WorldWideScience

Sample records for chrysanthemum zawadskii extract

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura Extract on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ryun Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura, known as “Gujulcho” in Korea, has been used in traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. However, these effects have not been tested on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells that regulate bone metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of C. zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura ethanol extract (CZE on osteoclast differentiation induced by treatment with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL. CZE inhibited osteoclast differentiation and formation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of CZE on osteoclastogenesis was due to the suppression of ERK activation and the ablation of RANKL-stimulated Ca2+-oscillation via the inactivation of PLCγ2, followed by the inhibition of CREB activation. These inhibitory effects of CZE resulted in a significant repression of c-Fos expression and a subsequent reduction of NFATc1, a key transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, fusion, and activation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that CZE negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.

  2. Molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of luteolin from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Die; Yang, Fengqing; Xia, Zhining; Zhang, Qihui

    2016-08-01

    In this work, luteolin-imprinted polymers were prepared by noncovalent precipitation polymerization for the first time. Their structural features and morphologies were analyzed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The adsorption experiments revealed that the luteolin-imprinted polymers presented high selective recognition property to luteolin. The selectivity experiment showed that the adsorption capacity and selectivity of polymers to luteolin was higher than that of three structural analogs, including quercetin, isorhamnetin, and ombuin. Furthermore, an efficient method based on luteolin-imprinted polymers coupled with solid-phase extraction was developed for the pretreatment of luteolin from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. The results demonstrated that the luteolin-imprinted polymers coupled with solid phase extraction method was proven to be a potentially competitive technique for the separation and enrichment of luteolin in complex samples such as Chinese patent medicines and biological samples. PMID:27288270

  3. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum L.--potential for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Dinesh Kumar, Vannam; Elakya, Vijay; Kamala, Tamilselvan; Park, Sung Kwon; Ragam, Muthiah; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Bououdina, Mohomad; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Vincent, Savariar

    2015-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The textures of the yielded Ag NPs were found to be spherical and polydispersed with a mean size in the range of 25-59 nm. Larvae and pupae were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extract of C. indicum and synthesized Ag NPs for 24 h, and the maximum mortality was observed from the synthesized Ag NPs against the vector A. stephensi (LC50 = 5.07, 10.35, 14.19, 22.81, and 35.05 ppm; LC90 = 29.18, 47.15, 65.53, 87.96, and 115.05 ppm). These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi. Additionally, this study provides the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of green-synthesized Ag NPs with the floral extract of C. indicum against vector mosquito species from the geographical location of India.

  4. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Amrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day, vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day and C (8.3mg/Kg per day were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of animals received plant extract, vitamin E and C, also treated with an oral administration of ethanol (0.02ml/g of 25% v/v absolute ethanol in water per day in same conditions. On day 18 of gestation, pregnant mice were killed, fetus, placenta, fetal liver, liver, kidneys and brain were removed, homogenised and used for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO using TBARS method. Embryotoxicity was assessed by counting the number of live and dead fetus and growth retardation. Results: Severe alterations in all biomarkers were observed after injury with ETOH. ETOH produced significant decreases in fetal weight and significant increases in embryolethality and lipid peroxidation relative to control values. Treatment with Chrysanthemum fontanesii extract, vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in markedly decreased embryolethality and fetal growth retardation, while increased fetal weight were observed. Conclusion: The butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C protected against ethanol induce fetal and maternal toxicity as revealed by the decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation. So that butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii posses in vivo antioxidant properties.

  5. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionCis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially healthpromoting CLA in many animal models.The C18∶1 trans-11 fatty acid (VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.The factors which affect CLA content in milk have been studied mainly in dairy cows and most factors are basically dietary factors,especially fat source(e.g.,plant oils,fish oil,et al.).Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9,trans-11 -CLA content in milk.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium extract on in vitro Biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fermentation characteristics of mixed rumen microorganisms.

  6. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan He,1 Zhiyun Du,1,2 Huibin Lv,1 Qianfa Jia,1 Zhikai Tang,1 Xi Zheng,1,3 Kun Zhang,1 Fenghua Zhao11Institute of Natural Medicine and Green Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USAAbstract: Eco-friendly green synthesis with plant extracts plays a very important role in nanotechnology, without any harmful chemicals. In this report, the synthesis of water-soluble silver nanoparticles was developed by treating silver ions with Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract at room temperature. The effect of the extract on the formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy results show a strong resonance centered on the surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNP at 430 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral study demonstrates Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract acted as the reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNP are single crystallines, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Water-soluble AgNP, with an approximate size of 20 nm–50 nm were also observed in the transmission electron microscopy image. The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNP were investigated using the agar-dilution method and the growth-inhibition test. The results show the AgNP had potent bactericidal activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as

  7. 滁菊水提液抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidative activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳辉; 张晓峰; 罗侠; 贾小丽

    2011-01-01

    To evaluated antioxidative activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium,Compared with Vc,the antioxidantive activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium.was studied by measuring its reducing power,scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical(·OH)and·DPPH radical,activity of decreasing the lipid peroxidation of yolk.The results showed that aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium not only had a strong scavenging capacity on ·OH and DPPH radical,but also has strong reducing power and significant inhibition effects on the lipid peroxidation of yolk.the antioxidantive activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium was improved with the higher concentration.Thus,Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium is promising to be a natural antioxidative health drink.%为评价滁菊水提液抗氧化活性,采用还原力、清除羟基自由基及DPPH能力、抑制卵黄脂质过氧化能力等方法,以Vc为对照进行研究。结果表明:滁菊水提液能有效的清除羟基自由基及DPPH,具有较强的还原能力,可以很好抑制卵黄脂质过氧化;在一定浓度范围内其抗氧化能力随浓度的增加而增强。因此,可以将滁菊水提液开发为抗氧化健康饮品。

  8. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  9. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqun Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC. Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics.

  10. Dual Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract to Stimulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation and Resorption In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Min Baek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of bone-related diseases increases due to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The goal in the development of antiosteoporotic treatments is an agent that will improve bone through simultaneous osteoblast stimulation and osteoclast inhibition without undesirable side effects. To achieve this goal, numerous studies have been performed to identify novel approaches using natural oriental herbs to treat bone metabolic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE on the differentiation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells. CIE inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive mature osteoclasts and of filamentous-actin rings and disrupted the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. CIE strongly inhibited Akt, GSK3β, and IκB phosphorylation in RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophages and did not show any effects on MAP kinases, including p38, ERK, and JNK. Interestingly, CIE also enhanced primary osteoblast differentiation via upregulation of the expression of alkaline phosphatase and the level of extracellular calcium concentrations during the early and terminal stages of differentiation, respectively. Our results revealed that CIE could have a potential therapeutic role in bone-related disorders through its dual effects on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation.

  11. Process Optimization for the Development of a Fermented Milk Beverage of Chrysanthemum Flower Extract%菊花发酵乳饮料工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钢; 林晓华; 吴克; 简素平; 汪海利

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum flower extract and fresh bovine milk were mainly used as raw materials to develop a novel fermented beverage based on sterilization and subsequent fermentation by inoculated lactic acid bacteria. Employing orthogonal array design, the optimal fermentation medium composition was determined to consist of 20% chrysanthemum flower extract, 8% sucrose and 40% milk and meanwhile, fermentation for 4 h at 42 ℃ and an inoculum size of 3% was found optimal.%以菊花提取液和鲜牛奶为主要原料,杀菌后接种乳酸菌进行乳酸发酵,通过单因素与正交试验确定原料的配比、发酵条件及产品的配方。结果表明,原料最佳配比为菊花提取汁20%、蔗糖8%、鲜牛奶40%;制备该乳饮料的最佳发酵工艺条件为接种量3%、发酵时间4h、温度42℃。

  12. 10种提取液对菊花花瓣中类胡萝卜素提取效率的影响%Analysis on Efficiency of Ten Extracts for Carotenoid Content in Petals of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 王普; 孙卫; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    类胡萝卜素是菊花中一类重要的呈色物质,高效提取类胡萝卜素对于分离和鉴定色素组成以及研究菊花的呈色机理十分重要.分别采用丙酮、甲醇、无水乙醇、无水乙醚、石油醚、丙酮∶石油醚不同体积比(1∶1、1∶2、1∶4、2∶1、4∶1 )10种提取液,提取菊花品种光辉及Reagan Orange舌状花中的的类胡萝卜素,用紫外-可见光分光光度计测定提取液中类胡萝卜素的相对含量.结果发现,不同提取液中菊花类胡萝卜素的提取量不同;醇类为菊花中类胡萝卜素较适合的提取液.结果还表明,菊花中含氧类胡萝卜素含量较高.%Carotenoid is an important kind of coloring material in chrysanthemum, and extracting this component efficiently is very important for the isolation and identification of pigment composition and the coloring mechanism of chrysanthemum. 10 different extraction solutions were used, including petroleum ether, methanol, anhydrous ethyl alcohol, anhydrous ether, acetone, acetone : petroleum ether in different ratios (1:1; 1:2; 1:4; 2:1; 4:1) to extract carotenoids in the petals of chrysanthemum 'Brilliant' and 'Reagan Orange'. The relative content of total carotenoids was calculated from UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that the quantity of extracts varied in 10 extracts of chrysanthemum; Alcohol was more suitable for extracting the carotenoids of chrysanthemum; It also indicated that most of the carotenoids in chrysanthemum was oxygenated compounds and it could lay the foundation for the study of compounds and content of carotenoid in chrysanthemum.

  13. Accumulation of Pathogenesis-related Type-5 Like Proteins in Phytoplasma infected Garland Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum coronarium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-Xiong ZHONG; Yan-Wei SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Soluble proteins extracted from leaves, apical shoots, axillary shoots, and stems of garland chrysanthemum plants infected by onion yellows phytoplasma were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Computerized matching analysis revealed that at least six soluble proteins were accumulated specifically in phytoplasma-infected garland chrysanthemum. N-terminal amino acids sequences of these soluble proteins, determined by Edman degradation, shared high sequence similarities with those ofpathogenesis-related type-5 (PR-5) proteins such as tobacco thaumatin-like protein. Accumulation of these six proteins was also found in garland chrysanthemum plants infected by other phytoplasmas. These results demonstrate that phytoplasmal infection induces the accumulation of PR-5 like proteins in garland chrysanthemum plants.

  14. Genomic DNA Extraction from Chrysanthemum Using High Salt CTAB Method%高盐沉淀CTAB法提取温室菊花基因组DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马月萍; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Based on CTAB method,some protocal was modified according to the physiological characteristics of high containing contents of polyphenolics and polysaeeharides in Chrysanthemum.Adding 50% volume of 5 mol·L-1 NaCI into the solution which precipitating.High quality genomic DNA can be extracted from Chrysanthemum using the improved method.The DNA WaS preferable enough to be used as PCR template and digested by restriction enzyme completely and other studies of molecular biology.%根据温室菊花植物组织富含多酚、多糖的具体特性,对CTAB法加以改进:在待沉淀液中加入1/2体积5 mol·L~NaCI.改进后的方法获得的DNA质量良好,电泳条带清晰,提取过程无明显的DNA降解,基本上排除了多酚物质的干扰.以提取的DNA为模板,用一对引物扩增菊花中18S基因,得到条带单一,大小与已知一致,说明获得的DNA可以进行PCR扩增,EcoR I 酶切基因组DNA图谱表明,提取的DNA能被限制性内切酶完全酶切,可以满足相关的分子生物学研究.

  15. Anti-Adipogenic Effects of Ethanol Extracts Prepared from Selected Medicinal Herbs in 3T3-L1 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Jun; Song, Ji-Hye; Shon, Myung-Soo; Kim, Hae Ok; Kwon, O Jun; Roh, Seong-Soo; Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Gyo-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for various metabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we prepared ethanol extracts from Agastache rugosa (ARE), Chrysanthemum zawadskii (CZE), Mentha arvensis (MAE), Perilla frutescens (PFE), Leonurus sibiricus (LSE), Gardenia jasminoides (GJE), and Lycopus coreanus (LCE). The anti-oxidant and anti-adipogenic effects were evaluated. The IC50 values for ascorbic acid and LCE against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals were 246.2 μg/mL and 166.2 μg/mL, respectively, followed by ARE (186.6 μg/mL), CZE (198.6 μg/mL), MAE (337.1 μg/mL), PFE (415.3 μg/mL), LSE (548.2 μg/mL), and GJE (626.3 μg/mL). In non-toxic concentration ranges, CZE had a strong inhibitory effect against 3T3-L1 adipogenes (84.5%) than those of the other extracts. Furthermore, the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE is largely limited in the early stage of adipogenesis, and we revealed that the inhibitory role of CZE in adipogenesis is required for the activation of Wnt signaling. Our results provide scientific evidence that the anti-adipogenic effect of CZE can be applied as an ingredient for the development of functional foods and nutri-cosmetics for obesity prevention. PMID:27752499

  16. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-01

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. PMID:27155239

  18. Identification of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Self-Incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7–36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03–56.50% and 0.04–87.50, respectively. The cultivar “Q10-33-1” had the highest seed set (56.50% and compatible index (87.50, but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0–37.23% and compatible index (0–68.65. The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding.

  19. Effect of Different Concentrations of Garland Chrysanthemum Organ Water Extract on Seed Germination Characteristics of Watermelon%不同浓度茼蒿器官水浸提液对西瓜种子发芽特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范淑英; 肖旭峰; 熊春晖; 倪晓春; 吴才君

    2011-01-01

    采用0.001、0.01、0.1 g·mL-1的干茼蒿根、茎叶、花水浸提液处理西瓜种子,测定其发芽势、发芽率及胚根鲜质量,研究茼蒿水浸提液对西瓜种子的化感抑制率.结果表明:不同浓度茼蒿器官(根、茎叶、花)水浸提液对西瓜种子萌发有较强的抑制作用,随处理浓度升高,抑制作用越强,发芽势、发芽率、胚根鲜质量均低于对照,因此,茼蒿水浸提液浓度在0.001~0.1 g·mL-1对西瓜种子萌发存在明显的化感作用.%In order to study the effects of different concentrations of garland chrysanthemum organ water extract on seed germination characteristics of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ), 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 g · mL-1 organ water extracts from garland chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, flower were used to treat watermelon seeds and to test seed germination characteristics.The results showed that different concentrations of garland chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, flower water extracts could inhibit seed germination of watermelon.The inhibitory effect increased along with the concentration rise.The germinability, germination percentage, radicle quality were all lower than the control.Therefore, 0.001-0.1 g · mL-1 garland chrysanthemum organ water extracts has distinct allelopathy effect on watermelon germination.

  20. In vitro study of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Chrysanthemum balsamita varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedec, Daniela; Filip, Lorena; Vlase, Laurian; Bele, Constantin; Sevastre, Bogdan; Raita, Oana; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Hanganu, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the phenolic substances of two varieties of Chrysanthemum balsamita (balsamita and tanacetoides) and to measure the overall antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC. The evaluation of the polyphenolic content was performed by colorimetric analysis. The antioxidant activity was measured by three in vitro assay models: the DPPH, the silver nanoparticles antioxidant capacity (SNPAC) and EPR radical detection. Using HPLC-MS analysis, phenolic acids, flavonoids and flavonoid aglycone were detected. The highest antioxidant activity was showed by Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita, while the lowest for the Chrysanthemum balsamita var. tanacetoides extract, in accord with the polyphenolic content. The results show that Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita might be a source of antioxidant flavonoids, especially rutin and isoquercitrin. PMID:27592486

  1. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  2. 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

  3. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  4. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    OpenAIRE

    Pasricha J; Nandakishore Th

    1992-01-01

    A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems...

  5. 野菊花总黄酮的提取及萃取精制研究%Process for Leaching and Extracting Total Flavonoids from Buds of the Chrysanthemum indicum L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菡; 罗能镇; 沈剑; 相咸高; 何潮洪; 徐义明; 陈新志

    2013-01-01

      用乙醇水溶液从野菊花中提取总黄酮,再用液-液萃取法进行萃取精制。提取阶段考察了乙醇浓度、液固比、温度、提取时间和提取次数对提取得率的影响,萃取阶段则考察了萃取剂种类、原料液浓度、相比和萃取次数对萃取率和萃取物纯度的影响。通过工艺优化,建立了一条从野菊花中提取总黄酮的工艺路线,即取40~50目的野菊花粉,加入70%的乙醇水溶液,液固比为20:1 mL⋅g−1,在60℃下搅拌回流提取1 h,将提取液蒸干得野菊花浸膏;将野菊花浸膏重新溶解制成15 g⋅L−1的水溶液作为原料液,加入水饱和的正丁醇作为萃取剂,相比为1,在25℃下振荡萃取1 h,萃取3次,所得萃取物的总黄酮纯度为32.4%。在多次萃取时还发现,第2、3次萃取物的总黄酮纯度较高(大于60%),可作为进一步分离提纯黄酮单体的原料。%  In this study, ethanol-water solution was used to leach flavonoids from the flower buds of Chrysanthemum indicum L, and the crude leaching-out products were purified by liquid-liquid extraction. In the leaching process, the influences of ethanol concentration, ratio of solid to liquid, temperature, leaching time and leaching times on yield of the total flavonoids were investigated; while in the liquid-liquid extraction process, a suitable extractant was chosen and the influences of feed concentration, phase ratio and extraction times on the yield of the total flavonoids and purity were studied. It turns out that the suitable conditions are as follows: 1) leaching process:ethanol-water (7:3, v/v) as leaching solution, temperature of 60℃, ratio of solid to liquid of 20:1 mL⋅g−1, leaching time of 1 hour, leaching times of one;2) extraction process:temperature of 25℃, extractant of water-saturated n-butanol, feed concentration of 15 g⋅L−1, phase ratio of 1 and extraction times of three. Under the above conditions

  6. Effects of Chrysanthemum indicum extract on proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma MHCC97H cells%野菊花提取物对人肝癌MHCC97H细胞增殖和凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志东; 李宗芳; 张澍; 代志军; 李君; 梁容瑞; 王宝太; 袁爱华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Chrysanthemum indicum extract(CIE)on proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)MHCC97H cells and explore its mechanism.Methods MHCC97H cells cultured in vitro,pretreatment MHCC97H cells with CIE 0.4,0.8,1.2 mg/ml and blank control group,proliferation of cells was measured by microculture tetrazolium(MTT).Cell apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential(MMP ΔΨm)were determined by flow cytometry.Cytochrome C,Caspase-9 and-3 expression was measured by Western blot.Results CIE significantly inhibited proliferation of MHCC97H cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner.Compared with control group,CIE0.4,0.8,1.2 mg/ml induced MHCC97H cell apoptosis,decreased MMP ΔΨm,and enhanced cytochrome C,Caspase-9 and-3 protein expressions,respectively(P<0.05).Conclusion CIE can inhibit proliferation of MHCC97H cells,which might be associated with inducing cancer cell apoptosis.Mitochondrial pathway could be one that CIE induce cancer cell apoptosis.%目的 观察中药野菊花提取物(chrysanthemum indicum extact,CIE)对人肝癌MHCC97H 细胞增殖和凋亡的影响及其作用机制.方法 体外培养人肝癌MHCC97H细胞,以0.4、0.8、1.2 mg/ml的CIE(实验1、2、3组)作用于MHCC97H细胞,并设立空白对照组.分别于药物作用24、48、72 h时,应用MTT法检测细胞增殖情况.于药物作用24 h时,用AnnexinV-FITC/PI双染检测细胞凋亡、Rhol23检测细胞线粒体膜电位(△Ψm)变化;Western blot检测细胞色素C、Caspase-9、-3的蛋白表达.结果 三种浓度的CIE对MHCC97H细胞的增殖均有明显的抑制作用,且呈明显的时间和浓度依赖性.与对照组相比,各实验组MHCC97H细胞的凋亡率明显增高(P<0.05),线粒体膜电位水平明显降低(P<0.05),细胞色素C、Caspase-9和-3的蛋白表达显著增强(P<0.05),以上各项均呈明显的量效关系.结论 野菊花提取物对肝癌MHCC97H的增殖具有抑制作用,这可能与药物诱导肝

  7. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  8. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sweet, minty-lemony leaves of costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) are used for salads and tea, and as flavourings in meats, sausages, cakes and ale. In this study, the extracts isolated from costmary aerial parts were investigated as antioxidants in rapeseed oil and as free radical-scavengers in

  9. A Novel bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Regulating Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)

    OpenAIRE

    Li-li Xiang; Xiao-fen Liu; Xue Li; Xue-ren Yin; Donald Grierson; Fang Li; Kun-song Chen

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) exhibit a variety of flower colors due to their differing abilities to accumulate anthocyanins. One MYB member, CmMYB6, has been verified as a transcription regulator of chrysanthemum genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis; however, the co-regulators for CmMYB6 remain unclear in chrysanthemum. Here, the expression pattern of CmbHLH2, which is clustered in the IIIf bHLH subgroup, was shown to be positively correlated with the anthocyanin con...

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Flowers and Buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. The results indicated that CISCFE significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, reduced carrageenan-induced paw, and inhibited the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, CISCFE abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that CISCFE decreased the MDA level via increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd, attenuated the productions of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2. In phytochemical study, 35 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and 5 compounds (chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, linarin, luteolin and acacetin were reconfirmed and quantitatively determined by HPLC-PAD. This paper firstly analyzed the chemical composition by combining GC-MS with HPLC-PAD and explored possible mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of CISCFE.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Flowers and Buds of Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Li; Li, Chu-Wen; Chen, Hai-Ming; Su, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian-Nan; Lai, Xiao-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Su, Zi-Ren

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. The results indicated that CISCFE significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, reduced carrageenan-induced paw, and inhibited the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, CISCFE abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that CISCFE decreased the MDA level via increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of NF- κ B, TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2. In phytochemical study, 35 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and 5 compounds (chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, linarin, luteolin and acacetin) were reconfirmed and quantitatively determined by HPLC-PAD. This paper firstly analyzed the chemical composition by combining GC-MS with HPLC-PAD and explored possible mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of CISCFE. PMID:24223056

  12. Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; An Wei DING; You Bin LI; Da Wei QIAN; Jin Ao DUAN; Zhi Qi YIN

    2006-01-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Their structures were determined to be luteolin 4'-methoxy-7- O-(6"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and acacetin 7-O-(3"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR technique.

  13. In vitro mutagenesis of chrysanthemum for breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol of in vitro mutagenesis for chrysanthemum was established. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) is about 5.0 kR for calli irradiation. Various growth, developmental, morphological, colour and abnormal shape mutations were identified in M1V4 generation. (author)

  14. 77 FR 65840 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD67 Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... chrysanthemum white rust (CWR) outbreaks and the importation of plant material that is a host of CWR. CWR is...

  15. 77 FR 46339 - Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD67 Chrysanthemum White Rust Regulatory Status and Restrictions AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... chrysanthemum white rust (CWR) outbreaks and the importation of plant material that is a host of...

  16. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187516

  17. [Study on transformation of snowdrop lectin gene to chrysanthemum and aphid resistance of the transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Lin; Liu, Yan-Hong; Guo, Shao-Hua; Wang, Yu; Ji, Yan; Fang, Hong-Jun

    2004-12-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chrysanthemum was studied to prevent the insect pest of aphid (Mizus persicae). The gna gene was successfully transferred into chrysanthemum by leaf dish, and 93 transgenic clones were obtained. The highest transformation frequency 11.21% was achieved on the optimization facts, which were medium YEB with pH5.6, bacterial concentration OD600 = 0.4, precultivation for one day, cocultivation for four days, the cocultivation media supplemented with GA3 0.5 mg/L and leaf explants growed for 45 days. The results from PCR and FQ-PCR analysis confirmed that gna gene was integrated into the genome of chrysanthemum plants. The insect bioassay with aphid showed that the aphid resistance of different transgenic plants was difference, and the rate of aphid population inhibition of them were from 10% to 84% with an average rate of 39.4%. The leaf-extracts from different transgenic plants showed varying actinties in red-blood cell bioassay.

  18. Studies on aldose reductase inhibitors from natural products. IV. Constituents and aldose reductase inhibitory effect of Chrysanthemum morifolium, Bixa orellana and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, S; Shimizu, M; Horie, S; Morita, N

    1991-12-01

    The hot water extracts of Chrysanthemum morifolium, Bixa orellana and Ipomoea batatas, were found to have potent inhibitory activity towards lens aldose reductase (AR). Ellagic acid (4) was isolated from C. morifolium and I. batatas, isoscutellarein (7) from B. orellana and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (10) from I. batatas, respectively, as potent inhibitors. PMID:1814628

  19. 菊花黄色素的性质研究%Study of Yellow Pigment's Property from Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳滢春; 谷雪贤

    2012-01-01

    以菊花为原料提取菊花黄色素,并对其理化性质和稳定性进行了研究。结果表明:菊花黄色素色素可溶于水、甲醇、95%乙醇、正丁醇等极性较强的溶剂中,不溶于氯仿、石油醚等非极性溶剂中。最大吸收波长为445 nm。色素溶液在室温自然光环境中存放至36 h后无明显变化,在80℃以下色素的耐热性较好。对光、热较稳定,耐受一般的食品饮料加工条件。菊花黄色素可用于果汁饮料、调味品、及酒类等的加工中。%The freezing-melting-ultrasound combined cell crushing method was added to the original preparation process of chrysanthemum yellow pigment, so that the cell wall of chrysanthemum petals were fully ruptured and pigment directly flowed out. The improved process shortened the extraction time, and improved pigment extraction rate. To assess the feasibility of new technology, the experiment of comparing extraction results of new process to extraction results of the conventional process was done. The experimental results showed that: The yellow pigment showed different color in different condition of pH value. Finally, chrysanthemum yellow pigment was added to the wine, vinegar and beverage products to preparing characteristic chrysanthemum product series. And its stability was studied preliminary .

  20. Chrysanthemum expressing a linalool synthase gene 'smells good', but 'tastes bad' to western flower thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Thoen, Manus; Wiegers, Gerrie; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2013-09-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles are often involved in direct and indirect plant defence against herbivores. Linalool is a common floral scent and found to be released from leaves by many plants after herbivore attack. In this study, a linalool/nerolidol synthase, FaNES1, was overexpressed in the plastids of chrysanthemum plants (Chrysanthemum morifolium). The volatiles of FaNES1 chrysanthemum leaves were strongly dominated by linalool, but they also emitted small amount of the C11-homoterpene, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, a derivative of nerolidol. Four nonvolatile linalool glycosides in methanolic extracts were found to be significantly increased in the leaves of FaNES1 plants compared to wild-type plants. They were putatively identified by LC-MS-MS as two linalool-malonyl-hexoses, a linalool-pentose-hexose and a glycoside of hydroxy-linalool. A leaf-disc dual-choice assay with western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis) showed, initially during the first 15 min of WFT release, that FaNES1 plants were significantly preferred. This gradually reversed into significant preference for the control, however, at 20-28 h after WFT release. The initial preference was shown to be based on the linalool odour of FaNES1 plants by olfactory dual-choice assays using paper discs emitting pure linalool at similar rates as leaf discs. The reversal of preference into deterrence could be explained by the initial nonvolatile composition of the FaNES1 plants, as methanolic extracts were less preferred by WFT. Considering the common occurrence of linalool and its glycosides in plant tissues, it suggests that plants may balance attractive fragrance with 'poor taste' using the same precursor compound.

  1. Study on electrochemical fingerprints of different Chrysanthemums by using B-Z oscillation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing Cheng; Jia Chen; Cheng Wu Fang; De Ling Wu

    2011-01-01

    A sensitive and convenient method for the study of electrochemical fingerprints of Chrysanthemums from different regions is studied by Belousov-Zhabotinskii (B-Z) oscillation system with malonate as a dissipative material. The results indicated that the electrochemical fingerprints of Chrysanthemums from different regions show significantly different characteristics, and can be used to identify the regions of Chrysanthemums.

  2. 以菊展促文化推进春节菊花市场发展%Culture and market promotion by Chrysanthemum Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超超; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Chrysanthemum exhibition is one of the most important ways of chrysanthemum demonstration, which may promote industrial production and culture dissemination, and is also a way to direct the chrysanthemum production toward the market. Based on the introduction of chrysanthemum exhibition and chrysanthemum culture,including chrysanthemum market survey in the Spring Festival, the authors proposed that Chrysanthemum Exhibition in Spring Festival can open a new market for extended use of chrysanthemum.Techniques to control the flowering of chrysanthemum were described in the paper.

  3. Study on Chrysanthemum Health Jelly%菊花保健果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文峰; 冷桂华; 周秀玲

    2012-01-01

    以菊花为主要原料,以卡拉胶、魔芋粉为主要胶体,研制了营养价值高,感官性状良好,并具有一定保健功能的果冻。采用三因素三水平试验确定了菊花的最佳浸提条件,即为:浸提温度85℃,时间为25 min,加水量为70倍。还探讨了卡拉胶、魔芋粉的最佳配比,通过正交试验得出保健果冻的最佳配方,即为:胶粉(卡拉胶∶魔芋粉为4∶1)为1.3%,白砂糖15%,柠檬酸0.18%,菊花浸提液25%。%With the chrysanthemum as main raw materials,carrageenan,konjac powder as the main colloid,developed a high nutritional value and sensory properties,and had certainly good health care function jelly.Adopting three factors 3 levels test to determine the best leaching of chrysanthemum,namely contracts for: leaching 85 ℃,extracting time 25 min,70 times water.Also discussed carrageenan,konjac powder at the best ratio through thogonal experiment,we confirmed the best formula of health jelly was that powder(carrageenan: konjac powder for 4∶1) 1.3%,sugar 15%,citric acid 0.18% and chrysanthemum juice 25%.

  4. Study of Development Potential Chrysanthemum in Buleleng Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Arjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of agro-climate, technology of cultivation, harvest and post-harvest chrysanthemums. This study uses survey method, through the collection of primary data and secondary data. This research is located in the village of Pancasari, District Sukasada, Buleleng Bali Province. Descriptive survey conducted on 40 respondents chrysanthemum growers using the component identification of determinants of commodity production chrysanthemum include: site selection, infrastructure, crop production processes and post-harvest handling. The survey results showed that 100% of the farmers have chosen a suitable location with agro-climatic conditions required by the chrysanthemum plant, and 86.09% of the farmers have been using the means needed to support the process of crop production. In the process of production of 78% in accordance with the operational procedures. At the stage of harvest and post-harvest handling 80% have been implemented by farmers and some still use conventional methods of handling. Thus Pancasari village has a potential location for the cultivation of chrysanthemum as a mainstay commodity.

  5. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chrysanthemum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai; HU; Zhiguo; SUN; Wanzhen; XIONG; Limin; HUANG; Shuting; WANG

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an analysis on the current protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage of chrysanthemum resources. The following recommendations are explored and set forth: ( i) Collecting and sorting the intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum,and declaring the provincial and national list; ( ii) Establishing the productive protection demonstration bases of intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum; ( iii) Strengthening the declaration of geographical indication intellectual property protection of chrysanthemum; ( iv) Encouraging the use of special marks of geographical indication,and cultivating chrysanthemum brand; ( v) Establishing various kinds of national quality standards of geographical indication of chrysanthemum; ( vi) Implementing the double protection of intangible cultural heritage and geographical indication of traditional chrysanthemum.

  6. 菊花保健啤酒研究进展%Recent Research Progress of Chrysanthemum Healthy Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛永斌; 徐娟; 刘西岭; 燕傲蕾

    2015-01-01

    在对菊花保健啤酒研究的基础上,总结国内菊花保健啤酒的研究现状,介绍菊花啤酒中添加的有效成分及各有效成分的功效,并对菊花啤酒生产工艺中有效成分提取的方法进行比较得出:热水提取法由于成本低、安全且不影响口感而被多数企业采用。对菊花添加时间及添加形式及添加量进行分析,认为后发酵时添加菊花提取液效果较好,同时控制菊花添加量对于保持菊花保健啤酒的理化性质及啤酒品质有重要作用。通过对菊花保健啤酒生产工艺的研究探讨合理的生产工艺,同时也对菊花保健啤酒研发过程中存在的问题及未来保健啤酒的发展前景作简要分析。%Based on the research of Chrysanthemum healthy beer,this paper summarized the domestic re⁃search status,introduced the effective ingredients added to Chrysanthemum beer and the efficacies of each ac⁃tive component,and compared the extraction methods of the effective components. The result is that hot wa⁃ter extraction method was adopt by the majority of enterprises because of its low cost ,safety and good taste. It is found that the best time to add extracts of Chrysanthemum were in after-fermentation period and the amount of Chrysanthemum added in beer had important effects on the physicochemical properties and main⁃tained the quality of Chrysanthemum healthy beer. The reasonable production process was discussed through the researches of the technology in the production. The problems in the research and development process as well as the development prospect of the future were analyzed briefly at the same time.

  7. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  8. Reversal of multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells by Curcuma wenyujin and Chrysanthemum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wei, D-D; Chen, Z; Wang, J-S; Kong, L-Y

    2011-06-15

    The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a big challenge to cancer chemotherapy. Plant-derived agents have great potential to prevent onset or delay progression of the carcinogenic process, and enhance the efficacy of mainstream antitumor agents. In this study, fractionated extracts of Curcuma wenyujin and Chrysanthemum indicum were tested for their potential to modulate the MDR phenotype and function of P-gp in MCF-7/ADR and A549/Taxol cells in vitro. Fractions C. wenyujin C10, E10 from Curcuma wenyujin, and C. indicum E10 from Chrysanthemum indicum, exhibited significant effects in sensitization of these resistant cancer cells at non-toxic concentration to doxorubicin and docetaxel by MTT method. They also increased the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation and retention in MCF-7/ADR cells. In mechanism study, an increase of Rh123 accumulation and a decrease of Rh123 efflux were observed in MCF-7/ADR cells treated with these fractions, indicating a blockage of the activity of P-gp. Furthermore, C. wenyujin C10 had the ability to down-regulate the expression of P-gp. All these fractions could enhance the apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in MCF-7/ADR cells, and restore the effect of docetaxel on the induction of G2/M arrest in A549/Taxol cells. C. wenyujin C10 and E10 also owned the ability to induce S phase arrest. These results showed the therapeutic value of the three fractions as potential MDR-reversing agents and warranted further investigations.

  9. Simultaneous determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in chrysanthemum by capillary electrophoresis with amperometry detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yan Zhang; Zi Cheng Li; Jin Kun Zhu; Zhi Yong Yang; Qing Jiang Wang; Pin Gang He; Yu Zhi Fang

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance capillary electrophoresis with amperometry detection method(CE-AD)has been developed for the analysis of flavonoids and anthraquinones(emodin,kaempferol,apigenin,luteolin and rhein)in chrysanthemum.Under optimum conditions,these five analytes were base-line separated within 17 min using a borate-phosphate running buffer(1.5 × 10-2mol/L borate-3 × 10-2 mol/L phosphate running buffer,pH 9.0)at a working potential of+0.90 V(vs.SCE)and a separation voltage of 19 kV.The linear relationship between concentration and current response was obtained with detection limits(S/N = 3)ranging from 1.0 × 10-7 to 2.1 × 10-7 g/mL for all analytes.This proposed method was successfully used in the analysis of four kinds of chrysanthemum with relatively simple extraction procedures,the assay results were satisfactory.

  10. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of supercritical CO2 extract of flower bud of Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial activity%菊米超临界CO2萃取物的气相色谱-质谱分析及其抑菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春荣; 方程吉; 余庆青; 蒋鹏; 田薇

    2013-01-01

      用气相色谱‐质谱( gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry , GC‐MS)对通过超临界CO2萃取的菊米精油成分进行分析,并通过测定其抑菌圈直径判断其抑菌活性.结果表明:经GC‐MS分析在菊米精油中共鉴定出28个相似度在70%以上的成分,以萜类及其衍生物为主,其中萜类主要为单萜和倍半萜,其衍生物主要为醇;菊米精油对金黄色葡萄球菌和大肠杆菌具有一定的抑菌效果,其最小抑菌质量浓度( minimum inhibitory concentration , MIC)为1.6 mg/mL ,显示出良好的抑菌活性.%Summary Jumi , the flower bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L . , is a special tea from Shilian , Zhejiang Province , and it is famous for its unique fragrance . Jumi essential oil has numerous efficacies and applications in the field of pharmacy and cosmetic industry , therefore developing effective oil extracting method which can keep both biological activity and fragrance is of considerable significance . At present , steam distillation has been reported as essential oil extract method , but this method can not keep the unique fragrance of Jumi due to the decomposition of fragrant component at high temperature . However , the supercritical fluid of CO 2 ( SFE‐CO2 ) is a low temperature processing technique and can fully keep the unique fragrance of Jumi , which is an efficient , non‐toxic , pollution‐free , and non‐residual method to extract and separate Jumi essential oil . The objective of this paper is to evaluate the quality of Jumi essential oil extracted by SFE‐CO2 and determine its biological activity . The chemical compositions of Jumi essential oil were determined by GC‐MS and their inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were analyzed by filter paper tablet bacteriostatic method and minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC) .The results showed that the 28 types of components with the similarity of more than 70% were

  11. Systems design methodology to develop chrysanthemum growing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Vermeulen, T.

    2012-01-01

    When chrysanthemum growers change soil for a soilless growing system they aim for labour cost reduction, quality and yield improvement and reduced emissions of nutrients. Because many attempts to come up with a viable soilless system failed, improvements and systemizations of the design process were

  12. A New Compound from the Bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new bicyclic spiroketone was isolated from the bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.The chemical structure was elucidated as (1R, 9S, 10S)-10-hydroxyl-8 (2', 4'-diynehexylidene)-9-isovaleryloxy-2, 7-dioxaspiro [5, 4] decane based on the X-ray crystallography.

  13. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck's short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa' mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in shortfiction.

  14. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck’s short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa’ mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in short fiction.

  15. Functional anatomy of the water transport system in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.

    2001-01-01

    Cut flowers show a wide variance of keepability. The market demands more and more a guaranteed quality. Therefore, methods must be developed to predict vase life of cut flowers. Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema x grandiflorum Tzvelev) and some other cut flowers suffer from unpredicted early leaf wilting

  16. Analysis and Simulation of Growth and Yield of Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : chrysanthemum, crop growth, development, explanatory model, expolinear growth, dry mass, dry matter partitioning, fresh mass, leaf area index, light interception, light use efficiency, plant density, season, simulation, validation, year-round. Seasonal var

  17. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592, an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso4E with other reported plant eIF(iso4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso4E belongs to the eIF(iso4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results inferred that CmeIF(iso4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  18. Customer Acceptance Survey On Chrysanthemum Mutant Developed By Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important temperate cut flower for Malaysian floriculture industry and the lack of new local-owned varieties has led to this mutation breeding research. The project was started in 2008 under bilateral cooperation between Nuclear Malaysia and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). Through this project, 8 new varieties of chrysanthemum were successfully developed, in which 4 varieties were from red cultivar and another 4 from pink cultivar. A preliminary survey on public perception and acceptance of these mutants was conducted on 7 January 2014 at Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The main objective of this survey was to gather information from the public on overall appearance of these new varieties and their potential for commercialization. Approximately 60 participants were involved in this survey, which include staff of Nuclear Malaysia, university students, plant growers/collectors and hobbyists. (author)

  19. On Walter ’s Otherness in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嵩皎

    2015-01-01

    Odour of Chrysanthemums is one of the British writer D. H. Lawrence’s short stories. In the story, character’s understanding of each other reflects the idea of otherness. This paper tries to analyze both Walter’s mother and Elizabeth’s understanding of Walter Bates. Then it points out that they did not really understand him, nor did they understand his otherness. Their failure to understand his otherness is a reason to the unhappy marriage to some extent.

  20. Analysis of karyotype diversity of 40 Chinese chrysanthemum cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan ZHANG; Ming-Li ZHU; Si-Lan DAI

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genetic differences in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) cultivars,we selected 40 typical and stable cultivars on which to carry out cytological studies using karyotype analysis.The results showed that 67.5% of these cultivars were hexaploid-based aneuploid and that the proportion of hexaploid decreased with passing time.Moreover,35% of the cultivars had 1-4 satellite chromosome(s).The probability of satellite chromosomes rose with increasing chromosome number.Most of the karyotypes were 2A and 2B.The probability of types 2A and 2C also increased with increasing ploidy of the cultivars.The mean of long-/short-arm ratio and the variation of long-/short-ann ratio were positively correlated (r2 =0.72).There was no obvious difference in the asymmetry coefficient of karyotypes,but the discrepancy in the variance of karyotype asymmetry index and relative length of chromosomes was quite distinct.In terms ofkaryotype parameters,the petal types of chrysanthemums were classified to five groups as flat,tubular,spoon,abnormal,and anemone.We did not observe any obvious orderliness among flower head types.Considering the relationship between karyotype parameters and phenotypic characters,variation of long-/short-arm ratio and asymmetry coefficient ofkaryotypes had the greatest relevance toward most phenotypic characters.The above results indicate that karyotype parameters possess great values for cultivar identification,classification,and genetic analysis in chrysanthemums.

  1. Effect of the different timing of AMF inoculation on plant growth and flower quality of chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sohn, B.K.; Kim, K.Y.; Chung, S.J.; Kim, W.S.; Park, S.M.; Kang, J.G.; Rim, Y.S.; Cho, J.S.; Kim, T.H.; Lee, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Plant growth and flower quality of an ornamental plant (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) var. Baekgwang in response to the different timing of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation were examined. To evaluate the effects of AMF inoculation timing on growth of chrysanthemum cuttings, AMF was d

  2. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  3. An Analysis of Symbolism in the Novel The Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔璨

    2013-01-01

      The Chrysanthemums is the masterpiece of John Steinbeck, which is considered to be"one of the greatest short stories ever". The story tells the life experiences of an 35-year-old woman named Elisa. In this novel, the most outstanding writing tech⁃nique is the use of symbolism. Based on the analysis of the story, this paper aims to analyze how symbols are used to reflect the theme of this novel, which will be of great help o have a better understanding of the theme and the charm of the story.

  4. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  5. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of Chrysanthemum Trihelix Transcription Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trihelix transcription factors are thought to feature a typical DNA-binding trihelix (helix-loop-helix-loop-helix domain that binds specifically to the GT motif, a light-responsive DNA element. Members of the trihelix family are known to function in a number of processes in plants. Here, we characterize 20 trihelix family genes in the important ornamental plant chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium. Based on transcriptomic data, 20 distinct sequences distributed across four of five groups revealed by a phylogenetic tree were isolated and amplified. The phylogenetic analysis also identified four pairs of orthologous proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and five pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the trihelix proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analyzed using MEME, and further bioinformatic analysis revealed that 16 CmTHs can be targeted by 20 miRNA families and that miR414 can target 9 CmTHs. qPCR results displayed that most chrysanthemum trihelix genes were highly expressed in inflorescences, while 20 CmTH genes were in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses. This work improves our understanding of the various functions of trihelix gene family members in response to hormonal stimuli and stress.

  6. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling Analysis of Chrysanthemum Trihelix Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Wu, Dan; Fan, Qingqing; Tian, Chang; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Xin, Jingjing; Zhao, Kunkun; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Trihelix transcription factors are thought to feature a typical DNA-binding trihelix (helix-loop-helix-loop-helix) domain that binds specifically to the GT motif, a light-responsive DNA element. Members of the trihelix family are known to function in a number of processes in plants. Here, we characterize 20 trihelix family genes in the important ornamental plant chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Based on transcriptomic data, 20 distinct sequences distributed across four of five groups revealed by a phylogenetic tree were isolated and amplified. The phylogenetic analysis also identified four pairs of orthologous proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and five pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the trihelix proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analyzed using MEME, and further bioinformatic analysis revealed that 16 CmTHs can be targeted by 20 miRNA families and that miR414 can target 9 CmTHs. qPCR results displayed that most chrysanthemum trihelix genes were highly expressed in inflorescences, while 20 CmTH genes were in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses. This work improves our understanding of the various functions of trihelix gene family members in response to hormonal stimuli and stress. PMID:26848650

  7. Chrysanthemum boreale Makino essential oil induces keratinocyte proliferation and skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Yoon, Mi-So; Hwang, Dae Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Park, Joo-Hoon; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of essential oil from the flower of Chrysanthemum boreale Makino (CBMEO) on growth of human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and explored a possible mechanism for this response. CBMEO was extracted using the steam distillation method. CBMEO contained a total of 33 compounds. CBMEO stimulated HaCaT proliferation (EC50, 0.028 μg/mL) and also induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in HaCaTs (EC50, 0.007 and 0.005 μg/mL, for phosphorylated Akt and ERK1/2, respectively). Moreover, CBMEO promoted wound closure in the dorsal side skin of rat tail. This study demonstrated that CBMEO can stimulate growth of human skin keratinocytes, probably through the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. Therefore, CBMEO may be helpful in skin regeneration and wound healing in human skin, and may also be a possible cosmetic material for skin beauty. PMID:25167931

  8. Formation flavonoid secondary metabolites in callus culture of Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium as alternative provision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwianingsih, Widi; Febri, Santika; Kusdianti

    2016-02-01

    Increasing need of medicine ingredients require the discovery of other methods that can be used as an alternative. One method that can be used as an alternative is tissue culture. Quercetin is a flavonoid secondary metabolites that have been known to be useful as antiviral, anti-asthma and anti-cancer potential. The purpose of this study was to produce flavonoids, especially quercetin in callus culture Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium. Pieces of leaves of plantlets C. cinerariefolium used as explants for formation of callus tissue. To grow the callus, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium used with addition of various concentrations of growth regulators 2.4-D, and kinetin. For multiplication, callus subcultured on similar medium. Callus that had formed, especially brown callus, further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum (GCMS). Before analyzed callus was extracted in 95% ethanol. The result showed that callus potentially generate secondary metabolite are brown and friable. Based on these parameters, the best callus produced from leaf explants grown on MS medium with the addition of 4 mg / L 2,4-D and 0 mg / L kinetin. The callus contain secondary metabolites such as some of the flavonoid quercetin precursors such as acetic acid and tetrahydroxychalcone, and some other secondary metabolites.

  9. Study on Processing Technology of Clarified Corn-chrysanthemum-based Beverage%澄清型玉米菊花饮料加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守江; 易克传; 苏起升; 刘正; 余海兵

    2011-01-01

    The processing condition of corn-chrysanthemum- based beverage using waxy com and chrysanthemum as materials was studied. The results showed that waxy com juice was obtained by grinding the seed of waxy com in the ratio 1:10 of seed to water, and then liquefying using 1.5 mL/L α-amylase for 1.5 hours at 90℃, and saccharifing using 0.5 g/L glucoamylase for 0.5 hour at 65℃. The chrysanthemum extracted liquid was extracted in the ratio 1:200 of chrysanthemum to water. Based on organoleptic quality of beverage,the optimum mixed ratio is 3:2 of com juice to chrysanthemum extracted liquid, other ingredients are respectively: 4% suger, 0.04% citric acid, 0.06% acesulfame and 0.006% com essence. The product has better color, maintain the flavor of com and chrysanthemum, and can provide potential health benefits.%以糯玉米、滁菊花为主要原料,对澄清型玉米菊花饮料加工工艺进行了研究,确定了饮料的最佳加工工艺条件.结果表明,按1:10料水比对玉米进行磨浆,浆液过滤后加入1.5 mL、L α-淀粉酶在90℃下液化1.5小时,以及加入0.5 g/L糖化酶在65℃下糖化0.5小时,酶解处理后的浆液静置后取上清液得到糯玉米汁;以1:200的花水比浸提得到菊花浸提液.以感官品质为指标,经正交试验得到饮料最佳调配比例:玉米汁与菊花浸提液按3:2比例混合,其他配料以混合液为基准的添加量分别为:4%砂糖、0.04%柠檬酸、0.06%安赛蜜和0.006%玉米香精.生产的玉米菊花饮料不仅色泽好、保留了原有玉米和菊花的清香,且具有一定的保健功能成分.

  10. Impedance measurement of gamma-irradiated chrysanthemum head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical conductivity or impedance can be used to determine the changes occurred at membrane level of the plant tissues, during the senescence process or after a stress condition. Chrysanthemum cut inflorescences were irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy in a Gammacell 220. The experiment was constituted by four groups: control, non-irradiated samples; irradiated samples; non-irradiated and 2% sucrose supplied samples, and irradiated and 2% sucrose supplied samples. The measurements were carried out during the flower vase-life with a Digital Spectral Analyzer. The radiation inhibited the development of the flowers, which could be avoided by the sucrose. An increase in the inflorescence head impendance was detected soon after the irradiation, indicating that the dose of 750 Gy caused changes at membrane level. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig

  11. Induction of somatic mutation in chrysanthemum cultivar 'Anupam'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum cv. 'Anupam' were irradiated with 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 Krad of gamma rays. Significant reduction in survival, plant height, branch, leaf and flower head number and leaf size were recorded after irradiation. Radio sensitivity was determined on the basis of different cytomorphological parameters. Different types of morphological abnormalities in leaves and flower and chromosomal abnormalities during root tip mitosis were observed and the total abnormalities increased with increase in exposure to gamma rays. Significant delay in flower bud initiation, first colour showing and full bloom were recorded in the treated population. Somatic mutations in flower colour could be induced in vM1 as chimera and a total of three flower colour mutant, i.e., lighter, white and striped were isolated and established in pure form as new cultivars which are of direct use for floriculture industry. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs. , 2 tabs

  12. Karyomorphological Studies on Chinese Pot Chrysanthemum Cultivars with Large Inflorescences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang; CHEN Su-mei; CHEN Fa-di; LI Zhen; FANG Wei-min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the karyotypes of 30 Chinese large flowered pot chrysanthemum cultivars, differing with respect to flower type, petal type, and flower colour. The interphase nuclei and prophase chromosomes of all the cultivars are, respectively, of the complex chromocentre and the interstitial type. Somatic chromosome number varies from 49 to 62, mostly falling in the range 51-56 or 58. Most of the cultivars are chromosomal mosaics, with three showing 2n=6x=54, and two 2n+1=6x+1=55. At mitotic metaphase, most of the chromosomes are of the metacentric or submetacentric type, with a small number of acrocentrics and telocentrics. B chromosome (s) are present in about 22% of the entireties. The asymmetry index of the chromosomes ranges between 61 and 66%. The karyotypes can be categorized as reversely symmetrical types "2A" or "2B".

  13. 枸杞菊花复合饮料的研制%Development of Wolfberry and Chrysanthemum Compound Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志艳; 王佳丽; 李志; 阮美娟; 张焱; 杜依登

    2014-01-01

    探讨以枸杞、菊花等药食同源材料制备一种新型明目复合饮料的最佳配方。以枸杞子、菊花、茯苓、石斛、决明子、桑叶、罗汉果、淡竹叶等为原料,添加适量酸和糖,在单因素实验的基础上通过正交试验确定复合饮料中各组分最佳添加量比例。复合浸提液配比为枸杞∶菊花∶决明子∶石斛∶罗汉果∶茯苓∶山药∶桑叶∶淡竹叶为20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4;饮料最佳配方为:复合原液50%、糖10%、酸0.15%。所制复合饮料呈亮黄色,香气协调、柔和,酸甜适中,口感浑厚。%We explore the best formula of a novel compound beverage, which was prepared by food and medicine homologous material, such as wolfberry and chrysanthemum. The optimal add amount of each component was determined by orthogonal on the basis of single factor experiments with wolfberry, chrysanthemum, Poria, Dendrobium, cassia, mulberry, Mangosteen, light bamboo as raw materials. The composite extract ratio of wolfberry, Chrysanthemum, Cassia, Dendrobium, Mangosteen, Poria, yam, Mulberry and short bamboo was 20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4. The best formula of beverage was composite liquid 50%, sugar 10%, acid 0.15%. Beverage of prepared were bright yellow, coordinate and soft aroma, moderate sweet and sour, vigorous taste.

  14. Identification and characterization of four chrysanthemum MADS-box genes, belonging to the APETALA1/FRUITFULL and SEPALLATA3 subfamilies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shchennikova, A.V.; Shulga, O.A.; Immink, R.; Skryabin, K.G.; Angenent, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Four full-length MADS-box cDNAs from chrysanthemum, designated Chrysanthemum Dendrathema grandiflorum MADS (CDM) 8, CDM41, CDM111, and CDM44, have been isolated and further functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment and expression patterns of the corresponding genes suggest that CDM8 and

  15. InIdentification and characterization of pathotypes in Puccinia horiana, a rust pathogen of Chrysanthemum x morifolium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, de M.; Alaei, H.; Bockstaele, van E.; Roldan-Ruiz, I.; Lee, van der T.; Maes, M.; Heungens, K.

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia horiana is the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust or Japanese rust. This microcyclic autoecious rust has a quarantine status and can cause major damage in the commercial production of Chrysanthemum x morifolium. Given the international and often trans-continental production of plantin

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Ke; Liang, Qian-Yu; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Jiang, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat) of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress. PMID:27447718

  17. Transcriptome-wide identification and expression analysis of chrysanthemum SBP-like transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Gao, Tianwei; Wu, Dan; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Wang, Haibin; Jin, Lili; Chen, Fadi

    2016-05-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP) transcription factors are known to function in a number of processes in plants. Here, we have characterized twelve SBP-like (SPL) genes in the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium). A total of twelve distinct sequences were isolated and amplified based on transcriptomic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis identified two pairs of orthologous proteins for Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and two pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the SPL proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were scanned using MEME. A bioinformatics analysis revealed that six of these genes contained a miR156 target site, while five CmSPLs were targeted by miR157. Moreover, we used 5' RLM-RACE to map the cleavage sites in CmSPL2 and CmSPL3. The expression of these twelve genes in response to a variety of phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. This work improves our understanding of the various functions of SPL gene family members in the stress response. PMID:26897115

  18. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    approximately 200 mol m−2 s−1 at plant height for 16 h per day. The four light treatments were (1) 40% Blue/60% Red, (2) 20% Blue/80% Red, (3) 100% Red, and (4) 100% White (Control). The plant height was smallest in 40% Blue/60% Red in roses and chrysanthemums, while the biomass was smallest in the white......To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida ‘Scarlet’, Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Coral Charm’, and Campanula portenschlagiana ‘BluOne’ were grown at 24/18 ◦C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding...... control in roses and in 100% Red in chrysanthemums. The total biomass was unaffected by the spectrum in campanulas, while the leaf area was smallest in the 40% Blue/60% Red treatment. In 100% Red curled leaves and other morphological abnormalities were observed. Increasing the blue to red ratio increased...

  19. STUDY ON CROSSING ABILITY OF ANNUAL CHRYSANTHEMUM GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Kattera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment comprised of six genotypes viz., NAC-01-10, NAC-02-10, NAC-03-10, NAC-04-10, NAC-05-10, NAC-06-10 selected for petal colour and number of layers of petals to estimate pollen viability, in-vitro pollen germination, stigma receptivity and crossed seed set percentage to find out the crossing ability of genotypes. The present experiment was laid out at the experimental field of Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, during 2010-11. Pollen viability of six genotypes of annual chrysanthemum showed a range of 69.69% to 86.66% viability, Percentage of germination on the day of anthesis ranged from 22.72% (NAC-06-10 to 66.66% (NAC-01-10. First day pollen pollinated on first day stigma showed 100% stigma receptivity in all six genotypes and the crossed seed set ranged from 61.60% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-05-10 to 92.00% (NAC-01-10 × NAC-04-10 among direct crosses whereas, the percentage ranged from 42.00% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-02-10 to 90.00% (NAC-05-10 × NAC-01-10 among the reciprocal crosses. All the six genotypes are highly suitable for their use as parents in crossing program.

  20. Chrysanthemum Cutting Productivity and Rooting Ability Are Improved by Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted “Jinba” (non-grafted cuttings with those collected from grafted “Jinba” plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings. The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings “Jinba” rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N, as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand.

  1. Chrysanthemum cutting productivity and rooting ability are improved by grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Sumei; Liu, Ruixia; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Fang, Weimin

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted "Jinba" (non-grafted cuttings) with those collected from grafted "Jinba" plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings). The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings "Jinba" rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N), as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand. PMID:23878523

  2. Effect of colour of light on the opening of inflorescence buds and post-harvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jerzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pot cultivar of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum 'Leticia Time Yellow' was cultivated and stored in a growth room under fluorescent light of white, blue, green, yellow and red colour. Quantum irradiance was 30 μmol · m-2 × s-1. The colour of light exerted a significant influence on the opening of closed inflorescence buds and on post-harvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums grown earlier in an unheated plastic tunnel. Under florescent lamps emitting blue light at a wavelength of 400-580 nm, inflorescence buds opened and coloured the earliest. The number of developed flower heads was the greatest under blue and white light. Flower heads developing in blue light were bigger than flower heads developing in white and green light. In red light at a wavelength of 600-700 nm, plants flowered latest and they produced the smallest flower heads. Post-harvest longevity was preserved longest in chrysanthemums kept under blue, white and green light. In red and yellow light, the flowers were overblown earliest.

  3. Effects of growth conditions on external quality of cut chrysanthemum; analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  4. Industrial Dehumanization——Viewed from the husband and wife relationship in "Odour of Chrysanthemums"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苗

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence is regarded as one of most accomplished short story writers in twentieth century, with "Odour of Chrysanthemums" one of his early works. Through the death of a miner, the text shows how humanity was ruined by industrial civilization. This essay is intended to unveil the destructive force by analyzing the relationship between the husband and wife.

  5. Role of sink-source relationships in chrysanthemum flower size and total biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Harbinson, J.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    The present work was aimed at understanding and quantifying the effect of sink-source relationships on flower size, using chrysanthemum as a model system. Sink/source ratio was manipulated by flower bud removal (leaving one, two or four flowers, and a control), axillary shoot removal, and varying da

  6. Wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers : roles of peroxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Vaslier, N.

    2002-01-01

    A wounding-induced xylem occlusion, resulting in severe leaf wilting, occurs in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers (Dendranthema grandiflora), cv. Vyking. The blockage develops after about 1 h in flowers held in air at 20 °C. It is initially located in the lowermost 2 cm of the stem and upon prolong

  7. Evidence for a wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Cruz, P.

    2000-01-01

    A temperature-dependent xylem occlusion was found in cut chrysanthemum stems (Dendranthema grandiflora, cv. Viking) which were placed for 24 h in air at 5oC prior to vase life evaluation. The response was inhibited by a 5-h treatment, prior to placement in air, with aqueous solutions at low initial

  8. Deflowered: Walking Students through A Harsher Reading of John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a teaching method for John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums" which focuses on word choice, symbolism, character interaction, and gender roles. Proposes that such a close study should reveal to students that Steinbeck should be considered one of America's most talented writers. (PM)

  9. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  10. Genotypic differences in metabolomic changes during storage induced-degreening of chrysanthemum disk florets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van Geert; Choi, Young Hae; Arens, Paul; Post, Aike; Liu, Ying; Meeteren, van Uulke

    2016-01-01

    Selecting chrysanthemum cultivars with long storability and vase life is a major challenge for breeders. The rate of degreening of disk florets during the postharvest phase is an important determinant of vase life. There is large genotypic variation in susceptibility to disk floret degreening. Ou

  11. The Analyses of the effects of Environmental Descriptions in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚河

    2015-01-01

    Environment is an indispensable element of a story structure. In the short story Odour of Chrysanthemums, Laurence showed a se⁃ries of original environmental descriptions which play a important role to create specific atmosphere in an industrial society and express pro⁃tagonists’inner life.

  12. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium. Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses.

  13. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Li, Peiling; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Zhao, Kunkun; Wu, Dan; Fan, Qingqing; Gao, Tianwei; Chen, Fadi; Guan, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses. PMID:27196930

  14. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang He

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum.

  15. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huang; Ke, Hu; Keting, Han; Qiaoyan, Xiang; Silan, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH) gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum. PMID:24250783

  16. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra;

    2016-01-01

    therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  17. Effect of temperature and light on foliar absorption of P and Rb by Chrysanthemum and Pilea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Marczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Young plants of Pilea cadierei Gagnep Guillaum and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. 'Giant # 4 Indianapolis White' were grown in Hoagland's solution in growth chambers. Their leaves were treated with rubidium phosphate double labelled with 33P and 86Rb. Light intensity, period of pretreatment in light or dark, daylength, and air temperature had different influences on foliar uptake of each ion, as did plant species and leaf surface. With all variables tested, uptake and translocation of Rb was much greater than of P. Absorption of both P and Rb through the lower surface was as much as 8 times greater than through upper surface, especially with Pilea. Light had a greater effect upon uptake of both P and Rb by Chrysanthemum than by Pilea, but did not influence uptake as much as previously reported.

  18. The effectiveness of funqicides in the control of white rust (Puccinia horiana P. Henn of Chrysanthemums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cz. Zamorski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to determine the effectiveness of some fungicides such as Dithane M-45 (mancozeb - 0.3%, Plantvax (oxycarboxin - 0.075%, Saprol (triforine - 0.1%, Calirus (benodanil - 0.3%, Bayleton 5 WP (triadimefon - 0.05%, Baycor (biloxazol - 0.1%, Vigilex (dichlobutrazol - 0.04% in the control of chrysanthemum white rust (Puccinia horiana. Tests were conducted in the period 1979-1980. Plants of four varieties were sprayed 8 times weekly. The disease was completely suppressed in the combinations with Plantvax, Saprol, Calirus, Bayleton 5 WP, Baycor and Vigilex. The disease index of Puccinia horiana infection on chrysanthemums was only slightly lower when Dithane M-45 was applied. Plantvax was phytotoxic for all tested varieties, Vigilex suppressed plant growth, treated plants were 3/4 shorter in comparison with plants of all the other combinations.

  19. Detection of genetic variability in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T. using ISSR primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lalitha Kameswari, Hameedunnisabegum, M. Pratap, and G.Anuradha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Chrysanthemum was characterized using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR technique. A total of 46 primers were screened, of which 10 polymorphic and informative patterns were selected to determine genetic relationships. Among 114 amplified DNA fragments obtained, 107 bands were polymorphic, accounting for 93.86% polymorphism. The percentage of polymorphism exhibited by different ISSR primers ranged from 71.43% (ISSR-825 to 100% (ISSR-808, 810, 812, 840 and 842. The similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.275 to 0.775 with a mean similarity matrix of 0.525. Among the 37 genotypes studied, the closest relationship was scored between Geetanjali and Red Stone with similarity level of 77.5% while, the most distantly related genotypes were Autumn Joy and Flirtation with the lowest similarity index of 0.275. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that the chrysanthemum genotypes were grouped into ten clusters.

  20. A COMPUTER CONTROLLED IRRIGATION OF POTTED CHRYSANTHEMUM GROWN AT OUTDOOR CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kirnak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and reliable method to estimate water requirements for chrysanthemum production with practical applications to commercial operations was developed to promote water conservation. A water-requirement prediction equation (R2 = 0.71 that used class A pan evaporation along with plant-canopy height and width as input variables was generated. Equation verification was carried out by comparing vegetative growth and quality of crops irrigated according to the generated water-requirement equation to crops irrigated based on demand and conservative fixed daily irrigation regimes. Vegetation growth of the plants irrigated with the generated equation was smaller than plants grown by demand irrigation, but plant quality was not significantly different. Applied water was significantly lower for plants irrigated with the generated equation than would normally be applied in a commercial operation using a conservative fixed daily irrigation rate. The study showed that there was a close relationship between chrysanthemum water requirements and the plant and evaporative data. A simplified ET equation involving plant characteristics and evaporative data could be used in the irrigation scheduling of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume.

  1. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  2. Next-generation sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae transcriptome permits large-scale unigene assembly and SSR marker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59% unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera.

  3. Transcriptome-wide identification and expression profiling of the DOF transcription factor gene family in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping eSong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The family of DNA binding with one finger (DOF transcription factors is plant specific, and these proteins contain a highly conserved domain (DOF domain of 50-52 amino acids that includes a C2C2-type zinc finger motif at the N-terminus that is known to function in a number of plant processes. Here, we characterized 20 DOF genes in the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium based on transcriptomic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis identified one pair of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and six pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the DOF proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analysed using MEME. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 13 CmDOFs could be targeted by 16 miRNA families. Moreover, we used 5’ RLM-RACE to map the cleavage sites in CmDOF3, 15 and 21. The expression of these 20 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized, and the expression patterns of six pairs of paralogous CmDOF genes were found to completely differ from one another, except for CmDOF6 and CmDOF7. This work will promote our research of the various functions of DOF gene family members in plant hormone and stress responses.

  4. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of the DOF Transcription Factor Gene Family in Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Gao, Tianwei; Li, Peiling; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Wu, Dan; Xin, Jingjing; Fan, Qingqing; Zhao, Kunkun; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    The family of DNA binding with one finger (DOF) transcription factors is plant specific, and these proteins contain a highly conserved domain (DOF domain) of 50-52 amino acids that includes a C2C2-type zinc finger motif at the N-terminus that is known to function in a number of plant processes. Here, we characterized 20 DOF genes in the important ornamental species chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) based on transcriptomic sequences. Phylogenetic analysis identified one pair of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and six pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. Conserved motifs in the DOF proteins shared by Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum were analyzed using MEME. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 13 CmDOFs could be targeted by 16 miRNA families. Moreover, we used 5' RLM-RACE to map the cleavage sites in CmDOF3, 15, and 21. The expression of these 20 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized, and the expression patterns of six pairs of paralogous CmDOF genes were found to completely differ from one another, except for CmDOF6 and CmDOF7. This work will promote our research of the various functions of DOF gene family members in plant hormone and stress responses. PMID:26941763

  5. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum.The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum.This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid researchers in the study of

  6. Extraction and Purification of Depigmenting Agents from Chinese Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Depigmenting agents were solvent-extracted and purified by preparative and analytical HPLC from three Chinese plants; Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat( Xizang Caijuhua), Rhodiola sachalinensis, and Terminalia chebula Retzius. Four fractions obtained from the ethyl ether layer of C. m. Rama and two fractions from the ethyl acetate layer of Rhodiola salientness show depigmenting effects. At δ 200, the ethyl acetate layers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, Rhodiola sachalinensis and the methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retzius, can inhibit the melanin production of mouse B16 melanoma cells by 92%, 60% and 90%, respectively, whereas 46% inhibition was observed by commercially available depigmenting agents(arbutin). These results show the potential of these three Chinese plants as a novel resource for depigmenting agents in the cosmetic industry.

  7. Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cerasela MIRCEA (ARSENE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L. Des Moul became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC. Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed through the HPLC method. Morphological and yield parameters and the chemical profile of plants were registered in two different nutritional statuses (local and enriched soil conditions. The results indicate that the studied cultivar is a potent source of phenolics and that the fertilisation increases the plant biosynthetic capacity for polyphenols (159.74 mg/100 g in leaves and 79.82 mg/100 g in flowers, in unfertilised plants, and 388.54 mg/100 g and 144.86 mg/100 g in leaves and flowers of fertilised plants, respectively, expressed as gallic acid equivalent value. The studied cultivar contains hyperoside (and other derivatives and four main polyphenol carboxylic acids (including chlorogenic acid. Ursolic acid was not detected. The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of alantolactone identified in TLC chromatogram. Moreover, the fertilised plant samples contain only traces of alantolactone compared to the unfertilised plants. Alantolactone is present in a small amount (less than 0.1 mg % but its presence alerts to the potential allergenic effect of the plant. Besides their ornamental value, chrysanthemums can have a wide array of uses due to their high amounts of bioactive compounds.

  8. 微波协助提取在中药饮片含量测定中的应用(6)——微波法与药典法测定野菊花中蒙花苷含量比较%Determination of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Chinese Cut Crude Drugs (6) Comparison of the Determination of Linarin from Chrysanthemum indicum Between Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Chinese Pharmacopeia Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方婧; 杨洪军; 付梅红; 安琪; 张贝贝; 王祝举; 杨岚; 张东

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立微波协助提取法提取野菊花中有效成分蒙花苷含量测定方法,比较微波协助提取法与药典法提取蒙花苷优势.方法:采用Dikma Diamonsil C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm),流动相甲醇-水-冰醋酸(26:23:1),检测波长334nm,柱温30℃,流速1 mL· min-1.结果:微波提取时间15 min,提取温度100℃,提取溶剂50%乙醇.蒙花苷在0.04~1.2μg呈良好线性关系(r =0.9999),平均回收率100.13% (n =6).结论:微波提取法较药典法提取蒙花苷更简便快速、准确,为一种符合环保绿色理念的含量测定方法,可用于检测野菊花饮片中蒙花苷含量.%Objective; To establish a microwave-assisted extraction method for the extraction of the linarin from Chrysanthemun indicum. Comparison of the determination of linarin from C. indicum between microwave-assisted extraction and Chinese pharmacopeia method was made. Method; Dikma Diamonsil C18 column (4.6 mm X 150 mm, 5 μm) was used. The mobile phase cousisted of methanol-water-acetic acid (26: 23: 1 ) . The temperature of column was kept at 30 ℃. The flow rate was 1. 0 mL -min-1 and the detection wavelength was at 334 nm. Result; Microwave extractive time was 15 min, the temperature was 100 X. , the extraction solvent was 50% ethanol. The calibration curve was in good linearity within the range from 0. 04 to 1. 2μg (r -0.999 9). The average recovery was 100. 13% (n=6). Conclusion; The method is simple, rapid, as well as precise and reliable, and can be used for the determination of linarin from C. indicum.

  9. A correlation between antioxidant activity and metabolite release during the blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Ku, Kang Mo; Kang, Daejung; Kim, Jong Sang; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS)-based metabolite profiling was applied to elucidate the correlation between metabolite release and antioxidant activity during water blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (CC). Some major metabolites showing differences between fresh CC and blanched CC (BCC) were selected by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) loading plots, and were identified as dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA), succinoyl-DCQA, and acetylmycosinol. By PLS regression analysis of the correlation between antioxidant components and effects, candidate antioxidative metabolites were predicted due to strong positive correlations with DCQA and succinoyl-DCQA, and by a relatively weak positive correlation with acetylmycosinol.

  10. Substrate Cultivation of Chrysanthemum: Plant performance in 6 cropping systems and the effect of parameters associated with root environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Blok, C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Chrysanthemum is an important greenhouse crop in Holland and is still cultivated in soil. To prevent the emission of nutrients and crop protecting agents, an emission:free cropping system should be developed. This experiment was conducted to that purpose. The objectives of this experiment we

  11. Effect of light intensity, plant density and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting

  12. Process-based modeling of the control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a process-based simulation model for the population dynamics of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua , and baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model (BACSIM) has been validated for two baculoviruses with clear differences in biological characteristics,

  13. Mutation Breeding of various spray chrysanthemum cultivars by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Chung, Sung Jin; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jin Baek; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Geung Joo [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was carried out to analyze mutation rate and spectrum of chrysanthemum by gamma-ray irradiation. Five flower types, 16 cultivars including 'Geumsu', 'Hwiparam', 'Ilwol', 'Magic', 'Moonlight', 'Noblewine', 'Pinky', 'Progy', 'Sangtte', 'Waterfog', 'Whitneypangpang', 'Yelloweye', 'Yellowpangpang', 'Yesmiso', 'Yesmorning', and 'Yestogether' were irradiated as 30, 50, and 70 Gy dose during 24 hours. As a result, mutation rate was identified as the highest in single type among five flower types, but there was a little difference according to cultivars. Mutation rate was increased in proportion to irradiation dose in anemone, pompon, and spider type cultivars, but there wasn't clear in single and semi-double type cultivars. Mutation spectrum was identified as the highest in the cultivar 'Noblewine'. The most sensitive cultivars to radiation were revealed as 'Noblewine' and 'Yesmorning' and the least were Moonlight', 'Waterfog', and 'Yellowpangpang'. Consequently, there was much difference in radio-sensitivity according to cultivars of chrysanthemum and flower type was correlated a little with mutation rate.

  14. Effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seed growth of ground-cover chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum were used to study the effects of different doses of 60Co γ-rays irradiation(10-50 Gy) on seed germination and physiological characteristics. The results showed that the rate of seed germination and seedling survival decreased significantly with the irradiation doses. With the increase of irradiation dose to above 20 Gy, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of peroxidase (POD) in seedlings significantly increased. The similar trends were found in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Catalase (CAT) activity increased at doses lower than 20 Gy, and then decreased at the higher doses, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity did not alter except for 40 Gy. It is concluded that the suitable irradiation dose of mutation breeding is 20 Gy for the seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum. Although 60Co γ-rays irradiation resulted in damage of membrane lipid peroxidation in the survival seedlings, the increased activity of CAT and POD could protect them against the damage. (authors)

  15. Identification and Functional Analysis of Three MAX2 Orthologs in Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Dong; Abdurazak Ishak; Jing Yu; Ruiyan Zhao; Liangjun Zhao

    2013-01-01

    MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 2 (MAX2),initially identified in Arabidopsis thaliana,is a key regulatory gene in strigolactone signal transduction.Three orthologs of MAX2 were cloned from Dendranthema grandiflorum (DgMAX2a,b,and c).Each of the genes has an open reading frame of 2,049 bp and encodes 682 amino acid proteins.The predicted amino acid sequences of the three DgMAX2s are most closely related to the MAX2 orthologs identified in petunia (PhMAX2A and PhMAX2B),and display the highest amino acid sequence similarity with PhMAX2A compared to other MAX2s.Expression analysis revealed that DgMAX2s are predominantly expressed in the stem and axillary buds.On a cellular level,we localized the DgMAX2a::GFP fusion protein to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells,which is consistent with the nuclear localization of MAX2 in Arabidopsis.The chrysanthemum DgMAX2a is able to restore the max2-1 mutant branching to wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis,suggesting that it is a functional MAX2 ortholog.These results suggest that DgMAX2s may be candidate genes for reducing the shoot branching of chrysanthemum.

  16. Mutation Breeding of Chrysanthemum by Gamma Field Irradiation and In Vitro Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to clarify the effect of chronic (gamma field) and acute (gamma room) radiation and in vitro culture on mutation induction of flower color in chrysanthemum. The combination of both methods yielded a mutation rate 10 times higher than the conventional chronic cutting method, and also produced non-chimeric mutants. Somaclonal variation often occurred in plants regenerated from callus, but no significant variation appeared in callus regenerants from non-irradiated plants. Therefore, proper mutagenic treatment on cultured materials is indispensable for effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method clearly yielded the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum, while the acute culture method resulted in a relatively low mutation rate and a limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation could be more readily induced in plants regenerated from petals and buds, than from leaves. In this respect, it is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture, but could perhaps induce mutation in a desired direction. A possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies than the acute, is discussed. Nine out of 10 registered mutant varieties were derived from chronic irradiation, and only one from acute. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding, not only of flower species but of other species as well. (author)

  17. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping. PMID:26572032

  18. Host specificity, but not high-temperature tolerance, is associated with recent outbreaks of Verticillium dahliae in chrysanthemum in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Ispahani, S.K.; Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Morton, A.; Barbara, D J

    2008-01-01

    Two hypotheses which might explain a recent increase in the incidence of verticillium wilt of chrysanthemums in glasshouses in the Netherlands were investigated, viz whether selection for increased resistance to elevated temperatures has occurred due to frequent steaming of soils in the glasshouses, or whether the strains of Verticillium dahliae occurring in chrysanthemum glasshouses are particularly virulent towards this host. Following artificial inoculation, five isolates of V. dahliae fro...

  19. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses. PMID:25904110

  20. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB.

  1. Comparative effects of hydrogen chloride gas on tomato and chrysanthemum. I. Distribution and accumulation of chloride following exposure. II. Pathological anatomy of hydrogen chloride gas injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1969-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas damage to plants has not been a historically important problem. However, recent practices in a number of industries, particularly glass manufacturing and pyrolysis of waste plastics, have increased the seriousness of the problem. Studies were carried out under carefully controlled exposure conditions to determine the effects of HCl gas on a relatively sensitive and a relatively resistant plant species. The macroscopic symptoms of most importance in acute damage to tomato and chrysanthemum are glazing of the lower surface, and a bifacial bronzing of interveinal and marginal areas of leaves. Microscopically, glazing was shown to be caused by a collapse of the lower epidermal cells and a partial disorganization of the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Bronzing was shown to be caused by the further collapse of the spongy mesophyll, and in some cases the palisade mesophyll and upper epidermis. Analysis of plant tissues for their free chloride content following an exposure to HCl gas was done with cell-free water extracts which were titrated on an automatic chloride titrator. On the basis of such studies, evidence suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of chlorides in plants is similar to that of fluorides, and that in subacute doses, chlorides are translocated toward the extremities of the foliar portions of the plant. In areas where a number of different types of pollution sources exist, and symptomotology is not definitive in pinpointing the source, chloride analysis of plant tissues should prove valuable as an aid to diagnosis if HCl gas was suspected.

  2. The embryo rescue derived intergeneric hybrid between chrysanthemum and Ajania przewalskii shows enhanced cold tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanming; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Fei

    2011-12-01

    Five intergeneric hybrids between the chrysanthemum cultivar 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and Ajania przewalskii (as male) were obtained with the help of embryo culture. While 'Zhongshanjingui' bears a standard anemone type flower and A. przewalskii a non-anemone type one, the inflorescence type of the hybrids varied. The diameter of the hybrids' flowers was intermediate between those of the parents. The chromosome number of the hybrids was 2n = 45, of which GISH analysis was able to establish that 27 were inherited from 'Zhongshanjingui' and the other 18 from A. przewalskii. A combination of various assays was used to show that the cold tolerance of the hybrids was equivalent to that of the highly tolerant A. przewalskii parent. Enhanced cold tolerance was correlated with an increase in free proline and a decrease in malondialdehyde content.

  3. Biological efficacy of the chemical chrysanthemums protection with the use of fine and coarse droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw PARAFINIUK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of three years (2007-2009 were conducted at Czesławice in south- east of Poland .The objects of research were the plants of the one cultivar of chrysanthemum: Dark Tripoli. The following agents were used for protection: Dithane NeoTec 75 WG, Sumilex 500 SC, Amistar 250 SC. The treatment was carried out with the use of two types of nozzles: standard RS-MM 110 03 and ejector type ID 120 03 C. Observation was carried out once a year: in October. The number and health status of plants were determined and diseased plants were collected for analysis. The percentage of plants with disease symptoms was estimated for each plot. The best health status and yield were noticed for Amistar 250 SC.

  4. Effect of various sucker sizes and planting times on growth and flower yield of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and large sized suckers of Chrysanthemum morifolium were planted on four different dates, i.e. 18th February, 18th April, 17th June and 16th August to find out their effect on growth and flower yield. Plants resulting from small sized suckers produced significantly higher number of primary and secondary branches and leaves plant/sup -1/. However, plant height, leaf area, number of suckers produced, biomass (fresh plant weight) and flower yield plant/sup -1/ were not affected by the sucker sizes. As the planting was delayed, plant growth and flower yield was reduced. Early plantings resulted in increased plant height, more number of branches and leaves plant/sup -1/, greater biomass, and higher flower yields but reduced leaf area as compared to late plantings. (author)

  5. Saccharose action on chrysanthemum cut inflorescences, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, after exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years the Brazilian floriculture expanded and it is expected to achieve a prominent role in near future. The national territory has many favorable regions, with adequate climate for the development of commercially important cultures. Flower exportation is not expressive yet, but the country has conditions to become a great exotic tropical plants exporter. On the other hand, developed countries, as USA and Japan, have a rigorous phyto sanitary inspection to prevent the introduction of new plagues and diseases through fresh products. Ionizing radiation is considered a reliable disinfestation method to control numerous fruit and flower plagues. The aim of of this work was to verify the tolerance of some Compositae family flowers to ionizing radiation and the effects to sucrose action in protecting the flowers against the gamma-radiation induced damages. This was done by measuring biochemical and physiological parameters as a function of time after irradiation. The chrysanthemum flowers were sensitive to gamma radiation, but when the inflorescences were supplied after irradiation with preservative solution containing 2% sucrose, protection against the damaging effects of radiation was achieved. The dose of 750 Gy, considered appropriate for disinfestation purpose, did not modify the protein and lipid levels, nor plasma, tonoplast and mitochondria membrane ATPase or mitochondria cytochrome-c oxidase activities. The ethylene and carbonic gas rate production increased soon after the irradiation, but decreased one day later. The decrease of the microsomal membrane fluidity and the increase of the chrysanthemum were the most sensitive parameters to measure the irradiation treatment changes. The sucrose supply was able to maintain the irradiated flowers membrane fluidity level close to the unirradiated control. Rhodante manglesii Lindl and Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. were tolerant up to 1 KGy, thus being adequate to be disinfected by gamma radiation. (author)

  6. 杭白菊挥发油口含片中有效成分樟脑、龙脑的含量测定%Determination of Camphor and Borneol in Oral Tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium Essential Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 王建平; 殷红; 王玮; 陶锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To establish an GC method for the determination of camphor and borneol in oral tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil in p - cyclodextrin inclusion. Methods: The camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets were extracted by refluxed. The contents of two effective components were analyzed by gas chromatography with CBP20 -M25 -025 capillary column. N - octanol was used as internal standard substance for camphor and borneol. Results; A good separation was obtained. The standard curves for camphor and bomeol were linear over the range of 14.00~224.0 μg · mL-1 and 19.69 ~ 315. Oμg · mL-1 Respectively. The average recovery for camphor and borneol was higher than 94.2%. The precisions for them were both less than 0.77%. Conclusion: The method is accurate and sensitive for the determination of camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil with good quality controlling of oral tablet product,providing scientific evidence for the development of Chrysanthemum morifolium and reasonable clinical application of essential oil.%目的:建立杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的浓度测定的GC方法并测定含量.方法:用加热回流法提取片剂包合物中的有效成分,采用毛细管气相色谱法,以正辛醇为内标,测定其中樟脑与龙脑的含量.结果:该方法樟脑、龙脑分离良好,线性范围分别为14.00~ 224.0μg·mL-1及19.69 ~ 315.0μg·mE-1,加样回收率均高94.2%,精密度RSD小于0.77%.结论:本法能准确、灵敏地同时测定杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的含量,可以作为口含片的产品质量控制方法,为杭白菊产品的深度开发与挥发油制剂的质量标准制定提供科学依据.

  7. Safety Evaluation of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Oil by Assessing Acute Oral Toxicity, Micronucleus Abnormalities, and Mutagenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum is widely used to treat immune-related and infectious disorders in East Asia. C. indicum flower oil contains 1,8-cineole, germacrene D, camphor, α-cadinol, camphene, pinocarvone, β-caryophyllene, 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, and γ-curcumene. We evaluated the safety of C. indicum flower oil by conducting acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation tests. Mortality, clinical signs and gross findings of mice were measured for 15 days after the oral s...

  8. Effect of light intensity, plant density and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van, J.

    2002-01-01

    Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting (control and assimilation light), plant density (32, 48 and 64 plants m-2) and lateral flower bud removal (leaving 1 flower, 4 flowers and control) were applied. To analyse the effect of assimilate...

  9. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abuzar Jaffar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT. High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes.

  10. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Muhammad Abuzar; Song, Aiping; Faheem, Muhammad; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Liu, Chen; Fan, Qingqing; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT). High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes. PMID:27187353

  11. Preparation of A Compound Beverage with Inulin of Jerusalem Artichok, Hawthorn and Chrysanthemum%菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朱畅

    2016-01-01

    The hot water was used to extract inulin. Through orthogonal test the optimal conditions of extract in-ulin were:the ratio of sample to water was 1∶25 (g/g),temperature 90℃,time 60 min. Under these conditions, the extract ratio was 79.98 %. Inulin of jerusalem artichoke ,hawthorn and chrysanthemum were used as the main materials,added white granulate sugar,honey and other accessories. A discussion was carried out on the key technologies,through single factor and orthogonal experimental design ,the sensory score was investigated an indicator to determine the optimum formula of the compound beverage. The results showed that the mixing proportion of hawthorn extract and chrysanthemum extract was 2∶3(mL/mL),inulin 2%,white granulate sugar 4%,honey 3%,the best stabilizer was sodium alginate 0.05%and CMC-Na 0.1%. The compound beverage is nutritions and good for health,can be developed with good color, flavor and taste.%采用热水浸提法对菊糖进行提取,通过正交试验确定了提取菊糖的最佳条件为:料水比1∶25(g/g),温度90℃,提取时间60 min,菊糖提取率为79.98%。以菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花为主要原料,添加白砂糖、蜂蜜等辅料。针对其关键技术进行了探讨,采用单因素和正交试验设计,以产品感官评价为指标,确定菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的最佳工艺配方。结果表明:山楂和菊花提取液比为2∶3(mL/mL)、菊芋菊糖2%、白砂糖4%、蜂蜜3%、最佳稳定剂为0.05%海藻酸钠和0.1%CMC-Na。该复合饮料具有营养、保健的功能,色泽、香味、口感俱佳。

  12. Characterization of odor-active compounds of various Chrysanthemum essential oils by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fan, Binbin; Niu, Yunwei; Wu, Minling; Liu, Junhua; Ma, Shengtao

    2016-01-15

    Volatiles of five kinds of Chrysanthemum essential oils with different manufactures were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and statistics analysis. Six sensory attributes (floral, woody, grassy, fruity, sour and minty) were selected to assess Chrysanthemum essential oils. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected and quantified using standard substances by GC-O and GC-MS. Terpenes constituted the largest chemical group among the volatiles of the essential oils. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the relationship between sensory attributes and aroma compounds. The result showed that α-pinene, β-thujene, α-terpinolen, β-cubebene, caryophyllene, (Z)β-farnesene, (-)-spathulenol, linalool, camphor, camphene, 4-terpineol, Z-citral and 4-isopropyltoluene were typical aroma compounds covaried with characteristic aroma of Chrysanthemum essential oils. PMID:26735711

  13. 不同基质处理对盆栽菊花生长的影响%Effects of Different Matrix Treatments on Growth of Potted Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 杨秋生

    2012-01-01

    对不同基质处理盆栽菊花的生长状况进行了观测,并利用模型模拟了菊花茎长随时间的动态变化.结果表明:珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)最有利于菊花植株的早期生长;所选模型能模拟菊花茎长随时间的变化,相关系数达到0.9以上;珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)处理菊花茎长的理论增长量最大,实际生产中推荐珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)作为盆栽菊花的基质.%The growth of potted chrysanthemums with different matrix treatments were observed, and related models were established to simulate the dynamics of chrysanthemum stem varying over time after transplanted. The results showed that the treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1;1) is the optimum matrix for early development of chrysanthemum; the chosen model could well simulate the changes of chrysanthemum stem over time, and the correlation coefficient reached more than 0.9; the theoretical increment of chrysanthemum stem in treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1:1) was the largest. Therefore, the treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1 :1) was recommended to use as matrix for potted chrysanthemums in the practical production.

  14. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related. PMID:25427981

  15. Ni (II) adsorption onto Chrysanthemum indicum: Influencing factors, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilvanathan, Sowmya; Shanthakumar, S

    2016-10-01

    The study explores the adsorption potential of Chrysanthemum indicum biomass for nickel ion removal from aqueous solution. C. indicum flowers in raw (CIF-I) and biochar (CIF-II) forms were used as adsorbents in this study. Batch experiments were conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature for varying initial Ni(II) ion concentrations. Surface area, surface morphology, and functionality of the adsorbents were characterized by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adsorption kinetics were modeled using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion, Bangham's, and Boyd's plot. The equilibrium data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Experimental data provided the best fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Ni(II) ion on both CIF-I and CIF-II with maximum adsorption capacities of 23.97 and 44.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic analysis of the data proved the process to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Desorption studies were conducted to evaluate the possibility of reusing the adsorbents. Findings of the present study provide substantial evidence for the use of C. indicum flower as an eco-friendly and potential adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. PMID:27185382

  16. Transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of stress-responsive NAC genes in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Wang, Yi; Wang, Shunli; Wu, Xuan; Yang, Ke; Niu, Yajing; Dai, Silan

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factor family plays a vital role in various plant growth and developmental processes as well as in stress resistance. Using RNA sequencing, we found that the ClNAC genes (ClNAC1-44) were the most strongly up-regulated transcription factor family in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium leaves under salt treatment. We carried out reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to monitor ClNAC genes response against multiple stresses and hormonal treatments including salt, drought, cold, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The results showed that 35 ClNAC genes were differentially expressed in different organ, and 32 ClNAC genes could respond to at least 2 kinds of treatments. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction showed that 10 ClNAC genes belonging to 7 different subfamilies could respond to at least 5 kinds of treatments. Over 50-fold variation in transcriptional levels of ClNAC17 and ClNAC21 genes was observed under 6 different types of treatments. In the present study, high-level expression of ClNAC genes under abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments suggests that the NAC transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation.

  17. The influence of light color on the rooting of 'Horim Golden' Chrysanthemum cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three different colors of light; blue, green and red, compared with white light as the control, on the rooting of Chrysanthemum cuttings, is presented in this paper. The mother plants and cuttings were irradiated during rooting with different colors of light. This was shown to have had visible influence on the morphological differentiation of cuttings. It also affected the carbohydrate content in them. The rooting of the cuttings reflected this influence. The cuttings obtained from plants grown under white (control or red light were characterized by well-developed root systems in terms of the number, length and mass of the roots. The cuttings from the plants grown under green light were the worst. The influence of the color of the light on the speed with which the first roots were formed was the reverse. The cuttings from the plants irradiated with green light rooted the quickest, next in order were those from plants irradiated with blue, red and white light. Irradiating cuttings with differently colored light during rooting only had an effect on the number of roots formed. This number was high, close to that of control cuttings, in cuttings exposed to red light, decidedly lower in those exposed to blue and, in particular, green light.

  18. Regeneration of Haploid Plantlet through Anther Culture of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayhanul Kabir KHANDAKAR MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To observe the possibility of producing haploid plants of Chrysanthemum, anthers of three Korean cultivars ‘Yes Morning’, ‘Hi-Maya’, and pot cultivar ‘Peace Pink’ were cultured. Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally good results were obtained with the basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D, 2 mg/L of BA, 250 mg/L of casein hydrolysate, 45 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite. A pretreatment of anthers in media at 4 °C for 48h enhanced the callus induction. Calli were allowed to differentiate on basal MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of BA, 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite.  Shoot formation from calli in that media slightly differed among cultivars. Multiple shoots elongated from calli were shifted to basal MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 3 g/L gelrite for rooting. The plantlets with sufficient roots thus obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the soil. Fifty regenerated plantlets from each cultivar were randomly selected for ploidy observation by chromosome counting and haploid plantlet was detected for the garden cultivar ‘Yes morning’.

  19. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Makino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ri; Wang, Haibin; Dong, Bin; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Zhaohe; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid. PMID:27735845

  20. Study on the Bacteriostatic and Anti-oxidative Properties of Volatile Oil from Yellow Mountain Chrysanthemum Tea%黄山贡菊挥发油的抑菌及抗氧化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓倩; 吴永祥; 朱洋洋

    2011-01-01

    Volatile oil is extracted from different parts(roots and stems,flowers,leaves) of yellow mountain chrysanthemum tea by steam distillation(SD).The bacteriostatic property of its volatile oil is studied with four kinds of bacteria(Escherichia coli,Proteusbacillus vulgaris,Bacillus subtil and Bacillus thuringiensis) and two kinds of fungi(Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Trichoderma Vride G) as test subjects through extraneous bacteriostatic tests.The results show that its volatile oil has bacteriostatic action on all the six strains,and the action on the four kinds of bacteria is more evident than that on the two kinds of fungi.Besides,there is a remarkable difference in the bacteriostatic property of volatile oil from different parts of yellow mountain chrysanthemum tea.Volatile oil extracted from its leaves has the strongest bacteriostatic activity.Meanwhile,the anti-oxidantion capacity of volatile oil extracted from the leaves of yellow mountain chrysanthemum tea is studied.The results show that volatile oil extracted from its leaves has a good anti-oxidant capacity,and can effectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals and lipid peroxy radicals.In the experimental concentration range,its scavenging capacity rises with the increase of the concentration of volatile oil.%通过水蒸气蒸馏法,提取黄山贡菊不同部位(根茎、花、叶)的挥发油,以4种细菌(大肠杆菌、变形杆菌、枯草杆菌、苏云金芽孢杆菌)和2种真菌(酿酒酵母、突变木霉)作为供试菌种,通过体外抑菌实验研究了黄山贡菊挥发油的抑菌性能。实验表明贡菊的挥发油对6种供试菌种均具有一定的抑制作用,特别是对4种细菌的抑制更加明显。从贡菊不同部位提取的挥发油其抑菌性能有较明显的差异,其中从黄山贡菊叶中提取的挥发油的抑菌性能最强。同时对从黄山贡菊叶中提取的挥发油进行了抗氧化性能的实验研究,结果表明黄山贡菊挥发

  1. Change in Auxin and Cytokinin Levels Coincides with Altered Expression of Branching Genes during Axillary Bud Outgrowth in Chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierck, Robrecht; De Keyser, Ellen; De Riek, Jan; Dhooghe, Emmy; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions. Plant growth of both genotypes was monitored during 5 subsequent weeks starting one week before flower initiation occurred in C17. Axillary bud outgrowth was measured weekly and samples of shoot apex, stem and axillary buds were taken during the first two weeks. We combined auxin and cytokinin measurements by UPLC-MS/MS with RT-qPCR expression analysis of genes involved in shoot branching regulation pathways in chrysanthemum. These included bud development genes (CmBRC1, CmDRM1, CmSTM, CmLsL), auxin pathway genes (CmPIN1, CmTIR3, CmTIR1, CmAXR1, CmAXR6, CmAXR2, CmIAA16, CmIAA12), cytokinin pathway genes (CmIPT3, CmHK3, CmRR1) and strigolactone genes (CmMAX1 and CmMAX2). Genotype C17 showed a release from apical dominance after floral transition coinciding with decreased auxin and increased cytokinin levels in the subapical axillary buds. As opposed to C17, C18 maintained strong apical dominance with vegetative growth throughout the experiment. Here high auxin levels and decreasing cytokinin levels in axillary buds and stem were measured. A differential expression of several branching genes accompanied the different hormonal change and bud outgrowth in C17 and C18. This was clear for the strigolactone biosynthesis gene CmMAX1, the transcription factor CmBRC1 and the dormancy associated gene CmDRM1, that all showed a decreased expression in C17 at floral

  2. Seasonal changes of photoperiodic response and inflorescence quality in pot cultivars of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum grown in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jerzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate seasonal changes of photoperiodic response and inflorescence quality in chrysanthemum from the Time group grown all year round without supplementary lighting. Four chrysanthemum cultivars were grown in 12 cycles starting on the second day of each successive month. The first cycle began on 2 January. From the moment of potting, the plants were treated with a short day. In periods of naturally long days, the day was shortened to 10.5 hours through shading. No supplementary illumination was used from November to mid-February (a photoperiod of under 10 hours to improve light conditions in the period of insolation deficit. In Polish climatic conditions, the shortest photoperiodic responses were recorded usually in the cycles starting in February or March and August or September. An exceptionally longer photoperiodic response was recorded in the cycle including the height of summer, i.e. planting from June to July, when the temperature during the day was very high, and from October to December i.e. in the period of substantial insolation deficit. The highest quality of flower heads was attained by plants potted mostly between 2 March and 2 September and flowering from April - May to November. Those plants developed the greatest number of inflorescences and usually a typical, cultivar-specific colour of the flower. Chrysanthemums potted from 2 June to 2 July, i.e. in the period of the greatest heat, produced inflorescences with the smallest diameter. For the cultivar 'Cool Time', this unfavorable period lasted from 2 April to 2 August.

  3. Repellent effects of pongam oil on settlement and oviposition of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum on chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROMAN PAVELA; GERHARD HERDA

    2007-01-01

    The repellent activities, including host deterrence and anti-oviposion, of pongam oil against the adults of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood in greenhouses were tested. Chrysanthemum plants treated with different concentrations (0.5%-2.0%) of water-suspended pongam oil showed relatively longlasting host deterrent and anti-oviposition effects on the adults of greenhouse whitefly. Although the repellent effect declined in time and concentration, strong effects on the reduction of oviposition were found, which lasts, dependent on concentration at least 12 days after application.

  4. Soluções de manutenção na pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon postharvest maintenance solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e uso de técnicas que prolonguem a durabilidade das flores, mantendo a qualidade do produto, é imprescindível para redução de perdas pós-colheita. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar soluções de manutenção, associadas ou não a sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com 2 hastes florais cada uma. Os tratamentos utilizaram água destilada; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1, 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. A combinação de 8-HQC 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1 foi a que apresentou melhor desempenho para a manutenção da qualidade das hastes florais, favorecendo a abertura de botões e a turgescência das lígulas. A sacarose contribuiu para uma melhor manutenção de substâncias de reserva na haste, que tiveram a sua vida de vaso estendida.The development and use of techniques that extend the life vase of the flowers, maintaining the quality of the product, is essential for reducing postharvest losses. The objective of this work was to evaluate different solutions for maintenance, associated or not to sucrose, in maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems. The treatments used distilled water, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1. Physical assessments were made: color, fresh mass and relative water content; chemical evaluations: reducing sugars and pigments, and qualitative assessments: turgidity, color of the flowers, and

  5. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  6. Development of SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Renfeng; Lu, Jiangjie; Jiang, Mengying; Shen, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhi'an; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium, is a well-known flowering plant worldwide, and has a high commercial, floricultural, and medicinal value. In this study, simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were generated from EST datasets and were applied to assess the genetic diversity among 32 cultivars. A total of 218 in silico SSR loci were identified from 7300 C. morifolium ESTs retrieved from GenBank. Of all SSR loci, 61.47% of them (134) were hexa-nucleotide repeats, followed by tri-nucleotide repeats (17.89%), di-nucleotide repeats (12.39%), tetra-nucleotide repeats (4.13%), and penta-nucleotide repeats (4.13%). In this study, 17 novel EST-SSR markers were verified. Along with 38 SSR markers reported previously, 55 C. morifolium SSR markers were selected for further genetic diversity analysis. PCR amplification of these EST-SSRs produced 1319 fragments, 1306 of which showed polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content of the SSR primer pairs was 0.972 (0.938–0.993), which showed high genetic diversity among C. morifolium cultivars. Based on SSR markers, 32 C. morifolium cultivars were separated into two main groups by partitioning of the clusters using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram, which was further supported by a principal coordinate analysis plot. Phylogenetic relationship among C. morifolium cultivars as revealed by SSR markers was highly consistent with the classification of medicinal C. morifolium populations according to their origin and ecological distribution. Our results demonstrated that SSR markers were highly reproducible and informative, and could be used to evaluate genetic diversity and relationships among medicinal C. morifolium cultivars. PMID:27379163

  7. The over-expression of a chrysanthemum WRKY transcription factor enhances aphid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiling; Song, Aiping; Gao, Chunyan; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Fang, Weimin; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Fadi

    2015-10-01

    Members of the large WRKY transcription factor family are responsible for the regulation of plant growth, development and the stress response. Here, five WRKY members were isolated from chrysanthemum. They each contained a single WRKY domain and a C2H2 zinc finger motif, so were classified into group II. Transient expression experiments demonstrated that all five were expressed in the nucleus, although CmWRKY42 was also expressed in the cytoplasm. When expressed heterologously in yeast, the products of CmWRKY22 and CmWRKY48 exhibited transactivation activity, while those of CmWRKY21, CmWRKY40 and CmWRKY42 did not. The transcription of the five CmWRKY genes was profiled when the plants were challenged with a variety of abiotic and biotic stress agents, as well as being treated with various phytohormones. CmWRKY21 proved to be markedly induced by salinity stress, and suppressed by high temperature exposure; CmWRKY22 was induced by high temperature exposure; CmWRKY40 was highly induced by salinity stress, and treatment with either abscisic acid (ABA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA); CmWRKY42 was up-regulated by salinity stress, low temperature, ABA and MeJA treatment and aphid infestation; CmWRKY48 was induced by drought stress, ABA and MeJA treatment and aphid infestation. The function of CmWRKY48 was further investigated by over-expressing it transgenically. The constitutive expression of this transcription factor inhibited the aphids' population growth capacity, suggesting that it may represent an important component of the plant's defense machinery against aphids. PMID:26184088

  8. Heterologous expression of the AtDREB1A gene in chrysanthemum increases drought and salt stress tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG; Bo; TONG; Zheng; MA; Nan; LI; Jianke; KASUGA; Mie; YAMAGUCHI-SHINOZAKI; Kazuko; GAO; Junping

    2006-01-01

    DNA cassette containing an AtDREB1A cDNA and a nos terminator, driven by a cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter, or a stress-inducible rd29A promoter, was transformed into the ground cover chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) 'Fall Color' genome. Compared with wild type plants, severe growth retardation was observed in 35S:DREB1A plants, but not in rd29A:DREB1A plants. RT-PCR analysis revealed that, under stress conditions, the DREB1A gene was over-expressed constitutively in 35S:DREB1A plants, but was over-expressed inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants. The transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to drought and salt stress, and the tolerance was significantly stronger in rd29A:DREB1A plants than tn 35S:DREB1A plants. Proline content and SOD activity were increased inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants than in 35S:DREB1A plants under stress conditions. These results indicate that heterologous AtDREB1A can confer drought and salt tolerance in transgenic chrysanthemum, and improvement of the stress tolerance may be related to enhancement of proline content and SOD activity.

  9. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway.

  10. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation), and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma irradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma. (author)

  11. Study of the Health Beverage of Honeysuckle and Chrysanthemum%金银双花饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆丹; 汪开拓; 韩林; 唐华丽

    2012-01-01

    A healthy beverage which has the clearing and moistening effect of the throat is made by honeysuckle,white chrysanthemum,mint,and licorice.The optimal formula is studied by orthogonal experiment.The result showed that the best composition of the drink was 85% mix extract(include 26% honeysuckle juice,12% chrysanthemum juice,10% mint juice,10% licorice),with 10% sugar and 0.4% citric acid.%以金银花、白菊花、薄荷、甘草为主要原料研制一种具有清咽利喉功能的饮料,采用正交试验确定混合提取液最佳配比和饮料风味的最佳配方。试验结果表明:混合提取液适宜配比为金银花提取液为26%、白菊花提取液为12%、薄荷提取液为10%、甘草提取液为10%;饮料最佳风味配方为混合提取液含量为85%、白砂糖10%、柠檬酸0.4%。

  12. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  13. ELIMINATION OF CVB ( FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM VARIETIES BY APICAL MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING ANTIVIRAL AGENT AND HEAT TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CVB elimination for retaining healthy protocols from infected chrysanthemum plant wasinvestigated through combined treatment of meristem culture with synthetic antiviral ribavirinor thermotherapy under conditions. The biological materials used for the experimentconstituted of six commercial varieties: Dewi Sartika, Saraswati, Yellow Fiji, White Puma,Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Tissue culture initiation was conducted through plantletestablishment using MS supplemented with IAA. Ribavirin was added in media with theconcentration of 40 mg/l on cv. Dewi Sartika, Saraswati and Yellow Fiji. Parallel with this step,heat treatment with different durations (1, 2, and 3 weeks was also conducted on the plantletson White Puma, Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Meristem culture was done followingthe chemo- and thermotherapy. The experiment resumed the failure of single treatment ofmeristem culture in eliminating CVB from the infected chrysanthemum plantlets. Under heattreatment, percentage of virus-free plantlets increased along with the duration ofthermotherapy, though the survival rate of plantlets decreased in lengthened heat treatment.The best results regarding virus free plant percentage were obtained when meristem culture wasapplied following ribavirin or three weeks of heat treatment.

  14. 苦瓜汁、菊花茶复合茶饮料的研制%Preparation of Compound Beverage with Bitter Gourd Juice and Chrysanthemum Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月英; 王妨; 钱健; 陈文学

    2012-01-01

    研究苦瓜菊花清凉饮料的生产工艺,采用VC和氯化锌等复合护色剂对苦瓜进行护色,用氯化钠和柠檬酸进行脱苦;以菊花浸提时间、温度、固液比为主要因素,对菊花的浸提工艺进行了优化,最后进行苦瓜菊花汁饮料的配方优化。结果表明,采用苦瓜汁8%、菊花茶#60%、白砂糖8%、柠檬酸0.12%等配比,可制得营养丰富、口感适宜、清暑止渴、品质优良的苦瓜菊花清凉茶饮料。%With bitter melon and chrysanthemum as the raw materials to study the process of bitter melon and chrysanthemum cool drinks, Firstly, this experiment adopted combined color fixative (Vc and ZnC12) for protecting color of bitter melon, NaCI and citric acid for debitterizing. Secondly, optimize the lixiviating process of chrysanthemum with time, temperature and solid-to-liquid ratio as the major factors. Finally, the formula of bitter melon and chrysanthemum cool drinks has been optimized. The results showed that, the process conditions with bitter melon juice 8 %; chrysanthemum juice 60 %; sugar 8 % and citric acid 0.12 %, can make the cool tea in good nutrition, mouthfeel, flavor and quality.

  15. Development of Health Beverage of Plumula nelumbinis and Chrysanthemum%莲心菊花保健饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖贵平

    2012-01-01

    For effective development and utilization of Plumula nelumbinis and Chrysanthemum,Plumula nelumbinis and Chrysanthemum were used as raw material.The ingredient and the processing technology of the health beverage was studied using single-factor and orthognal L9(34) design.Results showed the order of the primary factors on the sensory quality of the beverage was follows: Plumula nelumbinis dosage sugar dosage Chrysanthemum dosage citric acid dosage.The optimum ingredient of health beverage found were: Plumula nelumbinis 0.8%,Chrysanthemum 0.4%,sugar 5.0%,and citric acid 0.08%.This beverage not only has good color,flavor and delicious taste,with a mild bitterness and the special aroma of Plumula nelumbinis and Chrysanthemum,but also has abundant nutrition,healthy function,and suitable for industrial production.%为有效开发和利用莲心、菊花植物资源,以莲心、菊花为主要原料,通过单因素及L9(34)正交试验,对莲心菊花保健饮料的配方及加工工艺进行了研究。结果表明,影响饮料感官评价的主次因素顺序为:莲心用量〉蔗糖用量〉菊花用量〉柠檬酸用量;最佳基本配方为:莲心0.8%、菊花0.4%、蔗糖5.0%、柠檬酸0.08%;研制的莲心菊花保健饮料具有莲心、菊花特有的清香风味,色香味俱佳,且营养丰富,适合于工业化生产。

  16. The Northern Area Potted Three Chrysanthemum Plastic Greenhouse Shading Cultivation Technology Researches%北方地区塑料大棚遮光栽培三本菊提早开花技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶福民; 于春雷; 张文洋

    2013-01-01

    Through the researches on the plastic greenhouse shading cultivation and a series of maintenance technology, making the potted three chrysanthemum in the northern area flowing earlier than the others, has the very high economic significance.

  17. 菊花花瓣XTH基因cDNA序列的克隆与分析%Cloning and Analysis of the cDNA Sequence of XTH Gene in Chrysanthemum × morifolium Petal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙悦; 苏媚; 王蕾; 姬筱雅; 郑必平; 谈建中

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the structural characteristics of xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/ hydrolase ( XTH) gene in eth-ylene-insensitive feverfew. [ Method] The total RNA was extracted from Chrysanthemum x morifolium petal using Trizol reagent, and the cD-NA fragment of XTH gene was cloned by RT-PCR and T/A cloning, and then analyzed by agarose gel eleetrophresis and sequencing. [ Result] The cloned cDNA sequence was 911 bp. It was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 293 amino acids and had seven active sites of XTH family, and then named as CmXTH (gene accession number HM752243). In addition, the BLAST analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of CmXTH showed high homology with other 19 chosen plant XTHs. Among these, CmXTH had closer genetic relationship with Ger-bera hybrid cuhivar XET, Solatium lycopersicum XTH7, whereas had relatively distant relationship with Populus euparatica XET, Fragaria ananassa XET1, Actinidia deliciosa XET, etc. [Conclusion] The cloned fragment was certainly cUNA sequence of XTH gene, which was associated with the petal, growth and senescence in Chrysanthemum x morifolium. The study lays foundation for further studying the structure and biological functions of XTH genes as well as the growth of Chrysanthemum X morifolium petals.%[目的]研究非乙烯敏感型菊科植物的木葡聚糖内糖基转移酶/水解酶(xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase/hydrolase,XTH)基因的结构特征.[方法]采用Trizol方法从菊花花瓣中提取总RNA,利用RT-PCR技术和T/A载体克隆XTH基因的cDNA序列,并对目的序列进行琼脂糖凝胶电泳和测序分析.[结果]克隆的cDNA片段大小为911 bp,编码293个氨基酸残基,具有XTH蛋白家族的7个活性位点,命名该基因序列为CmXTH(基因登录号为HM752243);其推导的氨基酸序列与其他19种植物的XTH具有较高的同源性,其中与非洲菊、蕃茄的亲缘关系最近,而与猕猴桃、草莓、胡杨等的亲缘关系较远.[结论

  18. Effect of the hydroalcoholic extracts from plants on Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.. Note II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty eight products, obtained from plant extracts, were used to fight against Colorado bug, on theterms of ecological agriculture. It was noticed that: 1. Vegetal extract may serve as an alternative to fightingagainst Colorado bug in potato cultivars, especially at those which are designated to obtain an ecological crop;2. The best result in fighting against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say. were obtained with extract fromChrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Trev., Chrysanthemum balsamita var canfora and Ruta corsica, all in usedconcentration of 20%.The treatment efficiency against larvae of 99,01 %, 93,06 % and 96,83 %, efficiencywhich are comparable with those obtained with the help of synthesis insecticide; 3. The lowest result wereobtained with extracts from Artemisia absinthium L., Taracxacum officinale L. and Tagetes erecta L., efficiencyof 7,14 % and 72,22 %; 4. The extracts from Artemisia absinthium L., Taracxacum officinale L. and Tageteserecta have repulsive effect for adults, these avoiding for punting on plants treated with these extracts.

  19. Karyomorphology of six taxa in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) in Egypt and their genetic relationships by Giemsa C-banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB; Ahmad Mohammad M. MEKAWY; Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY

    2012-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding was applied to the chromosome complements of six diploid species belonging to six genera in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) distributed in Egypt.Four types of C-banding distribution were observed in the taxa as follows:(i) negative C-banding in Anacyclus monanthos (L.) Thell.; (ii) all bands in terminal regions in Achilleafragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.Bip,which showed 32 bands on 18 chromosomes; (iii)all eight bands at centromeric regions on eight chromosomes in Matricaria recutita L.; and (iv) bands at terminal and centromeric regions in Brocchia cinerea Vis.(12 terminal and six centromeric bands on 12 chromosomes),Cotula barbata DC.(four terminal,six centromeric,and eight short arm bands on 16 chromosomes),and Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass.ex Spach.(eight terminal on the short arms and four large bands in centromeric regions on 12chromosomes).

  20. Quantitative analysis coupled with toxic evaluation to investigate the influence of sulfur-fumigation on the quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Cao, Gang; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Xiaocheng

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, quantitative analysis coupled with toxic evaluation was applied to investigate the influence of sulfur-fumigation on the quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium. The results showed that the average contents of six flavonoids (cynaroside, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, luteolin, apigenin, and diosmetin) in sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium samples decreased by about 6.2%, 3.5%, 22.0%, 33.3%, 26.0%, and 36.9%, respectively, while the average contents of two organic acids (chlorogenic acid and isochlorogenic acid A) in sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium samples increased by about 16.8% and 7.6%, respectively. Furthermore, high dosage sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium could induce hydropic degeneration in epithelial cells of the renal tubule and interstitial edema. This indicates that sulfur-fumigated C. morifolium may lead to renal toxicity. PMID:25918810

  1. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2013-01-01

    high temperature affects the plant photosynthetic responses, resulting in a lower rate of photosynthesis. To predict and analyse physiological responses as stress indicators, two independent experiments were conducted, to detect the effect of high temperature on photosynthesis: analysing photosystem II...... (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) ‘Coral Charm’ as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect on PSII when...... the temperature exceeded 38 °C for a period of 7 (±1.8) days. High temperature decreased the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the conformation term for primary photochemistry (Fv/Fo) and performance index (PI), as well as increased minimal fluorescence (Fo). However, at elevated CO2 of 1000 μmol...

  2. Morphological Difference and DNA Diversity Between Flower-colour Sport and Original Cultivar of Chrysanthemum with Small Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Helan; FENG Jiuying

    2011-01-01

    A total of 58 morphological characteristics were measured on flower-colour sport and original cultivar according to Disticness, Uniformity, Stability' (DUS) Test for New Plant Cultivar of Chrysanthemum published by Ministry of Agriculture of China The results showed that five characteristics such as the surface colour, the back color of ray floret among them were siginificantly different, their MS (mo by AFLP showed that rphological s GS (genetic imilarity) was 91.4%, and MD (morphological difference) was 8.62%. DNA polymorphic analysis similarity) was 98.6%, and GD (genetic polymorphic diversity) was 2.81%. Five distinct bands which may include the flower-colour sport genes or be the molecular marker linkaged flower-color characteristics were amplified.

  3. 甘菊水培体系的建立%Establishment of Hydroponics Culture System for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛雅静; 黄河; 杨可; 王斌; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    为探索甘菊[Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch. ex Trautv.)Makino]在非生物胁迫下以及营养物质代谢中精准的生理、基因表达变化机理,研究通过筛选外植体的种类和营养液的浓度,建立了甘菊水培体系。结果表明:水培中,播种苗的成活率和生根率极显著高于1年生大苗和茎段插条;在长时间的水培中,使用标准Hoagland和1.5倍Hoagland培养液,其畸形叶率极显著低于1/2和1/4Hoagland培养液,并且株高极显著高于另外2个浓度。结合科研需求,认为组培播种苗、标准Hoagland营养液是甘菊水培的最佳外植体和培养条件。%In order to explore the accurate mechanism of physiology and gene expression under abiotic stress and nutrient metabolism for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium,we screened the explants and concentration of nutrient solution,and established the hydroponics culture system.The results indicate that in hydroponics culture,the survival rate and rooting rate are significantly higher in seedings rather than yearlings or cuttings;for a long time culture,the abnormal leaf rate is lower and the height is higher in normal and 1.5 times Hoagland solution than 1/2 or 1/4 Hoagland solution.Considering the actual demand in research,we choose seedings sown in MS medium,normal Hoagland solution as the best explants and culture medium.

  4. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially health-promoting CLA in many animal models.The C18:1 trans-11 fatty acid(VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.

  5. Ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis of nanoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} rods and rutile TiO{sub 2} self-assembly chrysanthemums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Quanjun [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu Bingbing [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China)], E-mail: liubb@jlu.edu.cn; Li Yingai; Liu Ran; Li Xianglin; Li Dongmei; Yu Shidan; Liu Dedi; Wang Peng; Li Bing; Zou Bo; Cui Tian; Zou Guangtian [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2009-03-05

    Nanoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} rods and rutile TiO{sub 2} chrysanthemums were successfully synthesized via a simple ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis route. Their morphologies, phase compositions and components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and IR, respectively. The results show that a self-assembly growth takes place in the calcination under vacuum, which makes the titanium glycolate rods transform into rutile TiO{sub 2}/C chrysanthemums rather than anatase TiO{sub 2} rods. It also indicates that the carbon plays an important role in the phase transition process which promotes the phase transition to rutile TiO{sub 2} at a lower temperature (400 deg. C). It provides a new approach to prepare nanoporous rutile TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials under low temperature.

  6. Ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis of nanoporous anatase TiO2 rods and rutile TiO2 self-assembly chrysanthemums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoporous anatase TiO2 rods and rutile TiO2 chrysanthemums were successfully synthesized via a simple ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis route. Their morphologies, phase compositions and components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and IR, respectively. The results show that a self-assembly growth takes place in the calcination under vacuum, which makes the titanium glycolate rods transform into rutile TiO2/C chrysanthemums rather than anatase TiO2 rods. It also indicates that the carbon plays an important role in the phase transition process which promotes the phase transition to rutile TiO2 at a lower temperature (400 deg. C). It provides a new approach to prepare nanoporous rutile TiO2 nanomaterials under low temperature

  7. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum. PMID:27110753

  8. The Production of Health Care Beer with Chrysanthemum Tea%利用茶用菊花生产保健啤酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程遥; 朱盛沛; 胡凯

    2012-01-01

    在生产啤酒的过程中,探讨加入一定比例的菊花汁,参与发酵反应,生产出具有同菊花茶相同功效的保健啤酒,这种啤酒含有多种有效成份,长期饮用这种产品,具有清热解暑、清肝明目、解毒消炎、降低血糖、增强人体免疫的功效,适合糖尿病患者饮用。%Health care chrysanthemum beer with the same effect as chrysanthemum tea is produced in the process of beer production by adding a certain proportion of chrysanthemum juice and having it participate in fermentation reaction. Containing a variety of effective ingredients, the beer can help clear summer heat, remove liver-fire for improving eyesight, have an effect of anti-inflammation, reduce blood glucose, and strengthen the immune system in the long run. Thus, itJs suitable for patients with diabetes to drink.

  9. Effect of different irrigation thresholds on growth and yield of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) in greenhouse%不同灌水下限对温室茼蒿生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文斌; 郝仲勇; 王凤新; 苏利茂; 要晋峰; 麻军; 胡佳林

    2011-01-01

    该文采用15 cm深处土水势为茼蒿的控制灌水下限,研究在模拟微喷条件下控制灌水下限对温室茼蒿生长和产量的影响.共设6个处理,灌水下限分别是-10 kPa(T1),-15 kPa(T2),-20 kPa(T3),-25 kPa(T4),-30 kPa(T5)和-40 kPa(T6).结果表明,不同的灌水下限对茼蒿产量的影响显著,灌水下限为控制在-15 kPa是产量最高,分别比其他处理增加了0.5%,18.7%,62.6%,73.4%,71.7%,在整个生育期灌水量为195 mm,比与其产量相近的T1处理节水56.4%.T2处理的株高和生长速率在生长后期与T1无差异.灌水下限低于-25 kPa,水分亏缺严重,影响出苗,不利于茼蒿生长.以-15 kPa土水势作为控制灌水下限,有利于茼蒿生长,可以达到高产、节水的目的.%An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different irrigation thresholds on yield and growth of garland chrysanthemum under simulated micro-spray irrigation in greenhouse.The experiment included six treatments,which controlled soil water potential (SWP) at 15cm depth with -10 kPa (T1),-15 kPa (T2), -20 kPa (T3), -25 kPa (T4),-30 kPa (T5) and -40 kPa (T6), respectively.The results showed that effect of different irrigation threshold on the crop yield was significant.Treatment T2 had the highest yield and compared with T1, T3, T4, T5 and T6, its yield increased by 0.5%, 18.7%, 62.6%, 73.4%, 71.7%, respectively.Irrigation amount ofT2 was 195 mm throughout the growth period, saving 56.4% than that ofT1.The plant height and growth rate ofT2 had no difference from T1.When the irrigation threshold was lower than -25 kPa in SWP, garland chrysanthemum would be under severe water stress,negatively affecting seedling emergence and restraining its growth.The SWP of- 15 kPa was recommended as the best irrigation threshold for garland chrysanthemum, because of both high-yield and water-saving.

  10. 菊花EST-SSR分析及标记开发%EST-SSR Analysis and Marker Development for Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志兵; 陈燕; 闫莹莹; 陈黎

    2013-01-01

    为了开发菊花的分子标记,对7 087条菊花EST进行拼接,得到275个contigs,发现50个SSR位点;在拼接的contigs中SSR平均密度为每2 854.3 bp含有1个SSR.三核苷酸重复基元的SSR类型最多,占总数的50.00%;在二碱基重复中,最主要的优势重复基元是AC和AG;三碱基中CAT和CCA为优势重复基元;四碱基、五碱基重复类型中,(TTTN)n和(ATTTN)n重复基元为对应优势基元;这些优势重复基元中富含碱基A和T,菊花EST序列中高度变异的微卫星(长度>20 bp)约占2.00%.根据得到的菊花EST-SSR,共设计出428对引物,并选取了28对SSR引物对黄山贡菊基因组DNA进行PCR扩增,其中有27对引物扩增成功.%7087 EST of Chrysanthemum morifolium were assembled in order to provide molecular markers, and 275 contigs were obtained. There were 50 microsatellites (SSRs) were detected and averagely there was one SSR locus detected from 2 854. 3 bp of contigs. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeats (50. 00% ) a-mong these SSR types. As for the composition of microsatellites, AC, AG repeats were the richest motif in dinucle-otide repeats, and CAT, CCA repeats were the most frequent motifs in trinucleotide repeats, whereas (TTTN) n and (ATTTN ) n repeats were dominant in tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats, respectively. All the dominant repeat motifs for different type of SSRs were rich in A and T alkali bases. In EST of C. morifolium, microsatellites longer than 20 bp accounted for about 00% of the detected SSRs. 428 pairs of primers were designed using Primer 5. 0 and Oligo 6. 0 according to these EST sequences containing SSR. 28 pairs of primers were randomly selected for PCR test with genomic DNA of Huangshan variety of Chrysanthemum morifolium, and 27 primer pairs succeeded in amplification, with successful ratio of 96. 4%.

  11. Studies on the In Vitro Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activities Associated with Chrysanthemum coronarium Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa K. Bardaweel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the Jordanian Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (garland was isolated by hydrodistillation from dried flowerheads material. The oil was essayed for its in vitro scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The results demonstrate that the oil exhibits moderate radical scavenging activity relative to the strong antioxidant ascorbic acid. In addition, cholinesterase inhibitory activity of C. coronarium essential oil was evaluated for the first time. Applying Ellman’s colorimetric method, interesting cholinesterase inhibitory activity, which is not dose dependent, was evident for the oil. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of the oil against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were evaluated. While it fails to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria growth, the antibacterial effects demonstrated by the oil were more pronounced against the Gram-positive strains. Moreover, the examined oil was assessed for its in vitro antiproliferative properties where it demonstrated variable activities towards different human cancer cell lines, of which the colon cancer was the most sensitive to the oil treatment.

  12. Geographical distribution of cytotypes in the Chrysanthemum indicum complex as evidenced by ploidy level and genome-size variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Qian WAN; Richard J.ABBOTT; Guang-Yuan RAO

    2013-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the geographical distribution ofcytotypes within and between species comprising a polyploid complex is critical to our understanding of the history and evolution of such complexes.In the present study we examined the geographical distributions ofcytotypes within six tentatively delimited species comprising the Chrysanthemum indicum complex in China.We determined the ploidy of 188 individuals sampled from 47 populations,based on DNA content using flow cytometry.In addition,chromosome counts were made on samples of each taxon.We confirmed that all samples of C.rhombifolium and C.lavandulifolium were diploid (2n =18),those of C.hypargyrum and C.potentilloides were tetraploid (2n--36),and those of C.vestitum were hexaploid (2n =54).In contrast,we confirmed that C.indicum contained both diploid and tetraploid cytotypes.We found that in addition to marked differences in genome size between ploidy levels,there was a variation in genome size between species of the same ploidy level.Although the diploid,tetraploid,and hexaploid taxa of the complex,as well as the diploid form of C.indicum,occurred only in central and northem China,the tetraploid form of C.indicum was widespread both north and south of the Yangtze River.We suggest that the tetraploid form of C.indicum may have expanded its range southward during recent Quatemary glacial periods when forests retreated in south China as conditions became drier.

  13. Genetic signatures from amplification profiles characterize DNA mutation in somatic and radiation-induced sports of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) cultivars 'Dark Charm', 'Salmon Charm', 'Coral Charm' and 'Dark Bronze Charm' are either radiation-induced mutants or spontaneous sports of 'Charm' and constitute a family or series of plants that primarily differ in flower color. These cultivars, which were difficult to differentiate genetically by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), were easily identified by using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). Genomic DNA was first amplified with three standard octamer arbitrary primers, all of which produced monomorphic profiles. Products from each of these DNA fingerprints were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. The 12 primer combinations produced signatures containing approximately 37% polymorphic character loci, which were used to estimate genetic relationships between cultivars. Forty-six (32%) unique amplification products were associated with individual cultivars. The number of ASAP polymorphisms detected provided an estimate of the mutation rate in the mutant cultivars, ranging from 0.03% to 1.6% of nucleotide changes within an average of 18 kb of arbitrary amplified DAF sequence. The ASAP technique permits the clear genetic identification of somatic mutants and radiation-induced sports that are genetically highly homogeneous and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of plant breeders rights of varieties or cultivars

  14. Simultaneous determination of six short-chain fatty acids in colonic contents of colitis mice after oral administration of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jian-Ming; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by the intestinal bacteria are very critical for the intestinal barrier, mucosal cytoprotection and normal intestinal biology. However, accumulation of SCFAs promoted by the polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat remains unknown. Thus, it is necessary to investigate SCFAs in the colonic contents of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis mice after oral administration of the polysaccharides from C. morifolium Ramat which is very helpful to unravel how it works. In this study, a rapid and reliable gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for simultaneous determination of six SCFAs such as acetic acid (AA), propionic acid (PA), butyric acid (BA), isobutyric acid (IBA), valeric acid (VA) and isovaleric acid (IVA) has been developed and validated. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions and sample extraction procedure, good separation for 6 target compounds was obtained on a HP-INNOWAX column within 12min. Results revealed that polysaccharides from C. morifolium Ramat positively affected the SCFAs intestinal production. The polysaccharides group had greater SCFAs concentration in colonic content than the DSS-treated group (P<0.05), which was decreased remarkably compared to the normal group (P<0.01). With the decrease of the polysaccharides dosage, the contents of AA, PA and VA increased gradually, while the change of BA concentration was the opposite. There was no significant difference in the content of IBA at the different administration concentrations. And the content of IVA reached the highest concentration 0.953mg/g at lower dose of the polysaccharides. Additionally, oral administration of the polysaccharides prominently attenuated the body weight loss, reduced the disease activity index, rectal bleeding and stool consistency, improved colon shortening and macroscopic score of colitis. Our results indicated that the polysaccharides of C. morifolium Ramat might be used as

  15. The Numerical Classification of Chrysanthemum Flower Color Phenotype%菊花品种花色表型数量分类研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪艳; 白新祥; 孙卫; 贾锋炜; 戴思兰

    2012-01-01

    为了精确定义菊花不同品种的花色,以811个菊花品种为试验材料,利用色差仪测色的方法对其花色表型值进行测定并进行数量分类研究。结果发现:聚类分析方法得到的分类结果不能完全表征菊花花色的分类特点;ISCC-NBS色名表示法对花色的定义更为准确,使用该方法将菊花品种花色分为9类色系,整理出了不同色系表型参数分布范围。在此基础上,对菊花品种的花色表型分布特点进行了分析。%In order to accurately define the different flower color phenotype of chrysanthemum, colorimeter was used to measure the various flower colors of 811 chrysanthemum cultivars. And the different methods of color classification (Q cluster analysis and ISCC-NBS color name chart) were compared. It was found that the results obtained from statistical methods couldn't fully describe the characteristics of plant color, while the definition of plant color from the color point of view was more accurate. According to the standard, all cultivars were divided into nine groups and the distribution range of flower color parameters of each color group was summed up. On this basis, the distribution analysis of the phenotypic color of chrysanthemum cultivars was completed.

  16. Screening of proteins interacting with the coat protein of Chrysanthemum virus B%菊花B病毒外壳蛋白互作蛋白的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼望淮; 蒋甲福; 陈素梅; 房伟民; 陈发棣; 管志勇; 廖园

    2013-01-01

    采用PCR扩增菊花B病毒(CvB)外壳蛋白基因的开放阅读框,构建酵母双杂交系统所需的诱饵表达载体pGBKT7CVBCP,测序验证后转化Y2HGold酵母菌.将酵母菌Y187/pGADT7-cDNA与酵母菌Y2HGold/pGBKT7-CVBCP进行交配转化,在SD/-Trp/-Leu/-His/-Ade/X-α-Gal平板上筛选蓝色阳性克隆并测序pGADT7-cDNA的插入片段.结果表明:诱饵载体表达产物对酵母无毒性作用,且对报告基因无自激活作用.筛选菊花cDNA文库初步得到了与CVB外壳蛋白相互作用的E3泛素连接酶ARIADNE-like蛋白和ATP结合蛋白,为进一步研究CVB外壳蛋白与寄主的互作机制奠定了基础.%To find the protein in the chrysanthemum which was interacted with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein,this experiment used PCR to get the ORF of the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein gene constructed vector pGBKT7-CVBCP as the bait in the yeast two-hybrid system,verified by sequencing and transformed into yeast strain Y2HGold.The yeast Y187/pGADT7-cDNA was mated with yeast Y2HGold/pGBKT7-CVBCP,then SD/-Trp/-Leu/-His/-Ade/X-α-Gal plates were used for screening of blue-positive clones whose fragments inserted in the pGADT7-cDNA were sequenced.The experiment showed that the bait protein was non-toxic to the yeast and had no self-activation function.One E3 ubiquitin ligase ARIADNE-like protein and the ATP-binding protein were interacted with the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein and that laid the foundation of the mutual interaction mechanism between the CVB coat protein and host proteins.

  17. Contribution à l’étude morphologique, chimique et thérapeutique pour l’espèce Chrysanthemum balsamita L.

    OpenAIRE

    Marculescu, Angela; Tamas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur Note portant sur l’auteur Introduction Chrysanthemum balsamita L. (Famille Asteraceae, sous-famille Tubuliflorae) balsamite, (menthe-coq, menthe de la Sainte-Vierge) originaire de l’Asie de Sud-Ouest, a été amenée en Europe dès l’Antiquité. En Roumanie Ch. b. est cultivée dans les jardins paysans et dans les cimetières comme plante ornementale mais aussi comme plante aromatique et guérissante. Dans la médicine traditionnelle roumaine, la balsamite a été utilisée sous...

  18. 野菊花多糖的分离纯化及化学组成研究%Purification and Chemical Composition of Polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆颖; 任爱农; 李厚兵; 卢悟广

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study on the purification and chemical composition of polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum indicum. Method: Polysaccharides were extracted from C. indicum with hot water, followed by precipitating with ethanol, decolorizing with LSA-21 and removing of free protein by the method of Sevag, and finally separated into three fractions CIP-1'、 CIP-2'and CIP-3'by DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange and Sephadex G75 gel column chromatograph. Result: The relative molecular weight (Mw) of CIP-1'was estimated to be about 8 , 242 Da by using high-performance gel permeation chromatography ( HPGPC) , while that of CIP-2'was 8 , 383 Da and of CIP-3'was 1.920 1 × 103 Da. According to GC analysis , CIP-1' was composed of six kinds of monosaccharides, namely rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 5.44: 16.40: 20.35: 3.53: 15.43: 21.46, following that CIP-2'was composed of the same kinds of monosaccharides in the molar ration of 8. 47: 13. 17: 2.43: 2.75: 14.51: 15.76. However, CIP-3'was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, mannose, glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 17. 46: 15. 88: 18. 90: 63. 76: 36. 44. The FT- IR spectrum of the three also indicated typical characteristics of polysaccharides. Conclusion: This study provided experimental basis for the development of polysaccharide resources from C. indicum.%目的:从野菊花中分离纯化多糖,并对其进行相对分子质量测定及单糖组成分析.方法:经热水提取、乙醇沉淀、大孔吸附树脂LSA-21脱色与Sevag法除蛋白,再经DEAE-52纤维素柱和Sephadex G75凝胶色谱分离纯化得到野菊花多糖.采用高效凝胶过滤色谱法(H PGPC)分析其相对分子质量,并借助衍生化气相色谱法(GC)对其单糖组成进行解析.结果:从野菊花中得到3个均一多糖CIP-1’,CIP-2’和CIP-3’.结论:CIP-1’的相对分子质量为8 242 Da,由鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖、木糖、甘露糖、葡萄糖和半乳糖6

  19. Inibidor da ação do etileno na conservação pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon Inhibitor of ethylene action in postharvest conservation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A durabilidade e a qualidade pós-colheita de flores de corte são atributos fundamentais na sua valoração ao longo da cadeia produtiva e na satisfação dos consumidores. Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, verificar o efeito do tiossulfato de prata, associado ou não à sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon . O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial testando soluções de manutenção com tiossulfato de prata (STS, sob cinco níveis (Água destilada; STS a 0,2 mM; STS a 0,2 mM + sacarose a 50 g L-1; STS a 0,4 mM; STS a 0,4 mM + sacarose a 50 g L-1; e data de amostragem, por três níveis (0; 3; 6 dias. Utilizaram-se três repetições com duas hastes florais em cada tratamento. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. O tratamento com 0,2 mM de STS possibilitou melhor manutenção da massa fresca das hastes. A concentração de pigmentos e carboidratos redutores foi maior naqueles tratamentos em que a sacarose foi associada. A coloração e o conteúdo relativo de água foram favorecidos nos tratamentos STS a 0,2 e 0,4mM. A concentração de 0,2 mM de STS foi a que obteve os melhores resultados, prolongando a vida de vaso das hastes. A qualidade das hastes foi superior, tendo as melhores avaliações de conteúdo de água, cor e turgescência.The durability and postharvest quality of cut flowers are fundamental attributes in value along the production chain and in consumer satisfaction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chemical inhibitors of ethylene action on maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon. The

  20. Roles of DgBRC1 in regulation of lateral branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflora cv. Jinba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Xi, Lin; Li, Junxiang; Zhao, Ruiyan; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2013-01-01

    The diverse plasticity of plant architecture is largely determined by shoot branching. Shoot branching is an event regulated by multiple environmental, developmental and hormonal stimuli through triggering lateral bud response. After perceiving these signals, the lateral buds will respond and make a decision on whether to grow out. TCP transcriptional factors, BRC1/TB1/FC1, were previously proven to be involved in local inhibition of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, pea, tomato, maize and rice. To investigate the function of BRC1, we isolated the BRC1 homolog from chrysanthemum. There were two transcripts of DgBRC1 coming from two alleles in one locus, both of which complemented the multiple branches phenotype of Arabidopsis brc1-1, indicating that both are functionally conserved. DgBRC1 was mainly expressed in dormant axillary buds, and down-regulated at the bud activation stage, and up-regulated by higher planting densities. DgBRC1 transcripts could respond to apical auxin supply and polar auxin transport. Moreover, we found that the acropetal cytokinin stream promoted branch outgrowth whether or not apical auxin was present. Basipetal cytokinin promoted outgrowth of branches in the absence of apical auxin, while strengthening the inhibitory effects on lower buds in the presence of apical auxin. The influence of auxin and strigolactons (SLs) on the production of cytokinin was investigated, we found that auxin locally down-regulated biosynthesis of cytokinin in nodes, SLs also down-regulated the biosynthesis of cytokinin, the interactions among these phytohormones need further investigation. PMID:23613914

  1. Management of Chimera and In Vitro Mutagenesis for Development of New Flower Color/Shape and Chlorophyll Variegated Mutants in Chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding is an established method for crop improvement and has played a major role in the development of many new flower color/shape mutant varieties in ornamentals. The main bottleneck with vegetatively propagated plants is that the mutation appears as a chimera after treatment with physical and/or chemical mutagens. A small sector of a mutated branch or flower cannot be isolated using the available conventional propagation techniques. A novel technique has been standardized for the management of such chimeric tissues through direct shoot regeneration from chrysanthemum florets. This direct novel regeneration protocol has been successfully used not only for the isolation of chimeric mutant tissues developed through sports, but also to develop a series of new flower color/shape mutants through induced mutagenesis. Gamma radiation and tissue culture techniques have been optimized to regenerate plants from stem internodes, stem nodes, shoot tips and ray florets for in vitro management of chimera and for in vitro mutagenesis. Chimera isolation has practical importance not only for chrysanthemum but for breeding of other ornamentals also. The present technique will open up a new way for isolating new flower color/shape ornamental cultivars through retrieval of mutated cells. (author)

  2. The influence of nitrogen fertilizations and light intersity on mother plants productivity and the rooting of cuttings of Chrysanthemum (cultivar - Horim Golden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kozłowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mother plants of Chrysanthemum cv. "Horim Golden" have been cultivated at three levels of nitrogen fertilization, dosage for a 3 l pot was 100,500,1000 mg N. The plants were growing with fluorescent lamps on (5000 lx or 10000 lx. The rooting of the cuttings obtained under such conditions took place with 5000 lx. The effect of nitrogen on the productivity of mother plants depended on the light intensity. Higher nitrogen doses affected favourably the number of cuttings, the growth and number of roots per cuttings - only when higher light intensity was applied for mother plants. Light of various intensity used in the cultivation of chrysanthemum mother plants had a significantly higher effect on the dynamics of rooting that did nitrogen fertilization. High intensity light, irrespective of the nitrogen dose used, also increased the weight and number of roots per cutting. Moreover, a clear correlation has been found between the carbohydrate content in cuttings and the dynamics of rooting and the number and weight of roots formed. The process of root formation took place later and was slower in cuttings in which a higher carbohydrate content was found; however, the number and weight of roots formed by these cuttings were considerably higher. In cuttings characterised by a low carbohydrate; total nitrogen ratio a decrease in the number and weight of roots has been found.

  3. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on a Shoot and Root Formation from the Leaf and Flower Culture of a Standard-type Chrysanthemum 'Jinba'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we investigated the conditions of a higher frequency for regenerated plants from different explants of a standard-type chrysanthemum 'Jinba'. In vitro culture was initiated on an MS medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar, and 5 μM benzyl adenine (BA) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) by using surface-sterilized leaf and flower tissues from greenhouse-grown plants. Direct shoot regeneration from the leaf and flower explants was obtained 21 to 28 days after the initial culture. Among the seven combinations of the growth regulators used for the culture, the most efficient condition for the shoot and root formation from the leaf tissue was obtained when the MS basic medium was supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, while the culture using floret tissues was most efficient on the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA. These results will provide valuable information to help set up an efficient system for a tissue culture of chrysanthemum cv. Jinba to improve one or some of its negative traits in combination with a radiation mutagenesis approach

  4. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known. PMID:23065216

  5. Rational use of electrical energy in artificial light in the production of chrysanthemum seedlings in greenhouse; Uso racional de energia eletrica em iluminacao artificial na producao de mudas de crisantemo em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The type of artificial illumination employed for chrysanthemum cultivation in greenhouses to induce photo period effect will determine its growing rate as well as the energy consumption. Incandescent filament is currently employed for artificial illumination in chrysanthemum nursery to induce photo period effect. Nowadays new illumination technology is being tested aiming energy consumption reduction. The application of illumination based on electrical discharge in sodium or mercury vapor, as well as tubular or integrated compact fluorescent bulbs in chrysanthemum cultivation is identified as the objective of this research work. The experimental part of this work was carried out in a commercial greenhouse model employing five chrysanthemum variety as Papiro, Lindy White, Mona Lisa Rose, Euro Speedy and Stateman during winter and summer period. Parameters employed to the study variety behavior included: production per area, fresh matter weight, presence of flower sprouts and moisture content. The parameters known as electrical variables, like consumption, demand and power factor, together with the treatment energy efficiency index were used to analyze the employed illumination technologies and light bulbs type. Results showed differences between weight of fresh flowers and moisture content for the flowers variety under consideration. Productivity per unit area was noticed to be larger for discharge technology when compared with filament bulbs, for both varieties being tested. The lowest flower sprout occurrence was associated to the discharge technology with the exception of the variety Stateman produced with incandescent bulbs of 100 W in the winter plot. The unique exception related to discharge technology was associated to the White 23 W Integrated Compact Fluorescent bulb yielding 2.4% of flower sprouts compared with 0% of other bulb types associated to the production of the variety Euro Speedy. It was noticed from the results that the yellow integrated compact

  6. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-01

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity.

  7. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-01

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity. PMID:26521095

  8. 药用菊花种苗计算机快速鉴别研究%Rapid identification system for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛鹏飞; 郭巧生; 汪涛; 邵清松

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To achieve the rapid identification for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium, the discriminant equation was established and the software for rapid identification was designed. Method: Leaf structure of medicinal Chrysanthemum of 12 cultivars was analyzed to establish the discriminant equation based on variance analysis and discriminant analysis. On this basis, the identification program and software (based on the python language) were designed. Result: Through the analysis of variance and multiple comparisons for the 11 leaf parameter index data of 12 different cultivars, it was found that that the leaf parameters were significant different from each other and reached significant levels. The discriminant equation and the rapid identification software were set up based on the analysis of various indicators. Conclusion: The rapid identification system of seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum could be achieved through the establishment of discriminant equation combined with computer technology.%目的:通过建立药用菊花种苗判别方程,设计出快速鉴别软件,实现对其种苗的快速鉴别.方法:采用方差分析和判别分析对12个栽培类型的药用菊花叶形结构11个指标进行分析,建立判别方程.在此基础上,设计鉴别程序,编写软件(基于Python语言).结果:通过对12个不同类型药用菊花的11个叶形参数指标数据进行方差分析和多重比较,各叶形参数之间均达到显著水平,各类型之间均存在显著性差异.对各指标进行判别分析,建立判别方程,并设计了药用菊花快速判别软件.结论:通过建立的药用菊花种苗判别方程,结合计算机技术,能够实现对药用菊花种苗的快速判别.

  9. 5种切花菊内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况研究%Research on Isolation, Identification and Distribution of Endophytic Fungi from Five Cut Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龑; 赵大克; 郑丽

    2014-01-01

    研究了5个常见切花菊品种内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况,以寻找切花菊自身抗性真菌并为今后开展生物防治提供基础资料。找到了切花菊各部位材料的表面灭菌处理最优方法,发现切花菊内生真菌在分离中出现幼嫩部位内生真菌分离数量明显高于成熟部位,并且根分布最多,叶次之,茎最少。5个切花菊的内生真菌中,镰刀菌属( Fusarium)和枝孢属( Cladosporium)为优势菌群。5个切花菊品种内生真菌的分布存在一定相似度,但不同品种还是存在自己特有的内生真菌,说明切花菊的内生真菌分布有一定多样性。%The isolation, identification and distribution of endophytic fungi from five common cut chrysanthemum cultivars were studied to find out their own resistant fungi and provide fundamental data for the future studies on biological control.The optimal method for surface sterilization treatment of various parts of cut chrysanthemum materials was found.It was found that the quantity of isolated endophytic fungi from the tender part of cut chrysanthemums was obviously higher than that from the mature part, and the distribution of endophytic fungi in different parts showed the following order:root>leaf>stem.Among endophytic fungi from five cut chrysanthemums, Fusarium and Cladosporium were dominant fungal community.Five cut chrysanthemum cultivars were some-what similar in the distribution of endophytic fungi, but different cultivars also had their own unique endophytic fungi, indicating that the distribution of endophytic fungi in cut chrysanthemums had a certain diversity.

  10. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to moniter high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendrantherma grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janka, Eshetu; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    Under a dynamic greenhouse climate control regime, temperature is adjusted to optimise plant physiological responses to prevailing irradiance levels; thus, both temperature and irradiance are used by the plant to maximise the rate of photosynthesis, assuming other factors are not limiting...... photosynthesis (Pn) and four chlorophyll-a fluorescence parameters: maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII [Fv/Fm], electron transport rate [ETR], PSII operating efficiency [F′q/F′m], and non-photochemical quenching [NPQ] were assessed for potted chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) ‘Coral Charm...... and quantum yield of PSII remaining low until the temperature reaches 28 °C and 2) the integration of online measurements to monitor photosynthesis and PSII operating efficiency may be used to optimise dynamic greenhouse control regimes by detecting plant stress caused by extreme microclimatic conditions....

  11. Effect of Mn-doping on the growth mechanism and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; You Tian-Gui; Zhang Zhi-Yong; Tian Jiang-Xiao; Yun Jiang-Ni; Zhao Wu

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters with different Mn-doping concentrations are prepared by a hydrothermal process. The microstructure, morphology and electromagnetic properties are characterized by x-ray diffractometer high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), a field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM)and a microwave vector network analyser respectively.The experimental results indicate that the asprepared products are Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, that the growth habit changes due to Mn-doping and that a good magnetic loss property is found in the Mn-doped ZnO products, and theaverage magnetic loss tangent tan6m is up to 0.170099 for 3% Mn-doping, while the dielectric loss tangent tanSe is weakened, owing to the fact that ions Mn2+ enter the crystal lattice of ZnO.

  12. 地被菊在园林设计中的应用研究%Application of Ground- Cover Chrysanthemum with Small Inflorescences to Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊; 卢明明; 孙莺沙

    2012-01-01

    指出了地被菊作为一类植株低矮、抗逆性强、花色丰富、花期较长、开花繁密的菊花新品种群,是非常优良的地被植物,适宜在城市景观绿化中推广使用。分析了其形态特征,探讨了地被菊对环境的适应性,及在园林设计中的应用。%Ground - cover chrysanthemum is a new kind of ornamental plants. Its horticultural properties are also good. It has lower plant height, rich color, longer blossom period, numerous flowers per plant and strong resistance of stress such as cold, heat, drought, salt, air pollution etc. Therefore, it is suitable to be applied to gardens.

  13. Reconocimiento y dispersión de hongos causantes del "picamento" (Rayspeck en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium ram en condiciones de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustos B. Indiana

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available The recongnition of the fungi causing ray speck and their dispersion in chrysantemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Three speciea were identified: Alternaria alternata (FR Keiasler, Alternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth lPleospora herbarum Raben Horst. The analysis ofthe disease dispersion was based on a random deaign with three repetitions. The number of coloniea, the temperature and relative humidity were evaluated in four different placea of the culture. The temperature was found to be the most important factor afecting the production and releaSe of conidia. The sporulation reached ita peak at noon (21°C.El reconocimiento de hongos causantes del "picamento" (ray speek y su dispersión en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, se realizó bajo condiciones de invernadero. Se identificaron tres especies de hongos que producen los síntomas: ALternaria alternata (FR Keissler, ALternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth CPkospora herbarum Raben Horst. Para el análisis de la dispersión de la enfermedad, se usó un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. En cuatro sitios del cultivo se evaluó el número de colonias, la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Se encontró que la temperatura es el factor más importante para la producción y liberación de conidias. A las 12 M. (21°C se presentó la mayor esporulación.

  14. Efficacy of some botanical extracts against Trogoderma granarium in wheat grains with toxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbalah, Aly S

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  15. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly S. Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp. grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis was carried to identify the chemical components of the most effective plant extract against T. granarium. Furthermore, the safety of the most effective plant extract was evaluated with respect to biochemical and histological changes in treated rats relative to control. The results revealed that, the tested botanical extracts showed high efficiency against T. granarium with respect to mortality and progeny of the adults. C. senna was the most effective botanical extract against T. granarium. The GC-MS analysis of the most effective plant extract showed the presence of different bioactive compounds that is known by its insecticidal activity. The most effective plant extract showed no toxicity on treated rats relative to control with respect to biochemical and histological changes. The results suggest the ability of using these plant extracts for wheat grains protection as a safe alternative to insecticides.

  16. Effects of Hydroabsorbent Mixed Slow Release Fertilizers on Growth and Nutrients Uptake of Edible Chrysanthemum%保水缓释肥料对食用菊花生长及养分吸收的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传章; 高丽娟; 黄景; 孙钦平; 许俊香; 刘本生; 李吉进

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to provide the basis on the application of hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer in Chrysanthemum. A pot experiment was conducted to study and compare the effects of hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer and slow-release fertilizer on Chrysanthemum' s growth, yields and nitrogen effects. Four treatments were set up, which were control (CK), hydroabsorbent (B), slow-release fertilizer (H) and hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer (BH). The results showed that, compared with H treatment, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow released fertilizer significantly boosted the growth of Chrysanthemum, and including plant height increased about 8 cm, chlorophyll content increased by over 4%, biomass increased by more than 25%. The contents of N, P and K of chrysanthemum treated with BH were significant more than those treated with H, and nitrogen use efficiency improved more than 23%. Meanwhile, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer could significantly reduce soil nitrate content, thereby reducing the risk of nitrogen leaching loss. Therefore, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer had a significant effectiveness for Chrysanthemum, and was better than slow-release fertilizer.%为了给菊花生产提供保水缓释肥施用的参考依据,利用温室盆栽试验,研究和比较了保水缓释肥料和普通缓释肥料对食用菊花生长发育、产量及其氮素效应的影响.试验设计了不施肥(CK)、单施保水剂(B)、单施缓释肥(H)和保水缓释肥(BH)4个处理.试验结果表明,与缓释肥处理相比,保水缓释肥料显著促进了菊花的生长,其中株高增加约8 cm、叶绿素含量提高4%以上,生物量提高25%以上;保水缓释肥处理植株氮、磷、钾含量比缓释肥处理显著增加,提高氮素利用率23个百分点以上;同时保水缓释肥能显著降低土壤硝态氮的含量,从而降低氮素淋洗流失的风险.因此,保水缓释肥对菊花肥效显著,优于缓释肥.

  17. The Origin of Garden Chrysanthemums and Molecular Phylogeny of Dendranthema in China based on Nucleotide Sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF Intergenic Spacer Regions in cpDNA%基于核糖体DNA的ITS序列和叶绿体trnT-trnL及trnL-trnF基因间区的菊花起源与中国菊属植物分子系统学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠恩; 汪小全; 陈俊愉; 洪德元

    2003-01-01

    Several sequences were applied to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Dendranthema and clarify the origin of garden chrysanthemums including sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer regions in cpDNA. The relationships among the species are so close that the three sequences could only provide limited information. From the evidence presented, we suggest that: ① D.rhmobifolium be the chloroplast donor of D.vestitum (HN) with the resembling morphology and the same trnT/L IGS sequence. ② D.vestitum, a putative ancestor, may be not the chloroplast donor of garden chrysanthemums. D.lavand-ulifolium might be the chloroplast donor of the type population of D.indicum (HN) or the direct chloroplast donor of the ancient garden chrysanthemum cultivar. ③ D.zawaskii might be not the ancestor of garden chrysanthemums.

  18. Investigation and Analysis of Large -Flowered Chrysanthemum Cultivars in Shandong Province%山东省大菊品种资源调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒新艳; 张俊丽; 卢洁

    2015-01-01

    本研究对山东省大菊主栽城市进行了连续3年的调查和整理,共鉴定统计到195个品种,其中日本品种81个,中国品种114个;平瓣类(52%)和管瓣类(28%)品种多,畸瓣类(5%)和桂瓣类(1%)品种少;叠球型、翻卷型和钩环型3个花型的品种数量多,缺少平盘型、蜂窝型和单管型等7个花型的品种;黄色和白色品种多,两者之和超过了一半,绿色、红色和橙色品种少,不足10个;各花色在瓣型和花型中的分布极不均匀,黄色叠球型品种最多。该调查结果有利于正确认识大菊品种资源,保护珍稀资源,合理开展引种、育种和产业开发等工作。%One hundred and ninety -five Chrysanthemum cultivars were identified through the investiga-tion in the major cultivation cities of Shandong Province in 3 consecutive years,which included 81 Japanese cultivars and 114 native cultivars.The flat -petal group (52%)and quilled -petal group (28%)took the most part of cultivars,whereas the filiform -petal group (5%)and anemone -petal group (1%)had even less cultivars.These quantity of globular,reflexed and open bead types were the most,while that of 7 types, such as plate -petal types,honeycomb types and single quill type was lack.The cultivars yellow and white flowers were the most with their,sum was more than half of the total.There were less than ten cultivars with green,red and orange flowers.The distribution of each color in the petal groups and flower types was very un-even,and the yellow globular type was the most one.These results were propitious to cognize the cultivars of Chrysanthemum,protect valuable resources and develop the introduction,breeding and industry exploiting.

  19. 杭菊花中黄酮苷的研究%Extraction and identification of Flavonoid glycoside from Chrysanthemum morofolium Ramat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方艳夕; 朱金坤

    2006-01-01

    菊花按产地和加工方法不同有四种规格,经过试验发现木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside)是它们共有的有效化学成分.本试验从杭菊花序的95%乙醇提取物中,经萃取、硅胶柱层析和葡聚糖凝胶柱层析,分离得到一个单体化合物,经显色等化学反应鉴定为黄酮苷类化合物,经红外、紫外、核磁共振光谱分析鉴定其为木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷.

  20. Avaliação do enraizamento de estacas de crisântemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium L. cv. white Reagan 606 tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (IBA Rooting evaluation in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. white Reagan 606 stem cuttings as affected by indolbutyric acid (IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Cuquel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de doses crescentes do ácido indolbutírico (IBA e de diferentes tempos de imersão no enraizamento de estacas de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. O fator doses foi aplicado em quatro níveis: 0, 500, 1000 e 1500 ppm de IBA e o fator tempo em três níveis: 5s, 1h e 2h. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, onde as dosagens de IBA foram aplicadas como tratamento principal. O experimento foi instalado em caixas de isopor, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização, tendo vermiculita como substrato. O momento adequado para o transplante foi avaliado através da leitura de uma repetição adicional utilizada como controle. Obteve-se enraizamento em todas as combinações de tratamento, mesma na ausência de IBA. De maneira geral o tratamento rápido tende a ser mais facilmente eficiente quando combinado com as maiores dosagens, enquanto os tratamentos mais demorados com as menores dosagens.The effect of rising concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA solutions was evaluated with different exposition times in stem cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. The applied concentrations were 0,500,1000 and 1500 ppm of IBA during 5s, 1h and 2h, in a randomized complete split-plot block design, with IBA concentrations as main treatment. The experiment was installed in styrofoam trays in a green-house with a mist device and vermiculite as substrate. Transplanting time was determined by an additional block. All treatments induced rooting even in the absence of IBA. In a general sense the fastest treatments tended to be the more efficient when combined with higher concentrations.

  1. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  2. 茼蒿挥发油化学成分分析%Chemical Constitutes of Essential Oil from Chrysanthemum.L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程霜; 崔庆新; 牛梅菊

    2001-01-01

    利用气相色谱-质谱联用法对茼蒿挥发油成分进行了分析,经毛细管色谱分离出了38种组分,并确认了32种成分,检出率达84.21%,并用气相色谱面积归一化法测定了各种成分的相对百分含量,其主要成分为4-甲基-2-戊烯、4-甲基-2,3-二氢呋喃、β-蒎烯、苯甲醛等。%The essential oil from Chrysanthemum. Lwas analyzed by capillary GC / MSD method. 38 peaks were isolated and 32 compounds were identified while the ratio of identification was 84. 21%. The relative contents of constitutes wrer determined by area normalizing method. The mainly chemical constitutes were: 2 - pentene - 4 - methyl -, 4 -methgl - 2, 3 - dihydro - furan, benzaldehyde, beta - pinene, etc.

  3. Influence of temperature and rooting-promoter on the formation of root-primodia and on the rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings under storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote rooting for direct planting cuttings in a lighting cultivation of chrysanthemum, we clarified the effects of light, temperature and term of storage of the cuttings, and analyzed ways of using rooting promoters as a pre-treatment of cuttings for root-primodia formation and rooting. Light as a pre-treatment had little effect, so it seemed to be not necessary for the formation of root primodia. The formation of the root-primodia was most hastened at 25 degrees C; inversely, it was slowed down at low temperatures, that is, the root-primodia were formed in four days at 25 degrees C, five days at 20 degrees C, and seven days at 15 degrees C. With the use of rooting promoters as a pre-treatment for the rooting of cuttings, the root-primodia were formed faster when the whole of cuttings were dipped in 40 mg/L solution of indelebutyric acid (IBA) than when the base of cuttings were dipped or sprayed 400 mg/L solution of IBA. It was appropriate that cuttings were dipped in IBA then put in in plastic-pots (7.5cm) vertically, packed in polyethylene-bags and stored in a corrugated carton box

  4. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  5. 菊花精油化学成分分析及其在再造烟叶加香中的应用%Analysis of Chemical Components of Chrysanthemum Essential Oil and Its Applicationin Reconstituted Tobacco Flavoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史跃龙; 严新龙; 卢岚

    2014-01-01

    The chemical components of chrysanthemum essential oil were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by GC-MC. The results showed that 43 components in chrysanthemum essential oil were identified,containing five kinds of ketones,four-teen kinds of alcohols,six kinds of esters,three kinds of acids,and fifteen hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. Tobacco flavoring test was found that when the content of chrysanthemum essential oil added in every 1 00 g of tobacco concentrate were in the range of 1 .5‰ to 2 .0‰ ,the offensive odor of reconstituted tobacco could be eliminated and the taste of cigarette smoke could be improved. The optimal result was achieved when adding quantity was 2.0‰ .%采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪对菊花精油的化学成分进行分析。结果显示,从菊花精油中检测鉴别出43种物质,其中酮类5种、醇类14种、酯类6种、酸类3种、烃类及杂环类15种。加香试验发现,在每100 g烟草浓缩液中加入1.5‰~2.0‰(质量分数)菊花精油能够有效改善造纸法再造烟叶的刺激性和灼烧感,改善吸味并提高香气质量,在添加比例为2.0‰(质量分数)时效果最佳。

  6. Chemical characteristics of different parts of Coreopsis tinctoria in China using microwave-assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography followed by chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shing-Chung; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xian-Qiang; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Long, Ze-Rong; Fan, Bing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Coreopsis tinctoria, also called "snow chrysanthemum" in China, is a flower tea material that has been reported to possess excellent pharmacological properties such as antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The chemical characteristics of different parts (flowers, buds, seeds, stems, and leaves) of C. tinctoria were investigated based on microwave-assisted extraction and the simultaneous determination of 13 major active compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography, including taxifolin-7-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, (R/S)-flavanomarein, isocoreopsin, quercetagetin-7-O-glucoside, isookanin, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, marein, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, and N(1) ,N(5) ,N(10) ,N(14) -tetra-p-coumaroylspermine. Chemometric analysis based on the contents of investigated compounds from 13 samples showed that C. tinctoria and the related flower tea materials, Chrysanthemum morifolium cv "Hangju" and "Gongju," were in different clusters, and different parts (flowers, buds, seeds, stems, and leaves) of C. tinctoria were obviously different. This study is helpful for the quality control and pharmacological evaluation of different parts from C. tinctoria and its related products. PMID:27291468

  7. 11个观赏菊花品种灰色关联度分析%Grey Correlation Degree Analysis of 11 Ornamental Chrysanthemum Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢珍红; 蔡承良; 顾强健; 田敏; 莫锡君; 吴学尉; 桂敏

    2014-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis and evaluation on the main characters of 11 ornamental chrysanthemum varieties intro-duced from Holland were carried out , and the equal -weight and weighted correlation degrees between their main characters and ide-al characters were analyzed by using the method of grey correlation degree analysis .The results indicated that the equal -weight cor-relation degrees of various varieties had the following order: romanov>bretagne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink >Rados>Vennice>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden .The weighted correlation degrees showed the following sequence:romanov>bret-agne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink >Vennice >Rados>Bactica >Biarritc>pp.golden.Thus, romanov had the best comprehensive performance , followed by bretagne and ml .yellow.These three varieties were suitable to be planted in Kunming district.%采用灰色关联度分析方法,对11个从荷兰引进的观赏菊花品种的主要性状进行了综合分析评价,并对所引进的品种主要性状与理想性状进行等权与加权关联度分析。结果表明:等权关联度大小依次为:romanov >Bretagne >ml. yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink>Rados>Vennice>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden。加权关联度大小依次为:romanov>Bretagne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink>Vennice>Rados>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden。即romanov的综合表现最好,其次为Bretagne和ml.yellow,这3个品种适合在昆明地区大力推广种植。

  8. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  9. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  10. A Process Research of Healthy and Refreshing Beverages Made of Herba houttuyniae, Folium llicis, and Chrysanthemum morifolium%鱼腥草、苦丁茶、杭白菊复合保健饮料工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 罗爱平; 赵贵丽; 周国君; 徐筱菁

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to optimize the protocol of herba houttuyniae juice processing using herba houttuyniae as major ingredient, and Folium llicis and Chrysanthemum morifolium as auxiliary materials herein. The findings showed that Folium /feisLatifoliae and Chrysanthemum morifolium, could effectively affect the flavor of its drinks. The procedure was as following: cutting the Herba houttuyniae into 1 to 2 cm pieces, dipping them in the 0. 2% salt-water, protecting color and steaming, pulping with protect color liquid in the proportion of 1:0. 8, which could increase juice yield to 140 mL per 100 g fresh Herba houttuyniae and produce the yellow liquid product. The best formula of compound beverages contained 100 mL Herba houttuyniae juice,0.12g xanthan gum, 0. 08 g sucrose fatty acid ester, 30 g sweeteners (sucrose: lactose1 xylitol = 10: 3:2) , 0.94ml acidity ( containing 2. 6% citric acid, 1.0% tartaric acid and 1.0% vitamin C) , 21 mL Folium llicis, 5.3 mL Chrysanthemum morifolium.%以鱼腥草为主料,辅以苦丁茶、杭白菊,探讨鱼腥草、苦丁茶和杭白菊清凉复合保健饮料的最佳工艺配方.结果表明:将鱼腥草切成1 ~2cm小段,经0.2%盐水浸渍、护色、汽蒸,与护色液按1∶0.8打浆,每100g鲜鱼腥草出汁率可提高达140 mL,汁液色泽呈理想的浅黄色.复合饮料最佳配方为:鱼腥草汁的用量100 mL,黄原胶0.12g,蔗糖脂肪酸酯0.08g,甜味剂309(蔗糖∶乳糖∶木耱醇=10∶3∶2),酸味剂0.94 mL(含柠檬酸2.6%、酒石酸1.0%,抗坏血酸1.0%),苦丁茶汁21 mL,菊花汁5.3mL.苦丁茶、杭白菊能有效改善鱼腥草饮料的风味.

  11. The Association Analysis of Phenotypic Traits with SRAP Markers in Chrysanthemum%菊花品种表型性状与SRAP分子标记的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁伟; 王晨; 戴思兰; 雒新艳; 李宝琴; 朱珺; 卢洁; 刘倩倩

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to provide a genetic basis for studies on complex quantitive traits and for molecular assisted breeding of chrysanthemum, the SRAP markers associated with important chrysanthemum horticulture traits were screened. [Method] The genomic regions with selection sweep were detected through scanning 58 representative chrysanthemum cultivars using 19 SRAP markers. Population structure was firstly analyzed, then association analysis between SRAP markers and 18 important phenotypic traits were performed using TASSEL GLM. [Result] Genetic structure analysis showed that the selected cultivar population was composed of 5 subpopulations, namely flat type subgroup, tube type subgroup, irregular type subgroup, anemone type subgroup and Japanese subgroup. There were 6 SRAP loci associated with 5 quantitative characters (/J<0.01), among which 3 flower traits were associated with 5 loci, while 1 stem and 1 leaf traits were associated with 1 locus, respectively. The rate of explanation on the phenotype of related locus ranged from 0.0738 to 0.4791. [Conclusion] It is feasible to estimate and differentiate chrysanthemum population's structure effectively using SRAP markers, and the markers obtained in this study are promising in molecular assisted breeding.%[目的]寻找与菊花重要园艺性状相关联的分子标记,为菊花复杂数量性状的研究以及分子标记辅助育种奠定遗传学基础.[方法]利用筛选出的19对SRAP引物组合对58个典型大菊品种进行多位点扫描分析.在对供试材料进行群体结构分析的基础上,利用TASSEL软件,对获得的分子标记与这些品种的18个重要表型性状进行关联分析.[结果]群体遗传结构分析将58个大菊品种划分为5个亚群结构:平瓣类、管瓣类、畸瓣类、桂瓣类和日本品种亚群;通过关联分析,发现有6个标记位点与5个性状关联(P< 0.01),其中与花部性状(花梗粗度、花瓣宽度、筒

  12. 转AtDREB1A基因菊花杂交后代优株水分胁迫耐性分析%Drought Stress Tolerance of the Hybrid Offspring Produced by AtDREB1A Transgenic Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英杰; 李春水; 张晓娇; 魏倩; 高俊平; 洪波

    2013-01-01

    过量表达拟南芥(A rab idopsis thaliana)逆境诱导转录因子DREB1A基因(AtDREB1A)能提高菊花的干旱胁迫耐性.以具有干旱胁迫耐性的转AtDREB1A基因菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium)株系与广泛应用的非转基因菊花品种进行常规杂交获得的后代优株A-121、A-128、A-136为实验材料,进行了RT-PCR检测、水分胁迫下的萎蔫指数和成活率统计以及脯氨酸(Pro)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性测定.结果显示,外源A tDREB1A基因能够在有性繁殖过程中遗传给后代,且在水分胁迫下能在杂交后代植株中表达;与对照相比,水分胁迫条件下,转基因植株杂交后代Pro含量和SOD活性明显升高,且具有较强的水分胁迫耐性.研究结果表明,转基因菊花所携带的A tDREB1A基因可以在常规杂交中稳定遗传并发挥功能,提高了植株对水分胁迫的耐性.本研究为通过基因工程和传统育种结合方式选育具有干旱耐性的菊花新品种提供了技术平台.%Overexpression of the stress-inducible transcription factor gene A tDREB1A in Chrysanthemum conferred strong drought stress tolerance. Taking A-112, A-128 and A-136 as experimental materials, which are the three excellent hybrid offspring plants of the ground cover Chrysanthemum fall color transgenic line 1805 with drought stress tolerance harboring Arabidopsis thaliana dehydration response element-binding protein 1A (AtDREB1A) and the Asia Winter Light with better phenotype, we analyzed the stability and expression of AtDREB1A under water stress condition by RT-PCR, and determined the wilting index, survival rate, proline(Pro) content and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity under drought stress condition. The results demonstrated that the exogenous gene AtDREB1A A was transferred into the hybrid offspring plants by sexual propagation and it could be expressed in offspring plants under drought condition. Compared with the control plants, the hybrid offspring plants

  13. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas

  14. Historical and Cultural Origin and Textual Research of Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivated in Macheng%麻城福白菊的历史文化渊源及本草考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光军; 陈科力

    2011-01-01

    麻城市种植的药用菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)品质优良,产量在全国占有较大的份额,并以麻城福白菊(C.morifolium cv.Fubaiju)注册了国家地理标志证明商标,但该品牌还不为国人所熟知.笔者从历史文化渊源和本草考证的角度证实,湖北麻城大别山地区是具有悠久历史的传统菊花产地之一,关于麻城菊花食用和种植历史最明确的记载,可以在麻城县志中追溯到明末清初,而关于麻城菊花采收和食用的文化习俗,甚至可以追溯到更为久远的春秋战国时期.%The Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivated in Macheng region had excellent quality and contributed to a large proportion of total yield in China. The National Geographic Symbol Certification Mark, name of C. morifolium cv.Fubai-ju, had been registered. However, the C. morifolium cv. Fubaiju brand had not been well known. According to the historical and cultural origin and textual research on Chinese medicine, the presented paper verified that the Dabie Mountain area in Macheng city of Hubei was a traditional production area of C. morifolium with long history. The clear record about C. morifolium cultivated and used as food in Macheng could be traced back to Late Ming Dynasty to Early Qing Dynasty in Macheng local chronicles. And the cultural consuetude about C. morifolium collection and recipe in Macheng could even be traced back to old Spring and Autumn Period.

  15. 从语境顺应看《菊与刀》中的耻感文化%A TENTATIVE APPROACH TO SHAME CULTURE IN THE CHRYSANTHEMUM AND THE SWORD FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CONTEXTUAL ADAPTABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚倩雯

    2011-01-01

    本尼迪克特在她的《菊与刀》中指出日本文化是不同于欧美"罪感文化"的"耻感文化"。Verschueren认为,人们使用语言的过程实际上是一个不断选择语言的过程。本文在顺应论理论框架下对《菊与刀》中的"耻感文化"进行了语境顺应性的分析。通过分析耻感文化背景下的日本人在交际过程中是如何对交际语境进行动态顺应并作出相应的语言选择,进一步探讨了语言的选择与文化语境的密切关系。%In The Chrysanthemum and the Sword,Benedict declares that the national culture of Japan is a "shame culture" rather than a "guilt culture".In Verschueren's Adaptation Theory,it is believed that language use must be constituted by continuous choice making.Based on the theoretic framework of Adaptation Theory,this paper makes an analysis of contextual adaptability of shame culture advocated in The Chrysanthemum and the Sword.Based on an analysis of shame culture and its influences on the Japanese's selection of language use,this paper makes a further discussion of the relationship between language choice-making and cultural context.

  16. 不同丛枝菌根真菌对切花菊生长的影响%Effects of Different Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Strains on Growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔佩佩; 杨树华; 贾瑞冬; 葛红

    2011-01-01

    The pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to study the effects of five kinds of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) strains on growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Jinba' by measuring some morphological and physiological indicators at young plants and blooming stages. The results showed that AMF treatments could significantly improve the plant height, leaf numbers, leaf area, root length and petal area of C. morifolium compared to the control of no inoculation. The AMF treatments could enhance root activity, increase the soluble sugar content in the roots, leaves and petals (except for Glomus mosseae), and thus improve the osmotic adjustment. As a result, G. intraradlces was screened out as the best strain for enhancing the growth of C. morifolium.%在温室盆栽条件下,对切花菊品种‘神马’(Chrysanthemum morifolium‘Jinba’)接种5种不同的丛枝菌根真菌(arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi,AMF),分别在苗期和花期,通过测定相关形态及生理指标,研究AMF对切花菊生长的影响.结果表明:与未接种对照相比,5种AMF均能不同程度地侵染切花菊根系,增加植株株高、叶片数、根长和花瓣面积等,促进切花菊生长.接种AMF能够增强切花菊根系活力,提高根系、叶片和花瓣中的可溶性糖含量(Glomus mosseae除外),从而改善渗透调节.综合分析,最终筛选出G.intraradlces是对切花菊生长促进效果最好的菌种.

  17. 大孔树脂精制杭白菊总黄酮的上样条件研究%Study on Sampling Conditions of Refining Chrysanthemum Total Flavonoids with Macroporous Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海霞

    2012-01-01

    目的 优选D-101大孔树脂精制杭白菊总黄酮工艺中的最佳上样条件.方法 将影响树脂吸附性能的3个因素上样量、流速和pH设计成3因素3水平试验,采用L9(34)表正交试验,以树脂吸附总黄酮含量、乙醇洗脱总黄酮含量和固体总黄酮含量为评价指标,选择最佳条件.结果 确定最佳上样条件为上样量20 mL、pH为5、流速2 BV/h.结论 该最佳上样条件可应用于大孔树脂精制杭白菊总黄酮的上样条件研究.%Objective To optimize D — 101 macroporous resin for obtaining the best sampling conditions to refine chrysanthemum total flavonoids. Methods 3 factors influencing resin adsorption ability,the sample volume,flow rate and sample solution pH value,were designed to the 3 factors 3 levels test. Adopting the L9(34) table orthogonal experiment,the total flavonoid content by resin adsorption, total flavonoids content by ethanol eluting and solid total flavonoid content were used as the evaluation indexes for screening the best conditions. Results The best optimum sampling conditions were A3B1G3,I. E. ,the sample volume of 20 mL,pH 5 and the velocity of 2 BV/h. Conclusion The best sampling conditions can be used in the sampling condition study for refining chrysanthemum total flavonoids by macroporous resin.

  18. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...... of the scale. Main outcome measures. Consensus for the content of the scale. To test the scale Cronbachs alpha, interclass correlation and differential item function was calculated in the prospective study. Results. 89% completed the first and 61% completed the second Delphi round. Hereafter, consensus......Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  19. Cloning and Expression of CmCO and CmFT of Floral Development Genes in Chrysanthemum%菊花花发育基因CmCO和CmFT的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素波; 林桂玉; 郑成淑; 孙霞; 任洪艳; 温立柱

    2011-01-01

    利用同源序列法结合RACE技术从菊花'神马'品种[Chrysanthemum morfIorium(Ramat.)Kitam.'Jinba']中分离了开花时间相关的CO(CONSTANS)和FT(FLOWERINGLOCUST)同源基因,并命名为CmCO(基因登录号JF488070)和CmFT(基因登录号JF488071).CmCO和CmFT分别编码382和174个氨基酸.蛋白比对发现,CmCO蛋白包含具有典型的CO同源蛋白结构,包含B-box1,B-box2,CCT结构域及COOH区域.CmFT所推测的氨基酸序列包含FT类蛋白保守基序和两个关键性氨基酸残基.同源性分析表明,CmCO与草莓(Fragaria×ananassa)FaCO同源性最高,为65.8%,与豌豆(Pisumsativum)PsCOL、拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)AtCO同源性分别为62.0%和55.6%.CmFT与向日葵(Helianthus annuus)HaFT2基因同源性最高,为93.7%,与葡萄(Vitis vinifera)VvFT和拟南芥AtFT的同源性分别为85.1%和74.0%.进化树聚类分析表明,CmCO和CmFT蛋白分别与向日葵HaCO和HaFT2 遗传距离最近.RT-PCR表明,长日照下的菊花叶片中几乎检测不到CmCO和CmFT,而在短日照下,CmCO在花芽分化启动期(Ⅰ)表达,总苞鳞片分化前期(Ⅱ)有所下降随后又迅速升高;CmFT在CmCO之后表达,之后持续高表达.选择小花原基分化前期(Ⅳ)对菊花叶片、花芽和茎等不同组织器官CmCO.和CmnFT表达进行分析,结果表明,CmCO在叶片中表达量最高,花芽次之,茎最低;CmFT在花芽中表达量最高,叶片次之,茎最低.由此推测CmCO和CmFT的表达与光周期诱导菊花成花密切相关.%The genes of CO (CONSTANS) and FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T), which related to flowering time were isolated from Chrysanthemum morflorium (Ramat.) Kitam. ' Jinba' by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and named it CmCO (GenBank accession No. JF488070) and CmFT (GenBank accession No. JF488071) respectively. CmCO and CmFTencoded 382 and 174 aminoacids respectively. Alignment analysis showed that CmCO protein had typical structures of CO homologous protein, including B-boxl, B-box2

  20. 甜叶菊苷类提取工艺研究%Study on extraction process of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni by orthogonal design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何巧丽; 李柯翱; 季志红; 田树革

    2016-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction process of Rebaudioside A and Stevioside in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni extracts by single-factor experimental conditions and orthogonal design method.Methods By investigating solid-liquid ratio,extraction temperature,extraction time and effects of extraction times on the contents of sweet leaf chrysanthemum stevioside (St)and rebaudioside A (rebaudioside A,RA),design orthogonal test,put RA content as evaluation indexes to optimize a extraction procedure of Stevia rebaudiana reflux extraction.Results The best conditions:solid-liquid ratio (m/v)was 1 g∶20 mL,extraction temperature was 80℃,extraction time was 1 h,extraction times was 2 times.Conclusion The extraction process is stable and feasible,and the extraction efficient is high.%目的:优化甜叶菊苷类的提取工艺条件。方法通过考察料液比、提取温度、提取时间和提取次数对甜叶菊中甜菊苷(Stevioside,St)和莱鲍迪苷 A(Rebaudioside A,RA)含量的影响,设计正交试验,以 RA 含量为评价指标,优选出甜叶菊回流提取的最佳提取工艺。结果最佳条件:料液比(m/v)为 l g∶20 mL、提取温度为80℃、提取时间为1 h、提取次数为2次。结论经过重复性实验验证,该提取工艺稳定可行。

  1. Compounds from fraction with cardiovascular activity of Chrysanthemum indicum%野菊花心血管活性部位化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昱; 马晓斌; 刘建勋

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the chemical constituents from the fraction with cardiovascular activtiy of Chrysanthemum indicum , the isolation and purification of compounds from this active fraction were performed, and the chemical structures were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison of the spectral data with those reported in the literature. As a result, twelve compounds were obtained and identified as (2S)-eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (1), (2.S)-eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (2), (2S)-hesperetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (3), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (4), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (5), diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (6), quercetin -7-O-β-D-glucoside (7), (2S)-eriodict-dicaffeoylquinate(8), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(9), 3, 5-cis-dieaffeoylquinic acid (10), 1, 5-dioaffeoylquinic acid( 11), and 1, 3-dicaffeoylquinic acid( 12). The above result indicated that flavonoids were the ma-di-caffeoylquinate(8), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(9), 3, 5-cis-dieaffeoylquinic acid(10), 1, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(11), and 1, 3-di-caffcoylquinic acid (12). The above result indicated that flavonoids were the major components of the active fraction. Compounds 2,3, 7, 8 and 10 were obtained from this genus for the first time, and compounds 5, 6, 9, 11, and 12 were first isolated from C. indicum.%目的:研究菊科植物野菊花心血管活性部位中的主要化学成分.方法:采用多种色谱方法进行分离纯化,通过波谱方法结合文献对照鉴定化合物结构.结果:从野菊花心血管活性部位中分离并鉴定了12个化合物,包括7个黄酮类化合物(1~7),5个苯丙素类化合物(8~12),分别鉴定为(2S)-圣草酚-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(1),(2S)-圣草酚-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(2),(2S)-橙皮素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(3),木犀草素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(4),木犀草素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(5),香叶木素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(6),槲皮素-7-O-β-D-呲喃葡萄糖苷(7),3,5-

  2. Environmentally friendly ionic liquid-in-water microemulsions for extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic components from Flos Chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Cao, Jun; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2013-10-21

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have numerous chemical applications as environmentally green solvents that are extending into microemulsion applications. In this work, a novel benign IL-in-water microemulsion system modified by an IL surfactant has been proposed for simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents from Flos Chrysanthemi (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Constituents were analyzed by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A mixture-design approach was used to optimize the IL surfactant and the IL oil phase in the microemulsion system. Microemulsions consisting of 6.0% 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate, 0.1% 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 93.9% water offered the acceptable extract efficiency that are comparable to or even better than conventional volatile organic solvents. This assay was fully validated with respect to the linearity of response (r(2) > 0.999 over two orders of magnitude), precision (intra-RSD microemulsion method provided an environmentally friendly alternative for efficient extraction of compounds from Flos Chrysanthemi and could be extended to complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:23928686

  3. Simultaneous determination of multiplex trace elements in chrysanthemum by ICP-Mass%电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-Mass)同时测定菊花中多种微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林新花; 洪瑞申

    2012-01-01

    用原子吸收光谱法(AAS)和电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP - Mass)分别测定菊花中微量元素锌、铜、铁,采用的定量分析方法是标准曲线法.并对两种仪器分析方法所得结果进行了比较.结果表明,随锌、铜、铁变量,AAS法和ICP - Mass法均有较好的线性关系,且测定的结果相近.两种方法最低检出限量分别为,AAS法铁0.4mg/L、铜0.4mg/L、锌0 08mg/L;ICP - Mass法铁0.0008mg/L、铜0.0008mg/L、锌0.0008mg/L.与AAS法技术相比,ICP - Mass技术将ICP的高温电离特性与四极杆质谱计的灵敏快速扫描的优点相结合,ICP - MS技术提供了最低的检出限,最宽的动态线性范围,且谱线简单、干扰少,分析精密度高,所以ICP - Mass法的准确度更高.ICP - Mass法可以同时测定菊花中的多种微量元素,分析周期短,提高了样品的分析效率.显示该方法快速、准确、简便等的优点.而AAS法一次只能分析单个元素.%Trace element Zn, Cu and Fe content in chrysanthemum were determined by both atomic absorption spec-trometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass - spectrography ( ICP - Mass). Three elements content in chrysanthemum was determined by standard curve method. The results obtained from two instrumental analysis methods were compared. The results show that the linear calibration curves for AAS and ICP - Mass were good, the measurement results by both methods were near. The lowest detection limits of Fe, Cu and Zn were 0. 4mg/L, 0. 4mg/L and 0, 08mg/L respectively by AAS. The lowest detection of limits of Fe, Gu, Zn were 0. 0008mg/L, 0. 0008mg/L and 0. 0008mg/L respectively by ICP - Mass, ICP - Mass was unique technology in which high - temperature ionization of ICP was combined with advantages of sensitive, quick and scanning of quadrupole mass spectrometer. ICP - Mass provided the lowest detection limit, the widest dynamic range linear. The analysis line of ICP -Mass was simple so that interference was low. The

  4. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS TRATAMIENTOS FOTOPERIÓDICOS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., BAJO CONDICIONES DEL INTERTRÓPICO ANDINO ALTO EVALUATION OF TWO PHOTOPERIOD TREATMENTS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum ((Ramat. Kitam., UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH ANDEAN INTERTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáber de Jesús Chica Toro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la floricultura colombiana, cerca del 14 % de los costos de producción del crisantemo o pompón (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., está representado por la luz complementaria requerida para controlar su floración. Con el fin de encontrar un protocolo que hiciera uso de un menor suministro de luz, en este trabajo se compararon los efectos de dos esquemas de complemento lumínico nocturno sobre algunas características precosecha y poscosecha en dos variedades comerciales tipo spider de crisantemo: Super White y Super Yellow. El esquema testigo de suplemento lumínico nocturno consistió en aportar la adición durante 28 días para la variedad Super Yellow, y 26 para la variedad Super White. La propuesta alternativa de adición lumínica nocturna consistió en interrumpir el estímulo durante una noche completa cada dos días. Tal disminución del estímulo lumínico, en aproximadamente un 30 %, no afectó el crecimiento ni las características poscosecha de las variedades evaluadas.In Colombian floriculture, nearly 14% of the production costs of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam. consists of the additional lighting required to control its flowering. In order to find a protocol that consumes a lower amount of electricity, this study compared the effects of two supplementary noctural lighting schemes on several preharvest and postharvest characteristics in two commercial varieties of chrysanthemum: Super White and Super Yellow. The control nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of providing the supplemental lighting during 28 days for the Super Yellow variety and during 26 days for the Super White variety. The alternative nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of interrupting the stimulus during one complete night every two days. This approximately 30% reduction in light stimulation did not affect either growth or postharvest characteristics of the varieties evaluated.

  5. Characteristics of Seed Germination and Regularities of Growth and Development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium in Natural Conditions%甘菊种子萌发特性及自然条件下生长发育规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁焱; 付建新; 戴思兰

    2012-01-01

    对甘菊[ Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch.ex Trautv.)Makino]种子萌发特性和自然条件下生长发育规律进行了试验观察,发现不同栽培基质及不同储藏时间对甘菊种子萌发率均有影响,在MS培养基上播种甘菊种子萌发率最高,可达90%左右.甘菊种子无休眠现象,采收后立即播种和次年春季播种萌发率均可达90%左右.甘菊种子不耐储藏,储藏至第3年秋季播种,萌发率仅为30%.自然条件下,5月至8月底是甘菊植株的营养生长时期,在此期间,甘菊株高、茎粗、冠幅、叶片数及分枝数一直处于增长状态;9月份当日照长度缩短至13 h时,甘菊开始现蕾,这表明13h光照/11h黑暗可能为甘菊现蕾的临界日长.%An experiment was conducted to study the seed germination characteristics and the regularities of growth and development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. ) Makino in natural conditions. Results indicate that different culture media and different storage times have some effects on the germination rate of C. lavandulifolium. The seeds on the MS medium showed the highest germination rate (about 90% ). The seeds of C. lavandulifolium have no dormancy phenomenon. The germination rate of the seeds sowed immediately after harvest or the next spring could reach almost 90%. The germination rate of the seeds decreased with storage time. The germination rate of the seeds sowed in the fall of the third year was only 30%. May to late August is the period of vegetative growth when the plant height, stem thickness, the number of leaves, crown size and the number of branches of C. lavandulifolium are in a rapid growth stage. The buds start appeared when the duration of day decreased to thirteen hours, which indicates that 13 hours of light and 11 hours of darkness may be the critical period for the buds of C. lavandulifolium, but it still need to be demonstrated by extensive experiments.

  6. Diferentes tecnologias de iluminação para produção de mudas de crisântemo Different technologies of illumination for the production of seedlings of chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A iluminação artificial usada para indução do efeito do fotoperíodo em mudas de crisântemos implica no consumo e no uso racional ou não da energia elétrica. Neste contexto, realizou-se experimento de pesquisa cujo objetivo foi analisar o uso da tecnologia de iluminação do tipo alta intensidade de descarga (HID - high intensity discharge em substituição à de filamento incandescente na produção de mudas de crisântemos. O principal parâmetro de comparação de desempenho entre as variedades cultivadas foi a presença de botão floral, pois está diretamente ligada ao controle fotoperiódico. Os parâmetros de avaliação do uso de energia elétrica foram: consumo, demanda, fator de potência e o consumo específico. Os resultados da análise estatística demonstram que não houve aumento no número de botões florais com o emprego de lâmpadas de alta intensidade de descarga. A lâmpada de descarga fluorescente compacta integrada amarela de 23 W apresentou a menor demanda máxima e redução média do consumo de energia, da ordem de 75%, quando comparada com a de filamento incandescente de 100 W.The application of artificial illumination to induce photoperiodic effects on chrysanthemum nursevy production implies in a rational electrical energy use. In this context, the objective of this research was to test and to analyze the application of high intensity discharge (HID illumination to substitute the conventional incandescent filament illumination in chrysanthemum nurseries production. The presence of floral buttons was taken as the main parameter in evaluating the tested varieties because it is closely associated to photoperiodic effects. Electrical energy evaluation parameters included demand, consumption, power factor as well as specific consumption. Results generated by the statistical analysis indicated no increase in the number of buttons associated with the high discharge illumination method. However the illumination with

  7. Preparative Isolation and Purification of Flavonoids from the Flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. by High-speed Counter-current Chromatography%高速逆流色谱分离制备杭白菊中黄酮类成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘少斌; 于宗渊; 王晓; 赵金; 耿岩玲; 刘建华; 段文娟

    2014-01-01

    建立高速逆流色谱分离纯化杭白菊总黄酮结晶中芹菜素-7-O-芸香糖、木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖、芹菜素-7-O-葡萄糖以及金合欢素-7-O-葡萄糖4种黄酮类化合物。高速逆流分离过程分为两步,分别采用乙酸乙酯-乙醇-水-乙酸(体积比4:1:5:0.2)和氯仿-甲醇-水(体积比4:3:2)两个体系。在第一步中,100 mg的总黄酮结晶分离得到了11.2 mg的芹菜素-7-O-芸香糖、15.3 mg的木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖、28.2 mg的芹菜素-7-O-葡萄糖。然后收集到尾吹液,旋蒸至干得到35 mg的浸膏。在第二步中,当采用氯仿-甲醇-水(体积比4:3:2)体系时,从35 mg的浸膏中分离纯化得到14.5 mg的金合欢素-7-O-葡萄糖。4个化合物的纯度分别为99.4%、93.6%、99.1%和99.5%,电喷雾电离质谱和氢、碳核磁共振波谱鉴定化合物的结构。%High-speed counter-current chromatography ( HSCCC) method for isolation and purification of flavonoids crystalloid, i. e. apigenin-7-O-rutinoside( I) , luteolin-7-O-glucoside( II) , apigenin-7-O-glucoside( III) and acacetin-7-O-glucoside( IV) from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. was established successfully. The separation was performed in two steps with two different types of solvent systems: ethyl acetate-ethanol-water-acetic acid (4:1:5:0. 2, v/v) and chloroform-methanol-water (4:3:2, v/v). In the first separation step, 100 mg of the flavonoids crystalloid yielded 11. 2 mg of apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, 15. 3 mg of luteolin-7-O-glucoside, and 28. 2 mg of apigenin-7-O-glucoside. Then we collected tail blowing fluid and obtained 35 mg of extract by evaporation to dryness. In the second step, when we used [ chloroform-methanol-water (4:3:2, v/v)] solvent system to separate the 35 mg of extract, 14. 5 mg of acacetin-7-O-glucoside could be obtained. Their four compounds purities were 99. 4 %, 93. 6 %, 99. 1% and 99. 5%, respectively. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR.

  8. Identification of Phenolic Components in Flower, Leaf and Stem of Huangshan Tribute Chrysanthemum(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)by HPLC-MS/MS%HPLC-MS/MS法测定黄山贡菊花、叶和茎中酚类物质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学玲; 申慧; 邹明亮

    2013-01-01

    The phenohc components of flower,leave and stem in Huangshan tribute chrysanthemum were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS.The results showed that flavonoids and phenolic acids were the major phenolic components.Thirteen flavonoids and nine phenolic acids were detected in the flower of C.morifolium,eleven flavonoids and six phenolic acids were detected in the leaf of C.morifolium,and eight flavonoids and five phenolic acids were detected in the stem of C.morifolium.Meanwhile,components including chlorogenic acid,1,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid,3,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid,4,5-di-caffeoylquinic acid,apigenin-6-C-xylosyl-8-C-glucos-yl,apigenin-6-C-glucosyl-8-C-arabinosyl,apigenin-6-C-arabinosyl-8-C-glucosyl,luteolin-7-O-glucoside,luteolin-7-O-glucuronide,diosmetin-7-O-6"-malonylglucoside,andacacetin-7-O-6"-malonylglucoside were also detected with different concentrations in flower,leaf and stem of C.morifolium.However,acacetin-7-O-galactoside was detected in both leaf and stem of C.morifolium but was not detected in flower of C.morifolium,and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide was only detected in the leaf of C.morifolium.%采用HPLC-MS/MS检测技术分析了黄山贡菊花、叶、茎中酚类物质.结果表明,黄山贡菊花、叶、茎中酚类物质主要为黄酮及酚酸类化合物,其中贡菊花中含有13种黄酮类化合物,9种酚酸类化合物;叶中含有11种黄酮类化合物,6种酚酸类化合物;茎中含有8种黄酮类化合物,5种酚酸类化合物.贡菊花、叶、茎中共有的酚性成分包括:绿原酸、1,5-二咖啡酰奎尼酸、3,5-二咖啡酰奎尼酸、4,5-二咖啡酰奎尼酸、芹菜素-6-C-木糖-8-C-葡萄糖、芹菜素-6-C-葡萄糖-8-C-阿拉伯糖、芹菜素-6-C-阿拉伯糖-8-C-葡萄糖、木犀草苷、木犀草素-7-O-葡萄糖醛酸苷、香叶木素-7-O-6”-丙二酰-葡萄糖苷、金合欢素-7-O-6”-丙二酰-葡萄糖苷.金合欢素-7-O-半乳糖苷存在于贡菊茎、叶中,而在贡菊花中未发现;芹菜素-7-O-葡萄

  9. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M Hudaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC 50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%. These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC 50 = 53.7 μg/ml, Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml, Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml, and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml. Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition, Helianthemum ledifolium (L. Mill. (28.4%, Majorana syriaca (L. Kostel. (25.1%, and Mentha spicata L. (22.5% showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22-30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.

  10. Technical and economic feasibility of the use of discharge lamps in replacement of filament for induction of photoperiod in chrysanthemum seedlings production; Viabilidade tecnico-economica do uso de lampadas de descarga em substituicao as de filamento para inducao de fotoperiodo na producao de mudas de crisantemos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A.; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br; Pagliardi, Odail [Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro (FMPFM), Mogi Guacu, SP (Brazil); Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS

    2010-07-01

    Due to its physiological characteristics, the seedlings of chrysanthemums require supplemental light to prevent bud formation, that is done at night. This article examines the technical and economic valuation to replace the current technology of artificial lighting used by producers (incandescent bulbs) for the purpose of inducing photoperiod in a protected environment for cutting-discharge lamps, with the goal of reducing the consumption electricity used in the process. The analysis showed that the integrated compact fluorescent yellow lamp 23W is the technically and economically feasible for such replacement. (author)

  11. Analysis of the Particularity of Japanese Culture from The Chrysanthemum and the Sword%从《菊与刀》探析日本文化的特殊性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孥少伟

    2012-01-01

    美国女人类学家本尼迪克特在其文化名著《菊与刀》中把日本社会的文化定义为一种"耻感文化",把西方社会的文化定义为"罪感文化"。两者主要的区别在于"罪感文化"强调自律,"耻感文化"强调他律。实际上这是由于东西方文化对"罪"的概念认识的不同,而造成的理解误区。把日本文化定性为"耻感文化",否定了日本人的罪感意识。确切地说日本文化兼具"耻"与"罪"文化的双重性。%American female anthropologist Benedict defines Japanese social culture as a "shame culture" and West social culture as a "guilty culture" in her masterpiece Chrysanthemum and the Sword. Their main differences are that "shame culture" emphasizes autonomy, while "guilty culture" stresses heteronomy. In fact, this is a misunderstanding caused by the differences of understanding the definition of "guilt" between Eastern and Western culture. If we define Japanese culture as "shame culture" , we deny the guilty consciousness of the Japanese. To be precise, Japanese culture has the duality of "shame" and "guilt".

  12. Solarização do solo para o controle de Pythium e plantas daninhas em cultura de crisântemo Soil solarization for Pithium and weed control in chrysanthemum crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A solarização, durante dois meses, de um solo naturalmente infestado com Pythium, promoveu o controle do patógeno, de modo semelhante à aplicação de metalaxyl + mancozeb, na cultura de crisântemo. A incidência média de plantas mortas foi de 2,3% nas parcelas solarizadas; 1,0% no solo solarizado que recebeu metade da dose dos fungicidas; 9,0% com a aplicação da dose completa dos fungicidas (1 g de metalaxyl + 4,8 g de mancozeb/m² e 38,9%, na testemunha não tratada. A solarização também promoveu o controle de plantas daninhas, avaliado através do peso da matéria seca das plantas emergentes aos 21 dias após o transplante das mudas, semelhantemente ao herbicida oxidiazon.Two months solarization of a soil naturally infested with Pythium sp. promoted a level of control similar to what was obtained with the application of methalaxyl + mancozeb for the chrysanthemum crop. The average rate of dead plants was 9.0% with the application of fungicides (1 g of methalaxyl + 4.8 g of mancozeb/ m²; 2.3% in solarized plots; 1.0% in solarized plots which received half the dosages of the fungicides and 38.9% in control plots. Similar control of weeds was obtained in solarized plots and plots treated with the herbicide oxidiazon.

  13. Produtividade de crisântemo em função de níveis de irrigação Chrysanthemum yield as affected by various irrigation depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de L Rego

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. é uma das principais flores comercializadas no Brasil e no mundo. Apesar de sua importância, no Brasil o manejo da irrigação em crisântemo é caracterizado pelo empirismo, necessitando-se de maiores estudos quanto ao uso de água pela cultura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de níveis de irrigação sobre o crisântemo cultivado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido, de 06/08-27/10/03, na Fazenda Venezuela, no município de Guaramiranga-CE, em ambiente protegido de 9 x 30 m. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de irrigação correspondentes a 50; 75; 100 e 125% da evaporação no tanque classe "A", ECA, e quatro repetições, totalizando dezesseis parcelas. O ciclo da cultura foi de 82 dias e as lâminas totais aplicadas foram: 192,2; 246,4; 300,9 e 355,4 mm para os tratamentos 50, 75, 100 e 125% da ECA, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa para número de hastes por pacote e de pacotes por m² e, tampouco, para produtividade (Tabela 1. Entre tratamentos, o número de hastes por pacote variou de 21 (75, 100 e 125% ECA a 22 (50% ECA, o número de pacotes por m², entre 3,63 (100% ECA e 4,28 (75% ECA e, a produtividade, entre 3,94 (125% ECA e 4,36 kg m-2 (75% ECA. À medida que se aumentou a lâmina d'água, diminuiu-se linearmente a eficiência do uso da água. A irrigação utilizando-se lâmina de água correspondente a 125% da ECA apresentou significativamente a menor eficiência no uso da água (0,0107 pacotes m-2 mm-1, enquanto os tratamentos em que a irrigação correspondeu a 50 e 75% da ECA foram os mais eficientes (0,0210 e 0,0174 pacotes m-2 mm-1, respectivamente.Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. is one of the most important flowers traded both in Brazil and in the world. In spite of that, chrysanthemum irrigation management in Brazil is characterized by empiricism

  14. Effects of Organic Fertilizer from Fermented Silkworm Excrement Application on Soil Microorganisms of Chrysanthemum Morifolium under Continuous Cropping%蚕沙发酵有机肥对连作杭白菊根际细菌群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭三妹; 王博林; 徐建中; 丁志山; 袁小凤

    2015-01-01

    [目的]在杭白菊连作3年的土壤上采用小区实验方法施用蚕沙发酵有机肥,探讨施用蚕沙发酵有机肥对连作杭白菊根际土壤细菌群落的影响。[方法]田间实验设置3个处理组,依次为轮作组(杭白菊与玉米进行轮作),连作组(杭白菊连作3年),施肥组(在杭白菊连作田,第3年种植初期每株施用蚕沙发酵有机肥15 g)。在收获期进行采样,用HaeⅢ、HinfⅠ分别进行酶切后,采用末端限制性片段长度多样性(T-RFLP)检测。[结果]连作组、轮作组和施肥组的HaeⅢ酶切后Shannon指数分别为:3.08、3.24、3.24,HinfⅠ酶切后Shannon指数分别为3.31、3.60、3.57,可见连作组的细菌多样性明显低于轮作组和施肥组,说明连作使杭白菊根际细菌生物多样性下降,而轮作和施肥则可显著提高根际细菌多样性水平。对优势菌属进行比对分析发现,不同处理组间有较大的差异。连作组的9种优势菌属中梭酸属(Clostridium )、植原体属(Phytoplasma)、黄单胞菌属(Xan-thomonas)为致病菌属;施肥组的8种优势菌属中梭酸属和黄单胞菌属为致病菌属,另6种为有益菌;轮作组的8种优势属中仅有梭酸属为致病属,其余7种均为有益菌。由此推测,施肥和轮作处理均会改变根际细菌群落结构,主要体现在减少致病菌的伤害。此外,在施肥组中还发现有被誉为生防菌的枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)。[结论]施用蚕沙发酵有机肥,能有效提高连作杭白菊的根际土壤细菌多样性水平,降低病原菌优势,促进功能菌和有益菌的生长,通过改善微生态环境缓解连作障碍。%Objective] Plot and field experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of organic fertilizer from fermented silkworm excrement application on Chrysanthemum morifolium rhizosphere-soil microorganisms under continuous

  15. Phylogenetic Relationship of Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. Revealed by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Lan DAI; Wen-Kui WANG; Mao-Xue LI; Ying-Xiu XU

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the different species in the genus Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. were estimated based on chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S-26S rDNA of Arabidopsis and genomic DNA of Dendranthema as probes. The results revealed that there was no positive correlation between the number of nuclear organization region (NOR) loci and the ploidy of Dendranthema.The exact cytogenetic information of NORs about 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) indicated that D.vestitum (Hemsl.) Ling et Shih was closer to the cultivars than other putative species, whereas D. zawadskii (Herb.) Tzvel. was the most distinct. The ambiguously distributed signals of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with genomic DNA of lower ploidy species as probes suggested that different genomes among Dendranthema were mixed. The result also indicated the limitation of GISH in studies on the phylogenetic relationships of the different species in this genus Dendranthema and on the origin of cultivated chrysanthemums. Based on these results and previous research, the origin of Chinese cultivated chrysanthemum is discussed.

  16. Study on the Technology of Preparing Microcapsules for Volatile Oil in Chrysanthemum by Complex Coacervation%复凝聚法制备滁菊挥发油微囊的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盈盈; 时维静; 孙洁; 李响; 刘峰; 王茜

    2015-01-01

    探索滁菊挥发油微囊的最佳制备工艺。采用复凝聚法制备滁菊挥发油微囊,以外观形态、粒径、包封率、载药量为指标,正交设计优选工艺条件。滁菊挥发油微囊的最佳制备工艺条件为:复合胶与挥发油的比例为1:1,温度为55℃,pH为4.0,固化剂量为1.5mL。制得的滁菊挥发油微囊形态呈圆形、光滑,粒径分布在80~120μm,平均包封率为(48.89±5.93)%,平均载药量为(13.11±2.30)%,TLC 法显示供试品溶液与对照品溶液在相同的位置出现相同斑点。该制备方法操作简单易行,处方合理,制得微囊外观圆整,载药量和包封率较高。%This paper is to study the preparation microcapsules of volatile oil from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ra-mat. The microcapsules were prepared by complex coacervation with formulation,diameter,amount of the drug and encapsulation efficiency as evaluation index and the preparation was optimized by orthogonal experimental design. The best technology is that compound plastic and the volatile oil of the ratio is 1:1,the temperature is 55℃,pH 4. 0 and formaldehyde in an amount of 1. 5 mL. the prepared microcapsules spherical with smooth surface,and the proportion with a diameter of 80-120μm,encapsulation efficiency was(48. 89 ± 5. 93)%,and the average drug loadings were(13. 11 ± 2. 30)%,TLC indication that the test solution and reference solution appeared at the same spot in the same location. The preparation process is simple and feasible,and the methods of evaluation are reliable. The microcapsules’appearance is round and normal. The drug loading and the encap-sulation efficiency are higher.

  17. 基于IPA分析法的游客旅游满意度研究--以开封菊花文化节为例%A Study on Tourist Satisfaction Based on IPA Methods in Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮文佳; 袁箐

    2015-01-01

    节事活动是旅游业的重要组成部分,目前中国节事活动呈现出一片繁荣的景象。运用IPA(Important-Performance Analysis)分析法,以开封菊花文化节为例,从参与者的角度对开封节事活动的发展进行实证研究,结果显示:①参与者认为在影响节事满意度的感知项中,服务、价格、治安状况及节事活动文化内涵是最为重要的,而参与者对市民态度、节事活动特色、氛围及城市到达交通最为满意;②参与者对节事活动特征项的重要性感知高于满意度感知;③将17个特征项定位于IPA分析图中,并根据4个象限(继续保持、重点改进、勿需优先以及表现过度)的分布情况,对开封节事活动的发展提出建议。%AbstractFestival and special events are an important part of the tourism industry. Nowadays,festival and special events in China develop prosperously. This paper takes Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festi-val for example and uses IPA (Important-Performance Analysis) to make an empirical study on the devel-opment of festival activities in Kaifeng from the perspective of participants. The results show that(1) par-ticipants felt that services,prices,law and order situation and the cultural connotation of festival activities are the most important items among the perception items,and the attitude of the natives,features and atmo-sphere of festival activities and city traffic are of the most satisfaction;(2) participants' perception of im-portance is higher than their perception of satisfaction;(3) 17 items are located in the IPA analysis dia-gram,and some suggestions are put forward on the development of festival activities in Kaifeng according to the distribution of four quadrants.

  18. 亳菊中木犀草素和木犀草苷含量的反相高效液相色谱法测定%Determination of luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin in Chrysanthemum morifolium by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王存良; 李远哲

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To develop a RP-HPLC method for the determination of luteolin-7-0-glucoside and luteolin in Chrysanthemum morifolium. Methods:RP-HPLC was carried out on a Purospher star Scienhome C18 (4.6 mm ×200 mm,5 μm) at 30 ℃ , at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 350 no. Results:The linearity of luteolin-7-0-glucoside was found in the range of 0. 004 8 ~ 0. 038 4 |xg, Y = 10 000 000X - 6 650, r = 0. 999 9, the average recovery was 104. 9% .and RSD was 1.64% . The linearity of luteolin was found in the range of 0. 032 ~ 0. 256μg, Y = 8 000 OOOX -20 581,r = 0.999 9, the average recovery was 101.7% ,and RSD was 1.68% . Conclusion:This method is reliable,accurate and suitable for the determination of luteolin-7-O-glucoside and luteolin in Chrysanthemum morifolium, and plays an important role in the quality control of Chrysanthemum morifolium.%目的:建立毫菊中木犀草素和木犀草苷含量的反相高效液相色谱测定方法.方法:采用反相高效液相色谱法,色谱柱为Scienhome C18(4.6 mm×200 mm,5μm),检测波长350 nm,柱温30℃,流速l mL/min.结果:木犀草苷含量在0.004 8 ~0.038 4 μg内线性良好,Y=10 000 000X -6 650,r =0.999 9,回收率为104.9%,RSD为1.64%;木犀草素含量在0.032 ~0.256 μg内线性良好,Y=8 000 000X -20 581,r=0.999 9,回收率为101.7%,RSD为1.68%.结论:该测定方法准确可靠,重现性好,对毫菊的质量控制有重要意义.

  19. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  20. 杭菊栽培品种小黄菊鲜花和制成品香气组成分析%Analysis on chemical components of essential oils from fresh flowers and manufactured goods of Chrysanthemum cultivar Dendrathema grandiflorum‘Xiao Huang'Ju in Tongxiang City of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦馨; 沈学根; 周建松; 崔林; 韩宝瑜

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils of fresh flowers and manufactured goods of Chrysanthemum cultivar Dendrathema grandiflorum‘Xiao Huang'Ju were extracted by the simultaneous distillation extraction method , then detected by gas chromatography coupled of mass spectrum .The results were as follows:(1) Seventy-six and eighty-eight components were respectively identified from the fresh flowers and manufactured goods of ‘Xiao Huang'Ju, with monterpenes , sesquiterpenes and their oxygenous derivatives being the major chemical components ;(2) Sixty-two mutual chemical components were identified , with eucalyptol , camphor , verbenol acetate , hexamethyl-benzene and so on at high content level.(3) The compounds in essential oils of the fresh flowers which were at least ten times greater than those in essential oils of manufactured goods were camphene ,β-phellandrene,α-phellandrene, (E)-ocimene, (Z)-ocimene, bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-one, allo-ocimene, D-verbenone, safranal, hexamethyl-benzene;(4) Fourteen components were only identified from the essential oils of fresh flowers , such asα-thujenal ,α-fenchene , copaene and so on.(5) The relative contents of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, α-citral, palmitic acid,α-curcumene, (E)-limonene oxide,α-bisabol and so on in essential oils of manufactured goods were much more than those of fresh flower . ( 6 ) Twenty-six specific components were only identified from the manufactured goods, including thymol, benzeneacetaldehyde, α-terpineol, γ-cadinene and so on.The results revealed the chemical characteristics of aroma of ‘Xiao Huang'Ju, which can be used as the reference during its cultivating, processing and tasting .%以SDE法提取小黄菊鲜花和制成品的香精油,用GC-MS进行定性定量分析,发现:(1)从鲜花和制成品中分别检出76和88种化合物,主要成分是单萜、倍半萜及含氧衍生物;(2)鲜花和制成品中共有成分62种,其中含量较

  1. Study on the Pollen Viability and Stigma Receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Fubaiju’%福白菊花粉活力和柱头可授性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雷; 刘常丽; 王慧弟; 陈科力

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the blooming habits,pollen viability and stigma receptivity of Chrysanthemum morifolium and provide theoretical basis for its breeding.Methods:Explored the blooming habits by dynamic observation on the process of blossom,evaluated the pollen viability by germination in vitro culture method and estimated stigma receptivity by benzidine-hydrogen peroxide method.Results: About the pollen viability,there were no significant differences between the flowers which in the same round of the capitulum; Tubular flowers in the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge; In the morning pollen vitality gradually raised,during 11:00 ~ 14:00 maintained the highest,and then gradually decreased; Tubular flower began to loose powder on the third day,during 4th ~6th day the pollen viability was highest,respectively was 35.12% ,39.89% ,38.12% ,then gradually decreased,on the 15th day was only 7.41 % ,finally turned into wither.Regard to the stigma receptivity,the center of a capitulum were significantly higher than that on the edge,outer edge ligulate flower had no receptivity; Revealed the strongest during 13:00 ~ 14:00 in one day; During the 5th ~7th day was the strongest after flowering.The regulation of the stigma secreted mucus existed great consistency with the stigma receptivity,namely the stigma receptivity usually was strong when it secreted large number mucus.Conclusion:Understand the blossom habits of Chrysanthemun morifolium,as well as the dynamic changes regulation of pollen viability and stigma receptivity during its blossom,which could be used to select the flowers in a capitulum which are on the more suitable period and position for artificial pollination and hybridization breeding research.%目的:明确福白菊(Chrysanthemum morifolium‘ Fubaiju’)开花习性、花粉活力以及柱头可授性,以期为药用菊花良种选育提供理论依据.方法:对开花过程进行动态观察了解开花习性,采用

  2. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  3. Ocorrência e flutuação populacional de tripes, pulgões e inimigos naturais em crisântemo de corte em casa de vegetação Occurrence and population fluctuation of thrips, aphids and natural enemies in cut chrysanthemum in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Mendes Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os pulgões e os tripes são importantes pragas em cultivo de crisântemo em casas de vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ocorrência e flutuação populacional de tripes, pulgões e inimigos naturais em cultivares de crisântemo de corte ('White Reagan', 'Yellow Snowdon' e 'Sunny Reagan' em casa de vegetação comercial. A amostragem de tripes foi realizada através de batidas nas plantas ("tapping method" e a de pulgões a partir de coletas diretas nas plantas. Das espécies de tripes amostradas, mais de 90% foram identificadas como Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, e o restante incluíram F. gemina (Bagnall, Frankliniella sp., Caliothrips phaseoli (Hood e Haplothrips gowdeyi (Franklin. Foi observado maior número de tripes/planta no cultivar White Reagan se comparado com 'Yellow Snowdon'. Aphis gossypii Glover foi a espécie de pulgão mais comum (> 80%, sendo também coletados Myzus persicae (Sulzer e Dysaphis sp. Maior número de pulgões foi verificado na cultivar White Reagan, quando comparada com 'Sunny Reagan'. Orius insidiosus (Say foi o único predador encontrado associado aos tripes, sendo verificada uma correlação positiva significativa entre a população de tripes e a desse predador. Dentre os inimigos naturais relacionados aos pulgões, foram observados parasitóides (Aphidius colemani Viereck e Lysiphlebus testaceipes Cresson e predadores (Chrysoperla sp., Cycloneda sanguinea Linnaeus e Scymnus sp.. Houve uma correlação positiva significativa entre o crescimento populacional de pulgões e desses predadores e parasitóides nas cultivares White Reagan e Sunny Reagan. Inimigos naturais podem ocorrer naturalmente em casas de vegetação e influenciar as populações de pragas.Aphids and thrips play an important role on chrysanthemum crops in greenhouses. The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence and population densities of thrips, aphids and natural enemies in cut chrysanthemum cultivars

  4. Study on in vitro antioxidant activity of flavonoids contained in Hebei balmy chrysanthemum and structure-activity relationship%河北香菊中黄酮类成分体外抗氧化活性研究及构效关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 黄芸; 孙桂波; 孙晓波; 秦蒙; 赵丁

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antioxidant activity in vitro of five flavonoids contained Hebei balmy chrysanthemum, lute-olin, apigenin, acacetin, acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside and acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside and discuss the antioxidant mechanism of Hebei balmy chrysanthemum as well as the structure-activity relationship of antioxidant activity of flavonoids. Method: UV-visible spectro-photometric method was used to determine the DPPH scavenging rate and anti-hemolysis activity of the five flavonoids. The inhibitions on lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate were evaluated by measuring the content of MDA, and detected by the TBA method. The effect on glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in rat plasma was detected by GSH-Px kit Result: The flavonoids from Hebei balmy chrysanthemum showed better activity in scavenging DPPH radical, protecting RBC from hemolysis, inhibiting lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenate, and increasing the activity of GSH-Px in rat plasma. The order of antioxidant efficacy was as follows: luteolin > luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside > apigenin > acacetin > acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of Hebei balmy chrysanthemum is related to the effect of flavonoids in scavenging radical, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and increasing the activity of GSH-Px. And the antioxidant activity of flavonoids is related to the number and position of hydroxide radicals and the steric hindrance of glucoside.%目的:通过研究河北香菊中5种黄酮类成分木犀草素、芹菜素、金合欢素、木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷、金合欢素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷的体外抗氧化活性,探讨河北香菊的抗氧化机制及黄酮类化合物抗氧化活性的构效关系.方法:采用紫外-可见分光光度法测定对DPPH自由基的清除作用及对H2O2诱导的大鼠红细胞溶血的抑制作用;用硫代巴比妥酸法(TBA)测定对H2O2诱导的大鼠脑匀浆脂质过氧化反应的抑制作用;用谷胱甘肽过氧化

  5. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME......This fundamental work illustrates for the first time the possibility of exhaustive extraction of peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) under low system-current conditions (... device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing...

  6. Storage of white chrysanthemum under room conditions using preservative solutions / Armazenamento de crisântemos brancos sob condição ambiente utilizando soluções conservantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvanda de Melo Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of preservative solutions on the maintenance of postharvest quality of white type chysanthemum flowers (Dendrathema grandiflora T.. Flowers were kept at room temperature (24 ± 2°C and 85 ± 2 % UR, under the following treatments: distilled water (control; sodium hypochloride solutions (80ppm and 800 ppm; sucrose solutions (10% and 15 % and hidroxyquinoline solutions (0.04% and 0.08 %. Flowers were stored under these treatments during 18 days, being the solutions changed each 4 days. The following evaluations were done: longevity (scores from 0 to 4, flower appearance (scores from 1 to 9. Sodium hipochloride solutions at 80ppm and 800 ppm reduced white chrysanthemum longevity as compared to control. The utilization the hidroxyquinoline solutions at 0.04% and 0.08 % had no effects on flower longevity or quality maintenance. The preservative solution utilizing 10 % of sucrose kept the postharvest quality during 17 days, providing flowers with lower percentage of dark spots, and lower index of petals and leaves damage.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de soluções conservantes na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de flores de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora T. do tipo branco, variedade Calábria. As flores foram mantidas à temperatura ambiente, de 24 ± 2ºC e 85 ± 2% UR, nos seguintes tratamentos: água destilada (controle, solução de hipoclorito de sódio (80ppm e 800ppm, solução de sacarose (10% e 15% e solução de hidroxiquinolina (0.04% e 0.08%. As flores permaneceram dezoito dias no ambiente de armazenamento, sendo as soluções substituídas a cada quatro dias. Foram realizadas as seguintes avaliações: longevidade (notas de 0-4, aparência (notas de 1-9. As soluções de hipoclorito de sódio a 80ppm e 800ppm reduziram a longevidade de crisântemos brancos, comparadas ao controle. A utilização de soluções de hidroxiquinolina a 0.04% e 0.08% n

  7. Desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo cultivadas em vaso em resposta a níveis de condutividade elétrica Development of chrysanthemum plants cultivated in flower pot in response to electrical conductivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana R. D' Almeida Mota

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Na floricultura, a competição por mercados é intensa e o diferencial de produtividade consiste no manejo nutricional adequado, por promover grande impacto sobre a qualidade, a produtividade e a longevidade das inflorescências e da planta. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de níveis de condutividade elétrica (CE no desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. em vaso sob cultivo protegido. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Paranapanema - SP. Usou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas divididas. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas épocas de amostragem, e as subparcelas, pelos diferentes níveis de CE, determinados na solução aplicada via água de irrigação: 1,42; 1,65; 1,89; 2,13 e 2,36 dS m-1 (fase vegetativa; 1,71; 1,97; 2,28; 2,57 e 2,85 dS m-1 (fase de botão. Determinaram-se, semanalmente, a altura da planta e o diâmetro do buquê, e a cada 14 dias, a área foliar e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea da planta. O tratamento, correspondente à aplicação de solução com CE de 2,13 dS m-1 na fase vegetativa e 2,57 dS m-1 na fase de botão, proporcionou melhor aspecto visual das plantas, além de apresentar maior valor de fitomassa seca da parte aérea, maior área foliar e melhores formação e coloração.In floriculture market, the competition is intense and the productivity differential consists in an appropriated nutritional management which provides a large impact in quality, productivity and longevity of the flowers and plants. This present work aimed to evaluate the effects of electrical conductivity (EC levels in chrysanthemum plant (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. development. These plants were planted in pots and cultivated in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out in Paranapanema city, São Paulo State. The experimental design was made in randomized blocks with four repetitions and split plots

  8. Qualidade de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzevelev. cv. Snowdon em diferentes populações e épocas de plantio Quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzevelev. cv. Snowdon affected by plant density and plant date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Nardi

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a qualidade das hastes florais, a cultivar de crisântemo Snowdon foi conduzida em estufa plástica em oito populações de plantas e duas épocas de plantio. O experimento bifatorial (2 x 8, com parcela subdividida, foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Santa Maria, RS e teve época como parcela principal, sendo a primeira época outono/inverno no período de 05/03/98 à 29/06/98 e a segunda época inverno/primavera no período de 22/07/98 à 11/11/98 e as populações de 40, 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88 e 104pl/m², na subparcela para as duas épocas de plantio. As plantas foram conduzidas em haste unifloral. Determinaram-se a altura da planta, o diâmetro da inflorescência e da haste e a massa da matéria fresca. Para obtenção de maiores rendimentos de hastes de classe A (comprimento da haste > ou = 90 cm, diâmetro da inflorescência > ou = 13,5cm, diâmetro da haste > ou = 0,73cm e massa da matéria fresca > ou = 113g a população indicada está entre 40 e 56plantas/m². Não há diferenças de rendimento qualitativo de classe A entre as épocas de plantio. Para obtenção de maiores rendimentos qualitativos, as populações de plantas não devem ser superiores a 72 plantas/m².To evaluate the quality of the flowers of chrysanthemums, were cultivated the cv. Snowdon in greenhouse in eight plant densities and two planting dates. The experimental design was factorial, (2 planting dates x 8 plants densities. The two planting dates were: 05 March 1998 (Fall/Winter growing season and 22 July 1998 (Winter/Spring growing season. Plant densities were: 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88 and 104plants/m². Plant height, diameter of the flower and stem, fresh weight were determinated. For obtaining of larger revenues of class stems A, the suitable plant density is between 40 and 56plants/m². There are not differences of qualitative revenue of class A (stem lenght > or = 90cm, flower diameter > or = 13,5cm, stem diameter > or = 0,73cm

  9. Utilização agrícola de lodo industrial como fonte de zinco na cultura do crisântemo Agricultural use of industrial sludge as a source of Zn for chrysanthemum cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano F. Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de lodo industrial inorgânico em substratos comerciais ou como fonte de nutrientes, é prática bem recente. O lodo produzido pela indústria de galvanoplastia-zincagem apresenta elevados teores de nutrientes como Zn, Fe, e Ca que, dependendo das doses utilizadas em solos e substratos, podem causar toxidez às plantas. No presente experimento foi utilizado um substrato comercial onde foram adicionadas doses crescentes do lodo industrial de galvanoplastia-zincagem para o cultivo de crisântemo, variedade Rage, em cultivo protegido. As doses do lodo industrial utilizadas foram de 0,0; 0,38; 0,75; 1,50; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0 e 12,0 g L-1 de substrato. Após 12 semanas de cultivo foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: pH e condutividade elétrica do substrato, teor de Zn na parte aérea da planta e no substrato, altura da planta (ALT, massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, massa seca das inflorescências (MSF e massa seca do sistema radicular (MSR. A adição do lodo industrial no substrato, na dose de 0,38 g L-1, promoveu um pequeno incremento de ALT, MSPA e MSR. Este comportamento indica que o lodo industrial pode fornecer nutrientes à cultura. Nas doses superiores a 3 g L-1 ocorreu acentuada queda da produção devido ao desbalanço nutricional associado à fitotoxidez de Zn e elevada condutividade elétrica do substrato.The use of inorganic industrial sludge as a source of nutrients in growing media is a recent practice. The sludge produced by the zinc-galvanic industry has a high concentration of plant nutrients such as Zn, Fe and Ca that, depending on the doses used in soils and growing media, could be toxic to the plants. In the present experiment a commercial organic substrate was used by adding increasing doses of an industrial sludge produced by a zinc-galvanic industry. Doses of industrial sludge (0.0; 0.38; 0.75; 1.50; 3.0; 6.0; 9.0 and 12.0 g L-1 of the growing media were applied to the chrysanthemum cv. Rage, cultivated in a

  10. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  11. Predispersed solvent extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodarte, Alma Isabel Marín

    1988-01-01

    A new solvent extraction method has been developed for the extraction of metal and organic ions from very dilute aqueous solutions. The new method, which has been named Predispersed Solvent Extraction (POSE), is based on the principle that 1 there is no need to comminute both phases. All that is necessary is to comminute the solvent phase prior to contacting it with the feed. This is done by converting the solvent into aphrons, which are micron-sized globules encapsulated in a ...

  12. Extracting oil from coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-01-01

    The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil h...

  13. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  14. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehala. G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS. FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extracting true minutiae.

  15. Parallel Feature Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHuimin; WANGYan

    2003-01-01

    Very high speed image processing is needed in some application specially for weapon. In this paper, a high speed image feature extraction system with parallel structure was implemented by Complex programmable logic device (CPLD), and it can realize image feature extraction in several microseconds almost with no delay. This system design is presented by an application instance of flying plane, whose infrared image includes two kinds of feature: geometric shape feature in the binary image and temperature-feature in the gray image. Accordingly the feature extraction is taken on the two kind features. Edge and area are two most important features of the image. Angle often exists in the connection of the different parts of the target's image, which indicates that one area ends and the other area begins. The three key features can form the whole presentation of an image. So this parallel feature extraction system includes three processing modules: edge extraction, angle extraction and area extraction. The parallel structure is realized by a group of processors, every detector is followed by one route of processor, every route has the same circuit form, and works together at the same time controlled by a set of clock to realize feature extraction. The extraction system has simple structure, small volume, high speed, and better stability against noise. It can be used in the war field recognition system.

  16. The cDNA Cloning and Analysis of Sequence Information and Quantitative Express of Chrysanthemum Rhythms Clock Output Gene CmGI (GIGANTEA)%菊花节律钟输出基因CmGI(GIGANTEA)的 cDNA 全长克隆、序列信息及定量表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 王秀峰; 郑成淑; 邢世岩; 束怀瑞

    2012-01-01

    chrysanthemum rhythms clock output gene GIGANTEA was cloned, and the bioinformatics of the sequence and the relative quantitative expression of mRNA were analyzed. [Method] Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with 5'RACE, and 3'RACE technology were used to clone the full length cDNA of chrysanthemum rhythms clock output gene CmGI, analysts of sequence of nucleotides and code of protein was made by using the software of bioinformatics. Protein structure prediction of 3D modeling was made by using the online modeling software. The relative quantitative expression analysis of CmGl was conducted by real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR technology and 2-AACt method. [Result] The cDNA sequence of GIGANTEA was cloned from chrysanthemum 'Jniba', the full-length cDNA was 3 461 bp, open reading frame (ORF ) was 3 453 bp, and encoded 1 150 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that the genetic code of protein was homologous with plant rhythms clock output gene GIGANTEA, named CmGl gene. The sequence was submitted to GenBank, and the registration number is JQ043439. Sequence alignment displayed that it was a similarity of 76% and 75% with GIGANTEA of Vitis vinifera, Ricinus communis, respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that chrysanthemum CmGI and Arabidopsis thaliana GIGANTEA are closest in molecular evolution distance, followed by Brassica rapa GIGANTEA. It was speculated that CmGI protein has six transmembrane spiral across a cell membrane many times. They are transcription factors, located in the nucleus and it is a non-secretory protein. They do not have a signal peptide. CmGI 3D structure modeling projections show that the protein core structure accords with the transcription factors and the function of the common DNA combining domain HTH and HLH. Fluorescent relative quantitative analysis shows that the expression patterns of chrysanthemum CmGI are circadian rhythms expression. At different flower bud differentiation stage, the CmGI gene in the leaf blade mRNA level is

  17. Feature Extraction of Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today. Early detection of the cancer can reduce mortality rate. Studies have shown that radiologists can miss the detection of a significant proportion of abnormalities in addition to having high rates of false positives. Pattern recognition in image processing requires the extraction of features from regions of the image and the processing of these features with a pattern recognition algorithm. We consider the feature extraction part of this processing; with a focus on the problem of micro calcification detection in digital mammography. For every pattern classification problem, the most important stage is feature extraction. The accuracy of the classification depends on the feature extraction stage. We have extracted textural, statistical and structural features which show promising results than most of the existing technology.

  18. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to Chrysanthemum.

    OpenAIRE

    Wordragen, van, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants is a technique that enables us to add to the plant genome, in a precise and well controlled manner, one or a few new genes, coding for desirable traits. In contrast to this, the conventional method for the introduction of new properties in plants, by cross breeding, is a random process in which two complete genomes are mixed and the desired phenotype has to be regained by repeated back crossing with the cultivated parent line. Despite these differences, both pro...

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to Chrysanthemum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wordragen, van M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants is a technique that enables us to add to the plant genome, in a precise and well controlled manner, one or a few new genes, coding for desirable traits. In contrast to this, the conventional method for the introduction of new properties in plants, by cross breeding, is

  20. Temperature integration and DIF in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korner, O.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in greenhouses, temperature integration can be used. However, the temperature integration principle considers only average temperatures and does not comply with the DIF concept (difference between mean day temperature and mean night temperature). With DIF, stem elongatio

  1. Polyhydroxyflavones as extracting reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The europium (3) complex with morin is studied as well as the possibility of its analytical application. The formation of two extractable complexes, one of which dominates at pH--4-7, the other one - at pH>=8.5 is shown. The electrophoresis of the extracts containing the second complex has shown the latter to have a negative charge and to be extracted into the organic phase only in the form of an ionic associate [EU(OH)2H3B]-, (where H3B- is the morin anion). The extraction constant and spectra characteristics of the comples are estimated. The extraction constant and spectral characteristics of the complex are estimated. The extraction of the Eu(3) complex with morin from an alkaline medium (NaOH) by the TBP 20% solution in isoamyl alcohol is used for the direct extraction-photometric determination of Eu(3) in compounds of the elements possessing amphoteric properties of forming ammoniates (ZnS, MoO3). The method sensitivity is 5x10-4%

  2. Electromembrane extraction of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchen, Marte; Reubsaet, Léon; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2008-06-20

    Rapid extraction of eight different peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) was demonstrated for the first time. During an extraction time of 5 min, the model peptides migrated from a 500 microL aqueous acidic sample solution, through a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of an organic liquid sustained in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 25 microL aqueous acidic acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The driving force of the extraction was a 50 V potential sustained across the SLM, with the positive electrode in the sample and the negative electrode in the acceptor solution. The nature and the composition of the SLM were highly important for the EME process, and a mixture of 1-octanol and 15% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was found to work properly. Using 1mM HCl as background electrolyte in the sample and 100 mM HCl in the acceptor solution, and agitation at 1050 rpm, enrichment up to 11 times was achieved. Recoveries were found to be dependent on the structure of the peptide, indicating that the polarity and the number of ionized groups were important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. The experimental findings suggested that electromembrane extraction of peptides is possible and may be a valuable tool for future extraction of peptides. PMID:18479691

  3. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  4. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.;

    2013-01-01

    ), and into approximately 8 nL phosphate buffer (pH 2.7) as acceptor phase. The driving force for the extraction was an electrical potential sustained over the SLM. The acceptor phase was located inside a fused silica capillary, and this capillary was also used for the final analysis of the acceptor phase by capillary......The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE...

  5. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Milić Slavica; Lepojević Žika; Adamović Dušan; Mujić Ibrahim; Zeković Zoran

    2006-01-01

    The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  6. Ácido giberélico e dia curto interrompido em crisântemo de corte (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzvelev., "Gompier Chá" Gibberellic acid and short day interrupted in cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzvelev., 'Gompier Chá'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Algumas cultivares de crisântemo, como a "Gompier Chá", apresentam menor crescimento quando cultivadas no período de inverno. A utilização do ácido giberélico (GA3 e o manejo do fotoperíodo com dia curto interrompido podem ser alternativas para estimular o crescimentodas plantas. Assim, foi realizado um experimento com objetivo de avaliar a resposta do GA3 e do dia curto (DC interrompido por dias longos (DL na qualidade de hastes de crisântemo de corte "Gompier Chá", cultivado no inverno no Rio Grande do Sul. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no período de maio a agosto de 2001. Os tratamentos foram diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (50, 100, 200, 300, 500 e 500mg L-1 aplicadas seis, três, duas, duas, uma e duas vezes, respectivamente, e o uso de dia curto interrompido (32DL+9DC+12DL+DC até a colheita. Os tratamentos que proporcionaram a formação de hastes de melhor qualidade foram as dosagens de 100mg L-1 aplicado três vezes e 200mg L-1 aplicado duas vezes. O esquema de dia curto interrompido usado foi ineficiente para a qualidade da cultivar "Gompier Chá", já o uso de ácido giberélico possibilitou melhoria no comprimento dos pedúnculos e na altura das plantas em cultivo de inverno no Rio Grande do Sul.Some chrysanthemum"s cultivars, as the 'Gompier Chá', have problems of small growth during winter crop. The spraying whit gibberellic acid (GA3 and the control photoperiod with interrupted short day can be options for to stimulate growth. Thus, an experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the stems quality of cut chrysanthemum 'Gompier Chá' response of GA3 and short day (DC interrupted by long day (DL, during winter time in Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in 2001, from May to August. The treatments consisted of different gibberellic acid concentration (50, 100, 200, 300, 500 e 500mg L-1 sprayed six

  7. Effect of Inhaled Wild Chrysanthemum Injection by an Ultrasonic Atomizer in the Assisted Treatment of Bronchial Pneumonia in Children%超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶滨

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎的临床疗效.方法:将137例婴幼儿支气管肺炎患儿随机分为治疗组69例和对照组68例,两组均给予常规综合治疗,治疗组在常规综合治疗基础上超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液,对照组在常规综合治疗基础上超声雾化吸入灭菌蒸馏水.治疗过程中观察患儿发热、咳嗽、喘息、气促及肺部干湿哆音消失情况,治疗前及治疗后第3天监测血常规和CRP水平.结果:治疗组患儿发热、咳嗽、喘息及肺部体征消失时间均早于对照组(P<0.05),平均住院时间少于对照组[(13.7±3.7)dvs(16.2±4.5)d,P<0.05],白细胞计数及CRP水平均较治疗前降低(P<0.05),且均低于对照组(P<0.05),总有效率高于对照组(89.9%vs 67.6%,P<0.05).结论:超声雾化吸入野菊花注射液佐治婴幼儿支气管肺炎具有明显疗效.%Objective:To explore the assisted treatment effect of inhaled wild chrysanthemum injection by an ultrasonic atomizer for children with bronchial pneumonia.Methods:A total of 137 infants with bronchial pneumonia were randomly divided into a treatment group (n =69) and a control group (n =68).Based on conventional treatment,all infants inhaled an ultrasonic nebulization as an adjuvant therapy,wild chrysanthemum injection for the treatment group and sterile distilled water for the control group.During the course of treatment,children's body temperature,cough,wheezing,shortness of breath and lung wet and dry tales were monitored.Simultaneously,blood analysis and serum CRP level were monitored before and after the third day of treatment.Results:The time to defervesce,the disappearing time of coughing,wheezing,and pulmonary signs and average hospitalization time in the treatment group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (13.7±3.7) d vs (16.2±4.5) (P<0.05).After treatment,the white blood cell count and CRP level of children in the

  8. 菊花叶绿素a/b结合蛋白基因CmLhcb1及其启动子的克隆和表达分析%Cloning of Chlorophyll a/b Binding Protein CmLhcb1 and Promoter from Chrysanthemum morifolium and Expression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩霜; 刘瑞霞; 张兆和; 陈素梅; 蒋甲福; 房伟民; 廖园; 陈发棣

    2013-01-01

    The cDNA of cut chrysanthemum ‘Gongzi' was used to clone homologous gene cab,which had 798 bp ORF and 266 amino acid.After blast analysis,we confirmed that the gene was ranked as Lhcb1,and was named as CmLhcb1.Using the cDNA of ‘Puma Sunny' chrysanthemum to homologously clone gene Lhcb1,we got the same amino sequence with that of ‘Gongzi'.The expression of CmLhcb1 was the higher in leaf than that in stem,flower and root.Low light and GA3 treatment increased CmLhcb1 expression.Paclobutrazol treatment inhibited CmLhcb1 expression.The circadian clock regulated the expression of CmLhcb1.The gene expression in day was enormously higher than that in night.The promoter sequence 715 bp of‘Gongzi' cut chrysanthemum and 716 bp of‘Puma Sunny' were cloned using high-efficiency TAIL-PCR (hiTAIL-PCR),and many biologic and abiotic stress responsive elements related to light,GA,ABA,water,SA and virus were found by PLACE Databank.The promoter was light responsive,and it had the GTl-box and Z-box element.%以切花菊品种‘公子’cDNA为模板克隆出叶绿素a/b结合蛋白同源基因cab,其开放阅读框为798 bp,编码266个氨基酸.经多物种间比对分析,确认其属于cab基因家族的Lhcb1类,命名为CmLhcb1.同源克隆菊花品种‘清露’Lhcb1基因,氨基酸序列与‘公子’完全相同.CmLhcb1在叶片中的表达量比在茎、花和根中高,弱光和GA3处理使CmLhcb1表达上调,多效唑处理后CmLhcb1表达量受到抑制.CmLhcb1的表达受昼夜节律调节,白天表达量显著高于夜间.通过high-efficiency TAIL-PCR(hiTAIL-PCR)方法克隆到‘公子’切花菊CmLhcb1起始密码子上游序列715bp和‘清露’起始密码子上游序列716 bp,序列经PLACE数据库的比对分析,发现有很多与非生物和生物胁迫相关的元件,主要与光照、GA、ABA、水分、水杨酸和病毒相关,CmLhcb1启动子是光诱导型启动子,具有GT1-box和Z-box.

  9. Feature Extraction of Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sharma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deathsin women today. Early detection of the cancer can reducemortality rate. Studies have shown that radiologists canmiss the detection of a significant proportion ofabnormalities in addition to having high rates of falsepositives. Pattern recognition in image processing requiresthe extraction of features from regions of the image andthe processing of these features with a pattern recognitionalgorithm. We consider the feature extraction part of thisprocessing; with a focus on the problem of microcalcification detection in digital mammography. For everypattern classification problem, the most important stage isfeature extraction. The accuracy of the classificationdepends on the feature extraction stage. We have extractedtextural, statistical and structural features which showpromising results than most of the existing technology.

  10. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  11. DNA extraction by zinc.

    OpenAIRE

    Kejnovský, E; Kypr, J

    1997-01-01

    A fast, very simple and efficient method of DNA extraction is described which takes advantage of DNA sedimentation induced by millimolar concentrations of ZnCl2. The zinc-induced sedimentation is furthermore strongly promoted by submillimolar phosphate anion concentrations. Within 90% of DNA irrespective of whether a plasmid DNA or short oligonucleotides are the extracted material. The method works with plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide concentrations as low as 100 ng/ml and 10 microg/ml, respe...

  12. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vera M. F. Vargas; Régis R. Guidobono; Henriques, João A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia) were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome). Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990) the metabolites of A. satureoides extract ...

  13. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  14. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mehala. G

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE) algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS). FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extractin...

  15. Neutral Complex Extraction and Synergistic Extraction of Macrolide Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the theory of reactive extraction, new solvent systems were developed to replace butylacetate for extraction of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin meleumycin etc.). A new neutral complex solvent extraction system, fatty alcohol-kerosene (marked by E1), was used for extraction of erythromycin, one of the macrolide antibiotics. The extraction equilibrium equation is obtained, and the extraction distribution is as follows The effects of several parameters on extraction equilibrium were investigated. Furthermore, a new synergistic extraction system (marked by E2) was developed, in which another solvent was used as synergistic agent to replace the diluent kerosene in the neutral complex extraction system. Based on these new extraction systems, an improved process for extraction of erythromycin was developed, showing remarkable advantages in technology and economics owing to its low solvent consumption of 3kg per billion unit compared with 9-10 for butylacetate. The recovery process of solvent from raffinate may be eliminated.

  16. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml, cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml, ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml, fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml. As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada a 15 lb/pol2, com volume de 1,5±0,5 mg de calda/cm2, sobre casais de O. insidiosus. Avaliou-se a ação dos produtos sobre a mortalidade, oviposição, fertilidade e capacidade predatória dos adultos. Abamectina, fenpropatrina e imidaclopride foram altamente tóxicos aos adultos de O. insidiosus, e ciromazina e cartap apresentaram moderada toxicidade. Ciromazina e cartap apresentam possibilidades de serem recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do crisântemo.The goal of this research was to evaluate the selectivity of products used in the chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. The experiments were kept under controlled conditions at 25±1oC, RH 70±10% and L/D 12:12 h, in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The insecticides evaluated were abamectin (0.0009 g a.i./100 ml, cartap (0.06 g a.i./100 ml, cyromazine (0.011 g a.i./100 ml, fenpropathrin (0.009 g a.i./100 ml and imidacloprid (0.042 g a.i./100 ml. The sprays were done using Potter's tower calibrated to 15 lb/pol2, applying volume of 1.5±0.5 mg of solution/cm2. The applications were realized directly in the pairs of O. insidiosus. It was evaluated the action of the products on mortality, oviposition, fertility and the adult's predatory capacity. Abamectin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid were highly harmful to the adults of O. insidiosus. Cyromazine and cartap were moderately toxic. Cyromazine and cartap presented possibilities of being recommended in integrated pest

  17. Effects of light intensity on growth and photosynthetic characteristics of Chrysanthemum morifolium%光强对药用白菊花生长发育及光合特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳茹; 郭巧生; 靳淼

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨光强对药用白菊花生长发育及光合特性的影响,为生产栽培提供理论依据.方法:测定不同光强处理(透光率分别为100%,80%,60%,40%,20%)下药用白菊花生长发育指标及光合色素含量,并利用LI-6400型便携式光合作用测定仪及PAM-2100荧光仪测定叶片的光合指标及叶绿素荧光参数.结果:随相对光强的减弱,药用白菊花主茎直径减小,植株高度、叶长、叶宽及长宽比均呈增大趋势,同化产物含量降低;光合色素含量在光强为100%~40%均逐渐增加,20%处理下有所下降,叶绿素a/b值减小;光补偿点降低,表观量子效率(AQY)先升高后下降,净光合速率(P_n)、气孔导度(G_a)、胞间CO_2浓度(C_i)和蒸腾速率(T_r)均呈下降趋势,气孔限制值(L_s)增大;荧光参数PSⅡ最大光能转换效率(F_v/F_m)升高,作用光下实际的PSⅡ光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)、PSⅡ有效光化学量子效率(F_v'/F_m')、电子传递速率(ETR)、光化学淬灭系数(q~p)在相对光强100%~60%处理下依次升高,非光化学淬灭系数(NPQ)依次下降,相对光强小于40%时,ΦPSⅡ等参数下降,NPQ升高.结论:中度以下弱光条件不利于药用白菊花的生长发育,栽培生产中应以相对光强80%~60%的遮荫度为宜.%Objective: To investigate the effect of light intensity on growth and photosynthetic of Chrysanthemum morifolium.Method: The growth characteristics of C. morifolium were measured under different treatments (100% , 80% , 60% , 40% and 20%of full sunlight). The photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of leaves under different light intensity were determined by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system and a PAM-2100 chlorophyll fluorescence system. Result: With the reduction of irradiance, the diameter of the stem reduced, plant height, leaf length, leaf width and length/width raised, assimilation product increased; Content of photosynthetic pigment increased between light

  18. Manutenção da qualidade e aumento da longevidade floral de crisântemo cv. White polaris Keeping quality and prolonging the postharvest longevity of spray chrysanthemum cv. White polaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Julio Flórez-Roncancio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available 0 objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o melhor tratamento pós-colheita para manutenção floral e aumento da longevidade de crisântemo de maço do tipo pompom (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris. Estabeleceu-se como ponto de colheita o momento em que as hastes apresentavam três inflorescências apicais com as pétalas externas em ângulo de 45° em relação à horizontal. Durante o ensaio em laboratório, as hastes, colhidas em estufa de produção comercial, após totalmente imersas em água de torneira, à sombra, durante três horas, foram cortadas sob água na base do caule entre 50 e 60 cm. As hastes foram distribuídas nos diferentes tratamentos de "pulsing" durante 24 horas, com luz contínua de 1.500 lux, 60 a 90% de umidade relativa do ar e temperatura ambiente de 25 ± 2°C. No primeiro experimento, testou-se a eficiência de 8-hidroxiquinolina (8-HQ e tiabendazole (TBZ como germicidas de manutenção da qualidade na solução de "pulsing"; testaram-se, também, dois reguladores de crescimento, a saber: ácido giberélico (GA3, 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA ou a mistura dos dois, com o objetivo de preservar a cor e a turgidez da folhagem. Os melhores resultados foram com 8-HQ (0,69 mol/m³ e GA3 (0,058 mo1/m³. No segundo experimento, avaliaram-se os seguintes inibidores de etileno: tiossulfato de prata (STS, nitrato de prata (AgNO3 e cloreto de cobalto (COC1(2. A melhor resposta foi obtida com AgNO3 (2,9 e 4,4 mo1/m³.Cut flowers of spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris were harvested and treated in pulsing solutions. The flowers were harvested in commercial greenhouses and transported to the laboratory where the whole stem and inflorescence were immersed in tap water at darkness, during 3 hours. The flowers were selected for uniformity in terms of development; the stems were trimmed to equal length (50 to 60 cm and tagged to allow recording morphological

  19. Primary Study on Mechanism of Medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium Continuous Cropping Obstacles in Yancheng%盐城药用菊花连作障碍形成原因初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓珍; 肖逸; 戴传超

    2012-01-01

    以连作1年、3年、7年、15年的菊花田土壤和菊花为研究对象,考察各处理组菊花产量、发病率、土壤及菊花样品中的元素含量、土壤中可培养微生物数量及酚酸类化感物质的含量,进一步探讨不同浓度对羟基苯甲酸、香草酸、香豆酸、香豆素等化感物质对菊花组培苗生长的影响.结果表明:随着连作年限的增加,菊花的产量逐渐降低,发病率逐渐增加,连作15年的菊花产量仅为初茬菊花产量的19.80%,种植15年菊花的发病率达到100%.土壤中硼元素含量随连作年限的增加而逐渐减少.连作15年的菊花植株中的氮、磷、钾、铁、锰、铜、锌、硼8种元素含量,与其他组相比均有较大程度的降低.随着连作年限的增加,土壤真菌化严重,细菌和放线菌数量在3年达到最大,15年显著降低.土壤中香豆酸含量随着种植年限的增加而逐渐增加,连作7年后土壤中检测出香豆素残留.低浓度对羟基苯甲酸、香草酸及香豆酸对菊花组培苗生长发育影响不大,但香豆素、混合酚酸及高浓度的香豆酸显著抑制菊花组培苗生长和根的发育.酚酸物质积累、微生物区系的改变、土壤微量元素硼的减少可能是菊花连作障碍的主要原因.%In this paper Chrysanthemum morifolium fields were planted continuously for 1, 3, 7 and 15 years were selected and the output of C. morifolium, disease incidence, elements in the soil and plants, the culturable microbes, phenolic acids in the soil and their effects on the growth of C. morifolium were studied. The results showed that output decreased gradually and disease incidence increased gradually. The flower yield for continuous cropping 15 years was 19.80% of one year's. Disease incidence reached to 100% for continuous cropping 15 years. The content of soil boron decreased with the increasing years of C. morifolium continuous cropping, while other elements including nitrogen

  20. 60味中药提取物抗菌活性的研究%Studies on Antibacterial Activity of Extracts from 60 Traditional Chinese Medicinals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟天天; 黄浩; 王义明; 罗国安

    2013-01-01

    目的:体外观察60味中药的240种提取物对9种常见病原菌的作用,并对其中抑菌效果明显的提取物进行最低抑菌浓度检测。方法:采用纸片扩散法对240种提取物进行初步的抗菌活性筛选,并采用液体培养基法(2倍稀释法)测定活性提取物的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)。结果:共有104种提取物对1种或多种细菌显示较强的抑制作用,其中丹参等11味中药的20种提取物对3种常见菌体现了强抑制作用(MIC <0.2 mg·mL-1)。结论:丹参、蛇床子、蓼蓝、蒲公英、桑叶、甘草、姜黄、紫草、半边莲、野菊花和密蒙花等11味中药的乙醇、丙酮、正己烷提取部位对枯草芽孢杆菌、蜡样芽孢杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌有强抑制作用。%This study was aimed to screen antibacterial agents against 9 pathogenic bacteria from 240 extracts of 60 traditional Chinese medicinals ( TCM ) . And the minimum inhibitory concentration ( MIC ) test was applied on extracts with positive results. The disk diffusion was employed to screen the antibacterial activity preliminar-ily among 240 extracts. The MICs of active extracts were tested by liquid culture method (double dilution method). The results revealed that 104 extracts show antibacterial activity on one or more strains, 20 of them show strong inhibition on three commonly seen bacteria ( MIC < 0 . 2 mg/mL ) . It was concluded that ethanol , acetone and hexane extracts of 11 TCMs including Salvia miltiorrhiza, Cnidium monnieri, Polygonum tinctorium, Taraxacum mongolicum, Morus alba, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Curcuma longa, Arnebia euchroma, Lobelia chinen-sis , Chrysanthemum indicum and Buddleja officinalis show strong inhibition on Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus cereus , Staphylococcus aureus .

  1. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  2. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance

  3. Extracting oil from coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil having a high volatile load is thus obtained, presenting favourable sensory characteristics. The pulp was physically and chemically analysed to show its benefit and particular properties and, according to the results so obtained, it is a product having potential usefulness.

  4. Substoichiometric extraction of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substoichiometric extraction of chromium with tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPACl), tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDDC) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) was examined in detail. Chromium can be extracted substoichiometrically in a pH range, which is 1.1-2.6 for the TPACl compound, 0.6-2.3 for the TNOA compound, 5.1-6.4 for the DDDC chelate and 3.9-4.9 for the APDC chelate. Chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate, Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and Brewers Yeast (NBS SRM-1569) was determined by neutron activation analysis combined with substoichiometric extraction by DDDC and APDC. The values of 2.0+-0.02 ppm and 2.6+-0.2 ppm were obtained for Brewers Yeast and Orchard Leaves, respectively. These values were in good agreement with those reported by NBS. The reaction mechanism and the reaction ratio between hexavalent chromium and dithiocarbamate are also discussed. (author)

  5. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  6. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  7. Polar Lipid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Biotechniques Polar lipids are generally extracted from dry cell material using chloroform:methanol:0.3% NaCl (1:2:0.8 v/v/v). This may be carried out by adding 9.5 ml of this mixture to 100 mg of freeze dried cells, or by adding a suitable amount of chloroform, methanol and 0.3% NaCl to the cell material, or to the aqueous methanolic phase remaining from the lipoquinone extraction. 1. The aqueous methanolic phase (4 ml total volume), together with the cell material from the ...

  8. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  9. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  10. Source Wavelet Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghadeh, Diako Hariri; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of propagation wavelet phase from seismic data can be conducted using first, second, third and fourth-order statistics. Three new methods are introduced, which are: (1) Combination of different moments, (2) Windowed continuous wavelet transform and (3) Maximum correlation with cosine function. To compare different methods synthetic data with and without noise were chosen. Results show that first, second and third order statistics are not able to preserve wavelet phase. Kurtosis can preserve propagation wavelet phase but signal-to-noise ratio can affect the extracted phase using this method. So for data set with low signal-to-noise ratio, it will be unstable. Using a combination of different moments to extract the phase is more robust than applying kurtosis. The improvement occurs because zero phase wavelets with reverse polarities have equal maximum kurtosis values hence the correct wavelet polarity cannot be identified. Zero-phase wavelets with reverse polarities have minimum and maximum values for a combination of different-moments method. These properties enable the technique to handle a finite data segment and to choose the correct wavelet polarity. Also, the existence of different moments can decrease sensitivity to outliers. A windowed continuous wavelet transform is more sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio than the combination of different-moments method, also if the scale for the wavelet is incorrect it will encounter with more problems to extract phase. When the effects of frequency bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and analyzing window length are considered, the results of extracting phase information from data without and with noise demonstrate that combination of different-moments is superior to the other methods introduced here.

  11. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  12. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  13. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  14. Shibusa: extracting beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Adkins, Monty; Dickens, Pip

    2012-01-01

    Shibusa – Extracting Beauty celebrates a number of artistic endeavours: music, painting and the skill of making in general with particular reflection upon Japanese aesthetics. Composer, Monty Adkins and visual artist, Pip Dickens (through a Leverhulme Trust Award collaboration) investigate commonality and difference between the visual arts and music exploring aspects of rhythm, pattern, colour and vibration as well as outlining processes utilised to evolve new works within these practic...

  15. The Extractive Industries Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Halland, Havard; Lokanc, Martin; Nair, Arvind; Kannan, Sridar Padmanabhan

    2015-01-01

    The extractive industries (EI) sector occupies an outsize space in the economies of many developing countries. Economists, public finance professionals, and policy makers working in such countries are frequently confronted with issues that require an in-depth understanding of the sector. The objective of this volume is to provide a concise overview of EI-related topics these professionals are likely to encounter. The volume provides an overview of issues central to EI economics; discusses key...

  16. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  17. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  18. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Popescu

    2013-01-01

    Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  19. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  20. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  2. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  3. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic key to evaluate white rust severity in Chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica G. Barbosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem branca, causada pelo fungo Puccinia horiana, é considerada a principal doença do crisântemo no Brasil, induzindo severas perdas aos produtores. Apesar da importância, inexistem estudos epidemiológicos no país, e para que estes estudos sejam realizados, é necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos padronizados de quantificação da severidade da doença no campo. Visando atender a essa demanda, foi elaborada uma escala diagramática com os níveis de 1, 3, 6, 10, 18 e 30% de área foliar lesionada, testando-se a acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de severidade da ferrugem branca com e sem a sua utilização. Na validação da escala diagramática, 50 folhas com diferentes níveis de severidade da doença, mensurados previamente com o programa AutoCADâ, foram avaliadas por 10 pessoas sem e com a utilização da escala diagramática. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com a utilização da escala, com intervalo de sete dias, onde seqüências diferentes das mesmas folhas foram estimadas visualmente pelos mesmos avaliadores. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples, entre a severidade real e a estimada. Sem o auxílio da escala, todos os avaliadores superestimaram consistentemente a severidade, indicando a presença de desvios positivos constantes para todos os níveis de severidade da doença. As avaliações realizadas com a escala diagramática foram mais acuradas nas estimativas da maioria dos avaliadores e mais precisas para todos os avaliadores, além de proporcionar boa repetibilidade e elevada reprodutibilidade entre avaliações de diferentes avaliadores. A escala diagramática mostrou-se adequada para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo.White rust, caused by Puccinia horiana, is considered the major disease of Chrysanthemum in Brazil, which results in severe losses for the growers. Despite of its economic importance, very

  4. QUALIDADE DE CRISÂNTEMOS (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV PRODUZIDOS EM DIFERENTES REGIÕES DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: GRUPO POLARIS QUALITY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV CULTIVATED IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE SÃO PAULO STATE: POLARIS GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiris Bergemann de Aguiar Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Escolheu-se o crisântemo, por ser a principal flor de corte comercializada no Estado de São Paulo, para iniciar um processo de melhoria de qualidade com conseqüente padronização para a floricultura brasileira, tanto para a produção de consumo interno quanto para aquela destinada à exportação. Através da avaliação da qualidade de inflorescências de crisântemos do grupo Polaris produzidos em diferentes regiões, e comparação com os padrões existentes, pretendeu-se chegar a um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte. Os parâmetros analisados foram: comprimento de haste; peso da matéria fresca da haste floral; número de inflorescências abertas e por abrir; localização e número de ramificações; rigidez de haste; defeitos de formação; presença de resíduos químicos e incidência de pragas e moléstias. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que comprimento, peso da matéria fresca e rigidez de haste foram os parâmetros que mais se aproximaram dos padrões existentes; número de inflorescências, localização e número de ramificações e presença de hastes tortas indicaram a necessidade de maiores cuidados nas operações de desbotoamento e elevação da rede de sustentação; presença de resíduos químicos e de pragas e moléstias mostraram os piores resultados, requerendo estudos visando a adequada aplicação de defensivos agrícolas para o efetivo controle das pragas e moléstias, não deixando resíduos químicos . Com esses resultados, verificou-se não ser possível elaborar, de imediato, um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte.Chrysanthemum is the major cut flower commercialized in the São Paulo State, Brazil. This study aimed for the standardization of chrysantemum flowers in order to set new parameters of quality for trading, in both domestic and international markets. Chrysanthemum inflorescences from three regions were evaluated for four seasons, and compared to current standards. The evaluated

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  6. Viabilidade técnico-econômica do uso de diferentes tecnologias de iluminação para indução de fotoperíodo na produção de mudas de crisântemo Technical and economical viability of distinct illumination technologies applied to photoperiod induction in chrysanthemum production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Rossi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Em função de suas características fisiológicas, as mudas de crisântemo necessitam de luz suplementar para evitar formação de botão floral. Isto é feito no período noturno. O presente trabalho visou a analisar a viabilidade técnico-econômica de substituir-se a atual tecnologia de iluminação artificial utilizada pelos produtores (lâmpadas incandescentes para efeito de indução de fotoperíodo em ambiente protegido, pela tecnologia de lâmpadas de descarga, com o objetivo de reduzir o consumo de energia elétrica utilizada no processo. As lâmpadas de descarga possuem maior vida útil e apresentam menor consumo de energia quando comparadas às lâmpadas incandescentes. Os resultados das análises permitem concluir que a lâmpada fluorescente compacta integrada amarela, de 23 W, é a que apresenta viabilidade técnica e econômica para tal substituição.Physiological characteristics of chrysanthemum nurseries require extra light supply to prevent buds production. That extra illumination is carried during night period. This research aimed to analyze the technical and economical viability associated to the substitution of conventional incandescent lamps used by the producers to discharge lamps to induce photoperiod, aiming electricity cost reduction in protected environment. Discharge lamps are more efficient, exhibit lower consumption and longer life when compared to the incandescent ones. The results of the analysis allow concluding that the yellow fluorescent compact integrated 23 W lamp turned to be technical and economically viable for the proposed substitution.

  7. Effect of Sound Stimulation on the Lipid Physical States and Metabolism of Plasma Membrane from Chrysanthemum Callus%声波刺激对菊花愈伤组织膜脂物理状态和膜脂代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵虎成; 王伯初; 蔡绍皙; 席葆树

    2002-01-01

    以蔗糖梯度法纯化的菊花(Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel.)愈伤组织质膜微囊为材料,研究了声波刺激下质膜膜脂代谢和物理状态的变化.结果表明, 一定强度(100 dB)和频率(1 000 Hz)的声波刺激使质膜磷酸二脂含量和二苯己三烯(DPH)荧光偏振值降低,质膜光散射值、MC540荧光强度和磷酸单脂含量增加.表明一定强度和频率的声波刺激使质膜变疏松,膜的流动性增加,膜表面电荷密度和疏水性降低,膜脂合成代谢增加,分解代谢减弱.由此可见,膜脂物理状态和膜脂代谢对声波刺激极为敏感.%Plasma membrane vesicles of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel.) callus was purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation to investigate the influence of sound stimulation on the lipid physical states and metabolism of plasma membrane. The results showed that sound stimulation decreased the content of phosphodiesters and the fluorescent intensity of DPH, but increased the light scattering value of the membrane, the fluorescent intensity of MC540 and the content of phosphomonoesters, indicating that the vesicles got looser, the charge density and hydrophobicity of membrane surface decreased under sound stimulation of some strength and frequency. However, the membrane fluidity increased under the condition. Meanwhile, the anabolism of membrane lipid increased and the catabolism decreased. It can be seen that the physical state and metabolism of membrane lipid is sensitive to sound stimulation.

  8. Extracting Text from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  9. EXTRACTING TEXT FROM VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  10. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  11. Uranium extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) and the IAEA jointly published a book on Uranium Extraction Technology. A primary objective of this report was to document the significant technological developments that took place during the 1970s. The purpose of this present publication is to update and expand the original book. It includes background information about the principle of the unit operations used in uranium ore processing and summarizes the current state of the art. The publication also seeks to preserve the technology and the operating 'know-how' developed over the past ten years. This publication is one of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing that have been prepared by the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management at the IAEA. A complete list of these reports is included as an addendum. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  13. Feature Extraction Using Mfcc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mel Frequency Ceptral Coefficient is a very common and efficient technique for signal processing. Thispaper presents a new purpose of working with MFCC by using it for Hand gesture recognition. Theobjective of using MFCC for hand gesture recognition is to explore the utility of the MFCC for imageprocessing. Till now it has been used in speech recognition, for speaker identification. The present systemis based on converting the hand gesture into one dimensional (1-D signal and then extracting first 13MFCCs from the converted 1-D signal. Classification is performed by using Support Vector Machine.Experimental results represents that proposed application of using MFCC for gesture recognition havevery good accuracy and hence can be used for recognition of sign language or for other householdapplication with the combination for other techniques such as Gabor filter, DWT to increase the accuracyrate and to make it more efficient.

  14. Underground mineral extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  15. Quantitative metamaterial property extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schurig, David

    2015-01-01

    We examine an extraction model for metamaterials, not previously reported, that gives precise, quantitative and causal representation of S parameter data over a broad frequency range, up to frequencies where the free space wavelength is only a modest factor larger than the unit cell dimension. The model is comprised of superposed, slab shaped response regions of finite thickness, one for each observed resonance. The resonance dispersion is Lorentzian and thus strictly causal. This new model is compared with previous models for correctness likelihood, including an appropriate Occam's factor for each fit parameter. We find that this new model is by far the most likely to be correct in a Bayesian analysis of model fits to S parameter simulation data for several classic metamaterial unit cells.

  16. KEYWORD EXTRACTION FOR PUNJABI LAGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMALDEEP KAUR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces keyword extraction for Punjabi language. Keywords are the index terms that contain the most important information about the contents of the document. Automatic keyword extraction is the task to identify a small set of words, keyphrases or keywords from a document that can describe the meaning ofdocument. Not much work has been done in keyword extraction for Indian languages in general and Punjabi in particular. Adequate annotated corpora are not yet available in Punjabi. The paper represents the Automatic keyword extraction system for Punjabi language to find words from a document which convey the completemeaning of the text. First we survey about the various approaches available for keyword extraction, then represent our hybrid approach for Punjabi. A number of features are used to extract keywords effectively. The experimental results are shown.

  17. Event extraction for DNA methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta Tomoko; Pyysalo Sampo; Miwa Makoto; Tsujii Jun’ichi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts inc...

  18. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  19. Organization and Extraction for Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-hua Chen

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of Internet makes the researches on information retrieval more changeable. Actually, the so-called "information retrieval" is "text retrieval." It is necessary for users to find out the needed information from the retrieved texts. A higher-level task is information extraction, which extracts the information based on pre-defined templates. From the viewpoint of Library Science, these pre-defined templates are the metadata, which describes the collection of libraries in common. This paper discusses the relationships between metadata and information extraction and how natural1anguage processing helps the task of information extraction.[Article content in Chinese

  20. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft3/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft3/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  1. Evaluation of DNA and RNA extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Shiaw, C S; Shiran, M S; Cheah, Y K; Tan, G C; Sabariah, A R

    2010-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate various DNA and RNA extractions from archival FFPE tissues. A total of 30 FFPE blocks from the years of 2004 to 2006 were assessed with each modified and adapted method. Extraction protocols evaluated include the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A), Chelex-100 extraction method (Method B), heat-induced retrieval in alkaline solution extraction method (Methods C and D) and one commercial FFPE DNA Extraction kit (Qiagen, Crawley, UK). For RNA extraction, 2 extraction protocols were evaluated including the enzymatic extraction method (Method 1), and Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2). Results show that the modified enzymatic extraction method (Method A) is an efficient DNA extraction protocol, while for RNA extraction, the enzymatic method (Method 1) and the Chelex-100 RNA extraction method (Method 2) are equally efficient RNA extraction protocols.

  2. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Cascaval Dan; Galaction Anca-Irina

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes) and direct extracti...

  3. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  4. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  5. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  6. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  7. Extracting amplitudes from photoproduction data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problems associated with amplitude extraction, from meson photoproduction data, over the first resonance regions. The notion of a complete experiment has motivated the FROST program at Jefferson Lab. Exercises applied to pion photoproduction data illustrate the problems to be confronted in any attempt to extract underlying resonance signals from these data (without introducing a model for the resonant process).

  8. Gold extraction from flotation tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies on cyanide leaching of gold comprising flotation tailings of antimony ore are given. The possibility to extract 50% of gold by cyanide leaching is shown. The dependence of gold extraction on leaching duration is studied. Influence of kerosine on cyanide leaching of flotation tailings is studied as well.

  9. Extraction systems of the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    A pair of prototype septum magnets for the extraction systems of the SPS. Each of the two extraction systems will contain eighteen of these septum magnets (eight with a 4 mm septum and ten with a 16 mm septum) mounted in pairs in nine vacuum tanks.

  10. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine;

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an arti......This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated...... by an artificial liquid membrane. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction is a modification of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, where the hollow fibers are replaced by flat membranes in a 96-well plate format....

  11. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  12. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  13. The relationship between analgesic effect of total flavonoids of Chuzhou chrysanthemum and nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2%滁菊总黄酮的镇痛作用及与一氧化氮和前列腺素E2的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓蓓; 陈志武; 罗胜勇; 马征

    2014-01-01

    目的研究滁菊总黄酮( TFCC)的镇痛作用及其可能机制。方法镇痛作用采用小鼠扭体法、温浴法、福尔马林法、热板法进行检测;血清和脑组织中一氧化氮( NO)和前列腺素E2( PGE2)含量分别采用Griess法和紫外分光光度法测定。结果灌胃给药TFCC 100、200 mg/kg可明显减少小鼠扭体反应数,降低小鼠福尔马林致痛作用第Ⅱ时相疼痛反应评分值,延长小鼠热板舔足反应潜伏期和热水缩尾反应潜伏期;小鼠侧脑室给药TFCC 5、10 mg/kg可明显抑制小鼠扭体反应。灌胃给药TFCC 100、200 mg/kg可明显提高小鼠血清和脑组织中NO含量,但可降低PGE2含量。结论 TFCC具有明显镇痛作用,其镇痛机制可能与促进 NO 释放和抑制PGE2生成有关。%Objective To study the analgesic effect of total flavone of Chuzhou chrysanthemum ( TFCC ) and its mechanism. Methods Writhing test, warm bath method, formalin method, the hot plate test were used to examine analgesic effect on mice, and serum and brain tissue nitric oxide( NO) and prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) contents were determinated the Griess method and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Results Intragastrical administration of TFCC 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg could significantly reduce the writhing number in mice,II-phase pain in formaldehyde induced pain in mice, and prolonged the mice hot plate licking foot response latency and hot shrinkage tail reaction time. Intracerebroventricular injection TFCC 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg could significantly inhibit the writhing number in mice. TFCC 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg significantly increased mice serum and brain NO contents, and reduced PGE2 contents. Conclusion TFCC has obvious analgesic effect, and its analgesic mechanism may be related to the promation of NO release and the inhibition of PGE2 .

  14. Produção de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. 'Snowdon' em vaso I: doses e freqüências de aplicação de daminozide Production of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev., cv. 'Snowdon', in pots I: daminozide's concentrations and times of application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelma de Cássia Câmara Tolotti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta de crisântemo através da análise de parâmetros fenométricos, ao redutor de crescimento Daminozide, pulverizado na cultivar de crisântemo de corte "Snowdon", cultivada em vaso. O estudo foi formado por dois ensaios com cinco repetições, usando delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo formado por quatro doses de Daminozide (0, 2.000, 4.000 e 6.000 mg.L-1 e duas freqüências de aplicações (semanal e bissemanal. Os resultados evidenciaram que as diferentes doses e freqüências de aplicações reduziram a altura da planta, o número de nós, o comprimento de entrenós, o diâmetro da inflorescência e o comprimento do pedúnculo floral. Entretanto, constatou-se aumento dos diâmetros da haste e do pedúnculo floral. Na dose 4.000 mg.L-1 aplicada semanalmente, produziram-se os vasos de melhor qualidade, com altura da planta nos padrões recomendados para comercialização.The aim of this study was to investigate the response of potted chrysanthemum cv. Snowdon, to the growth retardant Daminozide, in terms of fenometric parameters. The study consisted of two experiments with five repetitions. The experiments were bifactorial 4 x 2, with four concentrations of Daminozide (0, 2,000, 4,000 and 6,000 mg.L-1 and two times of application (weekly and bi-weekly of the product. Plant height, number of nodes, length of internodes, diameter of stems and inflorescences, length and diameter of floral peduncle were determinated. All concentrations and times of applications were able to reduce plant height, length of internodes, flower diameter and floral peduncle length. However, the diameter of the stem and floral peduncle were increased. The weekly application of 4,000 mg.L-1 Daminozide produced plants with the best quality within the commercial standards.

  15. Development of signal-extraction scheme for Resonant Sideband Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kokeyama, K; Kawazoe, F; Sato, S; Kawamura, S; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    As a future plan, an advanced gravitational-wave detector will employ an optical configuration of resonant sideband extraction (RSE), achieved with an additional mirror at the signal-detection port of the power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. To control the complex coupled cavity system, one of the most important design issues is how to extract the longitudinal control signals of the cavities. We developed a new signal-extraction scheme which provides an appropriate sensing matrix. The new method uses two sets of sidebands: one of the sideband components satisfies the critical coupling ondition for the RSE interferometer and reaches the signal-extraction port, and the other sideband is completely reflected by the Michelson interferometer. They provide a diagonalized sensing matrix and enable the RSE control to be robust.

  16. Extraction of uranium with emulsion membrane process use tributylphosphate extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the effectiveness of extraction process with so for to occur, it was tried the extraction with a couple of extraction and stripping process. This couple process was called liquid membrane emulsion. As membrane was used mix surfactant (Span-80), tributylphosphate in kerosene, natrium carbonate, while as a feeder was uranium solution with 500 concentration ppm in 0.5 - 3 M nitrate acid. In this experiment the variable investigated were % surfactant (1 - 5 %), rotary speed for membrane making (2,500 - 10.000 rpm). The optimal condition result of experiment were 5 % surfactant, 3 M nitrate acid, rotary speed 10.000 rpm and (KdeksU) 57 %, and (KdstrippU) 87 %, KdeksU at liquid-liquid extraction is 44 %. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 169.175 - Vanilla extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vanilla extract. 169.175 Section 169.175 Food and... § 169.175 Vanilla extract. (a) Vanilla extract is the solution in aqueous ethyl alcohol of the sapid and odorous principles extractable from vanilla beans. In vanilla extract the content of ethyl alcohol is...

  18. Nonvolatile dichloromethane extractives of Gmelina arborea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ukkonen, K.

    1982-02-01

    In pulping it is important to know how lipophilic extractives will behave and so avoid pitch problems. Experiments on Gmelina wood delivered from Brazil in 1978 are described, using dichloromethane extractives to give sufficient information about the lipophilic extractives. The behavior of Gmelina extracts in kraft pulping was compared to that of birch extracts and was found to be similar. (Refs. 10).

  19. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  20. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  1. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated.

  2. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 2. Pertraction, direct extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Galaction Anca-Irina; Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    The second part of this review presents our original results on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, alcohols) by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration. For the analyzed systems, the experimental conditions required for reaching maximum separation efficiency and the mathematical models describing the process have been established. For all the studied cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies and redu...

  3. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 2. Pertraction, direct extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galaction Anca-Irina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of this review presents our original results on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, alcohols by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration. For the analyzed systems, the experimental conditions required for reaching maximum separation efficiency and the mathematical models describing the process have been established. For all the studied cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies and reduce the overall cost of the product.

  4. Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Chu; Xue-Bin Li; Ping Zhang; Yi An; Jiang-Bo Duan; Long Wang; Ding Li; Bing Li; Ji-Hong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

  5. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes and direct extraction from broths have considerable potential and are required for the further development of many biotechnologies. This review is structured on two parts and presents our original results of the studies on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, amino acids, alcohols by reactive extraction in the first part, and by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration in the second. For all the analyzed cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies by reducing material and energy consumption, by avoiding product inhibition, by increasing the separation selectivity, therefore decreasing the overall cost of the product.

  6. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  7. Point Source Extraction with MOPEX

    CERN Document Server

    Marleau, D M F R

    2005-01-01

    MOPEX (MOsaicking and Point source EXtraction) is a package developed at the Spitzer Science Center for astronomical image processing. We report on the point source extraction capabilities of MOPEX. Point source extraction is implemented as a two step process: point source detection and profile fitting. Non-linear matched filtering of input images can be performed optionally to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and improve detection of faint point sources. Point Response Function (PRF) fitting of point sources produces the final point source list which includes the fluxes and improved positions of the point sources, along with other parameters characterizing the fit. Passive and active deblending allows for successful fitting of confused point sources. Aperture photometry can also be computed for every extracted point source for an unlimited number of aperture sizes. PRF is estimated directly from the input images. Implementation of efficient methods of background and noise estimation, and modified Simplex a...

  8. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  9. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  10. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  11. Conditioning of Piezoresistance Coefficient Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Gniazdowski, Zenon; Koszur, Jan; Kowalski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The necessary and sufficient condition for the piezoresistance coefficient extraction and conditioning of the extraction problem are considered as a problem of the certain matrix A. This matrix is implied by the stress distribution on the certain test structure. For the given test structure matrix A was calculated and the condition number was estimated. Obtained value of condition number shows that proposed test structure gives well-conditioned matrix A. Both the geometrical analysis and nume...

  12. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  13. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  14. Electrochemical process of titanium extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CH. RVS. NAGESH; C. S. RAMACHANDRAN

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of processes are being pursued by researchers for cost effective extraction of titanium metal. Electrochemical processes are promising due to simplicity and being less capital intensive. Some of the promising electrochemical processes of titanium extraction were reviewed and the results of laboratory scale experiments on electrochemical reduction of TiO2 granules were brought out. Some of the kinetic parameters of the reduction process were discussed while presenting the quality improvements achieved in the experimentation.

  15. Organization and Extraction for Information

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang-hua Chen

    1997-01-01

    The development of Internet makes the researches on information retrieval more changeable. Actually, the so-called "information retrieval" is "text retrieval." It is necessary for users to find out the needed information from the retrieved texts. A higher-level task is information extraction, which extracts the information based on pre-defined templates. From the viewpoint of Library Science, these pre-defined templates are the metadata, which describes the collection of libraries in common. ...

  16. Phoenix I energy extraction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy extraction experiments are reported for the Phoenix I amplifier driven by a discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system operating on mixtures of either SF6-HI or SF6-C2H6 and an electron-beam-initiated intermediate amplifer (lambda-3) fueled with H2 and F2 mixtures. When the oscillator-preamplifier system operated with mixtures of SF6-HI the input spectrum to the Phoenix I amplifier contained approx. 28 P-branch vibrational-rotational lines which were almost identical to the input spectrum from the H2-F2 fueled oscillator. In this case the energy extraction measurements were essentially the same as the results obtained with the spectrum produced using H2 and F2 mixtures. For an input intensity of 107 W/cm2, 170 J were extracted from the amplifier. With the SF6-C2H6 spectrum, extraction was only obtained from the first three excited vibrational levels. This result indicates that most of the energy in the amplifier could be extracted on the first three excited vibrational levels. It is shown that the extraction results can be fit with a simple two level model. The radius of curvature of the beam was estimated using a lateral shearing interferometer. It was found that the Phoenix I amplifier altered the radius of curvature

  17. Caesium extraction by calixarene molecules: Some aspects of extraction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Tournois, B.; Volle, G

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the environment Code (2000 studies were developed to recover long-lived fission products (F.P.) from acidic highly radioactive effluents issuing the reprocessing of spent fuels, to destroy them by transmutation or to encapsulate them into specific matrices. Efforts had been directed towards caesium, particularly {sup 135}Cs, which is one of the most harmful fission products because of its long half life (more than 2.10{sup 6} years) and its mobility in repository. The flow-sheet will be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was decided to define a process based on liquid-liquid extraction. Crown-calixarenes molecules were chosen for process development. To refine the flowsheet diagram, it is necessary to know the rate constants of the implied chemical reactions involved in the extraction. This paper describes the first determination of rate constant in the Cs extraction with crown calixarenes. (authors)

  18. Propolis extract application in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Spaziani Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been ground in various areas of science, but its application in agriculture, is a recent and almost unknown subject. In agronomy work mainly seek to explore the antibiotic and antifungal properties of propolis, but other uses have been proposed, such as plant nutrition, pest control (such as mites and even reducing water stress in plants. Despite numerous utilities proven and proposals, there are many questions, particularly for the preparation of the extract, most appropriate chemical composition for a particular use, application forms, crude propolis extract in percentages, dose minimum efficiency, efficiency, etc. Given the above, the purpose of this literature review is to present the origin and chemical composition of propolis, making methodology of propolis extract, more effective dose in the control of fungi, plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce water stress. During the study, it can be seen that the difference in propolis composition occurs mainly due to the variability of vegetable composition in the vicinity of the hive, the bees forage and chemical composition is quite complex and variable in terms of both concentration and chemicals gifts. In the extraction, there are still many gaps to be studied, including the best way to obtain the extract, with questions about the best puller, with lack of consensus in the literature. On the efficiency of this technology, there are numerous studies with promising results, which allow implementation of technology in the field and these jobs concentrated in coffee crops, beans, cucumber and tomato.

  19. Optimal Extraction of Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Kamal; Scherer, Charles, R.

    1977-06-01

    This study is concerned with the optimal extraction of energy from a hot water geothermal field. In view of the relative "commercial" availability of the many energy sources alternative to geothermal, it is possible that a socially "best" extraction policy may not include producing geothermal energy as fast as the current technology will permit. Rather, a truly "optimal" policy will depend on, among other things, the costs and value of geothermal energy in the future and the analogous values of other energy sources. Hence, a general approach to this problem would make the policy contingent on pertinent information on alternative sources. A good example of this approach is given in Manne's (1976) Energy Technology Assessment Model, where he points out that "Each energy source has its own cost parameters and introduction date, but is interdependent with other components of the energy sector." (Manne (1976), p. 379). But by their large dimensions, such relativity macro-analyses tend to preclude a close look at the specific technology of a process is important in developing meaningful resource management models, we substitute for a macro model the increasing value over time of the energy extracted. In this contact we seek an extraction rate (and an economic life) that maximizes the net discounted value of the energy extracted. [DJE-2005

  20. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...

  1. Evaluation of Rule Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruveedula GopiKrishna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the data mining domain, the lack of explanation facilities seems to be a serious drawback for techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks, or, for that matter, any technique producing opaque models In particular, the ability to generate even limited explanations is absolutely crucial for user acceptance of such systems. Since the purpose of most data mining systems is to support decision making,the need for explanation facilities in these systems is apparent. The task for the data miner is thus to identify the complex but general relationships that are likely to carry over to production data and the explanation facility makes this easier. Also focused the quality of the extracted rules; i.e. how well the required explanation is performed. In this research some important rule extraction algorithms are discussed and identified the algorithmic complexity; i.e. how efficient the underlying rule extraction algorithm is

  2. Antibacterial activity of Pulicaria dysenterica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickavar, Bahman; Mojab, Faraz

    2003-06-01

    Aqueous, methanolic and chloroformic extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica aerial parts were tested for their antibacterial activity using the disc-diffusion assay technique. The methanolic extract was found to be the most effective extract against three out of six tested bacteria. All of the extracts were active against Vibrio cholera.

  3. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Iqbal; Maznah Ismail; Noordin Mohd Yusri; Kim Wei Chan

    2012-01-01

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β...

  4. Solvent extraction: the coordination chemistry behind extractive metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A Matthew; Bailey, Phillip J; Tasker, Peter A; Turkington, Jennifer R; Grant, Richard A; Love, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    The modes of action of the commercial solvent extractants used in extractive hydrometallurgy are classified according to whether the recovery process involves the transport of metal cations, M(n+), metalate anions, MXx(n-), or metal salts, MXx into a water-immiscible solvent. Well-established principles of coordination chemistry provide an explanation for the remarkable strengths and selectivities shown by most of these extractants. Reagents which achieve high selectivity when transporting metal cations or metal salts into a water-immiscible solvent usually operate in the inner coordination sphere of the metal and provide donor atom types or dispositions which favour the formation of particularly stable neutral complexes that have high solubility in the hydrocarbons commonly used in recovery processes. In the extraction of metalates, the structures of the neutral assemblies formed in the water-immiscible phase are usually not well defined and the cationic reagents can be assumed to operate in the outer coordination spheres. The formation of secondary bonds in the outer sphere using, for example, electrostatic or H-bonding interactions are favoured by the low polarity of the water-immiscible solvents.

  5. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  6. Informed consent in dental extractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Capote Femenías

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When performing any oral intervention, particularly dental extractions, the specialist should have the oral or written consent of the patient. This consent includes the explanation of all possible complications, whether typical, very serious or personalized associated with the previous health condition, age, profession, religion or any other characteristic of the patient, as well as the possi.ble benefits of the intervention. This article is related with the bioethical aspects related with dental extractions, in order to determine the main elements that the informed consent should include.

  7. Carcinogenic potential of hydrotreated petroleum aromatic extracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Doak, S. M.; Hend, R W; van der Wiel, A; Hunt, P F

    1985-01-01

    Five experimental petroleum extracts were produced from luboil distillates derived from Middle East paraffinic crude by solvent extraction and severe hydrotreatment. The polycyclic aromatic content (PCA) of the extracts was determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction and ranged from 3.7-9.2% w/w. The five extracts were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous and systemic neoplasia in female mice derived from Carworth Farm No 1 strain (CF1). The test substances were applied undilute...

  8. Tablets with thyme (Thymus Vulgaris L extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeković Zoran P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The strongly antiseptic and antifungal activities of thyme is mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds, thymol and carvacrol. Thyme extracts essential oil, extract obtained using 70% ethanol and extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE using carbon dioxide, were incorporated in the most useful form of pharmaceutical products - tablets. The work is concerned with the characterisation of the obtained tablets containing thyme extracts.

  9. Personalized Web Services for Web Information Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jarir, Zahi; Quafafou, Mohamed; Erradi, Mahammed

    2011-01-01

    The field of information extraction from the Web emerged with the growth of the Web and the multiplication of online data sources. This paper is an analysis of information extraction methods. It presents a service oriented approach for web information extraction considering both web data management and extraction services. Then we propose an SOA based architecture to enhance flexibility and on-the-fly modification of web extraction services. An implementation of the proposed architecture is p...

  10. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...... to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range....

  11. Tablets with thyme (Thymus Vulgaris L) extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Zeković Zoran P.; Lepojević Žika D.; Markov Siniša L.; Milošević Svetlana G.

    2002-01-01

    The strongly antiseptic and antifungal activities of thyme is mainly due to the presence of phenolic compounds, thymol and carvacrol. Thyme extracts essential oil, extract obtained using 70% ethanol and extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide, were incorporated in the most useful form of pharmaceutical products - tablets. The work is concerned with the characterisation of the obtained tablets containing thyme extracts.

  12. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  13. Supercritical fluid extraction of mercury species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2003-12-23

    Supercritical fluid extraction was used to recover organic and inorganic mercury species. Variations in pressure, water, methanol, and chelator create methods that allowed separation of inorganic from organic mercury species. When extracted using a compromised set of extraction conditions, the order of extraction was methyl, phenyl and inorganic mercury. For the individually optimized conditions, quantitative recoveries were observed. Level as low as 20 ppb were extracted and then determined using ICP.

  14. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeed Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medical documents. MethodWe use a corpus that is specifically designed for summarisation in the EBM domain. We use approximately half the corpus for deriving important statistics associated with the best possible extractive summaries. We take into account factors such as sentence position, length, sentence content, and the type of the query posed. Using the statistics from the first set, we evaluate our approach on a separate set. Evaluation of the qualities of the generated summaries is performed automatically using ROUGE, which is a popular tool for evaluating automatic summaries. Results Our summarisation approach outperforms all baselines (best baseline score: 0.1594; our score 0.1653. Further improvements are achieved when query types are taken into account. Conclusion The quality of extractive summarisation in the medical domain can be significantly improved by incorporating domain knowledge and statistics derived from a specialised corpus. Such techniques can therefore be applied for content selection in end-to-end summarisation systems.

  15. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content...

  16. DNA Extraction and Primer Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads;

    Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omics...

  17. Extracting useful information from images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of methods for extracting useful information from digital images. It covers various approaches that utilized different properties of images, like intensity distribution, spatial frequencies content and several others. A few case studies including isotropic...... and heterogeneous, congruent and non-congruent images are used to illustrate how the described methods work and to compare some of them...

  18. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    -tree, is used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  19. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-06-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

  20. Application of controlled-released urea combined with conventional urea on physiological indices, yield and quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.%控释尿素与普通尿素配施对菊花生理指标及产量和质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝丽香; 王建华; 高先涛

    2012-01-01

    2009和2010年采取田间实验方法研究控释尿素和普通尿素不同施用方式对菊花生长发育及产量和品质的影响。结果表明,孕蕾期菊花叶片可溶性蛋白质和叶绿素含量、硝酸还原酶活性、根系活力明显高于生长旺盛期和开花期,且施用尿素高于对照。控释尿素、控释尿素与普通尿素混合一次性基施可促进菊花生长发育前期干物质积累,分次施用有利于后期干物质积累。施用尿素增加单株花序数、百朵花序鲜重,对花序直径影响较少。两种尿素分别分次施用菊花产量明显高于一次性基施,控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用产量高于其它处理。与普通尿素单施相比,控释尿素提高了菊花总黄酮、蛋白质和可溶性糖含量,其中以控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用的最高。综合菊花产量和品质指标,在本实验条件下,控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用的效果最佳。%Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients and plays a vital role in crop growth and yield production, rational nitrogen fertilization is essential to achieve an optimal yield and the desired product quality. Field experiments were conducted from 2009 to 2010 to compare the effects of controlled-release urea and conventional urea on the growth, yield and quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium. The results show that the physiological indices, including soluble protein content, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and root activities, are highest at the pregnant stage, and the indices in the treatments applied two kind of urea are higher than those of the control. The controlled-release urea and conventional urea applied as single basal application can improve growth and dry matter accumulation at the early stages of C. morifolium, while split fertilizations are more favorable to these in the later stages. The amounts of inflorescence number per plant and 100-inforescence flesh

  1. Chromatographic analysis of wheatgrass extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Shah Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wheatgrass (WG is the shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. belongs to the family Gramineae, and possess high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers etc., It has been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-ulcer, antioxidant, and anti-arthritic activity due to the presence of biologically active compounds, and minerals. Therefore, in the present study, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis have been proposed, which will help in quality evaluation of wheat grass extract. Materials and Methods: Samples for analysis were prepared in methanol and water simply by sonication. These were applied on pre-coated silica plate and chromatograms were developed using toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid. HPLC analysis was done on Waters HPLC system using water, methanol, and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Merck C18 column has been used. Results: HPTLC finger printing of alcoholic extracts of WG was carried out and found 10–11 spots at different wavelengths 254, 366, and 435 nm. HPLC fingerprinting produced 22 peaks at 256 nm. Quantitative HPTLC analysis was done to determine the gallic acid content, and was found to be 0.077% w/w in aqueous extract. By HPLC, the content of gallic acid and rutin was found to be 0.07%, and 0.04% w/w in aqueous extract of WG. Conclusion: The developed HPLC and HPTLC fingerprinting method can be used for the quality control, and standardization of WG and its extracts used as nutritional supplement.

  2. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in ...

  3. Recycle use of phosphorous mixer extractant to extract indium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The stripping and regeneration of the loaded organic phase of phosphorous mixer extractant (PPD) were studied.The mixed solutions (3 mol/L HCl +2 mol/L ZnCl2) were used as the stripping agent and more than 99% of indium can bestripped after three-stage stripping when the volume ratio of organic phase to stripping agent is 1:1. The organic phase canbe recycled to use after regeneration with HCl. The parallel contrast experiments with D2EHPA (di-2-ethyl hexyl phospho-ric acid) were carried out under the same conditions. The results show that the mixer extractant has good reusability and thestripping and regeneration of PPD are superior to those of D2EHPA.

  4. Recent trends in metals extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regel-Rosocka, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After near 70 years of practical usage, solvent extraction is a perfectly mastered technique of separation, widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of metals mainly from raw materials. However, currently, in the era of depleting natural resources and increasingly less accessible deposits, environmental restrictions, etc., an increasing interest, both from social and economical constrains, is being directed at the extraction of metals from the secondary sources (such as batteries, electronic scrap. In many cases, solvent extraction, due to its operational characteristics, can be considered as the Best Available Technology for the purpose of separating multielemental metal solutions. This paper provides a brief overview of past achievements and present scenario of solvent extraction investigations and developments, describing some recently commissioned solvent extraction plants, whereas the Skorpion Zinc plant (Namibia for zinc extraction from raw materials and caesium removal from radioactive High Level Wastes (HLWs are told over in detail as case studies. The paper also presents some proposals for the use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate metal ions from secondary sources (e.g. cobalt from industrial waste streams. The review highlights the emerging use of ionic liquids as new extractants for metals, providing an insight into this exciting research field. Despite its detractors, solvent extraction has entered in force into XXI century as a leading separation technology for metals.Después de casi 70 años de uso práctico, la extracción líquido-líquido o extracción con disolventes es una técnica de separación muy evolucionada, utilizándose a escala industrial en el beneficio de metales obtenidos de diversas materias primas. Sin embargo, con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales y el aumento de depósitos minerales de más difícil acceso, restricciones medio ambientales, etc., ha aumentado el interés, tanto desde

  5. Optimal Extraction of Echelle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Nikolai

    The extraction of the echelle spectra registered with a CCD detector represents a big challenge because of three reasons: (1) the pixel sampling is often close or worse then optimal, (2) spectral orders are curved and tilted with respect to the CCD rows (or columns) and (3) every pixel contains additional noise coming from various sources as illustrated in Figure 1. The main goal of an optimal extraction is to recover as much of the science signal while minimizing the contribution of the noise. Here we present the Slit Function Decomposition algorithm which replaces the summation in a sliding window with a reconstruction of the slit illumination profile. The reconstruction is formulated as an inverse problem solved by iterations and it is robust against most of the systematic problems including cosmic rays and cosmetic defects.

  6. Experience with intravascular lead extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jian; TANG Kai; WANG Fang-zheng; ZHANG Shu; HUANG Cong-xin

    2005-01-01

    @@ With the increase of clinical use of cardiac pacemaker, a certain kinds of severe leads-related complications (especially infection) have presented in a few patients who underwent pacemaker implantation. The best way to manage this problem is to remove the transvenous leads.1,2 The technique for percutaneous removal of transvenous leads have undergone considerable development in western countries over the past 2 decades. However, there was scarce data on the application of this technique in China. This article reports the results of transvenous extraction of 171 permanent pacemaker leads with the standard lead extraction devices and intravascular countertraction technique during the period from January 1996 to May 2005 in the Center of Arrhythmia Diagnosis and Treatment, Fu Wai Hospital, Beijing, China.

  7. Sugars present in tobacco extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S C; Pollack, R L; Hsu, A F; Going, R E

    1980-12-01

    The presence of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose in commercial tobacco products was identified and quantitated. Gas-liquid chromatographic studies showed that these five types of sugar were present in the water-soluble extracts of pouch and plug chewing tobacco, yet only fructose and glucose were found in extracts of snuff and unprocessed natural tobaccos. The amount of sucrose present in pouch chewing tobacco was twice that in plug chewing tobacco. No detectable amount of sucrose was found in snuff or unprocessed natural tobaccos. The content of maltose and isomaltose was much less than the content of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. All unprocessed natural tobacco leaves studied as controls contained low amounts of fructose and glucose, and no detectable amounts of sucrose, maltose, or isomaltose. The larger amounts of fructose and glucose, and the additional sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose present in pouch and plug chewing tobaccos are probably added during the manufacturing process. PMID:6935284

  8. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Energy Extraction from Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Straumann, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    In this lecture I give an introduction to the rotational energy extraction of black holes by the electromagnetic Blandford-Znajek process and the generation of relativistic jets. After some basic material on the electrodynamics of black hole magnetospheres, we derive the most important results of Blandford and Znajek by making use of Kerr-Schild coordinates, which are regular on the horizon. In a final part we briefly describe results of recent numerical simulations of accretion flows on rota...

  10. Information Extraction and Webpage Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    M.Sharmila Begum; L. Dinesh; P.Aruna

    2011-01-01

    The two most important tasks in information extraction from the Web are webpage structure understanding and natural language sentences processing. However, little work has been done toward an integrated statistical model for understanding webpage structures and processing natural language sentences within the HTML elements. Our recent work on webpage understanding introduces a joint model of Hierarchical Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) and extended Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields (Sem...

  11. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  12. Electrostatic septa for SPS extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The extraction system for the N-Area is located in LSS2 (another one for the W-Area, now abandoned, was in LSS6). The electrostatic septum consists of 4 parts, each 3 m long. It is made of W-wires, 0.12 mm thick. The nominal electric field is 100 kV/cm. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  13. Extraction treatment using Invisalign Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Greco, Mario; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2006-01-01

    The Invisalign method is gaining an increasing interest as an alternative treatment option in adult patients and in difficult orthodontic cases. The aim of this work is to show a class II malocclusion with severe crowding in the upper and lower arches treated with the extraction of the upper first premolars performed by means of Invisalign. The alignment phase was successfully completed but the space closure achieved with crown tipping and without correct root inclination making a further fixed appliance phase necessary.

  14. Information Extraction and Webpage Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sharmila Begum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The two most important tasks in information extraction from the Web are webpage structure understanding and natural language sentences processing. However, little work has been done toward an integrated statistical model for understanding webpage structures and processing natural language sentences within the HTML elements. Our recent work on webpage understanding introduces a joint model of Hierarchical Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs and extended Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields (Semi-CRFs to leverage the page structure understanding results in free text segmentation and labeling. In this top-down integration model, the decision of the HCRF model could guide the decision making of the Semi-CRF model. However, the drawback of the topdown integration strategy is also apparent, i.e., the decision of the Semi-CRF model could not be used by the HCRF model to guide its decision making. This paper proposed a novel framework called WebNLP, which enables bidirectional integration of page structure understanding and text understanding in an iterative manner. We have applied the proposed framework to local business entity extraction and Chinese person and organization name extraction. Experiments show that the WebNLP framework achieved significantly better performance than existing methods.

  15. Information based universal feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Brause, Rüdiger

    2015-02-01

    In many real world image based pattern recognition tasks, the extraction and usage of task-relevant features are the most crucial part of the diagnosis. In the standard approach, they mostly remain task-specific, although humans who perform such a task always use the same image features, trained in early childhood. It seems that universal feature sets exist, but they are not yet systematically found. In our contribution, we tried to find those universal image feature sets that are valuable for most image related tasks. In our approach, we trained a neural network by natural and non-natural images of objects and background, using a Shannon information-based algorithm and learning constraints. The goal was to extract those features that give the most valuable information for classification of visual objects hand-written digits. This will give a good start and performance increase for all other image learning tasks, implementing a transfer learning approach. As result, in our case we found that we could indeed extract features which are valid in all three kinds of tasks.

  16. Prevalent Color Extraction and Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.Thyagharajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colors in an image provides tremendous amount of information. Using this color information images can be segmented, analyzed, labeled and indexed. In content based image retrieval system, color is one of the basic primitive features used. In Prevalent Color Extraction and indexing, the most extensive color on an image is identified and it is used for indexing. For implementation, Asteroideae flower family image dataset is used. It consist of more than 16,000 species, among them nearly 100 species are considered and indexed by dominating colors. To extract the most appealable color from the user defined images, the overall color of an image has to be quantized. Spatially, quantizing the color of an image to extract the prevalent color is the major objective of this paper. A combination of K-Mean and Expectation Minimization clustering algorithm called hidden-value learned K-mean clustering quantization algorithm is used to avoid the over clustering behavior of K-Mean algorithm. The experimental result shows the marginal differences between these algorithms.

  17. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  18. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  19. FAAS Determination of Trace Amount of Iron in Huaiqing Chinese Medicines with Cloud Point Extraction%浊点萃取-火焰原子吸收光谱法测定怀药中微量铁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英杰; 侯广顺

    2012-01-01

    在pH4.0介质中,以二乙基二硫代氨基甲酸钠(DDTC)为螯合剂,铁与DDTC生成疏水性螯合物,加入Triton X-114表面活性剂用浊点萃取分离富集怀药中微量铁。表面活性剂相用0.01mol·L-1盐酸溶液定容至0.6mL后,所得溶液直接用火焰原子吸收光谱法进行测定。对影响浊点萃取的因素和共存离子的干扰进行了试验并予以优化。铁的检出限(3σ)为0.4μg·L-1。应用此法测定了怀药(怀山药、怀地黄、怀牛膝、怀菊花)中铁的含量,用标准加入法进行方法的回收试验,测得回收率在90.7%~111.2%之间,测定值的相对标准偏差(n=6)在2.5%~4.5%之间。%Trace amount of Fe was separated and enriched from the sample solution buffered at pH 4.0 in the form of hydrophobic coordination complex with DDTC by cloud point extraction using Triton X-114 as surfactant. The surfactant phase was diluted and made up to 0. 6 mL with 0. 01 mol·L-1 HCl and the content of Fe was determined by FAAS. Influential factors to cloud point extraction, and interferences of co-existing ions were studied and optimized. Detection limit (3σ) of the method was found to be 0. 4μg·L-1. The proposed method was applied to the determination of Fe in samples of Huaiqing Chinese medicines (Huaiqing Chinese yam, radices rehmanniae, achyranthes and chrysanthemum), and values of recovery obtained by standard addition method were in the range of 90. 7%--111.2% with RSD's (n=6) in the range of 2. 5%--4. 5%.

  20. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three extractives from China-fir were obtained by a sequential extraction processes with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of the three extractives were analyzed: (1 The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis showed that in addition to the presence of cedrol, naphthalenes comprised a relatively large percentage of both the hexane extract (10.39% and the ethyl acetate extract (9.43%. (2 Total phenolic contents analysis showed that phenols took up 6.66 % of the ethyl acetate extract and 22.8% of the methanol extract. All extracts, even with low concentrations, presented fair antifungal activities against two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus and two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Cedrol and naphthalenes were partly responsible for the bioactivities. The synergistic effect of phenols and antifungal compounds also contributed to the wood decay resistance.

  1. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  2. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ROOT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal Chittur Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol, distilled water, methanol and chloroform crude extracts of the roots of Tinospora crispa. Antimicrobial activity was examined by disc diffusion method against gram positive bacterial strains of Streptococcus pneumonia, gram negative bacterial strains of Escherichia coli and fungal strains of Candida albicans. The maximum zone of inhibition was obtained with ethanol extract against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumonia followed by chloroform extract against the same organisms. Whilst distilled water extract showed a minimal zone of inhibition, methanol extract showed a moderate zone of inhibition against the bacterial strains used. The values were compared with a standard antibiotic. The ethanol extract also showed the maximum zone of inhibition against the growth of Candida albicans, whereas the lowest activity was shown with distilled water crude extract. Methanol and chloroform crude extracts showed considerably moderate activities against the fungal strain, as compared to the standard antibiotic used.

  4. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nethra; Anitha, J; Thilagavathi, G

    2014-01-01

    The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is do...

  5. Extraction time for soybean isoflavone determination

    OpenAIRE

    Carrão-Panizzi Mercedes C.; Favoni Silvana Pedroso de Goés; Kikuchi Akio

    2002-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the optimization of the extraction procedures for isoflavones determination in soybean by HPLC. Isoflavones were extracted from 100 mg samples of full fat soybean flour "Kinako" (milled toasted grains). Recovery of average total isoflavones was higher when extraction was performed with agitation(217.2 mg/100g), than without agitation(191.0 mg/100g). Isoflavone extraction without agitation for 1,4, 20 and 24 hours, were equally efficient for total and individual com...

  6. Web-Based Information Extraction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Information extraction techniques on the Web are the current research hotspot. Now many information extraction techniques based on different principles have appeared and have different capabilities. We classify the existing information extraction techniques by the principle of information extraction and analyze the methods and principles of semantic information adding, schema defining,rule expression, semantic items locating and object locating in the approaches. Based on the above survey and analysis,several open problems are discussed.

  7. Effective Approaches For Extraction Of Keywords

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmeen Kaur

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Keywords are index terms that contain most important information. Automatic keyword extraction is the task to identify a small set of words , keyphrases or keywords from a document that can describe the meaning of document. Keyword extraction is considered as core technology of all automatic processing for text materials. In this paper, a Survey of Keyword Extraction techniques have been presented that can be applied to extract effective keywords that uniquely identify a document.

  8. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  9. Lessons Extracting Diseases from Discharge Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Long, William

    2007-01-01

    We developed a program to extract diseases and procedures from discharge summaries and have applied this program to 96 cases annotated by physicians. We compared the concepts extracted by the program to those extracted by the annotators. The program extracts 93% of the desired concepts including some more specific than the annotators. Concepts were missed because phrases were ambiguous, phrases were missing words or were separated, or deduction was needed, among other reasons. The false posit...

  10. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents which are capable of transporting transition metal salts. Chapter 1 reviews current solvent extractant technology for metal recovery, including the limited knowledge of the effect of substituents on extractive efficacy. Advances in leaching technology have...

  11. Organization of extracting molecules of the diamide type: link with the extracting properties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of these studies is to establish a link between the different organizations of diamide extractants (used in the DIAMEX process) and their extracting properties. The effects of the key parameters leading the liquid-liquid extraction (concentration of extractant, nature of solute, activity of the aqueous phase, nature of the diluent and temperature) are studied: 1) at the supramolecular scale, with the characterization of the extractant organizations by vapor-pressure osmometry (VPO) and small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS/SAXS) experiments; 2) at the molecular scale, with the quantification of the extracted solutes (water, nitric acid, metal nitrate) and the determination of extracted complexes stoichiometries by electro-spray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) experiments. The DMDOHEMA molecule acts as a classical surfactant and forms aggregates of the reverse micelle type. Taking into account the established supramolecular diagrams, a quantitative link between the extractants structures and their extracting properties has been brought to light. To model the europium nitrate extraction, two approaches have been developed: - an approach based on mass action laws. Extractions equilibria have been proposed taking into account the supramolecular speciation; - an innovative approach considering the extracted ions as adsorbed on a specific surface of the extractant molecule which depends on the extractant organization state. The ion extraction can be considered as a sum of isotherms corresponding to the different states of organization. This approach allows to compare the extraction efficiency of an extracting molecule as a function of its organization state. (author)

  12. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  13. Automated Extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing...... the amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles....

  14. Automated Extraction of DNA from clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing the amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles.

  15. Vessel tree extraction using locally optimal paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, P.; Ginneken, B. van; Bruijne, M. de

    2010-01-01

    of the vessel tree. Experiments were performed on 10 low dose chest CT scans for which the pulmonary vessel trees were extracted. The proposed method is shown to extract a better connected vessel tree and extract more of the small peripheral vessels in comparison to applying a threshold on the output...

  16. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  17. 21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemicellulose extract. 573.520 Section 573.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.520 Hemicellulose extract. Hemicellulose extract may be safely used in animal...

  18. Infrared thermometry for early detection of drought stress in Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Metselaar, K.

    2006-01-01

    Strict legislation on the release of water and nutrients into the subsoil exists in the Netherlands. Therefore, on-line monitoring and control systems are being developed to tune the supply of water and nutrients to the plants¿ demand for optimal control of production and reduction of system losses.

  19. Development of new varieties of chrysanthemum by mutagenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At present, the industry of flower cultivation in Mexico has been demanding new varieties produced locally. There are 6,000 hectares dedicated to the cultivation of flowers for domestic use, however the export is very low. The main production area is located in Villa Guerrero, a small town near Mexico City, where 80% of the total national production is grown. In addition, approximately 10 hectares of greenhouses are dedicated to the production of flowers for export, mainly in the Peninsula de Baja California and the Altiplano Central (Central Plateau). Unfortunately, the production of flowers in Mexico has been affected by two factors: the first, stock plants must be imported from Holland, France and the United States; and the second, there are some government restrictions on their import. Due to these factors, producers are behind in recent innovations related to new varieties. An alternative to solve this problem would be meristem in vitro culture. Plantlets from two varieties 'Polaris Yellow' pompom type and 'Dramatic' margarita type, were obtained through the meristems tip culture in the MS culture medium, to which kinetin 1.0 mg/l and NAA 0.05 mg/l were added. In preliminary studies, the plant material was irradiated with doses between 10 to 60 Gy and it was possible to determine that doses higher than 35 Gy were lethal for both varieties. In this experiment, plantlets were irradiated with seven doses (7.5, 10, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5 Gy) of 60Co gamma rays. They were then subcultured using three types of explants: bud, leaf and internode. The best variety for production of direct organogenesis was Polaris Yellow in a range of doses between 7.5 and 15 Gy, the buds being the best explant, while the internordes and leaves were not so suitable. In contrary, the leaf was considered to be the best explant for the induction of indirect organogenesis in the variety Dramatic, in a range of doses between 10 and 20 Gy. It was possible to obtain some mutants for color, size and shape of flowers from these materials and it is expected that in the near future they will rise to new varieties. (author)

  20. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted. PMID:26675848

  1. The combined extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.): ultrasound followed by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisic, Sandra B; Ristic, Mihajlo; Skala, Dejan U

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of phytochemicals could be isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using different extraction or distillation technique: the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the volatiles compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) isolation using hydrodistillation or higher molecular compounds with Soxhlet extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by re-extraction of obtained extract with supercritical CO(2) was performed in this study. The goal of performed investigation was to concentrate diterpenes present in sage extract which are generally considered to be responsible for antioxidant activity of extracted compounds. The fractionation using the supercritical CO(2), and different combination of the ultrasound-assisted solvent extractions (water-ethanol mixture or only water) followed by supercritical CO(2) re-extraction of obtained extract or treated plant material were analyzed and compared. Based on the results of these investigations it could be proposed the best extraction procedure: the ultrasound pretreatment of plant material with distilled water and re-extraction of plant material (residue) using supercritical CO(2). That procedure gives two valuable products: the ultrasound extract which is rich in sugars and possess the immunomodulatory activity and supercritical extract which is rich in diterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

  2. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA

  3. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, J.; Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis

  4. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  5. Extraction of Polyphenols from Cashew Nut Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Obichukwu EDOGA; Labake FADIPE; Rita Ngozi EDOGA

    2006-01-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was extracted from cashew nut shell by indirect leaching process using soxhlet extraction equipment. Normal hexane (n-hexane) was used as solvent. The operating conditions for the extraction were 680C and 1 atmosphere in every 100g of cashew nut shell used for the extraction, 35gCNSL was obtained. The CNSL was further separated into cardol, cardanol and anacardic acid (polyphenol) using an amine extractant (alanine) with the aid of shake-out separation equipment...

  6. Extraction time for soybean isoflavone determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrão-Panizzi Mercedes C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the optimization of the extraction procedures for isoflavones determination in soybean by HPLC. Isoflavones were extracted from 100 mg samples of full fat soybean flour "Kinako" (milled toasted grains. Recovery of average total isoflavones was higher when extraction was performed with agitation(217.2 mg/100g, than without agitation(191.0 mg/100g. Isoflavone extraction without agitation for 1,4, 20 and 24 hours, were equally efficient for total and individual compounds. These results suggested that an efficient isoflavone recovery could be achieved with extraction for one hour with agitation.

  7. Primary metals extraction by liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of copper and uranium by liquid membranes is presented. The recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid is described. The development of this process has progressed through three stages, firstly the chemistry of uranium extraction as it pertains to liquid membrane systems. This was followed by continuous extraction tests on fresh black acid and on aged acid. Results on a 1 litre/minute pilot plant demonstrated that the process could be operated with a minimum of feed pretreatment and about 90% of uranium could be extracted. The extraction of copper from copper leach liquors is also described. (U.K.)

  8. Personalized Web Services for Web Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Jarir, Zahi; Erradi, Mahammed

    2011-01-01

    The field of information extraction from the Web emerged with the growth of the Web and the multiplication of online data sources. This paper is an analysis of information extraction methods. It presents a service oriented approach for web information extraction considering both web data management and extraction services. Then we propose an SOA based architecture to enhance flexibility and on-the-fly modification of web extraction services. An implementation of the proposed architecture is proposed on the middleware level of Java Enterprise Edition (JEE) servers.

  9. Using augers to extract minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Meznikov, V.I.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-08-25

    The purpose of the device is to increase productivity based on eliminating empty auger trips. Following drilling the length of the auger away from the (preparatory) working area, the auger section is put in place on the side opposite from the drilled part of the (preparatory) working area. Simultaneous with drilling the other shaft opposite to the preparatory working area, the spindle device for injecting the bit into the drilled out part is set in place. Through it the auger sections are extracted from both shafts (facing each other) directly by moving the spindle device from one shaft to the other.

  10. Targets and Secondary Beam Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Etam

    2014-02-01

    Several applications make use of secondary beams of particles generated by the interaction of a primary beam of particles with a target. Spallation neutrons, bremsstrahlung photon-produced neutrons, radioactive ions and neutrinos are available to users at state-of-the-art facilities worldwide. Plans for even higher secondary beam intensities place severe constraints on the design of targets. This article reports on the main targetry challenges and highlights a variety of solutions for targetry and secondary beam extraction. Issues related to target station layout, instrumentation at the beam-target interface, safety and radioprotection are also discussed.

  11. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Das; Saikat Mazumder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol) extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis). Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm): ethanol (ml) of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were mode...

  12. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  13. Stomatal characteristics and desiccation response of leaves of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) flowers grown at high air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliniaeifard, S.; Meeteren, Van Uulke

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known that, as a short-term response, stomata close at low relative humidity (RH) (high Vapour Pressure Deficit) and open at high RH (low Vapour Pressure Deficit), effects of long-term exposure to different Vapour Pressure Deficits (VPD's) have only been studied in a few econo

  14. A novel expression cassette for the efficient visual selection of transformed tissues in florists' chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, J.; Stoopen, G.M.; Jongsma, M.A.; Wang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Constructs carrying visual reporter genes coupled with efficient promoters could facilitate the process of identification and selection of stable transformants in recalcitrant crops. Here, a novel construct utilizing a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbcS) promoter combined with the green flu

  15. Effect of Temperature on the Color of Natural Dyes Extracted Using Pressurized Hot Water Extraction Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nursyamirah A. Razak; Siti M. Tumin; Ruziyati Tajuddin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Traditionally, extraction of natural dyes with boiling method produced only one single tone of colorant/dyes which involved plenty of water in several hours of extraction time. A new modern extraction technique should be introduced especially to textile dyers so that a variety of tone of colorants can be produced in a shorter time with less consumption of water. Approach: This study demonstrated Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) as a new technique to extract colorants...

  16. Web Data Identification and Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Rajya Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the rapid growth of the web, a large volume of data and information are published in numerous web pages. As web sites are getting more complicated, the construction of web information extraction systems becomes more difficult and time-consuming. In this paper proposes a new method to perform the task automatically which is more effective than machine learning and semi automated system. The proposed method consists of two steps, (1 identifying individual data records in a page, and (2 aligning and extracting data items from the identified data records. For step 1, we propose a method based on visual information to segment data records, which is more accurate than existing methods. For step 2, we propose a novel partial alignment technique based on tree matching. Partial alignment means that we align only those data fields in a pair of data records that can be aligned (or matched with certainty, and make no commitment on the rest of the data fields.

  17. Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

  18. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS TO DETERMINE EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Patil et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs play an important role in health care dynamics especially in developing countries. The key step in isolation of biologically active compounds is extraction, which is expressed as total extractive yield, yields of metabolites of interest or intensity of biological activity. Extraction of phytoconstituents from plant materials has been of tremendous interest and potential. Extractive value of the crude drug also indicates the quality as well as purity of the drug. For most extractions, relatively simple techniques, such as percolation and maceration are effective and economical. Some specific applications however, require more sophisticated and costly extraction techniques using specialized equipments. It is often possible to select the specific solvent to maximize the yields on the basis of different techniques, varying in cost and level of complexity. Therefore the objective of the present study was to compare different extraction techniques with various solvents for determination of extractive values. The plants selected for the present research work were Averrrhoa carambola L. fruits (Oxalidaceae, Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. fruits (Cucurbitaceae and Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. rhizomes (Hypoxidaceae. The maximum percentage of extractive value for L. vulgaris Ser. fruit extract was found to be 76.26±0.46 in water using reflux for extraction, whereas A. carambola L. fruit extract and C. orchioides Gaertn. rhizome extract, the maximum percentage of extractive values were found to be 88.40±0.80 and 54.00±0.80 respectively in water using ultrasound extraction method.

  19. Hydrophilic solutes in modified carbon dioxide extraction-prediction of the extractability using molecular dynamic simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Martina; Maus, Martin; Wagner, Karl Gerhard; Schmidt, Peter Christian

    2005-06-01

    Super- and subcritical carbon dioxide (CO2) extractions of crude drugs were simulated by molecular modelling to predict the extractability of different hydrophilic plant constituents under various extraction conditions. The CO2 extraction fluids were simulated either with pure CO2 or with solvent modified CO2 at different pressures and temperatures. Molecular modelling resulted in three different solubility parameters: the total solubility parameter delta and the partial solubility parameters delta(d) for the van der Waals and delta(EL) for the polar forces. Thus, delta(EL) enabled the estimation of the polarity of the extraction fluids and the solute molecules. If the value of delta(EL) of the extraction fluid reached the value of the solute molecule in the crude drug, i.e. minimum extraction value, the compound was soluble at the distinct extraction conditions. For a further increase in yield of the hydrophilic solutes, the polarity of the extraction fluid had to be increased, too. That means delta(EL) of the fluid exceeded the minimum extraction value. All simulations were verified by CO2 extractions of the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (harpagoside, stachyose) and the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum (aescin). CO2 extractions of the flowers of Matricaria recutita ((-)-alpha-bisabolol) were obtained from literature data. These four constituents with different properties, like molecular size and the allocation of polar functional groups were extracted, analysed, simulated and the extract content was correlated with the extraction fluid used, respectively. PMID:15911229

  20. 菊花活性成分Parthenolide对人鼻咽癌CNE2细胞线粒体功能和半胱天冬酶活性的影响%Influence of active ingredient of chrysanthemum Parthenolide on mitochondrial function of CNE2 cell of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma and caspase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林忠宁; 林育纯; Shen Han-Ming; Yang Cheng-Feng; Ong Choon-Nam

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parthenolide (PN) is the pricipal component of sesquiterpene lactones contained in some aromatic herbs. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) occurs worldwide is one of highest incidence malignant tumor in south China. It is essential that using the PN as the therapy of health preserving of traditional Chinese medicine to develop the modern rehabilitation for NPC.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of sesquiterpene lactones(SLs), the active ingredient of chrysanthemum, on the mitochondrial function of NPC cell and activating passage of caspase. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial was conducted in this study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Completed by the Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University with object of poorly differentiated CNE2 cell strain.INTERVENTION: Parthenolide is given and the dose-reaction and time effect are observed. The cellular mitochondrial function is detected with MTT color reaction, cellular caspase-9 and -3 activity were measured with substrate fluorescence spectrum, the release of mitochondrial cytochromic C(CytC) and cleavage segment of caspase-3 proenzyme were detected with protein immunity blotting; and specific inhibitor was applied for the blocking passage experiment of cellular caspase. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: cellular mitochondrial function, cellular caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity, release of mitochondrial CytC and cleavage of caspase-3 proenzyme. RESULTS: After acted by PN( 1 - 100 μmol/L) for 12 hours and 24 hours, MTT color reaction inhibition rate grows obviously with the dose, indicating dose-dependence (Pearson's γ=0. 7322, 0. 7703, P < 0. 05), IC50 was 252.94 μmol/L and 49.63 μmol/L respectively; but without rising of caspase-9 and -3 activity, release of CytC and formation of caspase-3 proenzyme cleavage. Affected by PN and caspase inhibitor at same time, caspase-9 and -3 activity were apparently lower than that of control and singlePN effect. (t=9. 146, 8.280, 27.325, 27.450, P

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26214895

  2. Extraction of bromelain from pineapple peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketnawa, S; Chaiwut, P; Rawdkuen, S

    2011-08-01

    Large amount of pineapple peels (by-products) is left over after processing and they are a potential source for bromelain extraction. Distilled water (DI), DI containing cysteine and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (DI-CE), sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0 (PB) and PB containing cysteine and EDTA (PB-CE) were used as extractants for bromelain from the pineapple peels. The highest bromelain activity was obtained when it was extracted with PB-CE (867 and 1032 units for Nang Lae and Phu Lae cultv, respectively). The PB could maintain the pH of the extract (pH 5.1-5.7) when compared with others. Under sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the extract showed protein bands in the range 24-28 kDa. The protein band with a molecular weight of ∼28 kDa exposed the clear zone on blue background under the casein-substrate gel electrophoresis. The effects of the bromelain extract on the protein patterns of beef, chicken and squid muscles were also determined. Trichloroacetic acid soluble peptide content of all the treated muscles increased when the amount of bromelain extract increased. Decrease in myosin heavy chains and actin was observed in all the muscle types when bromelain extract was used. The best extractant for bromelain from pineapple peels was PB-CE. Moreover, bromelain extract could be used as a muscle food tenderizing agent in food industries.

  3. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  4. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  5. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  6. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  7. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  8. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... significance of the node towards overall content provided by the document. Once significance of the nodes is determined, the formatting characteristics like fonts, styles and the position of the nodes are evaluated to identify the nodes with similar formatting as compared to the significant nodes. The proposed...... hybrid model is derived from two different models, i.e., one is based on statistical features and other on formatting characteristics and achieved the best accuracy. We describe the validity of model with the help of experiments conducted on the standard data sets. The results revealed that the proposed...

  9. Extracting Information from Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from Big Data. For these reasons characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function $\\widetilde{\\Theta}^{S}$ for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying thes...

  10. Uranium separations using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the analysis of environmental samples for uranium and thorium pollutants and at natural levels for the dating of geological samples there was felt a need to develop better uranium and thorium, separation procedures to replace the established anion exchange method used at AEA Technology plc. This was the first aim of the PhD research. Separation of uranium from thorium prior to measurement of the isotopes by alpha spectrometry was necessary due to the similar alpha energies of 234U and 230Th. TRU and UTEVA extraction chromatography resins (EIChroM Industries) were investigated as potential replacements to the anion exchange separation method. The resins are claimed by EIChroM to offer the advantage of providing an actinide specific separation while reducing the separation time from 2 to 0.5 days; the volume of acidic waste produced by a factor of 3, therefore, the cost of analysis was reduced. A uranium and thorium separation procedure using the UTEVA extraction chromatography resin was developed. The uranium and thorium were sorbed by the UTEVA resin from 2M nitric acid. The thorium was then eluted from the resin with 5M hydrochloric acid and the uranium with 0.02M hydrochloric acid. The separation procedure was then evaluated using uraninite ore, coral, granite and lake sediment reference materials. The uranium and thorium concentrations and the 234U/238U and 230Th/234U activity ratio values determined for the reference material were in good agreement with certified values. The presence of plutonium was found to interfere with the measurement of uranium and thorium by alpha spectrometry. This was due to the similar alpha energies of uranium, thorium and plutonium. The co-elution of plutonium with uranium and thorium from the UTEVA resin was prevented by the inclusion of a reduction step using iron (II) sulphamate. The resulting plutonium (III) was not retained by the UTEVA column. The chemical recoveries for the procedure were similar to those for anion

  11. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...... and agreement in-between tools. Processing a primary data set with 9 different tandem MS extraction tools resulted in a low overlap of identified peptides. The tools differ by assigned charge states of precursors, precursor and fragment ion masses, and we show that peptides identified very confidently using one...... extraction tool might not be matched when using another tool. We also found a bias towards peptides of lower charge state when extracting fragment ion data from higher resolution raw data without deconvolution. Collecting and comparing the extracted data from the same raw data allow adjusting parameters...

  12. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  13. Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guanghui; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming; ZHU Yishu

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes play essential roles in the biological processes of sludge treatment. In this article, the ultrasound method to extract enzymes from sludge flocs was presented. Results showed that using ultrasound method at 20 kHz could extract more types of enzymes than that ultrasound at 40 kHz and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. The optimum parameters of ultrasound extraction at 20 kHz were duration of 10 min and power of 480 W. Under the condition, ultrasound could break the cells and extract both the extracellular and intercellular enzymes. Ultrasound power was apparently more susceptive to enzyme extraction than duration, suggesting that the control of power during ultrasound extraction was more important than that of duration. The Pearson correlation analysis between enzyme activities and cation contents revealed that the different types of enzymes had distinct cation binding characteristics.

  14. Lipase and protease extraction from activated sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessesse, Amare; Dueholm, Thomas; Petersen, Steffen B.;

    2003-01-01

    of gentle and efficient enzyme extraction methods from environmental samples is very important. In this study we present a method for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge using the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100, EDTA, and cation exchange resin (CER), alone or in combination...... for the extraction of lipases and proteases from activated sludge. The sludge was continuously stirred in the presence of either buffer alone or in the presence of detergent and/or chelating agents. In all cases, a marked reduction in floc size was observed upon continuous stirring. However, no lipase activity...... and negligible protease activity was extracted in the presence of buffer alone, indicating that enzyme extraction was not due to shear force alone. The highest lipase activity was extracted using 0.1% Triton X-100 above which the activity was gradually decreasing. For proteases, the highest activity was obtained...

  15. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    R. H. R. Carvalho; E. L. Galvão; J. Â. C. Barros; M. M. Conceição; E. M. B. D. Sousa

    2012-01-01

    This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaust...

  16. Comparative Studies on the Extraction of Certain Lanthanides from Nitrate Medium by Selected Organophosphorous Extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of the lanthanide elements Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III) and Gd(III) from nitrate solution has been investigated using two different extractants namely, di(2- ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted in kerosene. The different parameters affecting the extraction process have been investigated. TBP was found to be more suitable for the extraction of the lanthanides under investigation. Effect of temperature on the extraction using TBP has been examined to evaluate the change in the standard thermodynamic parameters. The results obtained indicate that the extraction is exothermic and less random in nature

  17. The Extraction and Application of Ginger Oleoresin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩吉庆; 张慧; 姜传世; 崔振蕾

    2014-01-01

    Ginger oleoresin is to present the main substance of ginger spicy flavor and aroma from the ginger extract.How to extract a high concentration of ginger oleoresin from ginger ginger is an important research direction.In this paper, different ginger oleoresin extraction process gives a brief introduction and comparison;Finally the application of ginger oleoresin in food and medicine are introduced in the paper.

  18. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    OpenAIRE

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS; FABRÍCIA QUEIROZ MENDES; MARIANA CRIVELARI DA CUNHA; MARIANA TEIXEIRA PIGOZZI; ANDRÉ MUNDSTOCK XAVIER DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L.) stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v) and a control (without coating). Propolis extracts were applied as 1) a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2) a wild type hydroalcoholic ...

  19. Antityrosinase activity of Euphorbia characias extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Pintus, Francesca; Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a well-known key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and its inhibitors have become increasingly important because of their potential use as hypopigmenting agents. In the present study, the anti-melanogenic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Euphorbia characias leaves, stems, and flowers in cell-free and cellular systems was examined. All the extracts showed inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase with leaf extracts exhibiting the lowest IC50 values of 24 and 97 µg/...

  20. Automatic Extraction of Protein Interaction in Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peilei; Wang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction extraction is the key precondition of the construction of protein knowledge network, and it is very important for the research in the biomedicine. This paper extracted directional protein-protein interaction from the biological text, using the SVM-based method. Experiments were evaluated on the LLL05 corpus with good results. The results show that dependency features are import for the protein-protein interaction extraction and features related to the interaction w...

  1. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hua Wong; Hwee Wen Lau; Chin Ping Tan; Kamariah Long; Kar Lin Nyam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxi...

  2. DNA Extraction: Organic and Solid-Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altayari, Wafa

    2016-01-01

    DNA extraction remains a critical step in DNA profiling of biological material recovered from scenes of crime. In the forensic community several methods have gained popularity, including Chelex(®), organic extraction, and solid-phase extraction. While some laboratories streamlined their processes and only use one method we have retained several methods and continue to use these for different sample types. In this chapter we present three methods that have been used for several years in our laboratory. PMID:27259731

  3. DNA extraction from formalin-fixed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paula F; Gilbert, Thomas M P

    2012-01-01

    The principal challenges facing PCR-based analyses of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed materials are fragmentation of the DNA and cross-linked protein-DNA complexes. Here, we present an efficient protocol to extract DNA from formalin-fixed or paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE). In this protocol, protein-DNA cross-links are reversed using heat and alkali treatment, yielding significantly longer fragments and larger amounts of PCR-amplifiable DNA than standard DNA extraction protocols.

  4. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiong; He Gui-ming; Zhang Yun

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characteristic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  5. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Xiong; He; Gui-Ming; 等

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characterstic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  6. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  7. Production of Ice Cream with Cola Extract

    OpenAIRE

    DERVİŞOĞLU, Muhammet; Yazici, Fehmi

    2001-01-01

    In this study, the use of cola extract and cola flavor in ice cream production were investigated. Cola extract was used at rates of between 0 and 1.5% based on mix weight. The samples with Na2CO3 (between 0 and 20% and based on the weight of cola extract) were used to balance the acidic taste of the samples due to the low pH of the cola extract. Cola flavor was used at rates of between 0 and 0.15% based on mix weight. According to the sensory evaluation results, the ice cream containing 0.75...

  8. A Line Extraction Algorithm for Hand Drawings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for extracting lines from hand drawings.It starts from contour pixel tracing,fits them into contour segments,and then extracts skeleton lines from the contour segments.The algorithm finds all contours in one scan of the input matrix without detecting and marking multiple pixels.In line extraction,the method Elastic Contour Segment Tracing is proposed which extracts lines by referring to the contour segments at both sides,overcoming noise and passing through blotted areas by fitting and extrapolation. Experiments on free hand mechanical drawings,sketches,letter/numerals,as well as Chinese characters are carried out and satisfactory results are achieved.

  9. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh J. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3 and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1. Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1 against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1 against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  10. Automatic Keyword Extraction from Individual Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Stuart J.; Engel, David W.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Cowley, Wendy E.

    2010-05-03

    This paper introduces a novel and domain-independent method for automatically extracting keywords, as sequences of one or more words, from individual documents. We describe the method’s configuration parameters and algorithm, and present an evaluation on a benchmark corpus of technical abstracts. We also present a method for generating lists of stop words for specific corpora and domains, and evaluate its ability to improve keyword extraction on the benchmark corpus. Finally, we apply our method of automatic keyword extraction to a corpus of news articles and define metrics for characterizing the exclusivity, essentiality, and generality of extracted keywords within a corpus.

  11. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  12. Metal extraction by amides of carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction ability of various amides was studied. Data on extraction of rare earths, vanadium, molybdenum, rhenium, uranium, niobium, tantalum by N,N-dibutyl-amides of acetic, nonanic acids and fatly synthetic acids of C7-C9 fractions are presented. Effect of salting-out agents, inorganic acid concentrations on extraction process was studied. Potential ability of using amides of carboxylic acids for extractional concentration of rare earths as well as for recovery and separation of iron, rhenium, vanadium, molybdenum, uranium, niobium, and tantalum was shown

  13. Acid Release from an Acid Sulfate Soil Sample Under Successive Extractions with Different Extractants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An acid sulfate soil sample was successively extracted with deionized water, 1 mol L-1 KCI and 0.000 5 mol L-1 Ca(OH)2 solutions. The results showed that only very small amounts of acidity were extracted by deionized water, possibly through slow jarosite hydrolysis. Acid release through jarosite hydrolysis was greatly enhanced by Ca(OH)2 extraction at the expense of the added OH- being neutralized by the acid released. Successive extraction of the sample with KCI removed the largest amounts of acidity from the sample. However, it is likely that the major form of acidity released by KC1 extraction was exchangeable acidity. The results also show the occurrence of low or non charged A1 and Fe species in water and Ca(OH)2 extracts after first a few extractions. It appears that such a phenomenon was related to a decreasing EC value with increasing number of extractions.

  14. Extraction of betulin from bark of Betula platyphylla by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-hong; YU Tao; WANG Yang

    2003-01-01

    Betulin, which is a medicinal pentacyclic triterpene, is abundant in the bark of white birch (Betula platyphlly). The bark of birch was collected at Tayuan Forest Farm of Jiagedaqi, Heilongjiang Province in September 2000. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that is a new separation technology has been used for the processing pharmaceutical and natural products. In this paper, the extraction of betulin from the bark of birch by supercritical CO2 extraction was studied. The authors investigated and analyzed a few parameters such as modifier dosage, extraction pressure and extraction temperature. The optimal extraction conditions showed that the modifier dosage used for per gram bark powder was 1.5 mL, the extraction pressure was at 20 Mpa, and the extraction temperature was at 55 ℃. The velocity of flow of liquid CO2 was at 10 kg/h. The pressure and temperature in separation vessel were at 5.5 Mpa and 50 ℃, respectively.

  15. Extraction of glabridin with heat reflux extraction by response surface analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-ying DING

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the extraction process of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra. Methods: The solid-liquid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature are the three main factors in the experiment, and the extract solvent is ethyl acetate. Establish the response surface quadratic regression equation of glabridin extraction rate and purity. Results:The results indicate that the optimum conditions for glabridin are as follows: solvent is ethyl acetate, extraction time is 90 min, the ratio of solvent to solid is 35 ∶1 (ml/g, and extraction temperature is 44.7 ℃, purity and the maximum yield of Extraction of glabridin are 6.96% and 0.241%, The validation test shows that the experimental values of the model are 0.235% and 6.05% . Conclusion: The model equation can predict the experimental results, it can be used as reference in industrial production. 

  16. The Effect of Different Extracting Agents on Extraction Rate of Polysaccharides in Shii- Takes from Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) contains lots of bioactive components, such as equal amylose, mixed amylose, sugar albumen, albumen polysaccharide, proflin and so on, that all have effects of anticancer and restrain tumour. But the extraction rate by hot water and alkali solution is much low. Different Shii-Takes contain polysaccharides with different properties and structures, such as acid-base property, solubility, stability and so on. So the property of extracting agent is one of important effects on extraction rate, in addition cell structures of Shii-Takes. Extraction of polysaccharides from four species of Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) from Guizhou in different extracting agents is studied in this paper. Extraction conditions are 0.5mol/L aqueous solution of extracting agents, 40 times of weight ratio of liquid and solid during 1hour at 60℃. The quantities of the polysaccharides extracted shows the following Table 1.

  17. The Effect of Different Extracting Agents on Extraction Rate of Polysaccharides in Shii- Takes from Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO; Liping

    2001-01-01

    Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) contains lots of bioactive components, such as equal amylose, mixed amylose, sugar albumen, albumen polysaccharide, proflin and so on, that all have effects of anticancer and restrain tumour. But the extraction rate by hot water and alkali solution is much low.  Different Shii-Takes contain polysaccharides with different properties and structures, such as acid-base property, solubility, stability and so on. So the property of extracting agent is one of important effects on extraction rate, in addition cell structures of Shii-Takes. Extraction of polysaccharides from four species of Herba Glossogynes Tenuifoliae (Shii-Take) from Guizhou in different extracting agents is studied in this paper. Extraction conditions are 0.5mol/L aqueous solution of extracting agents, 40 times of weight ratio of liquid and solid during 1hour at 60℃. The quantities of the polysaccharides extracted shows the following Table 1.……

  18. Drug: D05659 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05659 Crude, Drug Pyrethrum extract (USP); Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium extract ...LENTS P03A ECTOPARASITICIDES, INCL. SCABICIDES P03AC Pyrethrines, incl. synthetic compounds P03AC01 Pyrethrum D05659 Pyrethrum extract (USP) CAS: 89997-63-7 PubChem: 47207320 ...

  19. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  20. Design of a high current extraction/strypping system using extraction and stripping isotherms

    OpenAIRE

    Danovska, Milena; Karanfilov, Dejan; Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Zendelska, Afrodita

    2015-01-01

    The isotherms define the capacity of some extragent for its capability to extract required metal (in this case copper). They are used to evaluate how the system extraction/stripping works, or expected to work. The construction of extraction isotherm consists of the following stages: preparation of laboratory extragent, the organic phase is brought into contact with the electrolyte, optimization of the extraction equilibrium isotherm. Similarly, construct and stripping isotherm: or...

  1. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    OpenAIRE

    Verburg, Jochem; Habib, Mena; Keulen, van, S.

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis games’ results for two Grand Slam tennis tournaments from tweets. Analysis has been done to find to what extent it is useful to use semantic web, domain knowledge, facts repetition, and authors’ tr...

  2. Sustainable extraction of molecules for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products: extraction in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since several years, the ENEA Innovation Laboratory for Agro-Industrial, proposed activities of research and development of extraction processes with supercritical fluids (SFE, Supercritical Fluid Extraction), focusing on sustainability characteristics of the process. The technique, in fact, makes no use of organic solvents, has a low energy consumption and requires a lower number of process steps compared to conventional extractions. The process also responds to the requirements imposed by the legislation for human food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical extracts.

  3. Optimisation of extraction and sludge dewatering efficiencies of bio-flocculants extracted from Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Siah Lee; Chong, Mei Fong; Robinson, John P.; Binner, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    The production of natural biopolymers as flocculants for water treatment is highly desirable due to their inherent low toxicity and low environmental footprint. In this study, bio-flocculants were extracted from Hibiscus/Abelmoschus esculentus (okra) by using a water extraction method, and the extract yield and its performance in sludge dewatering were evaluated. Single factor experimental design was employed to obtain the optimum conditions for extraction temperature (25–90 °C), time (0.25–5...

  4. Effects of cyclohexane/acetone ratio on bixin extraction yield by accelerated solvent extraction method

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmalia, Winda; Fabre, Jean-François; Mouloungui, Zephirin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was applied to the quantitative extraction of bixin. The effects of cyclohexane/ acetone ratios on bixin extraction yield were evaluated. Acetone was used in the process of pigment extraction and also played a major role in its analysis by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Pure cis-bixin isolated by flash chromatography and characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry was used as a bixin standard for qualitative and quantitative analysi...

  5. Metal Concentrations in Soil Paste Extracts as Affected by Extraction Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Filip M.G. Tack; Nic Dezillie; Verloo, Marc G.

    2002-01-01

    Saturated paste extracts are sometimes used to estimate metal levels in the soil solution. To assess the significance of heavy-metal concentrations measured in saturation extracts, soil paste extracts were prepared with distilled water in amounts ranging from 60–200% of the moisture content at saturation. Trace metals behaved as if a small pool consistently was dissolved independent of the extraction ratio applied. Metal concentrations in the solution hence were not buffered by the solid phas...

  6. Sustainable extraction of molecules for potable alcohol, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals: extraction in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since many years the Laboratory of Agro-Industrial Innovation (UTAGRI-INN) ENEA proposed research and development of extraction processes with supercritical fluids (SFE, Supercritical Fluid Extraction), aiming on the sustainability of the process characteristics. The technique, in fact, makes no use of organic solvents, It has reduced energy consumption and requires a number of process step lower than the extractions traditional. The process also responds to the requirements required by the regulations for food use, cosmetics and pharmaceutical extracts.

  7. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Assays on Polygonum minus Extracts: Different Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Norsyamimi Hassim; Masturah Markom; Nurina Anuar; Kurnia Harlina Dewi; Syarul Nataqain Baharum; Normah Mohd Noor

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solvent type and extraction method was investigated to study the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Polygonum minus. Two extraction methods were used: a solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and the free radical-scavenging capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The highest polyphenol content was obtained from the m...

  8. Language extraction from zinc sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varn, Dowman Parks

    2001-09-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of one-dimensional temporal and spacial series allow for detailed characterization of disorder and computation in physical systems. One such system that has defied theoretical understanding since its discovery in 1912 is polytypism. Polytypes are layered compounds, exhibiting crystallinity in two dimensions, yet having complicated stacking sequences in the third direction. They can show both ordered and disordered sequences, sometimes each in the same specimen. We demonstrate a method for extracting two-layer correlation information from ZnS diffraction patterns and employ a novel technique for epsilon-machine reconstruction. We solve a long-standing problem---that of determining structural information for disordered materials from their diffraction patterns---for this special class of disorder. Our solution offers the most complete possible statistical description of the disorder. Furthermore, from our reconstructed epsilon-machines we find the effective range of the interlayer interaction in these materials, as well as the configurational energy of both ordered and disordered specimens. Finally, we can determine the 'language' (in terms of the Chomsky Hierarchy) these small rocks speak, and we find that regular languages are sufficient to describe them.

  9. Extracting entanglement from identical particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoran, N; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2014-04-18

    Identical particles and entanglement are both fundamental components of quantum mechanics. However, when identical particles are condensed in a single spatial mode, the standard notions of entanglement, based on clearly identifiable subsystems, break down. This has led many to conclude that such systems have limited value for quantum information tasks, compared to distinguishable particle systems. To the contrary, we show that any entanglement formally appearing amongst the identical particles, including entanglement due purely to symmetrization, can be extracted into an entangled state of independent modes, which can then be applied to any task. In fact, the entanglement of the mode system is in one-to-one correspondence with the entanglement between the inaccessible identical particles. This settles the long-standing debate about the resource capabilities of such states, in particular spin-squeezed states of Bose-Einstein condensates, while also revealing a new perspective on how and when entanglement is generated in passive optical networks. Our results thus reveal new fundamental connections between entanglement, squeezing, and indistinguishability.

  10. Rapid extraction of PCDD/Fs from soil and fly ash samples. Pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, P.; Fabrellas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The main reference extraction method in the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is still the Soxhlet extraction. But it requires long extraction times (up to 24 hs), large volumes of hazardous organic solvents (100-300 ml) and its automation is limited. Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) are two relatively new extraction techniques that reduce the time and the volume of solvent required for extraction. However, very different PFE extraction conditions are found for the same enviromental matrices in the literature. MAE is not a extraction technique very applied for the analysis of PCDD/Fs yet, although it is used for the determination of other organic compounds, such as PCBs and PAHs. In this study, PFE and MAE extraction conditions were optimized to determine PCDDs y PCDFs in fly ash and soil/sediment samples. Conventional Soxhlet extraction with toluene was used to compare the extraction efficiency of both techniques.

  11. Effect of different extraction protocols on anticancer and antioxidant activities of Berberis koreana bark extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Syed Abdul; Kwon, Min Chul; Han, Jae Gun; Ha, Ji He; Chung, Hyang Suk; Ahn, Juhee; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure extraction and ultrasonification extraction techniques were employed to extract bioactive compounds from Berberis koreana. This study aimed to determine the effect of ultrasonification in a high pressure process on the extraction yield, and the anticancer and antioxidant activities of the B. koreana bark extract. The effect of high-pressure extraction time when carried out for 5 and 15 min (HP5 and HP15) was also investigated. The best extraction yield with maximum percentage of phenolic compounds was obtained using high pressure with sonification (HPWS) extraction method. Experimental results indicated that HPWS altered the antioxidant activities, including the scavenging capacity of diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase. HP5 and HP15 with conventional extraction have almost similar bioactivity, but showed lower antioxidant and anticancer activities compared to HPWS. The results showed that the application of ultrasonification improved the extraction efficiency for bioactive compounds and, as deduced from chromatographic profiles, it may have allowed the release of new compounds. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed evidence of rupturing of the tissue surface treated with HPWS, in contrast to conventional extraction, HP5, and HP15. The HPWS extraction was not only more efficient but also convenient for the recovery and purification of the active compounds of hard plant tissues. PMID:19269602

  12. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  13. Kinetics and thermodynamics of cottonseed oil extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, D. K.; Sharma, S. K.

    2011-07-01

    Petroleum derived n-hexane is commercially used in solvent extraction plants due to its higher extraction efficiency in spite of the fact that it is graded as highly toxic and hazardous. The present study is based on the use of both a much safer and non toxic solvent ethanol and n-hexane for the extraction of oil from cottonseed. The extraction data were obtained by varying temperature, solvent-solid ratio and particle size, to compare the extraction efficiency of both ethanol and n-hexane. The data show that nearly the same amount of extraction is possible at a higher solvent-solid ratio for both the solvents. This study has established that the kinetics of oil extraction follows a second order reaction mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis of the data shows that both .{delta}H degree centigrade and {delta}G degree centigrade are positive, and {delta}G degree centigrade is negative indicating that the extraction process is endothermic, irreversible, and spontaneous. (Author) 41 refs.

  14. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nethra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is done through Web page segmentation, but it increases the time complexity. Hand crafted rule generation uses string manipulation function for rule generation, but generating those rules is very difficult. A hybrid approach is proposed to extract main content from Web pages. A HTML Web page is converted to DOM tree and features are extracted and with the extracted features, rules are generated. Decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are machine learning methods used for rules generation. By using the rules, noisy part in the Web page is discarded and informative content in the Web page is extracted. The performance of both decision tree classification and Naïve Bayes classification are measured with metrics like precision, recall, F-measure and accuracy.

  15. Selective electromembrane extraction based on isoelectric point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    , and the target remained in the acceptor solution. The acceptor solution pH, the SLM composition, the extraction voltage, and the extraction time during the clean-up process (step #2) were important factors influencing the separation performance. An acceptor solution pH of 5.25 for the clean-up process slightly...

  16. Ranking XPaths for extracting search result records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trieschnigg, Dolf; Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2012-01-01

    Extracting search result records (SRRs) from webpages is useful for building an aggregated search engine which combines search results from a variety of search engines. Most automatic approaches to search result extraction are not portable: the complete process has to be rerun on a new search result

  17. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible and managea

  18. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  19. Immunochemical and biological quantification of peanut extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Pedersen, Mona H; Platzer, Michael;

    2003-01-01

    Biological standardization of allergen extracts is one of the steps in the characterization of an extract. The gold standard for determination of biological potency is the skin prick test, but histamine release (HR) has been used as a convenient ex vivo method for analyzing a large number...

  20. Purification of trioctylphosphine oxide by liquid extracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many methods of TOPO synthesis are known in the litterature. Neverthless, the purification methods still unknown or quite known. In this work, we have proposed to develop a new method of purification and we have used the extraction properties of TOPO. This method consist to extracting the molybdene with TOPO in acid medium