide, yielding diones, nitro- and dinitro-PAHs, and sulfonic acids, respectively. PAHs may also be degraded by some microorganisms in the soil. PAHs are widespread environmental contaminants resulting from incomplete combustion of organic materials. The occurrence is largely a result of anthropogenic emissions such as fossil fuel-burning, motor vehicle, waste incinerator, oil refining, coke and asphalt production, and aluminum production, etc. PAHs have received increased attention in recent years in air pollution studies because some of these compounds are highly carcinogenic or mutagenic. Eight PAHs (Car-PAHs) typically considered as possible carcinogens are: benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene. In particular, benzo(a)pyrene has been identified as being highly carcinogenic. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has promulgated 16 unsubstituted PAHs (EPA-PAH) as priority pollutants. Thus, exposure assessments of PAHs in the developing world are important. The scope of this review will be to give an overview of PAH concentrations in various environmental samples and to discuss the advantages and limitations of applying these parameters in the assessment of environmental risks in ecosystems and human health. As it well known, there is an increasing trend to use the behavior of pollutants (i.e. bioaccumulation) as well

  14. Comparative oesophageal cancer risk assessment of hot beverage consumption (coffee, mate and tea): the margin of exposure of PAH vs very hot temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaru, Alex O; Rullmann, Anke; Farah, Adriana; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Stern, Mariana C; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of very hot (> 65 °C) beverages is probably associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer. First associations were reported for yerba mate and it was initially believed that high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might explain the risk. Later research on other beverage groups such as tea and coffee, which are also consumed very hot, found associations with increased risk of oesophageal cancer as well. The risk may therefore not be inherent in any compound contained in mate, but due to temperature. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of PAH in comparison with the risk of the temperature effect using the margin of exposure (MOE) methodology. The human dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene) exposure through consumption of coffee, mate, and tea was estimated. The oesophageal cancer risk assessment for both PAH and temperature was conducted using the MOE approach. Considering differences in the transfer of the PAH from the leaves of mate and tea or from the ground coffee to the infusion, and considering the different preparation methods, exposures may vary considerably. The average individual exposure in μg/kg bw/day arising from consumption of 1 cup (0.2 L) of infusion was highest for mate (2.85E-04 BaP and 7.22E-04 PAH4). The average per capita exposure in μg/kg bw/day was as follows: coffee (4.21E-04 BaP, 4.15E-03 PAH4), mate (4.26E-03 BaP, 2.45E-02 PAH4), and tea (8.03E-04 BaP, 4.98E-03 PAH4). For all individual and population-based exposure scenarios, the average MOE for BaP and PAH4 was > 100,000 independent of beverage type. MOE values in this magnitude are considered as a very low risk. On the contrary, the MOE for the temperature effect was estimated as PAH exposure may pose an oesophageal cancer risk. Consumer education on risks associated with consumption of 'very hot' beverages and policy measures to threshold

  15. The differences in transformation mechanism in natural and anthropogenic PAH in environmental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navai, A.I.; Abasova, D.R.; Suleymanov, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    mg/L): Naphthalene-269,65; Acenaphthene+Fluorene -10,71; Phenanthrene-167,27; Anthracene-2,47; Fluoranthene-170,76; Benzo (a) anthracene-10,61; Chrysene-66,59; Benzo (b) fluoranthene-25,65; Benzo (k) fluoranthene-3,22; Benzo (a) pyrene-0,49; Dibenzo (a, h) anthracene-18,68; Indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene-6,13. For comparison were investigated near 50 samples of oil polluted soils selected from oilfield sites and was determined background level of PAH around of oilfields in radius of 700-1000 m

  16. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de, E-mail: andressa@ctaa.embrapa.br [Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos, Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Correa, Sergio Machado [Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Glauco Correa da [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using GC/FID, USEPA METHOD 8021B - Aromatic and halogenated volatiles by gas chromatography using photoionization and/or electrolytic conductivity detectors e USEPA METHOD 8270C - Semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to identify: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene , fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benze[a]anthracene and chrysene; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). After characterization of the engine lubricating oil after use allows us to evaluate engine wear and determine oil change interval. (author)

  17. Application of a fuzzy neural network model in predicting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-mediated perturbations of the Cyp1b1 transcriptional regulatory network in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkin, Andrew [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Department of Statistics, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Siddens, Lisbeth K. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Krueger, Sharon K. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M. [Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Williams, David E., E-mail: david.williams@oregonstate.edu [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Baird, William M. [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University (United States); Superfund Research Center, Oregon State University (United States); Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in the environment as complex mixtures with components that have diverse carcinogenic potencies and mostly unknown interactive effects. Non-additive PAH interactions have been observed in regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene expression in the CYP1 family. To better understand and predict biological effects of complex mixtures, such as environmental PAHs, an 11 gene input-1 gene output fuzzy neural network (FNN) was developed for predicting PAH-mediated perturbations of dermal Cyp1b1 transcription in mice. Input values were generalized using fuzzy logic into low, medium, and high fuzzy subsets, and sorted using k-means clustering to create Mamdani logic functions for predicting Cyp1b1 mRNA expression. Model testing was performed with data from microarray analysis of skin samples from FVB/N mice treated with toluene (vehicle control), dibenzo[def,p]chrysene (DBC), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or 1 of 3 combinations of diesel particulate extract (DPE), coal tar extract (CTE) and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) using leave-one-out cross-validation. Predictions were within 1 log{sub 2} fold change unit of microarray data, with the exception of the DBC treatment group, where the unexpected down-regulation of Cyp1b1 expression was predicted but did not reach statistical significance on the microarrays. Adding CTE to DPE was predicted to increase Cyp1b1 expression, whereas adding CSC to CTE and DPE was predicted to have no effect, in agreement with microarray results. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (Ahrr) was determined to be the most significant input variable for model predictions using back-propagation and normalization of FNN weights. - Highlights: ► Tested a model to predict PAH mixture-mediated changes in Cyp1b1 expression ► Quantitative predictions in agreement with microarrays for Cyp1b1 induction ► Unexpected difference in expression between DBC and other treatments predicted ► Model predictions

  18. Prenatal induction of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylases in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, D.; Tapken, S.

    1988-01-01

    1. Benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase (BPH) activity was measured in homogenates of fetal liver (day 18) or of whole-embryos of mice on day 9, 10 or 12 of gestation after maternal pretreatment with B(a)P on 3 consecutive days. A 3 H-liberation assay with 3 H-B(a)P labelled either generally or at the 6-position was used. The values obtained with the embryonic/fetal tissues were compared with those found in maternal liver. 2. Three oral doses of 17.5 mg B(a)P/kg body wt were found to just significantly induce BPH in maternal liver. An induction was observed after pretreatment with 24 mg B(a)P/kg body wt in 9, 10 or 12-day-old whole-embryos, but the V max reached was only 10-20% (1% on day 9) of that of adult non-induced liver. The K m (6-hydroxylation) for all tissues tested were in the same range (600-900 nM). The induction was demonstrable in embryos at tissue levels about one order of magnitude lower than those required for induction in maternal liver. 3. Treatment with 25 mg B(a)P/kg body wt on 3 consecutive days was required to induce BPH in fetal liver on day 18 of gestation. The required B(a)P tissue concentrations were about one half of those necessary for induction in maternal liver. 4. Among a variety of other polycyclic hydrocarbons only chrysene showed an inducing potency similar to that of B(a)P in adult and fetal liver. For all compounds tested there was no correlation found in the inducing potency between adult and fetal liver (e.g. coronene). 5. The doses required to induce BPH in the maternal or fetal liver or in whole embryos of rodents are significantly higher (mg range) than those of usual average human exposure or those taken up by smokers (ng range). (orig.)

  19. Amelioration of soil PAH and heavy metals by combined application of fly ash and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masto, Reginald; George, Joshy; Ansari, Md; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Generation of electricity through coal combustion produces huge quantities of fly ash. Sustainable disposal and utilization of these fly ash is a major challenge. Fly ash along with other amendments like biochar could be used for amelioration of soil. In this study, fly ash and biochar were used together for amelioration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil. Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fly ash and biochar on the amelioration of soil PAH, and the yield of Zea mays. The treatments were control, biochar (4 t/ha), fly ash (4 t/ha), ash + biochar ( 2 + 2 t/ha). Soil samples were collected after the harvest of maize crop and analysed for chemical and biological parameters. Thirteen PAHs were analysed in the postharvest soil samples. Soil PAHs were extracted in a microwave oven at 120 °C using hexane : acetone (1:1) mixture. The extracted solutions were concentrated, cleaned and the 13 PAHs [Acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Flr), phenanthrene (Phn), anthracene(Ant), pyrene(Pyr), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chy), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene (BghiP), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene)(Inp)] were analysed using GC-MS. The mean pH increased from 6.09 in control to 6.64 and 6.58 at biochar and fly ash treated soils, respectively. N content was not affected, whereas addition of biochar alone and in combination with fly ash, has significantly increased the soil organic carbon content. P content was almost double in combined (9.06 mg/kg) treatment as compared to control (4.32 mg/kg). The increase in K due to biochar was 118%, whereas char + ash increased soil K by 64%. Soil heavy metals were decreased: Zn (-48.4%), Ni (-41.4%), Co (-36.9%), Cu (-35.7%), Mn (-34.3%), Cd (-33.2%), and Pb (-30.4%). Soil dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased by ash and biochar treatments and the maximum activity was observed for the combined

  20. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 emitted from different cooking activities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Chun; Qiu, Jia-Qian; Shu, Man; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Jun-Ji; Wang, Ge-Hui; Wang, Xian-Xiang; Zhao, Xiao-Qing

    2018-02-01

    Nineteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 2.5 emitted from five different cooking activities were characterized, and their influencing factors were determined. The total quantified particle-bounded PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) in the airs from the cooking activities were 4.2-36.5-fold higher than those in corresponding backgrounds. The highest ΣPAHs were seen in cafeteria frying (783 ± 499 ng/m 3 ), followed by meat roasting (420 ± 191 ng/m 3 ), fish roasting (210 ± 105 ng/m 3 ), snack-street boiling (202 ± 230 ng/m 3 ), and cafeteria boiling (150 ± 65 ng/m 3 ). The main influencing factors on the PAH emissions were cooking methods, fat contents in raw materials, and oil consumptions. Four- to six-ringed PAHs had the highest contributions to the ΣPAHs (avg. 87.5%). Diagnostic ratios of individual PAH were similar between the two charbroiling and other three conventional Chinese cooking methods, respectively, demonstrating the dominance of cooking methods in the PAH emissions. Remarkably high benzo(b)fluoranthene/benzo(k)fluoranthene (BbF/BkF) ratio (8.31) was seen in the snack-street boiling, attributed to the coal combustion as cooking fuel. Both fluoranthene/(fluoranthene + pyrene) [FLT/(FLT + PYR)] and benzo(a)anthracene/(benzo(a)anthracene + chrysene) [BaA/(BaA + CHR)] ratios were higher for the oil-based cooking than those from the water-based ones. In addition, two ratios of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene/(indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene) [IPY/(IPY + BPE)] and benzo(a)pyrene/(benzo(a)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene) [BaP/(BaP + BPE)] were higher for two charbroiling than the three conventional Chinese cooking methods. The characterization work in this study is particularly important since cooking is a potential contributor of atmospheric PAHs in urban China. Carcinogenic potencies of PAHs were assessed by comparison with the air quality guideline and health risk estimation. The BaP and BaP equivalent were

  1. Seasonal variation, sources and gas/particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yunyun; Guo, Pengran; Zhang, Qian; Li, Deliang; Zhao, Lan; Mu, Dehai

    2010-01-01

    Air samples were collected weekly at an urban site and a suburban site in Guangzhou City, China, from April 2005 to March 2006, to measure the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ambient air and study their seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning, origins and sources. The concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs (particle + gas) were 129.9 ± 73.1 ng m -3 at the urban site and 120.4 ± 48.5 ng m -3 at the suburban site, respectively. It was found that there was no significant difference in PAH concentrations between the urban and suburban sites. Seasonal variations of PAH concentrations at the two sampling sites were similar, with higher levels in the winter that gradually decreased to the lowest levels in the summer. The average concentrations of Σ 16-PAHs in the winter samples were approximately three times higher than those of the summer samples because in the summer local emissions dominated, and in the winter the contribution from outside sources or transported PAHs is increased. The plot of logK p versus logP L 0 for the data sets of summer and winter season samples had significantly different slopes at both sampling sites. The slopes for the winter samples were steeper than those for the summer samples. It was also observed that gas/particle partitioning of PAHs showed different characteristics depending on air parcel trajectories. Steeper slopes were obtained for an air parcel that traveled across the continent to the sampling site from the northern or northeastern sector, whereas shallower slopes were obtained for air masses that traveled across the sea from the southern or eastern sector. Diagnostic ratio analytical results imply that the origins of PAHs were mainly from petroleum combustion and coal/biomass burning. The anthracene/phenanthrene and benzo[a]anthracene/chrysene ratios in the winter were significantly lower than those in the summer, which indicate that there might be long-range transported PAH input to Guangzhou in

  2. Characterization of used lubricating oil by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Andressa Moreira de; Correa, Sergio Machado; Silva, Glauco Correa da

    2011-01-01

    /FID, USEPA METHOD 8021B - Aromatic and halogenated volatiles by gas chromatography using photoionization and/or electrolytic conductivity detectors e USEPA METHOD 8270C - Semivolatile organic compounds by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), to identify: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH); polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene , fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benze[a]anthracene and chrysene; benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). After characterization of the engine lubricating oil after use allows us to evaluate engine wear and determine oil change interval. (author)

  3. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnath Singh

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001 was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001 as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001 among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs

  4. Biomonitoring, status and source risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using honeybees, pine tree leaves, and propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar, Navid; Matin, Golnar; Matin, Amir Abbas; Buyukisik, Hasan Baha

    2017-11-01

    In this study, to identify and quantify the sources of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we gathered honeybee, pine tree leaf, and propolis samples to serve as bioindicators from five stations in the village of "Bozkoy" in the Aliaga industrial district of Izmir (Turkey) during April-May 2014. The PAH concentrations which measured by gas chromatography (GC) varied from 261.18 to 553.33 μg kg -1 dry weight (dw) in honeybee samples, 138.57-853.67 μg kg -1 dw in pine leaf samples, and 798.61-2905.53 μg kg -1 dw in propolis samples. The total PAH concentrations can be ranked as follows: propolis > pine leaves > honeybees. The ring sequence pattern was 5 > 3 > 6 > 4 > 2 for honeybees, 5 > 3 > 4 > 6 > 2 for pine leaves, and 5 > 4 > 6 > 3 > 2 for propolis. The diagnostic ratios [fluoranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene], [indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene/indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene + benzo(g,h,i)perylene], and [benzo(a)anthracene/benzo(a)anthracene + chrysene] indicate coal and biomass combustion to be the dominant PAH source in the study area. In biomonitoring studies of airborne PAHs based on honeybees, fluoranthene is considered to be a characteristic PAH compound. Distribution maps with different numbers of PAH rings among the sampling sites show the advantages of honeybee samples as indicators due to the honeybee's provision of a broader range of information with respect to heavier pollutants that are typically not in the gas or suspended phase for long periods of time. Our correlation, factor analysis, and principal components analysis (PCA) results indicate potential sources of PAH pollution in pine leaves and honeybees from airborne emissions, but we found propolis to be contaminated by PAHs due to the replacement of herbal sources of resins with synthetic gummy substances from paving materials (e.g., asphalt and tar leaks). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jorge; Farias, Oscar; Quiroz, Roberto; Yañez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In south-central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (Nothofagus oblique), and mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were burned in a single-chamber slow-combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. In each experiment, 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and levoglucosan analyses. Mean particulate matter emission factors were 2.03, 4.06, and 3.84 g/kg dry wood for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. The emission factors were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency. The mean emission factors of the sums of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle phases were 1472.5, 2134.0, and 747.5 μg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene were present in the particle phase in higher proportions compared with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were analyzed. Mean levoglucosan emission factors were 854.9, 202.3, and 328.0 mg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Since the emissions of particulate matter and other pollutants were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency, implementing more efficient technologies would help to reduce air pollutant emissions from wood combustion. Residential wood burning has been identified as a significant source of air pollution in populated areas. Local wood species are combusted for home cooking and heating, which releases several toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Air pollutant emissions depend on the type of wood and the technology and operational conditions of the wood stove. A better understanding of emissions from

  6. Role of snow in the fate of gaseous and particulate exhaust pollutants from gasoline-powered vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, Yevgen; Fournier, Sébastien; Kurien, Uday; Rangel-Alvarado, Rodrigo Benjamin; Nepotchatykh, Oleg; Seers, Patrice; Ariya, Parisa A

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about pollution in urban snow and how aerosol and gaseous air pollutants interact with the urban snowpack. Here we investigate interactions of exhaust pollution with snow at low ambient temperature using fresh snow in a temperature-controlled chamber. A gasoline-powered engine from a modern light duty vehicle generated the exhaust and was operated in homogeneous and stratified engine regimes. We determined that, within a timescale of 30 min, snow takes up from the exhaust a large mass of organic pollutants and aerosol particles, which were observed by electron microscopy, mass spectrometry and aerosol sizers. Specifically, the concentration of total organic carbon in the exposed snow increased from 0.948 ± 0.009 to 1.828 ± 0.001 mg/L (homogeneous engine regime) and from 0.275 ± 0.005 to 0.514 ± 0.008 mg/L (stratified engine regime). The concentrations of benzene, toluene and 13 out of 16 measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly naphthalene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene in snow increased upon exposure from near the detection limit to 0.529 ± 0.058, 1.840 ± 0.200, 0.176 ± 0.020, 0.020 ± 0.005, 0.025 ± 0.005 and 0.028 ± 0.005 ng/kg, respectively, for the homogeneous regime. After contact with snow, 50-400 nm particles were present with higher relative abundance compared to the smaller nanoparticles (snow to 51 nm (p pollutants between the atmosphere and cryosphere. The role of the effects we discovered should be evaluated as part of assessment of pollutant loads and exposures in regions with a defined winter season. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on Concentration of Particulate Matter with Diameter Less than 10 Microns, Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Related to PM2.5 in the Ambient Air of Sina Hospital District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kermani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:In recent decades, extensive studies have shown a number of short and long-term health effects of particle matters. In addition to particle matters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heavy metals in airborne particles due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties are considered major air pollutants. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of PM2.5particulate, 7heavy metal concentrations and 13 PAHs compound associated with fine particles (PM2.5-boud PAHs in the district of Sina hospital, Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in air of Sina Hospital district in Tehran. Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 were determined by gravimetric. Also heavy metal concentrations in samples after digestion were determined with ICP-AES instrument through injection. Then the PAHs compounds from each sample were extracted by ultrasonic method. After this step, extracted sample was injected for analysis by GC-MS and concentration of each compound was read. Results: The daily average concentration of PM2.5 during the study was 41.19 µg/m3.Concentration values for zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic, were 92/69, 05/38, 2/18, 24/4, 19/4 and 34/1 ng/m3 respectively but mercury not found in this study. Average concentrations of PAHs compounds have been variable from0.07 ng/m3 for Chrysene to 1.21ng/m3 for Dibenzo(ahanthracene. Conclusion: In this study, the daily average of PM2.5 concentrations was above the Iranian National PM, WHO (25 µg/m3 and EPA (35 µg/m3 standards established for PM2.5 particles. Heavy metal concentrations in this study were lower than values reported in previous studies in Tehran. The highest concentrations among PAHs compounds belonging toIndeo(cd 1,2,3pyren, Dibenzo(ah anthracene, Benzo (B flouranthin and Benzo (Kflouranthin that all of these compounds are related to vehicle emissions.

  8. Characterization and health risk assessment of airborne pollutants in commercial restaurants in northwestern China: Under a low ventilation condition in wintertime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wenting; Zhong, Haobin; Li, Lijuan; Cao, Junji; Huang, Yu; Shen, Minxia; Wang, Liqin; Dong, Jungang; Tie, Xuexi; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai

    2018-03-22

    Impacts on indoor air quality of dining areas from cooking activities were investigated in eight categories of commercial restaurants including Szechwan Hotpot, Hunan, Shaanxi Noodle, Chinese Barbecue, Chinese Vegetarian, Korean Barbecue, Italian, and Indian, in Northwestern China during December 2011 to January 2012. Chemical characterization and health risk assessment for airborne carbonyls, and particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were conducted under low ventilation conditions in wintertime. The highest total quantified carbonyls (Σ carbonyls ) concentration of 313.6μgm -3 was found in the Chinese Barbecue, followed by the Szechwan Hotpot (222.6μgm -3 ) and Indian (221.9μgm -3 ) restaurants. However, the highest Σ carbonyls per capita was found at the Indian restaurant (4500μgcapita -1 ), suggesting that cooking methods such as stir-fly and bake for spices ingredients released more carbonyls from thermal cooking processes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone were the three most abundant species, totally accounting for >60% of mass concentrations of the Σ carbonyls . Phenanthrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]anthracene were the three most abundant PAHs. Low molecular weight fraction (ΣPAHs ≤178 ) had the highest contributions accounting for 40.6%-65.7%, much greater than their heaver counterparts. Diagnostic PAHs ratios suggest that cooking fuel and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) contribute to the indoor PAHs profiles. Lead was the most abundant heavy metal in all sampled restaurants. High quantity of nickel was also found in samples due to the emissions from stainless-steel made kitchen utensils and cookware and ETS. Cancer risk assessments on the toxic substances demonstrate that the working environment of dining areas were hazard to health. Formation of reactive organic species (ROS) from the cooking activities was evidenced by measurement of hydroxyl radical (OH) formed from simulating particulate matter (PM

  9. Roles of different forms of cytochrome P450 in the activation of the promutagen 6-aminochrysene to genotoxic metabolites in human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, H; Mimura, M; Oda, Y; Inui, Y; Shiraga, T; Iwasaki, K; Guengerich, F P; Shimada, T

    1993-07-01

    We reported previously that the potent mutagen 6-aminochrysene is catalyzed principally by rat liver microsomal P4501A and P4502B enzymes to reactive metabolites that induce umu gene expression in O-acetyltransferase-over-expressing strain Salmonella typhimurium NM2009; the proposal was made that there are different mechanisms in the formation of reactive N-hydroxylated and diolepoxide metabolites by P450 enzymes (Yamazaki, H. and Shimada, T., Biochem. Pharmacol., 44, 913-920, 1992). Here we further examined the roles of human liver P450 enzymes and the mechanism of activation of 6-aminochrysene by rat and human P450 enzymes in the Salmonella tester strains. Liver microsomes from 18 different human samples catalyzed activation of 6-aminochrysene more efficiently in S. typhimurium NM2009 than in the original strain of S. typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. The rates of 6-aminochrysene activation in 18 human liver samples showed good correlation to the contents of P4502B6 as well as contents of P4503A4 and the respective mono-oxygenase activities catalyzed by P4503A4. Among purified P450 enzymes examined, P4501A2 as well as P4503A4 were highly active in transforming 6-amino-chrysene to reactive metabolites, suggesting the involvement of different human P450 enzymes in the reaction. Four human samples that contained relatively high levels of particular P450 enzymes in their microsomes were selected and used for further characterization. Liver microsomes from human samples HL-13 and HL-4 that contained the highest levels of P4502B6 and P4503A4 respectively, were sensitive to the respective antibodies raised against monkey P4502B and human P4503A4; the activity in sample HL-16 having the highest level of P4501A2 was inhibited by anti-P4501A2 IgG. alpha-Naphthoflavone enhanced the activation of 6-aminochrysene very significantly in human liver microsomes enriched in P4503A4 and P4502B6 enzymes. Pentachlorophenol, an inhibitor of acetyltransferase activity, suppressed the

  10. Colémbolos (Hexapoda como bioindicadores de la calidad de suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos en el sureste de México Collembola (Hexapoda as quality bioindicators of the hydrocarburans polluted soils in Southestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Uribe-Hernández

    2010-04-01

    , equitativity (J' and the similarity index (S. We also performed the following soil analyses: total petroleum hydrocarbon content (HTP, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content (HAP, porosity, pH, CE, MO, N, P, K, CIC, and texture. In contaminated areas, HTP exceeded the safe limits sets by Mexican environmental legislation. In all studied areas we observed Collembola, mites, and dipteran larvae. The variation in abundance and diversity of these insects can be used as biondicators of the level of contamination and quality of the soil. We found very low abundances of Crustacea, Formicidae, Aranae, Diptera, Pseudoscopionida, and Diplopoda. The Collembola families that were most widely distributed were Sminthurididae and Isotomidae. Our correlation analysis showed that their diversity is affected by HAP level (fluoranthene, naphfhalene, pyrene, chrysene and phenanthrene.

  11. Areal distribution and concentration of contaminants of concern in surficial streambed and lakebed sediments, Lake St. Clair and tributaries, Michigan, 1990-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachol, Cynthia M.; Button, Daniel T.

    2006-01-01

    were collected throughout the lake. The distribution of trace-element concentrations corresponded well with the results of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of flow patterns from the Clinton River into Lake St. Clair. The model was developed independent from the bed sediment analysis described in this report; yet it showed a zone of deposition for outflow from the Clinton River into Lake St. Clair that corresponded well with the spatial distribution of trace-element concentrations. This zone runs along the western shoreline of Lake St. Clair from L'Anse Creuse Bay to St. Clair Shores, Michigan and is reflected in the samples analyzed for mercury and cadmium.Statistical summaries of the concentration data are presented for most contaminants, and selected statistics are compared to effects-based sediment-quality guidelines. Summaries were not computed for dieldrin, chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexane, lindane, and mirex because insufficient data are available for these contaminants. A statistical comparison showed that the median concentration for hexachlorobenzene, anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, and pyrene are greater than the Threshold Effect Concentration or Lowest Effect Level.Probable Effect Concentration Quotients provide a mechanism for comparing the concentrations of contaminant mixtures against effects-based biota data. Probable Effect Concentration Quotients were calculated for individual samples and compared to effects-based toxicity ranges. The toxicity-range categories used in this study were nontoxic (quotients 0.5). Of the 546 individual samples for which Probable Effect Concentration Quotients were calculated, 469 (86 percent) were categorized as being nontoxic and 77 (14 percent) were categorized as being toxic. Bed-sediment samples with toxic Probable Effect Concentration Quotients were collected from Paint Creek, Galloway Creek, the main stem of the Clinton River, Big Beaver Creek, Red Run, Clinton River towards the mouth, Lake St. Clair

  12. Decline of the Macquarie Marshes ecosystem, Australia, since European arrival recorded by organic geochemical proxies in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Chivas, A. R.; Garcia, A.; Hu, J.

    2011-12-01

    aquatic macrophytes and more drought-tolerant plants; while the sediments from permanently inundated watercourses show an additional peak in short-chain n-alkanes contributed by aquatic algae and bacteria. It is also indicated by the sterols that the most abundant sterol is C29 sterol (sitosterol), and the composition of C27 and C28 sterols varies slightly depending on the relative contributions of higher terrestrial plants and microalgae. Particularly, in areas where water-bird colonies were established, a fecal biomarker - coprostanol, is detected. The OCPs (e.g. DDT, DDD, endosulfans) used in cotton farming around the Marshes, and PAHs (e.g. chrysene, benzo[e]pyrene) from fires during drought years, were not found above the detection limit of 0.01 μg/g. The results indicate that the presence of colonial birds and various terrestrial/aquatic plants are registered in the sediments and that the Macquarie Marshes are still pristine regarding pesticides. However, the deterioration of the wetlands since Europeans arrival (~130 years agao) is indicated by increasing terrestrial vegetation and diminishing aquatic biota.

  13. Heterogeneous ozonation reactions of PAHs and fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A.

    2018-02-01

    Numerous studies have examined the oxidation of PAHs found in diesel particulate matter (PM) by ozone, but no studies have investigated the ozone oxidation of biodiesel exhaust PM. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), found in high abundance in biodiesel PM, can potentially alter the kinetics of the reactions between atmospheric oxidants such as ozone and particle-phase PAHs. In this study, the heterogeneous reactivity of 16 EPA PAHs upon 24 h exposure to 0.4 ppm ozone in the presence (PAH + FAMES) and absence (PAH-only) of FAMEs was investigated at room temperature and 50% relative humidity. The ozone-reactivity of the PAHs detected in 20% biodiesel (B20) exhaust PM was also investigated. In the absence of FAMEs, the pseudo-first order ozone reaction rate constant, kO 3 , of PAHs varied from 0.086 ± 0.030 hr-1 (chrysene) to 0.184 ± 0.078 hr-1 (anthracene). In the presence of FAMEs, kO 3 of the PAHs varied between 0.013 ± 0.012 hr-1 (benzo[b]fluoranthene) and 0.168 ± 0.028 hr-1 (benzo[a]pyrene), and with the exception of benzo[a]pyrene, the kO 3 of PAHs were 1.2-8 times lower compared to those obtained during the PAH-only ozone exposure. Only one PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), did not show a significant change in kO3 with addition of FAMEs. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, the only PAHs detected in the B20 PM, had kO 3 values about 4 times lower in B20 PM than those obtained when spiked PAHs-only were exposed to ozone. The kO 3 values of phenanthrene and fluoranthene in the B20 PM were 2 times higher than rates obtained when the PAH mix was exposed to ozone in the presence of the FAMEs. In contrast, pyrene's kO 3 in the B20 PM was about 2 times lower than that obtained for the PAH + FAMEs exposure. Observed differences in PAH behavior demonstrate individual PAH heterogeneous reactivity with gas-phase ozone is sensitive to PAH (vapor pressure, solubility/sorption to matrix components, chemical reactivity) as well as substrate properties (PAH and O3 diffusivity

  14. PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chiang Mai (Thailand): Seasonal variations, source identification, health risk assessment and their relationship to air-mass movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriya, Wan; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Chantara, Somporn

    2013-04-01

    found that vehicle emission and biomass burning were the main sources of PM10 and PAHs in this area. The high ratio value of benzo(a)anthracene/chrysene (BaA/CHR) in the dry season of 2010 indicated possible photochemical processes and long distance emissions. Findings on source identification of PM10 and PAHs were found to be relevant to the direction and speed of air mass movement run by backward trajectory.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (pah) In The Bulk Precipitation of The Seine Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motelay-Massei, A.; Ollivon, D.; Garban, B.; Chevreuil, M.

    The evolution of industry and the rising of population have resulted in deep changes in the quality of the environment. Nowadays much more often the attention of analysts is focused on the presence of organic pollutants in precipitation, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or pesticides. Atmospheric inputs play a significant role in semivolatile chemicals cycling and alter so the hydrological cycle. PAHs are semi- volatile organic contaminants of great environmental concern because of their car- cinogenic properties. PAHs are produced primarily during incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and wood. Major sources of PAHs to urban atmosphere include au- tomobile traffic, home heating, municipal incinerators and industrial emissions. De- spite their production in urban and industrial sites, PAHs occur at high concentra- tions in rural areas due to their persistence and ability to be transported over long distances. The aim of this investigation was to obtain information about occurrence of organic trace components in precipitation in the Seine Estuary. It was also of in- terest to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of PAHs in the bulk (wet and dry) deposition occurring in the estuary region and to estimate PAH deposition flux on watershed (urban, industrial or rural). Precipitation samples were collected at four locations in the Seine Estuary: the first is an industrial site (Le Havre), two are urban sites (Rouen, representative of urban area influenced by heavy traffic and Notre-Dame de Gravenchon, near from an industrial center) and the last one is ru- ral (Evreux). Each of the sites is located close to a meteorological station. Sam- pling is performed weekly since March 2001. In our analytical conditions, "total PAH" includes 15 compounds: naphthalene (NAP), acenaphtene (ACE), phenanthrene (PHE), anthracene (ANT), fluoranthene (FTH), pyrene (PYR), benzo(a)anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF), benzo(k)fluoranthene (Bk

  16. Hidrocarburos de petróleo, disueltos y dispersos, en cuatro ambientes costeros de Costa Rica

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    Jenaro Acuña-González

    2004-12-01

    ón moderada y la naturaleza estuarina de este cuerpo de agua costera, que distribuye irregularmente los HPDD descargados en ellaFour coastal ecosystems with contrasting characteristics were sampled in Costa Rica (2000 - 2002. Oil pollution status, expressed as the fraction of dissolved/dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons related to chrysene equivalents, was determined by the molecular fluorescence analytical technique. A total of 130 water samples were taken, from the Caribbean (Moín Bay, and from the Pacific (Bahía Culebra, Gulf of Nicoya and Dulce Gulf. On one occasion, seven samples along the Puntarenas estuary were also analysed. In Moín the mean and standard deviation were 0.10 µg·L-1 ± 0.18 µg·L-1 , ranging from non detectable (nd to 0.65 µg·L-1 . For the Pacific ecosystems the total range was from nd to 0.37 µg·L-1 . In Bahía Culebra no fluorescence signals were obtained. In the Gulf of Nicoya the mean and standard deviation were 0.04 µg·L-1 ± 0.09 µg·L-1 , from nd to 0.33 µg·L-1 . Values in Dulce Gulf were 0.05 µg·L-1 ± 0.11 µg·L-1 , from nd to 0.37 µg·L-1 . Along the Puntarenas estuary the range was 0.17 to 5.91 µg·L-1 , with a mean of 1.21 µg·L-1 and a standard deviation of ± 2.10 µg·L-1 . The four coastal ecosystems had concentrations below the 10 µg·L-1 limit for polluted oceanic areas. The Puntarenas estuary reflects the influence of antropogenic activities from and around the City of Puntarenas. These levels are considered low for inshore waters

  17. Measurement of PM and its chemical composition in real-world emissions from non-road and on-road diesel vehicles

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    M. Cui

    2017-06-01

    idling and working excavators were 3 to 4 times higher than those for moving excavators. Although the EFPM for excavators and trucks was reduced with the constraint of regulations, the element fractions for excavators increased from 0.49 % in pre-stage 1 to 3.03 % in stage 2, and the fraction of WSIs for the China IV truck was 5 times higher than the average value of all other-level trucks. Furthermore, as compared with other diesel vehicles, wide ranges were found for excavators of the ratios of benzo[a]anthracene ∕ (benzo[a]anthracene + chrysene (0.26–0.86, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene ∕ (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene + benzo[ghi]perylene (0.20–1.0, and fluoranthene ∕ (fluoranthene + pyrene (0.24–0.87, which might be a result of the complex characteristics of the excavator operation modes. A comparison of our results with those in the literature revealed that on-board measurement data more accurately reflect actual conditions. Although the fractions of the 16 priority PAHs in PM from the excavator and truck emissions were similar, the equivalent concentrations of total benzo[a]pyrene of excavators were 31 times than that for trucks, implying that more attention should be paid to non-road vehicle emissions.