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Sample records for chrysanthemum zawadskii extract

  1. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

    OpenAIRE

    Amel Amrani; Nassima Boubekri; Ouahiba Benaissa; Djamila Zama; Fadila Benayache; Samir Benayache

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day), vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day) and C (8.3mg/Kg per day) were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of ani...

  2. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Amrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day, vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day and C (8.3mg/Kg per day were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of animals received plant extract, vitamin E and C, also treated with an oral administration of ethanol (0.02ml/g of 25% v/v absolute ethanol in water per day in same conditions. On day 18 of gestation, pregnant mice were killed, fetus, placenta, fetal liver, liver, kidneys and brain were removed, homogenised and used for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO using TBARS method. Embryotoxicity was assessed by counting the number of live and dead fetus and growth retardation. Results: Severe alterations in all biomarkers were observed after injury with ETOH. ETOH produced significant decreases in fetal weight and significant increases in embryolethality and lipid peroxidation relative to control values. Treatment with Chrysanthemum fontanesii extract, vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in markedly decreased embryolethality and fetal growth retardation, while increased fetal weight were observed. Conclusion: The butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C protected against ethanol induce fetal and maternal toxicity as revealed by the decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation. So that butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii posses in vivo antioxidant properties.

  3. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionCis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially healthpromoting CLA in many animal models.The C18∶1 trans-11 fatty acid (VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.The factors which affect CLA content in milk have been studied mainly in dairy cows and most factors are basically dietary factors,especially fat source(e.g.,plant oils,fish oil,et al.).Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9,trans-11 -CLA content in milk.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium extract on in vitro Biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fermentation characteristics of mixed rumen microorganisms.

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan He,1 Zhiyun Du,1,2 Huibin Lv,1 Qianfa Jia,1 Zhikai Tang,1 Xi Zheng,1,3 Kun Zhang,1 Fenghua Zhao11Institute of Natural Medicine and Green Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USAAbstract: Eco-friendly green synthesis with plant extracts plays a very important role in nanotechnology, without any harmful chemicals. In this report, the synthesis of water-soluble silver nanoparticles was developed by treating silver ions with Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract at room temperature. The effect of the extract on the formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy results show a strong resonance centered on the surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNP at 430 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral study demonstrates Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract acted as the reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNP are single crystallines, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Water-soluble AgNP, with an approximate size of 20 nm–50 nm were also observed in the transmission electron microscopy image. The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNP were investigated using the agar-dilution method and the growth-inhibition test. The results show the AgNP had potent bactericidal activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as

  5. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

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    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  6. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

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    Siqun Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC. Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics.

  7. 10种提取液对菊花花瓣中类胡萝卜素提取效率的影响%Analysis on Efficiency of Ten Extracts for Carotenoid Content in Petals of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 王普; 孙卫; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    类胡萝卜素是菊花中一类重要的呈色物质,高效提取类胡萝卜素对于分离和鉴定色素组成以及研究菊花的呈色机理十分重要.分别采用丙酮、甲醇、无水乙醇、无水乙醚、石油醚、丙酮∶石油醚不同体积比(1∶1、1∶2、1∶4、2∶1、4∶1 )10种提取液,提取菊花品种光辉及Reagan Orange舌状花中的的类胡萝卜素,用紫外-可见光分光光度计测定提取液中类胡萝卜素的相对含量.结果发现,不同提取液中菊花类胡萝卜素的提取量不同;醇类为菊花中类胡萝卜素较适合的提取液.结果还表明,菊花中含氧类胡萝卜素含量较高.%Carotenoid is an important kind of coloring material in chrysanthemum, and extracting this component efficiently is very important for the isolation and identification of pigment composition and the coloring mechanism of chrysanthemum. 10 different extraction solutions were used, including petroleum ether, methanol, anhydrous ethyl alcohol, anhydrous ether, acetone, acetone : petroleum ether in different ratios (1:1; 1:2; 1:4; 2:1; 4:1) to extract carotenoids in the petals of chrysanthemum 'Brilliant' and 'Reagan Orange'. The relative content of total carotenoids was calculated from UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that the quantity of extracts varied in 10 extracts of chrysanthemum; Alcohol was more suitable for extracting the carotenoids of chrysanthemum; It also indicated that most of the carotenoids in chrysanthemum was oxygenated compounds and it could lay the foundation for the study of compounds and content of carotenoid in chrysanthemum.

  8. Accumulation of Pathogenesis-related Type-5 Like Proteins in Phytoplasma infected Garland Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum coronarium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo-Xiong ZHONG; Yan-Wei SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Soluble proteins extracted from leaves, apical shoots, axillary shoots, and stems of garland chrysanthemum plants infected by onion yellows phytoplasma were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Computerized matching analysis revealed that at least six soluble proteins were accumulated specifically in phytoplasma-infected garland chrysanthemum. N-terminal amino acids sequences of these soluble proteins, determined by Edman degradation, shared high sequence similarities with those ofpathogenesis-related type-5 (PR-5) proteins such as tobacco thaumatin-like protein. Accumulation of these six proteins was also found in garland chrysanthemum plants infected by other phytoplasmas. These results demonstrate that phytoplasmal infection induces the accumulation of PR-5 like proteins in garland chrysanthemum plants.

  9. Three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of white chrysanthemum flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun

    2014-09-01

    White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.

  10. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. PMID:27155239

  11. Simultaneous determination of 70 pesticide residues in leek, leaf lettuce and garland chrysanthemum using modified QuEChERS method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as reversed-dispersive solid-phase extraction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongtao; Zou, Nan; Song, Le; Li, Yanjie; Qin, Yuhong; Liu, Shaowen; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2015-11-15

    Leek, leaf lettuce and garland chrysanthemum are troublesome vegetables containing large amount of pigments which may bring serious matrix interferences in mass spectrometry analysis. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have a good effect for the cleanup of troublesome matrix. So the study was designed to develop a multi-residue method for the determination of 70 pesticide residues in leek, leaf lettuce and garland chrysanthemum based on a modified QuEChERS procedure using MWCNTs as reversed-dispersive solid phase extraction (r-DSPE) materials to remove the interferences of pigments. PSA and GCB were used as comparison. LC-MS/MS was used to identify and quantify the residue levels of multi-pesticides. The clean-up performance of MWCNTs was demonstrated to be obviously superior to GCB and PSA. This method was validated on leek, leaf lettuce and garland chrysanthemum spiked at the concentration of 10, 50 and 100μgkg(-1) with five replicates. The recoveries of 70 pesticides ranged from 74% to 119%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 14.2%. Good linearity (R(2)≥0.9903) was obtained at the range of 10-1000μg/L for all pesticides in the selected matrices. The limit of quantification (LOQs) and limit of detection (LODs) of the 70 pesticides for the selected matrices ranged from 0.3 to 7.9μgkg(-1) and from 0.1 to 2.4μgkg(-1) respectively. The method was successfully applied to the routine monitoring of pesticide residues in market samples. PMID:26513135

  12. Complete Genome Sequences of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid from a Single Chrysanthemum Cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook

    2015-01-01

    The chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd), a member of the genus Pospiviroid with a single circular RNA genome, infects many chrysanthemum species. Here, we report 25 complete genome sequences of CSVd in a single chrysanthemum cultivar, revealing 20 variants. PMID:26251489

  13. Effect of Different Concentrations of Garland Chrysanthemum Organ Water Extract on Seed Germination Characteristics of Watermelon%不同浓度茼蒿器官水浸提液对西瓜种子发芽特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范淑英; 肖旭峰; 熊春晖; 倪晓春; 吴才君

    2011-01-01

    采用0.001、0.01、0.1 g·mL-1的干茼蒿根、茎叶、花水浸提液处理西瓜种子,测定其发芽势、发芽率及胚根鲜质量,研究茼蒿水浸提液对西瓜种子的化感抑制率.结果表明:不同浓度茼蒿器官(根、茎叶、花)水浸提液对西瓜种子萌发有较强的抑制作用,随处理浓度升高,抑制作用越强,发芽势、发芽率、胚根鲜质量均低于对照,因此,茼蒿水浸提液浓度在0.001~0.1 g·mL-1对西瓜种子萌发存在明显的化感作用.%In order to study the effects of different concentrations of garland chrysanthemum organ water extract on seed germination characteristics of watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ), 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 g · mL-1 organ water extracts from garland chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, flower were used to treat watermelon seeds and to test seed germination characteristics.The results showed that different concentrations of garland chrysanthemum root, stem and leaf, flower water extracts could inhibit seed germination of watermelon.The inhibitory effect increased along with the concentration rise.The germinability, germination percentage, radicle quality were all lower than the control.Therefore, 0.001-0.1 g · mL-1 garland chrysanthemum organ water extracts has distinct allelopathy effect on watermelon germination.

  14. In vitro study of antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Chrysanthemum balsamita varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedec, Daniela; Filip, Lorena; Vlase, Laurian; Bele, Constantin; Sevastre, Bogdan; Raita, Oana; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Hanganu, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify the phenolic substances of two varieties of Chrysanthemum balsamita (balsamita and tanacetoides) and to measure the overall antioxidant activity. The phenolic compounds were determined by HPLC. The evaluation of the polyphenolic content was performed by colorimetric analysis. The antioxidant activity was measured by three in vitro assay models: the DPPH, the silver nanoparticles antioxidant capacity (SNPAC) and EPR radical detection. Using HPLC-MS analysis, phenolic acids, flavonoids and flavonoid aglycone were detected. The highest antioxidant activity was showed by Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita, while the lowest for the Chrysanthemum balsamita var. tanacetoides extract, in accord with the polyphenolic content. The results show that Chrysanthemum balsamita var. balsamita might be a source of antioxidant flavonoids, especially rutin and isoquercitrin. PMID:27592486

  15. A Current Overview of Two Viroids That Infect Chrysanthemums: Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyong Cho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema X grandiflorum belongs to the family Asteraceae and it is one of the most popular flowers in the world. Viroids are the smallest known plant pathogens. They consist of a circular, single-stranded RNA, which does not encode a protein. Chrysanthemums are a common host for two different viroids, the Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd and the Chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd. These viroids are quite different from each other in structure and function. Here, we reviewed research associated with CSVd and CChMVd that covered disease symptoms, identification, host range, nucleotide sequences, phylogenetic relationships, structures, replication mechanisms, symptom determinants, detection methods, viroid elimination, and development of viroid resistant chrysanthemums, among other studies. We propose that the chrysanthemum and these two viroids represent convenient genetic resources for host–viroid interaction studies.

  16. 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hui-Wang; Jiu, Jin-Ting; Sugahara, Tohru; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Uchida, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements was discussed specifically. These 'Chrysanthemum petal' arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. PMID:25397618

  17. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  18. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

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    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  19. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    OpenAIRE

    Pasricha J; Nandakishore Th

    1992-01-01

    A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir) had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems...

  20. 野菊花总黄酮的提取及萃取精制研究%Process for Leaching and Extracting Total Flavonoids from Buds of the Chrysanthemum indicum L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菡; 罗能镇; 沈剑; 相咸高; 何潮洪; 徐义明; 陈新志

    2013-01-01

      用乙醇水溶液从野菊花中提取总黄酮,再用液-液萃取法进行萃取精制。提取阶段考察了乙醇浓度、液固比、温度、提取时间和提取次数对提取得率的影响,萃取阶段则考察了萃取剂种类、原料液浓度、相比和萃取次数对萃取率和萃取物纯度的影响。通过工艺优化,建立了一条从野菊花中提取总黄酮的工艺路线,即取40~50目的野菊花粉,加入70%的乙醇水溶液,液固比为20:1 mL⋅g−1,在60℃下搅拌回流提取1 h,将提取液蒸干得野菊花浸膏;将野菊花浸膏重新溶解制成15 g⋅L−1的水溶液作为原料液,加入水饱和的正丁醇作为萃取剂,相比为1,在25℃下振荡萃取1 h,萃取3次,所得萃取物的总黄酮纯度为32.4%。在多次萃取时还发现,第2、3次萃取物的总黄酮纯度较高(大于60%),可作为进一步分离提纯黄酮单体的原料。%  In this study, ethanol-water solution was used to leach flavonoids from the flower buds of Chrysanthemum indicum L, and the crude leaching-out products were purified by liquid-liquid extraction. In the leaching process, the influences of ethanol concentration, ratio of solid to liquid, temperature, leaching time and leaching times on yield of the total flavonoids were investigated; while in the liquid-liquid extraction process, a suitable extractant was chosen and the influences of feed concentration, phase ratio and extraction times on the yield of the total flavonoids and purity were studied. It turns out that the suitable conditions are as follows: 1) leaching process:ethanol-water (7:3, v/v) as leaching solution, temperature of 60℃, ratio of solid to liquid of 20:1 mL⋅g−1, leaching time of 1 hour, leaching times of one;2) extraction process:temperature of 25℃, extractant of water-saturated n-butanol, feed concentration of 15 g⋅L−1, phase ratio of 1 and extraction times of three. Under the above conditions

  1. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  2. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sweet, minty-lemony leaves of costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) are used for salads and tea, and as flavourings in meats, sausages, cakes and ale. In this study, the extracts isolated from costmary aerial parts were investigated as antioxidants in rapeseed oil and as free radical-scavengers in

  3. A Novel bHLH Transcription Factor Involved in Regulating Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)

    OpenAIRE

    Li-li Xiang; Xiao-fen Liu; Xue Li; Xue-ren Yin; Donald Grierson; Fang Li; Kun-song Chen

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) exhibit a variety of flower colors due to their differing abilities to accumulate anthocyanins. One MYB member, CmMYB6, has been verified as a transcription regulator of chrysanthemum genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis; however, the co-regulators for CmMYB6 remain unclear in chrysanthemum. Here, the expression pattern of CmbHLH2, which is clustered in the IIIf bHLH subgroup, was shown to be positively correlated with the anthocyanin con...

  4. Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; An Wei DING; You Bin LI; Da Wei QIAN; Jin Ao DUAN; Zhi Qi YIN

    2006-01-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Their structures were determined to be luteolin 4'-methoxy-7- O-(6"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and acacetin 7-O-(3"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR technique.

  5. In vitro mutagenesis of chrysanthemum for breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A protocol of in vitro mutagenesis for chrysanthemum was established. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) is about 5.0 kR for calli irradiation. Various growth, developmental, morphological, colour and abnormal shape mutations were identified in M1V4 generation. (author)

  6. Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly ordered ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements of silver nano wires were fabricated in a biodegradable polymer of polyvinyl alcohol using a simple one-step blending method without any template. The degree of the arrangement increased with the decreasing content of polyvinyl alcohol. The mechanism for the formation of these ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements was discussed specifically. These ‘Chrysanthemum petal’ arrangements will be helpful to increase the electrical conductivity of silver nano wires films. (paper)

  7. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187516

  8. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid disturbs the photoperiodic response for flowering of chrysanthemum plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Munetaka; Ueda, Emi; Ohishi, Kazushi; Otake, Ayaka; Yazawa, Susumu

    2004-11-01

    Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitam.) is one of the qualitative short-day flowering plants. Therefore, the flowering of chrysanthemum can usually be controlled by photoperiod. However, it was noted that 'Piato' plants infected by the chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) flowered autonomously even under long-day conditions. In this study, CSVd-free and CSVd-infected plants were prepared by culturing different-sized dissected shoot apical meristems (SAMs) of 'Piato'. Using these CSVd-free and CSVd-infected plants, we clarified the relationship between CSVd infection and the autonomous flowering of 'Piato'. Under natural short-day conditions, the flowering of plants regenerated from SAMs containing leaf primordia (LPs) was 1 month earlier than plants regenerated from LP-free SAMs. CSVd was detected from these early flowering plants by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. On the other hand, CSVd was not detected in plants regenerated from LP-free SAMs. CSVd-infected and CSVd-free plants were grown under long-day conditions simulated by night-break lighting at 22:00 p.m. to 2:00 a.m. All CSVd-infected plants flowered autonomously even under long-day conditions; on the other hand, CSVd-free chrysanthemum plants maintained their vegetative growth. When the CSVd-free plants were inoculated with CSVd by grafting them to CSVd-infected rootstocks, they flowered autonomously even under night-break lighting. In this study, the results suggest that CSVd may control the qualitative development process, flowering, i.e. CSVd can induce the autonomous flowering of chrysanthemum. PMID:15549375

  9. THE EFFECTS OF TRADE UNCERTAINTY ON CHRYSANTHEMUM TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Hsin-Yeh; Woo, Rhung-Jieh

    2003-01-01

    The study analyzed the effects of trade uncertainty on chrysanthemum trade between Taiwan and Japan. An econometric model comprises trade uncertainty was established and policy simulations were performed to evaluate the impacts of reducing trade uncertainty.

  10. Genetic diversity, population structure and association analysis in cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pirui; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Haibin; Su, Jiangshuo; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Chen, Fadi

    2016-06-01

    Characterizing the genetic diversity present in a working set of plant germplasm can contribute to its effective management and genetic improvement. The cut flower chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is an economically important ornamental species. With the repeated germplasm exchange and intensive breeding activities, it remains a major task in genetic research. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the genetic diversity and the population structure of a worldwide collection of 159 varieties, and to apply an association mapping approach to identify DNA-based markers linked to five plant architecture traits and six inflorescence traits. The genotyping demonstrated that there was no lack of genetic diversity in the collection and that pair-wise kinship values were relatively low. The clustering based on a Bayesian model of population structure did not reflect known variation in either provenance or inflorescence type. A principal coordinate analysis was, however, able to discriminate most of the varieties according to both of these criteria. About 1 in 100 marker pairs exhibited a degree of linkage disequilibrium. The association analysis identified a number of markers putatively linked to one or more of the traits. Some of these associations were robust over two seasons. The findings provide an in-depth understanding of genetic diversity and population structure present in cut flower chrysanthemum varieties, and an insight into the genetic control of plant architecture and inflorescence-related traits. PMID:26780102

  11. 以菊展促文化推进春节菊花市场发展%Culture and market promotion by Chrysanthemum Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超超; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Chrysanthemum exhibition is one of the most important ways of chrysanthemum demonstration, which may promote industrial production and culture dissemination, and is also a way to direct the chrysanthemum production toward the market. Based on the introduction of chrysanthemum exhibition and chrysanthemum culture,including chrysanthemum market survey in the Spring Festival, the authors proposed that Chrysanthemum Exhibition in Spring Festival can open a new market for extended use of chrysanthemum.Techniques to control the flowering of chrysanthemum were described in the paper.

  12. Study of Development Potential Chrysanthemum in Buleleng Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Arjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of agro-climate, technology of cultivation, harvest and post-harvest chrysanthemums. This study uses survey method, through the collection of primary data and secondary data. This research is located in the village of Pancasari, District Sukasada, Buleleng Bali Province. Descriptive survey conducted on 40 respondents chrysanthemum growers using the component identification of determinants of commodity production chrysanthemum include: site selection, infrastructure, crop production processes and post-harvest handling. The survey results showed that 100% of the farmers have chosen a suitable location with agro-climatic conditions required by the chrysanthemum plant, and 86.09% of the farmers have been using the means needed to support the process of crop production. In the process of production of 78% in accordance with the operational procedures. At the stage of harvest and post-harvest handling 80% have been implemented by farmers and some still use conventional methods of handling. Thus Pancasari village has a potential location for the cultivation of chrysanthemum as a mainstay commodity.

  13. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chrysanthemum Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zai; HU; Zhiguo; SUN; Wanzhen; XIONG; Limin; HUANG; Shuting; WANG

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an analysis on the current protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage of chrysanthemum resources. The following recommendations are explored and set forth: ( i) Collecting and sorting the intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum,and declaring the provincial and national list; ( ii) Establishing the productive protection demonstration bases of intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum; ( iii) Strengthening the declaration of geographical indication intellectual property protection of chrysanthemum; ( iv) Encouraging the use of special marks of geographical indication,and cultivating chrysanthemum brand; ( v) Establishing various kinds of national quality standards of geographical indication of chrysanthemum; ( vi) Implementing the double protection of intangible cultural heritage and geographical indication of traditional chrysanthemum.

  14. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  15. Study on the technique of inducing mutation breeding in chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique of mutation breeding in chrysanthemum was studied by means of 60Co-γ irradiation and tissue culture. The results showed that radiosensitivity varies greatly with different varieties of chrysanthemum; the suitable doses are 2∼3 krad for radical buds, cutting boughs and the whole plants, and 0.8∼1.0 krad for callus from cultures in vitro. Tissue culture has an advantage over cottage in isolation of mutant mosaics. Mutation rates of flowers of regenerated plants from in vitro culture of VM0, VM1, VM2 are 66.7%, 56.3% and 38.5% respectively, all of which are higher than that from irradiated plants. Practice of breeding 14 new chrysanthemum varieties proved that by combination technique of irradiation with tissue culture, a higher breeding efficiency and shorter period of breeding was achieved

  16. „IN VITRO” MULTIPLICATION OF CHRYSANTHEMUM MORIFOLIUM RAMAT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMARANDA VÂNTU

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The tissue-cultured shoot primordia have distinct characteristics of high stability of chromosome number, high ability of regeneration and rapid proliferation. Rapid propagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. “Prince de Monaco” and “Romica” was achieved through tissue culture technique. The procedure involved aseptic culture of shoot tips followed by rapid shoot multiplication, rooting and finally establishment of plantlets in soil. The agar solidified MS medium containing 2 mg/l BAP and 0,002 mg/l NAA was optimum for rapid mass production of plantlets. These can be rooted on MS medium in the absence of growth regulators. The indirect micropropagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. was achieved through callus cultures obtained from single-node stem segments excised from other two cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.: “Escorte” and “La Cagouille”, belonging to the collection of Botanical Garden from Iasi.

  17. Simultaneous determination of flavonoids and anthraquinones in chrysanthemum by capillary electrophoresis with amperometry detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yan Zhang; Zi Cheng Li; Jin Kun Zhu; Zhi Yong Yang; Qing Jiang Wang; Pin Gang He; Yu Zhi Fang

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance capillary electrophoresis with amperometry detection method(CE-AD)has been developed for the analysis of flavonoids and anthraquinones(emodin,kaempferol,apigenin,luteolin and rhein)in chrysanthemum.Under optimum conditions,these five analytes were base-line separated within 17 min using a borate-phosphate running buffer(1.5 × 10-2mol/L borate-3 × 10-2 mol/L phosphate running buffer,pH 9.0)at a working potential of+0.90 V(vs.SCE)and a separation voltage of 19 kV.The linear relationship between concentration and current response was obtained with detection limits(S/N = 3)ranging from 1.0 × 10-7 to 2.1 × 10-7 g/mL for all analytes.This proposed method was successfully used in the analysis of four kinds of chrysanthemum with relatively simple extraction procedures,the assay results were satisfactory.

  18. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck's short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa' mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in shortfiction.

  19. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck’s short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa’ mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in short fiction.

  20. Systems design methodology to develop chrysanthemum growing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Vermeulen, T.

    2012-01-01

    When chrysanthemum growers change soil for a soilless growing system they aim for labour cost reduction, quality and yield improvement and reduced emissions of nutrients. Because many attempts to come up with a viable soilless system failed, improvements and systemizations of the design process were

  1. Transcriptome sequencing and whole genome expression profiling of chrysanthemum under dehydration stress

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yanjie; Gao, Shan; Yang, Yingjie; Huang, Mingyun; Cheng, Lina; Wei, Qian; Fei, Zhangjun; Gao, Junping; Hong, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental crops in the world and drought stress seriously limits its production and distribution. In order to generate a functional genomics resource and obtain a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms regarding chrysanthemum responses to dehydration stress, we performed large-scale transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum plants under dehydration stress using the Illumina sequencing technology. Results Two cDNA libraries const...

  2. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592, an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso4E with other reported plant eIF(iso4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso4E belongs to the eIF(iso4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results inferred that CmeIF(iso4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  3. Chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide microcrystals: Synthesis, characterization, and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinghui; Gao, Guanhua; Yu, Runnan; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Xiaohe

    2011-02-01

    Uniform chrysanthemum-like bismuth sulfide (Bi 2S 3) microcrystals assembled from nanosheet building blocks were successfully synthesized via a convenient hydrothermal synthetic route under mild conditions in which hydrated bismuth nitrate and L-cysteine were employed to supply Bi and S source and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (EDTA-Na 2) was employed as chelating agent. The influences of reaction temperatures and time on the morphologies of final products were investigated. The phase structures, morphologies, and properties of as-prepared products were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, and photoluminescence spectra. The possible growth mechanism for the formation of chrysanthemum-like Bi 2S 3 microcrystals was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  4. Customer Acceptance Survey On Chrysanthemum Mutant Developed By Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important temperate cut flower for Malaysian floriculture industry and the lack of new local-owned varieties has led to this mutation breeding research. The project was started in 2008 under bilateral cooperation between Nuclear Malaysia and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency). Through this project, 8 new varieties of chrysanthemum were successfully developed, in which 4 varieties were from red cultivar and another 4 from pink cultivar. A preliminary survey on public perception and acceptance of these mutants was conducted on 7 January 2014 at Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The main objective of this survey was to gather information from the public on overall appearance of these new varieties and their potential for commercialization. Approximately 60 participants were involved in this survey, which include staff of Nuclear Malaysia, university students, plant growers/collectors and hobbyists. (author)

  5. Interaction between greenhouse grown chrysanthemum and Frankliniella occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Nothnagl, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Growers of floricultural crops are still dependent on chemical insecticides because of low consumer tolerance to damaged produce. More knowledge of natural interactions between insects and their host plants would allow insect pests to be controlled in a more environmentally friendly and effective way. This thesis analysed the system of biological interaction between the pest Frankliniella occidentalis (Western Flower Thrips) and its host plant Chrysanthemum x morifolium. Mathematical predicti...

  6. Analysis of karyotype diversity of 40 Chinese chrysanthemum cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan ZHANG; Ming-Li ZHU; Si-Lan DAI

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the genetic differences in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) cultivars,we selected 40 typical and stable cultivars on which to carry out cytological studies using karyotype analysis.The results showed that 67.5% of these cultivars were hexaploid-based aneuploid and that the proportion of hexaploid decreased with passing time.Moreover,35% of the cultivars had 1-4 satellite chromosome(s).The probability of satellite chromosomes rose with increasing chromosome number.Most of the karyotypes were 2A and 2B.The probability of types 2A and 2C also increased with increasing ploidy of the cultivars.The mean of long-/short-arm ratio and the variation of long-/short-ann ratio were positively correlated (r2 =0.72).There was no obvious difference in the asymmetry coefficient of karyotypes,but the discrepancy in the variance of karyotype asymmetry index and relative length of chromosomes was quite distinct.In terms ofkaryotype parameters,the petal types of chrysanthemums were classified to five groups as flat,tubular,spoon,abnormal,and anemone.We did not observe any obvious orderliness among flower head types.Considering the relationship between karyotype parameters and phenotypic characters,variation of long-/short-arm ratio and asymmetry coefficient ofkaryotypes had the greatest relevance toward most phenotypic characters.The above results indicate that karyotype parameters possess great values for cultivar identification,classification,and genetic analysis in chrysanthemums.

  7. On Walter ’s Otherness in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嵩皎

    2015-01-01

    Odour of Chrysanthemums is one of the British writer D. H. Lawrence’s short stories. In the story, character’s understanding of each other reflects the idea of otherness. This paper tries to analyze both Walter’s mother and Elizabeth’s understanding of Walter Bates. Then it points out that they did not really understand him, nor did they understand his otherness. Their failure to understand his otherness is a reason to the unhappy marriage to some extent.

  8. The aspects regarding Chrysanthemum vitro- and exvitroplantlets anatomical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was consecrate to observe the histoanatomical structure of roots stems and leafs of Chrysanthemum vitroplantlets, in their vitroculture period and of exvitroplantlets, at 30 days from their septic medium transfer. The registered observations were compared with those realized at similar organs level of greenhouse plants (control lot. The noted differences between vitroplantlets anatomical structure and that greenhouse plants had, in special, ontogenetic bases.

  9. „IN VITRO” MULTIPLICATION OF CHRYSANTHEMUM MORIFOLIUM RAMAT.

    OpenAIRE

    SMARANDA VÂNTU

    2005-01-01

    The tissue-cultured shoot primordia have distinct characteristics of high stability of chromosome number, high ability of regeneration and rapid proliferation. Rapid propagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. “Prince de Monaco” and “Romica” was achieved through tissue culture technique. The procedure involved aseptic culture of shoot tips followed by rapid shoot multiplication, rooting and finally establishment of plantlets in soil. The agar solidified MS medium containing 2 mg/l BAP and ...

  10. Development Of New Chrysanthemum Mutants For Malaysian Floriculture Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This five-year project was in collaboration with Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Bilateral Cooperative Research Program and was partly funded by Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry (MOA) under Agriculture R&D Fund. The main objective was to produce new chrysanthemum varieties with good horticultural traits especially for cut flower production. In this project, tissue culture samples of chrysanthemum (red and pink varieties) were sent to JAEA for ion beam irradiations. Plant regeneration and multiplication were carried out at Nuclear Malaysia whilst field screenings for morphological characteristics were done at MARDI Cameron Highlands. Through this project, a number of stable chrysanthemum mutants with various new features have been generated and of these, 8 mutants were selected based on their uniqueness and/or suitability for cut flower production. In preparation for future commercialization process, five of these mutants have been filed for plant variety protection with Department of Agriculture Malaysia and a similar process in Japan is also under consideration. In addition, molecular marker work to fingerprint these mutants has also been initiated and future research may also include development of markers for selected horticultural traits and isolation of unique mutant genes. (author)

  11. Sporulation capacity and longevity of Puccinia horiana teliospores in infected chrysanthemum leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    PUCCINIA HORIANA is a quarantine-significant fungal pathogen and causal agent of Chrysanthemum white rust, first discovered in the U.S. in 1977. The disease was eradicated and for many years successfully controlled by fungicides and strict regulatory measures. However, recently Chrysanthemum white r...

  12. Fungi colonizing diseased plants of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum x grandiflorum /Ramat./ Kitam grown under covers in Sandomierz region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kopacki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental plants growing under covers in Poland but it is often infected by soil fungi. Investigations were carried out in 1999-2001 (summer and autumn in 9 horticultural farms in Sandomierz district. Plants with symptoms of stem and root rot, leaves yellows and wilt were noticed on the investigated plantations. The results of mycological analysis showed that chrysanthemum plants were colonized by Fusarium spp., Cylindrocarpon spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Sclerotinia spp. and Alternaria spp. Among isolated fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium avenaceum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were predominating pathogenic species. Cv. Snowdon was colonized by pathogens most frequently, while the population of pathogenic fungi from cv. Royalys was the lowest.

  13. Genetic engineering of novel bluer-colored chrysanthemums produced by accumulation of delphinidin-based anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naonobu; Aida, Ryutaro; Kishimoto, Sanae; Ishiguro, Kanako; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) have no purple-, violet- or blue-flowered cultivars because they lack delphinidin-based anthocyanins. This deficiency is due to the absence of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene (F3'5'H), which encodes the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. In F3'5'H-transformed chrysanthemums, unpredictable and unstable expression levels have hampered successful production of delphinidin and reduced desired changes in flower color. With the aim of achieving delphinidin production in chrysanthemum petals, we found that anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoters combined with a translational enhancer increased expression of some F3'5'H genes and accompanying delphinidin-based anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic chrysanthemums. Dramatic accumulation of delphinidin (up to 95%) was achieved by simple overexpression of Campanula F3'5'H controlled by a petal-specific flavanone 3-hydroxylase promoter from chrysanthemum combined with the 5'-untranslated region of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene as a translational enhancer. The flower colors of transgenic lines producing delphinidin-based anthocyanins changed from a red-purple to a purple-violet hue in the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Charts. This result represents a promising step toward molecular breeding of blue chrysanthemums. PMID:23926063

  14. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  15. Exposure to pesticides : Pt. III Application to chrysanthemums in greenhouses

    OpenAIRE

    Vreede, J.A.F. de; Haan, M. de; Brouwer, D.H.; Hemmen, J.J. van; W.L.A.M. de Kort

    1994-01-01

    During 20 applications with a spray pistol of methomyl to chrysanthemums, inhalation exposure as well as potential and actual dermal exposure were monitored. Inhalation exposure during mixing, loading and application averaged 5.1 microgram/hour. Dermal exposure of the hands during mixing and loading, and application was 13.1 mg/hour, and 0.8 mg/hour respectively. The potential exposure of the remaining parts of the body was 1.7 mg/hour, showing exposure mainly of the front torso (23%) and the...

  16. The effect of gamma irradiation on the growth and flowering of stem chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum morifolium ramat.) cv. pink fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooted shoot cuttings have been irradiated by gamma rays with 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy doses, and then planted in green house on Gadog, Ciawi. Plant growth from each doses proved to be varied, both in height and flowering process. Plants with dose 15 Gy and higher had shown late flowering time and dwarfing. The optimal dose for chrysanthemum cv. Pink Fiji irradiation is suggested to be 10-15 Gy. The highest mutation frequency shown on flower color is yellow, followed by orange, white, dark pink and light pink. (author)

  17. Characterisation of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Reagan Red Mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam mutagenesis technology has been successfully used as a means to develop new plant varieties with novel traits. A research project through a bilateral cooperation program between Nuclear Malaysia and JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) was initiated to cater the need for new commercially potential chrysanthemum varieties for floriculture industry. Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Reagan Red was irradiated with 320 MeV 12C6+ ion beam using TIARA AVF Cyclotron at Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan. A number of potential mutants were successfully obtained in the initial screenings of irradiated plant population at MARDI Cameron Highlands and Nuclear Malaysia's controlled glass house. Through subsequent screenings and propagations, 13 stable mutants were selected to undergo another field trial at MARDI Cameron Highlands. The objective was to morphologically characterize each mutant in accordance to Department of Agriculture Malaysia's standard test for distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS). Details of these mutants are required prior to plant variety registration process. This paper explains all processes involved in screening, evaluation and morphological characterization of the mutants as well as the initial process taken in registering these new cultivars. (author)

  18. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold and Cut Chrysanthemum Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Eun-Hee Chu; Eun-Jung Shin; Hae-Jun Park; Rae-Dong Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest fungal pathogens of cut flowers. Here, gamma irradiation, an alternative for phytosanitary purposes, and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) were used to control B. cinerea in a cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivar, ‘Baekma’, one of the cultivars susceptible to B. cinerea. Spore germination and mycelium growth of B. cinerea were inhibited by gamma irradiation in an inversely dose-dependent ma...

  19. Formation flavonoid secondary metabolites in callus culture of Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium as alternative provision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwianingsih, Widi; Febri, Santika; Kusdianti

    2016-02-01

    Increasing need of medicine ingredients require the discovery of other methods that can be used as an alternative. One method that can be used as an alternative is tissue culture. Quercetin is a flavonoid secondary metabolites that have been known to be useful as antiviral, anti-asthma and anti-cancer potential. The purpose of this study was to produce flavonoids, especially quercetin in callus culture Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium. Pieces of leaves of plantlets C. cinerariefolium used as explants for formation of callus tissue. To grow the callus, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium used with addition of various concentrations of growth regulators 2.4-D, and kinetin. For multiplication, callus subcultured on similar medium. Callus that had formed, especially brown callus, further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum (GCMS). Before analyzed callus was extracted in 95% ethanol. The result showed that callus potentially generate secondary metabolite are brown and friable. Based on these parameters, the best callus produced from leaf explants grown on MS medium with the addition of 4 mg / L 2,4-D and 0 mg / L kinetin. The callus contain secondary metabolites such as some of the flavonoid quercetin precursors such as acetic acid and tetrahydroxychalcone, and some other secondary metabolites.

  20. Chrysanthemum boreale Makino essential oil induces keratinocyte proliferation and skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yoon; Won, Kyung-Jong; Yoon, Mi-So; Hwang, Dae Il; Yoon, Seok Won; Park, Joo-Hoon; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Hwan Myung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of essential oil from the flower of Chrysanthemum boreale Makino (CBMEO) on growth of human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and explored a possible mechanism for this response. CBMEO was extracted using the steam distillation method. CBMEO contained a total of 33 compounds. CBMEO stimulated HaCaT proliferation (EC50, 0.028 μg/mL) and also induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in HaCaTs (EC50, 0.007 and 0.005 μg/mL, for phosphorylated Akt and ERK1/2, respectively). Moreover, CBMEO promoted wound closure in the dorsal side skin of rat tail. This study demonstrated that CBMEO can stimulate growth of human skin keratinocytes, probably through the Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. Therefore, CBMEO may be helpful in skin regeneration and wound healing in human skin, and may also be a possible cosmetic material for skin beauty. PMID:25167931

  1. Impedance measurement of gamma-irradiated chrysanthemum head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical conductivity or impedance can be used to determine the changes occurred at membrane level of the plant tissues, during the senescence process or after a stress condition. Chrysanthemum cut inflorescences were irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy in a Gammacell 220. The experiment was constituted by four groups: control, non-irradiated samples; irradiated samples; non-irradiated and 2% sucrose supplied samples, and irradiated and 2% sucrose supplied samples. The measurements were carried out during the flower vase-life with a Digital Spectral Analyzer. The radiation inhibited the development of the flowers, which could be avoided by the sucrose. An increase in the inflorescence head impendance was detected soon after the irradiation, indicating that the dose of 750 Gy caused changes at membrane level. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig

  2. Induction of somatic mutation in chrysanthemum cultivar 'Anupam'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooted cuttings of chrysanthemum cv. 'Anupam' were irradiated with 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 Krad of gamma rays. Significant reduction in survival, plant height, branch, leaf and flower head number and leaf size were recorded after irradiation. Radio sensitivity was determined on the basis of different cytomorphological parameters. Different types of morphological abnormalities in leaves and flower and chromosomal abnormalities during root tip mitosis were observed and the total abnormalities increased with increase in exposure to gamma rays. Significant delay in flower bud initiation, first colour showing and full bloom were recorded in the treated population. Somatic mutations in flower colour could be induced in vM1 as chimera and a total of three flower colour mutant, i.e., lighter, white and striped were isolated and established in pure form as new cultivars which are of direct use for floriculture industry. (author). 17 refs., 6 figs. , 2 tabs

  3. Karyomorphological Studies on Chinese Pot Chrysanthemum Cultivars with Large Inflorescences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chang; CHEN Su-mei; CHEN Fa-di; LI Zhen; FANG Wei-min

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the karyotypes of 30 Chinese large flowered pot chrysanthemum cultivars, differing with respect to flower type, petal type, and flower colour. The interphase nuclei and prophase chromosomes of all the cultivars are, respectively, of the complex chromocentre and the interstitial type. Somatic chromosome number varies from 49 to 62, mostly falling in the range 51-56 or 58. Most of the cultivars are chromosomal mosaics, with three showing 2n=6x=54, and two 2n+1=6x+1=55. At mitotic metaphase, most of the chromosomes are of the metacentric or submetacentric type, with a small number of acrocentrics and telocentrics. B chromosome (s) are present in about 22% of the entireties. The asymmetry index of the chromosomes ranges between 61 and 66%. The karyotypes can be categorized as reversely symmetrical types "2A" or "2B".

  4. 枸杞菊花复合饮料的研制%Development of Wolfberry and Chrysanthemum Compound Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志艳; 王佳丽; 李志; 阮美娟; 张焱; 杜依登

    2014-01-01

    探讨以枸杞、菊花等药食同源材料制备一种新型明目复合饮料的最佳配方。以枸杞子、菊花、茯苓、石斛、决明子、桑叶、罗汉果、淡竹叶等为原料,添加适量酸和糖,在单因素实验的基础上通过正交试验确定复合饮料中各组分最佳添加量比例。复合浸提液配比为枸杞∶菊花∶决明子∶石斛∶罗汉果∶茯苓∶山药∶桑叶∶淡竹叶为20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4;饮料最佳配方为:复合原液50%、糖10%、酸0.15%。所制复合饮料呈亮黄色,香气协调、柔和,酸甜适中,口感浑厚。%We explore the best formula of a novel compound beverage, which was prepared by food and medicine homologous material, such as wolfberry and chrysanthemum. The optimal add amount of each component was determined by orthogonal on the basis of single factor experiments with wolfberry, chrysanthemum, Poria, Dendrobium, cassia, mulberry, Mangosteen, light bamboo as raw materials. The composite extract ratio of wolfberry, Chrysanthemum, Cassia, Dendrobium, Mangosteen, Poria, yam, Mulberry and short bamboo was 20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4. The best formula of beverage was composite liquid 50%, sugar 10%, acid 0.15%. Beverage of prepared were bright yellow, coordinate and soft aroma, moderate sweet and sour, vigorous taste.

  5. InIdentification and characterization of pathotypes in Puccinia horiana, a rust pathogen of Chrysanthemum x morifolium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, de M.; Alaei, H.; Bockstaele, van E.; Roldan-Ruiz, I.; Lee, van der T.; Maes, M.; Heungens, K.

    2011-01-01

    Puccinia horiana is the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust or Japanese rust. This microcyclic autoecious rust has a quarantine status and can cause major damage in the commercial production of Chrysanthemum x morifolium. Given the international and often trans-continental production of plantin

  6. The importance of apical domination and the size of foliar surface in the acclimatisation process of Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2006-01-01

    In this experiment it was studied the effects of apical domination and foliar surface in Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets surviving to normal condition of life. I found that the survivor of Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets has depended of harming rate at which they were exposed.

  7. The importance of apical domination and the size of foliar surface in the acclimatisation process of Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment it was studied the effects of apical domination and foliar surface in Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets surviving to normal condition of life. I found that the survivor of Chrysanthemum exvitroplantlets has depended of harming rate at which they were exposed.

  8. Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cross-mutant differences in the composition of genoms and content of pigments in the inflorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigated thirteen radiomutants of chrysanthemum, 'Lady Amber', 'Lady Apricot', 'Lady Bronze', 'Lady Orange', 'Lady Pink', 'Lady Rosy', 'Lady Salmon', 'Lady White' 'Lady Vitroflora', 'Lady Yellow', 'Bronze Wonder', 'Red Wonder', 'Mini Nero', derived from three original cultivars - 'Richmond', 'Lilac Wonder' and 'Red Nero'. The research aimed at defining the cross-cultivar differences of the mutants obtained. The genoms were analyzed with the RAPD-PCR method. The complete genom DNA isolated from the plants researched was amplified with the PCR reaction. Twenty 10-nucletide primers were tested and there were obtained profiles of bands in agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. Eight primers (OPB 04, OPB 18, OPF 06, OPM 09, OPM 18, RAD 01, RAD 09, RAD 12) showed a cross-cultivar polymorphism, which again justified the application of the RAPD markers to define cross-cultivar differences of the chrysanthemum researched; the technique especially useful to distinguish the cultivars in their vegetative stage when the plant similarity is very high. To define the composition of pigments in fresh petals of the cultivars investigated, flavonoids and carotenoids were extracted with acetone and a 1% hydrochloric acid in methanol. The spectra of pigments obtained were measured with the UV-VIS Shimadzu - 1601 PC spectrophotometer from 190 to 800 nm. The results showed differences in the quantity and quality of pigments in the inflorescence in the cultivars investigated. The spectra of individual cultivars differed in their maximum absorption spectra at the specific wave length pigment and in their value of absorbance responsible for a varied concentration of pigments. (author)

  9. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Ke; Liang, Qian-Yu; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Jiang, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat) of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress. PMID:27447718

  10. Early field observations on the effect of gamma and ion beam irradiations on Chrysanthemum morifolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chrysanthemum is one of the main temperate cut flowers in Malaysian floriculture industry and also a good model for mutagenesis study in vegetatively propagated ornamental plants. Selection of desired mutants in vegetatively propagated plants must be made directly in the field especially for characteristics of plant morphology and flower colour. For chrysanthemum, greenhouse screenings need to be carried out to investigate the phenotypic changes of the plants after irradiation with physical mutagens. This paper discusses early effects of acute gamma and ion beam irradiations on the vegetative growth of in vitro irradiated chrysanthemum in both low and high lands. Data on the number of leaves, plant height and inter node length of the irradiated plants was recorded and statistically analysed. (author)

  11. Studies on flower pigments of chrysanthemum mutants: Nero and Wonder groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two groups of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) representing the five cultivars were analysed to define their content of pigments in the inflorescence with the spectrophotometric method. It was observed that respective cultivars obtained as a result of the ionising radiation differed in their quality and quantity of flavonoids and carotenoids in the inflorescence as compared with original cultivars they originated from. Each of the chrysanthemum cultivars studied showed its own permanent repetitive profile of the occurrence of specific pigments, which gives a possibility of showing the distinctness of the cultivars analysed and their identification

  12. Evidence for a wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Cruz, P.

    2000-01-01

    A temperature-dependent xylem occlusion was found in cut chrysanthemum stems (Dendranthema grandiflora, cv. Viking) which were placed for 24 h in air at 5oC prior to vase life evaluation. The response was inhibited by a 5-h treatment, prior to placement in air, with aqueous solutions at low initial

  13. Industrial Dehumanization——Viewed from the husband and wife relationship in "Odour of Chrysanthemums"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苗

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence is regarded as one of most accomplished short story writers in twentieth century, with "Odour of Chrysanthemums" one of his early works. Through the death of a miner, the text shows how humanity was ruined by industrial civilization. This essay is intended to unveil the destructive force by analyzing the relationship between the husband and wife.

  14. Wounding-induced xylem occlusion in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers : roles of peroxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Vaslier, N.

    2002-01-01

    A wounding-induced xylem occlusion, resulting in severe leaf wilting, occurs in stems of cut chrysanthemum flowers (Dendranthema grandiflora), cv. Vyking. The blockage develops after about 1 h in flowers held in air at 20 °C. It is initially located in the lowermost 2 cm of the stem and upon prolong

  15. Genotypic differences in metabolomic changes during storage induced-degreening of chrysanthemum disk florets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van Geert; Choi, Young Hae; Arens, Paul; Post, Aike; Liu, Ying; Meeteren, van Uulke

    2016-01-01

    Selecting chrysanthemum cultivars with long storability and vase life is a major challenge for breeders. The rate of degreening of disk florets during the postharvest phase is an important determinant of vase life. There is large genotypic variation in susceptibility to disk floret degreening. Ou

  16. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  17. Effects of growth conditions on external quality of cut chrysanthemum; analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  18. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold and Cut Chrysanthemum Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hee Chu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest fungal pathogens of cut flowers. Here, gamma irradiation, an alternative for phytosanitary purposes, and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC were used to control B. cinerea in a cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivar, ‘Baekma’, one of the cultivars susceptible to B. cinerea. Spore germination and mycelium growth of B. cinerea were inhibited by gamma irradiation in an inversely dose-dependent manner. A dose of 4 kGy completely inhibited the mycelium growth of B. cinerea. A significant change in flower quality (physical properties on chrysanthemum was shown from gamma irradiation at over 0.2 kGy (p<0.05. Therefore, in this study, the integration of gamma ray (below 0.2 kGy and NaDCC, an eco-friendly form of chlorine, was investigated to control the disease with low dose of gamma irradiation dose. Interestingly, the gamma irradiated flowers showed more disease severity than the non-irradiated flowers. The combined treatment of gamma irradiation and NaDCC does not affect the severity of the fungal disease, whereas only 70 ppm of NaDCC treatment showed a significantly reduced severity. These results suggest that only chlorination treatment can be applied to control B. cinerea in cut chrysanthemum flowers.

  19. Role of sink-source relationships in chrysanthemum flower size and total biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Harbinson, J.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    The present work was aimed at understanding and quantifying the effect of sink-source relationships on flower size, using chrysanthemum as a model system. Sink/source ratio was manipulated by flower bud removal (leaving one, two or four flowers, and a control), axillary shoot removal, and varying da

  20. Effect of colour of light on the opening of inflorescence buds and post-harvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jerzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pot cultivar of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum 'Leticia Time Yellow' was cultivated and stored in a growth room under fluorescent light of white, blue, green, yellow and red colour. Quantum irradiance was 30 μmol · m-2 × s-1. The colour of light exerted a significant influence on the opening of closed inflorescence buds and on post-harvest longevity of pot chrysanthemums grown earlier in an unheated plastic tunnel. Under florescent lamps emitting blue light at a wavelength of 400-580 nm, inflorescence buds opened and coloured the earliest. The number of developed flower heads was the greatest under blue and white light. Flower heads developing in blue light were bigger than flower heads developing in white and green light. In red light at a wavelength of 600-700 nm, plants flowered latest and they produced the smallest flower heads. Post-harvest longevity was preserved longest in chrysanthemums kept under blue, white and green light. In red and yellow light, the flowers were overblown earliest.

  1. Violet/blue chrysanthemums--metabolic engineering of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway results in novel petal colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugliera, Filippa; Tao, Guo-Qing; Tems, Ursula; Kalc, Gianna; Mouradova, Ekaterina; Price, Kym; Stevenson, Kim; Nakamura, Noriko; Stacey, Iolanda; Katsumoto, Yukihisa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Mason, John G

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) are an important cut-flower and potted plant crop in the horticultural industry world wide. Chrysanthemums express the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene and thus accumulate anthocyanins derived from cyanidin in their inflorescences which appear pink/red. Delphinidin-based anthocyanins are lacking due to the deficiency of a flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), and so violet/blue chrysanthemum flower colors are not found. In this study, together with optimization of transgene expression and selection of the host cultivars and gene source, F3'5'H genes have been successfully utilized to produce transgenic bluish chrysanthemums that accumulate delphinidin-based anthocyanins. HPLC analysis and feeding experiments with a delphinidin precursor identified 16 cultivars of chrysanthemums out of 75 that were predicted to turn bluish upon delphinidin accumulation. A selection of eight cultivars were successfully transformed with F3'5'H genes under the control of different promoters. A pansy F3'5'H gene under the control of a chalcone synthase promoter fragment from rose resulted in the effective diversion of the anthocyanin pathway to produce delphinidin in transgenic chrysanthemum flower petals. The resultant petal color was bluish, with 40% of total anthocyanidins attributed to delphinidin. Increased delphinidin levels (up to 80%) were further achieved by hairpin RNA interference-mediated silencing of the endogenous F3'H gene. The resulting petal colors were novel bluish hues, not possible by hybridization breeding. This is the first report of the production of anthocyanins derived from delphinidin in chrysanthemum petals leading to novel flower color. PMID:23926066

  2. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang He

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum.

  3. Flower colour modification of chrysanthemum by suppression of F3'H and overexpression of the exogenous Senecio cruentus F3'5'H gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huang; Ke, Hu; Keting, Han; Qiaoyan, Xiang; Silan, Dai

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × morifolium) is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. They are typically used as cut flowers or potted plants. Chrysanthemum can exhibit red, purple, pink, yellow and white flowers, but lack bright red and blue flowers. In this study, we identified two chrysanthemum cultivars, C × morifolium 'LPi' and C × morifolium 'LPu', that only accumulate flavonoids in their ligulate flowers. Next, we isolated seven anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, namely CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmDFR, CmANS, CmCHI and Cm3GT in these cultivars. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses showed that CmF3'H was the most important enzyme required for cyanidin biosynthsis. To rebuild the delphinidin pathway, we downregulated CmF3'H using RNAi and overexpressed the Senecio cruentus F3'5'H (PCFH) gene in chrysanthemum. The resultant chrysanthemum demonstrated a significantly increased content of cyanidin and brighter red flower petals but did not accumulate delphinidin. These results indicated that CmF3'H in chrysanthemum is important for anthocyanin accumulation, and Senecio cruentus F3'5'H only exhibited F3'H activity in chrysanthemum but did not rebuild the delphinidin pathway to form blue flower chrysanthemum. PMID:24250783

  4. Effect of temperature and light on foliar absorption of P and Rb by Chrysanthemum and Pilea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepan Marczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Young plants of Pilea cadierei Gagnep Guillaum and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. 'Giant # 4 Indianapolis White' were grown in Hoagland's solution in growth chambers. Their leaves were treated with rubidium phosphate double labelled with 33P and 86Rb. Light intensity, period of pretreatment in light or dark, daylength, and air temperature had different influences on foliar uptake of each ion, as did plant species and leaf surface. With all variables tested, uptake and translocation of Rb was much greater than of P. Absorption of both P and Rb through the lower surface was as much as 8 times greater than through upper surface, especially with Pilea. Light had a greater effect upon uptake of both P and Rb by Chrysanthemum than by Pilea, but did not influence uptake as much as previously reported.

  5. Detection of genetic variability in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora T. using ISSR primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lalitha Kameswari, Hameedunnisabegum, M. Pratap, and G.Anuradha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 37 genotypes of Chrysanthemum was characterized using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR technique. A total of 46 primers were screened, of which 10 polymorphic and informative patterns were selected to determine genetic relationships. Among 114 amplified DNA fragments obtained, 107 bands were polymorphic, accounting for 93.86% polymorphism. The percentage of polymorphism exhibited by different ISSR primers ranged from 71.43% (ISSR-825 to 100% (ISSR-808, 810, 812, 840 and 842. The similarity coefficient values ranged from 0.275 to 0.775 with a mean similarity matrix of 0.525. Among the 37 genotypes studied, the closest relationship was scored between Geetanjali and Red Stone with similarity level of 77.5% while, the most distantly related genotypes were Autumn Joy and Flirtation with the lowest similarity index of 0.275. The UPGMA dendrogram revealed that the chrysanthemum genotypes were grouped into ten clusters.

  6. Effect of growth conditions on post harvest rehydration ability of cut chrysanthemum flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Meeteren, van, U.; Gelder, van, R.E.; Ieperen, van, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Different batches of cut chrysanthemum flowers showed substantial variability in restoring their fresh weight after a moderate water loss. Cutting height strongly affected the rehydration ability of cut flowers, and the hydraulic conductance of the stem and its restoration after air aspiration. Within a batch of flowers, rehydration ability is negatively related with the hydraulic conductance. Rehydration ability of the flowering stems of all experimenst was highly correlated with the restora...

  7. Mutation induction in chrysanthemums by gamma-rays treatment of rooted cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guzowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rooted cuttings of two Chrysanthemum hortorum cultivars, yellow flowered Luyona and purplish-red flowered Woking, were irradiated with following dosages of 60Co gamma-rays: 1.5; ,2.0; 2.5; 3.0 kR. Among the MV2 plants six clones from the cultivar Woking shoved mutational changes, and two of them were selected as possible new cultivars. No mutants were obtained from the cultivar Luyona.

  8. Mutation induction in chrysanthemums by gamma-rays treatment of rooted cuttings

    OpenAIRE

    W. Guzowski; S. Muszyński

    2015-01-01

    Rooted cuttings of two Chrysanthemum hortorum cultivars, yellow flowered Luyona and purplish-red flowered Woking, were irradiated with following dosages of 60Co gamma-rays: 1.5; ,2.0; 2.5; 3.0 kR. Among the MV2 plants six clones from the cultivar Woking shoved mutational changes, and two of them were selected as possible new cultivars. No mutants were obtained from the cultivar Luyona.

  9. Structural characteristics of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (Romica cultivar)regenerated in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Smaranda Vantu; Ramona Gales

    2009-01-01

    The micropropagation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (Romica cultivar), belonging to the collection of Anastasie F�tu Botanical Garden from Iasi (Romania) was achieved through tissue culture technique and involved callus induction followed by shoot multiplication, rooting and establishment of plantlets in soil. The purpose of this study was to determine the range of variation in certain structural characters of the vegetative organs of in vitro regenerated plants at Chrysanthemu...

  10. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  11. A multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous detection and identification of five viruses and two viroids infecting chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiting; Liu, Xingliang; Ge, Beibei; Li, Mingjun; Hong, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Pathogens causing significant economic losses in chrysanthemum include tomato aspermy virus (TAV), chrysanthemum virus B (CVB), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), potato virus Y (PVY), chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) and chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid (CChMVd). A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, using specific primer sets for each virus or viroid, was developed for simultaneous detection and differentiation of TAV, CVB, CMV, TMV, PVY, CChMVd, and CSVd. The RT-PCR method was validated by testing chrysanthemum samples collected from different regions of China. In this study, CVB, TAV, TMV, PVY, CSVd, CMV, and CChMVd were detected, respectively, in 24.7 %, 17.5 %, 4.4 %, 4.4 %, 2.9 %, 2.5 %, and 1.5 % of the samples tested. These results indicate that CVB and TAV (24.7 % and 17.5 %) are common, whereas CMV, TMV, CChMVd, CSVd, and PVY (all below 5 %) are less frequently encountered. This new multiplex RT-PCR method has potential to be used routinely in large-scale virus and viroid surveys. PMID:25698104

  12. Next-generation sequencing of the Chrysanthemum nankingense (Asteraceae transcriptome permits large-scale unigene assembly and SSR marker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Simple sequence repeats (SSRs are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Chrysanthemum is one of the largest genera in the Asteraceae family. Only few Chrysanthemum expressed sequence tag (EST sequences have been acquired to date, so the number of available EST-SSR markers is very low. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end sequencing technology produced over 53 million sequencing reads from C. nankingense mRNA. The subsequent de novo assembly yielded 70,895 unigenes, of which 45,789 (64.59% unigenes showed similarity to the sequences in NCBI database. Out of 45,789 sequences, 107 have hits to the Chrysanthemum Nr protein database; 679 and 277 sequences have hits to the database of Helianthus and Lactuca species, respectively. MISA software identified a large number of putative EST-SSRs, allowing 1,788 primer pairs to be designed from the de novo transcriptome sequence and a further 363 from archival EST sequence. Among 100 primer pairs randomly chosen, 81 markers have amplicons and 20 are polymorphic for genotypes analysis in Chrysanthemum. The results showed that most (but not all of the assays were transferable across species and that they exposed a significant amount of allelic diversity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SSR markers acquired by transcriptome sequencing are potentially useful for marker-assisted breeding and genetic analysis in the genus Chrysanthemum and its related genera.

  13. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra;

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  14. Extraction and Purification of Depigmenting Agents from Chinese Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Depigmenting agents were solvent-extracted and purified by preparative and analytical HPLC from three Chinese plants; Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat( Xizang Caijuhua), Rhodiola sachalinensis, and Terminalia chebula Retzius. Four fractions obtained from the ethyl ether layer of C. m. Rama and two fractions from the ethyl acetate layer of Rhodiola salientness show depigmenting effects. At δ 200, the ethyl acetate layers of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, Rhodiola sachalinensis and the methanol extract of Terminalia chebula Retzius, can inhibit the melanin production of mouse B16 melanoma cells by 92%, 60% and 90%, respectively, whereas 46% inhibition was observed by commercially available depigmenting agents(arbutin). These results show the potential of these three Chinese plants as a novel resource for depigmenting agents in the cosmetic industry.

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1-0.5 mg/mL and 0.25-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors. PMID:25763094

  16. Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cerasela MIRCEA (ARSENE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L. Des Moul became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC. Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed through the HPLC method. Morphological and yield parameters and the chemical profile of plants were registered in two different nutritional statuses (local and enriched soil conditions. The results indicate that the studied cultivar is a potent source of phenolics and that the fertilisation increases the plant biosynthetic capacity for polyphenols (159.74 mg/100 g in leaves and 79.82 mg/100 g in flowers, in unfertilised plants, and 388.54 mg/100 g and 144.86 mg/100 g in leaves and flowers of fertilised plants, respectively, expressed as gallic acid equivalent value. The studied cultivar contains hyperoside (and other derivatives and four main polyphenol carboxylic acids (including chlorogenic acid. Ursolic acid was not detected. The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of alantolactone identified in TLC chromatogram. Moreover, the fertilised plant samples contain only traces of alantolactone compared to the unfertilised plants. Alantolactone is present in a small amount (less than 0.1 mg % but its presence alerts to the potential allergenic effect of the plant. Besides their ornamental value, chrysanthemums can have a wide array of uses due to their high amounts of bioactive compounds.

  17. 微波协助提取在中药饮片含量测定中的应用(6)——微波法与药典法测定野菊花中蒙花苷含量比较%Determination of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Chinese Cut Crude Drugs (6) Comparison of the Determination of Linarin from Chrysanthemum indicum Between Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Chinese Pharmacopeia Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方婧; 杨洪军; 付梅红; 安琪; 张贝贝; 王祝举; 杨岚; 张东

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立微波协助提取法提取野菊花中有效成分蒙花苷含量测定方法,比较微波协助提取法与药典法提取蒙花苷优势.方法:采用Dikma Diamonsil C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm),流动相甲醇-水-冰醋酸(26:23:1),检测波长334nm,柱温30℃,流速1 mL· min-1.结果:微波提取时间15 min,提取温度100℃,提取溶剂50%乙醇.蒙花苷在0.04~1.2μg呈良好线性关系(r =0.9999),平均回收率100.13% (n =6).结论:微波提取法较药典法提取蒙花苷更简便快速、准确,为一种符合环保绿色理念的含量测定方法,可用于检测野菊花饮片中蒙花苷含量.%Objective; To establish a microwave-assisted extraction method for the extraction of the linarin from Chrysanthemun indicum. Comparison of the determination of linarin from C. indicum between microwave-assisted extraction and Chinese pharmacopeia method was made. Method; Dikma Diamonsil C18 column (4.6 mm X 150 mm, 5 μm) was used. The mobile phase cousisted of methanol-water-acetic acid (26: 23: 1 ) . The temperature of column was kept at 30 ℃. The flow rate was 1. 0 mL -min-1 and the detection wavelength was at 334 nm. Result; Microwave extractive time was 15 min, the temperature was 100 X. , the extraction solvent was 50% ethanol. The calibration curve was in good linearity within the range from 0. 04 to 1. 2μg (r -0.999 9). The average recovery was 100. 13% (n=6). Conclusion; The method is simple, rapid, as well as precise and reliable, and can be used for the determination of linarin from C. indicum.

  18. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida ‘Scarlet’, Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Coral Charm’, and Campanula portenschlagiana ‘BluOne’ were grown at 24/18 ◦C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding...... the stomatal conductance though net photosynthesis was unaffected, indicating excess stomatal conductance in some treatments. With higher blue light ratio all phenolic acids and flavonoids increased. In view of the roles of these secondary metabolites as antioxidants, anti-pathogens, and light...

  19. Process-based modeling of the control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a process-based simulation model for the population dynamics of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua , and baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model (BACSIM) has been validated for two baculoviruses with clear differences in biological characteristics,

  20. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction under fluctuating light in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozturk, Isik; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The photosynthetic response was investigated on Chrysanthemum morifolium under dynamic light conditions in the 20-35 A degrees C temperature range to evaluate the effect of climatic variables on photosynthetic induction. The plant material was grown under uniform, controlled conditions and its ga...

  1. Effect of light intensity, plant density and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting

  2. Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

  3. Mutation Breeding of Chrysanthemum by Gamma Field Irradiation and In Vitro Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is to clarify the effect of chronic (gamma field) and acute (gamma room) radiation and in vitro culture on mutation induction of flower color in chrysanthemum. The combination of both methods yielded a mutation rate 10 times higher than the conventional chronic cutting method, and also produced non-chimeric mutants. Somaclonal variation often occurred in plants regenerated from callus, but no significant variation appeared in callus regenerants from non-irradiated plants. Therefore, proper mutagenic treatment on cultured materials is indispensable for effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method clearly yielded the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum, while the acute culture method resulted in a relatively low mutation rate and a limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation could be more readily induced in plants regenerated from petals and buds, than from leaves. In this respect, it is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture, but could perhaps induce mutation in a desired direction. A possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies than the acute, is discussed. Nine out of 10 registered mutant varieties were derived from chronic irradiation, and only one from acute. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding, not only of flower species but of other species as well. (author)

  4. Effects of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on seed growth of ground-cover chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum were used to study the effects of different doses of 60Co γ-rays irradiation(10-50 Gy) on seed germination and physiological characteristics. The results showed that the rate of seed germination and seedling survival decreased significantly with the irradiation doses. With the increase of irradiation dose to above 20 Gy, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of peroxidase (POD) in seedlings significantly increased. The similar trends were found in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR). Catalase (CAT) activity increased at doses lower than 20 Gy, and then decreased at the higher doses, whereas ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity did not alter except for 40 Gy. It is concluded that the suitable irradiation dose of mutation breeding is 20 Gy for the seeds of ground-cover chrysanthemum. Although 60Co γ-rays irradiation resulted in damage of membrane lipid peroxidation in the survival seedlings, the increased activity of CAT and POD could protect them against the damage. (authors)

  5. Mutation breeding of chrysanthemum by gamma field irradiation and in vitro culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to clarify the effect of chronic (gamma field) and acute (gamma room) radiations and in vitro culture on mutation induction of flower color in chrysanthemum. The combined methods of irradiation and in vitro culture yielded a mutation rate 10 times higher than the conventional chronic cutting method, and also produced non chimeric mutants. Somaclonal variation often occurred in plants regenerated from callus, but no significant variation appeared in callus regenerators from non-irradiated plants. Therefore, proper mutagenic treatment on cultured materials is indispensable to effective mutation induction. The chronic culture method clearly yielded the widest color spectrum in chrysanthemum, while the acute culture method resulted in a relatively low mutation rate and a limited flower color spectrum. Flower color mutation could be more readily induced in plants regenerated from petals and buds, than from leaves. In this respect, it is supposed that the gene loci fully expressed on floral organs may be unstable for mutation by mutagenesis or culture, but could perhaps induce mutation in a desired direction. A possible reason why the chronic culture methods showed higher frequencies than the acute, had been discussed. Nine out of ten registered mutant varieties were derived from chronic irradiation, and only one from acute. The combined method of chronic irradiation with floral organ cultures proved to be of particularly great practical use in mutation breeding, not only of flower species but of other species as well. (author)

  6. Identification and Functional Analysis of Three MAX2 Orthologs in Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Dong; Abdurazak Ishak; Jing Yu; Ruiyan Zhao; Liangjun Zhao

    2013-01-01

    MORE AXILLARY BRANCHING 2 (MAX2),initially identified in Arabidopsis thaliana,is a key regulatory gene in strigolactone signal transduction.Three orthologs of MAX2 were cloned from Dendranthema grandiflorum (DgMAX2a,b,and c).Each of the genes has an open reading frame of 2,049 bp and encodes 682 amino acid proteins.The predicted amino acid sequences of the three DgMAX2s are most closely related to the MAX2 orthologs identified in petunia (PhMAX2A and PhMAX2B),and display the highest amino acid sequence similarity with PhMAX2A compared to other MAX2s.Expression analysis revealed that DgMAX2s are predominantly expressed in the stem and axillary buds.On a cellular level,we localized the DgMAX2a::GFP fusion protein to the nucleus in onion epidermal cells,which is consistent with the nuclear localization of MAX2 in Arabidopsis.The chrysanthemum DgMAX2a is able to restore the max2-1 mutant branching to wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis,suggesting that it is a functional MAX2 ortholog.These results suggest that DgMAX2s may be candidate genes for reducing the shoot branching of chrysanthemum.

  7. Mutation Breeding of various spray chrysanthemum cultivars by gamma-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to analyze mutation rate and spectrum of chrysanthemum by gamma-ray irradiation. Five flower types, 16 cultivars including 'Geumsu', 'Hwiparam', 'Ilwol', 'Magic', 'Moonlight', 'Noblewine', 'Pinky', 'Progy', 'Sangtte', 'Waterfog', 'Whitneypangpang', 'Yelloweye', 'Yellowpangpang', 'Yesmiso', 'Yesmorning', and 'Yestogether' were irradiated as 30, 50, and 70 Gy dose during 24 hours. As a result, mutation rate was identified as the highest in single type among five flower types, but there was a little difference according to cultivars. Mutation rate was increased in proportion to irradiation dose in anemone, pompon, and spider type cultivars, but there wasn't clear in single and semi-double type cultivars. Mutation spectrum was identified as the highest in the cultivar 'Noblewine'. The most sensitive cultivars to radiation were revealed as 'Noblewine' and 'Yesmorning' and the least were Moonlight', 'Waterfog', and 'Yellowpangpang'. Consequently, there was much difference in radio-sensitivity according to cultivars of chrysanthemum and flower type was correlated a little with mutation rate

  8. [Effects of crop rotation and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Du, Chao; Shi, Ya-dong; Wang, Jian-fei

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of rotation system and bio-organic manure on soil microbial characteristics of Chrysanthemum cropping system. Taking Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat and wheat as experimental plants, treatments under Chrysanthemum continuous cropping system (M1), conventional Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system (M2), and Chrysanthemum-wheat rotation system receiving bio-organic manure application of 200 kg · 667 m(-2) (M3) were designed. Soil chemical properties, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN), and the amounts of different types of soil microorganisms were determined. Results showed that compared with M1, treatments of M2 and M3 significantly increased soil pH, organic matter, available N, P, and K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, but decreased the ratio of MBC/MBN, and the relative percentage of fungi in the total amount of microorganisms. Treatment of M3 had the highest contents of soil organic matter, available N, available P, available K, MBC, MBN, and the amounts of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, with the values being 15.62 g · kg(-1), 64.75 mg · kg(-1), 83.26 mg · kg(-1), 96.72 mg · kg(-1), 217.40 mg · kg(-1), 38.41 mg · kg(-1), 22.31 x 10(6) cfu · g(-1), 56.36 x 10(3) cfu · g(-1), 15.90 x 10(5) cfu · g(-1), respectively. We concluded that rational crop rotation and bio-organic manure application could weaken soil acidification, improve soil fertility and microbial community structure, increase the efficiency of nutrition supply, and have a positive effect on reducing the obstacles of continuous cropping. PMID:26572032

  9. Host specificity, but not high-temperature tolerance, is associated with recent outbreaks of Verticillium dahliae in chrysanthemum in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Ispahani, S.K.; Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Morton, A.; Barbara, D J

    2008-01-01

    Two hypotheses which might explain a recent increase in the incidence of verticillium wilt of chrysanthemums in glasshouses in the Netherlands were investigated, viz whether selection for increased resistance to elevated temperatures has occurred due to frequent steaming of soils in the glasshouses, or whether the strains of Verticillium dahliae occurring in chrysanthemum glasshouses are particularly virulent towards this host. Following artificial inoculation, five isolates of V. dahliae fro...

  10. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses. PMID:25904110

  11. Preliminary Assessment about Genetic Diversity, the Stability of Potential Mutants from Two Varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. (Bronze Doa and Purple Farm) via Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evidence the efficiency of irradiation by gamma ray from 60Co source on chrysanthemum artificial seeds, through that select a number of potential mutants from two varieties of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat artificial seeds (Bronze and purple chrysanthemum). The experimental result showed that LD50 for the Bronze Doa variety was 50 Gy and Purple Farm variety was 100 Gy. Irradiated in vitro artificial seeds were transferred into fresh MS medium and placed in the growth room with three replications at each of dose. The completed in vitro plants were transplanted into ex vitro condition in green house. After 30 days in the greenhouse, survival rate of plantlets were and growth in 20 Gy and 40 Gy for Purple chrysanthemum, while the number of survival Bronze chrysanthemum plantlets were reduced gradually toward the increasing of gamma doses. In this study, on farm, through screening 18 phenotypic mutants of both chrysanthemums were recorded and collected including 6 potential mutants that selected for next research based on their phenotypic differences to the originals, their aesthetic and low mosaic. These 6 potential mutants together with their original varieties were micro-propagated to induce the potential mutant lines for estimation on farm of mutant characteristic segregation rates. (author)

  12. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB. PMID:22007449

  13. Effect of various sucker sizes and planting times on growth and flower yield of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and large sized suckers of Chrysanthemum morifolium were planted on four different dates, i.e. 18th February, 18th April, 17th June and 16th August to find out their effect on growth and flower yield. Plants resulting from small sized suckers produced significantly higher number of primary and secondary branches and leaves plant/sup -1/. However, plant height, leaf area, number of suckers produced, biomass (fresh plant weight) and flower yield plant/sup -1/ were not affected by the sucker sizes. As the planting was delayed, plant growth and flower yield was reduced. Early plantings resulted in increased plant height, more number of branches and leaves plant/sup -1/, greater biomass, and higher flower yields but reduced leaf area as compared to late plantings. (author)

  14. Induction of in vivo mutation in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cv. Pink Repin breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation induction was used with the objective of obtaining mutants for flower colour of chrysanthemum, cv. Repin (pink colour). Rooted cuttings were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma rays and before the selection the cutting back method was used to advance the generations. The frequency of colour mutants observed was 5.8%. Among the mutants obtainedthe white and dark-pink-coloured ones were evaluated in yield trial and post-harvest. The results indicated that these mutants mantained the same agronomical characteristics showed by the control, with the exception of plant height in the white mutant that was shorter. Due to commercial interest of the producers, these mutants were multiplied and released as new cultivars. The white flower colour mutant was named Cristiane and the dark-pink, Ingrid. This was the first example of cultivars from an ornamental plant released by mutation breeding in Brazil. (author)

  15. Biological efficacy of the chemical chrysanthemums protection with the use of fine and coarse droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw PARAFINIUK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of three years (2007-2009 were conducted at Czesławice in south- east of Poland .The objects of research were the plants of the one cultivar of chrysanthemum: Dark Tripoli. The following agents were used for protection: Dithane NeoTec 75 WG, Sumilex 500 SC, Amistar 250 SC. The treatment was carried out with the use of two types of nozzles: standard RS-MM 110 03 and ejector type ID 120 03 C. Observation was carried out once a year: in October. The number and health status of plants were determined and diseased plants were collected for analysis. The percentage of plants with disease symptoms was estimated for each plot. The best health status and yield were noticed for Amistar 250 SC.

  16. Saccharose action on chrysanthemum cut inflorescences, Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura, after exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years the Brazilian floriculture expanded and it is expected to achieve a prominent role in near future. The national territory has many favorable regions, with adequate climate for the development of commercially important cultures. Flower exportation is not expressive yet, but the country has conditions to become a great exotic tropical plants exporter. On the other hand, developed countries, as USA and Japan, have a rigorous phyto sanitary inspection to prevent the introduction of new plagues and diseases through fresh products. Ionizing radiation is considered a reliable disinfestation method to control numerous fruit and flower plagues. The aim of of this work was to verify the tolerance of some Compositae family flowers to ionizing radiation and the effects to sucrose action in protecting the flowers against the gamma-radiation induced damages. This was done by measuring biochemical and physiological parameters as a function of time after irradiation. The chrysanthemum flowers were sensitive to gamma radiation, but when the inflorescences were supplied after irradiation with preservative solution containing 2% sucrose, protection against the damaging effects of radiation was achieved. The dose of 750 Gy, considered appropriate for disinfestation purpose, did not modify the protein and lipid levels, nor plasma, tonoplast and mitochondria membrane ATPase or mitochondria cytochrome-c oxidase activities. The ethylene and carbonic gas rate production increased soon after the irradiation, but decreased one day later. The decrease of the microsomal membrane fluidity and the increase of the chrysanthemum were the most sensitive parameters to measure the irradiation treatment changes. The sucrose supply was able to maintain the irradiated flowers membrane fluidity level close to the unirradiated control. Rhodante manglesii Lindl and Helichrysum bracteatum Andr. were tolerant up to 1 KGy, thus being adequate to be disinfected by gamma radiation. (author)

  17. 杭白菊挥发油口含片中有效成分樟脑、龙脑的含量测定%Determination of Camphor and Borneol in Oral Tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium Essential Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 王建平; 殷红; 王玮; 陶锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To establish an GC method for the determination of camphor and borneol in oral tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil in p - cyclodextrin inclusion. Methods: The camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets were extracted by refluxed. The contents of two effective components were analyzed by gas chromatography with CBP20 -M25 -025 capillary column. N - octanol was used as internal standard substance for camphor and borneol. Results; A good separation was obtained. The standard curves for camphor and bomeol were linear over the range of 14.00~224.0 μg · mL-1 and 19.69 ~ 315. Oμg · mL-1 Respectively. The average recovery for camphor and borneol was higher than 94.2%. The precisions for them were both less than 0.77%. Conclusion: The method is accurate and sensitive for the determination of camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil with good quality controlling of oral tablet product,providing scientific evidence for the development of Chrysanthemum morifolium and reasonable clinical application of essential oil.%目的:建立杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的浓度测定的GC方法并测定含量.方法:用加热回流法提取片剂包合物中的有效成分,采用毛细管气相色谱法,以正辛醇为内标,测定其中樟脑与龙脑的含量.结果:该方法樟脑、龙脑分离良好,线性范围分别为14.00~ 224.0μg·mL-1及19.69 ~ 315.0μg·mE-1,加样回收率均高94.2%,精密度RSD小于0.77%.结论:本法能准确、灵敏地同时测定杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的含量,可以作为口含片的产品质量控制方法,为杭白菊产品的深度开发与挥发油制剂的质量标准制定提供科学依据.

  18. Safety Evaluation of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Oil by Assessing Acute Oral Toxicity, Micronucleus Abnormalities, and Mutagenicity

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum is widely used to treat immune-related and infectious disorders in East Asia. C. indicum flower oil contains 1,8-cineole, germacrene D, camphor, α-cadinol, camphene, pinocarvone, β-caryophyllene, 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, and γ-curcumene. We evaluated the safety of C. indicum flower oil by conducting acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation tests. Mortality, clinical signs and gross findings of mice were measured for 15 days after the oral s...

  19. Comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Yang, Li-Wen; Li, Meng-Ling; Dai, Si-Lan

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key environmental factors that affect anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, and many problems regarding phenotypic change and corresponding gene regulation have not been solved. In the present study, comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves were performed in Chrysanthemum × morifolium 'Purple Reagan'. After contrasting the variations in the flower color phenotype and relative pigment content, as well as expression patterns of structural and regulator genes responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis and photoreceptor between different plant organs under light and dark conditions, we concluded that (1) both the capitulum and foliage are key organs responding to light for chrysanthemum coloration; (2) compared with flavones, shading makes a greater decrease on the anthocyanins accumulation; (3) most of the structural and regulatory genes in the light-induced anthocyanin pathway specifically express in the ray florets; and (4) CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmANS, CmDFR, Cm3GT, CmMYB5-1, CmMYB6, CmMYB7-1, CmbHLH24, CmCOP1 and CmHY5 are key genes for light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in chrysanthemum ray florets, while on the transcriptional level, the expressions of CmPHYA, CmPHYB, CmCRY1a, CmCRY1b and CmCRY2 are insignificantly changed. Moreover, the inferred comprehensive effect of multiple signals on the accumulation of anthocyanins and transmission channel of light signal that exist between the leaves and ray florets were further discussed. These results further our understanding of the relationship between the gene expression and light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, and lay foundations for the promotion of the molecular breeding of novel flower colors in chrysanthemums. PMID:26990403

  20. Effect of light intensity, plant density and flower bud removal on the flower size and number in cut chrysanthemum

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van, J.

    2002-01-01

    Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting (control and assimilation light), plant density (32, 48 and 64 plants m-2) and lateral flower bud removal (leaving 1 flower, 4 flowers and control) were applied. To analyse the effect of assimilate...

  1. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Muhammad Abuzar; Song, Aiping; Faheem, Muhammad; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Liu, Chen; Fan, Qingqing; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT). High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA) pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes. PMID:27187353

  2. Involvement of CmWRKY10 in Drought Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the ABA-Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abuzar Jaffar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the important abiotic factors that adversely affects plant growth and production. The WRKY transcription factor plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, as well as in the elevation of many abiotic stresses. Among three major groups of the WRKY family, the group IIe WRKY has been the least studied in floral crops. Here, we report functional aspects of group IIe WRKY member, i.e., CmWRKY10 in chrysanthemum involved in drought tolerance. The transactivation assay showed that CmWRKY10 had transcriptional activity in yeast cells and subcellular localization demonstrated that it was localized in nucleus. Our previous study showed that CmWRKY10 could be induced by drought in chrysanthemum. Moreover, the overexpression of CmWRKY10 in transgenic chrysanthemum plants improved tolerance to drought stress compared to wild-type (WT. High expression of DREB1A, DREB2A, CuZnSOD, NCED3A, and NCED3B transcripts in overexpressed plants provided strong evidence that drought tolerance mechanism was associated with abscisic acid (ABA pathway. In addition, lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and higher enzymatic activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in CmWRKY10 overexpressed lines than that of WT demonstrates its role in drought tolerance. Together, these findings reveal that CmWRKY10 works as a positive regulator in drought stress by regulating stress-related genes.

  3. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Aly S. Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify th...

  4. Preparation of A Compound Beverage with Inulin of Jerusalem Artichok, Hawthorn and Chrysanthemum%菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朱畅

    2016-01-01

    The hot water was used to extract inulin. Through orthogonal test the optimal conditions of extract in-ulin were:the ratio of sample to water was 1∶25 (g/g),temperature 90℃,time 60 min. Under these conditions, the extract ratio was 79.98 %. Inulin of jerusalem artichoke ,hawthorn and chrysanthemum were used as the main materials,added white granulate sugar,honey and other accessories. A discussion was carried out on the key technologies,through single factor and orthogonal experimental design ,the sensory score was investigated an indicator to determine the optimum formula of the compound beverage. The results showed that the mixing proportion of hawthorn extract and chrysanthemum extract was 2∶3(mL/mL),inulin 2%,white granulate sugar 4%,honey 3%,the best stabilizer was sodium alginate 0.05%and CMC-Na 0.1%. The compound beverage is nutritions and good for health,can be developed with good color, flavor and taste.%采用热水浸提法对菊糖进行提取,通过正交试验确定了提取菊糖的最佳条件为:料水比1∶25(g/g),温度90℃,提取时间60 min,菊糖提取率为79.98%。以菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花为主要原料,添加白砂糖、蜂蜜等辅料。针对其关键技术进行了探讨,采用单因素和正交试验设计,以产品感官评价为指标,确定菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的最佳工艺配方。结果表明:山楂和菊花提取液比为2∶3(mL/mL)、菊芋菊糖2%、白砂糖4%、蜂蜜3%、最佳稳定剂为0.05%海藻酸钠和0.1%CMC-Na。该复合饮料具有营养、保健的功能,色泽、香味、口感俱佳。

  5. Characterization of odor-active compounds of various Chrysanthemum essential oils by gas chromatography-olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and their correlation with sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fan, Binbin; Niu, Yunwei; Wu, Minling; Liu, Junhua; Ma, Shengtao

    2016-01-15

    Volatiles of five kinds of Chrysanthemum essential oils with different manufactures were characterized by descriptive sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and statistics analysis. Six sensory attributes (floral, woody, grassy, fruity, sour and minty) were selected to assess Chrysanthemum essential oils. A total of 38 volatile compounds were detected and quantified using standard substances by GC-O and GC-MS. Terpenes constituted the largest chemical group among the volatiles of the essential oils. Then partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to elucidate the relationship between sensory attributes and aroma compounds. The result showed that α-pinene, β-thujene, α-terpinolen, β-cubebene, caryophyllene, (Z)β-farnesene, (-)-spathulenol, linalool, camphor, camphene, 4-terpineol, Z-citral and 4-isopropyltoluene were typical aroma compounds covaried with characteristic aroma of Chrysanthemum essential oils. PMID:26735711

  6. Cyto-palynological, biochemical and molecular characterization of original and induced mutants of garden chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of new somatic flower color/type mutants have been evolved by induced mutations in different ornamentals. Few reports are available on the systematic work being done on comparative analysis of the original and the mutant cultivars. Attempt has been made for the comparative analysis of original cultivars and their respective induced mutants on cyto-palynological, biochemical and molecular characters for better and clear understanding of the exact mechanism involved in the origin and evolution of flower color mutations. Proper characterization and identification of new mutant cultivars is extremely important to protect plant breeder's rights for commercial exploitation. Chrysanthemum original varieties and their gamma ray induced mutants were selected as the materials for the present analysis. Critical cytological analysis with special reference to chromosome number, chromosomal aberrations, ICV, INV and DNA content showed no differences. The karyotypes were reasonably symmetrical. No mutant specific chromosomal aberrations could be detected. Thin layer chromatographic and spectrophotometric analysis of floret pigments indicated that somatic flower color changes in chrysanthemum are due to both qualitative and/or quantitative changes in pigments as a result of mutation induced by gamma rays in pigment biosynthesis pathway. Significant increase in pollen grain sterility was found in all the mutants. The pollen grains of all the cultivars and their mutants are basically 3(-4) zonocolporate with tectate spinose exine having perforations. No appreciable variation in pollen apertural character was noticed in any of the mutants. Significant changes in pollen exine surface pattern were found in 4 mutant varieties. The changes are inconsistent and do not correspond to the intensity of radiation. The similarity among the cultivars and mutants varied from 0.17 to 0.90 using RAPD analyses. Cultivars with different flower colors could be clearly distinguished. But

  7. Effect of polyacrylamide on morphology and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through hydrothermal process, the chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles are prepared with zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) used as main resources under the different concentrations of surfactant polyacrylamide (PAM). The microstructure, morphology and the electromagnetic properties of the as-prepared products are characterized by high-resolution transmissïon electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM) and microwave vector network analyzer, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the as-prepared products are ZnO single crystalline with hexagona wurtzite structure, that the values of slenderness ratio Ld are different in different PAM concentrations, and that the good magnetic loss property is found in the ZnO products, and the average magnetic loss tangent tan δu increases with PAM concentration increasing, while the dielectric loss tangent tan δe decreases. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  8. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related. PMID:25427981

  9. Ni (II) adsorption onto Chrysanthemum indicum: Influencing factors, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilvanathan, Sowmya; Shanthakumar, S

    2016-10-01

    The study explores the adsorption potential of Chrysanthemum indicum biomass for nickel ion removal from aqueous solution. C. indicum flowers in raw (CIF-I) and biochar (CIF-II) forms were used as adsorbents in this study. Batch experiments were conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature for varying initial Ni(II) ion concentrations. Surface area, surface morphology, and functionality of the adsorbents were characterized by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adsorption kinetics were modeled using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion, Bangham's, and Boyd's plot. The equilibrium data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Experimental data provided the best fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Ni(II) ion on both CIF-I and CIF-II with maximum adsorption capacities of 23.97 and 44.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic analysis of the data proved the process to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Desorption studies were conducted to evaluate the possibility of reusing the adsorbents. Findings of the present study provide substantial evidence for the use of C. indicum flower as an eco-friendly and potential adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution. PMID:27185382

  10. The influence of light color on the rooting of 'Horim Golden' Chrysanthemum cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three different colors of light; blue, green and red, compared with white light as the control, on the rooting of Chrysanthemum cuttings, is presented in this paper. The mother plants and cuttings were irradiated during rooting with different colors of light. This was shown to have had visible influence on the morphological differentiation of cuttings. It also affected the carbohydrate content in them. The rooting of the cuttings reflected this influence. The cuttings obtained from plants grown under white (control or red light were characterized by well-developed root systems in terms of the number, length and mass of the roots. The cuttings from the plants grown under green light were the worst. The influence of the color of the light on the speed with which the first roots were formed was the reverse. The cuttings from the plants irradiated with green light rooted the quickest, next in order were those from plants irradiated with blue, red and white light. Irradiating cuttings with differently colored light during rooting only had an effect on the number of roots formed. This number was high, close to that of control cuttings, in cuttings exposed to red light, decidedly lower in those exposed to blue and, in particular, green light.

  11. Regeneration of Haploid Plantlet through Anther Culture of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayhanul Kabir KHANDAKAR MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To observe the possibility of producing haploid plants of Chrysanthemum, anthers of three Korean cultivars ‘Yes Morning’, ‘Hi-Maya’, and pot cultivar ‘Peace Pink’ were cultured. Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally good results were obtained with the basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D, 2 mg/L of BA, 250 mg/L of casein hydrolysate, 45 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite. A pretreatment of anthers in media at 4 °C for 48h enhanced the callus induction. Calli were allowed to differentiate on basal MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of BA, 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite.  Shoot formation from calli in that media slightly differed among cultivars. Multiple shoots elongated from calli were shifted to basal MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 3 g/L gelrite for rooting. The plantlets with sufficient roots thus obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the soil. Fifty regenerated plantlets from each cultivar were randomly selected for ploidy observation by chromosome counting and haploid plantlet was detected for the garden cultivar ‘Yes morning’.

  12. Position of the axillary bud and mutation induction in Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) plant lets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenic treatment of multicellular meristems from vegetatively propagated plants generally results in the formation of chimeric plants. Mutated sectors can be increased and stabilized through the cutting-back method. The objective of the present research was to study the influence of application of this method in the M1V2 population, originated from six different axillary buds from the M1V1 chrysanthemum branches. For this purpose, rooted plants of the cultivar Ingrid (dark ping) were irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma-rays and the prune was carried out 40 days after planting. Frequency and spectrum of flower color mutants were evaluated. No mutants were observed in the control population. In the M1V1 population, 22.1% of the total plants were mutants (white color, dark bronze, pale pink, yellow, wine, variegated and cream). Among them, 1.8% were periclinal chimeras (with only one different color from the original) and the others showed mutated sectors. No differences were observed in mutation frequency and size of mutated sector among six M1V1 populations. The wine colored mutant was selected, multiplied and evaluated in a yield trial. This mutant named Magali was multiplied and was released as a new cultivar. (author)

  13. Low Temperature Treatment Affects Concentration and Distribution of Chrysanthemum Stunt Viroid in Argyranthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhibo; Lee, YeonKyeong; Sivertsen, Astrid; Skjeseth, Gry; Haugslien, Sissel; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Wang, Qiao-Chun; Blystad, Dag-Ragnar

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate (1) the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, (2) the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM), and (3) CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in 'Border Dark Red', but none in 'Yellow Empire'. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased 'Yellow Empire' following 5°C treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased 'Border Dark Red' following prolonged 5°C treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected 'Border Dark Red' and 'Yellow Empire' indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants. PMID:26973607

  14. Change in Auxin and Cytokinin Levels Coincides with Altered Expression of Branching Genes during Axillary Bud Outgrowth in Chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierck, Robrecht; De Keyser, Ellen; De Riek, Jan; Dhooghe, Emmy; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Prinsen, Els; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    In the production and breeding of Chrysanthemum sp., shoot branching is an important quality aspect as the outgrowth of axillary buds determines the final plant shape. Bud outgrowth is mainly controlled by apical dominance and the crosstalk between the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. In this work the hormonal and genetic regulation of axillary bud outgrowth was studied in two differently branching cut flower Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat) genotypes. C17 is a split-type which forms an inflorescence meristem after a certain vegetative period, while C18 remains vegetative under long day conditions. Plant growth of both genotypes was monitored during 5 subsequent weeks starting one week before flower initiation occurred in C17. Axillary bud outgrowth was measured weekly and samples of shoot apex, stem and axillary buds were taken during the first two weeks. We combined auxin and cytokinin measurements by UPLC-MS/MS with RT-qPCR expression analysis of genes involved in shoot branching regulation pathways in chrysanthemum. These included bud development genes (CmBRC1, CmDRM1, CmSTM, CmLsL), auxin pathway genes (CmPIN1, CmTIR3, CmTIR1, CmAXR1, CmAXR6, CmAXR2, CmIAA16, CmIAA12), cytokinin pathway genes (CmIPT3, CmHK3, CmRR1) and strigolactone genes (CmMAX1 and CmMAX2). Genotype C17 showed a release from apical dominance after floral transition coinciding with decreased auxin and increased cytokinin levels in the subapical axillary buds. As opposed to C17, C18 maintained strong apical dominance with vegetative growth throughout the experiment. Here high auxin levels and decreasing cytokinin levels in axillary buds and stem were measured. A differential expression of several branching genes accompanied the different hormonal change and bud outgrowth in C17 and C18. This was clear for the strigolactone biosynthesis gene CmMAX1, the transcription factor CmBRC1 and the dormancy associated gene CmDRM1, that all showed a decreased expression in C17 at floral

  15. Repellent effects of pongam oil on settlement and oviposition of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum on chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROMAN PAVELA; GERHARD HERDA

    2007-01-01

    The repellent activities, including host deterrence and anti-oviposion, of pongam oil against the adults of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood in greenhouses were tested. Chrysanthemum plants treated with different concentrations (0.5%-2.0%) of water-suspended pongam oil showed relatively longlasting host deterrent and anti-oviposition effects on the adults of greenhouse whitefly. Although the repellent effect declined in time and concentration, strong effects on the reduction of oviposition were found, which lasts, dependent on concentration at least 12 days after application.

  16. Enhancement of flowering and branching phenotype in chrysanthemum by expression of ipt under the control of a 0.821 kb fragment of the LEACO1 gene promoter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khodakovskaya, M.; Vaňková, Radomíra; Malbeck, Jiří; Li, A.; Li, Y.; McAvoy, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 9 (2009), s. 1351-1362. ISSN 0721-7714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : ipt Gene * Cytokinins * Transgenic chrysanthemum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.301, year: 2009

  17. Soluções de manutenção na pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon postharvest maintenance solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e uso de técnicas que prolonguem a durabilidade das flores, mantendo a qualidade do produto, é imprescindível para redução de perdas pós-colheita. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar soluções de manutenção, associadas ou não a sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com 2 hastes florais cada uma. Os tratamentos utilizaram água destilada; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1, 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. A combinação de 8-HQC 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1 foi a que apresentou melhor desempenho para a manutenção da qualidade das hastes florais, favorecendo a abertura de botões e a turgescência das lígulas. A sacarose contribuiu para uma melhor manutenção de substâncias de reserva na haste, que tiveram a sua vida de vaso estendida.The development and use of techniques that extend the life vase of the flowers, maintaining the quality of the product, is essential for reducing postharvest losses. The objective of this work was to evaluate different solutions for maintenance, associated or not to sucrose, in maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems. The treatments used distilled water, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1. Physical assessments were made: color, fresh mass and relative water content; chemical evaluations: reducing sugars and pigments, and qualitative assessments: turgidity, color of the flowers, and

  18. Development of SSR Markers and Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Renfeng; Lu, Jiangjie; Jiang, Mengying; Shen, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Zhi'an; Wang, Huizhong

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum morifolium, is a well-known flowering plant worldwide, and has a high commercial, floricultural, and medicinal value. In this study, simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers were generated from EST datasets and were applied to assess the genetic diversity among 32 cultivars. A total of 218 in silico SSR loci were identified from 7300 C. morifolium ESTs retrieved from GenBank. Of all SSR loci, 61.47% of them (134) were hexa-nucleotide repeats, followed by tri-nucleotide repeats (17.89%), di-nucleotide repeats (12.39%), tetra-nucleotide repeats (4.13%), and penta-nucleotide repeats (4.13%). In this study, 17 novel EST-SSR markers were verified. Along with 38 SSR markers reported previously, 55 C. morifolium SSR markers were selected for further genetic diversity analysis. PCR amplification of these EST-SSRs produced 1319 fragments, 1306 of which showed polymorphism. The average polymorphism information content of the SSR primer pairs was 0.972 (0.938–0.993), which showed high genetic diversity among C. morifolium cultivars. Based on SSR markers, 32 C. morifolium cultivars were separated into two main groups by partitioning of the clusters using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram, which was further supported by a principal coordinate analysis plot. Phylogenetic relationship among C. morifolium cultivars as revealed by SSR markers was highly consistent with the classification of medicinal C. morifolium populations according to their origin and ecological distribution. Our results demonstrated that SSR markers were highly reproducible and informative, and could be used to evaluate genetic diversity and relationships among medicinal C. morifolium cultivars. PMID:27379163

  19. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  20. ELIMINATION OF CVB ( FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM VARIETIES BY APICAL MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING ANTIVIRAL AGENT AND HEAT TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CVB elimination for retaining healthy protocols from infected chrysanthemum plant wasinvestigated through combined treatment of meristem culture with synthetic antiviral ribavirinor thermotherapy under conditions. The biological materials used for the experimentconstituted of six commercial varieties: Dewi Sartika, Saraswati, Yellow Fiji, White Puma,Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Tissue culture initiation was conducted through plantletestablishment using MS supplemented with IAA. Ribavirin was added in media with theconcentration of 40 mg/l on cv. Dewi Sartika, Saraswati and Yellow Fiji. Parallel with this step,heat treatment with different durations (1, 2, and 3 weeks was also conducted on the plantletson White Puma, Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Meristem culture was done followingthe chemo- and thermotherapy. The experiment resumed the failure of single treatment ofmeristem culture in eliminating CVB from the infected chrysanthemum plantlets. Under heattreatment, percentage of virus-free plantlets increased along with the duration ofthermotherapy, though the survival rate of plantlets decreased in lengthened heat treatment.The best results regarding virus free plant percentage were obtained when meristem culture wasapplied following ribavirin or three weeks of heat treatment.

  1. Heterologous expression of the AtDREB1A gene in chrysanthemum increases drought and salt stress tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG; Bo; TONG; Zheng; MA; Nan; LI; Jianke; KASUGA; Mie; YAMAGUCHI-SHINOZAKI; Kazuko; GAO; Junping

    2006-01-01

    DNA cassette containing an AtDREB1A cDNA and a nos terminator, driven by a cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter, or a stress-inducible rd29A promoter, was transformed into the ground cover chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) 'Fall Color' genome. Compared with wild type plants, severe growth retardation was observed in 35S:DREB1A plants, but not in rd29A:DREB1A plants. RT-PCR analysis revealed that, under stress conditions, the DREB1A gene was over-expressed constitutively in 35S:DREB1A plants, but was over-expressed inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants. The transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to drought and salt stress, and the tolerance was significantly stronger in rd29A:DREB1A plants than tn 35S:DREB1A plants. Proline content and SOD activity were increased inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants than in 35S:DREB1A plants under stress conditions. These results indicate that heterologous AtDREB1A can confer drought and salt tolerance in transgenic chrysanthemum, and improvement of the stress tolerance may be related to enhancement of proline content and SOD activity.

  2. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation), and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma irradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma. (author)

  3. Study of the Health Beverage of Honeysuckle and Chrysanthemum%金银双花饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆丹; 汪开拓; 韩林; 唐华丽

    2012-01-01

    A healthy beverage which has the clearing and moistening effect of the throat is made by honeysuckle,white chrysanthemum,mint,and licorice.The optimal formula is studied by orthogonal experiment.The result showed that the best composition of the drink was 85% mix extract(include 26% honeysuckle juice,12% chrysanthemum juice,10% mint juice,10% licorice),with 10% sugar and 0.4% citric acid.%以金银花、白菊花、薄荷、甘草为主要原料研制一种具有清咽利喉功能的饮料,采用正交试验确定混合提取液最佳配比和饮料风味的最佳配方。试验结果表明:混合提取液适宜配比为金银花提取液为26%、白菊花提取液为12%、薄荷提取液为10%、甘草提取液为10%;饮料最佳风味配方为混合提取液含量为85%、白砂糖10%、柠檬酸0.4%。

  4. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  5. Trace-chitosan-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a new sorbent in dispersive micro solid-phase extraction to determine phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wan; Hu, Shuai-Shuai; Ye, Li-Hong; Cao, Jun; Xu, Jing-Jing; Pang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-04-17

    This report describes the use of trace-chitosan-wrapped multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CS-MWCNTs) as a sorbent material in dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (DMSPE), which was combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry to analyze phenolic compounds in chrysanthemum tea and a chrysanthemum beverage. In this study, for the first time, CS-MWCNTs were used as a sorbent for this microextraction mode. Moreover, the proposed method exhibits the advantages of simplicity, rapidity, small sample amount and ease of operation. Furthermore, all of the important parameters that affect the extraction efficiency, such as the sorbent, pH, extraction time and type of elution solvent, were investigated and optimized in the DMSPE. Under the optimized extraction condition, the limit of detection, which was calculated based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, was 0.22-16.19ngmL(-1). Satisfactory recovery values of 89-106% were obtained for the tested samples. The results show that the developed method was successfully applied to determine the content of chlorogenic acid and flavonoids in complex chrysanthemum samples. PMID:25748543

  6. 苦瓜汁、菊花茶复合茶饮料的研制%Preparation of Compound Beverage with Bitter Gourd Juice and Chrysanthemum Tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月英; 王妨; 钱健; 陈文学

    2012-01-01

    研究苦瓜菊花清凉饮料的生产工艺,采用VC和氯化锌等复合护色剂对苦瓜进行护色,用氯化钠和柠檬酸进行脱苦;以菊花浸提时间、温度、固液比为主要因素,对菊花的浸提工艺进行了优化,最后进行苦瓜菊花汁饮料的配方优化。结果表明,采用苦瓜汁8%、菊花茶#60%、白砂糖8%、柠檬酸0.12%等配比,可制得营养丰富、口感适宜、清暑止渴、品质优良的苦瓜菊花清凉茶饮料。%With bitter melon and chrysanthemum as the raw materials to study the process of bitter melon and chrysanthemum cool drinks, Firstly, this experiment adopted combined color fixative (Vc and ZnC12) for protecting color of bitter melon, NaCI and citric acid for debitterizing. Secondly, optimize the lixiviating process of chrysanthemum with time, temperature and solid-to-liquid ratio as the major factors. Finally, the formula of bitter melon and chrysanthemum cool drinks has been optimized. The results showed that, the process conditions with bitter melon juice 8 %; chrysanthemum juice 60 %; sugar 8 % and citric acid 0.12 %, can make the cool tea in good nutrition, mouthfeel, flavor and quality.

  7. The Northern Area Potted Three Chrysanthemum Plastic Greenhouse Shading Cultivation Technology Researches%北方地区塑料大棚遮光栽培三本菊提早开花技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶福民; 于春雷; 张文洋

    2013-01-01

    Through the researches on the plastic greenhouse shading cultivation and a series of maintenance technology, making the potted three chrysanthemum in the northern area flowing earlier than the others, has the very high economic significance.

  8. Characterization of new variety of Chrysanthemum by using ISSR markers Caracterização de novas cultivares de crisântemo com o uso de marcadores ISSR

    OpenAIRE

    SK Palai; Gyana Ranjan Rout

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum is the important cut flower after rose among the ornamental plants traded in the global flower market. It is propagated vegetatively and also has a strong sporophytic self-incompatibility system as shown by all members of Asteraceae family. Morphologically, the petal numbers and flower colours present maximum variation when compared to existing varieties. Twenty Inter Simple Sequence Repeat primers were used to detect the new variety of Chrysanthemum developed through spontaneou...

  9. Cloning of the chrysanthemum UEP1 promoter and comparative expression in florets and leaves of Dendranthema grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annadana, S; Beekwilder, M J; Kuipers, G; Visser, P B; Outchkourov, N; Pereira, A; Udayakumar, M; De Jong, J; Jongsma, M A

    2002-08-01

    To attain high transgene expression in petal tissue of ray florets of chrysanthemum an endogenous ubiquitin extension protein (UEP1) promoter was cloned and tested with the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. Expression levels were compared with four heterologous promoters: chalcone synthase (chs-A) and zinc finger transcription factor (EPF2-5) from petunia, eceriferum (CER6) from Arabidopsis and multicystatin (PMC) from potato. The comparison of the expression levels of the different constructs in ray florets, disc florets, and leaves is presented. The highest mean expression in petal tissue of ray and disc florets was conferred by the UEP1 promoter, followed by CER6 and EPF2-5. The UEP1 promoter in ray florets confers over 50-fold enhancement in expression as compared to CaMV 35S-based promoters. PMID:12212845

  10. Morphological Difference and DNA Diversity Between Flower-colour Sport and Original Cultivar of Chrysanthemum with Small Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Helan; FENG Jiuying

    2011-01-01

    A total of 58 morphological characteristics were measured on flower-colour sport and original cultivar according to Disticness, Uniformity, Stability' (DUS) Test for New Plant Cultivar of Chrysanthemum published by Ministry of Agriculture of China The results showed that five characteristics such as the surface colour, the back color of ray floret among them were siginificantly different, their MS (mo by AFLP showed that rphological s GS (genetic imilarity) was 91.4%, and MD (morphological difference) was 8.62%. DNA polymorphic analysis similarity) was 98.6%, and GD (genetic polymorphic diversity) was 2.81%. Five distinct bands which may include the flower-colour sport genes or be the molecular marker linkaged flower-color characteristics were amplified.

  11. Karyomorphology of six taxa in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) in Egypt and their genetic relationships by Giemsa C-banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB; Ahmad Mohammad M. MEKAWY; Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY

    2012-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding was applied to the chromosome complements of six diploid species belonging to six genera in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) distributed in Egypt.Four types of C-banding distribution were observed in the taxa as follows:(i) negative C-banding in Anacyclus monanthos (L.) Thell.; (ii) all bands in terminal regions in Achilleafragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.Bip,which showed 32 bands on 18 chromosomes; (iii)all eight bands at centromeric regions on eight chromosomes in Matricaria recutita L.; and (iv) bands at terminal and centromeric regions in Brocchia cinerea Vis.(12 terminal and six centromeric bands on 12 chromosomes),Cotula barbata DC.(four terminal,six centromeric,and eight short arm bands on 16 chromosomes),and Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass.ex Spach.(eight terminal on the short arms and four large bands in centromeric regions on 12chromosomes).

  12. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Cis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially health-promoting CLA in many animal models.The C18:1 trans-11 fatty acid(VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.

  13. The effect of sucrose and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate (8-HQS on keeping qualities of bud-cut Chrysanthemum flowers and the level of reducing sugars in the florets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Łukaszewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemums harvested as buds of 50-60 mm in diameter and held in the solutions of sucrose and 8-HQS had inflorescences of quality equal to those opened on the plant and better than flowers placed in water. Exogenous sucrose prolonged vase-life of cv. 'Bronze Bornholm' but did not affect cv. 'Crimson Robe'. No difference was observed in the quality of flowers placed in different sucrose concentrations. All the solutions which improved keeping qualities of cut chrysanthemums caused considerable increase in the flower fresh and dry matter. Also an increase in reducing sugars was found in flowers of both cultivars he1d in the solutions of sucrose and 8-HQS.

  14. Ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis of nanoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} rods and rutile TiO{sub 2} self-assembly chrysanthemums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Quanjun [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu Bingbing [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China)], E-mail: liubb@jlu.edu.cn; Li Yingai; Liu Ran; Li Xianglin; Li Dongmei; Yu Shidan; Liu Dedi; Wang Peng; Li Bing; Zou Bo; Cui Tian; Zou Guangtian [State Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Qianwei Road, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2009-03-05

    Nanoporous anatase TiO{sub 2} rods and rutile TiO{sub 2} chrysanthemums were successfully synthesized via a simple ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis route. Their morphologies, phase compositions and components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and IR, respectively. The results show that a self-assembly growth takes place in the calcination under vacuum, which makes the titanium glycolate rods transform into rutile TiO{sub 2}/C chrysanthemums rather than anatase TiO{sub 2} rods. It also indicates that the carbon plays an important role in the phase transition process which promotes the phase transition to rutile TiO{sub 2} at a lower temperature (400 deg. C). It provides a new approach to prepare nanoporous rutile TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials under low temperature.

  15. Ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis of nanoporous anatase TiO2 rods and rutile TiO2 self-assembly chrysanthemums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoporous anatase TiO2 rods and rutile TiO2 chrysanthemums were successfully synthesized via a simple ethylene glycol-mediated synthesis route. Their morphologies, phase compositions and components were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman and IR, respectively. The results show that a self-assembly growth takes place in the calcination under vacuum, which makes the titanium glycolate rods transform into rutile TiO2/C chrysanthemums rather than anatase TiO2 rods. It also indicates that the carbon plays an important role in the phase transition process which promotes the phase transition to rutile TiO2 at a lower temperature (400 deg. C). It provides a new approach to prepare nanoporous rutile TiO2 nanomaterials under low temperature

  16. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum. PMID:27110753

  17. Effect of different irrigation thresholds on growth and yield of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) in greenhouse%不同灌水下限对温室茼蒿生长和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文斌; 郝仲勇; 王凤新; 苏利茂; 要晋峰; 麻军; 胡佳林

    2011-01-01

    该文采用15 cm深处土水势为茼蒿的控制灌水下限,研究在模拟微喷条件下控制灌水下限对温室茼蒿生长和产量的影响.共设6个处理,灌水下限分别是-10 kPa(T1),-15 kPa(T2),-20 kPa(T3),-25 kPa(T4),-30 kPa(T5)和-40 kPa(T6).结果表明,不同的灌水下限对茼蒿产量的影响显著,灌水下限为控制在-15 kPa是产量最高,分别比其他处理增加了0.5%,18.7%,62.6%,73.4%,71.7%,在整个生育期灌水量为195 mm,比与其产量相近的T1处理节水56.4%.T2处理的株高和生长速率在生长后期与T1无差异.灌水下限低于-25 kPa,水分亏缺严重,影响出苗,不利于茼蒿生长.以-15 kPa土水势作为控制灌水下限,有利于茼蒿生长,可以达到高产、节水的目的.%An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different irrigation thresholds on yield and growth of garland chrysanthemum under simulated micro-spray irrigation in greenhouse.The experiment included six treatments,which controlled soil water potential (SWP) at 15cm depth with -10 kPa (T1),-15 kPa (T2), -20 kPa (T3), -25 kPa (T4),-30 kPa (T5) and -40 kPa (T6), respectively.The results showed that effect of different irrigation threshold on the crop yield was significant.Treatment T2 had the highest yield and compared with T1, T3, T4, T5 and T6, its yield increased by 0.5%, 18.7%, 62.6%, 73.4%, 71.7%, respectively.Irrigation amount ofT2 was 195 mm throughout the growth period, saving 56.4% than that ofT1.The plant height and growth rate ofT2 had no difference from T1.When the irrigation threshold was lower than -25 kPa in SWP, garland chrysanthemum would be under severe water stress,negatively affecting seedling emergence and restraining its growth.The SWP of- 15 kPa was recommended as the best irrigation threshold for garland chrysanthemum, because of both high-yield and water-saving.

  18. 菊花EST-SSR分析及标记开发%EST-SSR Analysis and Marker Development for Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志兵; 陈燕; 闫莹莹; 陈黎

    2013-01-01

    为了开发菊花的分子标记,对7 087条菊花EST进行拼接,得到275个contigs,发现50个SSR位点;在拼接的contigs中SSR平均密度为每2 854.3 bp含有1个SSR.三核苷酸重复基元的SSR类型最多,占总数的50.00%;在二碱基重复中,最主要的优势重复基元是AC和AG;三碱基中CAT和CCA为优势重复基元;四碱基、五碱基重复类型中,(TTTN)n和(ATTTN)n重复基元为对应优势基元;这些优势重复基元中富含碱基A和T,菊花EST序列中高度变异的微卫星(长度>20 bp)约占2.00%.根据得到的菊花EST-SSR,共设计出428对引物,并选取了28对SSR引物对黄山贡菊基因组DNA进行PCR扩增,其中有27对引物扩增成功.%7087 EST of Chrysanthemum morifolium were assembled in order to provide molecular markers, and 275 contigs were obtained. There were 50 microsatellites (SSRs) were detected and averagely there was one SSR locus detected from 2 854. 3 bp of contigs. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeats (50. 00% ) a-mong these SSR types. As for the composition of microsatellites, AC, AG repeats were the richest motif in dinucle-otide repeats, and CAT, CCA repeats were the most frequent motifs in trinucleotide repeats, whereas (TTTN) n and (ATTTN ) n repeats were dominant in tetra- and penta-nucleotide repeats, respectively. All the dominant repeat motifs for different type of SSRs were rich in A and T alkali bases. In EST of C. morifolium, microsatellites longer than 20 bp accounted for about 00% of the detected SSRs. 428 pairs of primers were designed using Primer 5. 0 and Oligo 6. 0 according to these EST sequences containing SSR. 28 pairs of primers were randomly selected for PCR test with genomic DNA of Huangshan variety of Chrysanthemum morifolium, and 27 primer pairs succeeded in amplification, with successful ratio of 96. 4%.

  19. Studies on the In Vitro Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activities Associated with Chrysanthemum coronarium Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa K. Bardaweel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of the Jordanian Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (garland was isolated by hydrodistillation from dried flowerheads material. The oil was essayed for its in vitro scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method. The results demonstrate that the oil exhibits moderate radical scavenging activity relative to the strong antioxidant ascorbic acid. In addition, cholinesterase inhibitory activity of C. coronarium essential oil was evaluated for the first time. Applying Ellman’s colorimetric method, interesting cholinesterase inhibitory activity, which is not dose dependent, was evident for the oil. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of the oil against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were evaluated. While it fails to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria growth, the antibacterial effects demonstrated by the oil were more pronounced against the Gram-positive strains. Moreover, the examined oil was assessed for its in vitro antiproliferative properties where it demonstrated variable activities towards different human cancer cell lines, of which the colon cancer was the most sensitive to the oil treatment.

  20. Genetic signatures from amplification profiles characterize DNA mutation in somatic and radiation-induced sports of chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev.) cultivars 'Dark Charm', 'Salmon Charm', 'Coral Charm' and 'Dark Bronze Charm' are either radiation-induced mutants or spontaneous sports of 'Charm' and constitute a family or series of plants that primarily differ in flower color. These cultivars, which were difficult to differentiate genetically by DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF), were easily identified by using arbitrary signatures from amplification profiles (ASAP). Genomic DNA was first amplified with three standard octamer arbitrary primers, all of which produced monomorphic profiles. Products from each of these DNA fingerprints were subsequently reamplified using four minihairpin decamer primers. The 12 primer combinations produced signatures containing approximately 37% polymorphic character loci, which were used to estimate genetic relationships between cultivars. Forty-six (32%) unique amplification products were associated with individual cultivars. The number of ASAP polymorphisms detected provided an estimate of the mutation rate in the mutant cultivars, ranging from 0.03% to 1.6% of nucleotide changes within an average of 18 kb of arbitrary amplified DAF sequence. The ASAP technique permits the clear genetic identification of somatic mutants and radiation-induced sports that are genetically highly homogeneous and should facilitate marker assisted breeding and protection of plant breeders rights of varieties or cultivars

  1. Rosette growth of shoots in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) as a result of in vitro propagation of plants and gamma irradiation used for mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosette growth of chrysanthemum shoots in 'Mrs. R.C. Puling' was observed after in vitro propagation with explants obtained from vernalised and non-vernalised stock plants. The phenomenon was also observed as a result of the exposure of leaf explants to gamma radiation used for in vitro regeneration of plants in mutation induction. The higher the irradiation dose, the more considerable the rosette growth. Following the 4th pinching of shoot tips, only elongating growth of plants was observed

  2. Using the quantum yields of photosystem II and the rate of net photosynthesis to monitor high irradiance and temperature stress in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    control regime may be optimised by monitoring plant responses, and may be promptly adjusted when plant performance is affected by extreme microclimatic conditions, such as high irradiance or temperature. To determine the stress indicators of plants based on their physiological responses, net...... in the NPQ determined the PSII operating efficiency, with no major change in the fraction of open PSII centres (qL) (indicating a QA redox state). We conclude that 1) chrysanthemum plants cope with excess irradiance by non-radiative dissipation or a reversible stress response, with the effect on the...

  3. Contribution à l’étude morphologique, chimique et thérapeutique pour l’espèce Chrysanthemum balsamita L.

    OpenAIRE

    Marculescu, Angela; Tamas, M.

    2014-01-01

    Note portant sur l’auteur Note portant sur l’auteur Introduction Chrysanthemum balsamita L. (Famille Asteraceae, sous-famille Tubuliflorae) balsamite, (menthe-coq, menthe de la Sainte-Vierge) originaire de l’Asie de Sud-Ouest, a été amenée en Europe dès l’Antiquité. En Roumanie Ch. b. est cultivée dans les jardins paysans et dans les cimetières comme plante ornementale mais aussi comme plante aromatique et guérissante. Dans la médicine traditionnelle roumaine, la balsamite a été utilisée sous...

  4. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2012-01-01

    with an onset of a daily starch turnover by a shift to short days. These results confirm findings from model species on the complex relationship between carbohydrate metabolism, source–sink relations and growth rate and they shed new light on the dynamic processes during acclimation towards altered...... diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf...

  5. Roles of DgBRC1 in regulation of lateral branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflora cv. Jinba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Chen

    Full Text Available The diverse plasticity of plant architecture is largely determined by shoot branching. Shoot branching is an event regulated by multiple environmental, developmental and hormonal stimuli through triggering lateral bud response. After perceiving these signals, the lateral buds will respond and make a decision on whether to grow out. TCP transcriptional factors, BRC1/TB1/FC1, were previously proven to be involved in local inhibition of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, pea, tomato, maize and rice. To investigate the function of BRC1, we isolated the BRC1 homolog from chrysanthemum. There were two transcripts of DgBRC1 coming from two alleles in one locus, both of which complemented the multiple branches phenotype of Arabidopsis brc1-1, indicating that both are functionally conserved. DgBRC1 was mainly expressed in dormant axillary buds, and down-regulated at the bud activation stage, and up-regulated by higher planting densities. DgBRC1 transcripts could respond to apical auxin supply and polar auxin transport. Moreover, we found that the acropetal cytokinin stream promoted branch outgrowth whether or not apical auxin was present. Basipetal cytokinin promoted outgrowth of branches in the absence of apical auxin, while strengthening the inhibitory effects on lower buds in the presence of apical auxin. The influence of auxin and strigolactons (SLs on the production of cytokinin was investigated, we found that auxin locally down-regulated biosynthesis of cytokinin in nodes, SLs also down-regulated the biosynthesis of cytokinin, the interactions among these phytohormones need further investigation.

  6. Roles of DgBRC1 in regulation of lateral branching in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflora cv. Jinba).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiaoyang; Xi, Lin; Li, Junxiang; Zhao, Ruiyan; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liangjun

    2013-01-01

    The diverse plasticity of plant architecture is largely determined by shoot branching. Shoot branching is an event regulated by multiple environmental, developmental and hormonal stimuli through triggering lateral bud response. After perceiving these signals, the lateral buds will respond and make a decision on whether to grow out. TCP transcriptional factors, BRC1/TB1/FC1, were previously proven to be involved in local inhibition of shoot branching in Arabidopsis, pea, tomato, maize and rice. To investigate the function of BRC1, we isolated the BRC1 homolog from chrysanthemum. There were two transcripts of DgBRC1 coming from two alleles in one locus, both of which complemented the multiple branches phenotype of Arabidopsis brc1-1, indicating that both are functionally conserved. DgBRC1 was mainly expressed in dormant axillary buds, and down-regulated at the bud activation stage, and up-regulated by higher planting densities. DgBRC1 transcripts could respond to apical auxin supply and polar auxin transport. Moreover, we found that the acropetal cytokinin stream promoted branch outgrowth whether or not apical auxin was present. Basipetal cytokinin promoted outgrowth of branches in the absence of apical auxin, while strengthening the inhibitory effects on lower buds in the presence of apical auxin. The influence of auxin and strigolactons (SLs) on the production of cytokinin was investigated, we found that auxin locally down-regulated biosynthesis of cytokinin in nodes, SLs also down-regulated the biosynthesis of cytokinin, the interactions among these phytohormones need further investigation. PMID:23613914

  7. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on a Shoot and Root Formation from the Leaf and Flower Culture of a Standard-type Chrysanthemum 'Jinba'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we investigated the conditions of a higher frequency for regenerated plants from different explants of a standard-type chrysanthemum 'Jinba'. In vitro culture was initiated on an MS medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar, and 5 μM benzyl adenine (BA) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) by using surface-sterilized leaf and flower tissues from greenhouse-grown plants. Direct shoot regeneration from the leaf and flower explants was obtained 21 to 28 days after the initial culture. Among the seven combinations of the growth regulators used for the culture, the most efficient condition for the shoot and root formation from the leaf tissue was obtained when the MS basic medium was supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, while the culture using floret tissues was most efficient on the medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-¹ BA and 0.5 mg L-¹ NAA, and 0.1 mg L-¹ BA and 1.0 mg L-¹ NAA. These results will provide valuable information to help set up an efficient system for a tissue culture of chrysanthemum cv. Jinba to improve one or some of its negative traits in combination with a radiation mutagenesis approach

  8. Development and application of creation technology of new crops by radiation. Induction effect of mutation of flower color of chrysanthemum by 12C5+ ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-effect of cultured explant of chrysanthemum by 12C5+ ion beam irradiation and mutation of flower color induced by redifferentiation individuals were studied. The inductive effect of mutation by ion beam was compared with that of γ-ray. Damage of cultured explant by ion beam irradiation was observed at first at 5 Gy. LD50, LD75 and LD100 were shown by 10 Gy, 20 Gy and 30 Gy dose, respectively. Callus formation and individuals redifferentiation were obtained in explant by dose to 20 Gy. 5-15 Gy seemed to be suitable dose of 12C5+ ion beam to explant of chrysanthemum. On damage by γ-ray, LD50 and LD100 were observed by 45 Gy and 80 Gy, respectively. On the basis of LD50, the biological effect of ion beam was about 4.5 times as large as that of γ-ray. In the case of ''Taihei'', the stock seed, more large amount of multi color variant was induced by ion-beam, especially, it was remarkable such a case as flower used as explant. Ion beam 12C5+ irradiation induced mutation to multicolors. Both irradiations induced mutation more to flower than to leaf. (S.Y.)

  9. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known. PMID:23065216

  10. Management of Chimera and In Vitro Mutagenesis for Development of New Flower Color/Shape and Chlorophyll Variegated Mutants in Chrysanthemum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding is an established method for crop improvement and has played a major role in the development of many new flower color/shape mutant varieties in ornamentals. The main bottleneck with vegetatively propagated plants is that the mutation appears as a chimera after treatment with physical and/or chemical mutagens. A small sector of a mutated branch or flower cannot be isolated using the available conventional propagation techniques. A novel technique has been standardized for the management of such chimeric tissues through direct shoot regeneration from chrysanthemum florets. This direct novel regeneration protocol has been successfully used not only for the isolation of chimeric mutant tissues developed through sports, but also to develop a series of new flower color/shape mutants through induced mutagenesis. Gamma radiation and tissue culture techniques have been optimized to regenerate plants from stem internodes, stem nodes, shoot tips and ray florets for in vitro management of chimera and for in vitro mutagenesis. Chimera isolation has practical importance not only for chrysanthemum but for breeding of other ornamentals also. The present technique will open up a new way for isolating new flower color/shape ornamental cultivars through retrieval of mutated cells. (author)

  11. Rational use of electrical energy in artificial light in the production of chrysanthemum seedlings in greenhouse; Uso racional de energia eletrica em iluminacao artificial na producao de mudas de crisantemo em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The type of artificial illumination employed for chrysanthemum cultivation in greenhouses to induce photo period effect will determine its growing rate as well as the energy consumption. Incandescent filament is currently employed for artificial illumination in chrysanthemum nursery to induce photo period effect. Nowadays new illumination technology is being tested aiming energy consumption reduction. The application of illumination based on electrical discharge in sodium or mercury vapor, as well as tubular or integrated compact fluorescent bulbs in chrysanthemum cultivation is identified as the objective of this research work. The experimental part of this work was carried out in a commercial greenhouse model employing five chrysanthemum variety as Papiro, Lindy White, Mona Lisa Rose, Euro Speedy and Stateman during winter and summer period. Parameters employed to the study variety behavior included: production per area, fresh matter weight, presence of flower sprouts and moisture content. The parameters known as electrical variables, like consumption, demand and power factor, together with the treatment energy efficiency index were used to analyze the employed illumination technologies and light bulbs type. Results showed differences between weight of fresh flowers and moisture content for the flowers variety under consideration. Productivity per unit area was noticed to be larger for discharge technology when compared with filament bulbs, for both varieties being tested. The lowest flower sprout occurrence was associated to the discharge technology with the exception of the variety Stateman produced with incandescent bulbs of 100 W in the winter plot. The unique exception related to discharge technology was associated to the White 23 W Integrated Compact Fluorescent bulb yielding 2.4% of flower sprouts compared with 0% of other bulb types associated to the production of the variety Euro Speedy. It was noticed from the results that the yellow integrated compact

  12. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Chrysanthemum stunt viroid for the EU territory, with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd and identified and evaluated risk reduction options, particularly those listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Three entry pathways were identified, with plants for planting being the most important and rated as moderately likely. CSVd is recorded in some EU Member States with a limited distribution and is regulated on chrysanthemum; host plants are widely cultivated in greenhouses and outdoors. Therefore, establishment is very likely. Short-distance spread within a crop is likely, whereas short-distance spread between different species is unlikely to moderately likely. For vegetatively propagated species, in the absence of an efficient certification system, long-distance spread is very likely and a major impact would be expected on chrysanthemum, with associated yield and quality losses. However, under the existing certification scheme for chrysanthemum plant propagation material, the probability of spread through infected cuttings is largely reduced and the direct consequences of viroid outbreaks are expected to be minor. Minimal impact is predicted for other ornamental hosts and a minor impact for solanaceous vegetable crops. The indirect effects of CSVd are considered to be limited, with the exception of eradication. Risk reduction options addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material are likely to be the most effective and feasible. These include the current EU measures, as well as a statutory certification system with associated statutory import requirements or, failing that, but potentially less effective, the use of voluntary industry standards. It is difficult to disentangle the benefits of the current legislation from those of the industry-developed chrysanthemum certification system. The high efficacy of current measures is supported by the absence or limited presence of CSVd in the EU and by the limited number of

  13. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-01

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity. PMID:26521095

  14. 5种切花菊内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况研究%Research on Isolation, Identification and Distribution of Endophytic Fungi from Five Cut Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龑; 赵大克; 郑丽

    2014-01-01

    研究了5个常见切花菊品种内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况,以寻找切花菊自身抗性真菌并为今后开展生物防治提供基础资料。找到了切花菊各部位材料的表面灭菌处理最优方法,发现切花菊内生真菌在分离中出现幼嫩部位内生真菌分离数量明显高于成熟部位,并且根分布最多,叶次之,茎最少。5个切花菊的内生真菌中,镰刀菌属( Fusarium)和枝孢属( Cladosporium)为优势菌群。5个切花菊品种内生真菌的分布存在一定相似度,但不同品种还是存在自己特有的内生真菌,说明切花菊的内生真菌分布有一定多样性。%The isolation, identification and distribution of endophytic fungi from five common cut chrysanthemum cultivars were studied to find out their own resistant fungi and provide fundamental data for the future studies on biological control.The optimal method for surface sterilization treatment of various parts of cut chrysanthemum materials was found.It was found that the quantity of isolated endophytic fungi from the tender part of cut chrysanthemums was obviously higher than that from the mature part, and the distribution of endophytic fungi in different parts showed the following order:root>leaf>stem.Among endophytic fungi from five cut chrysanthemums, Fusarium and Cladosporium were dominant fungal community.Five cut chrysanthemum cultivars were some-what similar in the distribution of endophytic fungi, but different cultivars also had their own unique endophytic fungi, indicating that the distribution of endophytic fungi in cut chrysanthemums had a certain diversity.

  15. Effect of Mn-doping on the growth mechanism and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; You Tian-Gui; Zhang Zhi-Yong; Tian Jiang-Xiao; Yun Jiang-Ni; Zhao Wu

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters with different Mn-doping concentrations are prepared by a hydrothermal process. The microstructure, morphology and electromagnetic properties are characterized by x-ray diffractometer high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), a field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM)and a microwave vector network analyser respectively.The experimental results indicate that the asprepared products are Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, that the growth habit changes due to Mn-doping and that a good magnetic loss property is found in the Mn-doped ZnO products, and theaverage magnetic loss tangent tan6m is up to 0.170099 for 3% Mn-doping, while the dielectric loss tangent tanSe is weakened, owing to the fact that ions Mn2+ enter the crystal lattice of ZnO.

  16. 地被菊在园林设计中的应用研究%Application of Ground- Cover Chrysanthemum with Small Inflorescences to Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊; 卢明明; 孙莺沙

    2012-01-01

    指出了地被菊作为一类植株低矮、抗逆性强、花色丰富、花期较长、开花繁密的菊花新品种群,是非常优良的地被植物,适宜在城市景观绿化中推广使用。分析了其形态特征,探讨了地被菊对环境的适应性,及在园林设计中的应用。%Ground - cover chrysanthemum is a new kind of ornamental plants. Its horticultural properties are also good. It has lower plant height, rich color, longer blossom period, numerous flowers per plant and strong resistance of stress such as cold, heat, drought, salt, air pollution etc. Therefore, it is suitable to be applied to gardens.

  17. Effects of Hydroabsorbent Mixed Slow Release Fertilizers on Growth and Nutrients Uptake of Edible Chrysanthemum%保水缓释肥料对食用菊花生长及养分吸收的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李传章; 高丽娟; 黄景; 孙钦平; 许俊香; 刘本生; 李吉进

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to provide the basis on the application of hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer in Chrysanthemum. A pot experiment was conducted to study and compare the effects of hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer and slow-release fertilizer on Chrysanthemum' s growth, yields and nitrogen effects. Four treatments were set up, which were control (CK), hydroabsorbent (B), slow-release fertilizer (H) and hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer (BH). The results showed that, compared with H treatment, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow released fertilizer significantly boosted the growth of Chrysanthemum, and including plant height increased about 8 cm, chlorophyll content increased by over 4%, biomass increased by more than 25%. The contents of N, P and K of chrysanthemum treated with BH were significant more than those treated with H, and nitrogen use efficiency improved more than 23%. Meanwhile, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer could significantly reduce soil nitrate content, thereby reducing the risk of nitrogen leaching loss. Therefore, the hydroabsorbent mixed slow-released fertilizer had a significant effectiveness for Chrysanthemum, and was better than slow-release fertilizer.%为了给菊花生产提供保水缓释肥施用的参考依据,利用温室盆栽试验,研究和比较了保水缓释肥料和普通缓释肥料对食用菊花生长发育、产量及其氮素效应的影响.试验设计了不施肥(CK)、单施保水剂(B)、单施缓释肥(H)和保水缓释肥(BH)4个处理.试验结果表明,与缓释肥处理相比,保水缓释肥料显著促进了菊花的生长,其中株高增加约8 cm、叶绿素含量提高4%以上,生物量提高25%以上;保水缓释肥处理植株氮、磷、钾含量比缓释肥处理显著增加,提高氮素利用率23个百分点以上;同时保水缓释肥能显著降低土壤硝态氮的含量,从而降低氮素淋洗流失的风险.因此,保水缓释肥对菊花肥效显著,优于缓释肥.

  18. Avaliação do enraizamento de estacas de crisântemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium L. cv. white Reagan 606 tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (IBA Rooting evaluation in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. white Reagan 606 stem cuttings as affected by indolbutyric acid (IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Cuquel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de doses crescentes do ácido indolbutírico (IBA e de diferentes tempos de imersão no enraizamento de estacas de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. O fator doses foi aplicado em quatro níveis: 0, 500, 1000 e 1500 ppm de IBA e o fator tempo em três níveis: 5s, 1h e 2h. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, onde as dosagens de IBA foram aplicadas como tratamento principal. O experimento foi instalado em caixas de isopor, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização, tendo vermiculita como substrato. O momento adequado para o transplante foi avaliado através da leitura de uma repetição adicional utilizada como controle. Obteve-se enraizamento em todas as combinações de tratamento, mesma na ausência de IBA. De maneira geral o tratamento rápido tende a ser mais facilmente eficiente quando combinado com as maiores dosagens, enquanto os tratamentos mais demorados com as menores dosagens.The effect of rising concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA solutions was evaluated with different exposition times in stem cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. The applied concentrations were 0,500,1000 and 1500 ppm of IBA during 5s, 1h and 2h, in a randomized complete split-plot block design, with IBA concentrations as main treatment. The experiment was installed in styrofoam trays in a green-house with a mist device and vermiculite as substrate. Transplanting time was determined by an additional block. All treatments induced rooting even in the absence of IBA. In a general sense the fastest treatments tended to be the more efficient when combined with higher concentrations.

  19. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  20. Influence of temperature and rooting-promoter on the formation of root-primodia and on the rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings under storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to promote rooting for direct planting cuttings in a lighting cultivation of chrysanthemum, we clarified the effects of light, temperature and term of storage of the cuttings, and analyzed ways of using rooting promoters as a pre-treatment of cuttings for root-primodia formation and rooting. Light as a pre-treatment had little effect, so it seemed to be not necessary for the formation of root primodia. The formation of the root-primodia was most hastened at 25 degrees C; inversely, it was slowed down at low temperatures, that is, the root-primodia were formed in four days at 25 degrees C, five days at 20 degrees C, and seven days at 15 degrees C. With the use of rooting promoters as a pre-treatment for the rooting of cuttings, the root-primodia were formed faster when the whole of cuttings were dipped in 40 mg/L solution of indelebutyric acid (IBA) than when the base of cuttings were dipped or sprayed 400 mg/L solution of IBA. It was appropriate that cuttings were dipped in IBA then put in in plastic-pots (7.5cm) vertically, packed in polyethylene-bags and stored in a corrugated carton box

  1. The extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extractant for extraction and re-extraction of heavy metal ions has been worked out. The extractant consists of ferromagnetic particles suspended in liquid and covered by unsaturated fatty acids. The liquid, unsoluble in other liquids taken part in the process, contains also an organic derivative of phosphoric acid as a complexing agent

  2. Chemical characteristics of different parts of Coreopsis tinctoria in China using microwave-assisted extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography followed by chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shing-Chung; Liu, Xin; Chen, Xian-Qiang; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Long, Ze-Rong; Fan, Bing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    Coreopsis tinctoria, also called "snow chrysanthemum" in China, is a flower tea material that has been reported to possess excellent pharmacological properties such as antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. The chemical characteristics of different parts (flowers, buds, seeds, stems, and leaves) of C. tinctoria were investigated based on microwave-assisted extraction and the simultaneous determination of 13 major active compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography, including taxifolin-7-O-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, (R/S)-flavanomarein, isocoreopsin, quercetagetin-7-O-glucoside, isookanin, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, marein, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin, 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone, and N(1) ,N(5) ,N(10) ,N(14) -tetra-p-coumaroylspermine. Chemometric analysis based on the contents of investigated compounds from 13 samples showed that C. tinctoria and the related flower tea materials, Chrysanthemum morifolium cv "Hangju" and "Gongju," were in different clusters, and different parts (flowers, buds, seeds, stems, and leaves) of C. tinctoria were obviously different. This study is helpful for the quality control and pharmacological evaluation of different parts from C. tinctoria and its related products. PMID:27291468

  3. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from the gum socket. It is usually done by a general ... gum. If you need a more complex tooth extraction: You will be given sedation so you are ...

  4. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  5. Prospect of indegenous plant extracts in tea pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S.A. Mamun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tea is a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis, under the family Theaceae. Tea plant is subjected to the attack of insects, mites, nematodes and some plant pathogenic diseases. Tea production is greatly hindered due to thesemaladies. About 10-15% crop loss occurred by these pests per annum. In severe cases, it would be 100%. To combat these problems different groups of pesticides have been used in the tea fields since 1960. As tea is a consumable commodity, the effect of residue of pesticides in made tea is harmful to human health. In this context, biopesticides are being considered as environmentally safe, selective, biodegradable, economical and renewable alternatives for use in IPM programmes. Biopesticides are natural plant products and may be grown by the planters with minimum cost and extracted by indigenous methods.Biopesticides are secondary metabolites, which include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, and minor secondary chemicals. It is estimated that as many as 2121 plant species have been reported to posses’ pest control properties. Botanicals like neem, ghora-neem, mahogoni,karanja, adathoda, sweet flag, tobacco, derris, annona, smart weed, bar weed, datura, calotropis, bidens, lantana, chrysanthemum, artemisia, marigold, clerodendrum, wild sunflower and many others may be grown by planters with minimum expense and extracted by indigenous methods. These botanical materials can be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides. These botanical extracts will help in controlling major pests of tea such as Helopeltis, red spider mite, aphids, thrips, jassid, flushworm, termites, nematodes etc. Thepresent note reviews the information of most widely available indigenous plants that may be used for the control of insect pests of tea as a component of IPM.

  6. In vitro isolation, purification, rapid bulking and field establishment of a promising radio-mutant Pusa Anmol from spray Chrysanthemum cv. Ajay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promising novel coloured radio mutants in the form of chimers observed in the irradiated population of chrysanthemum cultivar Ajay (pink coloured spray cultivar) were isolated, purified, proliferated and the micro-plantlets are successfully established in the field as a new mutant variety-Pusa Anmol. Chimeral flower buds with a spectrum of colours appeared when irradiated at 15 and 20 Gy, whereas plant mortality (95%) and negative mutants with abnormalities were higher at 30 Gy. The chimeral portion on florets ranged from 50-100%. The irradiated plants of cv.Ajay produced a wide range of novel chimers (10-19%) with yellow to yellowish pink florets when irradiated at 15Gy. Complete mutants in the form of yellowish pink flower in a flower bunch and complete branch with brick brown color were noticed at 20Gy. A large number of flowers with altered morphology with spoon or flute or cup or quill shape florets were also noticed. The florets with partial chimeras were rejected and only complete chimeral florets or the florets form complete mutants with novel colour were cultured in vitro to isolate the novel mutants. MS medium fortified with 10 mg/l Kinetin + 0.50 mg/l NAA was found to be the best. The florets with limited callus were sub cultured on the same medium where maximum number of florets (82%) regenerated producing as many as 34.40 shoots per explant. A proliferation rate of 5-6 times was achieved using MS medium+3.0 mg/l BAP+0.01 mg/l NAA. Rhizogenesis was achieved (80-90%) when cultured on 1/2 MS + 0.5 mg/l NAA + 60g sucrose. The yellowish pink coloured mutant is successfully established in the field, evaluated for three consecutive years and is identified for release as Pusa Anmol. The new mutant is also photo/ thermo intensive and flowers twice or thrice in a year along with its parent cultivar. (author)

  7. [Effects of two controlled-release fertilizers with different proportions of N, P and K on the nutrient uptake and growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Xiang; Wang, Jian-Hua; Sun, Yin-Shi; Li, Yu-Peng; Sun, Li-Wen; Zhang, Chun-Ling

    2009-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of two controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (4% resin-coated, N: P2O5: K2O = 14: 14: 14) and CRFB (4% resin-coated, N: P2O5: K2O = 20: 8:10) on the nutrient uptake and growth of Chrysanthemum morifolium, with common compound fertilizer CCF (N: P2O5: K2O = 15: 15: 15) as the control. Six treatments were installed, i. e., CCF1 (CCF, 6 g N x pot(-1)), CCF2 (CCF, 3 g N x pot(-1)), CRFA1 (CRFA, 6 g x pot(-1)), CRFA2 (CRFA, 3 g x pot(-1)), CRFB1 (CRFB, 6 g x pot(-1)), and CRFB (CRFB, 3 g x pot(-1)). On the 30th day of applying common compound fertilizer CCF1 and CCF2, soil available N, P and K contents were 163.29 and 145.26 mg x kg(-1), 180.39 and 163.13 mg x kg(-1), and 300.08 and 213.15 mg x kg(-1), respectively, and decreased rapidly since then. In treatments CRFA1, CRFB1, CRFA2, and CRFB, soil available N content increased slowly, and reached the peak on the 60th day after fertilizing, being 129.51, 138.65, 118.36, and 126.31 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Soil available P content had the same variation trend. Its maximum concentration was 169.54 and 133.46 mg x kg(-1) in treatments CRFA1 and CRFA2 on the 30th day after fertilizing, and 137.13 and 84.68 mg x kg(-1) in treatments CRFB1 and CRFB2 on the 60th day after fertilizing, and decreased slowly then. The agronomic traits such as leaf area, leaf area index, branch number, flowering rate, flower number, and flower diameter, etc., in treatments CRFA and CRFB were obviously better than those of the control, and CRFB was better than CRFA, suggesting that CRFB more matched the nutrient demand of C. morifolium. Under the conditions of present experiment, applying CRFB2 obtained the highest yield. PMID:19899469

  8. A Process Research of Healthy and Refreshing Beverages Made of Herba houttuyniae, Folium llicis, and Chrysanthemum morifolium%鱼腥草、苦丁茶、杭白菊复合保健饮料工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 罗爱平; 赵贵丽; 周国君; 徐筱菁

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to optimize the protocol of herba houttuyniae juice processing using herba houttuyniae as major ingredient, and Folium llicis and Chrysanthemum morifolium as auxiliary materials herein. The findings showed that Folium /feisLatifoliae and Chrysanthemum morifolium, could effectively affect the flavor of its drinks. The procedure was as following: cutting the Herba houttuyniae into 1 to 2 cm pieces, dipping them in the 0. 2% salt-water, protecting color and steaming, pulping with protect color liquid in the proportion of 1:0. 8, which could increase juice yield to 140 mL per 100 g fresh Herba houttuyniae and produce the yellow liquid product. The best formula of compound beverages contained 100 mL Herba houttuyniae juice,0.12g xanthan gum, 0. 08 g sucrose fatty acid ester, 30 g sweeteners (sucrose: lactose1 xylitol = 10: 3:2) , 0.94ml acidity ( containing 2. 6% citric acid, 1.0% tartaric acid and 1.0% vitamin C) , 21 mL Folium llicis, 5.3 mL Chrysanthemum morifolium.%以鱼腥草为主料,辅以苦丁茶、杭白菊,探讨鱼腥草、苦丁茶和杭白菊清凉复合保健饮料的最佳工艺配方.结果表明:将鱼腥草切成1 ~2cm小段,经0.2%盐水浸渍、护色、汽蒸,与护色液按1∶0.8打浆,每100g鲜鱼腥草出汁率可提高达140 mL,汁液色泽呈理想的浅黄色.复合饮料最佳配方为:鱼腥草汁的用量100 mL,黄原胶0.12g,蔗糖脂肪酸酯0.08g,甜味剂309(蔗糖∶乳糖∶木耱醇=10∶3∶2),酸味剂0.94 mL(含柠檬酸2.6%、酒石酸1.0%,抗坏血酸1.0%),苦丁茶汁21 mL,菊花汁5.3mL.苦丁茶、杭白菊能有效改善鱼腥草饮料的风味.

  9. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas

  10. Historical and Cultural Origin and Textual Research of Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivated in Macheng%麻城福白菊的历史文化渊源及本草考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光军; 陈科力

    2011-01-01

    麻城市种植的药用菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)品质优良,产量在全国占有较大的份额,并以麻城福白菊(C.morifolium cv.Fubaiju)注册了国家地理标志证明商标,但该品牌还不为国人所熟知.笔者从历史文化渊源和本草考证的角度证实,湖北麻城大别山地区是具有悠久历史的传统菊花产地之一,关于麻城菊花食用和种植历史最明确的记载,可以在麻城县志中追溯到明末清初,而关于麻城菊花采收和食用的文化习俗,甚至可以追溯到更为久远的春秋战国时期.%The Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivated in Macheng region had excellent quality and contributed to a large proportion of total yield in China. The National Geographic Symbol Certification Mark, name of C. morifolium cv.Fubai-ju, had been registered. However, the C. morifolium cv. Fubaiju brand had not been well known. According to the historical and cultural origin and textual research on Chinese medicine, the presented paper verified that the Dabie Mountain area in Macheng city of Hubei was a traditional production area of C. morifolium with long history. The clear record about C. morifolium cultivated and used as food in Macheng could be traced back to Late Ming Dynasty to Early Qing Dynasty in Macheng local chronicles. And the cultural consuetude about C. morifolium collection and recipe in Macheng could even be traced back to old Spring and Autumn Period.

  11. 从语境顺应看《菊与刀》中的耻感文化%A TENTATIVE APPROACH TO SHAME CULTURE IN THE CHRYSANTHEMUM AND THE SWORD FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CONTEXTUAL ADAPTABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚倩雯

    2011-01-01

    本尼迪克特在她的《菊与刀》中指出日本文化是不同于欧美"罪感文化"的"耻感文化"。Verschueren认为,人们使用语言的过程实际上是一个不断选择语言的过程。本文在顺应论理论框架下对《菊与刀》中的"耻感文化"进行了语境顺应性的分析。通过分析耻感文化背景下的日本人在交际过程中是如何对交际语境进行动态顺应并作出相应的语言选择,进一步探讨了语言的选择与文化语境的密切关系。%In The Chrysanthemum and the Sword,Benedict declares that the national culture of Japan is a "shame culture" rather than a "guilt culture".In Verschueren's Adaptation Theory,it is believed that language use must be constituted by continuous choice making.Based on the theoretic framework of Adaptation Theory,this paper makes an analysis of contextual adaptability of shame culture advocated in The Chrysanthemum and the Sword.Based on an analysis of shame culture and its influences on the Japanese's selection of language use,this paper makes a further discussion of the relationship between language choice-making and cultural context.

  12. Cloning and Expression of CmCO and CmFT of Floral Development Genes in Chrysanthemum%菊花花发育基因CmCO和CmFT的克隆与表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素波; 林桂玉; 郑成淑; 孙霞; 任洪艳; 温立柱

    2011-01-01

    利用同源序列法结合RACE技术从菊花'神马'品种[Chrysanthemum morfIorium(Ramat.)Kitam.'Jinba']中分离了开花时间相关的CO(CONSTANS)和FT(FLOWERINGLOCUST)同源基因,并命名为CmCO(基因登录号JF488070)和CmFT(基因登录号JF488071).CmCO和CmFT分别编码382和174个氨基酸.蛋白比对发现,CmCO蛋白包含具有典型的CO同源蛋白结构,包含B-box1,B-box2,CCT结构域及COOH区域.CmFT所推测的氨基酸序列包含FT类蛋白保守基序和两个关键性氨基酸残基.同源性分析表明,CmCO与草莓(Fragaria×ananassa)FaCO同源性最高,为65.8%,与豌豆(Pisumsativum)PsCOL、拟南芥(Arabidopsis thaliana)AtCO同源性分别为62.0%和55.6%.CmFT与向日葵(Helianthus annuus)HaFT2基因同源性最高,为93.7%,与葡萄(Vitis vinifera)VvFT和拟南芥AtFT的同源性分别为85.1%和74.0%.进化树聚类分析表明,CmCO和CmFT蛋白分别与向日葵HaCO和HaFT2 遗传距离最近.RT-PCR表明,长日照下的菊花叶片中几乎检测不到CmCO和CmFT,而在短日照下,CmCO在花芽分化启动期(Ⅰ)表达,总苞鳞片分化前期(Ⅱ)有所下降随后又迅速升高;CmFT在CmCO之后表达,之后持续高表达.选择小花原基分化前期(Ⅳ)对菊花叶片、花芽和茎等不同组织器官CmCO.和CmnFT表达进行分析,结果表明,CmCO在叶片中表达量最高,花芽次之,茎最低;CmFT在花芽中表达量最高,叶片次之,茎最低.由此推测CmCO和CmFT的表达与光周期诱导菊花成花密切相关.%The genes of CO (CONSTANS) and FT (FLOWERING LOCUS T), which related to flowering time were isolated from Chrysanthemum morflorium (Ramat.) Kitam. ' Jinba' by RT-PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and named it CmCO (GenBank accession No. JF488070) and CmFT (GenBank accession No. JF488071) respectively. CmCO and CmFTencoded 382 and 174 aminoacids respectively. Alignment analysis showed that CmCO protein had typical structures of CO homologous protein, including B-boxl, B-box2

  13. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    physicians with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario, first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct...... validity of the scale. Main outcome measures. Consensus for the content of the scale. To test the scale of Cronbach's alpha, interclass correlation and differential item function was calculated in the prospective study. Results. 89% completed the first and 61% completed the second Delphi round. Hereafter...

  14. Environmentally friendly ionic liquid-in-water microemulsions for extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic components from Flos Chrysanthemi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jue; Cao, Jun; Gao, Wen; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping

    2013-10-21

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have numerous chemical applications as environmentally green solvents that are extending into microemulsion applications. In this work, a novel benign IL-in-water microemulsion system modified by an IL surfactant has been proposed for simultaneous extraction of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents from Flos Chrysanthemi (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Constituents were analyzed by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A mixture-design approach was used to optimize the IL surfactant and the IL oil phase in the microemulsion system. Microemulsions consisting of 6.0% 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate, 0.1% 1-vinyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and 93.9% water offered the acceptable extract efficiency that are comparable to or even better than conventional volatile organic solvents. This assay was fully validated with respect to the linearity of response (r(2) > 0.999 over two orders of magnitude), precision (intra-RSD microemulsion method provided an environmentally friendly alternative for efficient extraction of compounds from Flos Chrysanthemi and could be extended to complex environmental and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:23928686

  15. Produtividade e longevidade de crisântemos, cultivados em hidroponia, em resposta a doses de cálcio Chrysanthemum productivity and longevity in a hydroponic system in response to calcium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Soares Barbosa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar a resposta de diferentes variedades de crisântemos a doses de cálcio um experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação sob sistema hidropônico de três fases e cascalho como substrato. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo as doses de cálcio (1,0; 2,5; 4,0; 5,5 mmol L-1 dispostas nas parcelas e três variedades (Blush Hawai, Calabria e Dark Flamengo nas subparcelas, com 3 repetições. Para as diferentes doses de cálcio, utilizou-se solução nutritiva completa. Foram avaliados o peso da matéria fresca da folha, caule, inflorescência e parte aérea, ciclo, comprimento de haste e número e longevidade das inflorecencias, expressa pelo número de dias da colheita ao descarte das mesmas (murcha e perda de coloração das flores. As variedades Calabria e Blush Hawai apresentaram-se mais precoces e mais produtivas. Houve aumento linear na longevidade das três variedades com o aumento das concentrações de cálcio na solução nutritiva. O melhor desenvolvimento e crescimento das variedades de crisântemos foi obtido quando utilizada a solução nutritiva com 4,0 mmol L-1 de cálcio.To verify the response of different varieties of chrysanthemum to doses of calcium an experiment was conducted in a green house using a three-phase hydroponic system on a gravel substrate. It was set up in a completely random blocks with split-plot design, using four calcium doses (1.0; 2.5; 4.0; 5.5 mmol L-1 in the plots disposed and three chrysanthemum varieties (Blush Hawai, Calabria and Dark Flamengo in the subplots. Three repetitions were used with 96 plants by repetition. Complete nutrient solutions were used with the different calcium doses. The following factors were evaluated: fresh matter weight of leaf, stem, inflorescence and shoot; cycle; number of inflorescences, stem length and the longevity, expressed in the number of days from harvest to disposal of the inflorescences (withered and

  16. Simultaneous determination of multiplex trace elements in chrysanthemum by ICP-Mass%电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-Mass)同时测定菊花中多种微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林新花; 洪瑞申

    2012-01-01

    用原子吸收光谱法(AAS)和电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP - Mass)分别测定菊花中微量元素锌、铜、铁,采用的定量分析方法是标准曲线法.并对两种仪器分析方法所得结果进行了比较.结果表明,随锌、铜、铁变量,AAS法和ICP - Mass法均有较好的线性关系,且测定的结果相近.两种方法最低检出限量分别为,AAS法铁0.4mg/L、铜0.4mg/L、锌0 08mg/L;ICP - Mass法铁0.0008mg/L、铜0.0008mg/L、锌0.0008mg/L.与AAS法技术相比,ICP - Mass技术将ICP的高温电离特性与四极杆质谱计的灵敏快速扫描的优点相结合,ICP - MS技术提供了最低的检出限,最宽的动态线性范围,且谱线简单、干扰少,分析精密度高,所以ICP - Mass法的准确度更高.ICP - Mass法可以同时测定菊花中的多种微量元素,分析周期短,提高了样品的分析效率.显示该方法快速、准确、简便等的优点.而AAS法一次只能分析单个元素.%Trace element Zn, Cu and Fe content in chrysanthemum were determined by both atomic absorption spec-trometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma mass - spectrography ( ICP - Mass). Three elements content in chrysanthemum was determined by standard curve method. The results obtained from two instrumental analysis methods were compared. The results show that the linear calibration curves for AAS and ICP - Mass were good, the measurement results by both methods were near. The lowest detection limits of Fe, Cu and Zn were 0. 4mg/L, 0. 4mg/L and 0, 08mg/L respectively by AAS. The lowest detection of limits of Fe, Gu, Zn were 0. 0008mg/L, 0. 0008mg/L and 0. 0008mg/L respectively by ICP - Mass, ICP - Mass was unique technology in which high - temperature ionization of ICP was combined with advantages of sensitive, quick and scanning of quadrupole mass spectrometer. ICP - Mass provided the lowest detection limit, the widest dynamic range linear. The analysis line of ICP -Mass was simple so that interference was low. The

  17. Biopolymer extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Y; Al-Zuhairy, S.; Pronk, M.; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht

    2015-01-01

    In a prior art reactor set up dense aggregates of microorganisms are formed, typically in or embedded in an extracellular matrix. Such may relate to granules, to sphere like entities having a higher viscosity than water, globules, a biofilm, etc. The dense aggregates comprise extracellular polymeric substances, or biopolymers, in particular linear polysaccharides, The present invention is in the field of extraction of a biopolymer from a granular sludge, a biopolymer obtained by said method, ...

  18. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS TRATAMIENTOS FOTOPERIÓDICOS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., BAJO CONDICIONES DEL INTERTRÓPICO ANDINO ALTO EVALUATION OF TWO PHOTOPERIOD TREATMENTS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum ((Ramat. Kitam., UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH ANDEAN INTERTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáber de Jesús Chica Toro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la floricultura colombiana, cerca del 14 % de los costos de producción del crisantemo o pompón (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., está representado por la luz complementaria requerida para controlar su floración. Con el fin de encontrar un protocolo que hiciera uso de un menor suministro de luz, en este trabajo se compararon los efectos de dos esquemas de complemento lumínico nocturno sobre algunas características precosecha y poscosecha en dos variedades comerciales tipo spider de crisantemo: Super White y Super Yellow. El esquema testigo de suplemento lumínico nocturno consistió en aportar la adición durante 28 días para la variedad Super Yellow, y 26 para la variedad Super White. La propuesta alternativa de adición lumínica nocturna consistió en interrumpir el estímulo durante una noche completa cada dos días. Tal disminución del estímulo lumínico, en aproximadamente un 30 %, no afectó el crecimiento ni las características poscosecha de las variedades evaluadas.In Colombian floriculture, nearly 14% of the production costs of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam. consists of the additional lighting required to control its flowering. In order to find a protocol that consumes a lower amount of electricity, this study compared the effects of two supplementary noctural lighting schemes on several preharvest and postharvest characteristics in two commercial varieties of chrysanthemum: Super White and Super Yellow. The control nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of providing the supplemental lighting during 28 days for the Super Yellow variety and during 26 days for the Super White variety. The alternative nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of interrupting the stimulus during one complete night every two days. This approximately 30% reduction in light stimulation did not affect either growth or postharvest characteristics of the varieties evaluated.

  19. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M Hudaib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC 50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%. These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC 50 = 53.7 μg/ml, Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml, Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml, and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml. Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition, Helianthemum ledifolium (L. Mill. (28.4%, Majorana syriaca (L. Kostel. (25.1%, and Mentha spicata L. (22.5% showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22-30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders.

  20. Technical and economic feasibility of the use of discharge lamps in replacement of filament for induction of photoperiod in chrysanthemum seedlings production; Viabilidade tecnico-economica do uso de lampadas de descarga em substituicao as de filamento para inducao de fotoperiodo na producao de mudas de crisantemos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Luiz A.; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: rossi@feagri.unicamp.br; Pagliardi, Odail [Faculdade Municipal Prof. Franco Montoro (FMPFM), Mogi Guacu, SP (Brazil); Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeira das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS

    2010-07-01

    Due to its physiological characteristics, the seedlings of chrysanthemums require supplemental light to prevent bud formation, that is done at night. This article examines the technical and economic valuation to replace the current technology of artificial lighting used by producers (incandescent bulbs) for the purpose of inducing photoperiod in a protected environment for cutting-discharge lamps, with the goal of reducing the consumption electricity used in the process. The analysis showed that the integrated compact fluorescent yellow lamp 23W is the technically and economically feasible for such replacement. (author)

  1. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  2. Characterization of new variety of Chrysanthemum by using ISSR markers Caracterização de novas cultivares de crisântemo com o uso de marcadores ISSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Palai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is the important cut flower after rose among the ornamental plants traded in the global flower market. It is propagated vegetatively and also has a strong sporophytic self-incompatibility system as shown by all members of Asteraceae family. Morphologically, the petal numbers and flower colours present maximum variation when compared to existing varieties. Twenty Inter Simple Sequence Repeat primers were used to detect the new variety of Chrysanthemum developed through spontaneous sporting. The results indicate that the rate of polymorphism showed significant differences as compared to other existing varieties. The average number of amplification products per primer was eight. The size of ISSR amplified fragments varied from 0.25 - 2.4 Kbp. Therefore, ISSR marker is a useful technique for the rapid and easy assessment of genetic variation among the variants. Morphological traits of new variants showed variation as compared to other parents. The 1st flower bud appearance and the height of 1st bud of the variant were less as compared to original mother variety. The new variants can be propagated in large scale commercially through in vitro technique.Entre as plantas ornamentais comercializados no mercado mundial, o crisântemo é a flor de corte de maior importância sendo superado apenas pela rosa. Ele é propagado vegetativamente e também tem um forte sistema de auto-incompatibilidade esporofítica como mostrado por todos os membros da família Asteraceae. Morfologicamente, os números de pétalas e as cores das flores apresentam variação máxima em relação às cultivares existentes. Empregou-se vinte primers ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat para caracterizar a nova cultivar de crisântemo desenvolvida por mutação expontânea. Os resultados indicam que a taxa de polimorfismo mostrou diferenças significativas em comparação com outras cultivares existentes. Foi de oito o número médio de produtos de amplificação por

  3. The promoter of the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4a-5 gene of Chrysanthemum morifolium (CmCCD4a-5) drives petal-specific transcription of a conjugated gene in the developing flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ayano; Takahashi, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Katsumi; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2013-09-15

    Carotenoids comprise one of the major groups of pigments in flowers. Because carotenoids are physiologically indispensable pigments for all photosynthetic plants, their catabolism must be discretely regulated in photosynthetic organs and non-photosynthetic organs such as petals or fruits. In the chrysanthemum, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 4a (CmCCD4a), which is dominantly expressed in petals, cleaves carotenoid, leading to a white flower. CmCCD4a-5 was recently identified as a new member of the CmCCD4a family, but its detailed expression profile in plant tissues has not yet been established. In this study, we sequenced a 1094-bp region upstream of CmCCD4a-5 and assessed its petal-specific promoter activity. To evaluate the activity of this gene, we constructed two types of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana that possessed, respectively, a fusion gene of a 1090-bp or 505-bp segment of the upstream region plus the β-d-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (1090bUR::GUS and 505bUR::GUS). GUS activity in the 505bUR::GUS strain was observed mainly in the anthers/pollen in flower buds, whereas GUS activity of the 1090bUR::GUS strain was observed in immature petals of the flower buds. Among the cis-acting elements located between positions -505 and -1090, no elements that have previously been reported to enhance the expression in petals or to suppress it in anthers/pollen were detected by PLACE analysis, indicating the existence of unknown cis-element(s). A semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that CmCCD4a-5 transcription was prominent in petals but was undetectable in roots, stems and leaves. PMID:23643306

  4. Solarização do solo para o controle de Pythium e plantas daninhas em cultura de crisântemo Soil solarization for Pithium and weed control in chrysanthemum crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bettiol

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A solarização, durante dois meses, de um solo naturalmente infestado com Pythium, promoveu o controle do patógeno, de modo semelhante à aplicação de metalaxyl + mancozeb, na cultura de crisântemo. A incidência média de plantas mortas foi de 2,3% nas parcelas solarizadas; 1,0% no solo solarizado que recebeu metade da dose dos fungicidas; 9,0% com a aplicação da dose completa dos fungicidas (1 g de metalaxyl + 4,8 g de mancozeb/m² e 38,9%, na testemunha não tratada. A solarização também promoveu o controle de plantas daninhas, avaliado através do peso da matéria seca das plantas emergentes aos 21 dias após o transplante das mudas, semelhantemente ao herbicida oxidiazon.Two months solarization of a soil naturally infested with Pythium sp. promoted a level of control similar to what was obtained with the application of methalaxyl + mancozeb for the chrysanthemum crop. The average rate of dead plants was 9.0% with the application of fungicides (1 g of methalaxyl + 4.8 g of mancozeb/ m²; 2.3% in solarized plots; 1.0% in solarized plots which received half the dosages of the fungicides and 38.9% in control plots. Similar control of weeds was obtained in solarized plots and plots treated with the herbicide oxidiazon.

  5. Analysis of the Particularity of Japanese Culture from The Chrysanthemum and the Sword%从《菊与刀》探析日本文化的特殊性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孥少伟

    2012-01-01

    美国女人类学家本尼迪克特在其文化名著《菊与刀》中把日本社会的文化定义为一种"耻感文化",把西方社会的文化定义为"罪感文化"。两者主要的区别在于"罪感文化"强调自律,"耻感文化"强调他律。实际上这是由于东西方文化对"罪"的概念认识的不同,而造成的理解误区。把日本文化定性为"耻感文化",否定了日本人的罪感意识。确切地说日本文化兼具"耻"与"罪"文化的双重性。%American female anthropologist Benedict defines Japanese social culture as a "shame culture" and West social culture as a "guilty culture" in her masterpiece Chrysanthemum and the Sword. Their main differences are that "shame culture" emphasizes autonomy, while "guilty culture" stresses heteronomy. In fact, this is a misunderstanding caused by the differences of understanding the definition of "guilt" between Eastern and Western culture. If we define Japanese culture as "shame culture" , we deny the guilty consciousness of the Japanese. To be precise, Japanese culture has the duality of "shame" and "guilt".

  6. Produtividade de crisântemo em função de níveis de irrigação Chrysanthemum yield as affected by various irrigation depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de L Rego

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. é uma das principais flores comercializadas no Brasil e no mundo. Apesar de sua importância, no Brasil o manejo da irrigação em crisântemo é caracterizado pelo empirismo, necessitando-se de maiores estudos quanto ao uso de água pela cultura. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos de níveis de irrigação sobre o crisântemo cultivado em ambiente protegido. O experimento foi conduzido, de 06/08-27/10/03, na Fazenda Venezuela, no município de Guaramiranga-CE, em ambiente protegido de 9 x 30 m. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos (níveis de irrigação correspondentes a 50; 75; 100 e 125% da evaporação no tanque classe "A", ECA, e quatro repetições, totalizando dezesseis parcelas. O ciclo da cultura foi de 82 dias e as lâminas totais aplicadas foram: 192,2; 246,4; 300,9 e 355,4 mm para os tratamentos 50, 75, 100 e 125% da ECA, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa para número de hastes por pacote e de pacotes por m² e, tampouco, para produtividade (Tabela 1. Entre tratamentos, o número de hastes por pacote variou de 21 (75, 100 e 125% ECA a 22 (50% ECA, o número de pacotes por m², entre 3,63 (100% ECA e 4,28 (75% ECA e, a produtividade, entre 3,94 (125% ECA e 4,36 kg m-2 (75% ECA. À medida que se aumentou a lâmina d'água, diminuiu-se linearmente a eficiência do uso da água. A irrigação utilizando-se lâmina de água correspondente a 125% da ECA apresentou significativamente a menor eficiência no uso da água (0,0107 pacotes m-2 mm-1, enquanto os tratamentos em que a irrigação correspondeu a 50 e 75% da ECA foram os mais eficientes (0,0210 e 0,0174 pacotes m-2 mm-1, respectivamente.Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzevelev. is one of the most important flowers traded both in Brazil and in the world. In spite of that, chrysanthemum irrigation management in Brazil is characterized by empiricism

  7. 基于IPA分析法的游客旅游满意度研究--以开封菊花文化节为例%A Study on Tourist Satisfaction Based on IPA Methods in Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮文佳; 袁箐

    2015-01-01

    节事活动是旅游业的重要组成部分,目前中国节事活动呈现出一片繁荣的景象。运用IPA(Important-Performance Analysis)分析法,以开封菊花文化节为例,从参与者的角度对开封节事活动的发展进行实证研究,结果显示:①参与者认为在影响节事满意度的感知项中,服务、价格、治安状况及节事活动文化内涵是最为重要的,而参与者对市民态度、节事活动特色、氛围及城市到达交通最为满意;②参与者对节事活动特征项的重要性感知高于满意度感知;③将17个特征项定位于IPA分析图中,并根据4个象限(继续保持、重点改进、勿需优先以及表现过度)的分布情况,对开封节事活动的发展提出建议。%AbstractFestival and special events are an important part of the tourism industry. Nowadays,festival and special events in China develop prosperously. This paper takes Kaifeng Chrysanthemum Cultural Festi-val for example and uses IPA (Important-Performance Analysis) to make an empirical study on the devel-opment of festival activities in Kaifeng from the perspective of participants. The results show that(1) par-ticipants felt that services,prices,law and order situation and the cultural connotation of festival activities are the most important items among the perception items,and the attitude of the natives,features and atmo-sphere of festival activities and city traffic are of the most satisfaction;(2) participants' perception of im-portance is higher than their perception of satisfaction;(3) 17 items are located in the IPA analysis dia-gram,and some suggestions are put forward on the development of festival activities in Kaifeng according to the distribution of four quadrants.

  8. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  9. 杭菊栽培品种小黄菊鲜花和制成品香气组成分析%Analysis on chemical components of essential oils from fresh flowers and manufactured goods of Chrysanthemum cultivar Dendrathema grandiflorum‘Xiao Huang'Ju in Tongxiang City of Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦馨; 沈学根; 周建松; 崔林; 韩宝瑜

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils of fresh flowers and manufactured goods of Chrysanthemum cultivar Dendrathema grandiflorum‘Xiao Huang'Ju were extracted by the simultaneous distillation extraction method , then detected by gas chromatography coupled of mass spectrum .The results were as follows:(1) Seventy-six and eighty-eight components were respectively identified from the fresh flowers and manufactured goods of ‘Xiao Huang'Ju, with monterpenes , sesquiterpenes and their oxygenous derivatives being the major chemical components ;(2) Sixty-two mutual chemical components were identified , with eucalyptol , camphor , verbenol acetate , hexamethyl-benzene and so on at high content level.(3) The compounds in essential oils of the fresh flowers which were at least ten times greater than those in essential oils of manufactured goods were camphene ,β-phellandrene,α-phellandrene, (E)-ocimene, (Z)-ocimene, bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-one, allo-ocimene, D-verbenone, safranal, hexamethyl-benzene;(4) Fourteen components were only identified from the essential oils of fresh flowers , such asα-thujenal ,α-fenchene , copaene and so on.(5) The relative contents of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, α-zingiberene, β-sesquiphellandrene, α-citral, palmitic acid,α-curcumene, (E)-limonene oxide,α-bisabol and so on in essential oils of manufactured goods were much more than those of fresh flower . ( 6 ) Twenty-six specific components were only identified from the manufactured goods, including thymol, benzeneacetaldehyde, α-terpineol, γ-cadinene and so on.The results revealed the chemical characteristics of aroma of ‘Xiao Huang'Ju, which can be used as the reference during its cultivating, processing and tasting .%以SDE法提取小黄菊鲜花和制成品的香精油,用GC-MS进行定性定量分析,发现:(1)从鲜花和制成品中分别检出76和88种化合物,主要成分是单萜、倍半萜及含氧衍生物;(2)鲜花和制成品中共有成分62种,其中含量较

  10. Keratoplasty and cataract extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Panda Anita; Kumar T

    1991-01-01

    Fifty eyes were evaluated following penetrating keratoplasty and cataract extraction. Twenty five of them had intracapsular lens extraction while the remaining 25 had intercapsular method of extracapsular lens extraction. Both operative and post operative complications were more in group I. Visual outcome and graft clarity were also better in eyes of group II. Combined keratoplasty and intercapsular method of extracapsular lens extraction was recommended in eyes having both corneal and lentic...

  11. Keratoplasty and cataract extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda Anita

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty eyes were evaluated following penetrating keratoplasty and cataract extraction. Twenty five of them had intracapsular lens extraction while the remaining 25 had intercapsular method of extracapsular lens extraction. Both operative and post operative complications were more in group I. Visual outcome and graft clarity were also better in eyes of group II. Combined keratoplasty and intercapsular method of extracapsular lens extraction was recommended in eyes having both corneal and lenticular pathology.

  12. PHOSPHORUS ACCUMULATION IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum T., Var. SALMON REAGAN IN THE WINTER MARCHA DE ACÚMULO DE FÓSFORO EM CRISÂNTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum T., Var. SALMON REAGAN NO INVERNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Vera

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate P accumulation in cut chrysanthemum, var. Salmon Reagan, at different phenologic phases, in the winter. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse environment, in Goiás State, Brazil. The population density was 80 seedlings.m-2. The experimental design was completely randomized, with plots split in time,  and  four replications. The plant portion factor (stem, leaf, inflorescence and whole plant was applied to plots, and the development phases (45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 days applied to sub-plots. The plant nutrition was 133 g.m-2 of thermophosphate Yoorin and 150 g.m-2 of fertilizer formula 5:25:15, which was added to the circulating nutritive solution of calcium nitrate (20 g.m-2, during all the evaluated period, alternated with potassium sulfate (30 g.m-2 and potassium nitrate (30 g.m-2, each fifteen days. It was concluded that P demand by chrysanthemum, during the growing cycle, ranges according to the plant age and the organ studied, having been more accentuated in the stems and between 90 and 120 days after sowing.

    KEY-WORDS: Plant; nutrient; fertilization.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de fósforo nos diferentes estágios fenológicos da cultura de crisântemo, var. Salmon Reagan, no período de inverno. O experimento foi desenvolvido em condições de

  13. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  14. Larvicidal activity of selected plant hydrodistillate extracts against the house mosquito, Culex pipiens, a West Nile virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Huseyin; Yanikoglu, Atila; Cilek, James E

    2011-04-01

    The larvicidal activity of hydrodistillate extracts from Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Hypericum scabrum L., Pistacia terebinthus L. subsp. palaestina (Boiss.) Engler, and Vitex agnus castus L. was investigated against the West Nile vector, Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Yield and identification of the major essential oils from each distillation was determined by GC-MS analyses. The major essential oil component for each plant species was as follows: α-pinene for P. terebinthus palaestina, and H. scabrum (45.3% and 42.3%, respectively), trans-β-caryophyllene for V. agnus castus (22.1%), and borneol for C. coronarium (20.9%). A series of distillate concentrations from these plants (that ranged from 1 ppm to 500 ppm, depending on plant species) were assessed against late third to early fourth C. pipiens larvae at 1, 6, and 24 h posttreatment. In general, larval mortality to water treated with a distillate increased as concentration and exposure time increased. H. scabrum and P. terebinthus palaestina were most effective against the mosquito larvae and both produced 100% mortality at 250 ppm at 24-h continuous exposure compared with the other plant species. Larval toxicity of the distillates at 24 h (LC(50) from most toxic to less toxic) was as follows: P. terebinthus palaestina (59.2 ppm) > H. scabrum (82.2 ppm) > V. agnus castus (83.3 ppm) > C. coronarium (311.2 ppm). But when LC(90) values were compared, relative toxicity ranking changed as follows: H. scabrum (185.9 ppm) > V. agnus castus (220.7 ppm) > P. terebinthus palaestina (260.7 ppm) > C. coronarium (496.3 ppm). Extracts of native Turkish plants continue to provide a wealth of potential sources for biologically active agents that may be applied against arthropod pests of man and animals. PMID:21053014

  15. Desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo cultivadas em vaso em resposta a níveis de condutividade elétrica Development of chrysanthemum plants cultivated in flower pot in response to electrical conductivity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana R. D' Almeida Mota

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Na floricultura, a competição por mercados é intensa e o diferencial de produtividade consiste no manejo nutricional adequado, por promover grande impacto sobre a qualidade, a produtividade e a longevidade das inflorescências e da planta. O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de níveis de condutividade elétrica (CE no desenvolvimento de plantas de crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. em vaso sob cultivo protegido. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Paranapanema - SP. Usou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições e parcelas divididas. As parcelas foram constituídas pelas épocas de amostragem, e as subparcelas, pelos diferentes níveis de CE, determinados na solução aplicada via água de irrigação: 1,42; 1,65; 1,89; 2,13 e 2,36 dS m-1 (fase vegetativa; 1,71; 1,97; 2,28; 2,57 e 2,85 dS m-1 (fase de botão. Determinaram-se, semanalmente, a altura da planta e o diâmetro do buquê, e a cada 14 dias, a área foliar e a fitomassa seca da parte aérea da planta. O tratamento, correspondente à aplicação de solução com CE de 2,13 dS m-1 na fase vegetativa e 2,57 dS m-1 na fase de botão, proporcionou melhor aspecto visual das plantas, além de apresentar maior valor de fitomassa seca da parte aérea, maior área foliar e melhores formação e coloração.In floriculture market, the competition is intense and the productivity differential consists in an appropriated nutritional management which provides a large impact in quality, productivity and longevity of the flowers and plants. This present work aimed to evaluate the effects of electrical conductivity (EC levels in chrysanthemum plant (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev. development. These plants were planted in pots and cultivated in a greenhouse. The experiment was carried out in Paranapanema city, São Paulo State. The experimental design was made in randomized blocks with four repetitions and split plots

  16. Utilização agrícola de lodo industrial como fonte de zinco na cultura do crisântemo Agricultural use of industrial sludge as a source of Zn for chrysanthemum cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano F. Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de lodo industrial inorgânico em substratos comerciais ou como fonte de nutrientes, é prática bem recente. O lodo produzido pela indústria de galvanoplastia-zincagem apresenta elevados teores de nutrientes como Zn, Fe, e Ca que, dependendo das doses utilizadas em solos e substratos, podem causar toxidez às plantas. No presente experimento foi utilizado um substrato comercial onde foram adicionadas doses crescentes do lodo industrial de galvanoplastia-zincagem para o cultivo de crisântemo, variedade Rage, em cultivo protegido. As doses do lodo industrial utilizadas foram de 0,0; 0,38; 0,75; 1,50; 3,0; 6,0; 9,0 e 12,0 g L-1 de substrato. Após 12 semanas de cultivo foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: pH e condutividade elétrica do substrato, teor de Zn na parte aérea da planta e no substrato, altura da planta (ALT, massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, massa seca das inflorescências (MSF e massa seca do sistema radicular (MSR. A adição do lodo industrial no substrato, na dose de 0,38 g L-1, promoveu um pequeno incremento de ALT, MSPA e MSR. Este comportamento indica que o lodo industrial pode fornecer nutrientes à cultura. Nas doses superiores a 3 g L-1 ocorreu acentuada queda da produção devido ao desbalanço nutricional associado à fitotoxidez de Zn e elevada condutividade elétrica do substrato.The use of inorganic industrial sludge as a source of nutrients in growing media is a recent practice. The sludge produced by the zinc-galvanic industry has a high concentration of plant nutrients such as Zn, Fe and Ca that, depending on the doses used in soils and growing media, could be toxic to the plants. In the present experiment a commercial organic substrate was used by adding increasing doses of an industrial sludge produced by a zinc-galvanic industry. Doses of industrial sludge (0.0; 0.38; 0.75; 1.50; 3.0; 6.0; 9.0 and 12.0 g L-1 of the growing media were applied to the chrysanthemum cv. Rage, cultivated in a

  17. Extractant Design by Covalency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Angela Christine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kozimor, Stosh Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cross, Justin Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batista, Enrique Ricardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Macor, Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-01-21

    This project aims to provide an electronic structure-to-function understanding of extractants for actinide selective separation processes. The research entails a multi-disciplinary approach that integrates chemical syntheses, structural determination, K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. In FY15, the project reached the final stage of testing the extraction performance of a new ligand design and preparing an americium-extractant complex for analysis.

  18. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  19. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehala. G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS. FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extracting true minutiae.

  20. Extracting oil from coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-01-01

    The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil h...

  1. Predispersed solvent extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rodarte, Alma Isabel Marín

    1988-01-01

    A new solvent extraction method has been developed for the extraction of metal and organic ions from very dilute aqueous solutions. The new method, which has been named Predispersed Solvent Extraction (POSE), is based on the principle that 1 there is no need to comminute both phases. All that is necessary is to comminute the solvent phase prior to contacting it with the feed. This is done by converting the solvent into aphrons, which are micron-sized globules encapsulated in a ...

  2. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  3. Extractable vanadium trihydroxyfluoronates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction has been studied of vanadium (4) trihydroxyfluoronates into high-molecular-weight alcohols or mixtures of non-polar solvents and monoatomic aliphatic alcohols with a chain containing not less than three carbon atoms. The mechanism of solvation of the complexes extracted has been elucidated. The possibility has been shown of extraction of trihydroxifluoronates of easily hydrolized elements in the systems studied. This can be used for preseparation of vanadium from a number of metals. A procedure has been developed of extraction-spectrophotometric determination of vanadium

  4. The cDNA Cloning and Analysis of Sequence Information and Quantitative Express of Chrysanthemum Rhythms Clock Output Gene CmGI (GIGANTEA)%菊花节律钟输出基因CmGI(GIGANTEA)的 cDNA 全长克隆、序列信息及定量表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙霞; 王秀峰; 郑成淑; 邢世岩; 束怀瑞

    2012-01-01

    chrysanthemum rhythms clock output gene GIGANTEA was cloned, and the bioinformatics of the sequence and the relative quantitative expression of mRNA were analyzed. [Method] Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with 5'RACE, and 3'RACE technology were used to clone the full length cDNA of chrysanthemum rhythms clock output gene CmGI, analysts of sequence of nucleotides and code of protein was made by using the software of bioinformatics. Protein structure prediction of 3D modeling was made by using the online modeling software. The relative quantitative expression analysis of CmGl was conducted by real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR technology and 2-AACt method. [Result] The cDNA sequence of GIGANTEA was cloned from chrysanthemum 'Jniba', the full-length cDNA was 3 461 bp, open reading frame (ORF ) was 3 453 bp, and encoded 1 150 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that the genetic code of protein was homologous with plant rhythms clock output gene GIGANTEA, named CmGl gene. The sequence was submitted to GenBank, and the registration number is JQ043439. Sequence alignment displayed that it was a similarity of 76% and 75% with GIGANTEA of Vitis vinifera, Ricinus communis, respectively. The phylogenetic tree showed that chrysanthemum CmGI and Arabidopsis thaliana GIGANTEA are closest in molecular evolution distance, followed by Brassica rapa GIGANTEA. It was speculated that CmGI protein has six transmembrane spiral across a cell membrane many times. They are transcription factors, located in the nucleus and it is a non-secretory protein. They do not have a signal peptide. CmGI 3D structure modeling projections show that the protein core structure accords with the transcription factors and the function of the common DNA combining domain HTH and HLH. Fluorescent relative quantitative analysis shows that the expression patterns of chrysanthemum CmGI are circadian rhythms expression. At different flower bud differentiation stage, the CmGI gene in the leaf blade mRNA level is

  5. Supercritical fluid extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mendiola, J. A.; Herrero, Miguel; Castro-Puyana, M.; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This chapter will examine the use of supercritical fluids as effective and selective solvents for the extraction of natural products. Their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and applications will be contextualized in maximizing their potential as an attractive alternative to reduce the use of organic solvents for the production of natural extracts.

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to Chrysanthemum.

    OpenAIRE

    Wordragen, van, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants is a technique that enables us to add to the plant genome, in a precise and well controlled manner, one or a few new genes, coding for desirable traits. In contrast to this, the conventional method for the introduction of new properties in plants, by cross breeding, is a random process in which two complete genomes are mixed and the desired phenotype has to be regained by repeated back crossing with the cultivated parent line. Despite these differences, both pro...

  7. Temperature integration and DIF in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korner, O.; Challa, H.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in greenhouses, temperature integration can be used. However, the temperature integration principle considers only average temperatures and does not comply with the DIF concept (difference between mean day temperature and mean night temperature). With DIF, stem elongatio

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to Chrysanthemum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wordragen, van M.F.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of plants is a technique that enables us to add to the plant genome, in a precise and well controlled manner, one or a few new genes, coding for desirable traits. In contrast to this, the conventional method for the introduction of new properties in plants, by cross breeding, is

  9. Polyhydroxyflavones as extracting reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The europium (3) complex with morin is studied as well as the possibility of its analytical application. The formation of two extractable complexes, one of which dominates at pH--4-7, the other one - at pH>=8.5 is shown. The electrophoresis of the extracts containing the second complex has shown the latter to have a negative charge and to be extracted into the organic phase only in the form of an ionic associate [EU(OH)2H3B]-, (where H3B- is the morin anion). The extraction constant and spectra characteristics of the comples are estimated. The extraction constant and spectral characteristics of the complex are estimated. The extraction of the Eu(3) complex with morin from an alkaline medium (NaOH) by the TBP 20% solution in isoamyl alcohol is used for the direct extraction-photometric determination of Eu(3) in compounds of the elements possessing amphoteric properties of forming ammoniates (ZnS, MoO3). The method sensitivity is 5x10-4%

  10. Electromembrane extraction of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balchen, Marte; Reubsaet, Léon; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2008-06-20

    Rapid extraction of eight different peptides using electromembrane extraction (EME) was demonstrated for the first time. During an extraction time of 5 min, the model peptides migrated from a 500 microL aqueous acidic sample solution, through a thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of an organic liquid sustained in the pores in the wall of a porous hollow fiber, and into a 25 microL aqueous acidic acceptor solution present inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. The driving force of the extraction was a 50 V potential sustained across the SLM, with the positive electrode in the sample and the negative electrode in the acceptor solution. The nature and the composition of the SLM were highly important for the EME process, and a mixture of 1-octanol and 15% di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate was found to work properly. Using 1mM HCl as background electrolyte in the sample and 100 mM HCl in the acceptor solution, and agitation at 1050 rpm, enrichment up to 11 times was achieved. Recoveries were found to be dependent on the structure of the peptide, indicating that the polarity and the number of ionized groups were important parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. The experimental findings suggested that electromembrane extraction of peptides is possible and may be a valuable tool for future extraction of peptides. PMID:18479691

  11. Exhaustive extraction of peptides by electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    15% (v/v) DEHP was selected as a suitable SLM for exhaustive extraction of peptides under low system-current conditions. Interestingly, increasing the SLM volume from 5 to 10 μL was found to be beneficial for stable and efficient EME. The pH of the sample strongly affected the EME process, and pH 3...... trifluoroacetate, and leu-enkephalin were extracted from 600 μL of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.5), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphate (DEHP) dissolved in an organic solvent, and into 600 μL of an acidified aqueous acceptor solution using a thin flat membrane-based EME...... device. Mass transfer of peptides across the SLM was enhanced by complex formation with the negatively charged DEHP. The composition of the SLM and the extraction voltage were important factors influencing recoveries and current with the EME system. 1-nonanol diluted with 2-decanone (1:1 v/v) containing...

  12. The organophosphorus extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work consists in a bibliographic review dealing with phosphorus and organophosphorus compounds chemistry and especially with the main extracting agents used in uranium ore treatment. In this context, a special interest is devoted to TBP, D2EHPA and TOPO. The content of this work is based on a large bibliography including cca. One hundred references related to many aspects concerning as well the nomenclature, the classification and the chemical structures of the organophosphorus compounds as synthesis methods, purification and analysis of the main extracting agents used in uranium extraction

  13. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  14. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Milić Slavica; Lepojević Žika; Adamović Dušan; Mujić Ibrahim; Zeković Zoran

    2006-01-01

    The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  15. Ácido giberélico e dia curto interrompido em crisântemo de corte (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzvelev., "Gompier Chá" Gibberellic acid and short day interrupted in cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora, Tzvelev., 'Gompier Chá'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Algumas cultivares de crisântemo, como a "Gompier Chá", apresentam menor crescimento quando cultivadas no período de inverno. A utilização do ácido giberélico (GA3 e o manejo do fotoperíodo com dia curto interrompido podem ser alternativas para estimular o crescimentodas plantas. Assim, foi realizado um experimento com objetivo de avaliar a resposta do GA3 e do dia curto (DC interrompido por dias longos (DL na qualidade de hastes de crisântemo de corte "Gompier Chá", cultivado no inverno no Rio Grande do Sul. O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, no período de maio a agosto de 2001. Os tratamentos foram diferentes concentrações de ácido giberélico (50, 100, 200, 300, 500 e 500mg L-1 aplicadas seis, três, duas, duas, uma e duas vezes, respectivamente, e o uso de dia curto interrompido (32DL+9DC+12DL+DC até a colheita. Os tratamentos que proporcionaram a formação de hastes de melhor qualidade foram as dosagens de 100mg L-1 aplicado três vezes e 200mg L-1 aplicado duas vezes. O esquema de dia curto interrompido usado foi ineficiente para a qualidade da cultivar "Gompier Chá", já o uso de ácido giberélico possibilitou melhoria no comprimento dos pedúnculos e na altura das plantas em cultivo de inverno no Rio Grande do Sul.Some chrysanthemum"s cultivars, as the 'Gompier Chá', have problems of small growth during winter crop. The spraying whit gibberellic acid (GA3 and the control photoperiod with interrupted short day can be options for to stimulate growth. Thus, an experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the stems quality of cut chrysanthemum 'Gompier Chá' response of GA3 and short day (DC interrupted by long day (DL, during winter time in Rio Grande do Sul. The experiment was conducted at the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in 2001, from May to August. The treatments consisted of different gibberellic acid concentration (50, 100, 200, 300, 500 e 500mg L-1 sprayed six

  16. Pontas de pulverização e eletrificação das gotas na deposição da calda em plantas de crisântemo Nozzles and droplets with electric charge on spray deposition in chrysanthemum plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Elisei Serra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a deposição das gotas de pulverização, dotadas de carga elétrica (eletrostática, em comparação à técnica de pulverização convencional em crisântemo, com uso de diferentes pontas de pulverização. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com oito tratamentos: combinação das pontas TXVK-3, AXI 110015, AXI 12002 TWIN e AXI 11003, com duas técnicas de pulverização (com e sem eletrostática, e quatro repetições. Cada repetição foi representada por 12 plantas, às quais foram afixados papéis do tipo mata-borrão na superfície abaxial e adaxial dos folíolos, e em duas posições da planta: ápice e base. Um corante marcador (Rodamina B foi pulverizado na proporção de 5 g por 100 L d'água em cada um dos tratamentos. Os depósitos do marcador foram quantificados por fluorometria. As pontas com gotas de menor diâmetro mediano volumétrico (TXVK-3 e AXI 110015 apresentaram maiores depósitos na superfície abaxial da folha, quando se utilizou a pulverização eletrostática. Esse fato não foi observado, quando foram pulverizadas gotas com maior diâmetro mediano volumétrico e desprovidas de carga elétrica, nas diferentes partes da planta.The aim of this work was to evaluate the spray deposition with electric charge (electrostatic, compared to conventional application technique (without electric charge, on chrysanthemum plants using different spray nozzle types. The experiment was carried out entirely at random, with eight treatments: TXVK-3, AXI 110015, AXI 12002 TWIN and AXI 11003 spray nozzles were combined in two spraying techniques (with and without electrostatic and four replications. Each replicate was represented by 12 chrysanthemum plants. Blotting paper was placed on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of two leaves, in different positions of the plants: top and bottom. A tracer dye (Rodamina B was applied in the ratio 5 g 100 L-1 water, in each one of

  17. 菊花叶绿素a/b结合蛋白基因CmLhcb1及其启动子的克隆和表达分析%Cloning of Chlorophyll a/b Binding Protein CmLhcb1 and Promoter from Chrysanthemum morifolium and Expression Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩霜; 刘瑞霞; 张兆和; 陈素梅; 蒋甲福; 房伟民; 廖园; 陈发棣

    2013-01-01

    The cDNA of cut chrysanthemum ‘Gongzi' was used to clone homologous gene cab,which had 798 bp ORF and 266 amino acid.After blast analysis,we confirmed that the gene was ranked as Lhcb1,and was named as CmLhcb1.Using the cDNA of ‘Puma Sunny' chrysanthemum to homologously clone gene Lhcb1,we got the same amino sequence with that of ‘Gongzi'.The expression of CmLhcb1 was the higher in leaf than that in stem,flower and root.Low light and GA3 treatment increased CmLhcb1 expression.Paclobutrazol treatment inhibited CmLhcb1 expression.The circadian clock regulated the expression of CmLhcb1.The gene expression in day was enormously higher than that in night.The promoter sequence 715 bp of‘Gongzi' cut chrysanthemum and 716 bp of‘Puma Sunny' were cloned using high-efficiency TAIL-PCR (hiTAIL-PCR),and many biologic and abiotic stress responsive elements related to light,GA,ABA,water,SA and virus were found by PLACE Databank.The promoter was light responsive,and it had the GTl-box and Z-box element.%以切花菊品种‘公子’cDNA为模板克隆出叶绿素a/b结合蛋白同源基因cab,其开放阅读框为798 bp,编码266个氨基酸.经多物种间比对分析,确认其属于cab基因家族的Lhcb1类,命名为CmLhcb1.同源克隆菊花品种‘清露’Lhcb1基因,氨基酸序列与‘公子’完全相同.CmLhcb1在叶片中的表达量比在茎、花和根中高,弱光和GA3处理使CmLhcb1表达上调,多效唑处理后CmLhcb1表达量受到抑制.CmLhcb1的表达受昼夜节律调节,白天表达量显著高于夜间.通过high-efficiency TAIL-PCR(hiTAIL-PCR)方法克隆到‘公子’切花菊CmLhcb1起始密码子上游序列715bp和‘清露’起始密码子上游序列716 bp,序列经PLACE数据库的比对分析,发现有很多与非生物和生物胁迫相关的元件,主要与光照、GA、ABA、水分、水杨酸和病毒相关,CmLhcb1启动子是光诱导型启动子,具有GT1-box和Z-box.

  18. Nano-electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payán, María D Ramos; Li, Bin; Petersen, Nickolaj J.;

    2013-01-01

    The present work has for the first time described nano-electromembrane extraction (nano-EME). In nano-EME, five basic drugs substances were extracted as model analytes from 200 μL acidified sample solution, through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and into...... electrophoresis (CE). In that way the sample preparation performed by nano-EME was coupled directly with a CE separation. Separation performance of 42,000-193,000 theoretical plates could easily be obtained by this direct sample preparation and injection technique that both provided enrichment as well as...... extraction selectivity. Compared with conventional EME, the acceptor phase volume in nano-EME was down-scaled by a factor of more than 1000. This resulted in a very high enrichment capacity. With loperamide as an example, an enrichment factor exceeding 500 was obtained in only 5 min of extraction. This...

  19. Painful Bile Extraction Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It was only in the past 20 years that countries in Asia began to search for an alternative to protect moon bears from being killed for their bile and other body parts. In the early 1980s, a new method of extracting bile from living bears was developed in North Korea. In 1983, Chinese scientists imported this technique from North Korea. According to the Animals Asia Foundation, the most original method of bile extraction is to embed a latex catheter, a narrow rubber

  20. DNA extraction by zinc.

    OpenAIRE

    Kejnovský, E; Kypr, J

    1997-01-01

    A fast, very simple and efficient method of DNA extraction is described which takes advantage of DNA sedimentation induced by millimolar concentrations of ZnCl2. The zinc-induced sedimentation is furthermore strongly promoted by submillimolar phosphate anion concentrations. Within 90% of DNA irrespective of whether a plasmid DNA or short oligonucleotides are the extracted material. The method works with plasmid DNA and oligonucleotide concentrations as low as 100 ng/ml and 10 microg/ml, respe...

  1. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based o...

  2. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mehala. G

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to design an efficient Fingerprint Feature Extraction (FFE) algorithm to extract the fingerprint features for Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS). FFE algorithm, consists of two major subdivisions, Fingerprint image preprocessing, Fingerprint image postprocessing. A few of the challenges presented in an earlier are, consequently addressed, in this paper. The proposed algorithm is able to enhance the fingerprint image and also extractin...

  3. Automated metadata extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Migletz, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Metadata is data that describes data. There are many computer forensic uses of metadata and being able to extract metadata automatically provides positive forensic implications. This thesis presents a new technique for batch processing disk images and automatically extracting metadata from files and file contents. The technique is embodied in a program called fiwalk that has a plug-in architecture allowing new metadata extractors to be readily incorporated. Output from fiwalk can be provided ...

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  5. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vera M. F. Vargas; Régis R. Guidobono; Henriques, João A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia) were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome). Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990) the metabolites of A. satureoides extract ...

  6. Asymmetric extractions in orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Aquino Melgaço

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Extraction decisions are extremely important in during treatment planning. In addition to the extraction decision orthodontists have to choose what tooth should be extracted for the best solution of the problem and the esthetic/functional benefit of the patient. OBJECTIVE: This article aims at reviewing the literature relating the advantages, disadvantages and clinical implications of asymmetric extractions to orthodontics. METHODS: Keywords were selected in English and Portuguese and the EndNote 9 program was used for data base search in PubMed, Web of Science (WSc and LILACS. The selected articles were case reports, original articles and prospective or retrospective case-control studies concerning asymmetrical extractions of permanent teeth for the treatment of malocclusions. CONCLUSION: According to the literature reviewed asymmetric extractions can make some specific treatment mechanics easier. Cases finished with first permanent molars in Class II or III relationship in one or both sides seem not to cause esthetic or functional problems. However, diagnosis knowledge and mechanics control are essential for treatment success.

  7. Avaliação de seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae em laboratório Selectivity of pesticides used on chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say, 1832 (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Morais

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seletividade de produtos fitossanitários utilizados na cultura do crisântemo a adultos de Orius insidiosus (Say. Os bioensaios foram conduzidos a 25±1oC, UR 70±10% e fotofase de 12h, em Lavras, MG. Os inseticidas avaliados foram abamectina (0,0009 g i.a./100 ml, cartap (0,06 g i.a./100 ml, ciromazina (0,011 g i.a./100 ml, fenpropatrina (0,009 g i.a./100 ml e imidaclopride (0,042 g i.a./100 ml. As pulverizações foram realizadas por meio de torre de Potter calibrada a 15 lb/pol2, com volume de 1,5±0,5 mg de calda/cm2, sobre casais de O. insidiosus. Avaliou-se a ação dos produtos sobre a mortalidade, oviposição, fertilidade e capacidade predatória dos adultos. Abamectina, fenpropatrina e imidaclopride foram altamente tóxicos aos adultos de O. insidiosus, e ciromazina e cartap apresentaram moderada toxicidade. Ciromazina e cartap apresentam possibilidades de serem recomendados em programas de manejo integrado de pragas na cultura do crisântemo.The goal of this research was to evaluate the selectivity of products used in the chrysanthemum crop to adults of Orius insidiosus (Say. The experiments were kept under controlled conditions at 25±1oC, RH 70±10% and L/D 12:12 h, in Lavras, MG, Brazil. The insecticides evaluated were abamectin (0.0009 g a.i./100 ml, cartap (0.06 g a.i./100 ml, cyromazine (0.011 g a.i./100 ml, fenpropathrin (0.009 g a.i./100 ml and imidacloprid (0.042 g a.i./100 ml. The sprays were done using Potter's tower calibrated to 15 lb/pol2, applying volume of 1.5±0.5 mg of solution/cm2. The applications were realized directly in the pairs of O. insidiosus. It was evaluated the action of the products on mortality, oviposition, fertility and the adult's predatory capacity. Abamectin, fenpropathrin and imidacloprid were highly harmful to the adults of O. insidiosus. Cyromazine and cartap were moderately toxic. Cyromazine and cartap presented possibilities of being recommended in integrated pest

  8. Neutral Complex Extraction and Synergistic Extraction of Macrolide Antibiotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the theory of reactive extraction, new solvent systems were developed to replace butylacetate for extraction of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin meleumycin etc.). A new neutral complex solvent extraction system, fatty alcohol-kerosene (marked by E1), was used for extraction of erythromycin, one of the macrolide antibiotics. The extraction equilibrium equation is obtained, and the extraction distribution is as follows The effects of several parameters on extraction equilibrium were investigated. Furthermore, a new synergistic extraction system (marked by E2) was developed, in which another solvent was used as synergistic agent to replace the diluent kerosene in the neutral complex extraction system. Based on these new extraction systems, an improved process for extraction of erythromycin was developed, showing remarkable advantages in technology and economics owing to its low solvent consumption of 3kg per billion unit compared with 9-10 for butylacetate. The recovery process of solvent from raffinate may be eliminated.

  9. Manutenção da qualidade e aumento da longevidade floral de crisântemo cv. White polaris Keeping quality and prolonging the postharvest longevity of spray chrysanthemum cv. White polaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Julio Flórez-Roncancio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available 0 objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o melhor tratamento pós-colheita para manutenção floral e aumento da longevidade de crisântemo de maço do tipo pompom (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris. Estabeleceu-se como ponto de colheita o momento em que as hastes apresentavam três inflorescências apicais com as pétalas externas em ângulo de 45° em relação à horizontal. Durante o ensaio em laboratório, as hastes, colhidas em estufa de produção comercial, após totalmente imersas em água de torneira, à sombra, durante três horas, foram cortadas sob água na base do caule entre 50 e 60 cm. As hastes foram distribuídas nos diferentes tratamentos de "pulsing" durante 24 horas, com luz contínua de 1.500 lux, 60 a 90% de umidade relativa do ar e temperatura ambiente de 25 ± 2°C. No primeiro experimento, testou-se a eficiência de 8-hidroxiquinolina (8-HQ e tiabendazole (TBZ como germicidas de manutenção da qualidade na solução de "pulsing"; testaram-se, também, dois reguladores de crescimento, a saber: ácido giberélico (GA3, 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA ou a mistura dos dois, com o objetivo de preservar a cor e a turgidez da folhagem. Os melhores resultados foram com 8-HQ (0,69 mol/m³ e GA3 (0,058 mo1/m³. No segundo experimento, avaliaram-se os seguintes inibidores de etileno: tiossulfato de prata (STS, nitrato de prata (AgNO3 e cloreto de cobalto (COC1(2. A melhor resposta foi obtida com AgNO3 (2,9 e 4,4 mo1/m³.Cut flowers of spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. S. Kitamura cv. White Polaris were harvested and treated in pulsing solutions. The flowers were harvested in commercial greenhouses and transported to the laboratory where the whole stem and inflorescence were immersed in tap water at darkness, during 3 hours. The flowers were selected for uniformity in terms of development; the stems were trimmed to equal length (50 to 60 cm and tagged to allow recording morphological

  10. Tevatron extraction microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' magnets at a rate of 5760 Hz, and the ''QXR'' magnets at 720 Hz. QXR supports multiple slow spills (up to a total of 35 seconds) with multiple fast pulses intermixed. It linearizes the slow spill and bucks out the high frequency components. Fast extraction is done by outputting a variable pulse waveform. Closed loop learning techniques are used to improve performance from cycle to cycle for both slow and fast extraction. The system is connected to the Tevatron clock system so that it can track the machine cycle. QXR is also connected to the rest of the Fermilab control system, ACNET. Through ACNET, human operators and central computers can monitor and control extraction through communications with QXR. The controls hardware and software both employ some standard and some specialized components. This paper gives an overview of QXR as a control system; another paper summarizes performance

  11. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  12. Heavy water extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the present invention the tray for extracting liquid effluent from the humidifier section of the process is located in an intermediate position in the section, having a plurality of the trays of the section thereabove, with a balancing flow of heated water being admitted to the section beneath the extraction tray, to maintain substantially uniform loading of the trays in the humidifier section. The water being admitted in heat providing relation to the humidifier is divided into first and second portions, with the first portion admitted at the top of the humidifier section and the second portion substantially equal to the quantity of effluent extracted being admitted to the section beneath the extraction tray so as to maintain balance in the trays. The deuterium content of the gas, in passing through the trays above the extracting tray, is increased. The second water portion of the heater circuit is passed in heat exchanging relation with the effluent, to raise the temperature of the effluent prior to entry into the gas stripping portion of the plant wherein H2S gas is recovered for recycling. (author)

  13. Substoichiometric extraction of chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substoichiometric extraction of chromium with tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPACl), tri-n-octylamine (TNOA), diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDDC) and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) was examined in detail. Chromium can be extracted substoichiometrically in a pH range, which is 1.1-2.6 for the TPACl compound, 0.6-2.3 for the TNOA compound, 5.1-6.4 for the DDDC chelate and 3.9-4.9 for the APDC chelate. Chromium in high-purity calcium carbonate, Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM-1571) and Brewers Yeast (NBS SRM-1569) was determined by neutron activation analysis combined with substoichiometric extraction by DDDC and APDC. The values of 2.0+-0.02 ppm and 2.6+-0.2 ppm were obtained for Brewers Yeast and Orchard Leaves, respectively. These values were in good agreement with those reported by NBS. The reaction mechanism and the reaction ratio between hexavalent chromium and dithiocarbamate are also discussed. (author)

  14. Extraction purification of scandium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potentiality of a through extractional purification of scandium from small amounts of impurities (1%) using acid nitrate media and non-diluted tributylphosphate has been studied. Yb and Zr were considered as imitators of impurity element groups. The obtained isotherms of Sc extraction in case of initial acidity of HNO3 of approximately 8 mol/l and 11.5 mol/l in the presence of impurity elements, for which the distribution factors have been defined, are presented. On the basis of the data obtained a two-cascade extractional refining process has been formed and its process parameters have been calculated (and given for one of the cascades). 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Extraction Methods, Variability Encountered in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Nelson, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Synonyms Bias in DNA extractions methods; Variation in DNA extraction methods Definition The variability in extraction methods is defined as differences in quality and quantity of DNA observed using various extraction protocols, leading to differences in outcome of microbial community composition as

  16. Solidification of spent extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For high-level wastes processing the extractants on the base of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollyde (CCD) are used. As a solvent of CCD thrifluoromethylphenylsylphone (FS-13) and nitrobenzotrifluoride (F3) are used. The structure formula and basic characteristics of these substances are given. The most efficient way of transformation of FS-13 and F3 into solid substances is their condensation with formaldehyde and phenol. There were made some researches in the field of polymer synthesis on the basis of these substances. As a result of condensation of phenol, formaldehyde and FS-13 (F3) in acid medium during 4 hours at temperature higher than 150 grad C, the black color hard sediment was produced. The received co-polymer does not dissolve in water, organic solvents, water solutions of acids and alkalis. In analogy with this method, hard insoluble substances on the basis of waste extractant, the main part of which was F3 or FS-13, were obtained. As a result of this method of transformation of spent extractant into solid substance, there appears plastic with presented characteristics. Outwardly this plastic, obtained from spent extractant, looks as black-and-brown color glassy mass. It does not solute and swell in organic solvents, in water solutions of acids and alkalis as well. Being poured by concentrated alkali solution, it disintegrated into smaller pieces, but it did not dissolve. The obtained plastic is notable for high thermostability. The marked decomposition begins at the temperature higher than 250 grad C and up to 400 grad C it goes without exo-thermal effects. According to preliminary calculation 1,4 liter of plastic can be obtained from 1 liter of spent extractant. Thus, the producing of plastic from spent extractant is rather simple and economical way of converting liquid organic wastes into solid form. (authors)

  17. Polar Lipid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Biotechniques Polar lipids are generally extracted from dry cell material using chloroform:methanol:0.3% NaCl (1:2:0.8 v/v/v). This may be carried out by adding 9.5 ml of this mixture to 100 mg of freeze dried cells, or by adding a suitable amount of chloroform, methanol and 0.3% NaCl to the cell material, or to the aqueous methanolic phase remaining from the lipoquinone extraction. 1. The aqueous methanolic phase (4 ml total volume), together with the cell material from the ...

  18. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  19. Keyphrase Extraction : Enhancing Lists

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes some modest improvements to Extractor, a state-of-the-art keyphrase extraction system, by using a terabyte-sized corpus to estimate the informativeness and semantic similarity of keyphrases. We present two techniques to improve the organization and remove outliers of lists of keyphrases. The first is a simple ordering according to their occurrences in the corpus; the second is clustering according to semantic similarity. Evaluation issues are discussed. We present a novel technique of comparing extracted keyphrases to a gold standard which relies on semantic similarity rather than string matching or an evaluation involving human judges.

  20. Atraumatic extractions: a biomechanical rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Carl E; Perez, Helena M

    2008-08-01

    Biomechanical aspects of force have been applied to tooth extraction for centuries. However, the mechanical advantages available to extract the teeth were primarily applied to hold the crown of the tooth, rather than help extract it. An extraction device (Physics Forceps) has been developed to apply a biomechanical rationale to the extraction process of a tooth using a class 1 lever, creep, and shear components of force. PMID:18717405

  1. LEAR: antiproton extraction lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1992-01-01

    Antiprotons, decelerated in LEAR to a momentum of 100 MeV/c (kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV), were delivered to the experiments in an "Ultra-Slow Extraction", dispensing some 1E9 antiprotons over times counted in hours. Beam-splitters and a multitude of beam-lines allowed several users to be supplied simultaneously.

  2. SPS extraction systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    One of the 3-m long electrostatics septa. The septum itself consists of 0.15 mm thick molybdenum wires with a 1.5 mm pitch. Each of the two SPS extraction systems will contain four of these electrostatic septa.

  3. Source Wavelet Phase Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghadeh, Diako Hariri; Morley, Christopher Keith

    2016-06-01

    Extraction of propagation wavelet phase from seismic data can be conducted using first, second, third and fourth-order statistics. Three new methods are introduced, which are: (1) Combination of different moments, (2) Windowed continuous wavelet transform and (3) Maximum correlation with cosine function. To compare different methods synthetic data with and without noise were chosen. Results show that first, second and third order statistics are not able to preserve wavelet phase. Kurtosis can preserve propagation wavelet phase but signal-to-noise ratio can affect the extracted phase using this method. So for data set with low signal-to-noise ratio, it will be unstable. Using a combination of different moments to extract the phase is more robust than applying kurtosis. The improvement occurs because zero phase wavelets with reverse polarities have equal maximum kurtosis values hence the correct wavelet polarity cannot be identified. Zero-phase wavelets with reverse polarities have minimum and maximum values for a combination of different-moments method. These properties enable the technique to handle a finite data segment and to choose the correct wavelet polarity. Also, the existence of different moments can decrease sensitivity to outliers. A windowed continuous wavelet transform is more sensitive to signal-to-noise ratio than the combination of different-moments method, also if the scale for the wavelet is incorrect it will encounter with more problems to extract phase. When the effects of frequency bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and analyzing window length are considered, the results of extracting phase information from data without and with noise demonstrate that combination of different-moments is superior to the other methods introduced here.

  4. Extraction from the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Baconnier, Yves; Kissler, Karl Heinz; de Raad, Bastiaan; Scandale, Walter

    1977-01-01

    The experimental programme requires three different modes of extraction from the SPS: fast extraction (burst duration from 3 mu s to 23 mu s), slow resonant extraction (spill duration 0.5 s to 2 s) and fast resonant extraction (spill duration shorter than 3 ms). All three modes have been successfully tested and brought into operation. Fast extraction of the full beam is 100% efficient. By fast beam shaving, fractions as low as 1% of the circulating beam can be extracted as low as 1% of the circulating beam can be extracted in a fairly stable way. Third-integer extraction is used to produce slow spills of 700 ms or more. The efficiency of resonant extraction is currently some 97%. (0 refs).

  5. Phylogenetic Relationship of Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. Revealed by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Lan DAI; Wen-Kui WANG; Mao-Xue LI; Ying-Xiu XU

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of the different species in the genus Dendranthema (DC.) Des Moul. were estimated based on chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S-26S rDNA of Arabidopsis and genomic DNA of Dendranthema as probes. The results revealed that there was no positive correlation between the number of nuclear organization region (NOR) loci and the ploidy of Dendranthema.The exact cytogenetic information of NORs about 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) indicated that D.vestitum (Hemsl.) Ling et Shih was closer to the cultivars than other putative species, whereas D. zawadskii (Herb.) Tzvel. was the most distinct. The ambiguously distributed signals of genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with genomic DNA of lower ploidy species as probes suggested that different genomes among Dendranthema were mixed. The result also indicated the limitation of GISH in studies on the phylogenetic relationships of the different species in this genus Dendranthema and on the origin of cultivated chrysanthemums. Based on these results and previous research, the origin of Chinese cultivated chrysanthemum is discussed.

  6. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  7. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  8. Cataract extraction with erisophake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALEXANDER, H B

    1951-01-01

    Today the erisophake offers the most successful means for the intracapsular extraction of cataracts. The advantages of this method are that no counterpressure is required so that the incidence of vitreous loss is reduced; the vacuum cup provides a firmer grasp of the lens with less danger of rupture of the lens capsule; and the vacuum cup can be used for the delivery of practically all types of cataract in the adult, including intumescent and Morgagnian cataracts as well as lenses with exfoliating and friable capsules. While the forceps method of intracapsular extraction is generally successful in not more than 70 to 75 per cent of cases, the erisophake may offer success in 90 per cent of cases. PMID:14792378

  9. Shibusa: extracting beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Adkins, Monty; Dickens, Pip

    2012-01-01

    Shibusa – Extracting Beauty celebrates a number of artistic endeavours: music, painting and the skill of making in general with particular reflection upon Japanese aesthetics. Composer, Monty Adkins and visual artist, Pip Dickens (through a Leverhulme Trust Award collaboration) investigate commonality and difference between the visual arts and music exploring aspects of rhythm, pattern, colour and vibration as well as outlining processes utilised to evolve new works within these practic...

  10. The Extractive Industries Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Halland, Havard; Lokanc, Martin; Nair, Arvind; Kannan, Sridar Padmanabhan

    2015-01-01

    The extractive industries (EI) sector occupies an outsize space in the economies of many developing countries. Economists, public finance professionals, and policy makers working in such countries are frequently confronted with issues that require an in-depth understanding of the sector. The objective of this volume is to provide a concise overview of EI-related topics these professionals are likely to encounter. The volume provides an overview of issues central to EI economics; discusses key...

  11. Knowledge extraction from webpages

    OpenAIRE

    Tenier, Sylvain; Napoli, Amedeo; Polanco, Xavier; Toussaint, Yannick

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a system to extract Knowledge from webpages by producing semantic annotations. taking into account semantic information from the domain to annotate an element in a webpage implies solving two problems : (1) identifying the syntactic structure of this element in the webpage and (2) identifying the most specific concept (in terms of subsumption) of the ontology that will be used to annotate this element. Our approach relies on a wrapper-based machine learning algorithm com...

  12. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  13. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  14. Non-renewable Resource Extraction with Extraction and Exploration Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Eiji Sawada; Shunsuke Managi

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a new non-renewable resource extraction model with both extraction and exploration technologies. We show how these technological changes affect efficient non-renewable resource extraction differently. Policy-makers therefore need to carefully choose the type of technology by considering their properties.

  15. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author) 16 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Plant extracts as radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies show that the extracts of some plants, namely containing vitamins or sulfide components, have radioprotection properties against the effects of ionizing radiation. In Syria, many of hates plants are available. This experiment was conducted in order to test the ability of ten different plants to protect against the radiation damages. These plants are Daucus carota L., Brassica oleracea L, Aloe vera L., Opuntia ficus-indica, Allium cepa L., Capsicum annuum L., Scilla maritima L., Allium sativum L., Rubus sanctus L. and Rosa canina L.Their effects on the protection of E. Coli growth after the exposure to L.D 50 of gamma radiation (100 Gy) were investigated . Two concentrations to each plant extract were tested, both were than 1%. Our results are indicating that the protection depend on plant. The radioprotection factors were ranged between 1.42 to 2.39. The best results were obtained by using the extract of Allium sativum L. (2.01), Opuntia ficus-indica (2.14) and Capsiucum annuum L. (2.39). (author)

  17. Extraction of refractory noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Review of the literature data published during the past ten years devoted to extraction of refractory metals (Zr, Mo, Hf, W, Re) is presented. Considered are extractants and reagents used in the processes, kinetics, efficiency of separation and isolation processes. Methods of solvent extraction of refractory metals used in analytical chemistry are analyzed. Extraction methods of refractory metal isolation directly from solid phase are considered

  18. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Popescu

    2013-01-01

    Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  19. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  20. Application of supercritical gas extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Katsuhisa

    1987-09-10

    Chemical Compound Institute, Tokuyama Plant, Idemitsu Kosan has been coping with the research on application of supercritical gas extraction and this article describes the outline and application examples of supercritical gas extraction. Supercritical gas extraction needs the operation under high pressure due to the use of high density fluid in the condition exceeding its critical point as extractant. Its dissolving power depends strongly upon its density and in comparison with normal liquid extraction, complete separation between solute and solvent is possible. Its extraction rate is big. Extraction can be done around the normal temperature and controlled easily. However its exraction power is relatively small and it needs a high pressure vessel. Concerning its application examples, application to concentration of ethanol is being examined. In the food industry, extraction of caffein from coffee beans and extraction of vegetable oil, etc. are under study. In the field dealing with natural material, application to extraction of nicotine from tabacco leaves, extraction of perfume and pigment, extraction of constituents of drag and removal of binder which is added at the time of fabrication of fine ceramics, etc. were examined. (7 figs, 4 tabs, 26 refs)

  1. Challenges in Managing Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Warren H.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation studies information extraction (IE), the problem of extracting structured information from unstructured data. Example IE tasks include extracting person names from news articles, product information from e-commerce Web pages, street addresses from emails, and names of emerging music bands from blogs. IE is all increasingly…

  2. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  3. Fission product solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main objectives concerning removal of fission products from high-level tank wastes will be accomplished in this project. The first objective entails the development of an acid-side Cs solvent-extraction (SX) process applicable to remediation of the sodium-bearing waste (SBW) and dissolved calcine waste (DCW) at INEEL. The second objective is to develop alkaline-side SX processes for the combined removal of Tc, Cs, and possibly Sr and for individual separation of Tc (alone or together with Sr) and Cs. These alkaline-side processes apply to tank wastes stored at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge. This work exploits the useful properties of crown ethers and calixarenes and has shown that such compounds may be economically adapted to practical processing conditions. Potential benefits for both acid- and alkaline-side processing include order-of-magnitude concentration factors, high rejection of bulk sodium and potassium salts, and stripping with dilute (typically 10 mM) nitric acid. These benefits minimize the subsequent burden on the very expensive vitrification and storage of the high-activity waste. In the case of the SRTALK process for Tc extraction as pertechnetate anion from alkaline waste, such benefits have now been proven at the scale of a 12-stage flowsheet tested in 2-cm centrifugal contactors with a Hanford supernatant waste simulant. SRTALK employs a crown ether in a TBP-modified aliphatic kerosene diluent, is economically competitive with other applicable separation processes being considered, and has been successfully tested in batch extraction of actual Hanford double-shell slurry feed (DSSF)

  4. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  5. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  6. Coal extraction - environmental prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Blaine Cecil; Susan J. Tewalt

    2002-08-01

    To predict and help minimize the impact of coal extraction in the Appalachian region, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is addressing selected mine-drainage issues through the following four interrelated studies: spatial variability of deleterious materials in coal and coal-bearing strata; kinetics of pyrite oxidation; improved spatial geologic models of the potential for drainage from abandoned coal mines; and methodologies for the remediation of waters discharged from coal mines. As these goals are achieved, the recovery of coal resources will be enhanced. 2 figs.

  7. QUALIDADE DE CRISÂNTEMOS (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV PRODUZIDOS EM DIFERENTES REGIÕES DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO: GRUPO POLARIS QUALITY OF CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflora TZVELEV CULTIVATED IN DIFFERENT REGIONS OF THE SÃO PAULO STATE: POLARIS GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiris Bergemann de Aguiar Silveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Escolheu-se o crisântemo, por ser a principal flor de corte comercializada no Estado de São Paulo, para iniciar um processo de melhoria de qualidade com conseqüente padronização para a floricultura brasileira, tanto para a produção de consumo interno quanto para aquela destinada à exportação. Através da avaliação da qualidade de inflorescências de crisântemos do grupo Polaris produzidos em diferentes regiões, e comparação com os padrões existentes, pretendeu-se chegar a um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte. Os parâmetros analisados foram: comprimento de haste; peso da matéria fresca da haste floral; número de inflorescências abertas e por abrir; localização e número de ramificações; rigidez de haste; defeitos de formação; presença de resíduos químicos e incidência de pragas e moléstias. Os dados obtidos permitiram concluir que comprimento, peso da matéria fresca e rigidez de haste foram os parâmetros que mais se aproximaram dos padrões existentes; número de inflorescências, localização e número de ramificações e presença de hastes tortas indicaram a necessidade de maiores cuidados nas operações de desbotoamento e elevação da rede de sustentação; presença de resíduos químicos e de pragas e moléstias mostraram os piores resultados, requerendo estudos visando a adequada aplicação de defensivos agrícolas para o efetivo controle das pragas e moléstias, não deixando resíduos químicos . Com esses resultados, verificou-se não ser possível elaborar, de imediato, um padrão nacional para crisântemos de corte.Chrysanthemum is the major cut flower commercialized in the São Paulo State, Brazil. This study aimed for the standardization of chrysantemum flowers in order to set new parameters of quality for trading, in both domestic and international markets. Chrysanthemum inflorescences from three regions were evaluated for four seasons, and compared to current standards. The evaluated

  8. The accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. JospithovenAcúmulo de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio em crisântemo de corte (Dendranthema grandiflorum cv. Jospithoven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Paula Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of NPK in cut chrysanthemum, cv. Jospithoven, at different phenologic phases, in the summer. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse environment, in Goiás State, Brazil. The population density was 80 seedlings m-2. The experimental design was completely randomized, with plots split in time, and four replications. The plant portion factor (stem, leaf, inflorescence and whole plant was applied to plots, and the development phases (45, 60, 75, 90, 105, and 120 days applied to sub-plots. The plant nutrition was 133 g m-2 of thermophosphate Yoorin and 150 g m-2 of fertilizer formula 5-25-15, which was added to the circulating nutritive solution of calcium nitrate (20 g m-2, during all the evaluated period, alternated with potassium sulfate (30 g m-2 and potassium nitrate (30 g m-2, each fifteen days. It was concluded that NPK demand by chrysanthemum var. Jospithoven, during the growing cycle, ranges according to the plant age and the organ studied, having been more accentuatedin the leaves and 105 days after sowing. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de NPK nos diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura de crisântemo, cv. Jospithoven, no período de verão. O experimento foi desenvolvido em condições de ambiente protegido, no município de Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. A densidade de plantio foi de 80 mudas m-2. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com parcelas subdivididas no tempo e quatro repetições. O fator aplicado nas parcelas foi representado pelas partes da planta (haste, folha, inflorescência e planta inteira e aquele aplicado nas sub-parcelas, pelos estádios de seu desenvolvimento (45, 60, 75, 90, 105 e 120 dias de idade. A adubação de plantio foi de 133 g m-2 de Yorim, acrescidos de 150 g m-2 da formulação química 5-25-15, à qual foi adicionada uma solução nutritiva circulante de nitrato de cálcio (20 g m-2 durante todo o

  9. Elaboração e validação de escala diagramática para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo Elaboration and validation of diagrammatic key to evaluate white rust severity in Chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica G. Barbosa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A ferrugem branca, causada pelo fungo Puccinia horiana, é considerada a principal doença do crisântemo no Brasil, induzindo severas perdas aos produtores. Apesar da importância, inexistem estudos epidemiológicos no país, e para que estes estudos sejam realizados, é necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos padronizados de quantificação da severidade da doença no campo. Visando atender a essa demanda, foi elaborada uma escala diagramática com os níveis de 1, 3, 6, 10, 18 e 30% de área foliar lesionada, testando-se a acurácia, a precisão e a reprodutibilidade das estimativas de severidade da ferrugem branca com e sem a sua utilização. Na validação da escala diagramática, 50 folhas com diferentes níveis de severidade da doença, mensurados previamente com o programa AutoCADâ, foram avaliadas por 10 pessoas sem e com a utilização da escala diagramática. Foram realizadas duas avaliações com a utilização da escala, com intervalo de sete dias, onde seqüências diferentes das mesmas folhas foram estimadas visualmente pelos mesmos avaliadores. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foi determinada por regressão linear simples, entre a severidade real e a estimada. Sem o auxílio da escala, todos os avaliadores superestimaram consistentemente a severidade, indicando a presença de desvios positivos constantes para todos os níveis de severidade da doença. As avaliações realizadas com a escala diagramática foram mais acuradas nas estimativas da maioria dos avaliadores e mais precisas para todos os avaliadores, além de proporcionar boa repetibilidade e elevada reprodutibilidade entre avaliações de diferentes avaliadores. A escala diagramática mostrou-se adequada para avaliação da severidade da ferrugem branca do crisântemo.White rust, caused by Puccinia horiana, is considered the major disease of Chrysanthemum in Brazil, which results in severe losses for the growers. Despite of its economic importance, very

  10. Viabilidade técnico-econômica do uso de diferentes tecnologias de iluminação para indução de fotoperíodo na produção de mudas de crisântemo Technical and economical viability of distinct illumination technologies applied to photoperiod induction in chrysanthemum production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Rossi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Em função de suas características fisiológicas, as mudas de crisântemo necessitam de luz suplementar para evitar formação de botão floral. Isto é feito no período noturno. O presente trabalho visou a analisar a viabilidade técnico-econômica de substituir-se a atual tecnologia de iluminação artificial utilizada pelos produtores (lâmpadas incandescentes para efeito de indução de fotoperíodo em ambiente protegido, pela tecnologia de lâmpadas de descarga, com o objetivo de reduzir o consumo de energia elétrica utilizada no processo. As lâmpadas de descarga possuem maior vida útil e apresentam menor consumo de energia quando comparadas às lâmpadas incandescentes. Os resultados das análises permitem concluir que a lâmpada fluorescente compacta integrada amarela, de 23 W, é a que apresenta viabilidade técnica e econômica para tal substituição.Physiological characteristics of chrysanthemum nurseries require extra light supply to prevent buds production. That extra illumination is carried during night period. This research aimed to analyze the technical and economical viability associated to the substitution of conventional incandescent lamps used by the producers to discharge lamps to induce photoperiod, aiming electricity cost reduction in protected environment. Discharge lamps are more efficient, exhibit lower consumption and longer life when compared to the incandescent ones. The results of the analysis allow concluding that the yellow fluorescent compact integrated 23 W lamp turned to be technical and economically viable for the proposed substitution.

  11. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  12. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  13. Uranium extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) and the IAEA jointly published a book on Uranium Extraction Technology. A primary objective of this report was to document the significant technological developments that took place during the 1970s. The purpose of this present publication is to update and expand the original book. It includes background information about the principle of the unit operations used in uranium ore processing and summarizes the current state of the art. The publication also seeks to preserve the technology and the operating 'know-how' developed over the past ten years. This publication is one of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing that have been prepared by the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management at the IAEA. A complete list of these reports is included as an addendum. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Anomaly Extraction in Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Naushad Mujawar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The application detects anomaly in network using techniques like histogram, cloning voting, filtering. To extract anomalous flows, one could build a model describing normal flow characteristics and use the model to identify deviating flows. We can compare flows of packets on network with previous flows, like new flows that were not previously observed or flows with significant increase/decrease in their volume. Identify an anomalous flow that combines and consolidates information from multiple histogram-based anomaly detectors [1] [4] [8]. Compared to other possible approaches. Build a histogram based detector that (i applies histogram cloning[1][4], i.e., maintains multiple randomized histograms to obtain additional views of network traffic[3]; and (ii uses the Kullback-Leibler (KL distance to detect anomalies.

  15. Extractive 90Y generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generator for 90Y production is made up of two units - an extractive unit and a unit for deep purification. Contrary to the well-known methods of 90Y separation two mineral acids are used in the developed technology. The solutions of nitric acid are used for preliminary separation of 90Y and the solutions of hydrochloric acid are used for the deep purification of 90Y from 90Sr and stripping. The optimum conditions for carrying out this technology were found. The following results are reported: the carry-over of the stationary phase is excluded in this generator; the separation time is 30-60 minutes; the yield of the final product is not less than 95%; impurity of 90Sr is not more than 10-9---10%; the content of the chemical (nonactive) impurities is not more than the allowed one for radiopharmaceuticals

  16. Underground mineral extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for extracting underground minerals such as coal, which avoids the need for sending personnel underground and which enables the mining of steeply pitched seams of the mineral. The method includes the use of a narrow vehicle which moves underground along the mineral seam and which is connected by pipes or hoses to water pumps at the surface of the Earth. The vehicle hydraulically drills pilot holes during its entrances into the seam, and then directs sideward jets at the seam during its withdrawal from each pilot hole to comminute the mineral surrounding the pilot hole and combine it with water into a slurry, so that the slurried mineral can flow to a location where a pump raises the slurry to the surface.

  17. Quantitative metamaterial property extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Schurig, David

    2015-01-01

    We examine an extraction model for metamaterials, not previously reported, that gives precise, quantitative and causal representation of S parameter data over a broad frequency range, up to frequencies where the free space wavelength is only a modest factor larger than the unit cell dimension. The model is comprised of superposed, slab shaped response regions of finite thickness, one for each observed resonance. The resonance dispersion is Lorentzian and thus strictly causal. This new model is compared with previous models for correctness likelihood, including an appropriate Occam's factor for each fit parameter. We find that this new model is by far the most likely to be correct in a Bayesian analysis of model fits to S parameter simulation data for several classic metamaterial unit cells.

  18. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  19. Liquefaction for cataract extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiris, Georgios; Toli, Aspasia; Polychroni, Damaskini; Gkika, Maria; Angelonias, Dimitrios; Kozobolis, Vassilios P.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review of the recent literature regarding the implementation of the liquefaction in cataract surgery and its short-term and long-term outcomes in various parameters that affect the quality of patients' life, including visual rehabilitation and possible complications was performed based on the PubMed, Medline, Nature and the American Academy of Ophthalmology databases in November 2013 and data from 14 comparative studies were included in this narrative review. Liquefaction is an innovative technology for cataract extraction that uses micropulses of balanced salt solution to liquefy the lens nucleus. Most studies reported that liquefaction is a reliable technology for mild to moderate cataracts, while fragmentation difficulties may be encountered with harder nuclei. PMID:26949656

  20. Feature Extraction Using Mfcc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mel Frequency Ceptral Coefficient is a very common and efficient technique for signal processing. Thispaper presents a new purpose of working with MFCC by using it for Hand gesture recognition. Theobjective of using MFCC for hand gesture recognition is to explore the utility of the MFCC for imageprocessing. Till now it has been used in speech recognition, for speaker identification. The present systemis based on converting the hand gesture into one dimensional (1-D signal and then extracting first 13MFCCs from the converted 1-D signal. Classification is performed by using Support Vector Machine.Experimental results represents that proposed application of using MFCC for gesture recognition havevery good accuracy and hence can be used for recognition of sign language or for other householdapplication with the combination for other techniques such as Gabor filter, DWT to increase the accuracyrate and to make it more efficient.

  1. Uranium extraction in phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is recovered from the phosphoric liquor produced from the concentrate obtained from phosphorus-uraniferous mineral from Itataia mines (CE, Brazil). The proposed process consists of two extraction cycles. In the first one, uranium is reduced to its tetravalent state and then extracted by dioctylpyrophosphoric acid, diluted in Kerosene. Re-extraction is carried out with concentrated phosphoric acid containing an oxidising agent to convert uranium to its hexavalent state. This extract (from the first cycle) is submitted to the second cycle where uranium is extracted with DEPA-TOPO (di-2-hexylphosphoric acid/tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) in Kerosene. The extract is then washed and uranium is backextracted and precipitated as commercial concentrate. The organic phase is recovered. Results from discontinuous tests were satisfactory, enabling to establish operational conditions for the performance of a continuous test in a micro-pilot plant. (Author)

  2. KEYWORD EXTRACTION FOR PUNJABI LAGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMALDEEP KAUR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces keyword extraction for Punjabi language. Keywords are the index terms that contain the most important information about the contents of the document. Automatic keyword extraction is the task to identify a small set of words, keyphrases or keywords from a document that can describe the meaning ofdocument. Not much work has been done in keyword extraction for Indian languages in general and Punjabi in particular. Adequate annotated corpora are not yet available in Punjabi. The paper represents the Automatic keyword extraction system for Punjabi language to find words from a document which convey the completemeaning of the text. First we survey about the various approaches available for keyword extraction, then represent our hybrid approach for Punjabi. A number of features are used to extract keywords effectively. The experimental results are shown.

  3. An Extended Keyword Extraction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng

    Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.

  4. Event extraction for DNA methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta Tomoko; Pyysalo Sampo; Miwa Makoto; Tsujii Jun’ichi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We consider the task of automatically extracting DNA methylation events from the biomedical domain literature. DNA methylation is a key mechanism of epigenetic control of gene expression and implicated in many cancers, but there has been little study of automatic information extraction for DNA methylation. Results We present an annotation scheme for DNA methylation following the representation of the BioNLP shared task on event extraction, select a set of 200 abstracts inc...

  5. The quadratic oil extraction oligopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwick, John M.; Brolley, Michael [Department of Economics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2008-12-15

    Each extractor has a distinct initial endowment of oil and a distinct quadratic extraction cost and faces a linear industry demand schedule. We observe in a discrete-time model with a finite number of periods that the open loop and closed loop solutions are the same if initial stocks are such that each competitor is extracting in every period in which her competitors are extracting. (author)

  6. A New Extraction for Coq

    OpenAIRE

    Letouzey, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    We present here a new extraction mechanism for the Coq proof assistant. By extraction, we mean automatic generation of functional code from Coq proofs, in order to produce certified programs. In former versions of Coq, the extraction mechanism suffered several limitations and in particular worked only with a subset of the language. We first discuss difficulties encountered and solutions proposed to remove these limitations. Then we give a proof of correctness for a theoretical model of the ne...

  7. Extraction chromatography: Progress and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bond, A.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1997-10-01

    Extraction chromatography provides a simple and effective method for the analytical and preparative-scale separation of a variety of metal ions. Recent advances in extractant design, particularly the development of extractants capable of metal ion recognition or of strong complex formation in highly acidic media, have significantly improved the utility of the technique. Advances in support design, most notably the introduction of functionalized supports to enhance metal ion retention, promise to yield further improvements. Column instability remains a significant obstacle, however, to the process-scale application of extraction chromatography. 79 refs.

  8. Optimization of crystal extraction experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Biryukov, Valery

    2001-01-01

    Using a computer model for the crystal extraction, we investigate the bent-crystal parameters optimal for the extraction experiment. The optimal crystal curvature is found to be near 1 GeV/cm (for pv/R), i.e. a factor of 2--3 higher than for the crystal application in beam lines. An influence of the accelerator optics on extraction is discussed. A possibility of using the high-Z crystals for extraction is considered. The simulations for the ongoing experiments at the CERN-SPS and the Fermilab...

  9. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft3/min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft3/min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  10. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Cascaval Dan; Galaction Anca-Irina

    2004-01-01

    The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes) and direct extracti...

  11. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  12. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Parmer, Marthe Petrine;

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports development of a new approach towards analytical liquid-liquid-liquid membrane extraction termed parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction. A donor plate and acceptor plate create a sandwich, in which each sample (human plasma) and acceptor solution is separated by an...

  13. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  14. Sterilization of Extracted Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.

    1990-01-01

    At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)

  15. Gold extraction from flotation tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studies on cyanide leaching of gold comprising flotation tailings of antimony ore are given. The possibility to extract 50% of gold by cyanide leaching is shown. The dependence of gold extraction on leaching duration is studied. Influence of kerosine on cyanide leaching of flotation tailings is studied as well.

  16. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kleeven, W

    2006-01-01

    The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with internal ion source are considered. The principle of a PIG source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different ways of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. A proposal for a magnetostatic axial inflector is given. Different solutions for beam extraction are treated. These include the internal target, extraction by stripping, resonant extraction using a deflector and self-extraction. The different ways of creating a turn-separation are explained. The purpose of different types of extraction devices such as harmonic coils, deflectors and gradient corrector channels are outlined. Several illustrations are given in the form of photographs and drawings.

  17. Uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been carried out for the extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid produced in Algeria. First of all, the Algerian phosphoric acid produced in Algeria by SONATRACH has been characterised. This study helped us to synthesize a phosphoric acid that enabled us to pass from laboratory tests to pilot scale tests. We have then examined extraction and stripping parameters: diluent, DZEPHA/TOPO ratio and oxidising agent. The laboratory experiments enabled us to set the optimum condition for the choice of diluent, extractant concentration, ratio of the synergic mixture, oxidant concentration, redox potential. The equilibrium isotherms lead to the determination of the number of theoretical stages for the uranium extraction and stripping of uranium, then the extraction from phosphoric acid has been verified on a pilot scale (using a mixer-settler)

  18. Extraction chemistry of some bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martella, L.L.; Navratil, J.D.; Santiago, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The extraction chemistry of methylenediphosphonates, carbamoylphosphonates, and carbamoylmethylenephosphonates has been investigated. The bidentate organophosphorus compounds extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7 M nitric acid. The properties of the extractants and extraction mechanisms are discussed. The effect of complexing agents on the extraction of actinides and lanthanides is also presented.

  19. Selectivity in extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simultaneous extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants (LIX84 and D2E11PA) was described. Stechiometry of metal-organic complexes examined using the method of equimolar ratios resulted in CuR2 and InR3 forms of hydrophobic extracting species. A linear correlation was obtained between logarithm of distribution coefficients and chelate agents and pH, respectively. Selectivity is generally higher with higher concentrations of chelate agents in the organic phase, and is decreased with increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in feeding phase. (Original)

  20. DEFINITION OF THE OPTIMAL PARAMETERS OF SUPERSONIC EXTRACTION AT STACHYS NODULES EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharova, L.; Dyatlov, A.

    2013-01-01

    The researches allowed determination of the extractives amount in stachys nodules and motivation of optimal parameters of supersonic extraction at obtaining extracts on water basis from stachys nodules.

  1. Selective extraction of natural bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work performed in the field of natural bitumen extraction is aimed at maximum separation of organic phase. On treating bituminous rocks with solvents, the associated metals are extracted together with the organic phase and may further exert a negative effect on refining of natural bitumen. the authors propose a simplified two stage technique for the extraction of bitumen which enables to utilize V and Ni contained in the concentrate of the second stage extraction (Table). At the first stage, negative bitumen is extracted with the summary content of metals not exceeding 0.005%. This allows to avoid de metallization of native bitumen and subject it to treatment by catalytic cracking. during this stage gasoline and kerosene fractions, different oil distillates and condensates can be used as solvents. at the second stage, aromatic and halo id compounds bearing wastes and by-products, i.e. cheap and non deficient reagents, serve as solvents. The technology was tested under laboratory conditions using Tatar bituminous sands. It is also possible to use one solvent only, however, on condition that at first the oil product with the summary metal content below 0.005%, and then the remaining product is extracted. The proposed technology has proved so universal that it can be applied to refining any type of raw material to be found in the territory of the Tatar republic, using surface extraction complexes. (author). 9 refs., tab

  2. The relationship between analgesic effect of total flavonoids of Chuzhou chrysanthemum and nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2%滁菊总黄酮的镇痛作用及与一氧化氮和前列腺素E2的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓蓓; 陈志武; 罗胜勇; 马征

    2014-01-01

    目的研究滁菊总黄酮( TFCC)的镇痛作用及其可能机制。方法镇痛作用采用小鼠扭体法、温浴法、福尔马林法、热板法进行检测;血清和脑组织中一氧化氮( NO)和前列腺素E2( PGE2)含量分别采用Griess法和紫外分光光度法测定。结果灌胃给药TFCC 100、200 mg/kg可明显减少小鼠扭体反应数,降低小鼠福尔马林致痛作用第Ⅱ时相疼痛反应评分值,延长小鼠热板舔足反应潜伏期和热水缩尾反应潜伏期;小鼠侧脑室给药TFCC 5、10 mg/kg可明显抑制小鼠扭体反应。灌胃给药TFCC 100、200 mg/kg可明显提高小鼠血清和脑组织中NO含量,但可降低PGE2含量。结论 TFCC具有明显镇痛作用,其镇痛机制可能与促进 NO 释放和抑制PGE2生成有关。%Objective To study the analgesic effect of total flavone of Chuzhou chrysanthemum ( TFCC ) and its mechanism. Methods Writhing test, warm bath method, formalin method, the hot plate test were used to examine analgesic effect on mice, and serum and brain tissue nitric oxide( NO) and prostaglandin E2 ( PGE2 ) contents were determinated the Griess method and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Results Intragastrical administration of TFCC 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg could significantly reduce the writhing number in mice,II-phase pain in formaldehyde induced pain in mice, and prolonged the mice hot plate licking foot response latency and hot shrinkage tail reaction time. Intracerebroventricular injection TFCC 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg could significantly inhibit the writhing number in mice. TFCC 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg significantly increased mice serum and brain NO contents, and reduced PGE2 contents. Conclusion TFCC has obvious analgesic effect, and its analgesic mechanism may be related to the promation of NO release and the inhibition of PGE2 .

  3. Extraction of uranium with emulsion membrane process use tributylphosphate extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the effectiveness of extraction process with so for to occur, it was tried the extraction with a couple of extraction and stripping process. This couple process was called liquid membrane emulsion. As membrane was used mix surfactant (Span-80), tributylphosphate in kerosene, natrium carbonate, while as a feeder was uranium solution with 500 concentration ppm in 0.5 - 3 M nitrate acid. In this experiment the variable investigated were % surfactant (1 - 5 %), rotary speed for membrane making (2,500 - 10.000 rpm). The optimal condition result of experiment were 5 % surfactant, 3 M nitrate acid, rotary speed 10.000 rpm and (KdeksU) 57 %, and (KdstrippU) 87 %, KdeksU at liquid-liquid extraction is 44 %. (author)

  4. Development of signal-extraction scheme for Resonant Sideband Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Kokeyama, K; Kawazoe, F; Sato, S; Kawamura, S; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    As a future plan, an advanced gravitational-wave detector will employ an optical configuration of resonant sideband extraction (RSE), achieved with an additional mirror at the signal-detection port of the power-recycled Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. To control the complex coupled cavity system, one of the most important design issues is how to extract the longitudinal control signals of the cavities. We developed a new signal-extraction scheme which provides an appropriate sensing matrix. The new method uses two sets of sidebands: one of the sideband components satisfies the critical coupling ondition for the RSE interferometer and reaches the signal-extraction port, and the other sideband is completely reflected by the Michelson interferometer. They provide a diagonalized sensing matrix and enable the RSE control to be robust.

  5. Extraction of fat-soluble vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2001-11-23

    An overview of the different extraction procedures of fat-soluble vitamins from human fluids, foods and pharmaceutical preparations is presented. Methods using organic solvent extraction (both liquid-liquid and solid-liquid extraction), supercritical fluid extraction and solid-phase extraction for the different types of both vitamins and matrices are discussed. PMID:11762782

  6. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  7. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  8. Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Chu; Xue-Bin Li; Ping Zhang; Yi An; Jiang-Bo Duan; Long Wang; Ding Li; Bing Li; Ji-Hong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

  9. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 2. Pertraction, direct extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Galaction Anca-Irina; Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    The second part of this review presents our original results on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, alcohols) by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration. For the analyzed systems, the experimental conditions required for reaching maximum separation efficiency and the mathematical models describing the process have been established. For all the studied cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies and redu...

  10. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 2. Pertraction, direct extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galaction Anca-Irina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The second part of this review presents our original results on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, alcohols by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration. For the analyzed systems, the experimental conditions required for reaching maximum separation efficiency and the mathematical models describing the process have been established. For all the studied cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies and reduce the overall cost of the product.

  11. Adult orthodontic therapy: extraction versus non-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S

    1998-11-01

    This study addresses the problem of randomization of subjects with respect to an irreversible aspect of treatment strategy, namely, the extraction of teeth. The investigation includes both prospective and retrospective components. The data presented focus on clinician decision-making. Of the 1321 potential subjects for whom records were taken, 250 met the inclusion criteria. Of these subjects, 82 declined to participate and 20 were dropped because of difficulty in obtaining five independent evaluations of their records within a reasonable time frame. Thus, the final sample contained 148 subjects. Approximately one-third of the subjects in the sample are adult, somewhat more than half are female, and Class I malocclusions outnumber Class II malocclusions by a count of 95 to 53. Patterns of agreement and disagreement among five clinicians include: a) agreement/disagreement on the primary decision whether or not to extract: the data reveal a strong tendency towards consensus among the clinicians; b) agreement/disagreement on extraction pattern in patients in whom the clinician believes that extraction is indicated: the clinicians tended strongly to agree on extraction pattern; c) agreement/disagreement on the need for adjunctive orthognathic surgery: decisions favoring surgery were more common and more 'definite' than 'probable' in the adult cohort than in the adolescent cohort but this tendency was not as strong as had been anticipated; d) agreement/disagreement concerning Angle classification: disagreements were more common than had been anticipated; and e) differences among the individual clinicians as to their ratios of extraction/non-extraction decisions: overall, clinicians opted for extraction less frequently in the adolescent cohort than in the adult cohort (55 vs. 66%). Because the data are drawn from actual clinical experience, the conclusions involve a number of assumptions and their generalizability should be evaluated. PMID:10321141

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent concerns liquid-liquid extraction columns in which solute transfer across the liquid-liquid interface sets up Marangoni instabilities which give rise to interfacial turbulence. The phenomenon has been observed to occur in the solvent extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from an aqueous nitric phase using tributyl phosphate with odourless kerosens. The invention provides a method of quantifying the degree of Marangoni instabilities in a column-type liquid-liquid extraction column, and determining a value for the solute free characteristic velocity parameter. The method also gives a measure of the extent to which the characteristic velocity is modified by the Marangoni instability. (U.K.)

  13. Liquid-liquid extraction columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, W.; Lonie, S.J.; Thompson, P.J.; Thornton, J.D.

    1987-11-11

    The patent concerns liquid-liquid extraction columns in which solute transfer across the liquid-liquid interface sets up Marangoni instabilities which give rise to interfacial turbulence. The phenomenon has been observed to occur in the solvent extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from an aqueous nitric phase using tributyl phosphate with odourless kerosens. The invention provides a method of quantifying the degree of Marangoni instabilities in a column-type liquid-liquid extraction column, and determining a value for the solute free characteristic velocity parameter. The method also gives a measure of the extent to which the characteristic velocity is modified by the Marangoni instability. (U.K.).

  14. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes and direct extraction from broths have considerable potential and are required for the further development of many biotechnologies. This review is structured on two parts and presents our original results of the studies on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, amino acids, alcohols by reactive extraction in the first part, and by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration in the second. For all the analyzed cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies by reducing material and energy consumption, by avoiding product inhibition, by increasing the separation selectivity, therefore decreasing the overall cost of the product.

  15. Specific extraction of chromium(VI) using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, G P; Pacey, G E

    2000-02-01

    In some situations, it is no longer sufficient to give a total concentration of a metal. Instead, what is required to understand the potential toxicity of a sample is the concentration of metal species or oxidation state. When developing species specific methods, the major concern is that the integrity of the species ratio is not changed. In other words, the sample preparation or the analytical method will not convert metal ions from one oxidation state to another. Normal extraction techniques and chromatography methods have shown some tendencies to change species ratios. An ideal extraction method would extract the metal efficiently while retaining the metal's oxidation state. The properties of supercritical fluids should approach the ideal of retention of oxidation states. For example, the need for speciation of chromium is obvious since Cr(III) is considered an essential element while Cr(VI) is thought to be toxic and carcinogenic. This paper presents the results of a species specific extraction of Cr(VI) using two different carbamate derivatives as the chelator. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) coupled with a fluorinated dithiocarbamate and a methanol modifier allows extraction of 1 ppm Cr(VI) from a solid matrix with a recovery level of 88.4+/-2.57% using the NIST standard sample. The optimized conditions using the HP 7680 supercritical fluid extractor were: 0.1 ml of methanol, 0.05 ml of pure water, and 0.01 g of chelate via a saturation chamber. PMID:18967865

  16. Pyretrum : et naturlig insekticid og mulig middel mot lakselus

    OpenAIRE

    Boxaspen, Karin

    1990-01-01

    Pyrethrum is the name of a petroleum extract from the flower of the chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. This extract has been used commercially by the industrialised world as an insecticide for more than 150 years and even references as far back as Ming dynasty around year 70 AD have been found. The flower has been grown several places (Dalmatia, Japan, South America) but it has been proven that the content of the active constituents called pyrethrins are at its peak ...

  17. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  18. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  19. Extracting useful information from images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of methods for extracting useful information from digital images. It covers various approaches that utilized different properties of images, like intensity distribution, spatial frequencies content and several others. A few case studies including isotropic and...

  20. Extracting Oil From Tar Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, L. B.; Daly, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recovery of oil from tar sands possible by batch process, using steam produced by solar heater. In extraction process, solar heater provides steam for heating solvent boiler. Boiling solvent removes oil from tar sands in Soxhlet extractor.

  1. Coil for LEAR extraction septum

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    Which way does the current flow ? This intriguing object is the coil for the LEAR extraction septum. There were two septa, first a thin one, then this one, not so thin, somewhat on the borderline between septum and bending magnet.

  2. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  3. Bio technologies in extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bio technologies processes used (or used in the future) in extractive metallurgy are presented. The most advanced one is the degradation of the metals sulfides (bacteria catalyzing the sulfides oxidation of Au, Cu, U). Two other applications outside the extractive metallurgy are also described: metals fixation by living or dead organic matter and the biological destruction of organic reactants such as cyanides. (A.B.)

  4. Approximate Grammar for Information Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sriram, V; Reddy, B. Ravi Sekar; Sangal, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of Approximate grammar and how it can be used to extract information from a documemt. As the structure of informational strings cannot be defined well in a document, we cannot use the conventional grammar rules to represent the information. Hence, the need arises to design an approximate grammar that can be used effectively to accomplish the task of Information extraction. Approximate grammars are a novel step in this direction. The rules of an approximat...

  5. Extractive Spectrophotometric Determination of Ambrisentan

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Bala Sekaran; Telu Visalakshi; Avula Prameela Rani; Namasani Santhosh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ambrisentan (ABS) is an antihypertensive drug used in the treatment of pulmonary atrial hypertension. The survey of literature for ABS revealed only two spectrophotometric methods for its quantification. The reported methods lack the sensitivity. This study is aimed at developing two sensitive extractive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ABS in bulk and in tablets. Methods: The proposed methods are based on the formation of colored chloroform extractable io...

  6. ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF PIPAL EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Molly; Gopi, T.V.; Balachandran, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    An ethanol extract of Pipal has been studied for its ability to inhibit gastric acidity and to protect gastric mucosa against the injuries caused by pyloric ligation, acetyl salicylic acid and cytodestructing agents (80% ethanol, 06M Hcl and 0.2 M Hcl) in rats. The results of this study demonstrate that ethanol extract of papal has significant effects on various experimentally induced ulcers. It reduced significantly the intensity of gastric lesions induced by pylorus ligation, acetyl salicyl...

  7. Socket preservation procedure after extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar ridge prophylaxis immediately upon tooth extraction may reduce such sequelae for both, the treating dentist and the patient. Attempts to reduce alveolar bone resorption have included the placement of natural roots, root analogues, and immediate implants into the extraction socket, sometimes in combination with membrane or graft techniques. Various materials are used in modern dental and maxillofacial surgery for bone tissue substitution and reconstruction. All osteoplastic materi...

  8. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  9. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future

  10. Electrochemical process of titanium extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CH. RVS. NAGESH; C. S. RAMACHANDRAN

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of processes are being pursued by researchers for cost effective extraction of titanium metal. Electrochemical processes are promising due to simplicity and being less capital intensive. Some of the promising electrochemical processes of titanium extraction were reviewed and the results of laboratory scale experiments on electrochemical reduction of TiO2 granules were brought out. Some of the kinetic parameters of the reduction process were discussed while presenting the quality improvements achieved in the experimentation.

  11. Neuroleptanalgesia and extracapsular cataract extraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkins, P R; Teye-Botchway, L; Morrell, A. J.; Fetherston, T J; Perthen, C; Brown, N E

    1992-01-01

    Peribulbar and retrobulbar anaesthesia are commonly used techniques in cataract extraction. They offer satisfactory analgesia and akinesia but serious complications although uncommon are consistently reported. Intravenous sedation combined with a facial nerve block offers an alternative method of anaesthesia. This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction using this technique between 1 January 1986 and 1 September 1990. The operating conditions were ...

  12. Vitreous haemorrhage after cataract extraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Littlewood, K R; Constable, I J

    1985-01-01

    One hundred eyes undergoing intracapsular cataract extraction and 100 undergoing extracapsular extraction were examined prospectively within one week postoperatively and again at 6-10 weeks postoperatively. Indirect ophthalmoscopy showed vitreous haemorrhage in 36% of the intracapsular group and 13% of the extracapsular group. Vitreous haemorrhage was significantly related to the occurrence of operative hyphaema (p less than 0.01) but not to iridectomy (p greater than 0.05). In the intracapsu...

  13. Phoenix I energy extraction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy extraction experiments are reported for the Phoenix I amplifier driven by a discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system operating on mixtures of either SF6-HI or SF6-C2H6 and an electron-beam-initiated intermediate amplifer (lambda-3) fueled with H2 and F2 mixtures. When the oscillator-preamplifier system operated with mixtures of SF6-HI the input spectrum to the Phoenix I amplifier contained approx. 28 P-branch vibrational-rotational lines which were almost identical to the input spectrum from the H2-F2 fueled oscillator. In this case the energy extraction measurements were essentially the same as the results obtained with the spectrum produced using H2 and F2 mixtures. For an input intensity of 107 W/cm2, 170 J were extracted from the amplifier. With the SF6-C2H6 spectrum, extraction was only obtained from the first three excited vibrational levels. This result indicates that most of the energy in the amplifier could be extracted on the first three excited vibrational levels. It is shown that the extraction results can be fit with a simple two level model. The radius of curvature of the beam was estimated using a lateral shearing interferometer. It was found that the Phoenix I amplifier altered the radius of curvature

  14. Separation of coal tar fractions by solvent extraction - Extractant/solvent separation by secondary extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, C.; Saito, J.; Egashira, R. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Graduate School of Science & Engineering

    2005-01-15

    Solvent extraction was applied to the separation of tar light oil and absorption oil, and solvent recovery in the separation of these coal tar fractions by extraction with secondary oil solvent. The liquid-liquid equilibria were measured with various combinations of oil and aqueous methanol phases that occur throughout the whole extraction process. Based on the equilibrium results, a process separating absorption oil and tar light oil simultaneously with a single aqueous solvent is suggested, in which the two feed oils also act as secondary solvents for mutual separation. In the separation of feed oils by aqueous methanol solution as solvent, nitrogen heterocyclic compounds in the absorption oil and the tar light oil were extracted preferentially to other compounds including homocyclic hydrocarbons and oxygen heterocyclic compounds. In the solvent recovery in the separation of absorption oil, the aqueous extract phase containing aqueous solvent and extractants was separated by tar light oil as secondary oil solvent. In the solvent recovery in the separation of tar light oil, the aqueous extract phase was separated by absorption oil as the secondary oil solvent. The distribution coefficients were not affected by the type of oil phase of coal tar fraction and by the presence of the extractants in the aqueous phase. The distribution coefficients in all cases of oil phases of absorption oil and tar light oil could be classified into three groups: monocyclic nitrogen compounds, bicyclic nitrogen compounds, and other compounds including hydrocarbons and oxygen compounds. By integrating the two separation processes of absorption oil and tar light oil into one process separating both coal tar fractions simultaneously with a single aqueous solvent, several extractors and solvents required in the two separate processes can be eliminated.

  15. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography, Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, Matthew C.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2006-06-15

    In this review we examine the related fields of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). We reviewed the published literature in the period from November 2003 to November 2005. Well over 300 papers were published in this period. This large body of work indicates continuing active growth of the field, but an exhaustive review is beyond the scope of this work. We have chosen to include a sampling of publications that best represent the continuing trends and new ideas in the field. In keeping with past reviews on this subject1, we have broadened our scope to include fluid systems operating at high temperature and pressure, but below the critical point. Various terms have been applied to this state: sub-critical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and accelerated solvent extraction. The term accelerated solvent extraction has been used by instrument manufacturers to refer to this process, but we will use the more descriptive term pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) to refer to these systems. Most of the research in the field is of an “evolutionary” rather than “revolutionary” nature. As in the previous review period, applications papers make up a majority of the published work. Pharmaceutical applications continue to be a strong theme. Most of the pharmaceutical work has centered on preparative, rather than analytical, separations. Chiral separations are an exception, as analytical scale separations of chiral compounds are an area of intense interest. Food and natural products represent the next largest body of work. Major themes are the isolation and characterization of high-value added foodstuffs, fragrances, and flavor compounds from novel natural materials or agricultural by-products. The areas of food, natural products, and pharmaceutical separation science converge in the area of so-called nutraceuticals. These are typically high-value products, either sold alone or as part of a fortified food, that

  16. Propolis extract application in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Spaziani Pereira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has been ground in various areas of science, but its application in agriculture, is a recent and almost unknown subject. In agronomy work mainly seek to explore the antibiotic and antifungal properties of propolis, but other uses have been proposed, such as plant nutrition, pest control (such as mites and even reducing water stress in plants. Despite numerous utilities proven and proposals, there are many questions, particularly for the preparation of the extract, most appropriate chemical composition for a particular use, application forms, crude propolis extract in percentages, dose minimum efficiency, efficiency, etc. Given the above, the purpose of this literature review is to present the origin and chemical composition of propolis, making methodology of propolis extract, more effective dose in the control of fungi, plant pathogenic bacteria and reduce water stress. During the study, it can be seen that the difference in propolis composition occurs mainly due to the variability of vegetable composition in the vicinity of the hive, the bees forage and chemical composition is quite complex and variable in terms of both concentration and chemicals gifts. In the extraction, there are still many gaps to be studied, including the best way to obtain the extract, with questions about the best puller, with lack of consensus in the literature. On the efficiency of this technology, there are numerous studies with promising results, which allow implementation of technology in the field and these jobs concentrated in coffee crops, beans, cucumber and tomato.

  17. Evaluation of Rule Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiruveedula GopiKrishna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For the data mining domain, the lack of explanation facilities seems to be a serious drawback for techniques based on Artificial Neural Networks, or, for that matter, any technique producing opaque models In particular, the ability to generate even limited explanations is absolutely crucial for user acceptance of such systems. Since the purpose of most data mining systems is to support decision making,the need for explanation facilities in these systems is apparent. The task for the data miner is thus to identify the complex but general relationships that are likely to carry over to production data and the explanation facility makes this easier. Also focused the quality of the extracted rules; i.e. how well the required explanation is performed. In this research some important rule extraction algorithms are discussed and identified the algorithmic complexity; i.e. how efficient the underlying rule extraction algorithm is

  18. Extraction of Silver by Glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Ananya; Gandi, Mounika; Chaudhari, Swathi; Bag, Soumabha; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2016-06-27

    Unprecedented silver ion leaching, in the range of 0.7 ppm was seen when metallic silver was heated in water at 70 °C in presence of simple carbohydrates, such as glucose, making it a green method of silver extraction. Extraction was facilitated by the presence of anions, such as carbonate and phosphate. Studies confirm a two-step mechanism of silver release, first forming silver ions at the metal surface and later complexation of ionic silver with glucose; such complexes have been detected by mass spectrometry. Extraction leads to microscopic roughening of the surface making it Raman active with an enhancement factor of 5×10(8) . PMID:27119514

  19. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...

  20. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible...

  1. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Extracts after Sequential Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Iqbal; Maznah Ismail; Noordin Mohd Yusri; Kim Wei Chan

    2012-01-01

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β...

  2. Follicular Unit Extraction Hair Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Aman Dua; Kapil Dua

    2010-01-01

    Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT) of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE) technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ′no visible scarring′ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the ...

  3. Liquid-liquid extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquid-liquid extraction for use for example, in the solvent extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from an aqueous phase, comprises a perforated plate packing in which each plate has flanges associated with its perforations, which flanges project upstream with respect to the disperse phase flow direction so as to define a collecting zone for disperse phase droplets which thereby form a film or layer of the disperse phase component on the upstream face of each plate. In this way, droplet formation at the perforations of each plate is not significantly influenced by variations of the wetting characteristics of the plate with time. (author)

  4. Liquid-liquid extraction columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lonie, S.J.

    1986-10-15

    A liquid-liquid extraction for use for example, in the solvent extraction of uranium and/or plutonium from an aqueous phase, comprises a perforated plate packing in which each plate has flanges associated with its perforations, which flanges project upstream with respect to the disperse phase flow direction so as to define a collecting zone for disperse phase droplets which thereby form a film or layer of the disperse phase component on the upstream face of each plate. In this way, droplet formation at the perforations of each plate is not significantly influenced by variations of the wetting characteristics of the plate with time.

  5. Method to extract uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium compounds present in gangue of phosphate ores are also to be determined and extracted with the proposed method. The gangue-water mixture in phosphate extraction is to be displaced, according to the invention, by a component which selectively dissolves the uranium compounds out of the gangue. The enriched solution is separated off and processed. Weak acids (e.g. phosphoric acid, acetre acid, citric acid), lyes (e.g. ammonium carbonate, soda) or salts (e.g. sodium hydrogen phosphate, NaHCO3 tartrates) are named as solution components. (UWI)

  6. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  7. Informed consent in dental extractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Capote Femenías

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When performing any oral intervention, particularly dental extractions, the specialist should have the oral or written consent of the patient. This consent includes the explanation of all possible complications, whether typical, very serious or personalized associated with the previous health condition, age, profession, religion or any other characteristic of the patient, as well as the possi.ble benefits of the intervention. This article is related with the bioethical aspects related with dental extractions, in order to determine the main elements that the informed consent should include.

  8. Carcinogenic potential of hydrotreated petroleum aromatic extracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Doak, S. M.; Hend, R W; van der Wiel, A; Hunt, P F

    1985-01-01

    Five experimental petroleum extracts were produced from luboil distillates derived from Middle East paraffinic crude by solvent extraction and severe hydrotreatment. The polycyclic aromatic content (PCA) of the extracts was determined by dimethyl sulphoxide extraction and ranged from 3.7-9.2% w/w. The five extracts were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous and systemic neoplasia in female mice derived from Carworth Farm No 1 strain (CF1). The test substances were applied undilute...

  9. Personalized Web Services for Web Information Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jarir, Zahi; Quafafou, Mohamed; Erradi, Mahammed

    2011-01-01

    The field of information extraction from the Web emerged with the growth of the Web and the multiplication of online data sources. This paper is an analysis of information extraction methods. It presents a service oriented approach for web information extraction considering both web data management and extraction services. Then we propose an SOA based architecture to enhance flexibility and on-the-fly modification of web extraction services. An implementation of the proposed architecture is p...

  10. Repeated extraction of DNA from FTA cards

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Ferrero, Laura; Børsting, Claus; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of DNA using magnetic bead based techniques on automated DNA extraction instruments provides a fast, reliable and reproducible method for DNA extraction from various matrices. However, the yield of extracted DNA from FTA-cards is typically low. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to repeatedly extract DNA from the processed FTA-disk. The method increases the yield from the nanogram range to the microgram range.

  11. ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF BAMBUSA BAMBOS LEAF EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Muneerudeen J; Himanshu Joshi; Gururaja M.P.; Devi Swapna PV; Lekshmi P; Jipnomon J; C S Shastry

    2013-01-01

    Anti-cancer activities of chloroform and hydro-alcohol leaf extracts of Bambusa bambos was evaluated in vitro using Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell lines by Trypan blue dye exclusion method. The chloroform extract exhibited better activity compared to hydro-alcohol extract. Further hemolytic activities of both the extracts were carried out to measure the extent of damage to normal red blood cell membranes. The findings suggested that both the extract...

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction behaviour of polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic compounds present in polymeric matrices such as neoprene, surgical gloves and PVC were co-extracted during the removal of uranium using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique. Hence SFE studies of these matrices were carried out to establish the extracted species using HPLC, IR and mass spectrometry techniques. The initial study indicated that uranium present in the extract could be purified from the co-extracted organic species. (author)

  13. Method to extract oil from oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil is extracted from grinded hot oil shale by the treatment with an organic liquid, e.g. gas oil, at 350 to 4100C and elevated pressure in the presence of hydrogen. The admixed organic liquid is separated from the oil contained in the oil shake in an extraction vessel with benzine as the extracting agent. The mixture from the extracted components of the oil-shake and the extracting agent is dried in a drying vessel with low pressure steam. (HGOE)

  14. Incremental Observer Relative Data Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    used to index visibility ranges of objects. We introduce a new operator for incremental Observer Relative data Extraction (iORDE). We propose the Volatile Access STructure (VAST), a lightweight main memory structure that is created on the fly and is maintained during visual data explorations. VAST...

  15. DNA Extraction and Primer Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads;

    Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omics...

  16. Statistical Model for Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features to predict significance of the node towards overall content...

  17. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2014-06-20

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical properties were used as model analytes. When EME was performed in a hollow fiber setup with a supported liquid membrane (SLM) comprised of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), a substantial reduction in recovery was seen for eight of the substances when 2.5% (w/v) NaCl was present. No correlation between this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME improves the theoretical understanding of the extraction process, and can contribute to the future development and optimization of the technique. PMID:24792700

  18. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeed Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medical documents. MethodWe use a corpus that is specifically designed for summarisation in the EBM domain. We use approximately half the corpus for deriving important statistics associated with the best possible extractive summaries. We take into account factors such as sentence position, length, sentence content, and the type of the query posed. Using the statistics from the first set, we evaluate our approach on a separate set. Evaluation of the qualities of the generated summaries is performed automatically using ROUGE, which is a popular tool for evaluating automatic summaries. Results Our summarisation approach outperforms all baselines (best baseline score: 0.1594; our score 0.1653. Further improvements are achieved when query types are taken into account. Conclusion The quality of extractive summarisation in the medical domain can be significantly improved by incorporating domain knowledge and statistics derived from a specialised corpus. Such techniques can therefore be applied for content selection in end-to-end summarisation systems.

  19. Avian influenza virus RNA extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficient extraction and purification of viral RNA is critical for down-stream molecular applications whether it is the sensitive and specific detection of virus in clinical samples, virus gene cloning and expression, or quantification of avian influenza (AI) virus by molecular methods from expe...

  20. Application of controlled-released urea combined with conventional urea on physiological indices, yield and quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.%控释尿素与普通尿素配施对菊花生理指标及产量和质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝丽香; 王建华; 高先涛

    2012-01-01

    2009和2010年采取田间实验方法研究控释尿素和普通尿素不同施用方式对菊花生长发育及产量和品质的影响。结果表明,孕蕾期菊花叶片可溶性蛋白质和叶绿素含量、硝酸还原酶活性、根系活力明显高于生长旺盛期和开花期,且施用尿素高于对照。控释尿素、控释尿素与普通尿素混合一次性基施可促进菊花生长发育前期干物质积累,分次施用有利于后期干物质积累。施用尿素增加单株花序数、百朵花序鲜重,对花序直径影响较少。两种尿素分别分次施用菊花产量明显高于一次性基施,控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用产量高于其它处理。与普通尿素单施相比,控释尿素提高了菊花总黄酮、蛋白质和可溶性糖含量,其中以控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用的最高。综合菊花产量和品质指标,在本实验条件下,控释尿素与普通尿素等量混合分次施用的效果最佳。%Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients and plays a vital role in crop growth and yield production, rational nitrogen fertilization is essential to achieve an optimal yield and the desired product quality. Field experiments were conducted from 2009 to 2010 to compare the effects of controlled-release urea and conventional urea on the growth, yield and quality of Chrysanthemum morifolium. The results show that the physiological indices, including soluble protein content, chlorophyll content, nitrate reductase and root activities, are highest at the pregnant stage, and the indices in the treatments applied two kind of urea are higher than those of the control. The controlled-release urea and conventional urea applied as single basal application can improve growth and dry matter accumulation at the early stages of C. morifolium, while split fertilizations are more favorable to these in the later stages. The amounts of inflorescence number per plant and 100-inforescence flesh

  1. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  2. In vitro cytotoxic activity of ginseng leaf/stem extracts obtained by subcritical water extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Kee-Tae; Chang, Pahn-Shik; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng leaf/stem extract produced by subcritical water extraction at high temperature (190°C) possess higher cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines than ethanol extract. Subcritical water extraction can be a great candidate for extraction of functional substance from ginseng leaves/stems.

  3. Chromatographic analysis of wheatgrass extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Shah Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wheatgrass (WG is the shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. belongs to the family Gramineae, and possess high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers etc., It has been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-ulcer, antioxidant, and anti-arthritic activity due to the presence of biologically active compounds, and minerals. Therefore, in the present study, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis have been proposed, which will help in quality evaluation of wheat grass extract. Materials and Methods: Samples for analysis were prepared in methanol and water simply by sonication. These were applied on pre-coated silica plate and chromatograms were developed using toluene: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid. HPLC analysis was done on Waters HPLC system using water, methanol, and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Merck C18 column has been used. Results: HPTLC finger printing of alcoholic extracts of WG was carried out and found 10–11 spots at different wavelengths 254, 366, and 435 nm. HPLC fingerprinting produced 22 peaks at 256 nm. Quantitative HPTLC analysis was done to determine the gallic acid content, and was found to be 0.077% w/w in aqueous extract. By HPLC, the content of gallic acid and rutin was found to be 0.07%, and 0.04% w/w in aqueous extract of WG. Conclusion: The developed HPLC and HPTLC fingerprinting method can be used for the quality control, and standardization of WG and its extracts used as nutritional supplement.

  4. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in ...

  5. Simulation studies for ion beam extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, M.M.; Zakhary, S.G. [Atomic Energy, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center. Accelerators and Ion Sources Dept.], e-mail: moustafa82003@yahoo.com

    2009-06-15

    The characteristics of the ion beam extracted from an ion sources were investigated using computer code SIMION 3 D Version 7.0. It has been used to evaluate the extraction system in order to produce an ion beam with high current and low beam emittance. The results show that the shape of the extraction electrode plays an important role in ion beam formation. Comparison has been made between two extraction systems, Pierce extraction electrode and spherical extraction electrode. The results show that the spherical extraction system yields ion extraction beam with lower emittance and radius than that the Pierce system. The simulation can provide the basis for optimizing the extraction system and the acceleration gap for ion source. (author)

  6. Recent trends in metals extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regel-Rosocka, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After near 70 years of practical usage, solvent extraction is a perfectly mastered technique of separation, widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of metals mainly from raw materials. However, currently, in the era of depleting natural resources and increasingly less accessible deposits, environmental restrictions, etc., an increasing interest, both from social and economical constrains, is being directed at the extraction of metals from the secondary sources (such as batteries, electronic scrap. In many cases, solvent extraction, due to its operational characteristics, can be considered as the Best Available Technology for the purpose of separating multielemental metal solutions. This paper provides a brief overview of past achievements and present scenario of solvent extraction investigations and developments, describing some recently commissioned solvent extraction plants, whereas the Skorpion Zinc plant (Namibia for zinc extraction from raw materials and caesium removal from radioactive High Level Wastes (HLWs are told over in detail as case studies. The paper also presents some proposals for the use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate metal ions from secondary sources (e.g. cobalt from industrial waste streams. The review highlights the emerging use of ionic liquids as new extractants for metals, providing an insight into this exciting research field. Despite its detractors, solvent extraction has entered in force into XXI century as a leading separation technology for metals.Después de casi 70 años de uso práctico, la extracción líquido-líquido o extracción con disolventes es una técnica de separación muy evolucionada, utilizándose a escala industrial en el beneficio de metales obtenidos de diversas materias primas. Sin embargo, con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales y el aumento de depósitos minerales de más difícil acceso, restricciones medio ambientales, etc., ha aumentado el interés, tanto desde

  7. Pressurized Hot Water Extraction of anthocyanins from red onion: A study on extraction and degradation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) is a quick, efficient and environmentally friendly technique for extractions. However, when using PHWE to extract thermally unstable analytes, extraction and degradation effects occur at the same time, and thereby compete. At first, the extraction effect dominates, but degradation effects soon take over. In this paper, extraction and degradation rates of anthocyanins from red onion were studied with experiments in a static batch reactor at 110 deg. C. A total extraction curve was calculated with data from the actual extraction and degradation curves, showing that more anthocyanins, 21-36% depending on the species, could be extracted if no degradation occurred, but then longer extraction times would be required than those needed to reach the peak level in the apparent extraction curves. The results give information about the different kinetic processes competing during an extraction procedure.

  8. Extraction of substances assisted by ultrasound (UAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different compounds present in vegetables with functional or technological properties, have gained great importance in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic markets. Efficient methods, economical and environment friendly are sought for the extraction of these substances. A literature review has been performanced of recent publications on different extraction methods and their comparison to the ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) to assess their effectiveness and industrial viability. The ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) has been found to be more efficient than traditional mining methods, and cheaper and easier than non-traditional extraction methods such as microwave-assisted extraction, so it checks its industrial viability. (author)

  9. ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF BAMBUSA BAMBOS LEAF EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneerudeen J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-cancer activities of chloroform and hydro-alcohol leaf extracts of Bambusa bambos was evaluated in vitro using Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA and Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC cell lines by Trypan blue dye exclusion method. The chloroform extract exhibited better activity compared to hydro-alcohol extract. Further hemolytic activities of both the extracts were carried out to measure the extent of damage to normal red blood cell membranes. The findings suggested that both the extracts produced no signs of hemolysis indicating that the extracts are not toxic to normal erythrocytes.

  10. Combining C-value and Keyword Extraction Methods for Biomedical Terms Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Lossio-Ventura, Juan Antonio; Jonquet, Clement; Roche, Mathieu; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to extract and to rank biomedical terms from free text. We present new extraction methods that use linguistic patterns specialized for the biomedical field, and use term extraction measures, such as C-value, and keyword extraction measures, such as Okapi BM25, and TFIDF. We propose several combinations of these measures to improve the extraction and ranking process. Our experiments show that an appropriate harmonic mean of C-value used with keyword extraction mea...

  11. Extracting messages masked by chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show how to extract messages that are masked by a chaotic signal in a system of two Lorenz oscillators. This mask removal is done for two different modes of transmission, a digital one where a parameter of the sender is switched between two values, and an analog mode, where a small amplitude message is added to the carrier signal. We achieve this without using a second Lorenz oscillator as receiver, and without doing a full reconstruction of the dynamics. This method is robust with respect to transformations that impede the unmasking using a Lorenz receiver, and is not affected by the broad-band noise that is inherent to the synchronization process. We also discuss the limitations of this way of extraction for messages in high frequency bands. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  12. Optimal Extraction of Echelle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Nikolai

    The extraction of the echelle spectra registered with a CCD detector represents a big challenge because of three reasons: (1) the pixel sampling is often close or worse then optimal, (2) spectral orders are curved and tilted with respect to the CCD rows (or columns) and (3) every pixel contains additional noise coming from various sources as illustrated in Figure 1. The main goal of an optimal extraction is to recover as much of the science signal while minimizing the contribution of the noise. Here we present the Slit Function Decomposition algorithm which replaces the summation in a sliding window with a reconstruction of the slit illumination profile. The reconstruction is formulated as an inverse problem solved by iterations and it is robust against most of the systematic problems including cosmic rays and cosmetic defects.

  13. Follicular unit extraction hair transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Dua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair transplantation has come a long way from the days of Punch Hair Transplant by Dr. Orentreich in 1950s to Follicular Unit Hair Transplant (FUT of 1990s and the very recent Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE technique. With the advent of FUE, the dream of ′no visible scarring′ in the donor area is now looking like a possibility. In FUE, the grafts are extracted as individual follicular units in a two-step or three-step technique whereas the method of implantation remains the same as in the traditional FUT. The addition of latest automated FUE technique seeks to overcome some of the limitations in this relatively new technique and it is now possible to achieve more than a thousand grafts in one day in trained hands. This article reviews the methodology, limitations and advantages of FUE hair transplant.

  14. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Energy Extraction from Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Straumann, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    In this lecture I give an introduction to the rotational energy extraction of black holes by the electromagnetic Blandford-Znajek process and the generation of relativistic jets. After some basic material on the electrodynamics of black hole magnetospheres, we derive the most important results of Blandford and Znajek by making use of Kerr-Schild coordinates, which are regular on the horizon. In a final part we briefly describe results of recent numerical simulations of accretion flows on rota...

  16. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    OpenAIRE

    René M. Werkmeister; Doreen Schmidl; Gerold Aschinger; Veronika Doblhoff-Dier; Stefan Palkovits; Magdalena Wirth; Gerhard Garhöfer; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Rainer A. Leitgeb; Leopold Schmetterer

    2015-01-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal b...

  17. Information Extraction and Webpage Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    M.Sharmila Begum; L. Dinesh; P.Aruna

    2011-01-01

    The two most important tasks in information extraction from the Web are webpage structure understanding and natural language sentences processing. However, little work has been done toward an integrated statistical model for understanding webpage structures and processing natural language sentences within the HTML elements. Our recent work on webpage understanding introduces a joint model of Hierarchical Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) and extended Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields (Sem...

  18. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Christopher A.; Roumasset, James A.

    2010-01-01

    With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For suffici...

  19. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Henna Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rubiay, Kathem K.; Jaber, Nawres N; Alrubaiy, Laith K.

    2008-01-01

    Lawsonia inermis (henna plant) has been used in herbal medicine for ages. However, the medical benefits of this plant have been discussed in only a few publications. In this study, the antibacterial effects of water, alcoholic and oily extracts of Lawsonia inermis leaves against bacterial cultures isolated from various skin diseases were investigated and compared with Tetracycline, Ampicillin, Gentamicin and Ciprofloxacin antibiotics. Cultures of Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermid...

  20. Electrostatic septa for SPS extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The extraction system for the N-Area is located in LSS2 (another one for the W-Area, now abandoned, was in LSS6). The electrostatic septum consists of 4 parts, each 3 m long. It is made of W-wires, 0.12 mm thick. The nominal electric field is 100 kV/cm. See also Annual Report 1975, p.175.

  1. Information Extraction and Webpage Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sharmila Begum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The two most important tasks in information extraction from the Web are webpage structure understanding and natural language sentences processing. However, little work has been done toward an integrated statistical model for understanding webpage structures and processing natural language sentences within the HTML elements. Our recent work on webpage understanding introduces a joint model of Hierarchical Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs and extended Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields (Semi-CRFs to leverage the page structure understanding results in free text segmentation and labeling. In this top-down integration model, the decision of the HCRF model could guide the decision making of the Semi-CRF model. However, the drawback of the topdown integration strategy is also apparent, i.e., the decision of the Semi-CRF model could not be used by the HCRF model to guide its decision making. This paper proposed a novel framework called WebNLP, which enables bidirectional integration of page structure understanding and text understanding in an iterative manner. We have applied the proposed framework to local business entity extraction and Chinese person and organization name extraction. Experiments show that the WebNLP framework achieved significantly better performance than existing methods.

  2. Optimal and Sustainable Groundwater Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Wada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available With climate change exacerbating over-exploitation, groundwater scarcity looms as an increasingly critical issue worldwide. Minimizing the adverse effects of scarcity requires optimal as well as sustainable patterns of groundwater management. We review the many sustainable paths for groundwater extraction from a coastal aquifer and show how to find the particular sustainable path that is welfare maximizing. In some cases the optimal path converges to the maximum sustainable yield. For sufficiently convex extraction costs, the extraction path converges to an internal steady state above the level of maximum sustainable yield. We describe the challenges facing groundwater managers faced with multiple aquifers, the prospect of using recycled water, and the interdependence with watershed management. The integrated water management thus described results in less water scarcity and higher total welfare gains from groundwater use. The framework also can be applied to climate-change specifications about the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation by comparing before and after optimal management. For the case of South Oahu in Hawaii, the prospect of climate change increases the gains of integrated groundwater management.

  3. Information based universal feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Brause, Rüdiger

    2015-02-01

    In many real world image based pattern recognition tasks, the extraction and usage of task-relevant features are the most crucial part of the diagnosis. In the standard approach, they mostly remain task-specific, although humans who perform such a task always use the same image features, trained in early childhood. It seems that universal feature sets exist, but they are not yet systematically found. In our contribution, we tried to find those universal image feature sets that are valuable for most image related tasks. In our approach, we trained a neural network by natural and non-natural images of objects and background, using a Shannon information-based algorithm and learning constraints. The goal was to extract those features that give the most valuable information for classification of visual objects hand-written digits. This will give a good start and performance increase for all other image learning tasks, implementing a transfer learning approach. As result, in our case we found that we could indeed extract features which are valid in all three kinds of tasks.

  4. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  5. Inflation of Unreefed and Reefed Extraction Parachutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Eric S.; Varela, Jose G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Orion and several other test programs have been used to reconstruct inflation parameters for 28 ft Do extraction parachutes as well as the parent aircraft pitch response during extraction. The inflation force generated by extraction parachutes is recorded directly during tow tests but is usually inferred from the payload accelerometer during Low Velocity Airdrop Delivery (LVAD) flight test extractions. Inflation parameters are dependent on the type of parent aircraft, number of canopies, and standard vs. high altitude extraction conditions. For standard altitudes, single canopy inflations are modeled as infinite mass, but the non-symmetric inflations in a cluster are modeled as finite mass. High altitude extractions have necessitated reefing the extraction parachutes, which are best modeled as infinite mass for those conditions. Distributions of aircraft pitch profiles and inflation parameters have been generated for use in Monte Carlo simulations of payload extractions.

  6. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three extractives from China-fir were obtained by a sequential extraction processes with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of the three extractives were analyzed: (1 The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis showed that in addition to the presence of cedrol, naphthalenes comprised a relatively large percentage of both the hexane extract (10.39% and the ethyl acetate extract (9.43%. (2 Total phenolic contents analysis showed that phenols took up 6.66 % of the ethyl acetate extract and 22.8% of the methanol extract. All extracts, even with low concentrations, presented fair antifungal activities against two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus and two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Cedrol and naphthalenes were partly responsible for the bioactivities. The synergistic effect of phenols and antifungal compounds also contributed to the wood decay resistance.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ROOT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal Chittur Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol, distilled water, methanol and chloroform crude extracts of the roots of Tinospora crispa. Antimicrobial activity was examined by disc diffusion method against gram positive bacterial strains of Streptococcus pneumonia, gram negative bacterial strains of Escherichia coli and fungal strains of Candida albicans. The maximum zone of inhibition was obtained with ethanol extract against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumonia followed by chloroform extract against the same organisms. Whilst distilled water extract showed a minimal zone of inhibition, methanol extract showed a moderate zone of inhibition against the bacterial strains used. The values were compared with a standard antibiotic. The ethanol extract also showed the maximum zone of inhibition against the growth of Candida albicans, whereas the lowest activity was shown with distilled water crude extract. Methanol and chloroform crude extracts showed considerably moderate activities against the fungal strain, as compared to the standard antibiotic used.

  8. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of capsaicinoids from peppers

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The development of a rapid, reproducible and simple method of extraction of the majority capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin) present in hot peppers by the employment of ultrasound-assisted extraction is reported.

  9. Extraction of Scots Pine by Polar Solvent

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, YUANLIN

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study, isolate, and analyze the extractives from pine chips, saw dust, root chips, and root barks by polar solvent such as water, acetone, and ethanol. The methods used in the extraction were boiling flask or rotation reactor. The different extraction time of 2 or 4 hour was also investigated. The obtained extraction solution were analyzed by gas chromatography. In order to understand the experimental work theoretically, the wood chemistry, especially, pheno...

  10. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    GÜVENÇ, A.; MEHMETOĞLU, Ü.; ÇALIMLI, A.

    1999-01-01

    Extraction of ethanol was studied from both synthetic ethanol solution and fermentation broth using supercritical CO2 in an extraction apparatus in ranges of 313 to 333 K and 80 to 160 atmospheres, for varying extraction times. The experimental system consists mainly of four parts: a CO2 storage system, a high-pressure liquid pump, an extractor and a product collection unit. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. Effects of temperature, pressure, extraction time, initial ethan...

  11. Fossil Fuel Extraction Under Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews some main studies on fossil fuel extraction under climate issues and studies a theoretical model of monopoly extraction under pollution stock ceiling constraint. We show that under constant elasticity demand and zero extraction cost, the monopolist will behave exactly the same as in the competitive case, and the existence of the ceiling constraint will initially push the extraction to grow at a rate higher than the interest rate in both monopoly and competitive case; With a...

  12. WEB CONTENT EXTRACTION USING HYBRID APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    K. Nethra; Anitha, J; Thilagavathi, G

    2014-01-01

    The World Wide Web has rich source of voluminous and heterogeneous information which continues to expand in size and complexity. Many Web pages are unstructured and semi-structured, so it consists of noisy information like advertisement, links, headers, footers etc. This noisy information makes extraction of Web content tedious. Many techniques that were proposed for Web content extraction are based on automatic extraction and hand crafted rule generation. Automatic extraction technique is do...

  13. Scandium extraction by phenolformaldehyde resol oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scandium extraction by phenolahrvaldehyde resol oligomers ''Yarresin B'', ''101 K'' and also by bis-(2-hydroxy-5-octylbenzyl)amine, bis-2-hydroxy-5-alkylbenzyl)amine and disulfide of p-alkylphenol was studied. It is shown that nitrogen-containing reagents, particularly ''Yarresin B'', extract scandium more effectively. Influence of time of phase contact, nitrogen content in ''Yarresin B'' composition on scandium extraction is studied, extraction isotherm is plotted

  14. Modification of Phenolic Oximes for Copper Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Forgan, Ross Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with the modification of salicylaldoxime-based reagents used in hydrometallurgical extraction, addressing rational ligand design to tune copper(II) extractant strengths and also the development of reagents which are capable of transporting transition metal salts. Chapter 1 reviews current solvent extractant technology for metal recovery, including the limited knowledge of the effect of substituents on extractive efficacy. Advances in leaching technology have...

  15. Extraction time for soybean isoflavone determination

    OpenAIRE

    Carrão-Panizzi Mercedes C.; Favoni Silvana Pedroso de Goés; Kikuchi Akio

    2002-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the optimization of the extraction procedures for isoflavones determination in soybean by HPLC. Isoflavones were extracted from 100 mg samples of full fat soybean flour "Kinako" (milled toasted grains). Recovery of average total isoflavones was higher when extraction was performed with agitation(217.2 mg/100g), than without agitation(191.0 mg/100g). Isoflavone extraction without agitation for 1,4, 20 and 24 hours, were equally efficient for total and individual com...

  16. Lessons Extracting Diseases from Discharge Summaries

    OpenAIRE

    Long, William

    2007-01-01

    We developed a program to extract diseases and procedures from discharge summaries and have applied this program to 96 cases annotated by physicians. We compared the concepts extracted by the program to those extracted by the annotators. The program extracts 93% of the desired concepts including some more specific than the annotators. Concepts were missed because phrases were ambiguous, phrases were missing words or were separated, or deduction was needed, among other reasons. The false posit...

  17. Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

  18. Web-Based Information Extraction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Information extraction techniques on the Web are the current research hotspot. Now many information extraction techniques based on different principles have appeared and have different capabilities. We classify the existing information extraction techniques by the principle of information extraction and analyze the methods and principles of semantic information adding, schema defining,rule expression, semantic items locating and object locating in the approaches. Based on the above survey and analysis,several open problems are discussed.

  19. Organization of extracting molecules of the diamide type: link with the extracting properties?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of these studies is to establish a link between the different organizations of diamide extractants (used in the DIAMEX process) and their extracting properties. The effects of the key parameters leading the liquid-liquid extraction (concentration of extractant, nature of solute, activity of the aqueous phase, nature of the diluent and temperature) are studied: 1) at the supramolecular scale, with the characterization of the extractant organizations by vapor-pressure osmometry (VPO) and small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS/SAXS) experiments; 2) at the molecular scale, with the quantification of the extracted solutes (water, nitric acid, metal nitrate) and the determination of extracted complexes stoichiometries by electro-spray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) experiments. The DMDOHEMA molecule acts as a classical surfactant and forms aggregates of the reverse micelle type. Taking into account the established supramolecular diagrams, a quantitative link between the extractants structures and their extracting properties has been brought to light. To model the europium nitrate extraction, two approaches have been developed: - an approach based on mass action laws. Extractions equilibria have been proposed taking into account the supramolecular speciation; - an innovative approach considering the extracted ions as adsorbed on a specific surface of the extractant molecule which depends on the extractant organization state. The ion extraction can be considered as a sum of isotherms corresponding to the different states of organization. This approach allows to compare the extraction efficiency of an extracting molecule as a function of its organization state. (author)

  20. The antimicrobial activity of Prunella vulgaris extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubi Mohaddese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prunella vulgaris ( Labiatae family or self-heal is traditionally used for different ailments such as eye pain and inflammation, headache, dizziness, sore throat and wound healing. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of extracts (methanol, ethanol and aqueous were determined by a spectrophotometer. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by micro broth dilution assay. The total phenolic content of P. vulgaris extracts were higher in aqueous extract (156.5 mg GAC/g followed by ethanol extract and methanol extract. The TFC content of P. vulgaris methanol extract (82.8 mg QE/g was higher than ethanol extract (22.7 mg QE/g and aqueous extract (16.2 mg QE/g. The antimicrobial activity of methanol or ethanol extracts was higher than aqueous extract from P. vulgaris. The sensitivity of microorganisms to different extracts is related to type of pathogens. There is no positive relation between total phenolic content and its antimicrobial activity. Prunella vulgaris ethanolic extract as a source of phenolic and flavonoid contents can be used as an antimicrobial agent.

  1. Automated Extraction of DNA from clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Morling, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing the amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles.

  2. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  3. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  4. Automated Extraction of DNA from clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Nøhr Hansen, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Presence of PCR inhibitors in extracted DNA may interfere with the subsequent quantification and short tandem repeat (STR) reactions used in forensic genetic DNA typing. We have compared three automated DNA extraction methods based on magnetic beads with a manual method with the aim of reducing the...... amount of PCR inhibitors in the DNA extracts and increasing the proportion of reportable DNA profiles....

  5. 21 CFR 573.520 - Hemicellulose extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemicellulose extract. 573.520 Section 573.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.520 Hemicellulose extract. Hemicellulose extract may be safely used in animal...

  6. Infrared thermometry for early detection of drought stress in Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Metselaar, K.

    2006-01-01

    Strict legislation on the release of water and nutrients into the subsoil exists in the Netherlands. Therefore, on-line monitoring and control systems are being developed to tune the supply of water and nutrients to the plants¿ demand for optimal control of production and reduction of system losses.

  7. From sword to chrysanthemum: Japan's culture of anti-miltarism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The end of the Cold War and the phenomenal increase in Japan's economic and technological power put Japan today in the position to become, if it chooses, a military as well as economic superpower. The diminution of the Soviet threat and the increasing US preoccupation with domestic problems give Japan a latitude for independent action it has not had since the end of World War II. At the same time the US-Japanese security alliance, which has enabled Japan to adopt a minimalist approach to defense and national security, is being weakened by ideologically charged trade and other economic frictions and a growing American perception of Japan as a threat to its interests. Moreover, in the long run Japan faces the prospect of having to deal with other rising regional powers, most notably the People's Republic of China. This changing international security environment thus raises question whether Japan, having become an economic rival of the United States, may not in the future become a military competitor as well; whether, after having adopted a pacifist stance for half a century, Japan may choose to unsheathe its sword once again

  8. Development of new varieties of chrysanthemum by mutagenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At present, the industry of flower cultivation in Mexico has been demanding new varieties produced locally. There are 6,000 hectares dedicated to the cultivation of flowers for domestic use, however the export is very low. The main production area is located in Villa Guerrero, a small town near Mexico City, where 80% of the total national production is grown. In addition, approximately 10 hectares of greenhouses are dedicated to the production of flowers for export, mainly in the Peninsula de Baja California and the Altiplano Central (Central Plateau). Unfortunately, the production of flowers in Mexico has been affected by two factors: the first, stock plants must be imported from Holland, France and the United States; and the second, there are some government restrictions on their import. Due to these factors, producers are behind in recent innovations related to new varieties. An alternative to solve this problem would be meristem in vitro culture. Plantlets from two varieties 'Polaris Yellow' pompom type and 'Dramatic' margarita type, were obtained through the meristems tip culture in the MS culture medium, to which kinetin 1.0 mg/l and NAA 0.05 mg/l were added. In preliminary studies, the plant material was irradiated with doses between 10 to 60 Gy and it was possible to determine that doses higher than 35 Gy were lethal for both varieties. In this experiment, plantlets were irradiated with seven doses (7.5, 10, 15, 17.5, 20, 22.5 Gy) of 60Co gamma rays. They were then subcultured using three types of explants: bud, leaf and internode. The best variety for production of direct organogenesis was Polaris Yellow in a range of doses between 7.5 and 15 Gy, the buds being the best explant, while the internordes and leaves were not so suitable. In contrary, the leaf was considered to be the best explant for the induction of indirect organogenesis in the variety Dramatic, in a range of doses between 10 and 20 Gy. It was possible to obtain some mutants for color, size and shape of flowers from these materials and it is expected that in the near future they will rise to new varieties. (author)

  9. Antioxidant activities of crude extracts of fucoidan extracted from Sargassum glaucescens by a compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Yung; Wu, Shu-Jing; Yang, Wen-Ning; Kuan, Ai-Wei; Chen, Cheng-Yo

    2016-04-15

    Fucoidan, a multifunctional marine polymer, is normally extracted from brown algae via extensive use of acid, solvent or high temperature water and a long reaction time. In present study, we developed a novel compressional-puffing-hydrothermal extraction (CPHE) process which primarily decomposes the cellular structure of algae and facilitates the release of fucoidan by hot water extraction. The CPHE process provides a number of advantages including simple procedure, reactant-saving, reduced pollution, and feasibility for continuous production. Sargassum glaucescens (SG) was utilized in this study, and the maximum extraction yield of polysaccharide was approximately 9.83 ± 0.11% (SG4). Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, and measurements of monosaccharide composition, fucose, sulfate, and uronic acid contents revealed that the extracted polysaccharide showed characteristics of fucoidan. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activities, and thus, further exploration of these extracts as potential natural and safe antioxidant agents is warranted. PMID:26675848

  10. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  11. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  13. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  14. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  15. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  16. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  17. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  18. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  19. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  20. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction...

  1. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium from tissue paper matrix using organic extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct extraction of dried uranyl nitrate from tissue paper matrix was carried out using supercritical carbon dioxide modified with methanol solutions of extractants such as tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) and di-n-hexyl octanamide (DHOA)). The effects of temperature, pressure, extractant and nitric acid concentration on the extraction of uranyl ion were investigated. (author)

  3. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other...

  4. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, J.; Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis

  5. Phenol extraction of DNA samples

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Typically, an equal volume of TE-saturated phenol is added to an aqueous DNA sample in a microcentrifuge tube. The mixture is vigorously vortexed, and then centrifuged to enact phase separation. The upper, aqueous layer carefully is removed to a new tube, avoiding the phenol interface and then is subjected to two ether extractions to remove residual phenol. An equal volume of water-saturated ether is added to the tube, the mixture is vortexed, and the tube is centrifuged to allow phase separa...

  6. Linguistic Extraction for Semantic Annotation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dědek, J.; Vojtáš, Peter

    Berlin: Springer, 2008 - (Badica, C.; Mangioni, G.; Carchiolo, V.; Burdescu, D.), s. 85-94. (Studies in Computational Intelligence. 162). ISBN 978-3-540-85256-8. [IDC 2008. International Symposium on Intelligent and Distributed Computing /2./. Catania (IT), 18.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517; GA AV ČR 1ET100300419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : semantic information extraction * linguistics * semantic computing * aggregation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  7. Using augers to extract minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levkovich, P.Ye.; Meznikov, V.I.; Savich, N.S.

    1981-08-25

    The purpose of the device is to increase productivity based on eliminating empty auger trips. Following drilling the length of the auger away from the (preparatory) working area, the auger section is put in place on the side opposite from the drilled part of the (preparatory) working area. Simultaneous with drilling the other shaft opposite to the preparatory working area, the spindle device for injecting the bit into the drilled out part is set in place. Through it the auger sections are extracted from both shafts (facing each other) directly by moving the spindle device from one shaft to the other.

  8. RESONANT EXTRACTION PARAMETERS FOR THE AGS BOOSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhaven's AGS Booster is the injector for the AGS. It is being modified to send resonant extracted heavy ions to a new beam line, the Booster Applications Facility (BAF). The design of the resonant extraction system for BAF was described in [1]. This note will give a more detailed description of the system and describe the predicted resonant beam time structure. We will describe tune space manipulations necessary to extract the resonant beam at the maximum Booster rigidity, schemes for performing resonant extraction, and describe the modifications required to perform bunched beam extraction to the BAF facility

  9. Primary metals extraction by liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of copper and uranium by liquid membranes is presented. The recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid is described. The development of this process has progressed through three stages, firstly the chemistry of uranium extraction as it pertains to liquid membrane systems. This was followed by continuous extraction tests on fresh black acid and on aged acid. Results on a 1 litre/minute pilot plant demonstrated that the process could be operated with a minimum of feed pretreatment and about 90% of uranium could be extracted. The extraction of copper from copper leach liquors is also described. (U.K.)

  10. Extraction of Polyphenols from Cashew Nut Shell

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew Obichukwu EDOGA; Labake FADIPE; Rita Ngozi EDOGA

    2006-01-01

    Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) was extracted from cashew nut shell by indirect leaching process using soxhlet extraction equipment. Normal hexane (n-hexane) was used as solvent. The operating conditions for the extraction were 680C and 1 atmosphere in every 100g of cashew nut shell used for the extraction, 35gCNSL was obtained. The CNSL was further separated into cardol, cardanol and anacardic acid (polyphenol) using an amine extractant (alanine) with the aid of shake-out separation equipment...

  11. Kinetics and thermodynamics of cottonseed oil extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Devesh K.; Sharma, S. K.; S S Sambi

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum derived n-hexane is commercially used in solvent extraction plants due to its higher extraction efficiency in spite of the fact that it is graded as highly toxic and hazardous. The present study is based on the use of both a much safer and non toxic solvent ethanol and n-hexane for the extraction of oil from cottonseed. The extraction data were obtained by varying temperature, solvent-solid ratio and particle size, to compare the extraction efficiency of both ethanol and n-hexane. T...

  12. Automatic extraction of planetary image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  13. Extraction time for soybean isoflavone determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrão-Panizzi Mercedes C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the optimization of the extraction procedures for isoflavones determination in soybean by HPLC. Isoflavones were extracted from 100 mg samples of full fat soybean flour "Kinako" (milled toasted grains. Recovery of average total isoflavones was higher when extraction was performed with agitation(217.2 mg/100g, than without agitation(191.0 mg/100g. Isoflavone extraction without agitation for 1,4, 20 and 24 hours, were equally efficient for total and individual compounds. These results suggested that an efficient isoflavone recovery could be achieved with extraction for one hour with agitation.

  14. A Study for Extraction Kinetics of Β-Carotene from Oven Dried Carrot by Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Das; Saikat Mazumder

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the extraction of β-carotene by solvent (ethanol) extraction from carrots dried at 50ºC in an oven. The moisture content after drying was 11±1.5% (dry weight basis). Extraction time was 5 hours and extraction process was carried out at 30ºC. The ratio of Carrot (gm): ethanol (ml) of 1:60 was maintained throughout the extraction process. The experimental data of extracted β- Carotene yield during solvent extraction were mode...

  15. On-chip electro membrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nickolaj Jacob; Jensen, Henrik; Hansen, Steen Honore;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first downscaling of electro membrane extraction (EME) to a chip format. The voltage-controlled extraction for sample preparation on microfluidic devices has several advantages such as selective extraction removing the high ionic strength of biological samples, preconcentr......This paper presents the first downscaling of electro membrane extraction (EME) to a chip format. The voltage-controlled extraction for sample preparation on microfluidic devices has several advantages such as selective extraction removing the high ionic strength of biological samples...... basic drugs were selectively extracted from the flowing sample solution, into the organic phase SLM, and further into just 7 mu I of 10 mM HCI, serving as acceptor solution. Subsequently, the acceptor solution was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. The electro membrane chip was highly efficient...

  16. Stomatal characteristics and desiccation response of leaves of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) flowers grown at high air humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliniaeifard, S.; Meeteren, Van Uulke

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known that, as a short-term response, stomata close at low relative humidity (RH) (high Vapour Pressure Deficit) and open at high RH (low Vapour Pressure Deficit), effects of long-term exposure to different Vapour Pressure Deficits (VPD's) have only been studied in a few econo

  17. Effect of Temperature on the Color of Natural Dyes Extracted Using Pressurized Hot Water Extraction Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nursyamirah A. Razak; Siti M. Tumin; Ruziyati Tajuddin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Traditionally, extraction of natural dyes with boiling method produced only one single tone of colorant/dyes which involved plenty of water in several hours of extraction time. A new modern extraction technique should be introduced especially to textile dyers so that a variety of tone of colorants can be produced in a shorter time with less consumption of water. Approach: This study demonstrated Pressurized Hot Water Extraction (PHWE) as a new technique to extract colorants...

  18. Web Data Identification and Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V.Rajya Lakshmi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the rapid growth of the web, a large volume of data and information are published in numerous web pages. As web sites are getting more complicated, the construction of web information extraction systems becomes more difficult and time-consuming. In this paper proposes a new method to perform the task automatically which is more effective than machine learning and semi automated system. The proposed method consists of two steps, (1 identifying individual data records in a page, and (2 aligning and extracting data items from the identified data records. For step 1, we propose a method based on visual information to segment data records, which is more accurate than existing methods. For step 2, we propose a novel partial alignment technique based on tree matching. Partial alignment means that we align only those data fields in a pair of data records that can be aligned (or matched with certainty, and make no commitment on the rest of the data fields.

  19. Solar Filament Extraction and Characterizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Shih, F. Y.; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a new method to extract and characterize solar filaments from H-alpha full-disk images produced by Big Bear Solar Observatory. A cascading Hough Transform method is designed to identify solar disk center location and radius. Solar disks are segmented from the background, and unbalanced illumination on the surface of solar disks is removed using polynomial surface fitting. And then a localized adaptive thresholding is employed to extract solar filament candidates. After the removal of small solar filament candidates, the remaining larger candidates are used as the seeds of region growing. The procedure of region growing not only connects broken filaments but also generate complete shape for each filament. Mathematical morphology thinning is adopted to produce the skeleton of each filament, and graph theory is used to prune branches and barbs to get the main skeleton. The length and the location of the main skeleton is characterized. The proposed method can help scientists and researches study the evolution of solar filament, for instance, to detect solar filament eruption. The presented method has already been used by Space Weather Research Lab of New Jersey Institute of Technology (http://swrl.njit.edu) to generate the solar filament online catalog using H-alpha full-disk images of Global H-alpha Network (http://swrl.njit.edu/ghn_web/).

  20. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26503332

  1. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS TO DETERMINE EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Patil et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal drugs play an important role in health care dynamics especially in developing countries. The key step in isolation of biologically active compounds is extraction, which is expressed as total extractive yield, yields of metabolites of interest or intensity of biological activity. Extraction of phytoconstituents from plant materials has been of tremendous interest and potential. Extractive value of the crude drug also indicates the quality as well as purity of the drug. For most extractions, relatively simple techniques, such as percolation and maceration are effective and economical. Some specific applications however, require more sophisticated and costly extraction techniques using specialized equipments. It is often possible to select the specific solvent to maximize the yields on the basis of different techniques, varying in cost and level of complexity. Therefore the objective of the present study was to compare different extraction techniques with various solvents for determination of extractive values. The plants selected for the present research work were Averrrhoa carambola L. fruits (Oxalidaceae, Lagenaria vulgaris Ser. fruits (Cucurbitaceae and Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. rhizomes (Hypoxidaceae. The maximum percentage of extractive value for L. vulgaris Ser. fruit extract was found to be 76.26±0.46 in water using reflux for extraction, whereas A. carambola L. fruit extract and C. orchioides Gaertn. rhizome extract, the maximum percentage of extractive values were found to be 88.40±0.80 and 54.00±0.80 respectively in water using ultrasound extraction method.

  2. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS FROM ECUADORIAN LICHENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvieieva, N A; Pasichnyk, L A; Zhytkevych, N V; Jacinto, Pabón Garcés Galo; Pidgorskyi, V S

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic, isopropanolic, acetone, DMSO and aqueous extracts of the two lichen species from Ecuadorian highland, Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. were explored in vitro against bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the disc-diffusion method. Also the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. The strongest antimicrobial activity was found in DMSO extract of Usnea sp. compared to antibacterial activity of ciprfloxacin and cefazolin antibiotics. The inhibition zone was 28 mm, 30 mm, 31mm (DMSO extract, ciprfloxacin and cefazolin respectively) in case of B. subtilis usage as the test bacteria. MIC value for Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. DMSO extracts was 0.4 mg/ml. E. coli was resistant to all kinds of extracts. The S. aureus sensitivity to lichen DMSO extracts was comparable to sensitivity of these microorganisms to tetracycline and vancomycin. Thereby, most kinds of extracts (ethanol, isopropanol, hexane, DMSO and acetone solvents) from Ecuadorian lichens Usnea sp. and Stereocaulon sp. with the exception of aqueous Stereocaulon sp. extracts possessed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis. DMSO lichen extracts had also antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. At the same time the extracts studied didn't demonstrate antibacterial activity against the representatives of the most common and harmful phytopathogenic bacteria tested. Further investigations of Ecuadorian lichens especially study of plants collected from extremal highland biotops can be very important in study of possibility of treatment of numerous diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26214895

  4. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  5. Studies on the supercritical fluid extraction of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium was extracted by supercritical fluid extraction technique using carbon dioxide modified with methanol and methanol/TOPO mixture. The influence of pressure and temperature on the extraction efficiency was investigated. The kinetics of the extraction process was established. (author)

  6. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  7. Extracting information from multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2016-06-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering, and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from big data. For these reasons, characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper, we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function Θ ˜ S for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying these measures, we consider three multiplex network datasets coming for social science.

  8. Adaptive web data extraction policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provetti, Alessandro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Web data extraction is concerned, among other things, with routine data accessing and downloading from continuously-updated dynamic Web pages. There is a relevant trade-off between the rate at which the external Web sites are accessed and the computational burden on the accessing client. We address the problem by proposing a predictive model, typical of the Operating Systems literature, of the rate-of-update of each Web source. The presented model has been implemented into a new version of the Dynamo project: a middleware that assists in generating informative RSS feeds out of traditional HTML Web sites. To be effective, i.e., make RSS feeds be timely and informative and to be scalable, Dynamo needs a careful tuning and customization of its polling policies, which are described in detail.

  9. Extracting Information from Multiplex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iacovacci, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    Multiplex networks are generalized network structures that are able to describe networks in which the same set of nodes are connected by links that have different connotations. Multiplex networks are ubiquitous since they describe social, financial, engineering and biological networks as well. Extending our ability to analyze complex networks to multiplex network structures increases greatly the level of information that is possible to extract from Big Data. For these reasons characterizing the centrality of nodes in multiplex networks and finding new ways to solve challenging inference problems defined on multiplex networks are fundamental questions of network science. In this paper we discuss the relevance of the Multiplex PageRank algorithm for measuring the centrality of nodes in multilayer networks and we characterize the utility of the recently introduced indicator function $\\widetilde{\\Theta}^{S}$ for describing their mesoscale organization and community structure. As working examples for studying thes...

  10. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... significance of the node towards overall content provided by the document. Once significance of the nodes is determined, the formatting characteristics like fonts, styles and the position of the nodes are evaluated to identify the nodes with similar formatting as compared to the significant nodes. The proposed...... hybrid model is derived from two different models, i.e., one is based on statistical features and other on formatting characteristics and achieved the best accuracy. We describe the validity of model with the help of experiments conducted on the standard data sets. The results revealed that the proposed...

  11. Uranium separations using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the analysis of environmental samples for uranium and thorium pollutants and at natural levels for the dating of geological samples there was felt a need to develop better uranium and thorium, separation procedures to replace the established anion exchange method used at AEA Technology plc. This was the first aim of the PhD research. Separation of uranium from thorium prior to measurement of the isotopes by alpha spectrometry was necessary due to the similar alpha energies of 234U and 230Th. TRU and UTEVA extraction chromatography resins (EIChroM Industries) were investigated as potential replacements to the anion exchange separation method. The resins are claimed by EIChroM to offer the advantage of providing an actinide specific separation while reducing the separation time from 2 to 0.5 days; the volume of acidic waste produced by a factor of 3, therefore, the cost of analysis was reduced. A uranium and thorium separation procedure using the UTEVA extraction chromatography resin was developed. The uranium and thorium were sorbed by the UTEVA resin from 2M nitric acid. The thorium was then eluted from the resin with 5M hydrochloric acid and the uranium with 0.02M hydrochloric acid. The separation procedure was then evaluated using uraninite ore, coral, granite and lake sediment reference materials. The uranium and thorium concentrations and the 234U/238U and 230Th/234U activity ratio values determined for the reference material were in good agreement with certified values. The presence of plutonium was found to interfere with the measurement of uranium and thorium by alpha spectrometry. This was due to the similar alpha energies of uranium, thorium and plutonium. The co-elution of plutonium with uranium and thorium from the UTEVA resin was prevented by the inclusion of a reduction step using iron (II) sulphamate. The resulting plutonium (III) was not retained by the UTEVA column. The chemical recoveries for the procedure were similar to those for anion

  12. Clinical utility of curcumin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Gary N; Spelman, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Turmeric root has been used medicinally in China and India for thousands of years. The active components are thought to be the curcuminoids, primarily curcumin, which is commonly available worldwide as a standardized extract. This article reviews the pharmacology of curcuminoids, their use and efficacy, potential adverse effects, and dosage and standardization. Preclinical studies point to mechanisms of action that are predominantly anti-inflammatory and antineoplastic, while early human clinical trials suggest beneficial effects for dyspepsia, peptic ulcer, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, uveitis, orbital pseudotumor, and pancreatic cancer. Curcumin is well-tolerated; the most common side effects are nausea and diarrhea. Theoretical interactions exist due to purported effects on metabolic enzymes and transport proteins, but clinical reports do not support any meaningful interactions. Nonetheless, caution, especially with chemotherapy agents, is advised. Late-phase clinical trials are still needed to confirm most beneficial effects. PMID:23594449

  13. Preliminary studies on the extraction of Glycospanonins in Tongkat Ali extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirame, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Chua, L. S.; Sarmidi, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    Eurycoma longifolia, locally known as Tongkat Ali, is a famous medicinal plant in the family of Simaroubaceae and well known for its aphrodisiac properties from its water extract. The root of E. longifolia is used to extract wide range bioactive components of Tongkat Ali. Previous works standardised Tongkat Ali extracts by measuring the concentration of eurycomanone, a quassinoid marker chemical, within the overall extract. There is a newer Malaysian standard that specifies that Tongkat Ali can be standardised to glycosaponin, thus it is desired to determine how extraction parameters such as particle size, extraction temperature, and solvent type affects the glycosaponin content in the extract. The overall study is aimed to determine how the extraction parameters affect the glycosaponin amount in extract. This paper presents the preliminary work where in this study the effect of particle size on overall extract and glycosaponin quantification method development is presented. A reflux extraction method was used to extract Tongkat Ali with a particle size of 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 2.0 mm of raw material to study effect of particle size on overall extract. Water and methanol were the two types of solvent used for extraction to study the quantity of glycosaponin.

  14. Automated Extraction of Flow Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Suzanne (Technical Monitor); Haimes, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are routinely performed as part of the design process of most fluid handling devices. In order to efficiently and effectively use the results of a CFD simulation, visualization tools are often used. These tools are used in all stages of the CFD simulation including pre-processing, interim-processing, and post-processing, to interpret the results. Each of these stages requires visualization tools that allow one to examine the geometry of the device, as well as the partial or final results of the simulation. An engineer will typically generate a series of contour and vector plots to better understand the physics of how the fluid is interacting with the physical device. Of particular interest are detecting features such as shocks, re-circulation zones, and vortices (which will highlight areas of stress and loss). As the demand for CFD analyses continues to increase the need for automated feature extraction capabilities has become vital. In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like; isc-surface, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snapshot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments). Methods must be developed to abstract the feature of interest and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  15. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...... and agreement in-between tools. Processing a primary data set with 9 different tandem MS extraction tools resulted in a low overlap of identified peptides. The tools differ by assigned charge states of precursors, precursor and fragment ion masses, and we show that peptides identified very confidently using one...... extraction tool might not be matched when using another tool. We also found a bias towards peptides of lower charge state when extracting fragment ion data from higher resolution raw data without deconvolution. Collecting and comparing the extracted data from the same raw data allow adjusting parameters...

  16. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  17. Extraction of scandium by organic substance melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regularities of scandium extraction by the melts of octadecanicoic acid, n-carbonic acids of C17-C20 commerical fraction and mixtures of tributylphosphate (TBP) with paraffin at (70+-1) deg C have been studied. The optimum conditions for scandium extraction in the melt of organic substances are determined. A scheme of the extraction by the melts of higher carbonic acids at ninitial metal concentrations of 10-5 to 10-3 mol/l has been suggested. The scandium compound has been isolated in solid form, its composition having been determined. The main advantages of extraction by melts are as follows: a possibility to attain high distribution coefficients, distinct separation of phases after extraction, the absence of emulsions, elimination of employing inflammable and toxic solvents, a possibility of rapid X-ray fluorescence determinatinon of scandium directly in solid extract

  18. Extraction of TNT from aggregate soil fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, C W; Mark Bricka, R

    1999-04-23

    Past explosives manufacture, disposal, and training activities have contaminated soil at many military facilities, posing health and environmental risks through contact, potential detonation, and leaching into ground water. While methods have been confirmed for extraction and measuring explosives concentration in soil, no work has addressed aggregate size material (the >2 mm gravel and cobbles) that often occurs with the smaller soil fractions. This paper describes methods and results for extraction and measurement of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in aggregate material from 1/2 to 2-1/1 from a WWII era ammunition plant. TNT was extracted into acetonitrile by both Soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction methods. High pressure liquid chromatography analyses of extracts showed expected variation among samples. Also effective extraction and determination of TNT concentration for each aggregate size fraction was achieved. PMID:10379027

  19. Enzyme extraction by ultrasound from sludge flocs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guanghui; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming; ZHU Yishu

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes play essential roles in the biological processes of sludge treatment. In this article, the ultrasound method to extract enzymes from sludge flocs was presented. Results showed that using ultrasound method at 20 kHz could extract more types of enzymes than that ultrasound at 40 kHz and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) methods. The optimum parameters of ultrasound extraction at 20 kHz were duration of 10 min and power of 480 W. Under the condition, ultrasound could break the cells and extract both the extracellular and intercellular enzymes. Ultrasound power was apparently more susceptive to enzyme extraction than duration, suggesting that the control of power during ultrasound extraction was more important than that of duration. The Pearson correlation analysis between enzyme activities and cation contents revealed that the different types of enzymes had distinct cation binding characteristics.

  20. Extraction, fatty acid profile and antioxidant activity of sesame extract (Sesamum Indicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    R. H. R. Carvalho; E. L. Galvão; J. Â. C. Barros; M. M. Conceição; E. M. B. D. Sousa

    2012-01-01

    This article carried out the extraction of sesame oil by using three extraction techniques: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), Soxhlet and sequential extraction. The SFE was performed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as solvent and ethanol as cosolvent. Tests were performed at 20 MPa, 35ºC and a flow rate of 2.5 g CO2/min with a total extraction time of 210 minutes. The Soxhlet extraction was performed for 8 hours, using petroleum ether and ethanol as solvents, until the exhaust...

  1. Comparative Studies on the Extraction of Certain Lanthanides from Nitrate Medium by Selected Organophosphorous Extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of the lanthanide elements Ce(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III) and Gd(III) from nitrate solution has been investigated using two different extractants namely, di(2- ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted in kerosene. The different parameters affecting the extraction process have been investigated. TBP was found to be more suitable for the extraction of the lanthanides under investigation. Effect of temperature on the extraction using TBP has been examined to evaluate the change in the standard thermodynamic parameters. The results obtained indicate that the extraction is exothermic and less random in nature

  2. DNA Extraction: Organic and Solid-Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altayari, Wafa

    2016-01-01

    DNA extraction remains a critical step in DNA profiling of biological material recovered from scenes of crime. In the forensic community several methods have gained popularity, including Chelex(®), organic extraction, and solid-phase extraction. While some laboratories streamlined their processes and only use one method we have retained several methods and continue to use these for different sample types. In this chapter we present three methods that have been used for several years in our laboratory. PMID:27259731

  3. Cooper hydrometallurgy and extraction from chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of copper hydrometallurgy is presented and various processes proposed for copper recovery from sulphide concentrates are discussed. Leaching, extraction and stripping are considered, including reagents and processes. The extraction of copper from chloride solutions is discussed. Various extractants are presented and their use for copper transfer from chloride solutions to the organic phase and back to chloride and to sulphate solutions is discussed. (author) 4 refs

  4. Extraction of Parquat from Blood by Clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad-Amin Aghaii-Afshar; Seyed Vahid Shetab-Boushehri

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat is a bipyridyl herbicide and organic divalent cation which due to its high polarity and water solubility cannot be readily extracted by common organic solvents from body fluids. Dithionite color test for qualitative and quantitative determination of paraquat in urine has been proposed and used for many years. Although some methods were proposed for solvent extraction of paraquat from blood, they are less practical in clinical laboratories and lack high extraction recovery. Clinoptilo...

  5. Method for rare earth extraction from phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for rare earth extraction from phosphogypsum, permitting to increase the degree of extraction and to simplify the process, has been suggested. Phosphogypsum is treated by a solution of ammonium carbonate, the precipitate of calcium carbonate formed is dissolved in 55-70% of stoichiometry of nitric acid and insoluble residue is dissolved in HNO3. The degree of rare earth extraction into solution reaches 94-98%

  6. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hua Wong; Hwee Wen Lau; Chin Ping Tan; Kamariah Long; Kar Lin Nyam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxi...

  7. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    OpenAIRE

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS; FABRÍCIA QUEIROZ MENDES; MARIANA CRIVELARI DA CUNHA; MARIANA TEIXEIRA PIGOZZI; ANDRÉ MUNDSTOCK XAVIER DE CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L.) stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v) and a control (without coating). Propolis extracts were applied as 1) a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2) a wild type hydroalcoholic ...

  8. Automatic liquid-liquid extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns an automatic liquid-liquid extraction system ensuring great reproducibility on a number of samples, stirring and decanting of the two liquid phases, then the quantitative removal of the entire liquid phase present in the extraction vessel at the end of the operation. This type of system has many applications, particularly in carrying out analytical processes comprising a stage for the extraction, by means of an appropriate solvent, of certain components of the sample under analysis

  9. Molecular design of the phenol type extractants

    OpenAIRE

    Semenov, Sergey A; Reznik, Aleksandr M

    2013-01-01

    A method of optimisation of new extractants structure using the desirable function has been developed. Earlier the desirable function has been proposed by Harrington (Ind Qual Control 21: 494-498, 1965) for the optimisation of processes with several response functions. The developed method of optimisation of new extractants structure has been used for construction of phenolic type extractants (PTE) (a class of N-(2-hydroxy-5-nonylbenzil)-dialkylamines). It has been offered to use the charge o...

  10. Extraction and Characterization of Cottonseed (Gossypium) Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Efomah Andrew Ndudi; Orhevba Bosede Adelola

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extraction and characterization of cottonseed oil using solvent extraction method. Normal hexane was used as solvent in the extraction process. The AOAC method of Analysis was employed in the determination of the chemical, physical and proximate compositions of the oil. The chemical properties of the oil determined include the saponification value, free fatty acid, iodine value, peroxide value and acid value. The physical properties of the oil determined are viscos...

  11. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Deqin; Zhang, Liping

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is ef...

  12. Extraction of scandium by aromatic carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of complex compounds af scandium with salicylic, phenyl- and diphenylacetic acids with chloroform solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate as a donor-active additive in relation to the pH and reagent concentration has been studied. Extraction of salicylates of some elements (Ta, Nb, Zr, Hf, Mo) by solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate in chloroform has been investigated, and the possibility of their extraction separation from scandium is shown

  13. Ranking XPaths for extracting search result records

    OpenAIRE

    Trieschnigg, Dolf; Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2012-01-01

    Extracting search result records (SRRs) from webpages is useful for building an aggregated search engine which combines search results from a variety of search engines. Most automatic approaches to search result extraction are not portable: the complete process has to be rerun on a new search result page. In this paper we describe an algorithm to automatically determine XPath expressions to extract SRRs from webpages. Based on a single search result page, an XPath expression is determined whi...

  14. Antityrosinase activity of Euphorbia characias extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Pintus, Francesca; Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Medda, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a well-known key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis and its inhibitors have become increasingly important because of their potential use as hypopigmenting agents. In the present study, the anti-melanogenic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Euphorbia characias leaves, stems, and flowers in cell-free and cellular systems was examined. All the extracts showed inhibitory effects against mushroom tyrosinase with leaf extracts exhibiting the lowest IC50 values of 24 and 97 µg/...

  15. Automatic Extraction of Protein Interaction in Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Peilei; Wang, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction extraction is the key precondition of the construction of protein knowledge network, and it is very important for the research in the biomedicine. This paper extracted directional protein-protein interaction from the biological text, using the SVM-based method. Experiments were evaluated on the LLL05 corpus with good results. The results show that dependency features are import for the protein-protein interaction extraction and features related to the interaction w...

  16. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Flavonoids from Dandelion

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Jun; Luojun; Shao Rong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the total flavonoids from dandelion was extracted by supercritical CO2 and the total flavonoids content in the extract was investigated by the sodium nitrite-aluminum nitrate method with Rutin as a standard product. Single-factor experiments were carried out to map the effects of extraction pressure, temperature, time and entrainer amount on the yield of flavonoids. The orthogonal experiments on the optimum technology parameters demonstrated that the influence of the experiment...

  17. Conceptual Design of Tritium Extraction System

    OpenAIRE

    Miral Thakker, Prof.Amar vaghela

    2012-01-01

    The first generation of fusion reactors will use deuterium and tritium as fuel. Since tritium is not available in nature, it must be produced in the fusion reactor blanket which surrounds the plasma zone. Tritium extraction facility has been designed and fabricated. Calibration procedure has been performed to determine tritium losses, if any during the extraction. Lithium compounds were irradiated using Am-Be neutron source. Out of pile extraction from neutron irradiated lithium compounds was...

  18. Pattern Based Term Extraction Using ACABIT System

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Koyama, Teruo; Daille, Béatrice; Romary, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pattern-based term extraction approach for Japanese, applying ACABIT system originally developed for French. The proposed approach evaluates termhood using morphological patterns of basic terms and term variants. After extracting term candidates, ACABIT system filters out non-terms from the candidates based on log-likelihood. This approach is suitable for Japanese term extraction because most of Japanese terms are compound nouns or simple phrasal patterns.

  19. Extracting noun phrases for all of MEDLINE.

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, N. A.; HE, Q.; Powell, K.; Schatz, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    A natural language parser that could extract noun phrases for all medical texts would be of great utility in analyzing content for information retrieval. We discuss the extraction of noun phrases from MEDLINE, using a general parser not tuned specifically for any medical domain. The noun phrase extractor is made up of three modules: tokenization; part-of-speech tagging; noun phrase identification. Using our program, we extracted noun phrases from the entire MEDLINE collection, encompassing 9....

  20. Current practice of cataract extraction and anaesthesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgkins, P R; Luff, A J; Morrell, A. J.; Botchway, L. T.; Featherston, T. J.; Fielder, A R

    1992-01-01

    A questionnaire regarding preferred methods of cataract extraction and anaesthesia was sent to 456 consultant ophthalmologists in England and Wales. Replies were received from 86% (n = 392), 83% (n = 380) having completed the questionnaire in full. The most frequently employed surgical approach was non-automated extracapsular cataract extraction. Only 2% of surgeons (n = 8) used phacoemulsification routinely and 2% (n = 7) used intracapsular extraction. Intraocular lens implantation was the s...