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Sample records for chrysanthemum mutants regenerated

  1. Clonal fidelity of chrysanthemum regenerated from long term cultures

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    Jevremović Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of flowers of long term regenerated chrysanthemum, cv. "White Spider", after ten years of micropropagation are investigated. Shoot cultures are established and maintained more than ten years by stem segment culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP and NAA (1.0, 0.1 mgL-1, respectively. Rooting of shoots (100 % has done on MS medium without hormones and it was very successful after ten years, as well as, after two or eight years of micropropagation. Acclimation of rooted chrysanthemum plantlets at greenhouse conditions was excellent and after appropriate photoperiod "in vitro" plants flowered 90.3 % and have the same flower color, shape and size as mother plants. Flower color changes of "in vitro" plants are observed during another flowering cycle one year after acclimatization. Observed variations of chrysanthemum flowers could be attributed to epigenetic factors.

  2. IN VITRO REGENERATION OF THREE CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendrathema grandiflora VARIETIES “VIA” ORGANOGENESIS AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS

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    Elizabeth Hodson de Jaramillo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum (Dendrathema grandiflora has a high demand in the Colombian and international cut flower markets.Since commercial production of this ornamental species is strongly affected by fungal diseases such as chrysanthemumwhite rust (Puccinia horiana, high doses of fungicides are being used posing increased environmental and commercialcosts. Assessment of in vitro regeneration systems from leaf discs was a first step in developing a plant genetic transformationprotocol to obtain fungi-resistant plants. Leaf discs of White Albatross, Yellow Albatross, and Escapade varieties wereestablished in vitro on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0 - 4.83 μM and BAP (0 - 13.32 μM alone and incombination. Leaf discs were also cultured on MumB medium containing 2,4-D (0 - 4.52 μM for 7, 14, and 21 days priorto their transferral to a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Regenerated shoots were individualized, rooted, and hardened. Resultsshow that MS with 4.83 μM NAA + 4.44 μM BAP and 4.83 μM NAA + 13.32 μM BAP induce organogenesis, and MumBwith 2.26 μM 2,4-D induces somatic embryogenesis on all three varieties, with exposition periods to 2,4-D of 14 days forWhite Albatross and 21 days for Yellow Albatross and Escapade. Shoot development from somatic embryos was observedin the three varieties when cultured on a 2,4-D free MumB medium. Spontaneous rooting was recorded in 85% of the shootsthus facilitating hardening and successful transfer to soil.

  3. Mutation breedings in ornamental plants. Technique used for radiation induced mutant in begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne

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    Matsubara, Hisao

    1984-03-01

    Several methods of obtaining somatic mutant plants by el-ray irradiation on pieces of tissues as in vitro adventitious bud technique or small cutting methods with repeated pruning are described. The irradiation to the adventitious buds in the small pieces of organ cultured in vitro and to the small cuttings are employed. Culture beds of agar or of Japanese Kanuma soil were used in vitro culture. In these experiments, Japanese Kanuma soil bed in in vitro culture worked well for root development and transplant of the induced mutants. Combination with in vitro culture and repeated pruning technique were used for isolation and fixation of solid somatic mutant from small sectorial mutation induced by irradiation. This method was successful for begonia, chrysanthemum, aberia and winter daphne. These data indicates that most of the induced mutant plants were non-chimeric, while a few others were chimeric. Among the new varieties, ''Gin-Sei'', ''Ryoku-Ha'', ''Big-Cross'', ''Kaede-Iron'', ''Mei-Fu-Hana-Tsukubane-Utsugi'' and ''Daphne-el-3'' are non-chimeric, and ''Mini-Mini-Iron'' and ''Orange-Iron'' are chimeric. Moreover, these new varieties have remarkably differed in size and in color pattern from original variety. From the experimental results of somatic mutation, it is indicated that plant tissue culture have enormous potential in radiation breeding and in rapid propagation of the somatic mutant. (author).

  4. 发根农杆菌K599对菊花活体转化及其高效再生%Hairy Roots Induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599 in Chrysanthemum in Vivo and Plant Regeneration from Hairy Roots

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    向太和; 王琳; 蒋欢; 田璟鸾

    2011-01-01

    The transgenic hairy roots were formed on cut leaves of chrysanthemum plantlet by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599 with frequencies of 88.0%.The calli were induced from hairy roots and plantlets were regenerated from calli at rates of 75.0% and 63.3% respectively.The transgenic hairy roots and plantlet were confirmed by PCR analysis with primers from K599 Ri plasmid rolC gene.Quantitative RT-PCR(qRT-PCR)analysis showed that rolC gene was normally expressed in the regenerated transgenic plants.Regenerated plants harbored a character of dwarf,more hairy roots and flowering normally.Organism in vivo directly as a receptor for infection by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599,it overcame the emergence of false-positive transgenic hairy roots.In addition,using the process of hairy roots propagation characteristics of the top growing point region sterile and the interception of adventitious roots near the growing point to the top for subculture,combined with cefotaxime sterilization,it can inhibit and kill the Agrobacterium effectively.In the subsequent callus induction and redifferentiation from hairy roots,it is no antibiotics added to medium for killing Agrobacterium.It genetically enhanced efficiency of plant regeneration.The transgenic hairy roots were induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes K599 in chrysanthemum in vivo and plant regenerated from hairy roots highly efficiently in the study.It is useful to dwarf breeding and the target gene transformation of chrysanthemum.%发根农杆菌K599侵染菊花无菌苗刻伤的叶片形成转基因不定根,生根频率为88.0%;不定根经过诱导培养形成愈伤组织,并再生完整植株,愈伤组织诱导率和分化率分别为75.0%和63.3%。诱导的不定根和再生植株经过PCR鉴定含有K599 Ri质粒中的rolC基因,qRT-PCR检测显示rolC基因在再生转基因植株中实现了正常表达。再生植株表现出矮缩、多毛状根特征,并能正常开花。建立的利用活体材料

  5. 菊花黄绿叶突变体的光合与类囊体膜光谱%Characteristics of Photosynthesis and Spectra Properties of Thylakoid Membranes in the Yellow-Green Leaf Mutant of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常青山; 张利霞; 陈煜; 陈素梅; 刘兆磊; 房伟民; 陈发棣

    2013-01-01

    In order to study photosynthetic mechanism of the yellow-green leaf mutant- 'Jinglingguozi ' of chrysanthemum, the characteristics of photosynthesis and the spectra properties of thylakoid membrane in the green and yellow leaf tissue of the mutant were studied. We measured the photosynthesis, stomatal characteristics, room temperature absorption spectra, chlorophyll emission fluorescence spectra of thylakoid membrane. The results that compared to the green leaf tissue of the mutant, the yellow leaf tissue had lower net photosynthetic rate ( Pn ) , light saturation point (LSP) , dark respiration rate (Rd) , apparent quantum yield (AQY) , but higher light compensation point (LCP). The yellow leaf tissue had lower stomata limit value ( Ls ) , but higher non-stomata limit value. There was no significant difference in the characteristics of stomatal microstructure between the green leaf and yellow leaf tissue. The absorption spectra and fluorescence spectra significantly decreased in the yellow leaf tissue. The yellow leaf tissue had significantly lower capacity of the capture and excitation of light energy and lower the photosynthetic capacity than the green leaf tissue did, which was caused by non-stomata factors, such as a decrease of the function of thylakoid membrane.%以菊花‘金陵国紫’黄绿叶突变体为试验材料,研究该突变体黄绿叶的绿叶与黄叶组织光合与类囊体膜光谱特性.对突变体黄绿叶中绿叶与黄叶组织的光合速率、光响应曲线、气孔特征与类囊体膜光谱特性进行测定与分析.结果表明:与绿叶组织相比,突变体黄叶组织的净光合速率、光饱和点、暗呼吸速率、表观量子效率均显著低于绿叶组织,而光补偿点则显著高于绿叶组织;黄叶组织的气孔限制值低于绿叶组织,非气孔限制值则显著高于绿叶组织,而黄叶与绿叶组织的气孔特征并无显著性差异.突变体黄叶组织类囊体膜叶绿素捕光能力与受激

  6. Identification of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Self-Incompatibility

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    Fan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7–36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03–56.50% and 0.04–87.50, respectively. The cultivar “Q10-33-1” had the highest seed set (56.50% and compatible index (87.50, but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0–37.23% and compatible index (0–68.65. The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding.

  7. Wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants regenerated from leaf cultures irradiated with ion beams

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    Okamura, M. E-mail: okamuram@kirin.co.jp; Yasuno, N.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, A.; Shikazono, N.; Hase, Y

    2003-05-01

    The efficiency of ion-beam irradiation combined with tissue culture in obtaining floral mutants was investigated and compared with those of gamma rays and X-rays in carnation. Leaf segments of carnation plants in vitro were irradiated with the 220 MeV carbon ions, and cultured till the shoot regenerated. The carbon ion had the highest effect in reducing the regeneration frequency, and the RBE value with respect to gamma-rays was four. The higher mutation frequency and the wider mutation spectrum were obtained in plants irradiated with the carbon ions than low LET radiations. Three new carnation varieties developed by ion-beam irradiation were applied for the registration of the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The results indicate that ion beam irradiation could induce wide variety of flower-color and -shape mutants, and that the combined method of ion-beam irradiation with tissue culture is useful to obtain the commercial varieties in a short time.

  8. Chrysanthemum biotechnology: discoveries from the recent literature

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    Teixeira da Silva Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., one of the world’s most important ornamentals, is a very well-studied topic and shows numerous strides each year. This mini-review condenses the knowledge that has been published on chrysanthemum biotechnology, especially in vitro culture in the wider plant science literature. In 2013 and 2014, important strides were made in molecular breeding, particularly anti-viral strategies, including through transgenics, and our understanding of flower genetics and flowering regulation.

  9. A fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-protein (FLA mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, fla1, shows defects in shoot regeneration.

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    Kim L Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins (FLAs are an enigmatic class of 21 members within the larger family of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Located at the cell surface, in the cell wall/plasma membrane, they are implicated in many developmental roles yet their function remains largely undefined. Fasciclin (FAS domains are putative cell-adhesion domains found in extracellular matrix proteins of organisms from all kingdoms, but the juxtaposition of FAS domains with highly glycosylated AGP domains is unique to plants. Recent studies have started to elucidate the role of FLAs in Arabidopsis development. FLAs containing a single FAS domain are important for the integrity and elasticity of the plant cell wall matrix (FLA11 and FLA12 and FLA3 is involved in microspore development. FLA4/SOS5 with two FAS domains and two AGP domains has a role in maintaining proper cell expansion under salt stressed conditions. The role of other FLAs remains to be uncovered. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the characterisation of a T-DNA insertion mutant in the FLA1 gene (At5g55730. Under standard growth conditions fla1-1 mutants have no obvious phenotype. Based on gene expression studies, a putative role for FLA1 in callus induction was investigated and revealed that fla1-1 has a reduced ability to regenerate shoots in an in vitro shoot-induction assay. Analysis of FLA1p:GUS reporter lines show that FLA1 is expressed in several tissues including stomata, trichomes, the vasculature of leaves, the primary root tip and in lateral roots near the junction of the primary root. CONCLUSION: The results of the developmental expression of FLA1 and characterisation of the fla1 mutant support a role for FLA1 in the early events of lateral root development and shoot development in tissue culture, prior to cell-type specification.

  10. Identification and Quality Assessment of Chrysanthemum Buds by CE Fingerprinting

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    Xiaoping Xing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient fingerprinting method for chrysanthemum buds was developed with the aim of establishing a quality control protocol based on biochemical makeup. Chrysanthemum bud samples were successively extracted by water and alcohol. The fingerprints of the chrysanthemum buds samples were obtained using capillary electrophoresis and electrochemical detection (CE-ED employing copper and carbon working electrodes to capture all of the chemical information. 10 batches of chrysanthemum buds were collected from different regions and various factories to establish the baseline fingerprint. The experimental data of 10 batches electropherogram buds by CE were analyzed by correlation coefficient and the included angle cosine methods. A standard chrysanthemum bud fingerprint including 24 common peaks was established, 12 from each electrode, which was successfully applied to identify and distinguish between chrysanthemum buds from 2 other chrysanthemum species. These results demonstrate that fingerprint analysis can be used as an important criterion for chrysanthemum buds quality control.

  11. Accumulation of Pathogenesis-related Type-5 Like Proteins in Phytoplasma infected Garland Chrysanthemum Chrysanthemum coronarium

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    Bo-Xiong ZHONG; Yan-Wei SHEN

    2004-01-01

    Soluble proteins extracted from leaves, apical shoots, axillary shoots, and stems of garland chrysanthemum plants infected by onion yellows phytoplasma were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Computerized matching analysis revealed that at least six soluble proteins were accumulated specifically in phytoplasma-infected garland chrysanthemum. N-terminal amino acids sequences of these soluble proteins, determined by Edman degradation, shared high sequence similarities with those ofpathogenesis-related type-5 (PR-5) proteins such as tobacco thaumatin-like protein. Accumulation of these six proteins was also found in garland chrysanthemum plants infected by other phytoplasmas. These results demonstrate that phytoplasmal infection induces the accumulation of PR-5 like proteins in garland chrysanthemum plants.

  12. Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium

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    Jian ZHANG; An Wei DING; You Bin LI; Da Wei QIAN; Jin Ao DUAN; Zhi Qi YIN

    2006-01-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Their structures were determined to be luteolin 4'-methoxy-7- O-(6"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and acacetin 7-O-(3"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR technique.

  13. Characterization of ploidy levels in Chrysanthemum L. by flow cytometry

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    Yue-ping Ma; Jiang-xue Wei; Zhi-yang Yu; Bing Qin; Si-lan Dai

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing the ploidy levels of plants is important for identifying species, selecting parental lines, identifying the relationships between species, and determining evolutionary patterns. The genus Chrysanthemum is widely distributed throughout the world and exhibits different ploidy levels. We used flow cytometry to analyze the ploidy levels of nine species of Chrysanthemum L. collected from different regions and geographical locations in China. Three diploids from Henan and Wuhan provinces corresponded to Chrysanthe-mum lavandulifolium and two species of C. nankingense, while three tetraploids from various regions corresponded to C. indicum and two species of C. chanetii. Two hexaploids corresponding to C. vestitum were collected at Funiu moun-tain (Henan province), and C. zawadskii was collected at Huangshan mountain (Anhui province). We found that OTTO extraction buffer was suitable for extracting nuclei from most species, apart from C. zawadskii. Flow cytometry proved to be a simple, rapid, and highly accurate method for identifying ploidy levels in Chrysanthemum species.

  14. Xylem hydraulic conductivity related to conduit dimensions along chrysanthemum stems.

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    Nijsse, J.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Ieperen, van W.; Keijzer, C.J.; Meeteren, van U.

    2001-01-01

    The stem xylem conduit dimensions and hydraulic conductivity of chrysanthemum plants (Dendranthemaxgrandiflorum Tzvelev cv. Cassa) were analysed and quantified. Simple exponential relations describe conduit length distribution, height dependency of conduit length distribution, and height dependency

  15. Reference Gene Selection for RT-qPCR Analysis of Flower Development in Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium

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    Shuai eQi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a popular and powerful tool used to understand the molecular mechanisms of flower development. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the stability of reference genes. The capitulum of chrysanthemums is very special, which is consist of ray florets and disc florets. There are obvious differences between the two types of florets in symmetry, gender, histological structure and function. Furthermore, the ray florets have various shapes. The objective of present study was to identify the stable reference genes in Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium during the process of flower development. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability acrosssamples during the process of flower development, and their stability was validated by four different algorithms (Bestkeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm and Ref-finder. SAND(SAND family protein was found to be the most stably expressed gene in all samples or different tissues during the process of C. lavandulifolium development. Both SAND and PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase performed most stable in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum cultivars, and PGK was the best in potted chrysanthemums. There were differences in best reference genes among varieties as the genetic background of them were complex. These studies provide guidance for selecting reference genes for analyzing the expression pattern of floral development genes in chrysanthemums.

  16. Functional analysis of alternative splicing of the FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologous gene in Chrysanthemum morifolium

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    Mao, Yachao; Sun, Jing; Cao, Peipei; Zhang, Rong; Fu, Qike; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu

    2016-01-01

    As the junction of floral development pathways, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein called ‘florigen’ plays an important role in the process of plant flowering through signal integration. We isolated four transcripts encoding different isoforms of a FT orthologous gene CmFTL1, from Chrysanthemum morifolium cultivar ‘Jimba’. Sequence alignments suggested that the four transcripts are related to the intron 1. Expression analysis showed that four alternative splicing (AS) forms of CmFTL1 varied depending on the developmental stage of the flower. The functional complement experiment using an Arabidopsis mutant ft-10 revealed that the archetypal and AS forms of CmFTL1 had the function of complementing late flower phenotype in different levels. In addition, transgenic confirmation at transcript level showed CmFTL1 and CmFTL1ast coexist in the same tissue type at the same developmental stage, indicating a post-transcriptional modification of CmFTL1 in Arabidopsis. Moreover, ectopic expression of different AS forms in chrysanthemum resulted in the development of multiple altered phenotypes, varying degrees of early flowering. We found that an alternative splicing form (CmFTL1-astE134) without the exon 2 lacked the ability causing the earlier flower phenotype. The evidence in this study indicates that complex alternative processing of CmFTL1 transcripts in C. morifolium may be associated with flowering regulation and hold some potential for biotechnical engineering to create early-flowering phenotypes in ornamental cultivars. PMID:27917290

  17. 以菊展促文化推进春节菊花市场发展%Culture and market promotion by Chrysanthemum Exhibition

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    郭超超; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Chrysanthemum exhibition is one of the most important ways of chrysanthemum demonstration, which may promote industrial production and culture dissemination, and is also a way to direct the chrysanthemum production toward the market. Based on the introduction of chrysanthemum exhibition and chrysanthemum culture,including chrysanthemum market survey in the Spring Festival, the authors proposed that Chrysanthemum Exhibition in Spring Festival can open a new market for extended use of chrysanthemum.Techniques to control the flowering of chrysanthemum were described in the paper.

  18. Study of Development Potential Chrysanthemum in Buleleng Regency

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    I Gusti Made Arjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of agro-climate, technology of cultivation, harvest and post-harvest chrysanthemums. This study uses survey method, through the collection of primary data and secondary data. This research is located in the village of Pancasari, District Sukasada, Buleleng Bali Province. Descriptive survey conducted on 40 respondents chrysanthemum growers using the component identification of determinants of commodity production chrysanthemum include: site selection, infrastructure, crop production processes and post-harvest handling. The survey results showed that 100% of the farmers have chosen a suitable location with agro-climatic conditions required by the chrysanthemum plant, and 86.09% of the farmers have been using the means needed to support the process of crop production. In the process of production of 78% in accordance with the operational procedures. At the stage of harvest and post-harvest handling 80% have been implemented by farmers and some still use conventional methods of handling. Thus Pancasari village has a potential location for the cultivation of chrysanthemum as a mainstay commodity.

  19. Protection of Geographical Indication and Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Chrysanthemum Resources

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    Zai; HU; Zhiguo; SUN; Wanzhen; XIONG; Limin; HUANG; Shuting; WANG

    2013-01-01

    We conduct an analysis on the current protection of geographical indication intellectual property and intangible cultural heritage of chrysanthemum resources. The following recommendations are explored and set forth: ( i) Collecting and sorting the intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum,and declaring the provincial and national list; ( ii) Establishing the productive protection demonstration bases of intangible cultural heritage related to chrysanthemum; ( iii) Strengthening the declaration of geographical indication intellectual property protection of chrysanthemum; ( iv) Encouraging the use of special marks of geographical indication,and cultivating chrysanthemum brand; ( v) Establishing various kinds of national quality standards of geographical indication of chrysanthemum; ( vi) Implementing the double protection of intangible cultural heritage and geographical indication of traditional chrysanthemum.

  20. CmFTL2 is involved in the photoperiod- and sucrose-mediated control of flowering time in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Heng; Ren, Liping; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu

    2017-01-01

    The chrysanthemum genome harbors three FT-like genes: CmFTL1 and CmFTL3 are thought to act as regulators of floral induction under long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, respectively, whereas the function of CmFTL2 is currently unclear. The objective of the present research was to explore the function of CmFTL2 in the determination of flowering time of the photo-insensitive chrysanthemum cultivar 'Floral Yuuka', both in response to variation in the photoperiod and to the exogenous provision of sucrose. Spraying leaves of 'Floral Yuuka' plants with 50 mM sucrose accelerated flowering and increased the level of CmFTL2 transcription in the leaf more strongly than either CmFTL1 or FTL3 under both long and SD conditions. Transcription profiling indicated that all three CmFTL genes were upregulated during floral induction. The relationship of the CmFTL2 sequence with that of other members of the PEBP family suggested that its product contributes to the florigen rather than to the anti-florigen complex. The heterologous expression of CmFTL2 in the Arabidopsis thaliana ft-10 mutant rescued the mutant phenotype, showing that CmFTL2 could compensate for the absence of FT. These results suggest that CmFTL2 acts as a regulator of floral transition and responds to both the photoperiod and sucrose.

  1. A New Compound from the Bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new bicyclic spiroketone was isolated from the bud of Chrysanthemum indicum L.The chemical structure was elucidated as (1R, 9S, 10S)-10-hydroxyl-8 (2', 4'-diynehexylidene)-9-isovaleryloxy-2, 7-dioxaspiro [5, 4] decane based on the X-ray crystallography.

  2. Functional anatomy of the water transport system in cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, J.

    2001-01-01

    Cut flowers show a wide variance of keepability. The market demands more and more a guaranteed quality. Therefore, methods must be developed to predict vase life of cut flowers. Chrysanthemum ( Dendranthema x grandiflorum Tzvelev) and some other cut flowers suffer from unpredicted early leaf wilting

  3. Nitrogen, salinity, substrates and growth of gloxinia and chrysanthemum

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    Arnold Bik, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    The study was on the harmful effect of salinity on N utilization in the flower crops gloxinia (a salt-sensitive mesophytic semi-shade plant) and chrysanthemum (a salt- tolerant sun plant). For solid substrates (trials 2 and 3) the specific conductivity of the saturation extract (EC. in mmho per cm a

  4. Analysis and Simulation of Growth and Yield of Cut Chrysanthemum

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    Lee, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : chrysanthemum, crop growth, development, explanatory model, expolinear growth, dry mass, dry matter partitioning, fresh mass, leaf area index, light interception, light use efficiency, plant density, season, simulation, validation, year-round. Seasonal var

  5. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

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    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck’s short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa’ mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in short fiction.

  6. An analysis of mind style in the short fiction Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海燕

    2015-01-01

    The paper selected John Steinbeck's short fiction The Chrysanthemums and focused on the analysis of Steinbeck and Elisa' mind style.It is hoped that the present research will provide a new perspective for reader s and critics in appreciating and analyzing characters in shortfiction.

  7. An isoform of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E from Chrysanthemum morifolium interacts with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E plays an important role in plant virus infection as well as the regulation of gene translation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the isolation of a cDNA encoding CmeIF(iso4E (GenBank accession no. JQ904592, an isoform of eIF4E from chrysanthemum, using RACE PCR. We used the CmeIF(iso4E cDNA for expression profiling and to analyze the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein (CVBCP. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sequence similarity of CmeIF(iso4E with other reported plant eIF(iso4E sequences varied between 69.12% and 89.18%, indicating that CmeIF(iso4E belongs to the eIF(iso4E subfamily of the eIF4E family. CmeIF(iso4E was present in all chrysanthemum organs, but was particularly abundant in the roots and flowers. Confocal microscopy showed that a transiently transfected CmeIF(iso4E-GFP fusion protein distributed throughout the whole cell in onion epidermis cells. A yeast two hybrid assay showed CVBCP interacted with CmeIF(iso4E but not with CmeIF4E. BiFC assay further demonstrated the interaction between CmeIF(iso4E and CVBCP. Luminescence assay showed that CVBCP increased the RLU of Luc-CVB, suggesting CVBCP might participate in the translation of viral proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results inferred that CmeIF(iso4E as the cap-binding subunit eIF(iso4F may be involved in Chrysanthemum Virus B infection in chrysanthemum through its interaction with CVBCP in spatial.

  8. On Walter ’s Otherness in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嵩皎

    2015-01-01

    Odour of Chrysanthemums is one of the British writer D. H. Lawrence’s short stories. In the story, character’s understanding of each other reflects the idea of otherness. This paper tries to analyze both Walter’s mother and Elizabeth’s understanding of Walter Bates. Then it points out that they did not really understand him, nor did they understand his otherness. Their failure to understand his otherness is a reason to the unhappy marriage to some extent.

  9. Towards protease inhibitor mediated resistance to western flower thrips in chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annadana, S.

    2001-01-01

    Dendranthema grandiflora (chrysanthemum) is a cutflower grown across the world, with an acreage similar to roses. Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) is a major pest against a large number of crops, including chrysanthemum, in both field and glasshouse cultivation. Aiming at WFT

  10. Characterization of in vitro haploid and doubled haploid Chrysanthemum morifolium plants via unfertilized ovule culture for phenotypical traits and DNA methylation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin eWang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of important ornamental species in the world. Its highly heterozygous state complicates molecular analysis, so it is of interest to derive haploid forms. A total of 2,579 non-fertilized chrysanthemum ovules pollinated by Argyranthemum frutescens were cultured in vitro to isolate haploid progeny. One single regenerant emerged from each of three of the 105 calli produced. Chromosome counts and microsatellite fingerprinting showed that only one of the regenerants was a true haploid. Nine doubled haploid derivatives were subsequently generated by colchicine treatment of 80 in vitro cultured haploid nodal segments. Morphological screening showed that the haploid plant was shorter than the doubled haploids, and developed smaller leaves, flowers and stomata. An in vitro pollen germination test showed that few of the haploid's pollen were able to germinate and those which did so were abnormal. Both the haploid and the doubled haploids produced yellow flowers, whereas those of the maternal parental cultivar were mauve. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP profiling was further used to detect alterations in cytosine methylation caused by the haploidization and/or the chromosome doubling processes. While 52.2% of the resulting amplified fragments were cytosine methylated in the maternal parent's genome, the corresponding proportions for the haploid's and doubled haploids' genomes were, respectively, 47.0% and 51.7%, demonstrating a reduction in global cytosine methylation caused by haploidization and a partial recovery following chromosome doubling.

  11. Clonal analysis of kit ligand a functional expression reveals lineage-specific competence to promote melanocyte rescue in the mutant regenerating caudal fin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Tryon

    Full Text Available The study of regeneration in an in vivo vertebrate system has the potential to reveal targetable genes and pathways that could improve our ability to heal and repair damaged tissue. We have developed a system for clonal labeling of discrete cell lineages and independently inducing gene expression under control of the heat shock promoter in the zebrafish caudal fin. Consequently we are able to test the affects of overexpressing a single gene in the context of regeneration within each of the nine different cell lineage classes that comprise the caudal fin. This can test which lineage is necessary or sufficient to provide gene function. As a first example to demonstrate this approach, we explored which lineages were competent to functionally express the kit ligand a protein as assessed by the local complementation of the mutation in the sparse-like (kitlgatc244b background. We show that dermal fibroblast expression of kit ligand a robustly supports the rescue of melanocytes in the regenerating caudal fin. kit ligand a expression from skin and osteoblasts results in more modest and variable rescue of melanocytes, while lateral line expression was unable to complement the mutation.

  12. Growth and Flowering Responses of Cut Chrysanthemum Grown under Restricted Root Volume to Irrigation Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viyachai Taweesak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influences of irrigation frequency on the growth and flowering of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume were tested. Chrysanthemum cuttings (Chrysanthemum morifolium “Reagan White” were grown in seedling tray which contained coconut peat in volumes of 73 and 140 cm3. Plants were irrigated with drip irrigation at irrigation frequencies of 4 (266 mL, 6 (400 mL, and 8 (533 mL times/day to observe their growth and flowering performances. There was interaction between irrigation frequency and substrate volume on plant height of chrysanthemum. Plants grown in 140 cm3 substrates and irrigated 6 times/day produced the tallest plant of 109.25 cm. Plants irrigated 6 and 8 times/day had significantly higher level of phosphorus content in their leaves than those plants irrigated 4 times/day. The total leaf area, number of internodes, leaf length, and leaf width of chrysanthemums grown in 140 cm3 substrate were significantly higher than those grown in 73 cm3 substrate. The numbers of flowers were affected by both irrigation frequencies and substrate volumes. Chrysanthemums irrigated 8 times/day had an average of 19.56 flowers while those irrigated 4 times/day had an average of 16.63 flowers. Increasing irrigation frequency can improve the growth and flowering of chrysanthemums in small substrate volumes.

  13. Genetic engineering of novel bluer-colored chrysanthemums produced by accumulation of delphinidin-based anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Naonobu; Aida, Ryutaro; Kishimoto, Sanae; Ishiguro, Kanako; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) have no purple-, violet- or blue-flowered cultivars because they lack delphinidin-based anthocyanins. This deficiency is due to the absence of the flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase gene (F3'5'H), which encodes the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. In F3'5'H-transformed chrysanthemums, unpredictable and unstable expression levels have hampered successful production of delphinidin and reduced desired changes in flower color. With the aim of achieving delphinidin production in chrysanthemum petals, we found that anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoters combined with a translational enhancer increased expression of some F3'5'H genes and accompanying delphinidin-based anthocyanin accumulation in transgenic chrysanthemums. Dramatic accumulation of delphinidin (up to 95%) was achieved by simple overexpression of Campanula F3'5'H controlled by a petal-specific flavanone 3-hydroxylase promoter from chrysanthemum combined with the 5'-untranslated region of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene as a translational enhancer. The flower colors of transgenic lines producing delphinidin-based anthocyanins changed from a red-purple to a purple-violet hue in the Royal Horticultural Society Colour Charts. This result represents a promising step toward molecular breeding of blue chrysanthemums.

  14. An Analysis of Symbolism in the Novel The Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔璨

    2013-01-01

      The Chrysanthemums is the masterpiece of John Steinbeck, which is considered to be"one of the greatest short stories ever". The story tells the life experiences of an 35-year-old woman named Elisa. In this novel, the most outstanding writing tech⁃nique is the use of symbolism. Based on the analysis of the story, this paper aims to analyze how symbols are used to reflect the theme of this novel, which will be of great help o have a better understanding of the theme and the charm of the story.

  15. Abscisic acid in salt stress predisposition to phytophthora root and crown rot in tomato and chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, Matthew V; Pye, Matthew F; Roubtsova, Tatiana V; Duniway, John M; Macdonald, James D; Rizzo, David M; Bostock, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    Plants respond to changes in the environment with complex signaling networks, often under control of phytohormones that generate positive and negative crosstalk among downstream effectors of the response. Accordingly, brief dehydration stresses such as salinity and water deficit, which induce a rapid and transient systemic increase in levels of abscisic acid (ABA), can influence disease response pathways. ABA has been associated with susceptibility of plants to bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes but relatively little attention has been directed at its role in abiotic stress predisposition to root pathogens. This study examines the impact of brief salinity stress on infection of tomato and chrysanthemum roots by Phytophthora spp. Roots of plants in hydroponic culture exposed to a brief episode of salt (sodium chloride) stress prior to or after inoculation were severely diseased relative to nonstressed plants. Tomato roots remained in a predisposed state up to 24 h following removal from the stress. An increase in root ABA levels in tomato preceded or temporally paralleled the onset of stress-induced susceptibility, with levels declining in roots prior to recovery from the predisposed state. Exogenous ABA could substitute for salt stress and significantly enhanced pathogen colonization and disease development. ABA-deficient tomato mutants lacked the predisposition response, which could be restored by complementation of the mutant with exogenous ABA. In contrast, ethylene, which exacerbates disease symptoms in some host-parasite interactions, did not appear to contribute to the predisposition response. Thus, several lines of evidence support ABA as a critical and dominant factor in the salinity-induced predisposition to Phytophthora spp. infection.

  16. Effects of types of media and NPK fertilizer on the rooting capacity of chrysanthemum cuttings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budiarto, K.; Sulyo, Y.; Dwi, E.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Physiological status of chrysanthemum cuttings during rooting process highly influences plant growth and flower production. Amongst other aspects, rooting capacity of the cuttings is the most important. Rooting capacity is influenced by environmental conditions such as growing medium and nutrition.

  17. Unique Aspects of Cryptochrome in Chronobiology and Metabolism, Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction, and Regeneration: Research into Cysteine414-Alanine Mutant CRY1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochrome proteins (CRYs), which can bind noncovalently to cofactor (chromophore) flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), occur widely among organisms. CRYs play indispensable roles in the generation of circadian rhythm in mammals. Transgenic mice (Tg mice), ubiquitously expressing mouse CRY1 having a mutation in which cysteine414 (the zinc-binding site of CRY1) being replaced with alanine, display unique phenotypes in their circadian rhythms. Moreover, male Tg mice exhibit symptoms of diabetes characterized by beta-cell dysfunction, resembling human maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The lowered proliferation of β-cells is a primary cause of age-dependent β-cell loss. Furthermore, unusually enlarged duct-like structures developed prominently in the Tg mice pancreases. The duct-like structures contained insulin-positive cells, suggesting neogenesis of β-cells in the Tg mice. This review, based mainly on the author's investigation of the unique features of Tg mice, presents reported results and recent findings related to molecular processes associated with mammalian cryptochromes, especially their involvement in the regulation of metabolism. New information is described with emphasis on the aspects of islet architecture, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and regeneration.

  18. Unique Aspects of Cryptochrome in Chronobiology and Metabolism, Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction, and Regeneration: Research into Cysteine414-Alanine Mutant CRY1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Okano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptochrome proteins (CRYs, which can bind noncovalently to cofactor (chromophore flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD, occur widely among organisms. CRYs play indispensable roles in the generation of circadian rhythm in mammals. Transgenic mice (Tg mice, ubiquitously expressing mouse CRY1 having a mutation in which cysteine414 (the zinc-binding site of CRY1 being replaced with alanine, display unique phenotypes in their circadian rhythms. Moreover, male Tg mice exhibit symptoms of diabetes characterized by beta-cell dysfunction, resembling human maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY. The lowered proliferation of β-cells is a primary cause of age-dependent β-cell loss. Furthermore, unusually enlarged duct-like structures developed prominently in the Tg mice pancreases. The duct-like structures contained insulin-positive cells, suggesting neogenesis of β-cells in the Tg mice. This review, based mainly on the author’s investigation of the unique features of Tg mice, presents reported results and recent findings related to molecular processes associated with mammalian cryptochromes, especially their involvement in the regulation of metabolism. New information is described with emphasis on the aspects of islet architecture, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and regeneration.

  19. Unique Aspects of Cryptochrome in Chronobiology and Metabolism, Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction, and Regeneration: Research into Cysteine414-Alanine Mutant CRY1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochrome proteins (CRYs), which can bind noncovalently to cofactor (chromophore) flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), occur widely among organisms. CRYs play indispensable roles in the generation of circadian rhythm in mammals. Transgenic mice (Tg mice), ubiquitously expressing mouse CRY1 having a mutation in which cysteine414 (the zinc-binding site of CRY1) being replaced with alanine, display unique phenotypes in their circadian rhythms. Moreover, male Tg mice exhibit symptoms of diabetes characterized by beta-cell dysfunction, resembling human maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The lowered proliferation of β-cells is a primary cause of age-dependent β-cell loss. Furthermore, unusually enlarged duct-like structures developed prominently in the Tg mice pancreases. The duct-like structures contained insulin-positive cells, suggesting neogenesis of β-cells in the Tg mice. This review, based mainly on the author's investigation of the unique features of Tg mice, presents reported results and recent findings related to molecular processes associated with mammalian cryptochromes, especially their involvement in the regulation of metabolism. New information is described with emphasis on the aspects of islet architecture, pancreatic β-cell dysfunction, and regeneration. PMID:28105441

  20. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay as a simple detection method of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus in chrysanthemum and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Fukuta, Shiro; Matsumoto, Yuho; Hasegawa, Toru; Kojima, Hiroko; Hotta, Makiko; Miyake, Noriyuki

    2016-10-01

    For a simple and rapid detection of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) from chrysanthemum and tomato, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed. A primer set designed to the genome sequences of CSNV worked most efficiently at 63°C and could detect CSNV RNA within 12min by fluorescence monitoring using an isothermal DNA amplification and fluorescence detection device. The result of a specificity test using seven other viruses and one viroid-infectable chrysanthemum or tomato showed that the assay could amplify CSNV specifically, and a sensitivity comparison showed that the RT-LAMP assay was as sensitive as the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The RT-LAMP assay using crude RNA, extracted simply, could detect CSNV. Overall, the RT-LAMP assay was found to be a simple, specific, convenient, and time-saving method for CSNV detection.

  1. Identification and characterization of four chrysanthemum MADS-box genes, belonging to the APETALA1/FRUITFULL and SEPALLATA3 subfamilies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shchennikova, A.V.; Shulga, O.A.; Immink, R.; Skryabin, K.G.; Angenent, G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Four full-length MADS-box cDNAs from chrysanthemum, designated Chrysanthemum Dendrathema grandiflorum MADS (CDM) 8, CDM41, CDM111, and CDM44, have been isolated and further functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment and expression patterns of the corresponding genes suggest that CDM8 and

  2. A multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Puccinia horiana and P. chrysanthemi on chrysanthemum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccinia horiana, the cause of chrysanthemum white rust, is a regulated fungal plant pathogen in the United States, while Puccinia chrysanthemi, the cause of chrysanthemum brown rust, is a widespread but less destructive pathogen. Accurate identification of these pathogens is essential to correctly ...

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Chrysanthemum Leaf Transcript Profiling in Response to Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin-Huan; Wang, Tong; Wang, Ke; Liang, Qian-Yu; Bai, Zhen-Yu; Liu, Qing-Lin; Pan, Yuan-Zhi; Jiang, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Salt stress has some remarkable influence on chrysanthemum growth and productivity. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with salt stress and identify genes of potential importance in cultivated chrysanthemum, we carried out transcriptome sequencing of chrysanthemum. Two cDNA libraries were generated from the control and salt-treated samples (Sample_0510_control and Sample_0510_treat) of leaves. By using the Illumina Solexa RNA sequencing technology, 94 million high quality sequencing reads and 161,522 unigenes were generated and then we annotated unigenes through comparing these sequences to diverse protein databases. A total of 126,646 differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) were identified in leaf. Plant hormones, amino acid metabolism, photosynthesis and secondary metabolism were all changed under salt stress after the complete list of GO term and KEGG enrichment analysis. The hormone biosynthesis changing and oxidative hurt decreasing appeared to be significantly related to salt tolerance of chrysanthemum. Important protein kinases and major transcription factor families involved in abiotic stress were differentially expressed, such as MAPKs, CDPKs, MYB, WRKY, AP2 and HD-zip. In general, these results can help us to confirm the molecular regulation mechanism and also provide us a comprehensive resource of chrysanthemum under salt stress. PMID:27447718

  4. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida ‘Scarlet’, Chrysanthemum morifolium ‘Coral Charm’, and Campanula portenschlagiana ‘BluOne’ were grown at 24/18 ◦C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding...... approximately 200 mol m−2 s−1 at plant height for 16 h per day. The four light treatments were (1) 40% Blue/60% Red, (2) 20% Blue/80% Red, (3) 100% Red, and (4) 100% White (Control). The plant height was smallest in 40% Blue/60% Red in roses and chrysanthemums, while the biomass was smallest in the white...

  5. The Abundance and Diversity of Soil Fungi in Continuously Monocropped Chrysanthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is an important ornamental plant which is increasingly being monocropped. Monocropping is known to affect both fungal abundance and species diversity. Here, quantitative PCR allied with DGGE analysis was used to show that fungi were more abundant in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil and that the fungal populations changed during the growth cycle of the chrysanthemum. The majority of amplified fragments appeared to derive from Fusarium species, and F. oxysporum and F. solani proved to be the major pathogenic species which are built up by monocropping.

  6. Chrysanthemum Cutting Productivity and Rooting Ability Are Improved by Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted “Jinba” (non-grafted cuttings with those collected from grafted “Jinba” plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings. The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings “Jinba” rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N, as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and abscisic acid (ABA, and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand.

  7. STUDY ON CROSSING ABILITY OF ANNUAL CHRYSANTHEMUM GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Kattera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment comprised of six genotypes viz., NAC-01-10, NAC-02-10, NAC-03-10, NAC-04-10, NAC-05-10, NAC-06-10 selected for petal colour and number of layers of petals to estimate pollen viability, in-vitro pollen germination, stigma receptivity and crossed seed set percentage to find out the crossing ability of genotypes. The present experiment was laid out at the experimental field of Horticulture Section, College of Agriculture, Nagpur, during 2010-11. Pollen viability of six genotypes of annual chrysanthemum showed a range of 69.69% to 86.66% viability, Percentage of germination on the day of anthesis ranged from 22.72% (NAC-06-10 to 66.66% (NAC-01-10. First day pollen pollinated on first day stigma showed 100% stigma receptivity in all six genotypes and the crossed seed set ranged from 61.60% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-05-10 to 92.00% (NAC-01-10 × NAC-04-10 among direct crosses whereas, the percentage ranged from 42.00% (NAC-04-10 × NAC-02-10 to 90.00% (NAC-05-10 × NAC-01-10 among the reciprocal crosses. All the six genotypes are highly suitable for their use as parents in crossing program.

  8. fgf20 is essential for initiating zebrafish fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Geoffrey G; Makino, Shinji; Lien, Ching-Ling; Keating, Mark T

    2005-12-23

    Epimorphic regeneration requires the presence or creation of pluripotent cells capable of reproducing lost organs. Zebrafish fin regeneration is mediated by the creation of blastema cells. Here, we characterize the devoid of blastema (dob) mutant that fails fin regeneration during initial steps, forms abnormal regeneration epithelium, and does not form blastema. This mutation has no impact on embryonic survival. Dob results from an fgf20a null mutation, Y148S. Fgf20a is expressed during initiation of fin regeneration at the epithelial-mesenchymal boundary and later overlaps with the blastema marker msxb. Thus, fgf20a has a regeneration-specific requirement, initiating fin regeneration, and controlling blastema formation.

  9. Air-borne contact dermatitis due to Chrysanthemum with true cross sensitivity to Parthenium hysterophorus and Xanthium strumarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasricha J

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year old man living in Srinagar (Jammu and Kashmir had air-borne contact dermatitis for last 10 years. He had never traveled to any other part of the country where Parthenium hysterophorus or Xanthium strumarium are prevalent but he used to cultivate chrysanthemums. Patch tests with standardized extracts of various plants revealed the strongest reaction with Chrysanthemum, while the reactions with Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus were also positive but milder. This seems to be a case of primary sensitivity to Chrysanthemum with cross sensitivity to Xanthium strumarium and Parthenium hysterophorus.

  10. Influences of four different light-emitting diode lights on flowering and polyphenol variations in the leaves of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sung Woo; Park, Semin; Jin, Jong Sung; Seo, On Nuri; Kim, Gon-Sup; Kim, Yun-Hi; Bae, Hanhong; Lee, Gyemin; Kim, Soo Taek; Lee, Won Sup; Shin, Sung Chul

    2012-10-03

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an efficient alternative to traditional lamps for plant growth. To investigate the influence of LEDs on flowering and polyphenol biosynthesis in the leaves of chrysanthemum, the plants were grown under supplemental blue, green, red, and white LEDs. Flower budding was formed even after a longer photoperiod than a critical day length of 13.5 h per day under blue light illumination. The weights of leaves and stems were highest under the white light illumination growth condition, whereas the weight of roots appeared to be independent of light quality. Among nine polyphenols characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, three polyphenols were identified for the first time in chrysanthemum. A quantitation and principal component analysis biplot demonstrated that luteolin-7-O-glucoside (2), luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (3), and quercetagetin-trimethyl ether (8) were the highest polyphenols yielded under green light, and dicaffeoylquinic acid isomer (4), dicaffeoylquinic acid isomer (5), naringenin (7), and apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (6) were greatest under red light. Chlorogenic acid (1) and 1,2,6-trihydroxy-7,8-dimethoxy-3-methylanthraquinone (9) were produced in similar concentrations under both light types. The white and blue light appeared inefficient for polyphenol production. Taken together, our results suggest that the chrysanthemum flowering and polyphenol production are influenced by light quality composition.

  11. Isolation, identification and activity of natural antioxidants from costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) cultivated in Lithuania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Venskutonis, P.R.; Dijkgraaf, I.; Beek, van T.A.

    2010-01-01

    The sweet, minty-lemony leaves of costmary (Chrysanthemum balsamita) are used for salads and tea, and as flavourings in meats, sausages, cakes and ale. In this study, the extracts isolated from costmary aerial parts were investigated as antioxidants in rapeseed oil and as free radical-scavengers in

  12. The Analyses of the effects of Environmental Descriptions in Odour of Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚河

    2015-01-01

    Environment is an indispensable element of a story structure. In the short story Odour of Chrysanthemums, Laurence showed a se⁃ries of original environmental descriptions which play a important role to create specific atmosphere in an industrial society and express pro⁃tagonists’inner life.

  13. Industrial Dehumanization——Viewed from the husband and wife relationship in "Odour of Chrysanthemums"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何苗

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence is regarded as one of most accomplished short story writers in twentieth century, with "Odour of Chrysanthemums" one of his early works. Through the death of a miner, the text shows how humanity was ruined by industrial civilization. This essay is intended to unveil the destructive force by analyzing the relationship between the husband and wife.

  14. Deflowered: Walking Students through A Harsher Reading of John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, James

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a teaching method for John Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums" which focuses on word choice, symbolism, character interaction, and gender roles. Proposes that such a close study should reveal to students that Steinbeck should be considered one of America's most talented writers. (PM)

  15. Effects of growth conditions on external quality of cut chrysanthemum; analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, S.M.P.

    2003-01-01

    For many years the emphasis in floricultural research laid with quantity rather than quality. Nowadays, since the prices are often determined on the basis of visual quality aspects, the so-called external quality, chrysanthemum growers aim to provide a high and constant product qualit

  16. [Effects of bio-organic fertilizer and fungicide application on continuous cropping obstacles of cut chrysanthemum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhao, Shuang; Yao, Jian-jun; Ye, Yan-ping; Song, Ai-ping; Chen, Fa-di; Chen, Su-mei; Dong, Xue-na

    2015-04-01

    Abstract: Fusarium wilt is a soil borne disease caused by plant continuous cropping in monoculture Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Youxiang' monoculture not only declines plant quality and yield but also decreases soil enzymes and soil microbial diversity over successive cultivation. In this article, the effects of fungicide (Carbendazim MBC), antifungal enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and their combined application on the quality and soil enzymes activities of Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Youxiang' in continuous cropping systems were investigated. The results showed that both bioorganic fertilizer (BOF) and fungicide (MBC) single application could effectively prevent the occurrence of Fusarium wilt disease of cut chrysanthemum. Bio-organic fertilizer application was more effective on root activity, soil enzymes activities and quality (shoot height, stem diameter, leaf SPAD value, ray floret number, shoot fresh mass) improvement of cut chrysanthemum, while fungicide single application was responsible for soil enzymatic activities suppression to some extent. The combined application treatment (MBC+BOF) showed the best effects on quality improvement and soil enzyme activities promotion.

  17. Identification of Floral Scent in Chrysanthemum Cultivars and Wild Relatives by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hainan Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major volatile compounds and their relative concentrations in flowers of different chrysanthemum cultivars and their wild relatives. The volatile organic components of fresh flowers were analyzed using a headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, 193 volatile organic components were detected; the major scent components were monoterpenoids and oxygenated monoterpenoids, which accounted for 68.59%–99.93% of the total volatiles in all tested materials except for Chrysanthemum indicum collected from Huangshan, in which they accounted for only 37.45% of total volatiles. The major volatile compounds were camphor, α-pinene, chrysanthenone, safranal, myrcene, eucalyptol, 2,4,5,6,7,7ab-hexahydro-1H-indene, verbenone, β-phellandrene and camphene. In a hierarchical cluster analysis, 39 accessions of Chrysanthemum and its relatives formed six clusters based on their floral volatile compounds. In a principal component analysis, only spider type flowers were located closely on the score plot. The results of this study provide a basis for breeding chrysanthemum cultivars which desirable floral scents.

  18. Possibilities for soilless cultivation in cut chrysanthemum: Effect of irrigation frequencies and spacing schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanourakis, D.; Heuvelink, E.; Verkerke, W.

    2011-01-01

    Three levels of irrigation frequencies, provided by root misting, combined with three plant densities and two spacing treatments were tested to evaluate the optimum conditions during the first crop stages of chrysanthemum in a soilless cultivation system (aeroponics) in an experiment conducted in au

  19. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2013-01-01

    (PSII) and stomatal conductance (gs). A combination of chlorophyll a fluorescence, gas exchange measurements and infrared thermography was applied using Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev) cultivar ‘Coral Charm’ as a model species. Increasing temperature had a highly significant effect...

  20. Air-borne dermatitis from [i]Chrysanthemum[/i] – case report with a discussion of diagnostic procedures and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obtulowicz Aleksander

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne dermatitis belongs to a heterogeneous group of dermatoses of various etiopathology and clinical characteristics. This disease is characterized by acute or chronic inflammation of the uncovered skin exposed to irritants or allergens. Initially skin lesions are transient. The paper presents a description of chrysanthemum growers diagnosed with air-borne dermatitis from chrysanthemum. Etiology, pathomechanism, clinical course, diagnostics and therapeutical methods are described.

  1. Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Cerasela MIRCEA (ARSENE); Oana CIOANCĂ; Lucia DRAGHIA; Monica HĂNCIANU

    2015-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L.) Des Moul) became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed thr...

  2. Violet/blue chrysanthemums--metabolic engineering of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway results in novel petal colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugliera, Filippa; Tao, Guo-Qing; Tems, Ursula; Kalc, Gianna; Mouradova, Ekaterina; Price, Kym; Stevenson, Kim; Nakamura, Noriko; Stacey, Iolanda; Katsumoto, Yukihisa; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Mason, John G

    2013-10-01

    Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum×morifolium Ramat.) are an important cut-flower and potted plant crop in the horticultural industry world wide. Chrysanthemums express the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) gene and thus accumulate anthocyanins derived from cyanidin in their inflorescences which appear pink/red. Delphinidin-based anthocyanins are lacking due to the deficiency of a flavonoid 3', 5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), and so violet/blue chrysanthemum flower colors are not found. In this study, together with optimization of transgene expression and selection of the host cultivars and gene source, F3'5'H genes have been successfully utilized to produce transgenic bluish chrysanthemums that accumulate delphinidin-based anthocyanins. HPLC analysis and feeding experiments with a delphinidin precursor identified 16 cultivars of chrysanthemums out of 75 that were predicted to turn bluish upon delphinidin accumulation. A selection of eight cultivars were successfully transformed with F3'5'H genes under the control of different promoters. A pansy F3'5'H gene under the control of a chalcone synthase promoter fragment from rose resulted in the effective diversion of the anthocyanin pathway to produce delphinidin in transgenic chrysanthemum flower petals. The resultant petal color was bluish, with 40% of total anthocyanidins attributed to delphinidin. Increased delphinidin levels (up to 80%) were further achieved by hairpin RNA interference-mediated silencing of the endogenous F3'H gene. The resulting petal colors were novel bluish hues, not possible by hybridization breeding. This is the first report of the production of anthocyanins derived from delphinidin in chrysanthemum petals leading to novel flower color.

  3. Liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shennen A; Glorioso, Jaime M; Nyberg, Scott L

    2014-04-01

    The liver is unique in its ability to regenerate in response to injury. A number of evolutionary safeguards have allowed the liver to continue to perform its complex functions despite significant injury. Increased understanding of the regenerative process has significant benefit in the treatment of liver failure. Furthermore, understanding of liver regeneration may shed light on the development of cancer within the cirrhotic liver. This review provides an overview of the models of study currently used in liver regeneration, the molecular basis of liver regeneration, and the role of liver progenitor cells in regeneration of the liver. Specific focus is placed on clinical applications of current knowledge in liver regeneration, including small-for-size liver transplant. Furthermore, cutting-edge topics in liver regeneration, including in vivo animal models for xenogeneic human hepatocyte expansion and the use of decellularized liver matrices as a 3-dimensional scaffold for liver repopulation, are proposed. Unfortunately, despite 50 years of intense study, many gaps remain in the scientific understanding of liver regeneration.

  4. Transcriptome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of Putative Chrysanthemum HD-Zip I and II Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aiping; Li, Peiling; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Zhao, Kunkun; Wu, Dan; Fan, Qingqing; Gao, Tianwei; Chen, Fadi; Guan, Zhiyong

    2016-05-17

    The homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factor family is a key transcription factor family and unique to the plant kingdom. It consists of a homeodomain and a leucine zipper that serve in combination as a dimerization motif. The family can be classified into four subfamilies, and these subfamilies participate in the development of hormones and mediation of hormone action and are involved in plant responses to environmental conditions. However, limited information on this gene family is available for the important chrysanthemum ornamental species (Chrysanthemum morifolium). Here, we characterized 17 chrysanthemum HD-Zip genes based on transcriptome sequences. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 17 CmHB genes were distributed in the HD-Zip subfamilies I and II and identified two pairs of putative orthologous proteins in Arabidopsis and chrysanthemum and four pairs of paralogous proteins in chrysanthemum. The software MEME was used to identify 7 putative motifs with E values less than 1e-3 in the chrysanthemum HD-Zip factors, and they can be clearly classified into two groups based on the composition of the motifs. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that 8 CmHB genes could be targeted by 10 miRNA families, and the expression of these 17 genes in response to phytohormone treatments and abiotic stresses was characterized. The results presented here will promote research on the various functions of the HD-Zip gene family members in plant hormones and stress responses.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis and dielectric properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; Zhang Zhi-Yong; You Tian-Gui; Zhao Wu; Yun Jiang-Ni

    2009-01-01

    By orthogonal design theory,technological parameters of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles prepared in a hydrothermal process are optimized. This paper reports a set of technological parameters for growing chrysanthemumlike ZnO particles on a large scale. It investigates the morphologies and crystalline structures of the as-synthesized three-dimensional ZnO particles with a scanning electron microscope,x-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope,and the possible growth mechanism on the three-dimensional ZnO particles. The experimental results indicate that the values of ε'、ε" and tan δe gradually increase in the X band with the improvement of the developmental level of chrysanthemum-like ZnO particles,implying that the electromagnetic wave absorbing property depends on the morphologies of three-dimensional ZnO particles.

  6. A COMPUTER CONTROLLED IRRIGATION OF POTTED CHRYSANTHEMUM GROWN AT OUTDOOR CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Kirnak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and reliable method to estimate water requirements for chrysanthemum production with practical applications to commercial operations was developed to promote water conservation. A water-requirement prediction equation (R2 = 0.71 that used class A pan evaporation along with plant-canopy height and width as input variables was generated. Equation verification was carried out by comparing vegetative growth and quality of crops irrigated according to the generated water-requirement equation to crops irrigated based on demand and conservative fixed daily irrigation regimes. Vegetation growth of the plants irrigated with the generated equation was smaller than plants grown by demand irrigation, but plant quality was not significantly different. Applied water was significantly lower for plants irrigated with the generated equation than would normally be applied in a commercial operation using a conservative fixed daily irrigation rate. The study showed that there was a close relationship between chrysanthemum water requirements and the plant and evaporative data. A simplified ET equation involving plant characteristics and evaporative data could be used in the irrigation scheduling of chrysanthemum grown under restricted root volume.

  7. The Protective Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract against Ankylosing Spondylitis in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In traditional Chinese and Korean homeopathic medicine, Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (Asteraceae) is a time-honored herb, prescribed for the resolution of symptoms associated with inflammatory and hypertensive conditions as well as those affecting the lungs and its associated structures. The goal of this work is to investigate the defensive role of Chrysanthemum indicum extract in fighting ankylosing spondylitis (AS) using mouse models, through which the manifestation and extent of the disease progression were measured with quantitative analysis of the intervertebral joints. Markers of inflammation as well as oxidative stress were also analysed. Western blot was used to quantify the levels of Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), and sclerostin (SOST). Consequently, the findings of this experiment demonstrated that AS in mice that were given Chrysanthemum indicum extract had lower level of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P inhibiting inflammatory mediators and NF-κB, and increasing DKK-1 and SOST levels.

  8. Spectral effects of supplementary lighting on the secondary metabolites in roses, chrysanthemums, and campanulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouzounis, Theoharis; Fretté, Xavier; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2014-10-15

    To investigate the effect of the light spectrum on photosynthesis, growth, and secondary metabolites Rosa hybrida 'Scarlet', Chrysanthemum morifolium 'Coral Charm', and Campanula portenschlagiana 'BluOne' were grown at 24/18°C day/night temperature under purpose-built LED arrays yielding approximately 200 μmol m(-2)s(-1) at plant height for 16 h per day. The four light treatments were (1) 40% Blue/60% Red, (2) 20% Blue/80% Red, (3) 100% Red, and (4) 100% White (Control). The plant height was smallest in 40% Blue/60% Red in roses and chrysanthemums, while the biomass was smallest in the white control in roses and in 100% Red in chrysanthemums. The total biomass was unaffected by the spectrum in campanulas, while the leaf area was smallest in the 40% Blue/60% Red treatment. In 100% Red curled leaves and other morphological abnormalities were observed. Increasing the blue to red ratio increased the stomatal conductance though net photosynthesis was unaffected, indicating excess stomatal conductance in some treatments. With higher blue light ratio all phenolic acids and flavonoids increased. In view of the roles of these secondary metabolites as antioxidants, anti-pathogens, and light protectants, we hypothesize that blue light may predispose plants to better cope with stress.

  9. [Study on transformation of snowdrop lectin gene to chrysanthemum and aphid resistance of the transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Lin; Liu, Yan-Hong; Guo, Shao-Hua; Wang, Yu; Ji, Yan; Fang, Hong-Jun

    2004-12-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in chrysanthemum was studied to prevent the insect pest of aphid (Mizus persicae). The gna gene was successfully transferred into chrysanthemum by leaf dish, and 93 transgenic clones were obtained. The highest transformation frequency 11.21% was achieved on the optimization facts, which were medium YEB with pH5.6, bacterial concentration OD600 = 0.4, precultivation for one day, cocultivation for four days, the cocultivation media supplemented with GA3 0.5 mg/L and leaf explants growed for 45 days. The results from PCR and FQ-PCR analysis confirmed that gna gene was integrated into the genome of chrysanthemum plants. The insect bioassay with aphid showed that the aphid resistance of different transgenic plants was difference, and the rate of aphid population inhibition of them were from 10% to 84% with an average rate of 39.4%. The leaf-extracts from different transgenic plants showed varying actinties in red-blood cell bioassay.

  10. Identification of superior chrysanthemum genotypes based on phenological traits and postproduction longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hassanpour Asil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum is one of the most important ornamental and medicinal plants in the world. In this study, diversity among 50 genotypes of chrysanthemum morifolium was analyzed using phenologic and morphologic traits. The variation between studied genotypes showed a significant difference for all traits and coefficient of genetic variations for most traits was greater than 40%. The highest general heritability belonged to days to bud coloring (h2=90.59% and post-production longevity (h2=88.3%. The lowest heritability (h2=6.05% was related to disc floret opening. In multiple linear stepwise regression for flower longevity as the dependent variable, such traits as number of days to bud coloring, days to full bloom and pollen shed entered the model. Therefore, vegetative growth period and behavior of florets affect post-production longevity. On the other hand, cluster analysis according to the morphological traits using Ward method classified all the studied genotypes into six groups. In this classification, two genotypes of “Afrooz” and ‘Unknown1’, with short vegetative period, late pollen shed and high post-production longevity were classified into a separate cluster. The findings of this research showed that the studied Chrysanthemum genotypes have desirable genetic potential, and depending on the objectives, most of them could be used in breeding programs to improve different traits.

  11. Effect of the Introduction of Chrysanthemum on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Cabernet Sauvignon Red Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a new wine technology where dried chrysanthemum is introduced during the process of fermentation of wine. This technology sets an example of a blend between exotic wine culture and traditional Chinese tea culture. The influence on the chemical and sensory properties of wine due to the addition of different amounts of chrysanthemum at different fermentation periods was studied. In all the wine with added chrysanthemum the content of both polyphenols and flavones obviously increased. The wine of T1 and T2 had a higher content of polyphenols and flavones than others, due to thermomaceration, whereas those in the wine of T2 were the highest, due to the technique of squeezing juice. The sensory quality of T3, without the techniques of thermomaceration and squeezing juice, was optimal, with characteristics such as a ruby color, fuller aroma, and a lighter flowery texture. Therefore, T3 was defined as the optimum of chrysanthemum adding procedures. With the increase of chrysanthemum addition, both flavones content and polyphenols content of the obtained wine first increased, and then decreased.

  12. Whole-Transcriptome Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Vegetative Buds, Floral Buds and Buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Liu

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum morifolium is an important floral crop that is cultivated worldwide. However, due to a lack of genomic resources, very little information is available concerning the molecular mechanisms of flower development in chrysanthemum.The transcriptomes of chrysanthemum vegetative buds, floral buds and buds were sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A total of 15.4 Gb of reads were assembled into 91,367 unigenes with an average length of 739 bp. A total of 43,137 unigenes showed similarity to known proteins in the Swissprot or NCBI non-redundant protein databases. Additionally, 25,424, 24,321 and 13,704 unigenes were assigned to 56 gene ontology (GO categories, 25 EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG categories, and 285 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways, respectively. A total of 1,876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs (1,516 up-regulated, 360 down-regulated were identified between vegetative buds and floral buds, and 3,300 DEGs (1,277 up-regulated, 1,706 down-regulated were identified between floral buds and buds. Many genes encoding important transcription factors (e.g., AP2, MYB, MYC, WRKY, NAC and CRT as well as proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, plant hormone signal transduction, and the defense responses, among others, were considerably up-regulated in floral buds. Genes involved in the photoperiod pathway and flower organ determination were also identified. These genes represent important candidate genes for molecular cloning and functional analysis to study flowering regulation in chrysanthemum.This comparative transcriptome analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression and signaling pathway components between the vegetative buds, floral buds and buds of Chrysanthemum morifolium. A wide range of genes was implicated in regulating the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. These results should aid researchers in the study of

  13. Periodontal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, S

    2009-09-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is the regeneration of the tissues destroyed as a result of periodontal disease. Currently, two clinical techniques, based on the principles of "guided tissue regeneration" (GTR) or utilization of the biologically active agent "enamel matrix derivative" (EMD), can be used for the regeneration of intrabony and Class II mandibular furcation periodontal defects. In cases where additional support and space-making requirements are necessary, both of these procedures can be combined with a bone replacement graft. There is no evidence that the combined use of GTR and EMD results in superior clinical results compared to the use of each material in isolation. Great variability in clinical outcomes has been reported in relation to the use of both EMD and GTR, and these procedures can be generally considered to be unpredictable. Careful case selection and treatment planning, including consideration of patient, tooth, site and surgical factors, is required in order to optimize the outcomes of treatment. There are limited data available for the clinical effectiveness of other biologically active molecules, such as growth factors and platelet concentrates, and although promising results have been reported, further clinical trials are required in order to confirm their effectiveness. Current active areas of research are centred on tissue engineering and gene therapy strategies which may result in more predictable regenerative outcomes in the future.

  14. Chrysanthemum expressing a linalool synthase gene 'smells good', but 'tastes bad' to western flower thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Stoopen, Geert; Thoen, Manus; Wiegers, Gerrie; Jongsma, Maarten A

    2013-09-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles are often involved in direct and indirect plant defence against herbivores. Linalool is a common floral scent and found to be released from leaves by many plants after herbivore attack. In this study, a linalool/nerolidol synthase, FaNES1, was overexpressed in the plastids of chrysanthemum plants (Chrysanthemum morifolium). The volatiles of FaNES1 chrysanthemum leaves were strongly dominated by linalool, but they also emitted small amount of the C11-homoterpene, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, a derivative of nerolidol. Four nonvolatile linalool glycosides in methanolic extracts were found to be significantly increased in the leaves of FaNES1 plants compared to wild-type plants. They were putatively identified by LC-MS-MS as two linalool-malonyl-hexoses, a linalool-pentose-hexose and a glycoside of hydroxy-linalool. A leaf-disc dual-choice assay with western flower thrips (WFT, Frankliniella occidentalis) showed, initially during the first 15 min of WFT release, that FaNES1 plants were significantly preferred. This gradually reversed into significant preference for the control, however, at 20-28 h after WFT release. The initial preference was shown to be based on the linalool odour of FaNES1 plants by olfactory dual-choice assays using paper discs emitting pure linalool at similar rates as leaf discs. The reversal of preference into deterrence could be explained by the initial nonvolatile composition of the FaNES1 plants, as methanolic extracts were less preferred by WFT. Considering the common occurrence of linalool and its glycosides in plant tissues, it suggests that plants may balance attractive fragrance with 'poor taste' using the same precursor compound.

  15. Study on Chrysanthemum Health Jelly%菊花保健果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶文峰; 冷桂华; 周秀玲

    2012-01-01

    以菊花为主要原料,以卡拉胶、魔芋粉为主要胶体,研制了营养价值高,感官性状良好,并具有一定保健功能的果冻。采用三因素三水平试验确定了菊花的最佳浸提条件,即为:浸提温度85℃,时间为25 min,加水量为70倍。还探讨了卡拉胶、魔芋粉的最佳配比,通过正交试验得出保健果冻的最佳配方,即为:胶粉(卡拉胶∶魔芋粉为4∶1)为1.3%,白砂糖15%,柠檬酸0.18%,菊花浸提液25%。%With the chrysanthemum as main raw materials,carrageenan,konjac powder as the main colloid,developed a high nutritional value and sensory properties,and had certainly good health care function jelly.Adopting three factors 3 levels test to determine the best leaching of chrysanthemum,namely contracts for: leaching 85 ℃,extracting time 25 min,70 times water.Also discussed carrageenan,konjac powder at the best ratio through thogonal experiment,we confirmed the best formula of health jelly was that powder(carrageenan: konjac powder for 4∶1) 1.3%,sugar 15%,citric acid 0.18% and chrysanthemum juice 25%.

  16. Morphological Characteristics, Phenolic and Terpenoid Profiles in Garden Chrysanthemum Grown in Different Nutritional Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cerasela MIRCEA (ARSENE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum indicum L. (Dendranthema indicum (L. Des Moul became useful as herbs and curatives in different parts of the world. In the current study, the chemical profile of outdoor cultivated Chrysanthemum indicum ‘Avalone Red’ was investigated for polyphenolic acid derivatives, flavonoids, alantolactone and ursolic acid using thin layer chromatography (TLC. Total phenolic content was determined through a classical method and semiquantitative analyses of alantolactone were performed through the HPLC method. Morphological and yield parameters and the chemical profile of plants were registered in two different nutritional statuses (local and enriched soil conditions. The results indicate that the studied cultivar is a potent source of phenolics and that the fertilisation increases the plant biosynthetic capacity for polyphenols (159.74 mg/100 g in leaves and 79.82 mg/100 g in flowers, in unfertilised plants, and 388.54 mg/100 g and 144.86 mg/100 g in leaves and flowers of fertilised plants, respectively, expressed as gallic acid equivalent value. The studied cultivar contains hyperoside (and other derivatives and four main polyphenol carboxylic acids (including chlorogenic acid. Ursolic acid was not detected. The high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses confirmed the presence of alantolactone identified in TLC chromatogram. Moreover, the fertilised plant samples contain only traces of alantolactone compared to the unfertilised plants. Alantolactone is present in a small amount (less than 0.1 mg % but its presence alerts to the potential allergenic effect of the plant. Besides their ornamental value, chrysanthemums can have a wide array of uses due to their high amounts of bioactive compounds.

  17. A correlation between antioxidant activity and metabolite release during the blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Choi, Jung Nam; Ku, Kang Mo; Kang, Daejung; Kim, Jong Sang; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS)-based metabolite profiling was applied to elucidate the correlation between metabolite release and antioxidant activity during water blanching of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (CC). Some major metabolites showing differences between fresh CC and blanched CC (BCC) were selected by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-square discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) loading plots, and were identified as dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA), succinoyl-DCQA, and acetylmycosinol. By PLS regression analysis of the correlation between antioxidant components and effects, candidate antioxidative metabolites were predicted due to strong positive correlations with DCQA and succinoyl-DCQA, and by a relatively weak positive correlation with acetylmycosinol.

  18. Simulation of Leaf Area Development Based on Dry Matter Partitioning and Specific Leaf Area for Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.

    2003-01-01

    This work aims to predict time courses of leaf area index (LAI) based on dry matter partitioning into the leaves and on specific leaf area of newly formed leaf biomass (SLA(n)) for year-round cut chrysanthemum crops. In five glasshouse experiments, each consisting of several plant densities and plan

  19. Process-based modeling of the control of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, with baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a process-based simulation model for the population dynamics of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua , and baculoviruses in greenhouse chrysanthemum. The model (BACSIM) has been validated for two baculoviruses with clear differences in biological characteristics,

  20. Substrate Cultivation of Chrysanthemum: Plant performance in 6 cropping systems and the effect of parameters associated with root environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, X.; Blok, C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Chrysanthemum is an important greenhouse crop in Holland and is still cultivated in soil. To prevent the emission of nutrients and crop protecting agents, an emission:free cropping system should be developed. This experiment was conducted to that purpose. The objectives of this experiment we

  1. Resistance induction in chrysanthemum due to silicon application in the management of whitefly Bemisia tabaci Biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Almeida Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is a key pest in many cultures worldwide, among them chrysanthemum. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether silicon application in chrysanthemum plants can induce resistance to whitefly. The experiments were conducted in chrysanthemum cv. Rage in a greenhouse at EPAMIG in São João Del Rei, MG. The treatments were: 1 silicon applied as soil drench (dosage of 2t SiO2/ha on the 4th day after planting, 2 two silicon applied as foliar spray on the 4th and 12th days after planting, 3 control, with 10 replications each. The plants were infested with 100 whitefly adults/pot, released 16 days after planting. The number and viability of whitefly eggs and number of nymphs and adults were evaluated. The production of fresh and dry matter of shoots and the silicon content in plants were also evaluated. Silicon did not affect the whitefly oviposition preference; however, it affected the development of nymphs in free-choice test. Foliar silicon applications reduced the viability of whitefly eggs. There was no difference of fresh and dry weight and silicon content in plants with the application of silicon. Therefore, foliar silicon application on chrysanthemum can reduce the viability of eggs and delay the development of nymphs and thus contribute to the integrated whitefly management in commercial crops.

  2. CsTFL1, a constitutive local repressor of flowering, modulates floral initiation by antagonising florigen complex activity in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yohei; Hisamatsu, Tamotsu

    2015-08-01

    Chrysanthemums require repeated cycles of short-day (SD) photoperiod for successful anthesis, but their vegetative state is strictly maintained under long-day (LD) or night-break (NB) conditions. We have previously demonstrated that photoperiodic flowering of a wild diploid chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum seticuspe f. boreale) is controlled by a pair of systemic floral regulators, florigen (CsFTL3) and anti-florigen (CsAFT), produced in the leaves. Here, we report the functional characterisation of a local floral regulator, CsTFL1, a chrysanthemum orthologue of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 gene in Arabidopsis. Constitutive expression of CsTFL1 in C. seticuspe (CsTFL1-ox) resulted in extremely late flowering under SD and prevented up-regulation of floral meristem identity genes in shoot tips and leaves. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that both CsTFL1 and CsFTL3 interacted with CsFDL1, a bZIP transcription factor FD homologue, in the nucleus. The transient gene expression assay indicated that CsTFL1 suppresses flowering by directly antagonising the flower inductive activity of the CsFTL3-CsFDL1 complex. Our results suggest that strict maintenance of vegetative state under non-inductive photoperiod is achieved by the coordinated action of both the systemic floral inhibitor and local floral inhibitor CsTFL1, which is constitutively expressed in shoot tips.

  3. Reversal of multidrug resistance in human breast cancer cells by Curcuma wenyujin and Chrysanthemum indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wei, D-D; Chen, Z; Wang, J-S; Kong, L-Y

    2011-06-15

    The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a big challenge to cancer chemotherapy. Plant-derived agents have great potential to prevent onset or delay progression of the carcinogenic process, and enhance the efficacy of mainstream antitumor agents. In this study, fractionated extracts of Curcuma wenyujin and Chrysanthemum indicum were tested for their potential to modulate the MDR phenotype and function of P-gp in MCF-7/ADR and A549/Taxol cells in vitro. Fractions C. wenyujin C10, E10 from Curcuma wenyujin, and C. indicum E10 from Chrysanthemum indicum, exhibited significant effects in sensitization of these resistant cancer cells at non-toxic concentration to doxorubicin and docetaxel by MTT method. They also increased the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation and retention in MCF-7/ADR cells. In mechanism study, an increase of Rh123 accumulation and a decrease of Rh123 efflux were observed in MCF-7/ADR cells treated with these fractions, indicating a blockage of the activity of P-gp. Furthermore, C. wenyujin C10 had the ability to down-regulate the expression of P-gp. All these fractions could enhance the apoptosis induced by doxorubicin in MCF-7/ADR cells, and restore the effect of docetaxel on the induction of G2/M arrest in A549/Taxol cells. C. wenyujin C10 and E10 also owned the ability to induce S phase arrest. These results showed the therapeutic value of the three fractions as potential MDR-reversing agents and warranted further investigations.

  4. Mutation Breeding of various spray chrysanthemum cultivars by gamma-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Chung, Sung Jin; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jin Baek; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Geung Joo [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    This study was carried out to analyze mutation rate and spectrum of chrysanthemum by gamma-ray irradiation. Five flower types, 16 cultivars including 'Geumsu', 'Hwiparam', 'Ilwol', 'Magic', 'Moonlight', 'Noblewine', 'Pinky', 'Progy', 'Sangtte', 'Waterfog', 'Whitneypangpang', 'Yelloweye', 'Yellowpangpang', 'Yesmiso', 'Yesmorning', and 'Yestogether' were irradiated as 30, 50, and 70 Gy dose during 24 hours. As a result, mutation rate was identified as the highest in single type among five flower types, but there was a little difference according to cultivars. Mutation rate was increased in proportion to irradiation dose in anemone, pompon, and spider type cultivars, but there wasn't clear in single and semi-double type cultivars. Mutation spectrum was identified as the highest in the cultivar 'Noblewine'. The most sensitive cultivars to radiation were revealed as 'Noblewine' and 'Yesmorning' and the least were Moonlight', 'Waterfog', and 'Yellowpangpang'. Consequently, there was much difference in radio-sensitivity according to cultivars of chrysanthemum and flower type was correlated a little with mutation rate.

  5. Nutritional status of the potted chrysanthemum relative to electrical conductivity and salt leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márkilla Zunete Beckmann-Cavalcante

    Full Text Available The quality of ornamental plants grown in pots is highly dependent on fertilization and substrate management. To this effect, we carried out an experiment in a protected environment to evaluate the nutritional status of the chrysanthemum cv. Miramar grown in pots, relative to the electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and the leaching of salts. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with four replications and the treatments arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial, relating to the levels of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution (ECs = 2.1; 2.8; 3.5; 4.2 and 4.9 dS m-1 in substrates without (SNL and with (SWL washing for the leaching of salts. The nutritional status of the plants was evaluated by leaf analysis of macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. The increase in ECs inhibited the accumulation of micronutrients and of nitrogen, but stimulated the levels of P, K, Ca, Mg and S in the leaf dry mass of the chrysanthemum. The leaching of salts increased the concentration Cu, Fe and Mn in the plant leaves. Among the macronutrients, with the except of calcium and sulphur, no significant difference was observed for N, P, K and Mg relative to the leaching of salts.

  6. Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Used in Preservative Solutions for Chrysanthemum cv. Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Carrillo-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pulse solutions containing antimicrobials has been reported, but more research is necessary. To increase vase life and to study their effect on opening inflorescences, silver nanoparticles were used in vase solutions for cv. Puma Chrysanthemum stems. The nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using Chenopodium ambrosioides L. applied at concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 5 mM and compared with a control. Treatments were replicated five times. The stems were cut to 50 cm and observed until the end of their vase life. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and leaf yellowing, while the control leaves remained green, but there was a lower degree of inflorescence opening. High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, and 5 mM caused senescence due to low water uptake through the stems. Statistical differences in inflorescence opening and diameter, bacterial growth (CFU mL−1 in vase solutions, fresh weight, water uptake, and vase life were found among treatments. Longer vase life and less weight loss were observed in the stems exposed to low concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Low concentrations of silver nanoparticles promoted inflorescence opening and increased vase life of Chrysanthemum cv. Puma.

  7. Regenerator seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Leonard C.; Pacala, Theodore; Sippel, George R.

    1981-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a hot side regenerator cross arm seal assembly having a thermally stablilized wear coating with a substantially flat wear surface thereon to seal between low pressure and high pressure passages to and from the hot inboard side of a rotary regenerator matrix includes the steps of forming a flat cross arm substrate member of high nickel alloy steel; fixedly securing the side edges of the substrate member to a holding fixture with a concave surface thereacross to maintain the substrate member to a slightly bent configuration on the fixture surface between the opposite ends of the substrate member to produce prestress therein; applying coating layers on the substrate member including a wear coating of plasma sprayed nickel oxide/calcium flouride material to define a wear surface of slightly concave form across the restrained substrate member between the free ends thereon; and thereafter subjecting the substrate member and the coating thereon to a heat treatment of 1600.degree. F. for sixteen hours to produce heat stabilizing growth in the coating layers on the substrate member and to produce a thermally induced growth stress in the wear surface that substantially equalizes the prestress in the substrate whereby when the cross arm is removed from the fixture surface following the heat treatment step a wear face is formed on the cross arm assembly that will be substantially flat between the ends.

  8. Distinct Wnt signaling pathways have opposing roles in appendage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoick-Cooper, Cristi L; Weidinger, Gilbert; Riehle, Kimberly J; Hubbert, Charlotte; Major, Michael B; Fausto, Nelson; Moon, Randall T

    2007-02-01

    In contrast to mammals, lower vertebrates have a remarkable capacity to regenerate complex structures damaged by injury or disease. This process, termed epimorphic regeneration, involves progenitor cells created through the reprogramming of differentiated cells or through the activation of resident stem cells. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling regulates progenitor cell fate and proliferation during embryonic development and stem cell function in adults, but its functional involvement in epimorphic regeneration has not been addressed. Using transgenic fish lines, we show that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in the regenerating zebrafish tail fin and is required for formation and subsequent proliferation of the progenitor cells of the blastema. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling appears to act upstream of FGF signaling, which has recently been found to be essential for fin regeneration. Intriguingly, increased Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is sufficient to augment regeneration, as tail fins regenerate faster in fish heterozygous for a loss-of-function mutation in axin1, a negative regulator of the pathway. Likewise, activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling by overexpression of wnt8 increases proliferation of progenitor cells in the regenerating fin. By contrast, overexpression of wnt5b (pipetail) reduces expression of Wnt/beta-catenin target genes, impairs proliferation of progenitors and inhibits fin regeneration. Importantly, fin regeneration is accelerated in wnt5b mutant fish. These data suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling promotes regeneration, whereas a distinct pathway activated by wnt5b acts in a negative-feedback loop to limit regeneration.

  9. 番茄突变体jai1-1高效筛选—再生体系的建立%Establishment of High Efficient Screening and Regeneration System of Tomato mutant jai1-1 in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范锡麟; 王少岭; 肖应辉; 王志龙

    2013-01-01

    Tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)wild type JAIl and mutant jail-1 screened by different concentrations of MeJA were used as the materials in the study.The cotyledon and hypocotyl of wild type JAI1 and mutant jai1-1 were cultured in vitro to research the effects of genetype and different hormone combinations on tomato callus induction,adventition bud differentiation and rooting,and then identified the results with PCR reaction.The results show that 1/2 MS + MeJA 50 μM/L was the proper media to screen the mutant jai1-1,and that MS + ZT 1.0 mg/L + IAA 0.1 mg/L and MS + ZT 2.0 mg/L + IAA 0.2 mg/L were the best media for adventition bud differentiation for JAI1 and jai1-1 respectively.MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + IAA 0.2 mg/L and 1/2MS + NAA 0.1 mg/L were the best media for callus induction and root induction for both JAI1 and jai1-1,respectively.%利用番茄野生型JAI1和通过不同浓度茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)处理筛选得到的突变体jai1-1的子叶和下胚轴为材料进行离体组织培养,以探究不同激素组合对愈伤组织的诱导、不定芽分化及生根的影响,最后利用PCR反应验证筛选得到的材料的准确性.结果表明,1/2 MS+ 50 μM/L MeJA是突变体jai1-1筛选的有效培养基.野生型JAI1和突变体jai1-1在MS+ 6-BA 2.0 mg/L+ IAA 0.2 mg/L诱导愈伤组织的效果最好;JAI1在MS+ ZT 1.0mg/L+ IAA 0.1mg/L诱导分化不定芽的效率最高,而jai1-1则以MS+ ZT 2.0 mg/L+ IAA 0.2 mg/L为佳;1/2 MS+ NAA 0.1 mg/L是两者诱导生根的理想培养基.

  10. Defective Fin Regeneration in Medaka Fish (Oryzias latipes) with Hypothyroidism full access

    OpenAIRE

    Sekimizu, Koshin; Tagawa, Masatomo; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Wild-type medaka are known to have remarkable capabilities of fin, or epimorphic, regeneration. However, a hypothyroid mutant, kamaitachi (kmi), frequently suffers from injury in fins, suggesting an important role of thyroid hormone in fin regeneration. This led us to examine the relationship between thyroid hormone and fin regeneration using medaka as a model. For this, we first set up a medaka experimental system in which the rate of regeneration was statistically analyzed after caudal fin ...

  11. Comparative analysis of chrysanthemum transcriptome in response to three RNA viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tomato spotted wilt virus and Potato virus X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseong; Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Jo, Kyoung-Min; Chu, Hyosub; Yoon, Ju-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Kook; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cho, Won Kyong

    2015-06-01

    The chrysanthemum is one of popular flowers in the world and a host for several viruses. So far, molecular interaction studies between the chrysanthemum and viruses are limited. In this study, we carried out a transcriptome analysis of chrysanthemum in response to three different viruses including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Potato virus X (PVX). A chrysanthemum 135K microarray derived from expressed sequence tags was successfully applied for the expression profiles of the chrysanthemum at early stage of virus infection. Finally, we identified a total of 125, 70 and 124 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for CMV, TSWV and PVX, respectively. Many DEGs were virus specific; however, 33 DEGs were commonly regulated by three viruses. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis identified a total of 132 GO terms, and of them, six GO terms related stress response and MCM complex were commonly identified for three viruses. Several genes functioning in stress response such as chitin response and ethylene mediated signaling pathway were up-regulated indicating their involvement in establishment of host immune system. In particular, TSWV infection significantly down-regulated genes related to DNA metabolic process including DNA replication, chromatin organization, histone modification and cytokinesis, and they are mostly targeted to nucleosome and MCM complex. Taken together, our comparative transcriptome analysis revealed several genes related to hormone mediated viral stress response and DNA modification. The identified chrysanthemums genes could be good candidates for further functional study associated with resistant to various plant viruses.

  12. Induced mutants from dihaploid potatoes after pollen mother cell treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewoźny, T; Schieder, O; Wenzel, G

    1980-05-01

    Microspore mother cells of dihaploid Solanum tuberosum plants were mutagenically treated during the stage of meiosis. Mutagenesis was performed either by irradiation with x- or γ-rays or by the application of nitrosomethylurethane or methylnitronitrosoguanidine. Then, by use of the anther culture technique, 913 functional plants and 442 untreated control plants were regenerated. From the exposed plants seven distinct mutants could be isolated, predominantly chlorophyll deficient lines, while from the controls no clear-cut mutants arose. One mutant turned out to be photomorphogenetic in addition to having a chlorophyll defect. In addition to the production of mutants the treatments significantly increased the frequency of multicellular structure formation from microspores.

  13. Defective fin regeneration in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimizu, Koshin; Tagawa, Masatomo; Takeda, Hiroyuki

    2007-07-01

    Wild-type medaka are known to have remarkable capabilities of fin, or epimorphic, regeneration. However, a hypothyroid mutant, kamaitachi (kmi), frequently suffers from injury in fins, suggesting an important role of thyroid hormone in fin regeneration. This led us to examine the relationship between thyroid hormone and fin regeneration using medaka as a model. For this, we first set up a medaka experimental system in which the rate of regeneration was statistically analyzed after caudal fin amputation under normal and hypothyroid conditions. As expected, the regeneration of amputated caudal fins was delayed in hypothyroid kmi -/- mutants. We then examined wild-type medaka with thiourea-induced hypothyroidism to evaluate the requirement of thyroid hormone during epimorphic fin regeneration. The results demonstrate that the growth rate of regenerates was much reduced in severely hypothyroid medaka throughout the regeneration period. This reduction in regenerative rate was recovered by exogenous administration of L-thyroxine. The present study is thus the first to report the direct involvement of thyroid hormone in teleost fin regeneration, and provides a basic framework for future molecular and genetic analyses.

  14. [Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on chrysanthemum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics and ornamental quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xu-xu; Zheng, Cheng-shu; Sun, Xia; Ma, Hai-yan

    2011-07-01

    Taking cut flower chrysanthemum 'Baima' as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of controlled-release fertilizer on the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll and nutrient contents, and ornamental quality of chrysanthemum. Under no fertilization, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS II in dark (F(v)/F(m)), potential photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(0)), and quantum yield of PS II electron transport (phi(PS II)) decreased significantly, compared with those under fertilization. With the application of conventional compound fertilizers CCFA (N:P:K=20:8:10) and CCFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14), the F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0) and phi(PS II) had a slight increase in early period (30-60 d) but a remarkable decrease in mid and later periods (75 - 120 d), compared with those under the application of controlled-release fertilizers CRFA (N:P:K = 20:8:10) and CRFB (N:P:K= 14:14:14). Under the application of CRFA, the F(v)/F(m), phi(PS II), and photochemical quenching (q(P)) had somewhat increase, as compared with the application of CRFB. The non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) under the application of CRFA and CRFB decreased significantly, compared with that under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control. The chlorophyll content had a similar change trend with F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(0), and phi(PS II). The leaf N, P, and K contents, flower stalk length and stalk diameter, flower diameter, and flower fresh and dry mass at harvest stage all increased under the application of CRFA and CRFB, compared with those under the application of CCFA and CCFB and the control, and the flower fresh and dry mass was significantly higher under the application of CRFA than of CRFB. This study showed that controlled-release fertilizer could improve the ornamental quality of chrysanthemum via improving the leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical transduction rate, and nutrient uptake, and CRFA had better effects than CRFB.

  15. The effect of temperature on photosynthetic induction under fluctuating light in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozturk, Isik; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Ritz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    to 35 A degrees C. The interaction effect of PAR and temperature on induction state was not significant. The rate of photosynthetic induction and the time required at which the induction reached its 90 % value (t (90)) was influenced by PAR significantly. The light history of a leaf had a significant......The photosynthetic response was investigated on Chrysanthemum morifolium under dynamic light conditions in the 20-35 A degrees C temperature range to evaluate the effect of climatic variables on photosynthetic induction. The plant material was grown under uniform, controlled conditions and its gas...... exchange was analyzed. The gas exchange measurements were used to investigate the rate of induction, momentary induction state, and the opening of stomata. At the varying temperature ranges and under dynamic light conditions, C. morifolium reached a quasi-steady-state induction equilibrium (ISeq...

  16. Biological efficacy of the chemical chrysanthemums protection with the use of fine and coarse droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw PARAFINIUK

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of three years (2007-2009 were conducted at Czesławice in south- east of Poland .The objects of research were the plants of the one cultivar of chrysanthemum: Dark Tripoli. The following agents were used for protection: Dithane NeoTec 75 WG, Sumilex 500 SC, Amistar 250 SC. The treatment was carried out with the use of two types of nozzles: standard RS-MM 110 03 and ejector type ID 120 03 C. Observation was carried out once a year: in October. The number and health status of plants were determined and diseased plants were collected for analysis. The percentage of plants with disease symptoms was estimated for each plot. The best health status and yield were noticed for Amistar 250 SC.

  17. The embryo rescue derived intergeneric hybrid between chrysanthemum and Ajania przewalskii shows enhanced cold tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yanming; Chen, Sumei; Chen, Fadi; Cheng, Xi; Zhang, Fei

    2011-12-01

    Five intergeneric hybrids between the chrysanthemum cultivar 'Zhongshanjingui' (as female) and Ajania przewalskii (as male) were obtained with the help of embryo culture. While 'Zhongshanjingui' bears a standard anemone type flower and A. przewalskii a non-anemone type one, the inflorescence type of the hybrids varied. The diameter of the hybrids' flowers was intermediate between those of the parents. The chromosome number of the hybrids was 2n = 45, of which GISH analysis was able to establish that 27 were inherited from 'Zhongshanjingui' and the other 18 from A. przewalskii. A combination of various assays was used to show that the cold tolerance of the hybrids was equivalent to that of the highly tolerant A. przewalskii parent. Enhanced cold tolerance was correlated with an increase in free proline and a decrease in malondialdehyde content.

  18. Genetic diversity revealed in commercial varieties of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthemagrandiflora using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Lalitha Kameswari1, G.Anuradha2 , M. Pratap3and Hameedunnisabegum4

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Molecular characterization using RAPD analysis was carried out in 37 chrysanthemum genotypes.With 27 RAPD primers, total of 278 amplified fragments were scored.Out of which 271 were found to be polymorphic (97.4%. The genetic similarity ranged from a coefficient of 0.174 to 0.600 with an average similarity coefficient of 0.387 indicating a moderate diversity among the group of genotypes studied. In the present study, Ratlam Selection and Snow Cem were found to be the most genetically similar (0.60 followed by Akitha and Shintome with 55.3%. Cluster analysis based on UPGMA method led to the classification of genotypes intofour major clusters and seven minor clusters with one genotype each in cluster V (Arka Ravi, VI (Meera, VII(Asha, VIII(Silper, IX(Autumn Joy, X (Lilith and cluster XI (Chandrika.

  19. Rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov., isolated from tumours on chrysanthemum and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puławska, Joanna; Willems, Anne; Sobiczewski, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    Three isolates of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were recovered from galls on chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum L.; Ch11T, Ch12) and cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata; AL9.3). All three isolates were able to cause crown galls on various plant species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three isolates were probably identical (100% sequence similarity) and closely related to Rhizobium rubi (99.6 %), Rhizobium radiobacter (98.7 %) and Rhizobium larrymoorei (98.1 %). Similar analysis based on the housekeeping genes glnA, gyrB and rpoB also indicated that the novel isolates were identical and closely related to R. rubi. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Ch11T were C18:1ω7c (62.1 %), summed feature 2 (comprising C12:0 aldehyde, iso-C16:1 I and/or C14:0 3-OH; 10.8 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH; 7.7 %) and C10:0 3-OH (7.5 %). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between Ch11T and R. rubi LMG 156T was only 48 % and, unlike phylogenetically related established Rhizobium species, the novel isolates were able to utilize β-hydroxybutyric acid but not L-fucose. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the isolates are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Ch11T (=LMG 26191T=CFBP 7420T).

  20. Overexpression of a novel chrysanthemum SUPERMAN-like gene in tobacco affects lateral bud outgrowth and flower organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Lin; Xu, Ke-Dong; Ma, Nan; Zhao, Liang-Jun; Xi, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the SUP genes play important roles in flower development and plant growth and morphogenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterized a SUPERMAN-like gene DgSZFP from chrysanthemum. DgSZFP contains one conserved Cys2/His2-type zinc finger motifs in the N-terminal region and an EAR-box in C-terminus. Its expression was significantly higher in nodes, flower buds, disc stamens, and petals than in the other tissues. Overexpression of DgSZFP in tobacco resulted in enhanced branching, reduced plant height, increased the width of petal tubes, produced the staminoid petals and petaloid stamens in flowers, and enhanced the seed weight and size. In addition, DgSZFP-overexpression tobacco plants accumulated high concentrations of cytokinin and chlorophyll. These results suggest that DgSZFP may be the candidate gene for regulating branching and floral organ development in chrysanthemum.

  1. A pharmacological analysis of different chrysanthemums%不同菊花的药理作用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value in clinical application based on a pharmacological analysis of different chrysanthemums. Methods: Different kinds of chrysanthemums sold in markets were classified, and the pharmacological effects were analyzed. Results: There were eight kinds of chrysanthemums, and the main pharmacological effects include anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, anti-viral, anti-inflam- matory and antibacterial and so on. Conclusion: According to different characteristics and pharmacological effects, chrysanthemum could play positive role in clinical application.%目的:对不同种类菊花药理作用进行分析,以探讨其在临床中的应用价值。方法:对最近几年市面上所售菊花种类加以归类,并对菊花药理学作用进行分析。结果:菊花主要有贡菊、杭菊、毫菊、济菊、怀菊、滁菊、川菊、祁菊共8种,其主要药理作用包括抗肿瘤、抗衰老、抗氧化、抗病毒、抗炎及抗菌等。结论:对不同菊花药理作用加以了解,按照其不同特性在临床疾病治疗中加以应用可发挥积极治疗效果。

  2. Comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves in chrysanthemum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yan; Yang, Li-Wen; Li, Meng-Ling; Dai, Si-Lan

    2016-06-01

    Light is one of the key environmental factors that affect anthocyanin biosynthesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, and many problems regarding phenotypic change and corresponding gene regulation have not been solved. In the present study, comparative analyses of light-induced anthocyanin accumulation and gene expression between the ray florets and leaves were performed in Chrysanthemum × morifolium 'Purple Reagan'. After contrasting the variations in the flower color phenotype and relative pigment content, as well as expression patterns of structural and regulator genes responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis and photoreceptor between different plant organs under light and dark conditions, we concluded that (1) both the capitulum and foliage are key organs responding to light for chrysanthemum coloration; (2) compared with flavones, shading makes a greater decrease on the anthocyanins accumulation; (3) most of the structural and regulatory genes in the light-induced anthocyanin pathway specifically express in the ray florets; and (4) CmCHS, CmF3H, CmF3'H, CmANS, CmDFR, Cm3GT, CmMYB5-1, CmMYB6, CmMYB7-1, CmbHLH24, CmCOP1 and CmHY5 are key genes for light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in chrysanthemum ray florets, while on the transcriptional level, the expressions of CmPHYA, CmPHYB, CmCRY1a, CmCRY1b and CmCRY2 are insignificantly changed. Moreover, the inferred comprehensive effect of multiple signals on the accumulation of anthocyanins and transmission channel of light signal that exist between the leaves and ray florets were further discussed. These results further our understanding of the relationship between the gene expression and light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis, and lay foundations for the promotion of the molecular breeding of novel flower colors in chrysanthemums.

  3. Phosphate enhances uptake of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) applied with chicken manure bearing roxarsone and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Huang, Lianxi; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changming; Li, Guoliang; Deng, Xiancai

    2015-03-01

    Roxarsone (ROX), a world widely used feed organoarsenic additive in animal production, can be excreted as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Animal manure is commonly land applied with phosphorous (P) fertilizer to enhance the P phytoavailability in agriculture. We investigated the accumulation of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) plants fertilized with 1% (w/w, manure/soil) chicken manure bearing ROX and its metabolites, plus 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 g P2O5/kg, respectively. The results show that As(III) was the sole As compound in garland chrysanthemum shoots, and As(III) and As(V) were detectable in roots. Elevated phosphate level supplied more As(V) for garland chrysanthemum roots through competitive desorption in rhizosphere, leading to significantly enhanced accumulation of As species in plants. As(III) was the predominant As form in plants (85.0∼90.6%). Phosphate could not change the allocation of As species in plants. Hence, the traditional practice that animal manure is applied with P fertilizer may inadvertently increase the potential risk of As contamination in crop via the way ROX → animal → animal manure → soil → crop.

  4. Fgf and Sdf-1 pathways interact during zebrafish fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzaffour, Mohamed; Dufourcq, Pascale; Lecaudey, Virginie; Haas, Petra; Vriz, Sophie

    2009-06-08

    The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) was originally identified as a pre-B cell stimulatory factor but has been recently implicated in several other key steps in differentiation and morphogenesis. In addition, SDF1 as well as FGF signalling pathways have recently been shown to be involved in the control of epimorphic regeneration. In this report, we address the question of a possible interaction between the two signalling pathways during adult fin regeneration in zebrafish. Using a combination of pharmaceutical and genetic tools, we show that during epimorphic regeneration, expression of sdf1, as well as of its cognate receptors, cxcr4a, cxcr4b and cxcr7 are controlled by FGF signalling. We further show that, Sdf1a negatively regulates the expression of fgf20a. Together, these results lead us to propose that: 1) the function of Fgf in blastema formation is, at least in part, relayed by the chemokine Sdf1a, and that 2) Sdf1 exerts negative feedback on the Fgf pathway, which contributes to a transient expression of Fgf20a downstream genes at the beginning of regeneration. However this feedback control can be bypassed since the Sdf1 null mutants regenerate their fin, though slower. Very few mutants for the regeneration process were isolated so far, illustrating the difficulty in identifying genes that are indispensable for regeneration. This observation supports the idea that the regeneration process involves a delicate balance between multiple pathways.

  5. Fgf and Sdf-1 pathways interact during zebrafish fin regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bouzaffour

    Full Text Available The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1 was originally identified as a pre-B cell stimulatory factor but has been recently implicated in several other key steps in differentiation and morphogenesis. In addition, SDF1 as well as FGF signalling pathways have recently been shown to be involved in the control of epimorphic regeneration. In this report, we address the question of a possible interaction between the two signalling pathways during adult fin regeneration in zebrafish. Using a combination of pharmaceutical and genetic tools, we show that during epimorphic regeneration, expression of sdf1, as well as of its cognate receptors, cxcr4a, cxcr4b and cxcr7 are controlled by FGF signalling. We further show that, Sdf1a negatively regulates the expression of fgf20a. Together, these results lead us to propose that: 1 the function of Fgf in blastema formation is, at least in part, relayed by the chemokine Sdf1a, and that 2 Sdf1 exerts negative feedback on the Fgf pathway, which contributes to a transient expression of Fgf20a downstream genes at the beginning of regeneration. However this feedback control can be bypassed since the Sdf1 null mutants regenerate their fin, though slower. Very few mutants for the regeneration process were isolated so far, illustrating the difficulty in identifying genes that are indispensable for regeneration. This observation supports the idea that the regeneration process involves a delicate balance between multiple pathways.

  6. Active magnetic regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  7. Telomerase Is Essential for Zebrafish Heart Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Bednarek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After myocardial infarction in humans, lost cardiomyocytes are replaced by an irreversible fibrotic scar. In contrast, zebrafish hearts efficiently regenerate after injury. Complete regeneration of the zebrafish heart is driven by the strong proliferation response of its cardiomyocytes to injury. Here we show that, after cardiac injury in zebrafish, telomerase becomes hyperactivated, and telomeres elongate transiently, preceding a peak of cardiomyocyte proliferation and full organ recovery. Using a telomerase-mutant zebrafish model, we found that telomerase loss drastically decreases cardiomyocyte proliferation and fibrotic tissue regression after cryoinjury and that cardiac function does not recover. The impaired cardiomyocyte proliferation response is accompanied by the absence of cardiomyocytes with long telomeres and an increased proportion of cardiomyocytes showing DNA damage and senescence characteristics. These findings demonstrate the importance of telomerase function in heart regeneration and highlight the potential of telomerase therapy as a means of stimulating cell proliferation upon myocardial infarction.

  8. 不同基质处理对盆栽菊花生长的影响%Effects of Different Matrix Treatments on Growth of Potted Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨倩; 杨秋生

    2012-01-01

    对不同基质处理盆栽菊花的生长状况进行了观测,并利用模型模拟了菊花茎长随时间的动态变化.结果表明:珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)最有利于菊花植株的早期生长;所选模型能模拟菊花茎长随时间的变化,相关系数达到0.9以上;珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)处理菊花茎长的理论增长量最大,实际生产中推荐珍珠岩和蛭石(1∶1)作为盆栽菊花的基质.%The growth of potted chrysanthemums with different matrix treatments were observed, and related models were established to simulate the dynamics of chrysanthemum stem varying over time after transplanted. The results showed that the treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1;1) is the optimum matrix for early development of chrysanthemum; the chosen model could well simulate the changes of chrysanthemum stem over time, and the correlation coefficient reached more than 0.9; the theoretical increment of chrysanthemum stem in treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1:1) was the largest. Therefore, the treatment of perlite + vermiculite (1 :1) was recommended to use as matrix for potted chrysanthemums in the practical production.

  9. Regeneration of periodontal tissues: guided tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Cristina C; Cochran, David L

    2010-01-01

    The concept that only fibroblasts from the periodontal ligament or undifferentiated mesenchymal cells have the potential to re-create the original periodontal attachment has been long recognized. Based on this concept, guided tissue regeneration has been applied with variable success to regenerate periodontal defects. Quantitative analysis of clinical outcomes after guided tissue regeneration suggests that this therapy is a successful and predictable procedure to treat narrow intrabony defects and class II mandibular furcations, but offers limited benefits in the treatment of other types of periodontal defects.

  10. Formation flavonoid secondary metabolites in callus culture of Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium as alternative provision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwianingsih, Widi; Febri, Santika; Kusdianti

    2016-02-01

    Increasing need of medicine ingredients require the discovery of other methods that can be used as an alternative. One method that can be used as an alternative is tissue culture. Quercetin is a flavonoid secondary metabolites that have been known to be useful as antiviral, anti-asthma and anti-cancer potential. The purpose of this study was to produce flavonoids, especially quercetin in callus culture Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium. Pieces of leaves of plantlets C. cinerariefolium used as explants for formation of callus tissue. To grow the callus, Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium used with addition of various concentrations of growth regulators 2.4-D, and kinetin. For multiplication, callus subcultured on similar medium. Callus that had formed, especially brown callus, further analyzed using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum (GCMS). Before analyzed callus was extracted in 95% ethanol. The result showed that callus potentially generate secondary metabolite are brown and friable. Based on these parameters, the best callus produced from leaf explants grown on MS medium with the addition of 4 mg / L 2,4-D and 0 mg / L kinetin. The callus contain secondary metabolites such as some of the flavonoid quercetin precursors such as acetic acid and tetrahydroxychalcone, and some other secondary metabolites.

  11. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. Makino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs, which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid.

  12. Transcriptome-wide survey and expression analysis of stress-responsive NAC genes in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Wang, Yi; Wang, Shunli; Wu, Xuan; Yang, Ke; Niu, Yajing; Dai, Silan

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factor family plays a vital role in various plant growth and developmental processes as well as in stress resistance. Using RNA sequencing, we found that the ClNAC genes (ClNAC1-44) were the most strongly up-regulated transcription factor family in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium leaves under salt treatment. We carried out reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to monitor ClNAC genes response against multiple stresses and hormonal treatments including salt, drought, cold, heat, abscisic acid and salicylic acid treatments. The results showed that 35 ClNAC genes were differentially expressed in different organ, and 32 ClNAC genes could respond to at least 2 kinds of treatments. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction showed that 10 ClNAC genes belonging to 7 different subfamilies could respond to at least 5 kinds of treatments. Over 50-fold variation in transcriptional levels of ClNAC17 and ClNAC21 genes was observed under 6 different types of treatments. In the present study, high-level expression of ClNAC genes under abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments suggests that the NAC transcription factors play important roles in abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation.

  13. Low temperature treatment affects concentration and distribution of chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate 1 the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, 2 the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM, and 3 CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5oC treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5oC treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.

  14. CmMYB19 Over-Expression Improves Aphid Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Promoting Lignin Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinjie; Sheng, Liping; Zhang, Huanru; Du, Xinping; An, Cong; Xia, Xiaolong; Chen, Fadi; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei

    2017-01-01

    The gene encoding the MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis vira l oncogene homolog) transcription factor CmMYB19 was isolated from chrysanthemum. It encodes a 200 amino acid protein and belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily. CmMYB19 was not transcriptionally activated in yeast, while a transient expression experiment conducted in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmMYB19 product localized to the nucleus. CmMYB19 transcription was induced by aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni) infestation, and the abundance of transcript was higher in the leaf and stem than in the root. The over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids. A comparison of transcript abundance of the major genes involved in lignin synthesis showed that CmPAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1), CmC4H (cinnamate4 hydroxylase), Cm4CL1 (4-hydroxy cinnamoyl CoA ligase 1), CmHCT (hydroxycinnamoyl CoA-shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase), CmC3H1 (coumarate3 hydroxylase1), CmCCoAOMT1 (caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase 1) and CmCCR1 (cinnamyl CoA reductase1) were all upregulated, in agreement with an increase in lignin content in CmMYB19 over-expressing plants. Collectively, the over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids on the host, mediated by an enhanced accumulation of lignin. PMID:28287502

  15. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related.

  16. Antioxidant Activity, Antitumor Effect, and Antiaging Property of Proanthocyanidins Extracted from Kunlun Chrysanthemum Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqun Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity, antitumor effect, and antiaging property of proanthocyanidins from Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers (PKCF grown in Xinjiang. In vitro antioxidant experiments results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals (•OH and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radicals increased in a concentration-dependent manner and were stronger than those of vitamin C. To investigate the antioxidant activity of PKCF in vivo, we used serum, liver, and kidney from mouse for the measurement of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC. Results indicated that PKCF had antioxidative effect in vivo which significantly improved the activity of SOD and T-AOC and decreased MDA content. To investigate the antitumor activity of PKCF, we used H22 cells, HeLa cells, and Eca-109 cells with Vero cells as control. Inhibition ratio and IC50 values were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay; PKCF showed great inhibitory activity on H22 cells and HeLa cells. We also used fruit flies as a model for analyzing the anti-aging property of PKCF. Results showed that PKCF has antiaging effect on Drosophila. Results of the present study demonstrated that PKCF could be a promising agent that may find applications in health care, medicine, and cosmetics.

  17. Inhibitory Effect of Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura Extract on RANKL-Induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ryun Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura, known as “Gujulcho” in Korea, has been used in traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. However, these effects have not been tested on osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells that regulate bone metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of C. zawadskii Herbich var. latilobum Kitamura ethanol extract (CZE on osteoclast differentiation induced by treatment with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL. CZE inhibited osteoclast differentiation and formation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of CZE on osteoclastogenesis was due to the suppression of ERK activation and the ablation of RANKL-stimulated Ca2+-oscillation via the inactivation of PLCγ2, followed by the inhibition of CREB activation. These inhibitory effects of CZE resulted in a significant repression of c-Fos expression and a subsequent reduction of NFATc1, a key transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, fusion, and activation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that CZE negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and may be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of various bone diseases, such as postmenopausal osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.

  18. The influence of light color on the rooting of 'Horim Golden' Chrysanthemum cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Borowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three different colors of light; blue, green and red, compared with white light as the control, on the rooting of Chrysanthemum cuttings, is presented in this paper. The mother plants and cuttings were irradiated during rooting with different colors of light. This was shown to have had visible influence on the morphological differentiation of cuttings. It also affected the carbohydrate content in them. The rooting of the cuttings reflected this influence. The cuttings obtained from plants grown under white (control or red light were characterized by well-developed root systems in terms of the number, length and mass of the roots. The cuttings from the plants grown under green light were the worst. The influence of the color of the light on the speed with which the first roots were formed was the reverse. The cuttings from the plants irradiated with green light rooted the quickest, next in order were those from plants irradiated with blue, red and white light. Irradiating cuttings with differently colored light during rooting only had an effect on the number of roots formed. This number was high, close to that of control cuttings, in cuttings exposed to red light, decidedly lower in those exposed to blue and, in particular, green light.

  19. Ni (II) adsorption onto Chrysanthemum indicum: Influencing factors, isotherms, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilvanathan, Sowmya; Shanthakumar, S

    2016-10-02

    The study explores the adsorption potential of Chrysanthemum indicum biomass for nickel ion removal from aqueous solution. C. indicum flowers in raw (CIF-I) and biochar (CIF-II) forms were used as adsorbents in this study. Batch experiments were conducted to ascertain the optimum conditions of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, and temperature for varying initial Ni(II) ion concentrations. Surface area, surface morphology, and functionality of the adsorbents were characterized by Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Adsorption kinetics were modeled using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich, intraparticle diffusion, Bangham's, and Boyd's plot. The equilibrium data were modeled using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Experimental data provided the best fit to pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model for the adsorption of Ni(II) ion on both CIF-I and CIF-II with maximum adsorption capacities of 23.97 and 44.02 mg g(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic analysis of the data proved the process to be spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Desorption studies were conducted to evaluate the possibility of reusing the adsorbents. Findings of the present study provide substantial evidence for the use of C. indicum flower as an eco-friendly and potential adsorbent for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution.

  20. Morphological, Genome and Gene Expression Changes in Newly Induced Autopolyploid Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv.) Makino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ri; Wang, Haibin; Dong, Bin; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Zhaohe; Liu, Chen; Zhao, Nan; Chen, Fadi

    2016-01-01

    Autopolyploidy is widespread in higher plants and plays an important role in the process of evolution. The present study successfully induced autotetraploidys from Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium by colchicine. The plant morphology, genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic changes between tetraploid and diploid plants were investigated. Ligulate flower, tubular flower and leaves of tetraploid plants were greater than those of the diploid plants. Compared with diploid plants, the genome changed as a consequence of polyploidization in tetraploid plants, namely, 1.1% lost fragments and 1.6% novel fragments occurred. In addition, DNA methylation increased after genome doubling in tetraploid plants. Among 485 common transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), which existed in tetraploid and diploid progenitors, 62 fragments were detected as differentially expressed TDFs, 6.8% of TDFs exhibited up-regulated gene expression in the tetraploid plants and 6.0% exhibited down-regulation. The present study provides a reference for further studying the autopolyploidization role in the evolution of C. lavandulifolium. In conclusion, the autopolyploid C. lavandulifolium showed a global change in morphology, genome and gene expression compared with corresponding diploid. PMID:27735845

  1. Loss of Mgat5a-mediated N-glycosylation stimulates regeneration in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Wuhong; Huang, Sunny C.; Xu, Lisha; Pettie, Kade; Ceci, María Laura; Sánchez, Mario; Allende, Miguel L; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background We are using genetics to identify genes specifically involved in hearing regeneration. In a large-scale genetic screening, we identified mgat5a, a gene in the N-glycosylation biosynthesis pathway whose activity negatively impacts hair cell regeneration. Methods We used a combination of mutant analysis in zebrafish and a hair cell regeneration assay to phenotype the loss of Mgat5a activity in zebrafish. We used pharmacological inhibition of N-glycosylation by swansonine. We also use...

  2. 凝固型贡菊酸奶的研制%Preparation of set yogurt with chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹏; 黄君红

    2012-01-01

    研制凝固型贡菊酸奶,探讨其生产工艺,筛选出原料添加的最佳配方,并检测成品中乳酸菌活菌数.实验结果表明,以保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌(1∶1)混合作为发酵菌种,4%接种量,添加15%贡菊茶,7%白砂糖,9%奶粉,于41℃发酵,所制成的贡菊酸奶,组织状态好,口感细腻,有酸奶和菊花茶特有的清香,乳酸菌活菌数高达2.66× 109c fu/mL.其生产工艺流程简单、可行,是一种有开发前景的新型保健乳制品.%A set yogurt with chrysanthemum developed and the production technology investigated in the paper. Through experiment, the optimal formula of raw materials was gotten. The result showed that yogurt with chrysanthemum had good state texture and taste and peculiar flavor when 9% milk powder was fermented with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus at the mixture ration of 1:1 at 41℃. and 4% inoculation, 15% chrysanthemum and 7% sucrose was added to the above mentioned mixture at the same time. The number of live lactobacillus was up to 2.66×109cfu/ml. The production technique was simple and applicable and this yogurt is new health care food with exploiting prospect.

  3. Seasonal changes of photoperiodic response and inflorescence quality in pot cultivars of Chrysanthemum × grandiflorum grown in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jerzy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate seasonal changes of photoperiodic response and inflorescence quality in chrysanthemum from the Time group grown all year round without supplementary lighting. Four chrysanthemum cultivars were grown in 12 cycles starting on the second day of each successive month. The first cycle began on 2 January. From the moment of potting, the plants were treated with a short day. In periods of naturally long days, the day was shortened to 10.5 hours through shading. No supplementary illumination was used from November to mid-February (a photoperiod of under 10 hours to improve light conditions in the period of insolation deficit. In Polish climatic conditions, the shortest photoperiodic responses were recorded usually in the cycles starting in February or March and August or September. An exceptionally longer photoperiodic response was recorded in the cycle including the height of summer, i.e. planting from June to July, when the temperature during the day was very high, and from October to December i.e. in the period of substantial insolation deficit. The highest quality of flower heads was attained by plants potted mostly between 2 March and 2 September and flowering from April - May to November. Those plants developed the greatest number of inflorescences and usually a typical, cultivar-specific colour of the flower. Chrysanthemums potted from 2 June to 2 July, i.e. in the period of the greatest heat, produced inflorescences with the smallest diameter. For the cultivar 'Cool Time', this unfavorable period lasted from 2 April to 2 August.

  4. Effect of day and night temperature on internode and stem length in chrysanthemum: is everything explained by DIF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, S M P; Heuvelink, E; Cascais, R; van Kooten, O

    2002-07-01

    In many plant species, including chrysanthemum, a strong positive correlation between internode length and DIF [difference between day (DT) and night (NT) temperature] has been observed. However, Langton and Cockshull (1997. Scientia Horticulturae 69: 229-237) reported no such relationship and showed that absolute DT and NT explained internode length rather than DIF. To investigate these conflicting results and to clarify the validity of the DIF concept, cut chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum 'Reagan Improved') were grown in growth chambers at all 16 combinations of four DT and four NT (16, 20, 24 and 28 degrees C) with a 12 h day length. Length of internode 10, number of internodes and stem length were measured on days 5, 10, 17, 22 and 27 after starting the temperature treatments. Internode length on day 10 showed a positive linear relationship with DIF (R2 = 0.64). However, when internodes had reached their final length in all treatments (day 27), a much stronger positive linear relation was observed (R2 = 0.81). A model to predict final internode length was developed based on the absolute DT and NT responses: both responses were optimum curves and no significant interaction between DT and NT occurred [final internode length (mm) = -32.23 + 3.56DT + 1.08NT - 0.0687DT2 - 0.0371NT2; R2 = 0.91, where TD is day temperature and TN is night temperature]. It is shown that DIF can predict final internode length only within a temperature range where effects of DT and NT are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign (18-24 degrees C). Internode appearance rate, as well as stem length formed during the experiment, showed an optimum response to DT.

  5. Repellent effects of pongam oil on settlement and oviposition of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum on chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROMAN PAVELA; GERHARD HERDA

    2007-01-01

    The repellent activities, including host deterrence and anti-oviposion, of pongam oil against the adults of the common greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood in greenhouses were tested. Chrysanthemum plants treated with different concentrations (0.5%-2.0%) of water-suspended pongam oil showed relatively longlasting host deterrent and anti-oviposition effects on the adults of greenhouse whitefly. Although the repellent effect declined in time and concentration, strong effects on the reduction of oviposition were found, which lasts, dependent on concentration at least 12 days after application.

  6. Stirling convertor regenerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Mounir B

    2011-01-01

    Stirling Convertor Regenerators addresses the latest developments and future possibilities in the science and practical application of Stirling engine regenerators and technology. Written by experts in the vanguard of alternative energy, this invaluable resource presents integral scientific details and design concepts associated with Stirling converter regenerators. Content is reinforced with novel insights and remarkable firsthand experience that the authors and their colleagues acquired while working at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other leading organizations.

  7. Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides as potential new fungal antagonists of Puccinia horiana Henn., the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Fefer, Patricia; Márquez-Guzmán, G. Judith; Pérez-Martínez, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Puccinia horiana Hennings, the causal agent of chrysanthemum white rust, is a worldwide quarantine organism and one of the most important fungal pathogens of Chrysanthemum × morifolium cultivars, which are used for cut flowers and as potted plants in commercial production regions of the world. It was previously reported to be controlled by Lecanicillium lecanii, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, C. uredinicola and Aphanocladium album, due to their antagonistic and hyperparasitic effects. We report novel antagonist species on Puccinia horiana. Fungi isolated from rust pustules in a commercial greenhouse from Villa Guerrero, México, were identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium pseudocladosporioides based upon molecular analysis and morphological characters. The antagonism of C. cladosporioides and C. pseudocladosporioides on chrysanthemum white rust was studied using light and electron microscopy in vitro at the host/parasite interface. Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. pseudocladosporioides grew towards the white rust teliospores and colonized the sporogenous cells, but no direct penetration of teliospores was observed; however, the structure and cytoplasm of teliospores were altered. The two Cladosporium spp. were able to grow on media containing laminarin, but not when chitin was used as the sole carbon source; these results suggest that they are able to produce glucanases. Results from the study indicate that both Cladosporium species had potential as biological control agents of chrysanthemum white rust. PMID:28141830

  8. Soluções de manutenção na pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Dragon postharvest maintenance solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento e uso de técnicas que prolonguem a durabilidade das flores, mantendo a qualidade do produto, é imprescindível para redução de perdas pós-colheita. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar soluções de manutenção, associadas ou não a sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos. O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições, com 2 hastes florais cada uma. Os tratamentos utilizaram água destilada; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 100 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1, 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1; 8-HQC a 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. A combinação de 8-HQC 200 mg L-1 + sacarose a 50 g L-1 foi a que apresentou melhor desempenho para a manutenção da qualidade das hastes florais, favorecendo a abertura de botões e a turgescência das lígulas. A sacarose contribuiu para uma melhor manutenção de substâncias de reserva na haste, que tiveram a sua vida de vaso estendida.The development and use of techniques that extend the life vase of the flowers, maintaining the quality of the product, is essential for reducing postharvest losses. The objective of this work was to evaluate different solutions for maintenance, associated or not to sucrose, in maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems. The treatments used distilled water, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 100 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1, 8-HQC to 200 mg L-1 + sucrose 50 g L-1. Physical assessments were made: color, fresh mass and relative water content; chemical evaluations: reducing sugars and pigments, and qualitative assessments: turgidity, color of the flowers, and

  9. Chemical constituents of Chrysanthemum indicum L.%野菊花的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张聪; 秦民坚; 王玉

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究菊科菊属植物野菊花(Chrysanthemum indicum L.)的化学成分.方法:采用硅胶柱层析、凝胶柱层析、重结晶等方法进行化学成分的分离与纯化,并运用核磁共振、质谱等波谱技术鉴定化合物的结构.结果:分离并鉴定了13个化合物:其中黄酮类9个,分别为金合欢素(acacetin,1)、木犀草素(luteolin,2)、芹菜素(apigenin,3)、异泽兰黄素(eupatilin,4)、麦黄酮(tricin,5)、5,7,3',4'-Tetrahydroxy-6,5'-dime-thoxyflavone(6)、芹菜素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,7)、木犀草素-7-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,8)、蒙花苷(linarin,9);倍半萜类成分3个:cumambrin-A(10)、野菊花内酯(yejuhualactone,11)、7-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl)-10-methyl-4-methyleneperhydro-naphthalene-3,5,6-triol(12);甾体类成分1个:β-胡萝卜苷(β-daucosterol,13).结论:化合物4~7为该植物中首次分得,其中化合物5,6为该属植物中首次分得.

  10. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum L.--potential for malaria vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Dinesh Kumar, Vannam; Elakya, Vijay; Kamala, Tamilselvan; Park, Sung Kwon; Ragam, Muthiah; Saravanan, Muthupandian; Bououdina, Mohomad; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Vincent, Savariar

    2015-07-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides synthesized of natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were green-synthesized using a floral extract of Chrysanthemum indicum screened for larvicidal and pupicidal activity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The textures of the yielded Ag NPs were found to be spherical and polydispersed with a mean size in the range of 25-59 nm. Larvae and pupae were exposed to various concentrations of aqueous extract of C. indicum and synthesized Ag NPs for 24 h, and the maximum mortality was observed from the synthesized Ag NPs against the vector A. stephensi (LC50 = 5.07, 10.35, 14.19, 22.81, and 35.05 ppm; LC90 = 29.18, 47.15, 65.53, 87.96, and 115.05 ppm). These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi. Additionally, this study provides the larvicidal and pupicidal properties of green-synthesized Ag NPs with the floral extract of C. indicum against vector mosquito species from the geographical location of India.

  11. Differential allergenicity of mature and immature pollen grains in Shasta daisy (Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sharif Shoushtari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Weed pollen grains belonging to  the  Asteraceae  family contain  a variety of  allergens inducing type I  and IV allergies in susceptible people. The  aim of this research was to compare  the  allergenic properties  of  immature  and  mature  Shasta  daisy pollen  grains (Chrysanthemum maximum Ramond to define the potential role of the maturation process on the allergenicity of Asteraceae pollen grains.The  immature (IP and mature  pollen (MP grains were first studied by optical and scanning electron microscopand their protein contents were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Pollen extracts were finally used to sensitize guinea pigs in order to obtain IP and MP specific antibodies. Nasal provocation tests using IP and MP crude extracts were also performed on pre-sensitized guinea pigs.The  MP  extract  induced  IgE  and  eosinophilia in  blood  and  positive skin  tests  in sensitized guinea pigs. Moreover, high number of eosinophils was found in the nasal mucosa of MP sensitized guinea pigs. SDS-PAGE analysis of the IP and MP protein content showed seven and five apparent bands ranging from 7 to 66kDa respectively.According to immunoblot analysis, MP extract contained a single allergen of 66kDa. The overall results showed developmental processes of Shasta daisy pollen grains towards both morphological and molecular changes increasing their allergenic potency.

  12. Investigation of the interactions between Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers extract and intestinal bacteria from human and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jin-Hua; Duan, Jin-Ao; Qian, Yi-Yun; Qian, Da-Wei; Guo, Jian-Ming

    2016-11-01

    Flos Chrysanthemi, dried flower of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat, has drawn much attention recently owing to its potential beneficial health effects for human. Flos Chrysanthemi products are usually taken orally and metabolized by intestinal microflora. However, there has been no investigation of the comprehensive metabolic profile of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract by intestinal flora owing to its chemical complexity and the limitations of analytical methods. In this paper, a rapid, sensitive and automated analysis method, ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry including MS(E) technology and automated data processing Metabolynx™ software, was developed and successfully applied for the biotransformation and metabolic profile of flavonoids in the Flos Chrysanthemi extract by intestinal flora from human and rat. A total of 32 metabolites were detected and tentatively identified in human and rat intestinal bacterial samples. These metabolites indicated that hydrolysis, hydroxylation, acetylation, methylation, hydrogenation and deoxygenation were the major conversion pathways of flavonoids in the Flos Chrysanthemi extract in vitro. Furthermore, the effects of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract on the growth of different intestinal bacteria were detected using an Emax precision microplate reader. Certain pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Clostridium and Bacteroides were significantly inhibited by Flos Chrysanthemi, while commensal probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were moderately promoted. Our observation provided further evidence for the importance of intestinal bacteria in the metabolism and potential activity of the Flos Chrysanthemi extract. The results will also be helpful for the further pharmacokinetic study of Flos Chrysanthemi and to unravel how it works in vivo.

  13. CmWRKY1 Enhances the Dehydration Tolerance of Chrysanthemum through the Regulation of ABA-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Fan

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in a variety of abiotic stress responses in plants. Here, we show that CmWRKY1, a member of the group IIb WRKY family isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium, exhibits no transcriptional activation in yeast cells. The subcellular localization examination showed that CmWRKY1 localizes to the nucleus in vivo. Furthermore, CmWRKY1-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibit enhanced dehydration tolerance in response to polyethylene glycol (PEG treatment compared with wild-type plants. We further confirmed that the transgenic plants exhibit suppressed expression levels of genes negatively regulated by ABA, such as PP2C, ABI1 and ABI2, and activated expression levels of genes positively regulated by ABA, such as PYL2, SnRK2.2, ABF4, MYB2, RAB18, and DREB1A. Taken together, our results indicate that CmWRKY1 plays an important role in the response to drought in chrysanthemum through an ABA-mediated pathway.

  14. Heterologous expression of the AtDREB1A gene in chrysanthemum increases drought and salt stress tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG; Bo; TONG; Zheng; MA; Nan; LI; Jianke; KASUGA; Mie; YAMAGUCHI-SHINOZAKI; Kazuko; GAO; Junping

    2006-01-01

    DNA cassette containing an AtDREB1A cDNA and a nos terminator, driven by a cauliflower mosaic 35S promoter, or a stress-inducible rd29A promoter, was transformed into the ground cover chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) 'Fall Color' genome. Compared with wild type plants, severe growth retardation was observed in 35S:DREB1A plants, but not in rd29A:DREB1A plants. RT-PCR analysis revealed that, under stress conditions, the DREB1A gene was over-expressed constitutively in 35S:DREB1A plants, but was over-expressed inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants. The transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to drought and salt stress, and the tolerance was significantly stronger in rd29A:DREB1A plants than tn 35S:DREB1A plants. Proline content and SOD activity were increased inductively in rd29A:DREB1A plants than in 35S:DREB1A plants under stress conditions. These results indicate that heterologous AtDREB1A can confer drought and salt tolerance in transgenic chrysanthemum, and improvement of the stress tolerance may be related to enhancement of proline content and SOD activity.

  15. The Effects of Gamma Irradiation on the Growth and Propagation of In-Vitro Chrysanthemum Shoot Explants (cv. Yellow Puma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dwimahyani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The study on the effect of gamma irradiation on in-vitro shoot growth of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma has been carried out. The aim of the study was to observe genetic variability of shoot growth caused by gamma irradiation. Shoot explants with four leaves were irradiated by gamma with dose of 10, 15 and 20 Gy with 3 replications at each of dose. The irradiated shoot explants were then transferred into fresh MS solid medium and placed in a growth room. Observation was performed on number of leaves and branches on M1V0 generation, while plantlets height and number of branches were observed a M1V1 generation. Number of survival plantlets and multiplication rate on three subsequent subcultures were observed as well. Results showed that gamma rays with dose of 20 Gy inhibited growth of leaves as much as 50% compared to control (shoots without irradiation, and branches 73.7% in three weeks. Observation on multiplication rate at M1V1 generation showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 10 Gy promoted multiplication rate as much as 10% higher than control. It can be concluded that in vitro mutagenesis using gamma iradiation with dose of 10 to 15 Gy can be used for inducing genetic variability of chrysanthemum cv. Yellow Puma.

  16. ELIMINATION OF CVB ( FROM A RANGE OF CHRYSANTHEMUM VARIETIES BY APICAL MERISTEM CULTURE FOLLOWING ANTIVIRAL AGENT AND HEAT TREATMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KURNIAWAN BUDIARTO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available CVB elimination for retaining healthy protocols from infected chrysanthemum plant wasinvestigated through combined treatment of meristem culture with synthetic antiviral ribavirinor thermotherapy under conditions. The biological materials used for the experimentconstituted of six commercial varieties: Dewi Sartika, Saraswati, Yellow Fiji, White Puma,Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Tissue culture initiation was conducted through plantletestablishment using MS supplemented with IAA. Ribavirin was added in media with theconcentration of 40 mg/l on cv. Dewi Sartika, Saraswati and Yellow Fiji. Parallel with this step,heat treatment with different durations (1, 2, and 3 weeks was also conducted on the plantletson White Puma, Yellow Puma and White Reagent. Meristem culture was done followingthe chemo- and thermotherapy. The experiment resumed the failure of single treatment ofmeristem culture in eliminating CVB from the infected chrysanthemum plantlets. Under heattreatment, percentage of virus-free plantlets increased along with the duration ofthermotherapy, though the survival rate of plantlets decreased in lengthened heat treatment.The best results regarding virus free plant percentage were obtained when meristem culture wasapplied following ribavirin or three weeks of heat treatment.

  17. 滁菊水提液抗氧化活性研究%Antioxidative activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳辉; 张晓峰; 罗侠; 贾小丽

    2011-01-01

    To evaluated antioxidative activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium,Compared with Vc,the antioxidantive activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium.was studied by measuring its reducing power,scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical(·OH)and·DPPH radical,activity of decreasing the lipid peroxidation of yolk.The results showed that aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium not only had a strong scavenging capacity on ·OH and DPPH radical,but also has strong reducing power and significant inhibition effects on the lipid peroxidation of yolk.the antioxidantive activity of aqueous extract of Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium was improved with the higher concentration.Thus,Chuju Chrysanthemum morifolium is promising to be a natural antioxidative health drink.%为评价滁菊水提液抗氧化活性,采用还原力、清除羟基自由基及DPPH能力、抑制卵黄脂质过氧化能力等方法,以Vc为对照进行研究。结果表明:滁菊水提液能有效的清除羟基自由基及DPPH,具有较强的还原能力,可以很好抑制卵黄脂质过氧化;在一定浓度范围内其抗氧化能力随浓度的增加而增强。因此,可以将滁菊水提液开发为抗氧化健康饮品。

  18. Ethanol Induced Toxicity and Lipid Peroxidation in Pregnant Mice: Protective Effects of Butanolic Extract from Leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, Vitamin E and C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amel Amrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C to modulate ethanol-Induced toxicity and oxidation damage in maternal and fetal tissues of mice. Butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii (200 mg/Kg per day, vitamin E (100mg/Kg per day and C (8.3mg/Kg per day were administered by gavage to groups of pregnant mice from the 6 th to 17 th day of gestation. A number of animals received plant extract, vitamin E and C, also treated with an oral administration of ethanol (0.02ml/g of 25% v/v absolute ethanol in water per day in same conditions. On day 18 of gestation, pregnant mice were killed, fetus, placenta, fetal liver, liver, kidneys and brain were removed, homogenised and used for determination of lipid peroxidation (LPO using TBARS method. Embryotoxicity was assessed by counting the number of live and dead fetus and growth retardation. Results: Severe alterations in all biomarkers were observed after injury with ETOH. ETOH produced significant decreases in fetal weight and significant increases in embryolethality and lipid peroxidation relative to control values. Treatment with Chrysanthemum fontanesii extract, vitamin C and vitamin E resulted in markedly decreased embryolethality and fetal growth retardation, while increased fetal weight were observed. Conclusion: The butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii, vitamin E and C protected against ethanol induce fetal and maternal toxicity as revealed by the decrease in the extent of lipid peroxidation. So that butanolic extract from leaves of Chrysanthemum fontanesii posses in vivo antioxidant properties.

  19. The Analysis of Activated Carbon Regeneration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚芳

    2014-01-01

    A series of methods for activated carbon regeneration were briefly introduced.Such as thermal regeneration,chemical regeneration,biochemical regeneration,and newly supercritical fluid regeneration, electrochemical regeneration,light-catalyzed regeneration,and microwave radiation method,and the developing trend of activated carbon regeneration was predicted.

  20. Regeneration and reprogramming compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robles Vanesa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dedifferentiation occurs naturally in mature cell types during epimorphic regeneration in fish and some amphibians. Dedifferentiation also occurs in the induction of pluripotent stem cells when a set of transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc is over expressed in mature cell types. Results We hypothesised that there are parallels between dedifferentiation or reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells and the natural process of dedifferentiation during epimorphic regeneration. We analysed expression levels of the most commonly used pluripotency associated factors in regenerating and non-regenerating tissue and compared them with levels in a pluripotent reference cell. We found that some of the pluripotency associated factors (oct4/pou5f1, sox2, c-myc, klf4, tert, sall4, zic3, dppa2/4 and fut1, a homologue of ssea1 were expressed before and during regeneration and that at least two of these factors (oct4, sox2 were also required for normal fin regeneration in the zebrafish. However these factors were not upregulated during regeneration as would be expected if blastema cells acquired pluripotency. Conclusions By comparing cells from the regeneration blastema with embryonic pluripotent reference cells we found that induced pluripotent stem and blastema cells do not share pluripotency. However, during blastema formation some of the key reprogramming factors are both expressed and are also required for regeneration to take place. We therefore propose a link between partially reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells and the half way state of blastema cells and suggest that a common mechanism might be regulating these two processes.

  1. Strategies for lung regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Petersen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited ability of the adult lung to regenerate and the frequency of lung disease, the lung is a tissue that can especially benefit from regenerative medicine. Prospects for lung regeneration have made great strides in the past year. In this review, we summarize recent progress and key challenges for approaches in lung regenerative medicine. With a focus on the matrix components critical for the development of regenerative lung tissues, we discuss possible cell sources for lung regeneration, key matrix effects on cell repopulation, and physical stimuli that will aid in the growth of lung tissues in vitro.

  2. Tooth regeneration: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadu, Shifali S

    2009-01-01

    Regeneration of a functional tooth has the potential to be a promising therapeutic strategy. Experiments have shown that with the use of principles of bioengineering along with adult stem cells, scaffold material, and signaling molecules, tooth regeneration is possible. Research work is in progress on creating a viable bioroot with all its support. A new culture needs to be created that can possibly provide all the nutrients to the stem cells. With the ongoing research, tissue engineering is likely to revolutionize dental health and well-being of people by regenerating teeth over the next decade.

  3. Tooth regeneration: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadu Shifali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of a functional tooth has the potential to be a promising therapeutic strategy. Experiments have shown that with the use of principles of bioengineering along with adult stem cells, scaffold material, and signaling molecules, tooth regeneration is possible. Research work is in progress on creating a viable bioroot with all its support. A new culture needs to be created that can possibly provide all the nutrients to the stem cells. With the ongoing research, tissue engineering is likely to revolutionize dental health and well-being of people by regenerating teeth over the next decade.

  4. Regeneration Heat Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Lin

    2003-07-30

    The original project goals were to establish the viability of the proposed gas turbine regenerator concept by performing the following tasks: (1) Perform detailed design of a working model of the regenerator concept. (2) Construct a ''bench-top'' model of the regenerator concept based upon the detail design. (3) Test the bench-top model and gather data to support the concept's viability. The project funding was used to acquire the tools and material to perform the aforementioned tasks.

  5. CmMYB19 Over-Expression Improves Aphid Tolerance in Chrysanthemum by Promoting Lignin Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinjie Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the MYB (v-myb avian myeloblastosis vira l oncogene homolog transcription factor CmMYB19 was isolated from chrysanthemum. It encodes a 200 amino acid protein and belongs to the R2R3-MYB subfamily. CmMYB19 was not transcriptionally activated in yeast, while a transient expression experiment conducted in onion epidermal cells suggested that the CmMYB19 product localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the localized to the nucleus nucleus . CmMYB19 transcription was induced by aphid (Macrosiphoniella sanborni infestation, and the abundance of transcript was higher in the leaf and stem than in the root. The over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids. A comparison of transcript abundance of the major genes involved in lignin synthesis showed that CmPAL1 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1, CmC4H (cinnamate4 hydroxylase, Cm4CL1 (4-hydroxy cinnamoyl CoA ligase 1, CmHCT (hydroxycinnamoyl CoA-shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase, CmC3H1 (coumarate3 hydroxylase1, CmCCoAOMT1 (caffeoyl CoA O-methyltransferase 1 and CmCCR1 (cinnamyl CoA reductase1 were all upregulated, in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement in agreement with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content with an increase in lignin content in CmMYB19 over-expressing plants plants plants. Collectively, the over-expression of CmMYB19 restricted the multiplication of the aphids on the host, mediated by an enhanced accumulation of lignin.

  6. 枸杞菊花复合饮料的研制%Development of Wolfberry and Chrysanthemum Compound Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志艳; 王佳丽; 李志; 阮美娟; 张焱; 杜依登

    2014-01-01

    探讨以枸杞、菊花等药食同源材料制备一种新型明目复合饮料的最佳配方。以枸杞子、菊花、茯苓、石斛、决明子、桑叶、罗汉果、淡竹叶等为原料,添加适量酸和糖,在单因素实验的基础上通过正交试验确定复合饮料中各组分最佳添加量比例。复合浸提液配比为枸杞∶菊花∶决明子∶石斛∶罗汉果∶茯苓∶山药∶桑叶∶淡竹叶为20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4;饮料最佳配方为:复合原液50%、糖10%、酸0.15%。所制复合饮料呈亮黄色,香气协调、柔和,酸甜适中,口感浑厚。%We explore the best formula of a novel compound beverage, which was prepared by food and medicine homologous material, such as wolfberry and chrysanthemum. The optimal add amount of each component was determined by orthogonal on the basis of single factor experiments with wolfberry, chrysanthemum, Poria, Dendrobium, cassia, mulberry, Mangosteen, light bamboo as raw materials. The composite extract ratio of wolfberry, Chrysanthemum, Cassia, Dendrobium, Mangosteen, Poria, yam, Mulberry and short bamboo was 20∶4∶12∶10∶1∶16∶16∶4∶4. The best formula of beverage was composite liquid 50%, sugar 10%, acid 0.15%. Beverage of prepared were bright yellow, coordinate and soft aroma, moderate sweet and sour, vigorous taste.

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract and their application in clinical ultrasound gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yan He,1 Zhiyun Du,1,2 Huibin Lv,1 Qianfa Jia,1 Zhikai Tang,1 Xi Zheng,1,3 Kun Zhang,1 Fenghua Zhao11Institute of Natural Medicine and Green Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USAAbstract: Eco-friendly green synthesis with plant extracts plays a very important role in nanotechnology, without any harmful chemicals. In this report, the synthesis of water-soluble silver nanoparticles was developed by treating silver ions with Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract at room temperature. The effect of the extract on the formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized by ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy results show a strong resonance centered on the surface of silver nanoparticles (AgNP at 430 nm. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectral study demonstrates Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. extract acted as the reducing and stabilizing agent during the synthesis. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNP are single crystallines, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Water-soluble AgNP, with an approximate size of 20 nm–50 nm were also observed in the transmission electron microscopy image. The bactericidal properties of the synthesized AgNP were investigated using the agar-dilution method and the growth-inhibition test. The results show the AgNP had potent bactericidal activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, as

  8. Experiment of Chrysanthemum Shoot Cutting Propagation%菊花嫩枝扦插繁殖试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓容; 王兴文; 俞晓艳; 吴竹林

    2015-01-01

    A cuttage nursery test was conducted with 4 new chrysanthemum varieties and in the test the chrysanthemum shoot cuttings were treated with the solutions of Alpha NAA and IBA of different concentrations and the medium of different formulations. The results showed that the cuttings treated with the rays shoot alpha NAA 500 mg/kg solution performed well in the root growth; the treatment of IBA 500 mg/kg could promote the cuttings to grow more roots; the cuttings treated with Mailang IBA 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg grew more roots and the roots grew well; the cuttings treated with Purple Jade IBA 500 mg/kg grew more roots and the roots grew well and the effect of the treatment of Gold Back Red IBA 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg was also relatively good. The effects of 3 mediums on the lengths of the longest roots of the 4 chrysanthemum cuttings were significant.%试验采用α-萘乙酸和吲哚丁酸不同浓度溶液、不同基质配制对4个菊花新品种进行嫩枝扦插育苗试验。结果表明:霞光四射α-萘乙酸500 mg/kg溶液处理的插穗根系生长好,吲哚丁酸500 mg/kg处理能促进插穗多生根;麦浪吲哚丁酸250、500 mg/kg处理的插穗生根量多,且根系生长好;紫玉吲哚丁酸500 mg/kg处理的插穗生根量多,且根系生长好;金背大红吲哚丁酸250、500 mg/kg处理的效果也较好。3种基质对4种菊花插穗最长根长的影响显著。

  9. Chemical genetics and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sumitra; Zhang, Liyun; Mumm, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration involves interactions between multiple signaling pathways acting in a spatially and temporally complex manner. As signaling pathways are highly conserved, understanding how regeneration is controlled in animal models exhibiting robust regenerative capacities should aid efforts to stimulate repair in humans. One way to discover molecular regulators of regeneration is to alter gene/protein function and quantify effect(s) on the regenerative process: dedifferentiation/reprograming, stem/progenitor proliferation, migration/remodeling, progenitor cell differentiation and resolution. A powerful approach for applying this strategy to regenerative biology is chemical genetics, the use of small-molecule modulators of specific targets or signaling pathways. Here, we review advances that have been made using chemical genetics for hypothesis-focused and discovery-driven studies aimed at furthering understanding of how regeneration is controlled.

  10. Nanostructured Biomaterials for Regeneration**

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Guobao; Ma, Peter X.

    2008-01-01

    Biomaterials play a pivotal role in regenerative medicine, which aims to regenerate and replace lost/dysfunctional tissues or organs. Biomaterials (scaffolds) serve as temporary 3D substrates to guide neo tissue formation and organization. It is often beneficial for a scaffolding material to mimic the characteristics of extracellular matrix (ECM) at the nanometer scale and to induce certain natural developmental or/and wound healing processes for tissue regeneration applications. This article...

  11. Effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium Extract on Fermentation Characteristics and Biohydrogenation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in vitro Batch Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionCis-9,trans-11 CLA has been shown to be potentially healthpromoting CLA in many animal models.The C18∶1 trans-11 fatty acid (VA) is also desirable as a product flowing from the rumen,because the flow from the rumen of VA play a more important role than CLA in determining CLA concentration in animal tissues.The factors which affect CLA content in milk have been studied mainly in dairy cows and most factors are basically dietary factors,especially fat source(e.g.,plant oils,fish oil,et al.).Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9,trans-11 -CLA content in milk.The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Chrysanthemum coronarium extract on in vitro Biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and fermentation characteristics of mixed rumen microorganisms.

  12. Karyomorphology of six taxa in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) in Egypt and their genetic relationships by Giemsa C-banding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magdy Hussein ABD EL-TWAB; Ahmad Mohammad M. MEKAWY; Mohammad Saad EL-KATATNY

    2012-01-01

    Giemsa C-banding was applied to the chromosome complements of six diploid species belonging to six genera in Chrysanthemum sensu lato (Anthemideae) distributed in Egypt.Four types of C-banding distribution were observed in the taxa as follows:(i) negative C-banding in Anacyclus monanthos (L.) Thell.; (ii) all bands in terminal regions in Achilleafragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.Bip,which showed 32 bands on 18 chromosomes; (iii)all eight bands at centromeric regions on eight chromosomes in Matricaria recutita L.; and (iv) bands at terminal and centromeric regions in Brocchia cinerea Vis.(12 terminal and six centromeric bands on 12 chromosomes),Cotula barbata DC.(four terminal,six centromeric,and eight short arm bands on 16 chromosomes),and Glebionis coronaria (L.) Cass.ex Spach.(eight terminal on the short arms and four large bands in centromeric regions on 12chromosomes).

  13. Effect of Sb-doping on the morphology and dielectric properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; You Tian-Gui; Zhang Zhi-Yong; Tian Jiang-Xiao; Yun Jiang-Ni; Zhao Wu

    2012-01-01

    Chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters with different Sb-doping concentrations were prepared using a hydrothermal process. The microstructures,morphologies,and dielectric properties of the as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM),field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM),and microwave vector network analyzer respectively.The results indicate that the as-prepared products are Sb-doped ZnO single crystallines with a hexagonal wurtzite structure,the flower bud saturation degree Fd is obviously different from that of the pure ZnO nanowire clusters,the good dielectric loss property is found in Sb-doped ZnO products with low density,and the dielectric loss tangent tanδe increases with the increase of the Sb-doping concentration in a certain concentration range.

  14. 甘菊水培体系的建立%Establishment of Hydroponics Culture System for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛雅静; 黄河; 杨可; 王斌; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    为探索甘菊[Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch. ex Trautv.)Makino]在非生物胁迫下以及营养物质代谢中精准的生理、基因表达变化机理,研究通过筛选外植体的种类和营养液的浓度,建立了甘菊水培体系。结果表明:水培中,播种苗的成活率和生根率极显著高于1年生大苗和茎段插条;在长时间的水培中,使用标准Hoagland和1.5倍Hoagland培养液,其畸形叶率极显著低于1/2和1/4Hoagland培养液,并且株高极显著高于另外2个浓度。结合科研需求,认为组培播种苗、标准Hoagland营养液是甘菊水培的最佳外植体和培养条件。%In order to explore the accurate mechanism of physiology and gene expression under abiotic stress and nutrient metabolism for Chrysanthemum lavadulifolium,we screened the explants and concentration of nutrient solution,and established the hydroponics culture system.The results indicate that in hydroponics culture,the survival rate and rooting rate are significantly higher in seedings rather than yearlings or cuttings;for a long time culture,the abnormal leaf rate is lower and the height is higher in normal and 1.5 times Hoagland solution than 1/2 or 1/4 Hoagland solution.Considering the actual demand in research,we choose seedings sown in MS medium,normal Hoagland solution as the best explants and culture medium.

  15. Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Chrysanthemum indicum L and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arokiyaraj S

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Selvaraj Arokiyaraj,1 Mariadhas Valan Arasu,2 Savariar Vincent,3 Nyayirukannaian Udaya Prakash,4 Seong Ho Choi,5 Young-Kyoon Oh,1 Ki Choon Choi,2 Kyoung Hoon Kim1,61Department of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Suwon, Republic of Korea; 2Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration, Seonghwan-Eup, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam, Republic of Korea; 3Center for Environmental Research and Development, Loyola College, Chennai, India; 4Research and Development, Vel Tech Dr RR and Dr SR Technical University, Chennai, India; 5Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea; 6Department of Animal Science, Seoul National University, Pyeongchang, Republic of KoreaAbstract: The present work reports a simple, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Chrysanthemum indicum and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by color change, and it was further characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (435 nm. The phytochemical screening of C. indicum revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides, suggesting that these compounds act as reducing and stabilizing agents. The crystalline nature of the synthesized particles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, as they exhibited face-centered cubic symmetry. The size and morphology of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, which showed spherical shapes and sizes that ranged between 37.71–71.99 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy documented the presence of silver. The antimicrobial effect of the synthesized AgNPs revealed a significant effect against the bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Additionally, cytotoxic assays showed no toxicity of AgNPs toward 3T3 mouse embryo

  16. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-04-21

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum.

  17. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase: Isolation of the gene and characterization of the recombinant non-head-to-tail monoterpene synthase from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Susan B.; Swedlund, Bradley D.; King, Gretchen J.; Bell, Russell N.; Hussey, Charles E.; Shattuck-Eidens, Donna M.; Wrobel, Wislawa M.; Peiser, Galen D.; Poulter, C. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate to produce chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), a monoterpene with a non-head-to-tail or irregular c1′-2-3 linkage between isoprenoid units. Irregular monoterpenes are common in Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and related members of the Asteraceae family. In C. cinerariaefolium, CPP is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the pyrethrin ester insecticides. CPPa...

  18. Perfluorodecalin and bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Tamimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Perfluorodecalin (PFD is a chemically and biologically inert biomaterial and, as many perfluorocarbons, is also hydrophobic, radiopaque and has a high solute capacity for gases such as oxygen. In this article we have demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, that PFD may significantly enhance bone regeneration. Firstly, the potential benefit of PFD was demonstrated by prolonging the survival of bone marrow cells cultured in anaerobic conditions. These findings translated in vivo, where PFD incorporated into bone-marrow-loaded 3D-printed scaffolds substantially improved their capacity to regenerate bone. Secondly, in addition to biological applications, we have also shown that PFD improves the radiopacity of bone regeneration biomaterials, a key feature required for the visualisation of biomaterials during and after surgical implantation. Finally, we have shown how the extreme hydrophobicity of PFD enables the fabrication of highly cohesive self-setting injectable biomaterials for bone regeneration. In conclusion, perfluorocarbons would appear to be highly beneficial additives to a number of regenerative biomaterials, especially those for bone regeneration.

  19. Ultrasonic Extraction of Chlorogenic Acid from Chrysanthemum Bud%超声波法提取胎菊中绿原酸的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁全平; 侯冬岩; 回瑞华; 赵元元

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a method of extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in chrysanthemum bud. Chlorogenic acid was ultrasonically extracted from chrysanthemum bud. The effect of extraction solvent, extraction time and solvent extraction ratio were investigated. The concentrations of chlorogenic acid were quantified using HPLC. The optimal extraction condition was methanol as solvent,80 min as the extraction time and 1:20 as the sample-solvent extraction ratio. This method was simple, rapid and accurate and hence was suitable for measuring the concentration of chlorogenic acid in chrysanthemum bud.%建立了胎菊中绿原酸的提取方法及检测方法.采用超声波法对胎菊中的绿原酸进行提取,考查了提取溶剂、提取时间、提取料液比对提取量的影响,HPLC测定提取液中绿原酸的含量,确定最佳提取工艺.结果表明,以甲醇为溶剂、提取时间为80 min、提取料液比为1:20时,胎菊中绿原酸的提取量最高.该方法简单、快速、准确,可用于胎菊中绿原酸的含量检测.

  20. The Production of Health Care Beer with Chrysanthemum Tea%利用茶用菊花生产保健啤酒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程遥; 朱盛沛; 胡凯

    2012-01-01

    在生产啤酒的过程中,探讨加入一定比例的菊花汁,参与发酵反应,生产出具有同菊花茶相同功效的保健啤酒,这种啤酒含有多种有效成份,长期饮用这种产品,具有清热解暑、清肝明目、解毒消炎、降低血糖、增强人体免疫的功效,适合糖尿病患者饮用。%Health care chrysanthemum beer with the same effect as chrysanthemum tea is produced in the process of beer production by adding a certain proportion of chrysanthemum juice and having it participate in fermentation reaction. Containing a variety of effective ingredients, the beer can help clear summer heat, remove liver-fire for improving eyesight, have an effect of anti-inflammation, reduce blood glucose, and strengthen the immune system in the long run. Thus, itJs suitable for patients with diabetes to drink.

  1. Bioelectricity and epimorphic regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Scott; Rojas-Muñoz, Agustin; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2007-11-01

    All cells have electric potentials across their membranes, but is there really compelling evidence to think that such potentials are used as instructional cues in developmental biology? Numerous reports indicate that, in fact, steady, weak bioelectric fields are observed throughout biology and function during diverse biological processes, including development. Bioelectric fields, generated upon amputation, are also likely to play a key role during vertebrate regeneration by providing the instructive cues needed to direct migrating cells to form a wound epithelium, a structure unique to regenerating animals. However, mechanistic insight is still sorely lacking in the field. What are the genes required for bioelectric-dependent cell migration during regeneration? The power of genetics combined with the use of zebrafish offers the best opportunity for unbiased identification of the molecular players in bioelectricity.

  2. SnoN facilitates axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun L Do

    Full Text Available Adult CNS neurons exhibit a reduced capacity for growth compared to developing neurons, due in part to downregulation of growth-associated genes as development is completed. We tested the hypothesis that SnoN, an embryonically regulated transcription factor that specifies growth of the axonal compartment, can enhance growth in injured adult neurons. In vitro, SnoN overexpression in dissociated adult DRG neuronal cultures significantly enhanced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, TGF-β1, a negative regulator of SnoN, inhibited neurite outgrowth, and SnoN over-expression overcame this inhibition. We then examined whether SnoN influenced axonal regeneration in vivo: indeed, expression of a mutant form of SnoN resistant to degradation significantly enhanced axonal regeneration following cervical spinal cord injury, despite peri-lesional upregulation of TGF-β1. Thus, a developmental mechanism that specifies extension of the axonal compartment also promotes axonal regeneration after adult CNS injury.

  3. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C Beyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  4. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  5. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  6. Limb regeneration: a new development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacu, Eugen; Tanaka, Elly M

    2011-01-01

    Salamander limb regeneration is a classical model of tissue morphogenesis and patterning. Through recent advances in cell labeling and molecular analysis, a more precise, mechanistic understanding of this process has started to emerge. Long-standing questions include to what extent limb regeneration recapitulates the events observed in mammalian limb development and to what extent are adult- or salamander- specific aspects deployed. Historically, researchers studying limb development and limb regeneration have proposed different models of pattern formation. Here we discuss recent data on limb regeneration and limb development to argue that although patterning mechanisms are likely to be similar, cell plasticity and signaling from nerves play regeneration-specific roles.

  7. Genetic variability in regenerated Metarhizium flavoviride protoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Kuklinsky-Sobral

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast isolation and regeneration were evaluated in two wild-type and two colour mutant strains of Metarhizium flavoviride. Cultivation in liquid medium, followed by mycelium treatment with Novozym 234 in the presence of KCl 0.7M as osmotic stabilizer, produced 5.05 x 10(6 to 1.15 x 10(7x mL-1 protoplasts. The percentage of regeneration ranged from 6.65 to 27.92%. Following protoplast regeneration, one strain produced spontaneously stable morphological variant colonies. Although colonies with altered morphology have been reported in bacteria following protoplast regeneration, this is the first time that the same is described in a filamentous fungus. The original strain and one derived variant were tested for sensitivity to the fungicides benomyl and captan.A formação e regeneração de protoplastos foram avaliadas em duas linhagens selvagens e duas linhagens mutantes para coloração de conídios em Metarhizium flavoviride. O cultivo em meio líquido seguido do tratamento do micélio com Novozym 234 na presença de KCl 0,7 M como estabilizador osmótico, resultou na produção de 5,05´10(6 a 1,15´10(7 protoplastos´mL-1. A porcentagem de regeneração das diferentes linhagens variou de 6,65 a 27,92%. Após a regeneração, uma das linhagens selvagens produziu espontaneamente variantes estáveis, com morfologia alterada. Embora variantes morfológicos já tenham sido observados após regeneração de protoplastos em bactérias, esta parece ser a primeira vez que tal ocorrência é descrita em fungos filamentosos. Um desses variantes, além da linhagem selvagem da qual ele foi originado, foi testado para sensibilidade aos fungicidas benomil e captano.

  8. Genetic evidence for shared mechanisms of epimorphic regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao; Barthel, Linda K; Raymond, Pamela A

    2009-06-09

    In a microarray-based gene profiling analysis of Müller glia-derived retinal stem cells in light-damaged retinas from adult zebrafish, we found that 2 genes required for regeneration of fin and heart tissues in zebrafish, hspd1 (heat shock 60-kDa protein 1) and mps1 (monopolar spindle 1), were up-regulated. Expression of both genes in the neurogenic Müller glia and progenitors was independently verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and in situ hybridization. Functional analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants of hspd1 and mps1 revealed that both are necessary for Müller glia-based cone photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish retina. In the amputated fin, hspd1 is required for the induction of mesenchymal stem cells and blastema formation, whereas mps1 is required at a later step for rapid cell proliferation and outgrowth. This temporal sequence of hspd1 and mps1 function is conserved in the regenerating retina. Comparison of gene expression profiles from regenerating zebrafish retina, caudal fin, and heart muscle revealed additional candidate genes potentially implicated in injury-induced epimorphic regeneration in diverse zebrafish tissues.

  9. Externally imposed electric field enhances plant root tip regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Nicolas; Hanna Ougolnikova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In plants, shoot and root regeneration can be induced in the distinctive conditions of tissue culture (in vitro) but is also observed in intact individuals (in planta) recovering from tissue damage. Roots, for example, can regenerate their fully excised meristems in planta, even in mutants with impaired apical stem cell niches. Unfortunately, to date a comprehensive understanding of regeneration in plants is still missing. Here, we provide evidence that an imposed electric field can perturb apical root regeneration in Arabidopsis. Crucially, we explored both spatial and temporal competences of the stump to respond to electrical stimulation, by varying respectively the position of the cut and the time interval between excision and stimulation. Our data indicate that a brief pulse of an electric field parallel to the root is sufficient to increase by up to two‐fold the probability of its regeneration, and to perturb the local distribution of the hormone auxin, as well as cell division regulation. Remarkably, the orientation of the root towards the anode or the cathode is shown to play a role. PMID:27606066

  10. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D

    2016-01-01

    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  11. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  12. Tissue regeneration with photobiomodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Elieza G.; Arany, Praveen R.

    2013-03-01

    Low level light therapy (LLLT) has been widely reported to reduce pain and inflammation and enhance wound healing and tissue regeneration in various settings. LLLT has been noted to have both stimulatory and inhibitory biological effects and these effects have been termed Photobiomodulation (PBM). Several elegant studies have shown the key role of Cytochrome C oxidase and ROS in initiating this process. The downstream biological responses remain to be clearly elucidated. Our work has demonstrated activation of an endogenous latent growth factor complex, TGF-β1, as one of the major biological events in PBM. TGF-β1 has critical roles in various biological processes especially in inflammation, immune responses, wound healing and stem cell biology. This paper overviews some of the studies demonstrating the efficacy of PBM in promoting tissue regeneration.

  13. Low Temperature Regenerator Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    effect. The idealized cycle achieves the same theoretical coefficient of performance (COP) as the theoretical Carnot cycle , whose limiting performance...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abstract *irt.,ed in Block 20, iI different it oe) I8. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES I9. KEY WORDS (Continute on reverse @do of noco*oy...PERFORMANCE ............ 64 3.1 Introduction ..... 0 ... . ......... ... . 64 3.2 Stirling Cycle Analysis ................. 71 3.2.1 Simple Regenerator Model

  14. [Periodontitis and tissue regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuhisa

    2005-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a destructive disease that affects the supporting structures of the teeth including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. If left untreated, patients may lose multiple teeth and extensive prosthetic treatment will be required. In order to re-engineer lost tooth-supporting tissues, various therapeutic modalities have been used clinically. Periodontal regeneration procedures including guided tissue regeneration have achieved substantial effects. However, there are several issues to be solved. They are highly technique-sensitive, applicable to limited cases which are susceptible to treatment, and supposed to have relatively low predictability. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new approaches to improve the predictability and effectiveness of regenerative therapies for periodontal tissues. Recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been introduced to restore lost tissues more effectively where the biological process of healing is mimicked. To achieve this, integration of three key elements is required: progenitor/stem cells, growth factors and the extracellular matrix scaffold. Although it has been shown that implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into periodontal osseous defects induced regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in dogs, further extensive preclinical studies are required. On the other hand, application of growth factors, particularly basic fibroblast growth factor in the treatment of human periodontitis, is promising and is now in clinical trial. Furthermore, the rate of release of growth factor from the scaffold also can profoundly affect the results of tissue engineering strategies and the development of new materials is expected. In addition, as tissue regenerative potential is negatively regulated by aging, the effects of aging have to be clarified to gain complete regeneration.

  15. Gene expression following induction of regeneration in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Expression profile of regenerating wing discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco Enrique

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regeneration is the ability of an organism to rebuild a body part that has been damaged or amputated, and can be studied at the molecular level using model organisms. Drosophila imaginal discs, which are the larval primordia of adult cuticular structures, are capable of undergoing regenerative growth after transplantation and in vivo culture into the adult abdomen. Results Using expression profile analyses, we studied the regenerative behaviour of wing discs at 0, 24 and 72 hours after fragmentation and implantation into adult females. Based on expression level, we generated a catalogue of genes with putative role in wing disc regeneration, identifying four classes: 1 genes with differential expression within the first 24 hours; 2 genes with differential expression between 24 and 72 hours; 3 genes that changed significantly in expression levels between the two time periods; 4 genes with a sustained increase or decrease in their expression levels throughout regeneration. Among these genes, we identified members of the JNK and Notch signalling pathways and chromatin regulators. Through computational analysis, we recognized putative binding sites for transcription factors downstream of these pathways that are conserved in multiple Drosophilids, indicating a potential relationship between members of the different gene classes. Experimental data from genetic mutants provide evidence of a requirement of selected genes in wing disc regeneration. Conclusions We have been able to distinguish various classes of genes involved in early and late steps of the regeneration process. Our data suggests the integration of signalling pathways in the promoters of regulated genes.

  16. ISLET FORMATION AND REGENERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the mechanisms of differentiation and development of pancreatic endocrine cells as well as pancreatic regeneration. Methods Human embryonic pancreatic tissue at 7-14 weeks of gestation was collected. Diabetes mellitus rat model was induced with 65 mg/kg of streptozotocin. Insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, nestin, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19)of pancreatic tissues were observed by immunohistochemistry. Results At 9 weeks of gestation, pancreatic epithelial cells began to co-express insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and CK19 before migration. Islet cells gradually congregated along with the increase of aging, and at 14 weeks of gestation histological examination showed islet formation. At 12 weeks of gestation, nestin-positive cells could be seen in the pancreatic mesenchyme. During early embryogenesis, islet cells of pancreatic ducts co-expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. During pancreatic regeneration after damage, nestin expression of islet cells increased. Conclusion In the early stage of embryogenesis, islet cells of primary pancreatic ducts can be differentiated to multipotential endocrine cells before migration. During tissue regeneration, pancreatic stem cells may differentiate and proliferate to form pancreatic islet.

  17. Special Effect of Ionic Liquids on the Extraction of Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat by Microwave Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted extraction approach based on ionic liquids of different chain lengths was successfully applied to the extraction of ten flavonoid glycosides from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. The pretreated sample was quantified by HPLC-ESI-MSn. The main components were identified as flavonoid glycosides, including three luteolin glycosides, three apigenin glycosides, three kaempferide glycosides, and one acacetin glycoside according to the characteristics of the corresponding CID mass spectrometric patterns. Eight ionic liquids from the imidazolium family with different chain lengths, namely, 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [Cnmim]Br, (n = 2–16 were studied as extraction medium in water. Results indicated that alkyl chain length had an irregular impact on the extraction efficiency. Moreover, the best extraction efficiency was achieved by 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution ([C12mim]Br. Besides the alkyl chain length of the cations, other factors influencing extraction efficiency were systematically investigated, including concentration of the IL solutions, extraction time, matrix-to-solvent ratio and irradiation power.

  18. Geographical distribution of cytotypes in the Chrysanthemum indicum complex as evidenced by ploidy level and genome-size variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Qian WAN; Richard J.ABBOTT; Guang-Yuan RAO

    2013-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the geographical distribution ofcytotypes within and between species comprising a polyploid complex is critical to our understanding of the history and evolution of such complexes.In the present study we examined the geographical distributions ofcytotypes within six tentatively delimited species comprising the Chrysanthemum indicum complex in China.We determined the ploidy of 188 individuals sampled from 47 populations,based on DNA content using flow cytometry.In addition,chromosome counts were made on samples of each taxon.We confirmed that all samples of C.rhombifolium and C.lavandulifolium were diploid (2n =18),those of C.hypargyrum and C.potentilloides were tetraploid (2n--36),and those of C.vestitum were hexaploid (2n =54).In contrast,we confirmed that C.indicum contained both diploid and tetraploid cytotypes.We found that in addition to marked differences in genome size between ploidy levels,there was a variation in genome size between species of the same ploidy level.Although the diploid,tetraploid,and hexaploid taxa of the complex,as well as the diploid form of C.indicum,occurred only in central and northem China,the tetraploid form of C.indicum was widespread both north and south of the Yangtze River.We suggest that the tetraploid form of C.indicum may have expanded its range southward during recent Quatemary glacial periods when forests retreated in south China as conditions became drier.

  19. Study on Processing Technology of Clarified Corn-chrysanthemum-based Beverage%澄清型玉米菊花饮料加工工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈守江; 易克传; 苏起升; 刘正; 余海兵

    2011-01-01

    The processing condition of corn-chrysanthemum- based beverage using waxy com and chrysanthemum as materials was studied. The results showed that waxy com juice was obtained by grinding the seed of waxy com in the ratio 1:10 of seed to water, and then liquefying using 1.5 mL/L α-amylase for 1.5 hours at 90℃, and saccharifing using 0.5 g/L glucoamylase for 0.5 hour at 65℃. The chrysanthemum extracted liquid was extracted in the ratio 1:200 of chrysanthemum to water. Based on organoleptic quality of beverage,the optimum mixed ratio is 3:2 of com juice to chrysanthemum extracted liquid, other ingredients are respectively: 4% suger, 0.04% citric acid, 0.06% acesulfame and 0.006% com essence. The product has better color, maintain the flavor of com and chrysanthemum, and can provide potential health benefits.%以糯玉米、滁菊花为主要原料,对澄清型玉米菊花饮料加工工艺进行了研究,确定了饮料的最佳加工工艺条件.结果表明,按1:10料水比对玉米进行磨浆,浆液过滤后加入1.5 mL、L α-淀粉酶在90℃下液化1.5小时,以及加入0.5 g/L糖化酶在65℃下糖化0.5小时,酶解处理后的浆液静置后取上清液得到糯玉米汁;以1:200的花水比浸提得到菊花浸提液.以感官品质为指标,经正交试验得到饮料最佳调配比例:玉米汁与菊花浸提液按3:2比例混合,其他配料以混合液为基准的添加量分别为:4%砂糖、0.04%柠檬酸、0.06%安赛蜜和0.006%玉米香精.生产的玉米菊花饮料不仅色泽好、保留了原有玉米和菊花的清香,且具有一定的保健功能成分.

  20. The type of ploidy of chrysanthemum is not black or white: a comparison of a molecular approach to published cytological methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik eKlie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidy is a widespread phenomenon among higher plants and a major factor shaping the structure and evolution of plant genomes. The important ornamental chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum indicum hybrid possesses a hexaploid genome with 54 chromosomes and was classified based on its evolutionary origin and cytological methods as an allopolyploid. However, it is questionable whether cytological methods are sufficient to determine the type of ploidy, and there are more informative methods available based on molecular marker analyses. Therefore, we collected segregation data for 406 dominant molecular marker alleles (327 amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLPs], 65 single-strand conformation polymorphism [SSCPs] and 14 microsatellites [EST-SSRs] in a biparental F1 population of 160 individuals. We analyzed these data for the characteristics that differ between allopolyploids and autopolyploids, including the segregation ratio of each marker, the ratio of single-dose (SD to multi-dose (MD markers, the ratio of SD markers in coupling to those in repulsion and the banding patterns of the SSRs. Whereas the analysis of the segregation ratio of each polymorphic marker indicated disomic (13 markers as well as hexasomic (eight markers inheritance, the ratio of SD markers in coupling to those in repulsion was 1:0, which is characteristic of autopolyploids. The observed ratio of SD to MD markers was close to 0.7:0.3 which is significantly different to the expected segregation for auto- and allohexaploids. Furthermore, the three EST-SSR alleles were inherited in all possible combinations and were not independent of each other, as expected for fixed heterozygosity in allopolyploids. Combining our results with published cytological data indicates that cultivated chrysanthemums should be classified as segmental allo-hexaploids.

  1. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or s...

  2. Screening of proteins interacting with the coat protein of Chrysanthemum virus B%菊花B病毒外壳蛋白互作蛋白的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楼望淮; 蒋甲福; 陈素梅; 房伟民; 陈发棣; 管志勇; 廖园

    2013-01-01

    采用PCR扩增菊花B病毒(CvB)外壳蛋白基因的开放阅读框,构建酵母双杂交系统所需的诱饵表达载体pGBKT7CVBCP,测序验证后转化Y2HGold酵母菌.将酵母菌Y187/pGADT7-cDNA与酵母菌Y2HGold/pGBKT7-CVBCP进行交配转化,在SD/-Trp/-Leu/-His/-Ade/X-α-Gal平板上筛选蓝色阳性克隆并测序pGADT7-cDNA的插入片段.结果表明:诱饵载体表达产物对酵母无毒性作用,且对报告基因无自激活作用.筛选菊花cDNA文库初步得到了与CVB外壳蛋白相互作用的E3泛素连接酶ARIADNE-like蛋白和ATP结合蛋白,为进一步研究CVB外壳蛋白与寄主的互作机制奠定了基础.%To find the protein in the chrysanthemum which was interacted with Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein,this experiment used PCR to get the ORF of the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein gene constructed vector pGBKT7-CVBCP as the bait in the yeast two-hybrid system,verified by sequencing and transformed into yeast strain Y2HGold.The yeast Y187/pGADT7-cDNA was mated with yeast Y2HGold/pGBKT7-CVBCP,then SD/-Trp/-Leu/-His/-Ade/X-α-Gal plates were used for screening of blue-positive clones whose fragments inserted in the pGADT7-cDNA were sequenced.The experiment showed that the bait protein was non-toxic to the yeast and had no self-activation function.One E3 ubiquitin ligase ARIADNE-like protein and the ATP-binding protein were interacted with the Chrysanthemum virus B coat protein and that laid the foundation of the mutual interaction mechanism between the CVB coat protein and host proteins.

  3. 亳菊啤酒抗氧化性归因分析%Research on the Anti-oxidant Capability of Bozhou Chrysanthemum Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕傲蕾; 葛永斌; 蒲顺昌

    2015-01-01

    通过测定添加不同浓度亳菊水提液的亳菊啤酒的抗氧化性和亳菊啤酒中主要抗氧化物质酚类、黄酮类物质含量的变化情况,研究外源物质添加对啤酒抗氧化性的影响及啤酒抗氧化性改变的主要因素。结果表明,添加亳菊提取液能提高啤酒中酚类、黄酮类物质的含量和啤酒的抗氧化能力;与酚类物质相比,添加亳菊提取液后,啤酒黄酮含量变化更加明显,相关系数达到0.988**,啤酒抗氧化性的提升也与黄酮类物质含量的变化具有更高的相关性。添加2-4g/L亳菊提取液制备亳菊啤酒既能保证啤酒的质量、使啤酒具有菊花独特风味,又能增强啤酒的抗氧化性、提升其保健功能。%The research was measured of the anti-oxidant capability and the changes of the phenolic com-pounds content,flavonoids content of beer to which different concentration of Bozhou chrysanthemum wa-ter extract was added to study the effects of exogenous agents on the anti-oxidant capability and the major factor changing anti-oxidant capability of beer.The result showed that adding Bozhou chrysanthemum wa-ter extract can increase the content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids and anti-oxidant capacity of beer.Compared with the phenolic compounds content,flavonoids content of beer changed more significant-ly,the increase of anti-oxidant capability of beer is more closely related with the increase of flavonoids content.Adding 2-4 g/L Bozhou chrysanthemum water extract can make the beer possess fine quality and Bozhou chrysanthemum lavor,which can also increase anti-oxidant capability of beer and the health care function.

  4. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  5. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  6. Calcium, potassium and magnesium treatment of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. "Bi Time" and callogenesis in vitro Tratamento de plantas matrizes de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. "Bi Time" com Ca2+, K+ E Mg2+ e calogênese in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Borgatto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and vegetative vigor of the donor plant are essential for the satisfactory performance of explants in vitro. In order to test the effect of potassium, calcium and magnesium nutritional status of Chrysanthemum morifolium plants on callogenesis in vitro, pot plants growing in sand were irrigated with nutrient solution containing different levels of potassium (0; 58.5; 117 and 234 mg L-1, calcium (0; 50; 100 e 200 mg L-1 and magnesium (0;12; 48 e 96 mg L-1. After 30 and 45 days, explants (shoot segments and leaf discs were collected, desinfected and inoculated on MS solid medium supplemented with 0.1 mg L-1 of kinetin and 5.0 mg L-1 of nafthalene acetic acid for callogenesis induction. Callogenesis evaluated as callus fresh weight was affected by nutrients treatment. Callus growth on leaf explants was inversely proporcional to potassium concentration and directly proportional to magnesium concentration in shoot explants. The calcium effect on callogensis of leaf explants was dependent on treatment duration. For 30 days treatment callogenseis was inversely related to calcium concentration and after 45 days was directly related to calcium concentration.A composição química e o vigor vegetativo de plantas matrizes são essenciais no desenvolvimento de explantes in vitro. Com o objetivo de testar o efeito do estado nutricional de plantas matrizes de Chrysanthemum morifolium no processo de calogênese in vitro, plantas crescendo em vasos contendo areia lavada foram irrigadas com soluções nutritivas contendo diferentes concentrações de cálcio (0, 50, 100 e 200 mg L-1, potássio (0, 58,5, 117 e 234 mg L-1, e magnésio (0,12, 48 e 96 mg L-1. Aos 30 e 45 dias de duração do tratamento com solução nutritiva, explantes (segmento caulinar e foliar das matrizes foram coletados, desinfestados e inoculados em meio de cultura MS sólido suplementado com 0,1 mg L-1 de Kin e 5,0 mg L-1 NAA. A calogênese foi afetada pelos

  7. Inibidor da ação do etileno na conservação pós-colheita de Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon Inhibitor of ethylene action in postharvest conservation of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Cristina Spricigo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A durabilidade e a qualidade pós-colheita de flores de corte são atributos fundamentais na sua valoração ao longo da cadeia produtiva e na satisfação dos consumidores. Objetivou-se, nesta pesquisa, verificar o efeito do tiossulfato de prata, associado ou não à sacarose, na manutenção da qualidade pós-colheita de hastes de crisântemos (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon . O experimento foi conduzido sob delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial testando soluções de manutenção com tiossulfato de prata (STS, sob cinco níveis (Água destilada; STS a 0,2 mM; STS a 0,2 mM + sacarose a 50 g L-1; STS a 0,4 mM; STS a 0,4 mM + sacarose a 50 g L-1; e data de amostragem, por três níveis (0; 3; 6 dias. Utilizaram-se três repetições com duas hastes florais em cada tratamento. Foram feitas avaliações físicas: coloração, massa fresca e conteúdo relativo de água (CRA; avaliações químicas: açúcares redutores e pigmentos; e avaliações qualitativas: turgescência, cor das flores, e número de botões, flores entreabertas e abertas. O tratamento com 0,2 mM de STS possibilitou melhor manutenção da massa fresca das hastes. A concentração de pigmentos e carboidratos redutores foi maior naqueles tratamentos em que a sacarose foi associada. A coloração e o conteúdo relativo de água foram favorecidos nos tratamentos STS a 0,2 e 0,4mM. A concentração de 0,2 mM de STS foi a que obteve os melhores resultados, prolongando a vida de vaso das hastes. A qualidade das hastes foi superior, tendo as melhores avaliações de conteúdo de água, cor e turgescência.The durability and postharvest quality of cut flowers are fundamental attributes in value along the production chain and in consumer satisfaction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chemical inhibitors of ethylene action on maintaining the postharvest quality of chrysanthemum stems (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cv. Dragon. The

  8. Nanobiomaterials for neural regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuan Chen; Lingling Tian; Liumin He; Seeram Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Diseases and disorders associated with nervous system such as injuries by trauma and neurodegeneration are shown to be one of the most serious problems in medicine, requiring innovative strategies to trigger and enhance the nerve regeneration. Tissue engineering aims to provide a highly biomimetic environment by using a combination of cells, materials and suitable biological cues, by which the lost body part may be regenerated or even fully rebuilt. Electrospinning, being able to produce extracellular matrix (ECM)-like nanostructures with great lfexibility in design and choice of materials, have demonstrated their great po-tential for fabrication of nerve tissue engineered scaffolds. The review here begins with a brief description of the anatomy of native nervous system, which provides basic knowledge and ideas for the design of nerve tissue scaffolds, followed by ifve main parts in the design of electrospun nerve tissue engineered scaffolds including materials selection, structural design,in vitro bioreactor, functionalization and cellular support. Performances of biomimetic electrospun nanofibrous nerve implant devices are also reviewed. Finally, future directions for advanced electrospun nerve tissue engineered scaffolds are discussed.

  9. Molecular approach to echinoderm regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndyke, M C; Chen, W C; Beesley, P W; Patruno, M

    2001-12-15

    Until very recently echinoderm regeneration research and indeed echinoderm research in general has suffered because of the lack of critical mass. In terms of molecular studies of regeneration, echinoderms in particular have lagged behind other groups in this respect. This is in sharp contrast to the major advances achieved with molecular and genetic techniques in the study of embryonic development in echinoderms. The aim of our studies has been to identify genes involved in the process of regeneration and in particular neural regeneration in different echinoderm species. Our survey included the asteroid Asterias rubens and provided evidence for the expression of Hox gene homologues in regenerating radial nerve cords. Present evidence suggests: 1) ArHox1 expression is maintained in intact radial nerve cord and may be upregulated during regeneration. 2) ArHox1 expression may contribute to the dedifferentiation and/or cell proliferation process during epimorphic regeneration. From the crinoid Antedon bifida, we have been successful in cloning a fragment of a BMP2/4 homologue (AnBMP2/4) and analysing its expression during arm regeneration. Here, we discuss the importance of this family of growth factors in several regulatory spheres, including maintaining the identity of pluripotent blastemal cells or as a classic skeletal morphogenic regulator. There is clearly substantial scope for future echinoderm research in the area of molecular biology and certain aspects are discussed in this review.

  10. Progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Fan; Haichao Li; Yuwei Wang; Yanglin Zheng; Lianjun Jia; Zhihui Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of progesterone on peripheral nerve regeneration.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Medline and OVID databases was under taken to identify articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration published in English between January 1990 and June 2004 by using the keywords of "peripheral nerve, injury, progesterone, regeneration".STUDY SELECTION: The data were primarily screened, those correlated with progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were involved, and their original articles were further searched, the repetitive studies or reviews were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 59 articles about progesterone and peripheral nerve regeneration were collected, and 26 of them were involved, the other 33 excluded ones were the repetitive studies or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: Recent researches found that certain amount of progesterone could be synthetized in peripheral nervous system, and the expression of progesterone receptor could be found in sensory neurons and Schwann cells. After combined with the receptor, endogenous and exogenous progesterone can accelerate the formation of peripheral nerve myelin sheath, also promote the axonal regeneration.CONCLUSION: Progesterone plays a role in protecting neurons, increasing the sensitivity of nerve tissue to nerve growth factor, and accelerating regeneration of nerve in peripheral nerve regeneration, which provides theoretical references for the treatment of demyelinated disease and nerve injury, as well as the prevention of neuroma, especially that the in vivo level of progesterone should be considered for the elderly people accompanied by neuropathy and patients with congenital luteal phase defect, which is of positive significance in guiding the treatment.

  11. 10种提取液对菊花花瓣中类胡萝卜素提取效率的影响%Analysis on Efficiency of Ten Extracts for Carotenoid Content in Petals of Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车越; 王普; 孙卫; 戴思兰

    2011-01-01

    类胡萝卜素是菊花中一类重要的呈色物质,高效提取类胡萝卜素对于分离和鉴定色素组成以及研究菊花的呈色机理十分重要.分别采用丙酮、甲醇、无水乙醇、无水乙醚、石油醚、丙酮∶石油醚不同体积比(1∶1、1∶2、1∶4、2∶1、4∶1 )10种提取液,提取菊花品种光辉及Reagan Orange舌状花中的的类胡萝卜素,用紫外-可见光分光光度计测定提取液中类胡萝卜素的相对含量.结果发现,不同提取液中菊花类胡萝卜素的提取量不同;醇类为菊花中类胡萝卜素较适合的提取液.结果还表明,菊花中含氧类胡萝卜素含量较高.%Carotenoid is an important kind of coloring material in chrysanthemum, and extracting this component efficiently is very important for the isolation and identification of pigment composition and the coloring mechanism of chrysanthemum. 10 different extraction solutions were used, including petroleum ether, methanol, anhydrous ethyl alcohol, anhydrous ether, acetone, acetone : petroleum ether in different ratios (1:1; 1:2; 1:4; 2:1; 4:1) to extract carotenoids in the petals of chrysanthemum 'Brilliant' and 'Reagan Orange'. The relative content of total carotenoids was calculated from UV-VIS spectrometer. The results showed that the quantity of extracts varied in 10 extracts of chrysanthemum; Alcohol was more suitable for extracting the carotenoids of chrysanthemum; It also indicated that most of the carotenoids in chrysanthemum was oxygenated compounds and it could lay the foundation for the study of compounds and content of carotenoid in chrysanthemum.

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom-Su Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1–0.5 mg/mL and 0.25–0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%, β-caryophyllene (5.71%, α-thujone (5.46%, piperitone (5.27%, epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%, α-pinene (4.97%, 1,8-cineole (4.52%, β-pinene (4.45%, and camphene (4.19%. These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Chrysanthemum boreale Essential Oil on Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factor Expression of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Park, Sun-Ju; Kim, Myung-Kon; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Sang-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Lee, Young-Rae; Lee, Young-Eun; You, Yong-Ouk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale (C. boreale) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). To investigate anticariogenic properties, and bacterial growth, acid production, biofilm formation, bacterial adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Then gene expression of several virulence factors was also evaluated. C. boreale essential oil exhibited significant inhibition of bacterial growth, adherence capacity, and acid production of S. mutans at concentrations 0.1-0.5 mg/mL and 0.25-0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The safranin staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the biofilm formation was also inhibited. The result of live/dead staining showed the bactericidal effect. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis showed that the gene expression of some virulence factors such as gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR of S. mutans was significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. In GC and GC-MS analysis, seventy-two compounds were identified in the oil, representing 85.42% of the total oil. The major components were camphor (20.89%), β-caryophyllene (5.71%), α-thujone (5.46%), piperitone (5.27%), epi-sesquiphellandrene (5.16%), α-pinene (4.97%), 1,8-cineole (4.52%), β-pinene (4.45%), and camphene (4.19%). These results suggest that C. boreale essential oil may inhibit growth, adhesion, acid tolerance, and biofilm formation of S. mutans through the partial inhibition of several of these virulence factors.

  14. Essential oils and crude extracts from Chrysanthemum trifurcatum leaves, stems and roots: chemical composition and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Ahlem Ben; Skhiri, Fethia Harzallah; Chraief, Imed; Bourgougnon, Nathalie; Hammami, Mohamed; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the leaves, stems and roots of Chrysanthemum trifurcatum (Desf.) Batt. and Trab. var. macrocephalum (viv.) were obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical compositions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), in order to get insight into similarities and differences as to their active composition. A total of fifty compounds were identified, constituting 97.84%, 99.02% and 98.20% of total oil composition of the leaves, stems and roots, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of constituents of the leaves and stems parts in the ratio of 67.88% and 51.29%, respectively. But, the major group in the roots oil was found to be sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (70.30%). The main compounds in leaves oil were limonene (26.83%), γ-terpinene (19.68%), α-pinene (9.7%) and α-terpenyl acetate (7.16%). The stems oil, contains mainly limonene (32.91%), 4-terpenyl acetate (16.33%) and γ-terpinene (5.93%), whereas the main compounds in roots oil were α-calacorene (25.98%), α-cedrene (16.55%), β-bourbobene (14.91%), elemol (7.45%) and 2-hexenal (6.88%). The crude organic extracts of leaves, stems and roots, obtained by maceration with solvents of increasing polarity: petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol, contained tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids. Meanwhile, essential oils and organic extracts were tested for antibacterial activities against eight Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, using a microdilution method. The oil and methanolic extact from C. trifurcatum leaves showed a great potential of antibacterial effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with an IC50 range of 31.25-62.5 µg/ml.

  15. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  16. The Basis of Muscle Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Musarò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle regeneration recapitulates many aspects of embryonic myogenesis and is an important homeostatic process of the adult skeletal muscle, which, after development, retains the capacity to regenerate in response to appropriate stimuli, activating the muscle compartment of stem cells, namely, satellite cells, as well as other precursor cells. Moreover, significant evidence suggests that while stem cells represent an important determinant for tissue regeneration, a “qualified” environment is necessary to guarantee and achieve functional results. It is therefore plausible that the loss of control over these cell fate decisions could lead to a pathological transdifferentiation, leading to pathologic defects in the regenerative process. This review provides an overview about the general aspects of muscle development and discusses the cellular and molecular aspects that characterize the five interrelated and time-dependent phases of muscle regeneration, namely, degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, remodeling, and maturation/functional repair.

  17. External inorganic N source enhances the uptake of As species in garland chrysanthemum (C. coronarium) amended with chicken manure bearing roxarsone and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lixian; Huang, Lianxi; He, Zhaohuan; Zhou, Changmin; Li, Guoliang; Yang, Baomei; Deng, Xiancai

    2013-06-15

    Roxarsone (ROX), a widely used feed organoarsenic additive, is excreted as itself and its metabolites in animal manure. Animal manure is commonly applied with N fertilizer to meet the N demand of crop. We investigated the accumulation of As species in garland chrysanthemum plants fertilized with chicken manure (CM) bearing ROX and its metabolites, combined with different inorganic N sources (NH₄(+), NO₃(-) and urea), respectively. The change of pH, N forms and As species in soils was examined as well. The results show that As(V), As(III) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were detectable in soils, and conversions between As species were affected by three inorganic N sources, irrespective of N form and soil pH. As(III) was the sole As species in garland chrysanthemum shoots, and As(III) and As(V) could be detected in roots. Urea, superior to NH₄(+), significantly enhanced the uptake of As species in plants by promoting plant growth, while NO₃(-) slightly reduced the As accumulation due to decreased biomass. As(III) was the dominant As compound (86.9-89.7%) in plants. Therefore, inorganic N fertilizers may inadvertently increase the risk of As contamination in plant from ROX via the way ROX→chicken→CM→soil→crop.

  18. 菊属植物DNA分子鉴定研究进展%Research Progress on DNA Molecular Identification of Plants in the Genus Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志刚; 夏叶; 郑贝; 胡志强; 高欢欢; 刘合刚

    2014-01-01

    This review summarized the research status on DNA molecular identification of plants in the genus Chrysanthemum. Some case studies on representative DNA molecular identification techniques, which included ge-nomic in situ hybridization (GISH), DNA molecular markers and DNA barcoding, were described. Simultaneously, the merits, demerits and development of the techniques were discussed. The above work provides evidence for the identi-fication and resource utilization of plants in the genus Chrysanthemum.%本文对以药用植物菊和野菊为代表的菊属植物DNA分子鉴定研究现状进行了整理和归纳,对基因组原位杂交、DNA分子标记以及DNA条形码等代表性的DNA分子鉴定技术在菊属植物中的研究进行了总结、讨论和展望,为菊属植物的分类鉴定和整理交流提供了科学依据。

  19. The influence of nitrogen fertilizations and light intersity on mother plants productivity and the rooting of cuttings of Chrysanthemum (cultivar - Horim Golden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kozłowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mother plants of Chrysanthemum cv. "Horim Golden" have been cultivated at three levels of nitrogen fertilization, dosage for a 3 l pot was 100,500,1000 mg N. The plants were growing with fluorescent lamps on (5000 lx or 10000 lx. The rooting of the cuttings obtained under such conditions took place with 5000 lx. The effect of nitrogen on the productivity of mother plants depended on the light intensity. Higher nitrogen doses affected favourably the number of cuttings, the growth and number of roots per cuttings - only when higher light intensity was applied for mother plants. Light of various intensity used in the cultivation of chrysanthemum mother plants had a significantly higher effect on the dynamics of rooting that did nitrogen fertilization. High intensity light, irrespective of the nitrogen dose used, also increased the weight and number of roots per cutting. Moreover, a clear correlation has been found between the carbohydrate content in cuttings and the dynamics of rooting and the number and weight of roots formed. The process of root formation took place later and was slower in cuttings in which a higher carbohydrate content was found; however, the number and weight of roots formed by these cuttings were considerably higher. In cuttings characterised by a low carbohydrate; total nitrogen ratio a decrease in the number and weight of roots has been found.

  20. Expression profile analysis of genes involved in horizontal gravitropism bending growth in the creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shengjun; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying gravitropic bending of shoots are poorly understood and how genes related with this growing progress is still unclear. To identify genes related to asymmetric growth in the creeping shoots of chrysanthemum, suppression subtractive hybridization was used to visualize differential gene expression in the upper and lower halves of creeping shoots of ground-cover chrysanthemum under gravistimulation. Sequencing of 43 selected clones produced 41 unigenes (40 singletons and 1 unigenes), which were classifiable into 9 functional categories. A notable frequency of genes involve in cell wall biosynthesis up-regulated during gravistimulation in the upper side or lower side were found, such as beta tubulin (TUB), subtilisin-like protease (SBT), Glutathione S-transferase (GST), and expensing-like protein (EXP), lipid transfer proteins (LTPs), glycine-rich protein (GRP) and membrane proteins. Our findings also highlighted the function of some metal transporter during asymmetric growth, including the boron transporter (BT) and ZIP transporter (ZT), which were thought primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls and played important roles in cellulose biosynthesis. CmTUB (beta tubulin) was cloned, and the expression profile and phylogeny was examined, because the cytoskeleton of plant cells involved in the plant gravitropic bending growth is well known.

  1. 富硒条件对杭白菊硒含量的影响%Effects of Selenium-Enriching Conditions on Selenium Contents in Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇延军; 陶谦; 等

    2001-01-01

    The changing regularity of different spraying selenium(Se) concentrations on Se absorbing and converting ability of chrysanthemum was studied. The effects of different spraying quantity, water resource, spraying times, batch spraying and variety on total Se content and organic Se percentage of Xiaoyangju chrysanthemum were discussed in the paper. Also the effect of different picking points on uniformity of samples and the effect of drying temperatures on Se loss were analyzed in the paper.%探讨了不同富硒浓度对杭白菊硒吸收、硒有机化和感官色泽的影响,并讨论了不同喷洒量、水质纯度、喷洒次数和茬数以及杭白菊不同结构组分对小洋菊富硒的影响,不同取点对硒喷洒和吸收的均匀性衡量的影响,干菊花干燥温度对硒损失的影响。

  2. GH receptor plays a major role in liver regeneration through the control of EGFR and ERK1/2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrad-Saadi, Amal; Lambert-Blot, Martine; Mitchell, Claudia; Bretes, Hugo; Collin de l'Hortet, Alexandra; Baud, Véronique; Chereau, Fanny; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Kopchick, John J; Liao, Lan; Xu, Jianming; Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Guidotti, Jacques-Emmanuel

    2011-07-01

    GH is a pleiotropic hormone that plays a major role in proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism via its specific receptor. It has been previously suggested that GH signaling pathways are required for normal liver regeneration but the molecular mechanisms involved have yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanisms by which GH controls liver regeneration. We performed two thirds partial hepatectomies in GH receptor (GHR)-deficient mice and wild-type littermates and showed a blunted progression in the G(1)/S transition phase of the mutant hepatocytes. This impaired liver regeneration was not corrected by reestablishing IGF-1 expression. Although the initial response to partial hepatectomy at the priming phase appeared to be similar between mutant and wild-type mice, cell cycle progression was significantly blunted in mutant mice. The main defect in GHR-deficient mice was the deficiency of the epidermal growth factor receptor activation during the process of liver regeneration. Finally, among the pathways activated downstream of GHR during G(1) phase progression, namely Erk1/2, Akt, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, we only found a reduced Erk1/2 phosphorylation in mutant mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that GH signaling plays a major role in liver regeneration and strongly suggest that it acts through the activation of both epidermal growth factor receptor and Erk1/2 pathways.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Chrysanthemum stunt viroid for the EU territory, with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd and identified and evaluated risk reduction options, particularly those listed in Council Directive 2000/29/EC. Three entry pathways were identified, with plants for planting being the most important and rated as moderately likely. CSVd is recorded in some EU Member States with a limited distribution and is regulated on chrysanthemum; host plants are widely cultivated in greenhouses and outdoors. Therefore, establishment is very likely. Short-distance spread within a crop is likely, whereas short-distance spread between different species is unlikely to moderately likely. For vegetatively propagated species, in the absence of an efficient certification system, long-distance spread is very likely and a major impact would be expected on chrysanthemum, with associated yield and quality losses. However, under the existing certification scheme for chrysanthemum plant propagation material, the probability of spread through infected cuttings is largely reduced and the direct consequences of viroid outbreaks are expected to be minor. Minimal impact is predicted for other ornamental hosts and a minor impact for solanaceous vegetable crops. The indirect effects of CSVd are considered to be limited, with the exception of eradication. Risk reduction options addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material are likely to be the most effective and feasible. These include the current EU measures, as well as a statutory certification system with associated statutory import requirements or, failing that, but potentially less effective, the use of voluntary industry standards. It is difficult to disentangle the benefits of the current legislation from those of the industry-developed chrysanthemum certification system. The high efficacy of current measures is supported by the absence or limited presence of CSVd in the EU and by the limited number of

  4. Rational use of electrical energy in artificial light in the production of chrysanthemum seedlings in greenhouse; Uso racional de energia eletrica em iluminacao artificial na producao de mudas de crisantemo em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    The type of artificial illumination employed for chrysanthemum cultivation in greenhouses to induce photo period effect will determine its growing rate as well as the energy consumption. Incandescent filament is currently employed for artificial illumination in chrysanthemum nursery to induce photo period effect. Nowadays new illumination technology is being tested aiming energy consumption reduction. The application of illumination based on electrical discharge in sodium or mercury vapor, as well as tubular or integrated compact fluorescent bulbs in chrysanthemum cultivation is identified as the objective of this research work. The experimental part of this work was carried out in a commercial greenhouse model employing five chrysanthemum variety as Papiro, Lindy White, Mona Lisa Rose, Euro Speedy and Stateman during winter and summer period. Parameters employed to the study variety behavior included: production per area, fresh matter weight, presence of flower sprouts and moisture content. The parameters known as electrical variables, like consumption, demand and power factor, together with the treatment energy efficiency index were used to analyze the employed illumination technologies and light bulbs type. Results showed differences between weight of fresh flowers and moisture content for the flowers variety under consideration. Productivity per unit area was noticed to be larger for discharge technology when compared with filament bulbs, for both varieties being tested. The lowest flower sprout occurrence was associated to the discharge technology with the exception of the variety Stateman produced with incandescent bulbs of 100 W in the winter plot. The unique exception related to discharge technology was associated to the White 23 W Integrated Compact Fluorescent bulb yielding 2.4% of flower sprouts compared with 0% of other bulb types associated to the production of the variety Euro Speedy. It was noticed from the results that the yellow integrated compact

  5. A regenerable bitumen composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudzuki, K.; Asakava, Y.; Matsui, A.; Ogava, A.

    1982-10-18

    The regenerable bitumin composition includes the bitumen material (asphalt, oxidized bitumen, petroleum or asphalt pitch) emulsified by an cation emulsifier (alkylamine or an imidazole derivative) and additionally by a noniononic emulsifier (polyoxyethylenamine), an amide, which contains greater than 1 amide groups per molecule (amide derivative, imidazoline), an epoxide compound with greater than 1 epoxide group per molecule (preferably with an epoxy equivalent of 180 to 500), an inorganic compound which hardens in water (Portland cement or silicate cement) and additionally, water. The total content of the second third components is 1 to 200 parts per million to 100 parts of the first component, while the content of the fourth component is from 1 to 400 parts. The water content in the composition is 5 to 1,000 percent of the total content of the first three components. The patented composition is characterized by high stability, strength, chemical stability, resistance to water and good adhesion properties.

  6. Photon regeneration plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, A.

    2006-12-15

    Precision experiments exploiting low-energy photons may yield information on particle physics complementary to experiments at high-energy colliders, in particular on new very light and very weakly interacting particles, predicted in many extensions of the standard model. Such particles may be produced by laser photons send along a transverse magnetic field. The laser polarization experiment PVLAS may have seen the first indirect signal of such particles by observing an anomalously large rotation of the polarization plane of photons after the passage through a magnetic field. This can be interpreted as evidence for photon disappearance due to particle production. There are a number of experimental proposals to test independently the particle interpretation of PVLAS. Many of them are based on the search for photon reappearance or regeneration, i.e. for ''light shining through a wall''. At DESY, the Axion-Like Particle Search (ALPS) collaboration is currently setting up such an experiment. (orig.)

  7. Photon Regeneration Plans

    CERN Document Server

    Ringwald, A

    2006-01-01

    Precision experiments exploiting low-energy photons may yield information on particle physics complementary to experiments at high-energy colliders, in particular on new very light and very weakly interacting particles, predicted in many extensions of the standard model. Such particles may be produced by laser photons send along a transverse magnetic field. The laser polarization experiment PVLAS may have seen the first indirect signal of such particles by observing an anomalously large rotation of the polarization plane of photons after the passage through a magnetic field. This can be interpreted as evidence for photon disappearance due to particle production. There are a number of experimental proposals to test independently the particle interpretation of PVLAS. Many of them are based on the search for photon reappearance or regeneration, i.e. for ``light shining through a wall''. At DESY, the Axion-Like Particle Search (ALPS) collaboration is currently setting up such an experiment.

  8. Impaired exercise tolerance and skeletal muscle myopathy in sulfonylurea receptor-2 mutant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Douglas; Pytel, Peter; Katz, Sophie; Earley, Judy U.; Collins, Keith; Metcalfe, Jamie; Lang, Roberto M.

    2009-01-01

    By sensing intracellular energy levels, ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels help regulate vascular tone, glucose metabolism, and cardioprotection. SUR2 mutant mice lack full-length KATP channels in striated and smooth muscle and display a complex phenotype of hypertension and coronary vasospasm. SUR2 mutant mice also display baseline cardioprotection and can withstand acute sympathetic stress better than normal mice. We now studied response to a form of chronic stress, namely that induced by 4 wk of daily exercise on SUR2 mutant mice. Control mice increased exercise capacity by 400% over the training period, while SUR2 mutant mice showed little increase in exercise capacity. Unexercised SUR2 mutant showed necrotic and regenerating fibers in multiple muscle skeletal muscles, including quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and diaphragm muscles. Unlike exercised control animals, SUR2 mutant mice did not lose weight, presumably due to less overall exertion. Unexercised SUR2 mutant mice showed a trend of mildly reduced cardiac function, measured by fractional shortening, (46 ± 4% vs. 57 ± 7% for SUR2 mutant and control, respectively), and this decrease was not exacerbated by chronic exercise exposure. Despite an improved response to acute sympathetic stress and baseline cardioprotection, exercise intolerance results from lack of SUR2 KATP channels in mice. PMID:19675276

  9. Biomaterial selection for tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y; Zhou, Hong; Chen, Lili; Mao, Jeremy J

    2011-10-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth.

  10. Cardiac Regeneration and Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Mignone, John; MacLellan, W Robb

    2015-10-01

    After decades of believing the heart loses the ability to regenerate soon after birth, numerous studies are now reporting that the adult heart may indeed be capable of regeneration, although the magnitude of new cardiac myocyte formation varies greatly. While this debate has energized the field of cardiac regeneration and led to a dramatic increase in our understanding of cardiac growth and repair, it has left much confusion in the field as to the prospects of regenerating the heart. Studies applying modern techniques of genetic lineage tracing and carbon-14 dating have begun to establish limits on the amount of endogenous regeneration after cardiac injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms of this regeneration remained unclear. These same studies have also revealed an astonishing capacity for cardiac repair early in life that is largely lost with adult differentiation and maturation. Regardless, this renewed focus on cardiac regeneration as a therapeutic goal holds great promise as a novel strategy to address the leading cause of death in the developed world.

  11. Comparison of antioxidant activities of different parts from snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.) and identification of their natural antioxidants using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L X; Hu, D J; Lam, S C; Ge, L; Wu, D; Zhao, J; Long, Z R; Yang, W J; Fan, B; Li, S P

    2016-01-08

    Snow chrysanthemum (Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt.), a world-widely well-known flower tea material, has attracted more and more attention because of its beneficial health effects such as antioxidant activity and special flavor. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-sulfonic acid)diammonium salt (ABTS) based assay was employed for comparison and identification of antioxidants in different samples of snow chrysanthemum. The results showed that snow chrysanthemum flowers possessed the highest while stems presented the lowest antioxidant capacities. Fourteen detected peaks with antioxidant activity were temporarily identified as 3,4',5,6,7-pentahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, chlorogenic acid, 2R-3',4',8-trihydroxyflavanone-7-O-glucoside, flavanomarein, flavanocorepsin, flavanokanin, quercetagitin-7-O-glucoside, 3',5,5',7-tetrahydroxyflavanone-O-hexoside, marein, maritimein, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, coreopsin, okanin and acetyl-marein by comparing their UV spectra, retention times and MS data with standards or literature data. Antioxidants existed in snow chrysanthemum are quite different from those reported in Chrysanthemum morifolium, a well-known traditional beverage in China, which indicated that snow chrysanthemum may be a promising herbal tea material with obvious antioxidant activity.

  12. Regenerable Contaminant Removal System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Regenerable Contaminant Removal System (RCRS) is an innovative method to remove sulfur and halide compounds from contaminated gas streams to part-per-billion...

  13. Instructive composites for bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, D.

    2012-01-01

    Developing new biomaterials for tissue regeneration requires careful balance between many factors, which is challenging because, on one side, such materials must provide complex information, through their physicochemical properties to actively interact with the biological surroundings and induce tis

  14. Tissue engineering for periodontal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Richard T; Conte, Greg; Nishimine, Dee; Dault, Scott

    2005-03-01

    As a result of periodontal regeneration research, a series of clinical techniques have emerged that permit tissue engineering to be performed for more efficient regeneration and repair of periodontal defects and improved implant site development. Historically, periodontal regeneration research has focused on a quest for "magic filler" material. This search has led to the development of techniques utilizing autologous bone and bone marrow, allografts, xenografts, and various man-made bone substitutes. Though these techniques have had limited success, the desire for a more effective regenerative approach has resulted in the development of tissue engineering techniques. Tissue engineering is a relatively new field of reconstructive biology which utilizes mechanical, cellular, or biologic mediators to facilitate reconstruction/regeneration of a particular tissue. In periodontology, the concept of tissue engineering had its beginnings with guided tissue regeneration, a mechanical approach utilizing nonresorbable membranes to obtain regeneration in defects. In dental implantology, guided bone regeneration membranes +/- mechanical support are used for bone augmentation of proposed implant placement sites. With the availability of partially purified protein mixture from developing teeth and growth factors from recombinant technology, a new era of tissue engineering whereby biologic mediators can be used for periodontal regeneration. The advantage of recombinant growth factors is this tissue engineering device is consistent in its regenerative capacity, and variations in regenerative response are due to individual healing response and/or poor surgical techniques. In this article, the authors review how tissue engineering has advanced and discuss its impact on the clinical management of both periodontal and osseous defects in preparation for implant placement. An understanding of these new tissue engineering techniques is essential for comprehending today's ever

  15. Nerves Regulate Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Heart Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Ahmed I.; O’Meara, Caitlin C.; Gemberling, Matthew; Zhao, Long; Bryant, Donald M.; Zheng, Ruimao; Gannon, Joseph B.; Cai, Lei; Choi, Wen-Yee; Egnaczyk, Gregory F.; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, C. Geoffrey; MacRae, Calum A.; Poss, Kenneth D.; Lee, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Some organisms, such as adult zebrafish and newborn mice, have the capacity to regenerate heart tissue following injury. Unraveling the mechanisms of heart regeneration is fundamental to understanding why regeneration fails in adult humans. Numerous studies have revealed that nerves are crucial for organ regeneration, thus we aimed to determine whether nerves guide heart regeneration. Here, we show using transgenic zebrafish that inhibition of cardiac innervation leads to reduction of myocyte...

  16. 药用菊花种苗计算机快速鉴别研究%Rapid identification system for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛鹏飞; 郭巧生; 汪涛; 邵清松

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To achieve the rapid identification for seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium, the discriminant equation was established and the software for rapid identification was designed. Method: Leaf structure of medicinal Chrysanthemum of 12 cultivars was analyzed to establish the discriminant equation based on variance analysis and discriminant analysis. On this basis, the identification program and software (based on the python language) were designed. Result: Through the analysis of variance and multiple comparisons for the 11 leaf parameter index data of 12 different cultivars, it was found that that the leaf parameters were significant different from each other and reached significant levels. The discriminant equation and the rapid identification software were set up based on the analysis of various indicators. Conclusion: The rapid identification system of seedlings of medicinal Chrysanthemum could be achieved through the establishment of discriminant equation combined with computer technology.%目的:通过建立药用菊花种苗判别方程,设计出快速鉴别软件,实现对其种苗的快速鉴别.方法:采用方差分析和判别分析对12个栽培类型的药用菊花叶形结构11个指标进行分析,建立判别方程.在此基础上,设计鉴别程序,编写软件(基于Python语言).结果:通过对12个不同类型药用菊花的11个叶形参数指标数据进行方差分析和多重比较,各叶形参数之间均达到显著水平,各类型之间均存在显著性差异.对各指标进行判别分析,建立判别方程,并设计了药用菊花快速判别软件.结论:通过建立的药用菊花种苗判别方程,结合计算机技术,能够实现对药用菊花种苗的快速判别.

  17. Mutations in gfpt1 and skiv2l2 cause distinct stage-specific defects in larval melanocyte regeneration in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Tsung Yang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a single cell type regeneration paradigm in the zebrafish provides an opportunity to investigate the genetic mechanisms specific to regeneration processes. We previously demonstrated that regeneration melanocytes arise from cell division of the otherwise quiescent melanocyte precursors following larval melanocyte ablation with a small molecule, MoTP. The ease of ablating melanocytes by MoTP allows us to conduct a forward genetic screen for mechanisms specific to regeneration from such precursors or stem cells. Here, we reported the identification of two mutants, eartha(j23e1 and julie(j24e1 from a melanocyte ablation screen. Both mutants develop normal larval melanocytes, but upon melanocyte ablation, each mutation results in a distinct stage-specific defect in melanocyte regeneration. Positional cloning reveals that the eartha(j23e1 mutation is a nonsense mutation in gfpt1 (glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase 1, the rate-limiting enzyme in glucosamine-6-phosphate biosynthesis. Our analyses reveal that a mutation in gfpt1 specifically affects melanocyte differentiation (marked by melanin production at a late stage during regeneration and that gfpt1 acts cell autonomously in melanocytes to promote ontogenetic melanocyte darkening. We identified that the julie(j24e1 mutation is a splice-site mutation in skiv2l2 (superkiller viralicidic activity 2-like 2, a predicted DEAD-box RNA helicase. Our in situ analysis reveals that the mutation in skiv2l2 causes defects in cell proliferation, suggesting that skiv2l2 plays a role in regulating melanoblast proliferation during early stages of melanocyte regeneration. This finding is consistent with previously described role for cell division during larval melanocyte regeneration. The analyses of these mutants reveal their stage-specific roles in melanocyte regeneration. Interestingly, these mutants identify regeneration-specific functions not only in early stages of the

  18. 5种切花菊内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况研究%Research on Isolation, Identification and Distribution of Endophytic Fungi from Five Cut Chrysanthemums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马龑; 赵大克; 郑丽

    2014-01-01

    研究了5个常见切花菊品种内生真菌的分离鉴定与分布情况,以寻找切花菊自身抗性真菌并为今后开展生物防治提供基础资料。找到了切花菊各部位材料的表面灭菌处理最优方法,发现切花菊内生真菌在分离中出现幼嫩部位内生真菌分离数量明显高于成熟部位,并且根分布最多,叶次之,茎最少。5个切花菊的内生真菌中,镰刀菌属( Fusarium)和枝孢属( Cladosporium)为优势菌群。5个切花菊品种内生真菌的分布存在一定相似度,但不同品种还是存在自己特有的内生真菌,说明切花菊的内生真菌分布有一定多样性。%The isolation, identification and distribution of endophytic fungi from five common cut chrysanthemum cultivars were studied to find out their own resistant fungi and provide fundamental data for the future studies on biological control.The optimal method for surface sterilization treatment of various parts of cut chrysanthemum materials was found.It was found that the quantity of isolated endophytic fungi from the tender part of cut chrysanthemums was obviously higher than that from the mature part, and the distribution of endophytic fungi in different parts showed the following order:root>leaf>stem.Among endophytic fungi from five cut chrysanthemums, Fusarium and Cladosporium were dominant fungal community.Five cut chrysanthemum cultivars were some-what similar in the distribution of endophytic fungi, but different cultivars also had their own unique endophytic fungi, indicating that the distribution of endophytic fungi in cut chrysanthemums had a certain diversity.

  19. Agarose-chitosan-C18 film micro-solid phase extraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography for the determination of phenanthrene and pyrene in chrysanthemum tea samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nyuk Ting; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Nazihah; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini

    2017-05-01

    Agarose-chitosan-immobilized octadecylsilyl-silica (C18) film micro-solid phase extraction (μSPE) was developed and applied for the determination of phenanthrene (PHE) and pyrene (PYR) in chrysanthemum tea samples using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The film of blended agarose and chitosan allows good dispersion of C18, prevents the leaching of C18 during application and enhances the film mechanical stability. Important μSPE parameters were optimized including amount of sorbent loading, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time. The matrix match calibration curves showed good linearity (r⩾0.994) over a concentration range of 1-500ppb. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed method showed good limits of detection (0.549-0.673ppb), good analyte recoveries (100.8-105.99%) and good reproducibilities (RSDs⩽13.53%, n=3) with preconcentration factors of 4 and 72 for PHE and PYR, respectively.

  20. Effect of Mn-doping on the growth mechanism and electromagnetic properties of chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Jun-Feng; You Tian-Gui; Zhang Zhi-Yong; Tian Jiang-Xiao; Yun Jiang-Ni; Zhao Wu

    2011-01-01

    Chrysanthemum-like ZnO nanowire clusters with different Mn-doping concentrations are prepared by a hydrothermal process. The microstructure, morphology and electromagnetic properties are characterized by x-ray diffractometer high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), a field emission environment scanning electron microscope (FEESEM)and a microwave vector network analyser respectively.The experimental results indicate that the asprepared products are Mn-doped ZnO single crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure, that the growth habit changes due to Mn-doping and that a good magnetic loss property is found in the Mn-doped ZnO products, and theaverage magnetic loss tangent tan6m is up to 0.170099 for 3% Mn-doping, while the dielectric loss tangent tanSe is weakened, owing to the fact that ions Mn2+ enter the crystal lattice of ZnO.

  1. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Diel (24 h) rhythms are believed to be of great importance to plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in fluctuating environments. However, it is unclear how plants that have evolved to experience regular day–night patterns will respond to irregular light environments that disturb...... diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf...... expansion, indicating a resetting of these activities with a temporal trigger in the early morning. The starch pool was relatively stable in long-day plants and marginally affected by the change in the time-of-day application in light followed by long days with a night interruption. This was in contrast...

  2. Cementum and Periodontal Ligament Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicanin, Danijela; Hynes, K; Han, J; Gronthos, S; Bartold, P M

    2015-01-01

    The unique anatomy and composition of the periodontium make periodontal tissue healing and regeneration a complex process. Periodontal regeneration aims to recapitulate the crucial stages of wound healing associated with periodontal development in order to restore lost tissues to their original form and function and for regeneration to occur, healing events must progress in an ordered and programmed sequence both temporally and spatially, replicating key developmental events. A number of procedures have been employed to promote true and predictable regeneration of the periodontium. Principally, the approaches are based on the use of graft materials to compensate for the bone loss incurred as a result of periodontal disease, use of barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration and use of bioactive molecules. More recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been integrated into research and applications of regenerative dentistry, including periodontics, to aim to manage damaged and lost oral tissues, through reconstruction and regeneration of the periodontium and alleviate the shortcomings of more conventional therapeutic options. The essential components for generating effective cellular based therapeutic strategies include a population of multi-potential progenitor cells, presence of signalling molecules/inductive morphogenic signals and a conductive extracellular matrix scaffold or appropriate delivery system. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered suitable candidates for cell-based tissue engineering strategies owing to their extensive expansion rate and potential to differentiate into cells of multiple organs and systems. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from multiple tissue sources have been investigated in pre-clinical animal studies and clinical settings for the treatment and regeneration of the periodontium.

  3. a Low Temperature Regenerator Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, A.; Helvensteijn, B. P. M.; Feller, J. R.; Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.

    2008-03-01

    Testing regenerators presents an interesting challenge. When incorporated into a cryocooler, a regenerator is intimately coupled to the other components: expander, heat exchangers, and compressor. It is difficult to isolate the performance of any single component. We have developed a low temperature test facility that will allow us to separate the performance of the regenerator from the rest of the cryocooler. The purpose of the facility is the characterization of test regenerators using novel materials and/or geometries in temperature ranges down to 15 K. It consists of the following elements: The test column has two regenerators stacked in series. The coldest stage regenerator is the device under test. The warmer stage regenerator contains a stack of stainless steel screen, a well-characterized material. A commercial cryocooler is used to fix the temperatures at both ends of the test regenerator, cooling both heat exchangers flanging the regenerator stack. Heaters allow varying the temperatures and allow measurement of the remaining cooling power, and thus, regenerator effectiveness. A linear compressor delivers an oscillating pressure to the regenerator assembly. An inertance tube and reservoir provide the proper phase difference between mass flow and pressure. This phase shift, along with the imposed temperature differential, simulates the conditions of the test regenerator when used in an actual pulse tube cryocooler. This paper presents development details of the regenerator test facility, and test results on a second stage, stainless steel screen test regenerator.

  4. Genomic DNA Extraction from Chrysanthemum Using High Salt CTAB Method%高盐沉淀CTAB法提取温室菊花基因组DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马月萍; 戴思兰

    2009-01-01

    Based on CTAB method,some protocal was modified according to the physiological characteristics of high containing contents of polyphenolics and polysaeeharides in Chrysanthemum.Adding 50% volume of 5 mol·L-1 NaCI into the solution which precipitating.High quality genomic DNA can be extracted from Chrysanthemum using the improved method.The DNA WaS preferable enough to be used as PCR template and digested by restriction enzyme completely and other studies of molecular biology.%根据温室菊花植物组织富含多酚、多糖的具体特性,对CTAB法加以改进:在待沉淀液中加入1/2体积5 mol·L~NaCI.改进后的方法获得的DNA质量良好,电泳条带清晰,提取过程无明显的DNA降解,基本上排除了多酚物质的干扰.以提取的DNA为模板,用一对引物扩增菊花中18S基因,得到条带单一,大小与已知一致,说明获得的DNA可以进行PCR扩增,EcoR I 酶切基因组DNA图谱表明,提取的DNA能被限制性内切酶完全酶切,可以满足相关的分子生物学研究.

  5. Reconocimiento y dispersión de hongos causantes del "picamento" (Rayspeck en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium ram en condiciones de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustos B. Indiana

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available The recongnition of the fungi causing ray speck and their dispersion in chrysantemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Three speciea were identified: Alternaria alternata (FR Keiasler, Alternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth lPleospora herbarum Raben Horst. The analysis ofthe disease dispersion was based on a random deaign with three repetitions. The number of coloniea, the temperature and relative humidity were evaluated in four different placea of the culture. The temperature was found to be the most important factor afecting the production and releaSe of conidia. The sporulation reached ita peak at noon (21°C.El reconocimiento de hongos causantes del "picamento" (ray speek y su dispersión en crisantemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium RAM cv. Polaris, se realizó bajo condiciones de invernadero. Se identificaron tres especies de hongos que producen los síntomas: ALternaria alternata (FR Keissler, ALternaria zinniae Ellis, Stemphylium botryosum, Wallroth CPkospora herbarum Raben Horst. Para el análisis de la dispersión de la enfermedad, se usó un diseño completamente al azar con tres repeticiones. En cuatro sitios del cultivo se evaluó el número de colonias, la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Se encontró que la temperatura es el factor más importante para la producción y liberación de conidias. A las 12 M. (21°C se presentó la mayor esporulación.

  6. Bone morphogenetic proteins: Periodontal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam M Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins form a unique group of proteins within the transforming growth factor superfamily of genes and have a vital role in the regulation in the bone induction and maintenance. The activity of bone morphogenetic proteins was first identified in the 1960s, but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human bone morphogenetic proteins in the 1980s, because of their osteoinductive potential. Bone morphogenetic proteins have gained a lot of interest as therapeutic agents for treating periodontal defects. A systematic search for data related to the use of bone morphogenetic proteins for the regeneration of periodontal defects was performed to recognize studies on animals and human (PUBMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and Google search. All the studies included showed noticeable regeneration of periodontal tissues with the use of BMP.

  7. Contemporaryperspective on endogenous myocardial regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Considering the complex nature of the adult heart,it is no wonder that innate regenerative processes,while maintaining adequate cardiac function, fall shortin myocardial jeopardy. In spite of these enchaining limitations, cardiac rejuvenation occurs as well asrestricted regeneration. In this review, the backgroundas well as potential mechanisms of endogenousmyocardial regeneration are summarized. We presentand analyze the available evidence in three subsequentsteps. First, we examine the experimental researchdata that provide insights into the mechanisms andorigins of the replicating cardiac myocytes, includingcell populations referred to as cardiac progenitor cells(i.e. , c-kit+ cells). Second, we describe the role ofclinical settings such as acute or chronic myocardialischemia, as initiators of pathways of endogenousmyocardial regeneration. Third, the hitherto conductedclinical studies that examined different approachesof initiating endogenous myocardial regeneration infailing human hearts are analyzed. In conclusion, wepresent the evidence in support of the notion thatregaining cardiac function beyond cellular replacementof dysfunctional myocardium via initiation of innateregenerative pathways could create a new perspectiveand a paradigm change in heart failure therapeutics.Reinitiating cardiac morphogenesis by reintroducingdevelopmental pathways in the adult failing heart mightprovide a feasible way of tissue regeneration. Basedon our hypothesis "embryonic recall", we present firstsupporting evidence on regenerative impulses in themyocardium, as induced by developmental processes.

  8. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  9. Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129...

  10. Muscle regeneration in mitochondrial myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, T O; Hauerslev, S; Jeppesen, T D;

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathies cover a diverse group of disorders in which ragged red and COX-negative fibers are common findings on muscle morphology. In contrast, muscle degeneration and regeneration, typically found in muscular dystrophies, are not considered characteristic features of mitochondrial...... myopathies. We investigated regeneration in muscle biopsies from 61 genetically well-defined patients affected by mitochondrial myopathy. Our results show that the perturbed energy metabolism in mitochondrial myopathies causes ongoing muscle regeneration in a majority of patients, and some were even affected...... by a dystrophic morphology. The results add to the complexity of the pathogenesis underlying mitochondrial myopathies, and expand the knowledge about the impact of energy deficiency on another aspect of muscle structure and function....

  11. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  12. Some principles of regeneration in mammalian systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bruce M

    2005-11-01

    This article presents some general principles underlying regenerative phenomena in vertebrates, starting with the epimorphic regeneration of the amphibian limb and continuing with tissue and organ regeneration in mammals. Epimorphic regeneration following limb amputation involves wound healing, followed shortly by a phase of dedifferentiation that leads to the formation of a regeneration blastema. Up to the point of blastema formation, dedifferentiation is guided by unique regenerative pathways, but the overall developmental controls underlying limb formation from the blastema generally recapitulate those of embryonic limb development. Damaged mammalian tissues do not form a blastema. At the cellular level, differentiation follows a pattern close to that seen in the embryo, but at the level of the tissue and organ, regeneration is strongly influenced by conditions inherent in the local environment. In some mammalian systems, such as the liver, parenchymal cells contribute progeny to the regenerate. In others, e.g., skeletal muscle and bone, tissue-specific progenitor cells constitute the main source of regenerating cells. The substrate on which regeneration occurs plays a very important role in determining the course of regeneration. Epimorphic regeneration usually produces an exact replica of the structure that was lost, but in mammalian tissue regeneration the form of the regenerate is largely determined by the mechanical environment acting on the regenerating tissue, and it is normally an imperfect replica of the original. In organ hypertophy, such as that occurring after hepatic resection, the remaining liver mass enlarges, but there is no attempt to restore the original form.

  13. Phoenix is required for mechanosensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Behra

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In humans, the absence or irreversible loss of hair cells, the sensory mechanoreceptors in the cochlea, accounts for a large majority of acquired and congenital hearing disorders. In the auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia of the inner ear, hair cells are accompanied by another cell type called supporting cells. This second cell population has been described as having stem cell-like properties, allowing efficient hair cell replacement during embryonic and larval/fetal development of all vertebrates. However, mammals lose their regenerative capacity in most inner ear neuroepithelia in postnatal life. Remarkably, reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish are different in that they can regenerate hair cells throughout their lifespan. The lateral line in amphibians and in fish is an additional sensory organ, which is used to detect water movements and is comprised of neuroepithelial patches, called neuromasts. These are similar in ultra-structure to the inner ear's neuroepithelia and they share the expression of various molecular markers. We examined the regeneration process in hair cells of the lateral line of zebrafish larvae carrying a retroviral integration in a previously uncharacterized gene, phoenix (pho. Phoenix mutant larvae develop normally and display a morphologically intact lateral line. However, after ablation of hair cells with copper or neomycin, their regeneration in pho mutants is severely impaired. We show that proliferation in the supporting cells is strongly decreased after damage to hair cells and correlates with the reduction of newly formed hair cells in the regenerating phoenix mutant neuromasts. The retroviral integration linked to the phenotype is in a novel gene with no known homologs showing high expression in neuromast supporting cells. Whereas its role during early development of the lateral line remains to be addressed, in later larval stages phoenix defines a new class of proteins implicated in hair cell regeneration.

  14. Phoenix is required for mechanosensory hair cell regeneration in the zebrafish lateral line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behra, Martine; Bradsher, John; Sougrat, Rachid; Gallardo, Viviana; Allende, Miguel L; Burgess, Shawn M

    2009-04-01

    In humans, the absence or irreversible loss of hair cells, the sensory mechanoreceptors in the cochlea, accounts for a large majority of acquired and congenital hearing disorders. In the auditory and vestibular neuroepithelia of the inner ear, hair cells are accompanied by another cell type called supporting cells. This second cell population has been described as having stem cell-like properties, allowing efficient hair cell replacement during embryonic and larval/fetal development of all vertebrates. However, mammals lose their regenerative capacity in most inner ear neuroepithelia in postnatal life. Remarkably, reptiles, birds, amphibians, and fish are different in that they can regenerate hair cells throughout their lifespan. The lateral line in amphibians and in fish is an additional sensory organ, which is used to detect water movements and is comprised of neuroepithelial patches, called neuromasts. These are similar in ultra-structure to the inner ear's neuroepithelia and they share the expression of various molecular markers. We examined the regeneration process in hair cells of the lateral line of zebrafish larvae carrying a retroviral integration in a previously uncharacterized gene, phoenix (pho). Phoenix mutant larvae develop normally and display a morphologically intact lateral line. However, after ablation of hair cells with copper or neomycin, their regeneration in pho mutants is severely impaired. We show that proliferation in the supporting cells is strongly decreased after damage to hair cells and correlates with the reduction of newly formed hair cells in the regenerating phoenix mutant neuromasts. The retroviral integration linked to the phenotype is in a novel gene with no known homologs showing high expression in neuromast supporting cells. Whereas its role during early development of the lateral line remains to be addressed, in later larval stages phoenix defines a new class of proteins implicated in hair cell regeneration.

  15. Rac1 selective activation improves retina ganglion cell survival and regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Lorenzetto

    Full Text Available In adult mammals, after optic nerve injury, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs do not regenerate their axons and most of them die by apoptosis within a few days. Recently, several strategies that activate neuronal intracellular pathways were proposed to prevent such degenerative processes. The rho-related small GTPase Rac1 is part of a complex, still not fully understood, intracellular signaling network, mediating in neurons many effects, including axon growth and cell survival. However, its role in neuronal survival and regeneration in vivo has not yet been properly investigated. To address this point we intravitreally injected selective cell-penetrating Rac1 mutants after optic nerve crush and studied the effect on RGC survival and axonal regeneration. We injected two well-characterized L61 constitutively active Tat-Rac1 fusion protein mutants, in which a second F37A or Y40C mutation confers selectivity in downstream signaling pathways. Results showed that, 15 days after crush, both mutants were able to improve survival and to prevent dendrite degeneration, while the one harboring the F37A mutation also improved axonal regeneration. The treatment with F37A mutant for one month did not improve the axonal elongation respect to 15 days. Furthermore, we found an increase of Pak1 T212 phosphorylation and ERK1/2 expression in RGCs after F37A treatment, whereas ERK1/2 was more activated in glial cells after Y40C administration. Our data suggest that the selective activation of distinct Rac1-dependent pathways could represent a therapeutic strategy to counteract neuronal degenerative processes in the retina.

  16. A two-step mechanism underlies the planar polarization of regenerating sensory hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Schier, Hernán; Hudspeth, A J

    2006-12-05

    The restoration of planar cell polarity is an essential but poorly understood step toward physiological recovery during sensory-organ regeneration. Investigating this issue in the lateral line of the zebrafish, we found that hair cells regenerate in pairs along a single axis established by the restricted localization and oriented division of their progenitors. By analyzing mutants lacking the planar-polarity determinant Vangl2, we ascertained that the uniaxial production of hair cells and the subsequent orientation of their hair bundles are controlled by distinct pathways, whose combination underlies the establishment of hair-cell orientation during development and regeneration. This mechanism may represent a general principle governing the long-term maintenance of planar cell polarity in remodeling epithelia.

  17. Temporal regulation of planarian eye regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Deochand, Michelle E.; Birkholz, Taylor R.; Wendy S Beane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While tissue regeneration is typically studied using standard injury models, in nature injuries vary greatly in the amount and location of tissues lost. Planarians have the unique ability to regenerate from many different injuries (including from tiny fragments with no brain), allowing us to study the effects of different injuries on regeneration timelines. We followed the timing of regeneration for one organ, the eye, after multiple injury types that involved tissue loss (single‐ an...

  18. Deer antler regeneration: cells, concepts, and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst; Szuwart, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    The periodic replacement of antlers is an exceptional regenerative process in mammals, which in general are unable to regenerate complete body appendages. Antler regeneration has traditionally been viewed as an epimorphic process closely resembling limb regeneration in urodele amphibians, and the terminology of the latter process has also been applied to antler regeneration. More recent studies, however, showed that, unlike urodele limb regeneration, antler regeneration does not involve cell dedifferentiation and the formation of a blastema from these dedifferentiated cells. Rather, these studies suggest that antler regeneration is a stem-cell-based process that depends on the periodic activation of, presumably neural-crest-derived, periosteal stem cells of the distal pedicle. The evidence for this hypothesis is reviewed and as a result, a new concept of antler regeneration as a process of stem-cell-based epimorphic regeneration is proposed that does not involve cell dedifferentiation or transdifferentiation. Antler regeneration illustrates that extensive appendage regeneration in a postnatal mammal can be achieved by a developmental process that differs in several fundamental aspects from limb regeneration in urodeles.

  19. Semiconductor devices for all-optical regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Bischoff, Svend; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2003-01-01

    We review different implementations of semiconductor devices for all-optical regeneration. A general model will be presented for all-optical regeneration in fiber links, taking into consideration the trade-off between non-linearity and noise. Furthermore we discuss a novel regenerator type, based...

  20. All optical regeneration using semiconductor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Öhman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne

    All-optical regeneration is a key functionality for implementing all-optical networks. We present a simple theory for the bit-error-rate in links employing all-optical regenerators, which elucidates the interplay between the noise and and nonlinearity of the regenerator. A novel device structure ...... is analyzed, emphasizing general aspects of active semiconductor waveguides....

  1. Skeletal muscle development and regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grefte, S.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Torensma, R.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2007-01-01

    In the late stages of muscle development, a unique cell population emerges that is a key player in postnatal muscle growth and muscle regeneration. The location of these cells next to the muscle fibers triggers their designation as satellite cells. During the healing of injured muscle tissue, satell

  2. Bone regeneration during distraction osteogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, L.R.; Everts, V.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bone has the capacity to regenerate in response to injury. During distraction osteogenesis, the renewal of bone is enhanced by gradual stretching of the soft connec- tive tissues in the gap area between two separated bone segments. This procedure has received much clinical atten- tion as a way to co

  3. Mechanical device for tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Maij, E.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a mechanical device for tissue- regeneration inside a patient, comprising means (2, 3) to place a scaffold for the tissue under mechanical stress. Said means comprise a first device-part (2) and a second device-part (3) which parts are arranged to be movable with respect to

  4. The Origin of Garden Chrysanthemums and Molecular Phylogeny of Dendranthema in China based on Nucleotide Sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF Intergenic Spacer Regions in cpDNA%基于核糖体DNA的ITS序列和叶绿体trnT-trnL及trnL-trnF基因间区的菊花起源与中国菊属植物分子系统学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵惠恩; 汪小全; 陈俊愉; 洪德元

    2003-01-01

    Several sequences were applied to resolve phylogenetic relationships within Dendranthema and clarify the origin of garden chrysanthemums including sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnT-trnL and trnL-trnF intergenic spacer regions in cpDNA. The relationships among the species are so close that the three sequences could only provide limited information. From the evidence presented, we suggest that: ① D.rhmobifolium be the chloroplast donor of D.vestitum (HN) with the resembling morphology and the same trnT/L IGS sequence. ② D.vestitum, a putative ancestor, may be not the chloroplast donor of garden chrysanthemums. D.lavand-ulifolium might be the chloroplast donor of the type population of D.indicum (HN) or the direct chloroplast donor of the ancient garden chrysanthemum cultivar. ③ D.zawaskii might be not the ancestor of garden chrysanthemums.

  5. Optical Regeneration and Noise in Semiconductor Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip

    2005-01-01

    In this report all-optical 2R-regeneration in optical communication systems is investigated. A simple regenerator device based on concatenated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electro absorbers (EAs) is introduced and examined. Experiments show that the monolithic SOA-EA 2R-regenerator......In this report all-optical 2R-regeneration in optical communication systems is investigated. A simple regenerator device based on concatenated semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electro absorbers (EAs) is introduced and examined. Experiments show that the monolithic SOA-EA 2R...

  6. Bacterial mutants for enhanced succinate production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, G.J.E.; Beauprez, J.J.R.; Foulquie, M.M.R.; Heijnen, J.J.; Maertens, J.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for obtaining enhanced metabolite production in micro-organisms, and to mutants and/or transformants obtained with said method. More particularly, it relates to bacterial mutants and/or transformants for enhanced succinate production, especially mutants and/

  7. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  8. Nerves Regulate Cardiomyocyte Proliferation and Heart Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed I; O'Meara, Caitlin C; Gemberling, Matthew; Zhao, Long; Bryant, Donald M; Zheng, Ruimao; Gannon, Joseph B; Cai, Lei; Choi, Wen-Yee; Egnaczyk, Gregory F; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey; MacRae, Calum A; Poss, Kenneth D; Lee, Richard T

    2015-08-24

    Some organisms, such as adult zebrafish and newborn mice, have the capacity to regenerate heart tissue following injury. Unraveling the mechanisms of heart regeneration is fundamental to understanding why regeneration fails in adult humans. Numerous studies have revealed that nerves are crucial for organ regeneration, thus we aimed to determine whether nerves guide heart regeneration. Here, we show using transgenic zebrafish that inhibition of cardiac innervation leads to reduction of myocyte proliferation following injury. Specifically, pharmacological inhibition of cholinergic nerve function reduces cardiomyocyte proliferation in the injured hearts of both zebrafish and neonatal mice. Direct mechanical denervation impairs heart regeneration in neonatal mice, which was rescued by the administration of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and nerve growth factor (NGF) recombinant proteins. Transcriptional analysis of mechanically denervated hearts revealed a blunted inflammatory and immune response following injury. These findings demonstrate that nerve function is required for both zebrafish and mouse heart regeneration.

  9. Single epicardial cell transcriptome sequencing identifies Caveolin 1 as an essential factor in zebrafish heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jingli; Navis, Adam; Cox, Ben D; Dickson, Amy L; Gemberling, Matthew; Karra, Ravi; Bagnat, Michel; Poss, Kenneth D

    2016-01-15

    In contrast to mammals, adult zebrafish have a high capacity to regenerate damaged or lost myocardium through proliferation of cardiomyocytes spared from damage. The epicardial sheet covering the heart is activated by injury and aids muscle regeneration through paracrine effects and as a multipotent cell source, and has received recent attention as a target in cardiac repair strategies. Although it is recognized that epicardium is required for muscle regeneration and itself has high regenerative potential, the extent of cellular heterogeneity within epicardial tissue is largely unexplored. Here, we performed transcriptome analysis on dozens of epicardial lineage cells purified from zebrafish harboring a transgenic reporter for the pan-epicardial gene tcf21. Hierarchical clustering analysis suggested the presence of at least three epicardial cell subsets defined by expression signatures. We validated many new pan-epicardial and epicardial markers by alternative expression assays. Additionally, we explored the function of the scaffolding protein and main component of caveolae, caveolin 1 (cav1), which was present in each epicardial subset. In BAC transgenic zebrafish, cav1 regulatory sequences drove strong expression in ostensibly all epicardial cells and in coronary vascular endothelial cells. Moreover, cav1 mutant zebrafish generated by genome editing showed grossly normal heart development and adult cardiac anatomy, but displayed profound defects in injury-induced cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration. Our study defines a new platform for the discovery of epicardial lineage markers, genetic tools, and mechanisms of heart regeneration.

  10. Investigation and Analysis of Large -Flowered Chrysanthemum Cultivars in Shandong Province%山东省大菊品种资源调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒新艳; 张俊丽; 卢洁

    2015-01-01

    本研究对山东省大菊主栽城市进行了连续3年的调查和整理,共鉴定统计到195个品种,其中日本品种81个,中国品种114个;平瓣类(52%)和管瓣类(28%)品种多,畸瓣类(5%)和桂瓣类(1%)品种少;叠球型、翻卷型和钩环型3个花型的品种数量多,缺少平盘型、蜂窝型和单管型等7个花型的品种;黄色和白色品种多,两者之和超过了一半,绿色、红色和橙色品种少,不足10个;各花色在瓣型和花型中的分布极不均匀,黄色叠球型品种最多。该调查结果有利于正确认识大菊品种资源,保护珍稀资源,合理开展引种、育种和产业开发等工作。%One hundred and ninety -five Chrysanthemum cultivars were identified through the investiga-tion in the major cultivation cities of Shandong Province in 3 consecutive years,which included 81 Japanese cultivars and 114 native cultivars.The flat -petal group (52%)and quilled -petal group (28%)took the most part of cultivars,whereas the filiform -petal group (5%)and anemone -petal group (1%)had even less cultivars.These quantity of globular,reflexed and open bead types were the most,while that of 7 types, such as plate -petal types,honeycomb types and single quill type was lack.The cultivars yellow and white flowers were the most with their,sum was more than half of the total.There were less than ten cultivars with green,red and orange flowers.The distribution of each color in the petal groups and flower types was very un-even,and the yellow globular type was the most one.These results were propitious to cognize the cultivars of Chrysanthemum,protect valuable resources and develop the introduction,breeding and industry exploiting.

  11. Wolfberry Longan dates Chrysanthemum Compound Beverage%枸杞桂圆红枣菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何尧州; 吴忠义; 李莹; 曹晓虹

    2016-01-01

    Wolfberry,longan,red dates and chrysanthemum are used as raw material. White sugar,gelatin,sodium carboxymethylcellulose,and other accessories are applied. A health function,and easy to drink and carry composite drink is developed. Studying material handling,ratio,extraction,filtration,and adding accessories,production process is thus developed. Through single factor test,extraction conditions,orthogonal and sensory evaluation,to determine the optimal fomular of compound beverage:the ratio of longan:Wolfberry: dates:Chrysanthemum: water(mass ratio)is 1∶ 0.25∶ 0.5∶0.01∶40;extract complex juice at 85 ℃ ~95 ℃ water bath. Its color,aroma,taste and other indicators are of the best morphology. Accessory is made from 0.06% xanthan gum,0.08% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and 10%of white sugar.%以枸杞、桂圆、红枣和菊花为原料,添加白砂糖、明胶和羧甲基纤维素钠等辅料。研制一款既具有保健功能,又饮用、携带方便的复合饮料。研究通过原料处理、配比、浸提、过滤和添加辅料等得出加工工艺流程,经单因素实验、浸提条件、正交试验和感官评定确定复合饮料的最佳配比是桂圆:枸杞:红枣:菊花:水(质量之比)为1∶0.25∶0.5∶0.01∶40,在85~95℃水浴条件下浸提得复合汁,其色泽、香气、口味和组织形态等指标最佳。辅料的配比为0.06%黄原胶、0.08%羧甲基纤维素钠和10%白砂糖。

  12. Avaliação do enraizamento de estacas de crisântemo (Chrysanthemum morifolium L. cv. white Reagan 606 tratadas com ácido indolbutírico (IBA Rooting evaluation in Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. white Reagan 606 stem cuttings as affected by indolbutyric acid (IBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Cuquel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de doses crescentes do ácido indolbutírico (IBA e de diferentes tempos de imersão no enraizamento de estacas de Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. O fator doses foi aplicado em quatro níveis: 0, 500, 1000 e 1500 ppm de IBA e o fator tempo em três níveis: 5s, 1h e 2h. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, onde as dosagens de IBA foram aplicadas como tratamento principal. O experimento foi instalado em caixas de isopor, em casa de vegetação sob nebulização, tendo vermiculita como substrato. O momento adequado para o transplante foi avaliado através da leitura de uma repetição adicional utilizada como controle. Obteve-se enraizamento em todas as combinações de tratamento, mesma na ausência de IBA. De maneira geral o tratamento rápido tende a ser mais facilmente eficiente quando combinado com as maiores dosagens, enquanto os tratamentos mais demorados com as menores dosagens.The effect of rising concentrations of indolbutyric acid (IBA solutions was evaluated with different exposition times in stem cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. White Reagan 606. The applied concentrations were 0,500,1000 and 1500 ppm of IBA during 5s, 1h and 2h, in a randomized complete split-plot block design, with IBA concentrations as main treatment. The experiment was installed in styrofoam trays in a green-house with a mist device and vermiculite as substrate. Transplanting time was determined by an additional block. All treatments induced rooting even in the absence of IBA. In a general sense the fastest treatments tended to be the more efficient when combined with higher concentrations.

  13. Identification of a Long Rice Spikelet Mutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xian-jun; WANG Bin; HAN Zan-ping; XIE Zhao-hui; MOU Chun-hong; WANG Xu-dong

    2004-01-01

    A spontaneously occurring rice (Oryza sativa L. ) mutant, characterized by homeotic conversion in glumes and stamens, was found in the progeny of a cross. The mutant showed long glumes and glumaceous lodicules and morphological transformation of stamens into pistils. Mutant florets consisted of 1 to 3 completely developed pistils, some pistilloid stamens with filaments, but tipped by bulged tissue and 0 to 3 stigmas. It seens that the mutant phenotype of the homeotic conversions in glumes and stamens is similar to that of the B loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum. The mutant is controlled by a single recessive gene as a segregation ratio of 3:1 (wild type to mutant plants) was observed in the F2 generation.

  14. Guided tissue regeneration. Absorbable barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H L; MacNeil, R L

    1998-07-01

    Over the past 15 years, techniques aimed at regeneration of lost periodontal tissue have become widely used and accepted in clinical practice. Among these techniques are those which use the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR), wherein barriers (i.e., membranes) are used to control cell and tissue repopulation of the periodontal wound. A variety of non-absorbable and absorbable barriers have been developed and used for this purpose, with a trend in recent years toward increased use of absorbable GTR materials. This article describes the evolution of absorbable barrier materials and overview materials available for clinical use today. In addition, advantages and disadvantages of these materials are discussed, as well as possible new developments in barrier-based GTR therapy.

  15. The mitochondrial import gene tomm22 is specifically required for hepatocyte survival and provides a liver regeneration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, Silvia; Ober, Elke A.; Walsh, Susan; Cortes-Hernandez, Paulina; Verkade, Heather; Koehler, Carla M.; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding liver development should lead to greater insights into liver diseases and improve therapeutic strategies. In a forward genetic screen for genes regulating liver development in zebrafish, we identified a mutant – oliver – that exhibits liver-specific defects. In oliver mutants, the liver is specified, bile ducts form and hepatocytes differentiate. However, the hepatocytes die shortly after their differentiation, and thus the resulting mutant liver consists mainly of biliary tissue. We identified a mutation in the gene encoding translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane 22 (Tomm22) as responsible for this phenotype. Mutations in tomm genes have been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, but most studies on the effect of defective mitochondrial protein translocation have been carried out in cultured cells or unicellular organisms. Therefore, the tomm22 mutant represents an important vertebrate genetic model to study mitochondrial biology and hepatic mitochondrial diseases. We further found that the temporary knockdown of Tomm22 levels by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides causes a specific hepatocyte degeneration phenotype that is reversible: new hepatocytes repopulate the liver as Tomm22 recovers to wild-type levels. The specificity and reversibility of hepatocyte ablation after temporary knockdown of Tomm22 provides an additional model to study liver regeneration, under conditions where most hepatocytes have died. We used this regeneration model to analyze the signaling commonalities between hepatocyte development and regeneration. PMID:20483998

  16. A study on the regeneration performance characteristics of an internally heated regenerator in a liquid desiccant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Ji Hyun [Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Dong Soon; Kim, Young Lyoul; Kim, Seon Chang [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    This paper presents a study on the regeneration performance characteristics of an internally heated regenerator applicable to a liquid desiccant system. The internally heated regenerator used in this study was designed and manufactured to provide better regeneration performance. An experimental setup was established to examine the regeneration performance. LiCl aqueous solution was used as working fluid. Variables to evaluate regeneration performance characteristics of the internally heated regenerator were dry bulb temperature, relative humidity and velocity of regeneration air, mass flow rate, temperature and concentration of the LiCl aqueous solution. The experimental conditions were chosen by using a 1/2 fractional factorial DOE. Regeneration rate and regeneration effectiveness were taken as results. From the results, solution concentration and regeneration air relative humidity have strong effects on the regeneration rate. The regeneration effectiveness was affected mostly by regeneration air velocity.

  17. In vivo electroporation of morpholinos into the regenerating adult zebrafish tail fin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, David R; Godwin, Alan R; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-03-29

    Certain species of urodeles and teleost fish can regenerate their tissues. Zebrafish have become a widely used model to study the spontaneous regeneration of adult tissues, such as the heart, retina, spinal cord, optic nerve, sensory hair cells, and fins. The zebrafish fin is a relatively simple appendage that is easily manipulated to study multiple stages in epimorphic regeneration. Classically, fin regeneration was characterized by three distinct stages: wound healing, blastema formation, and fin outgrowth. After amputating part of the fin, the surrounding epithelium proliferates and migrates over the wound. At 33 °C, this process occurs within six hours post-amputation (hpa, Figure 1B). Next, underlying cells from different lineages (ex. bone, blood, glia, fibroblast) re-enter the cell cycle to form a proliferative blastema, while the overlying epidermis continues to proliferate (Figure 1D). Outgrowth occurs as cells proximal to the blastema re-differentiate into their respective lineages to form new tissue (Figure 1E). Depending on the level of the amputation, full regeneration is completed in a week to a month. The expression of a large number of gene families, including wnt, hox, fgf, msx, retinoic acid, shh, notch, bmp, and activin-betaA genes, is up-regulated during specific stages of fin regeneration. However, the roles of these genes and their encoded proteins during regeneration have been difficult to assess, unless a specific inhibitor for the protein exists, a temperature-sensitive mutant exists or a transgenic animal (either overexpressing the wild-type protein or a dominant-negative protein) was generated. We developed a reverse genetic technique to quickly and easily test the function of any gene during fin regeneration. Morpholino oligonucleotides are widely used to study loss of specific proteins during zebrafish, Xenopus, chick, and mouse development. Morpholinos basepair with a complementary RNA sequence to either block pre-mRNA splicing or m

  18. Lupeol is one of active components in the extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Se Chan; Lim, Sue Yeon; Song, Yoon-Jae

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE) strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced NF-κB activation. To identify an active compound(s) in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF), HeLa or Burkitt's lymphoma (BL41) cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and reduces NF-κB-dependent LCL viability.

  19. Lupeol is one of active components in the extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Chan Kang

    Full Text Available We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1-induced NF-κB activation. To identify an active compound(s in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF, HeLa or Burkitt's lymphoma (BL41 cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and reduces NF-κB-dependent LCL viability.

  20. Isolation and Identification of Flavonoids in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.%亳菊花中黄酮类化合物的分离鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜洪芳; 张玖; 单承莺

    2008-01-01

    菊花为菊科植物菊(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)的干燥头状花序,为了进一步揭示药理活性的物质基础,为该中药的开发利用和质量评价提供依据,安徽亳州亳菊花中的黄酮类化合物进行了系统研究.毫菊经醇提、萃取、硅胶柱层析与纯化得到4个黄酮类化合物.通过理化常数和波谱解析鉴定了其中3个化舍物的结构,分别为:芹菜素-7-甲醚(Apigenin-7-methyl ether)(Ⅰ)、芹菜素(Apigenin)(Ⅱ)和未犀草素(Luteolin)(Ⅲ),另外1个化合物的结构尚在鉴定中.上述3个化合物均为首次从该植物中分到的已知合物.

  1. Comparative effects of hydrogen chloride gas on tomato and chrysanthemum. I. Distribution and accumulation of chloride following exposure. II. Pathological anatomy of hydrogen chloride gas injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, D.S.

    1969-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas damage to plants has not been a historically important problem. However, recent practices in a number of industries, particularly glass manufacturing and pyrolysis of waste plastics, have increased the seriousness of the problem. Studies were carried out under carefully controlled exposure conditions to determine the effects of HCl gas on a relatively sensitive and a relatively resistant plant species. The macroscopic symptoms of most importance in acute damage to tomato and chrysanthemum are glazing of the lower surface, and a bifacial bronzing of interveinal and marginal areas of leaves. Microscopically, glazing was shown to be caused by a collapse of the lower epidermal cells and a partial disorganization of the spongy mesophyll of leaves. Bronzing was shown to be caused by the further collapse of the spongy mesophyll, and in some cases the palisade mesophyll and upper epidermis. Analysis of plant tissues for their free chloride content following an exposure to HCl gas was done with cell-free water extracts which were titrated on an automatic chloride titrator. On the basis of such studies, evidence suggest that the mechanism of accumulation of chlorides in plants is similar to that of fluorides, and that in subacute doses, chlorides are translocated toward the extremities of the foliar portions of the plant. In areas where a number of different types of pollution sources exist, and symptomotology is not definitive in pinpointing the source, chloride analysis of plant tissues should prove valuable as an aid to diagnosis if HCl gas was suspected.

  2. 茼蒿挥发油化学成分分析%Chemical Constitutes of Essential Oil from Chrysanthemum.L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程霜; 崔庆新; 牛梅菊

    2001-01-01

    利用气相色谱-质谱联用法对茼蒿挥发油成分进行了分析,经毛细管色谱分离出了38种组分,并确认了32种成分,检出率达84.21%,并用气相色谱面积归一化法测定了各种成分的相对百分含量,其主要成分为4-甲基-2-戊烯、4-甲基-2,3-二氢呋喃、β-蒎烯、苯甲醛等。%The essential oil from Chrysanthemum. Lwas analyzed by capillary GC / MSD method. 38 peaks were isolated and 32 compounds were identified while the ratio of identification was 84. 21%. The relative contents of constitutes wrer determined by area normalizing method. The mainly chemical constitutes were: 2 - pentene - 4 - methyl -, 4 -methgl - 2, 3 - dihydro - furan, benzaldehyde, beta - pinene, etc.

  3. Analysis of different technologies of artificial illumination for production of chrysanthemum in protecting environment; Analise de diferentes tecnologias de iluminacao artificial para producao de crisantemos em ambiente protegido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Eduardo; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: eduardo.david@gr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In protecting environment chrysanthemum's production, the artificial illumination type used to induce the photo period, affects the growing and development of plants, as well the electric power consumed in this process of production. The most useful illumination type is by filament. Today, new artificial illumination technologies have been studied to reduce the electric power consumption. This work has been development in a commercial greenhouse with four varieties. The preliminary results have showed that the utilization of discharge lamps does not affect significantly the flower's development considering the weight and presence of flower bud. In the analyzed period, the reduction on power electricity consumption was 60,13% on the sodium-vapor lamp, 41,66% on the mercury-vapor lamp, 60,52% on the fluorescent tube lamp and 50,32% on the compact fluorescent-integrated lamp in comparison with the incandescent lamp that nowadays it is used. It shows the high intensity discharge technology (HID technology) has saved more electricity than the incandescent lamp. (author)

  4. Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

  5. Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.

  6. Epimorphic regeneration in mice is p53-independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, L Matthew; Demarest, Renee M; Clark, Lise; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Bedelbaeva, Kamila; Anderson, Rhonda; Snyder, Andrew; Capobianco, Anthony J; Lieberman, Paul; Feigenbaum, Lionel; Heber-Katz, E

    2010-09-15

    The process of regeneration is most readily studied in species of sponge, hydra, planarian and salamander (i.e., newt and axolotl). The closure of MRL mouse ear pinna through-and-through holes provides a mammalian model of unusual wound healing/regeneration in which a blastema-like structure closes the ear hole and cartilage and hair follicles are replaced. Recent studies, based on a broad level of DNA damage and a cell cycle pattern of G₂/M "arrest," showed that p21(Cip1/Waf1) was missing from the MRL mouse ear and that a p21-null mouse could close its ear holes. Given the p53/p21 axis of control of DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and senescence, we tested the role of p53 in the ear hole regenerative response. Using backcross mice, we found that loss of p53 in MRL mice did not show reduced healing. Furthermore, cross sections of MRL. p53(-/-) mouse ears at 6 weeks post-injury showed an increased level of adipocytes and chondrocytes in the region of healing whereas MRL or p21(-/-) mice showed chondrogenesis alone in this same region, though at later time points. In addition, we also investigated other cell cycle-related mutant mice to determine how p21 was being regulated. We demonstrate that p16 and Gadd45 null mice show little healing capacity. Interestingly, a partial healing phenotype in mice with a dual Tgfβ/Rag2 knockout mutation was seen. These data demonstrate an independence of p53 signaling for mouse appendage regeneration and suggest that the role of p21 in this process is possibly through the abrogation of the Tgfβ/Smad pathway.

  7. Proteomic analysis of zebrafish caudal fin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sandeep; Singh, Sachin K; Lakshmi, Mula G Meena; Meghah, Vuppalapaty; Bhatti, Bhawna; Swamy, Cherukuvada V Brahmendra; Sundaram, Curam S; Idris, Mohammed M

    2012-06-01

    The epimorphic regeneration of zebrafish caudal fin is rapid and complete. We have analyzed the biomechanism of zebrafish caudal fin regeneration at various time points based on differential proteomics approaches. The spectrum of proteome changes caused by regeneration were analyzed among controls (0 h) and 1, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postamputation involving quantitative differential proteomics analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and differential in-gel electrophoresis Orbitrap analysis. A total of 96 proteins were found differentially regulated between the control nonregenerating and regenerating tissues of different time points for having at least 1.5-fold changes. 90 proteins were identified as differentially regulated for regeneration based on differential in-gel electrophoresis analysis between the control and regenerating tissues. 35 proteins were characterized for its expression in all of the five regenerating time points against the control samples. The proteins identified and associated with regeneration were found to be directly allied with various molecular, biological, and cellular functions. Based on network pathway analysis, the identified proteome data set for regeneration was majorly associated in maintaining cellular structure and architecture. Also the proteins were found associated for the cytoskeleton remodeling pathway and cellular immune defense mechanism. The major proteins that were found differentially regulated during zebrafish caudal fin regeneration includes keratin and its 10 isoforms, cofilin 2, annexin a1, skeletal α1 actin, and structural proteins. Annexin A1 was found to be exclusively undergoing phosphorylation during regeneration. The obtained differential proteome and the direct association of the various proteins might lead to a new understanding of the regeneration mechanism.

  8. Mechanisms of platelet-mediated liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J

    2016-08-04

    Platelets have multiple functions beyond their roles in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelets support liver regeneration, which is required after partial hepatectomy and acute or chronic liver injury. Although it is widely assumed that platelets stimulate liver regeneration by local excretion of mitogens stored within platelet granules, definitive evidence for this is lacking, and alternative mechanisms deserve consideration. In-depth knowledge of mechanisms of platelet-mediated liver regeneration may lead to new therapeutic strategies to treat patients with failing regenerative responses.

  9. Regeneration: the ultimate example of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawala, Prayag; Tanaka, Elly M; Currie, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    The outcome of wound repair in mammals is often characterized by fibrotic scaring. Vertebrates such as zebrafish, frogs, and salamanders not only heal scarlessly, but also can regenerate lost appendages. Decades of study on the process of animal regeneration has produced key insights into the mechanisms of how complex tissue is restored. By examining our current knowledge of regeneration, we can draw parallels with mammalian wound healing to identify the molecular determinants that produce such differing outcomes.

  10. Liver regeneration in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Lagomarsino

    2012-01-01

    Steatosis is the accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, which may be the result of liver regeneration or pathological processes such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Despite its importance, in both cases the exact mechanism that prevails in fatty liver regeneration is poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that patients with fatty liver express dispar regeneration, possibly due to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species generated by inflammatory processes caused by ...

  11. Regeneration-associated macrophages: a novel approach to boost intrinsic regenerative capacity for axon regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Min Jung Kwon; Hyuk Jun Yoon; Byung Gon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Axons in central nervous system (CNS) do not regenerate spontaneously after injuries such as stroke and traumatic spinal cord injury. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for the regeneration failure. Although intensive research efforts have been invested on extrinsic regeneration inhibitors, the extent to which glial inhibitors contribute to the regeneration failure in vivo still remains elusive. Recent experimental evidence has rekindled interests in intrinsic factors for th...

  12. Emerin increase in regenerating muscle fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Squarzoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fate of emerin during skeletal muscle regeneration was investigated in an animal model by means of crush injury. Immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and mRNA analysis demonstrated that emerin level is increased in regenerating rat muscle fibers with respect to normal mature myofibers. This finding suggests an involvement of emerin during the muscle fiber regeneration process, in analogy with its reported involvement in muscle cell differentiation in vitro. The impairment of skeletal muscle physiological regeneration or reorganization could be a possible pathogenetic mechanism for Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

  13. The spark of life: electricity and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Jonathan M W

    2007-09-25

    A recent paper shows that a proton pump, the vacuolar-type adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase), is necessary for Xenopus tadpole tail regeneration. The V-ATPase is synthesized in distal cells of the regeneration bud as an early response to amputation, and its role in regeneration is specifically to pump H+ out of cells. Although the downstream effects of proton movement are not known, they may be mediated through changes in membrane potential. This work could reopen a consideration of the role of electric fields in regeneration, an issue that has caused much controversy in the past.

  14. Angiogenesis is inhibitory for mammalian digit regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Yan, Mingquan; Simkin, Jennifer; Ketcham, Paulina D; Leininger, Eric; Han, Manjong; Muneoka, Ken

    2014-06-01

    The regenerating mouse digit tip is a unique model for investigating blastema formation and epimorphic regeneration in mammals. The blastema is characteristically avascular and we previously reported that blastema expression of a known anti-angiogenic factor gene, Pedf, correlated with a successful regenerative response (Yu, L., Han, M., Yan, M., Lee, E. C., Lee, J. & Muneoka, K. (2010). BMP signaling induces digit regeneration in neonatal mice. Development, 137, 551-559). Here we show that during regeneration Vegfa transcripts are not detected in the blastema but are expressed at the onset of differentiation. Treating the amputation wound with vascular endothelial growth factor enhances angiogenesis but inhibits regeneration. We next tested bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), another known mediator of angiogenesis, and found that BMP9 is also a potent inhibitor of digit tip regeneration. BMP9 induces Vegfa expression in the digit stump suggesting that regenerative failure is mediated by enhanced angiogenesis. Finally, we show that BMP9 inhibition of regeneration is completely rescued by treatment with pigment epithelium-derived factor. These studies show that precocious angiogenesis is inhibitory for regeneration, and provide compelling evidence that the regulation of angiogenesis is a critical factor in designing therapies aimed at stimulating mammalian regeneration.

  15. 菊花精油化学成分分析及其在再造烟叶加香中的应用%Analysis of Chemical Components of Chrysanthemum Essential Oil and Its Applicationin Reconstituted Tobacco Flavoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史跃龙; 严新龙; 卢岚

    2014-01-01

    The chemical components of chrysanthemum essential oil were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by GC-MC. The results showed that 43 components in chrysanthemum essential oil were identified,containing five kinds of ketones,four-teen kinds of alcohols,six kinds of esters,three kinds of acids,and fifteen hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds. Tobacco flavoring test was found that when the content of chrysanthemum essential oil added in every 1 00 g of tobacco concentrate were in the range of 1 .5‰ to 2 .0‰ ,the offensive odor of reconstituted tobacco could be eliminated and the taste of cigarette smoke could be improved. The optimal result was achieved when adding quantity was 2.0‰ .%采用气相色谱-质谱联用仪对菊花精油的化学成分进行分析。结果显示,从菊花精油中检测鉴别出43种物质,其中酮类5种、醇类14种、酯类6种、酸类3种、烃类及杂环类15种。加香试验发现,在每100 g烟草浓缩液中加入1.5‰~2.0‰(质量分数)菊花精油能够有效改善造纸法再造烟叶的刺激性和灼烧感,改善吸味并提高香气质量,在添加比例为2.0‰(质量分数)时效果最佳。

  16. The Amount of Regenerated Heat Inside the Regenerator of a Stirling Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Škorpík

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analytical computing of the regenerated heat inside the regenerator of a Stirling engine. The total sum of the regenerated heat is constructed as a function of the crank angle in the case of Schmidt’s idealization. 

  17. Early hepatic regeneration index and completeness of regeneration at 6 months after partial hepatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kele, P. G.; de Boer, M.; van der Jagt, E. J.; Lisman, T.; Porte, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The liver is known to regenerate following partial hepatectomy (PH), but little is known about the timing and completeness of regeneration relative to the resected volume. This study examined whether liver volume regeneration following PH and its completeness 6 months after surgery is re

  18. Biochemical and histological characterization of tomato mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C. Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical responses inherent to antioxidant systems as well morphological and anatomical properties of photomorphogenic, hormonal and developmental tomato mutants were investigated. Compared to the non-mutant Micro-Tom (MT, we observed that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was enhanced in the diageotropica (dgt and lutescent (l mutants, whilst the highest levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were observed in high pigment 1 (hp1 and aurea (au mutants. The analyses of antioxidant enzymes revealed that all mutants exhibited reduced catalase (CAT activity when compared to MT. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX was enhanced in both sitiens (sit and notabilis (not mutants, whereas in not mutant there was an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Based on PAGE analysis, the activities of glutathione reductase (GR isoforms III, IV, V and VI were increased in l leaves, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoform III was reduced in leaves of sit, epi, Never ripe (Nr and green flesh (gf mutants. Microscopic analyses revealed that hp1 and au showed an increase in leaf intercellular spaces, whereas sit exhibited a decrease. The au and hp1 mutants also exhibited a decreased in the number of leaf trichomes. The characterization of these mutants is essential for their future use in plant development and ecophysiology studies, such as abiotic and biotic stresses on the oxidative metabolism.Neste trabalho, analisamos as respostas bioquímicas inerentes ao sistema antioxidante, assim como propriedades morfológicas e anatômicas de mutantes fotomorfogenéticos e hormonais de tomateiro. Comparados ao não mutante Micro-Tom (MT, observamos que o conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA aumentou nos mutantes diageotropica (dgt e lutescent (l, enquanto os maiores níveis de H2O2 foram encontrados nos mutantes high pigment 1 (hp1 e aurea (au. Análises de enzimas antioxidantes mostraram que todos os mutantes reduziram a atividade de catalase (CAT quando comparado a MT. A

  19. Scaffolding Biomaterials for Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Cao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Completely repairing of damaged cartilage is a difficult procedure. In recent years, the use of tissue engineering approach in which scaffolds play a vital role to regenerate cartilage has become a new research field. Investigating the advances in biological cartilage scaffolds has been regarded as the main research direction and has great significance for the construction of artificial cartilage. Native biological materials and synthetic polymeric materials have their advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantages can be overcome through either physical modification or biochemical modification. Additionally, developing composite materials, biomimetic materials, and nanomaterials can make scaffolds acquire better biocompatibility and mechanical adaptability.

  20. Bone regeneration and stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidson, K; Abdallah, B M; Applegate, L A

    2011-01-01

    This invited review covers research areas of central importance for orthopedic and maxillofacial bone tissue repair, including normal fracture healing and healing problems, biomaterial scaffolds for tissue engineering, mesenchymal and fetal stem cells, effects of sex steroids on mesenchymal stem...... cells, use of platelet rich plasma for tissue repair, osteogenesis and its molecular markers. A variety of cells in addition to stem cells, as well as advances in materials science to meet specific requirements for bone and soft tissue regeneration by addition of bioactive molecules, are discussed....

  1. Influence of Flavon from Chrysanthemum Morifolium on Apoptosis of HUVECs%杭白菊黄酮对高糖诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖慧; 周旦阳; 寿成珉; 牟新

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of flavon from Chrysanthemum morifolium on the apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs). Methods HUVECs were treated with high glucose(22mol/L) and then with flavone from Chrysanthemum morifolium of different concentrations(100,200,and 400mg/mL) for 72h. The cell morphological changes were observed by microscope and cell proliferation was determined by MTT chromatometry. Results The cell viability in flavon groups with different concentrations were higher than that in high glucose group(P<0.05 or P<0.01),with the most increase in 400mg/mL flavon group(P<0.01). Conclusion Flavonoids from Chrysanthemum morifolium can inhibit the high-glucose-induced apoptosis of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. This indicated that flavon from Chrysanthemum morifolium have protective effects on HUVECs.%目的:探讨杭白菊黄酮对高糖诱导的人脐静脉内皮细胞(HUVEC)凋亡的影响,分析杭白菊黄酮对血管内皮细胞的保护作用。方法 HUVEC分正常对照组、高糖组(22mol/L)及低、中、高浓度杭白菊黄酮组(100、200、400mg/mL),作用24~72h后,显微镜观察细胞形态改变,MTT法检测细胞活力。结果不同浓度杭白菊黄酮组细胞存活率均显著高于高糖组(P<0.05,P<0.01),尤以400mg/mL高浓度杭白菊黄酮组作用最为显著(P<0.01)。结论杭白菊黄酮对高糖诱导的HUVEC细胞凋亡有明显的抑制作用,且存在剂量依赖性,对血管内皮具有保护作用。

  2. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on physiological characteristics in chrysanthemum under heat stress%一氧化氮对高温胁迫下菊花生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟; 陈发棣; 陈素梅; 房伟民

    2011-01-01

    以夏菊品种早黄为材料,研究了高温胁迫下外源一氧化氮(NO)对开花期菊花叶片和花瓣相关生理指标变化的影响.结果表明:0.2 mmol·L-1 NO供体硝普钠(SNP)对高温胁迫下菊花叶片和花瓣的氧化损伤具有保护作用.与对照相比,外施SNP显著提高了叶片和花瓣中NO含量及超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶、过氧化氢酶、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶的活性,降低了超氧阴离子活力及过氧化氛和丙二醛含量.表明:NO作为一种重要的信号分子,可能通过诱导菊花抗氧化酶系统的活性来减轻细胞的膜脂过氧化,增强菊花对高温胁迫的抵抗能力.%Effects of exogenous nitric oxide(NO) on some physiological characteristics of leaves and ray florets in chrysanthemum Zaohuang at flowering stage under heat stress were investigated. The results indicated that 0. 2 mmol· L-1 exogenous NO donor, named sodium nitroprusside(SNP) had obviously protective effects on leaves and ray florets oxidative damage in heat stressed chrysanthemum. Compared to the control, NO content and activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, eatalase and ascorbic acid peroxidase increased significantly in chrysanthemum plants applied with SNP,while superoxide anion prodnciton activity,hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde content decreasod significantly. NO acted as an important signal molecule, might alleviate lipid peroxidation throngh activating antioxidant enzyme system to improve the heat resistance of chrysanthemum.

  3. Medium Choice of Sugar-free Micropropagation with Liquid Culture in Open-space of Chrysanthemum morifolium Plantlets%开放空间下无糖菊花组培苗栽培介质的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋越冬; 马明建

    2010-01-01

    在自行研制的开放空间植物组织培养苗栽培系统内,研究了不同栽培介质对液体培养的无糖菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)组培苗生长的影响.结果表明,陶瓷球介质适合菊花组培苗的生长,而传统无土栽培介质岩棉和海绵不适合菊花组培苗的生产.

  4. Cellular differentiation regulated by gibberellin in the Arabidopsis thaliana pickle mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogas, J.; Somerville, C. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States); Cheng, Jin-Chen; Sung, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-07-04

    The plant growth regulator gibberellin (GA) has a profound effect on shoot development and promotes developmental transitions such as flowering. Little is known about any analogous effect GA might have on root development. In a screen for mutants, Arabi-dopsis plants carrying a mutation designated pickle (pkl) were isolated in which the primary root meristem retained characteristics of embryonic tissue. Expression of this aberrant differentiation state was suppressed by GA. Root tissue from plants carrying the pkl mutation spontaneously regenerated new embryos and plants. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Shoot regeneration from stem and leaf explant of Dendrathema grandiflorum%菊花茎叶外植体再生体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高亦珂; 丁国勋; 张启翔; 赵勃

    2001-01-01

    Adventitious shoots were regenerated from leaf and stem explantsof three chrysanthemum cultivars. The optimum medium for both explant types in ‘Aihuang’ and ‘Yulong’ containd Murashige & Skoog basal medium supplemented with NAA 0.1mg/L+6-BA 1mg/L and NAA 0.2mg/L+6-BA 2mg/L, in ‘Jinbei Dahong’ contained Murashige & Skoog basal medium supplemented with NAA 1mg/L+6-BA 5mg/L. Generally, stem explants were superior to leaf explants. There were large cultivar difference in shoot regeneration frequency with three cultivars failing to respond over a wide range of hormone combination.%以地被菊‘矮黄’、‘玉龙’和传统菊花‘金背大红’的叶盘和茎段为外植体进行再生培养.实验结果表明,不同品种对相同激素水平的反应是不同的:传统的大菊‘金背大红’的愈伤诱导率和分化率都远远低于两种地被菊;在相同条件下以茎段为外植体诱导愈伤率高于叶盘,但是叶盘的直接分化率高于茎段.‘玉龙’和‘矮黄’的最适再生培养基组成为MS+NAA0.1mg/L+6-BA1mg/L和MS+NAA0.2mg/L+6-BA2mg/L,‘金背大红’为MS+NAA1mg/L+6-BA5mg/L.

  6. Regenerative endodontics: regeneration or repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Stéphane R J; Tomson, Phillip L; Berdal, Ariane

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in biotechnology and translational research have made it possible to provide treatment modalities that protect the vital pulp, allow manipulation of reactionary and reparative dentinogenesis, and, more recently, permit revascularization of an infected root canal space. These approaches are referred to as regenerative procedures. The method currently used to determine the origin of the tissue secreted during the repair/regeneration process is largely based on the identification of cellular markers (usually proteins) left by cells that were responsible for this tissue production. The presence of these proteins in conjunction with other indicators of cellular behavior (especially biomineralization) and analysis of the structure of the newly generated tissue allow conclusions to be made of how it was formed. Thus far, it has not been possible to truly establish the biological mechanism controlling tertiary dentinogenesis. This article considers current therapeutic techniques to treat the dentin-pulp complex and contextualize them in terms of reparative and regenerative processes. Although it may be considered a semantic argument rather than a biological one, the definitions of regeneration and repair are explored to clarify our position in this era of regenerative endodontics.

  7. Regeneration of Pelargonium in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Wojtania

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pelargonium sp. has been a subject of numerous studies to deterimine the effec tiveness of in vitro techniques to produce a large number of pathogen-free plants. Regeneration of pelargonium plants from the different initial explants as well via organogenesis as via somatic embryogenesis has been obtained. The most effective adventitious shoot formation has been achieved from shoot tips and axillary buds using cytokinin or cytokinin/auxin combinations. Leaf explants, whose general have lower organogenic potency, regenerate better in the presence of thidiazuron. This growth regulator stimulate the somatic embryos production from hypocotyl and cotyledone explants too. The main problem in tissue culture propagation of Pelargonium has been the high tendency to formation of vigorously growing callus with low organogenic potency and rapid senescence of cultures. Moreover, the significant differen ces in requirements to the medium composition (minerals, organic compounds and growth regulators between Pelargonium cultivars has been observed. This makes difficult to develop an universaI method of Pelargonium micropropagation.

  8. Liver Development, Regeneration, and Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet W. C. Kung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of putative liver stem cells has brought closer the previously separate fields of liver development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis. Significant overlaps in the regulation of these processes are now being described. For example, studies in embryonic liver development have already provided the basis for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. As a result, the understanding of the cell biology of proliferation and differentiation in the liver has been improved. This knowledge can be used to improve the function of hepatocyte-like cells for drug testing, bioartificial livers, and transplantation. In parallel, the mechanisms regulating cancer cell biology are now clearer, providing fertile soil for novel therapeutic approaches. Recognition of the relationships between development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis, and the increasing evidence for the role of stem cells in all of these areas, has sparked fresh enthusiasm in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and has led to new targeted therapies for liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancers.

  9. [Stem cells and cardiac regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Lorenti, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by virtue of their functional attributes: absence of tissue specific differentitated markers, capable of proliferation, able to self-maintain the population, able to produce a large number of differentiated, functional progeny, able to regenerate the tissue after injury. Cell therapy is an alternative for the treatment of several diseases, like cardiac diseases (cell cardiomyoplasty). A variety of stem cells could be used for cardiac repair: from cardiac and extracardiac sources. Each cell type has its own profile of advantages, limitations, and practicability issues in specific clinical settings. Differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to cardiomyocyte-like cells have been observed under different culture conditions. The presence of resident cardiac stem cell population capable of differentiation into cardiomyocyte or vascular lineage suggests that these cells could be used for cardiac tissue repair, and represent a great promise for clinical application. Stem cells mobilization by cytokines may also offer a strategy for cardiac regeneration. The use of stem cells (embryonic and adult) may hold the key to replacing cells lost in many devastating diseases. This potential benefit is a major focus for stem cell research.

  10. Calcium Signalling and Liver Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Garcin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After partial hepatectomy (PH the initial mass of the organ is restored through a complex network of cellular interactions that orchestrate both proliferative and hepatoprotective signalling cascades. Among agonists involved in this network many of them drive Ca2+ movements. During liver regeneration in the rat, hepatocyte cytosolic Ca2+ signalling has been shown on the one hand to be deeply remodelled and on the other hand to enhance progression of hepatocytes through the cell cycle. Mechanisms through which cytosolic Ca2+ signals impact on hepatocyte cell cycle early after PH are not completely understood, but at least they include regulation of immediate early gene transcription and ERK and CREB phosphorylation. In addition to cytosolic Ca2+, there is also evidence that mitochondrial Ca2+ and also nuclear Ca2+ may be critical for the regulation of liver regeneration. Finally, Ca2+ movements in hepatocytes, and possibly in other liver cells, not only impact hepatocyte progression in the cell cycle but more generally may regulate cellular homeostasis after PH.

  11. Collagen for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana Marina; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Chiono, Valeria; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2012-09-01

    In the last decades, increased knowledge about the organization, structure and properties of collagen (particularly concerning interactions between cells and collagen-based materials) has inspired scientists and engineers to design innovative collagen-based biomaterials and to develop novel tissue-engineering products. The design of resorbable collagen-based medical implants requires understanding the tissue/organ anatomy and biological function as well as the role of collagen's physicochemical properties and structure in tissue/organ regeneration. Bone is a complex tissue that plays a critical role in diverse metabolic processes mediated by calcium delivery as well as in hematopoiesis whilst maintaining skeleton strength. A wide variety of collagen-based scaffolds have been proposed for different tissue engineering applications. These scaffolds are designed to promote a biological response, such as cell interaction, and to work as artificial biomimetic extracellular matrices that guide tissue regeneration. This paper critically reviews the current understanding of the complex hierarchical structure and properties of native collagen molecules, and describes the scientific challenge of manufacturing collagen-based materials with suitable properties and shapes for specific biomedical applications, with special emphasis on bone tissue engineering. The analysis of the state of the art in the field reveals the presence of innovative techniques for scaffold and material manufacturing that are currently opening the way to the preparation of biomimetic substrates that modulate cell interaction for improved substitution, restoration, retention or enhancement of bone tissue function.

  12. Growth Factor Interactions in Bone Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Diederik H. R.; Creemers, Laura B.; Alblas, Jacqueline; Lu, Lichun; Verbout, Abraham J.; Yaszemski, Michael J.; Dhert, Wouter J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Bone regeneration is a complex process regulated by a large number of bioactive molecules. Many growth factors and cytokines involved in the natural process of bone healing have been identified and tested as potential therapeutic candidates to enhance the regeneration process. Although many of these

  13. CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Julie Chu, Lichieh; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Liu, Hsuan; Tang, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes.

  14. Study on culturing Trichodema mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-ai; WANG Wei-ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ Trichodema mutants strains T5, T0803, T1010, T1003were cultured in different conditions and media, also in the presence of fungicides at 40 mg/kg (CK or procymidone + chlorothalonil, or maneb or phosethyl-Al) . The pH values of media were 5, 6, 7 and 8 and hyphae were grown at temperatures of 15, 20, 25 and 30 ℃. After being cultured for 3, 4, 5, or 6 days, the strains were transferred at a lower temperature to sporulate (20℃) Obtained data were analyzed statistically, with the orthogonal array and ranges (R) differing dependes on the treatments (R = 40.0,42.4, 48.0, 62.8,107.0). The results indicated that the most important factor was the nature of the strain (R =107.0), while the change in temperature and time of cultivation produced the lowest effect (R =40.0). Each factor variance was significant and A3B4C2D1E3 was the optimum combined condition, in which strain T1010 grew more quickly and sporulated most.

  15. Complement components of nerve regeneration conditioned lfuid inlfuence the microenvironment of nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-shuai Li; Qing-feng Li; Ming-min Dong; Tao Zan; Shuang Ding; Lin-bo Liu

    2016-01-01

    Nerve regeneration conditioned lfuid is secreted by nerve stumps inside a nerve regeneration chamber. A better understanding of the pro-teinogram of nerve regeneration conditioned lfuid can provide evidence for studying the role of the microenvironment in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we used cylindrical silicone tubes as the nerve regeneration chamber model for the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics technology and western blot analysis conifrmed that there were more than 10 complement components (complement factor I, C1q-A, C1q-B, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8β and complement factor D) in the nerve regeneration conditioned lfuid and each varied at different time points. These ifndings suggest that all these complement components have a functional role in nerve regeneration.

  16. Complement components of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid influence the microenvironment of nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-shuai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nerve regeneration conditioned fluid is secreted by nerve stumps inside a nerve regeneration chamber. A better understanding of the proteinogram of nerve regeneration conditioned fluid can provide evidence for studying the role of the microenvironment in peripheral nerve regeneration. In this study, we used cylindrical silicone tubes as the nerve regeneration chamber model for the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics technology and western blot analysis confirmed that there were more than 10 complement components (complement factor I, C1q-A, C1q-B, C2, C3, C4, C5, C7, C8ß and complement factor D in the nerve regeneration conditioned fluid and each varied at different time points. These findings suggest that all these complement components have a functional role in nerve regeneration.

  17. Current Bioengineering Methods for Whole Kidney Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichiro Yamanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney regeneration is likely to provide an inexhaustible source of tissues and organs for immunosuppression-free transplantation. It is currently garnering considerable attention and might replace kidney dialysis as the ultimate therapeutic strategy for renal failure. However, anatomical complications make kidney regeneration difficult. Here, we review recent advances in the field of kidney regeneration, including (i the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells/embryonic stem cells into kidney cells; (ii blastocyst decomplementation; (iii use of a decellularized cadaveric scaffold; (iv embryonic organ transplantation; and (v use of a nephrogenic niche for growing xenoembryos for de novo kidney regeneration from stem cells. All these approaches represent potentially promising therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease. Although many obstacles to kidney regeneration remain, we hope that innovative strategies and reliable research will ultimately allow the restoration of renal function in patients with end-stage kidney disease.

  18. Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract from Chrysanthemum indicum Enhances Anti-Tumor Effect and Reduces Toxicity of Bleomycin in Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Mei Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bleomycin (BLM, a family of anti-tumor drugs, was reported to exhibit severe side effects limiting its usage in clinical treatment. Therefore, finding adjuvants that enhance the anti-tumor effect and reduce the detrimental effect of BLM is a prerequisite. Chrysanthemum indicum, an edible flower, possesses abundant bioactivities; the supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE have strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and lung protective effects. However, the role of CISCFE combined with BLM treatment on tumor-bearing mice remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the potential synergistic effect and the underlying mechanism of CISCFE combined with BLM in the treatment of hepatoma 22 (H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results suggested that the oral administration of CISCFE combined with BLM could markedly prolong the life span, attenuate the BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis, suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, activities of myeloperoxidase, and malondiadehyde. Moreover, CISCFE combined with BLM promoted the ascites cell apoptosis, the activities of caspases 3 and 8, and up-regulated the protein expression of p53 and down-regulated the transforming growth factor-β1 by activating the gene expression of miR-29b. Taken together, these results indicated that CISCFE could enhance the anti-cancer activity of BLM and reduce the BLM-induced pulmonary injury in H22 tumor-bearing mice, rendering it as a potential adjuvant drug with chemotherapy after further investigation in the future.

  19. 11个观赏菊花品种灰色关联度分析%Grey Correlation Degree Analysis of 11 Ornamental Chrysanthemum Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢珍红; 蔡承良; 顾强健; 田敏; 莫锡君; 吴学尉; 桂敏

    2014-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis and evaluation on the main characters of 11 ornamental chrysanthemum varieties intro-duced from Holland were carried out , and the equal -weight and weighted correlation degrees between their main characters and ide-al characters were analyzed by using the method of grey correlation degree analysis .The results indicated that the equal -weight cor-relation degrees of various varieties had the following order: romanov>bretagne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink >Rados>Vennice>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden .The weighted correlation degrees showed the following sequence:romanov>bret-agne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink >Vennice >Rados>Bactica >Biarritc>pp.golden.Thus, romanov had the best comprehensive performance , followed by bretagne and ml .yellow.These three varieties were suitable to be planted in Kunming district.%采用灰色关联度分析方法,对11个从荷兰引进的观赏菊花品种的主要性状进行了综合分析评价,并对所引进的品种主要性状与理想性状进行等权与加权关联度分析。结果表明:等权关联度大小依次为:romanov >Bretagne >ml. yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink>Rados>Vennice>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden。加权关联度大小依次为:romanov>Bretagne>ml.yellow>Kastelli>Amadea>Jeanny pink>Vennice>Rados>Bactica>Biarritc>pp.golden。即romanov的综合表现最好,其次为Bretagne和ml.yellow,这3个品种适合在昆明地区大力推广种植。

  20. Phospholipid Bicelles Improve the Conformational Stability of Rhodopsin Mutants Associated with Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoyun; Ramon, Eva; Herrera-Hernández, María Guadalupe; Garriga, Pere

    2015-08-11

    Mutations in the visual photoreceptor rhodopsin are the cause of the retinal degenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa. Some naturally occurring mutations can lead to protein conformational instability. Two such mutations, N55K and G90V, in the first and second transmembrane helices of the receptor, have been associated with sector and classical retinitis pigmentosa, respectively, and showed enhanced thermal sensitivity. We have carefully analyzed the effect of phospholipid bicelles on the stability and ligand binding properties of these two mutants and compared it with those of the detergent-solubilized samples. We have used a phospholipid bilayer consisting of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC). We find that DMPC/DHPC bicelles dramatically increase the thermal stability of the rhodopsin mutants G90V and N55K. The chromophore stability and regeneration of the mutants were also increased in bicelles when compared to their behavior in a dodecyl maltoside detergent solution. The retinal release process was slowed in bicelles, and chromophore entry, after illumination, was improved for the G90V mutant but not for N55K. Furthermore, fluorescence spectroscopy measurements showed that bicelles allowed more exogenous retinal binding to the photoactivated G90V mutant than in a detergent solution. In contrast, N55K could not reposition any chromophore either in the detergent or in bicelles. The results demonstrate that DMPC/DHPC bicelles can counteract the destabilizing effect of the disease-causing mutations and can modulate the structural changes in the ensuing receptor photoactivation in a distinct specific manner for different retinitis pigmentosa mutant phenotypes.

  1. Animal models of skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Grabowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Marta; Kur, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Cutaneous injury in the majority of vertebrate animals results in the formation of a scar in the post-injured area. Scar tissues, although beneficial for maintaining integrity of the post-wounded region often interferes with full recovery of injured tissues. The goal of wound-healing studies is to identify mechanisms to redirect reparative pathways from debilitating scar formation to regenerative pathways that lead to normal functionality. To perform such studies models of regeneration, which are rare in mammals, are required. In this review we discussed skin regenerative capabilities present in lower vertebrates and in models of skin scar-free healing in mammals, e.g. mammalian fetuses. However, we especially focused on the attributes of two unusual models of skin scar-free healing capabilities that occur in adult mammals, that is, those associated with nude, FOXN1-deficient mice and in wild-type African spiny mice.

  2. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Rio; Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-02-01

    Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal-distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal-distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure.

  3. [Tooth regeneration--dream to reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-Ling; Wang, Xue-Jiu

    2008-04-01

    Tooth or dentition missing compromises human health physically and psychiatrically. Although several prosthesis methods are used to restore tooth loss, these restorations are still non-biological methods. It is a dream for human being to regenerate a real tooth for hundreds years. There are two ways to regenerate the tooth. One is application of conventional tissue engineering techniques including seed cells and scaffold. The other is regeneration tooth using dental epithelium and dental mesenchymal cells based on the knowledge of tooth initiation and development. Marked progress has been achieved in these two ways, while there is still a long way to go. Recently a new concept has been proposed for regeneration of a biological tooth root based on tooth-related stem cells and tissue engineering technique. A biological tooth root has been regenerated in swine. It may be a valuable method for restoration of tooth loss before successful whole tooth regeneration. A latest research showed that a subpopulation in bone marrow cells can give rise to ameloblast-like cells when mixed with embryonic epithelium and reassociation with integrated mesenchyme, which may provide a new seed cell source for tooth regeneration.

  4. Regeneration method for condensate desalting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurumi, Takeshi; Kashimura, Makoto

    1998-09-02

    Regeneration of a condensate desalting device in a PWR type power plant is conducted by separating a mixed bed into an anion exchange resin layer and a cation exchange resin layer by back washing after stoppage of passage of water. Regeneration of an anion exchange resin layer is conducted by injecting alkali (hydrogen) carbonate such as sodium carbonate and potassium hydrogen carbonate, and extruding them with purified water and then injecting alkali hydroxide, extruding and further washing with purified water. Regeneration of a cation exchange resin layer is conducted by injecting acids such as hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid followed by extrusion and washing. It is preferable that a liquid formed by mixing the regenerated liquid wastes of the anion exchange resin containing alkali (hydro) carbonate and regenerated liquid wastes of the cationic exchange resin containing acids and allowing generated carbon dioxide to be absorbed to alkali hydroxide is used as alkali (hydrogen) carbonate for the next regeneration. With such procedures, anion exchange resin which adsorbs decomposed products of amines can be regenerated efficiently. (I.N.)

  5. Epoxyeicosanoids promote organ and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahy, Dipak; Kalish, Brian T; Huang, Sui; Bielenberg, Diane R; Le, Hau D; Yang, Jun; Edin, Matthew L; Lee, Craig R; Benny, Ofra; Mudge, Dayna K; Butterfield, Catherine E; Mammoto, Akiko; Mammoto, Tadanori; Inceoglu, Bora; Jenkins, Roger L; Simpson, Mary A; Akino, Tomoshige; Lih, Fred B; Tomer, Kenneth B; Ingber, Donald E; Hammock, Bruce D; Falck, John R; Manthati, Vijaya L; Kaipainen, Arja; D'Amore, Patricia A; Puder, Mark; Zeldin, Darryl C; Kieran, Mark W

    2013-08-13

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), lipid mediators produced by cytochrome P450 epoxygenases, regulate inflammation, angiogenesis, and vascular tone. Despite pleiotropic effects on cells, the role of these epoxyeicosanoids in normal organ and tissue regeneration remains unknown. EETs are produced predominantly in the endothelium. Normal organ and tissue regeneration require an active paracrine role of the microvascular endothelium, which in turn depends on angiogenic growth factors. Thus, we hypothesize that endothelial cells stimulate organ and tissue regeneration via production of bioactive EETs. To determine whether endothelial-derived EETs affect physiologic tissue growth in vivo, we used genetic and pharmacological tools to manipulate endogenous EET levels. We show that endothelial-derived EETs play a critical role in accelerating tissue growth in vivo, including liver regeneration, kidney compensatory growth, lung compensatory growth, wound healing, corneal neovascularization, and retinal vascularization. Administration of synthetic EETs recapitulated these results, whereas lowering EET levels, either genetically or pharmacologically, delayed tissue regeneration, demonstrating that pharmacological modulation of EETs can affect normal organ and tissue growth. We also show that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors, which elevate endogenous EET levels, promote liver and lung regeneration. Thus, our observations indicate a central role for EETs in organ and tissue regeneration and their contribution to tissue homeostasis.

  6. Guided bone regeneration using individualized ceramic sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, J; Anderud, J; Abrahamsson, P; Wälivaara, D-Å; Isaksson, S G; Adolfsson, E

    2016-10-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) describes the use of membranes to regenerate bony defects. A membrane for GBR needs to be biocompatible, cell-occlusive, non-toxic, and mouldable, and possess space-maintaining properties including stability. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe a new method of GBR using individualized ceramic sheets to perfect bone regeneration prior to implant placement; bone regeneration was assessed using traditional histology and three-dimensional (3D) volumetric changes in the bone and soft tissue. Three patients were included. After full-thickness flap reflection, the individualized ceramic sheets were fixed. The sites were left to heal for 7 months. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 7 months postoperative using cone beam computed tomography and 3D optical equipment. Samples of the regenerated bone and soft tissue were collected and analyzed. The bone regenerated in the entire interior volume of all sheets. Bone biopsies revealed newly formed trabecular bone with a lamellar structure. Soft tissue biopsies showed connective tissue with no signs of an inflammatory response. This was considered to be newly formed periosteum. Thus ceramic individualized sheets can be used to regenerate large volumes of bone in both vertical and horizontal directions independent of the bone defect and with good biological acceptance of the material.

  7. The C. elegans Discoidin Domain Receptor DDR-2 Modulates the Met-like RTK-JNK Signaling Pathway in Axon Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisamoto, Naoki; Nagamori, Yuki; Shimizu, Tatsuhiro; Pastuhov, Strahil I; Matsumoto, Kunihiro

    2016-12-01

    The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. However, the signaling pathways that orchestrate axon regeneration are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, initiation of axon regeneration is positively regulated by SVH-2 Met-like growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling through the JNK MAPK pathway. Here we show that SVH-4/DDR-2, an RTK containing a discoidin domain that is activated by collagen, and EMB-9 collagen type IV regulate the regeneration of neurons following axon injury. The scaffold protein SHC-1 interacts with both DDR-2 and SVH-2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of svh-2 and shc-1 suppresses the delay in axon regeneration observed in ddr-2 mutants, suggesting that DDR-2 functions upstream of SVH-2 and SHC-1. These results suggest that DDR-2 modulates the SVH-2-JNK pathway via SHC-1. We thus identify two different RTK signaling networks that play coordinated roles in the regulation of axonal regeneration.

  8. The C. elegans Discoidin Domain Receptor DDR-2 Modulates the Met-like RTK–JNK Signaling Pathway in Axon Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Tatsuhiro; Matsumoto, Kunihiro

    2016-01-01

    The ability of specific neurons to regenerate their axons after injury is governed by cell-intrinsic regeneration pathways. However, the signaling pathways that orchestrate axon regeneration are not well understood. In Caenorhabditis elegans, initiation of axon regeneration is positively regulated by SVH-2 Met-like growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling through the JNK MAPK pathway. Here we show that SVH-4/DDR-2, an RTK containing a discoidin domain that is activated by collagen, and EMB-9 collagen type IV regulate the regeneration of neurons following axon injury. The scaffold protein SHC-1 interacts with both DDR-2 and SVH-2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of svh-2 and shc-1 suppresses the delay in axon regeneration observed in ddr-2 mutants, suggesting that DDR-2 functions upstream of SVH-2 and SHC-1. These results suggest that DDR-2 modulates the SVH-2–JNK pathway via SHC-1. We thus identify two different RTK signaling networks that play coordinated roles in the regulation of axonal regeneration. PMID:27984580

  9. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  10. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  11. Intrinsic determinants of optic nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rui-lin; CHO Kin-Sang; GUO Chen-ying; CHEW Justin; CHEN Dong-feng; YANG Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the functions of these intracellular signals in their regulation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon regeneration.Data sources Relevant articles published in English or Chinese from 1970 to present were selected from PubMed.Searches were made using the terms "intrinsic determinants,axon regeneration,RGC,optic nerve regeneration,and central nervous system axon regeneration."Study selection Articles studying the mechanisms controlling RGC and central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration were reviewed.Articles focusing on the intrinsic determinants of axon regeneration were selected.Results Like other CNS neurons of mammals,RGCs undergo a developmental loss in their ability to grow axons as they mature,which is a critical contributing factor to the failure of nerve regeneration and repair after injury.This growth failure can be attributed,at least in part,by the induction of molecular programs preventing cellular overgrowth and termination of axonal growth upon maturation.Key intracellular signals and transcription factors,including B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2,cyclic adenine monophosphate,mammalian target of rapamycin,and Krüppel-like transcription factors,have been identified to play central roles in this process.Conclusions Intense effort and substantial progress have been made to identify the various intrinsic growth pathways that regulate RGC axon regeneration.More work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of and the interrelationship between the actions of these factors and to successfully achieve regeneration and repair of the severed RGC axons.

  12. Chitosan Conduit for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Chitosan, the N-deacetylated form of chitin, has good biocompatibility and biodegradability.This paper investigates the feasibility of using chitosan conduits for peripheral nerve regeneration.Cell culture experiments were used to test the material's cytotoxicity and affinity to nerve cells.Conduit implantation experiments were used to study the degradation of the material and the regeneration of injured sciatic nerves.The primary results indicate that chitosan has good mechanical properties, biocompatibility, and biodegradability and it may be a promising biomaterial for peripheral nerve regeneration.

  13. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-21

    Inflammation underlies many chronic and degenerative diseases, but it also mitigates infections, clears damaged cells and initiates tissue repair. Many of the mechanisms that link inflammation to damage repair and regeneration in mammals are conserved in lower organisms, indicating that it is an evolutionarily important process. Recent insights have shed light on the cellular and molecular processes through which conventional inflammatory cytokines and Wnt factors control mammalian tissue repair and regeneration. This is particularly important for regeneration in the gastrointestinal system, especially for intestine and liver tissues in which aberrant and deregulated repair results in severe pathologies.

  14. Muscle regeneration in amphibians and mammals: passing the torch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bruce M

    2003-02-01

    Skeletal muscle in both amphibians and mammals possesses a high regenerative capacity. In amphibians, a muscle can regenerate in two distinct ways: as a tissue component of an entire regenerating limb (epimorphic regeneration) or as an isolated entity (tissue regeneration). In the absence of epimorphic regenerative ability, mammals can regenerate muscles only by the tissue mode. This review focuses principally on the regeneration of entire muscles and covers what is known and what remains to be elucidated about fundamental mechanisms underlying muscle regeneration at this level.

  15. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0359 TITLE: Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Sarat Chandarlapaty CONTRACTING...31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0359 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...mutations found in breast cancer using both structural and cell based assays. We have now have evidence for the effects of the most recurrent

  16. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Introduction Approximately 70% of ER+ breast cancers harbor expression of the estrogen receptor and are dependent upon its activity for various aspects of the...resistance to current FDA approved ER antagonists, but that more potent and selective estrogen receptor antagonists will be sufficiently active to...antagonists and their potency against ER mutants both in vitro and in vivo . Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer W81XWH-14-1-0359 9 4. Impact A) Impact

  17. Regeneration-associated macrophages:a novel approach to boost intrinsic regenerative capacity for axon regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Jung Kwon; Hyuk Jun Yoon; Byung Gon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Axons in central nervous system (CNS) do not regenerate spontaneously after injuries such as stroke and traumatic spinal cord injury. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for the regeneration fail-ure. Although intensive research efforts have been invested on extrinsic regeneration inhibitors, the extent to which glial inhibitors contribute to the regeneration failurein vivo still remains elusive. Recent exper-imental evidence has rekindled interests in intrinsic factors for the regulation of regeneration capacity in adult mammals. In this review, we propose that activating macrophages with pro-regenerative molecular signatures could be a novel approach for boosting intrinsic regenerative capacity of CNS neurons. Using a conditioning injury model in which regeneration of central branches of dorsal root ganglia sensory neu-rons is enhanced by a preceding injury to the peripheral branches, we have demonstrated that perineuronal macrophages surrounding dorsal root ganglia neurons are critically involved in the maintenance of en-hanced regeneration capacity. Neuron-derived chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) seems to mediate neuron-macrophage interactions conveying injury signals to perineuronal macrophages taking on a soley pro-regenerative phenotype, which we designate as regeneration-associated macrophages (RAMs). Ma-nipulation of the CCL2 signaling could boost regeneration potential mimicking the conditioning injury, suggesting that the chemokine-mediated RAM activation could be utilized as a regenerative therapeutic strategy for CNS injuries.

  18. Mechanisms of Increased Particle and VOC Emissions during DPF Active Regeneration and Practical Emissions Considering Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi

    2017-02-27

    Mechanisms involved in increased particle and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during active and parked active regenerations of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) were investigated using heavy-duty trucks equipped with both a urea selective catalytic reduction system and a DPF (SCR + DPF) and a DPF-only. Particle emissions increased in the later part of the regeneration period but the mechanisms were different above and below 23 nm. Particles above 23 nm were emitted due to the lower filtering efficiency of the DPF because of the decreasing amount of soot trapped during regeneration. Small particles below 23 nm were thought to be mainly sulfuric acid particles produced from SO2 trapped by the catalyst, being released and oxidized during regeneration. Contrary to the particle emissions, VOCs increased in the earlier part of the regeneration period. The mean molecular weights of the VOCs increased gradually as the regeneration proceeded. To evaluate "practical emissions" in which increased emissions during the regeneration were considered, a Regeneration Correction Factor (RCF), which is the average emission during one cycle of regeneration/emission in normal operation, was adopted. The RCFs of PM and VOCs were 1.1-1.5, and those of PNs were as high as 3-140, although they were estimated from a limited number of observations.

  19. Hyperbaric Oxygen Promotes Proximal Bone Regeneration and Organized Collagen Composition during Digit Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, Mimi C; Simkin, Jennifer; Cammack, Alexander J; Fassler, Danielle; Gossmann, Alexej; Marrero, Luis; Lacey, Michelle; Van Meter, Keith; Muneoka, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is critical for optimal bone regeneration. While axolotls and salamanders have retained the ability to regenerate whole limbs, mammalian regeneration is restricted to the distal tip of the digit (P3) in mice, primates, and humans. Our previous study revealed the oxygen microenvironment during regeneration is dynamic and temporally influential in building and degrading bone. Given that regeneration is dependent on a dynamic and changing oxygen environment, a better understanding of the effects of oxygen during wounding, scarring, and regeneration, and better ways to artificially generate both hypoxic and oxygen replete microenvironments are essential to promote regeneration beyond wounding or scarring. To explore the influence of increased oxygen on digit regeneration in vivo daily treatments of hyperbaric oxygen were administered to mice during all phases of the entire regenerative process. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) and histological analysis showed that the daily application of hyperbaric oxygen elicited the same enhanced bone degradation response as two individual pulses of oxygen applied during the blastema phase. We expand past these findings to show histologically that the continuous application of hyperbaric oxygen during digit regeneration results in delayed blastema formation at a much more proximal location after amputation, and the deposition of better organized collagen fibers during bone formation. The application of sustained hyperbaric oxygen also delays wound closure and enhances bone degradation after digit amputation. Thus, hyperbaric oxygen shows the potential for positive influential control on the various phases of an epimorphic regenerative response.

  20. Hyperbaric Oxygen Promotes Proximal Bone Regeneration and Organized Collagen Composition during Digit Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi C Sammarco

    Full Text Available Oxygen is critical for optimal bone regeneration. While axolotls and salamanders have retained the ability to regenerate whole limbs, mammalian regeneration is restricted to the distal tip of the digit (P3 in mice, primates, and humans. Our previous study revealed the oxygen microenvironment during regeneration is dynamic and temporally influential in building and degrading bone. Given that regeneration is dependent on a dynamic and changing oxygen environment, a better understanding of the effects of oxygen during wounding, scarring, and regeneration, and better ways to artificially generate both hypoxic and oxygen replete microenvironments are essential to promote regeneration beyond wounding or scarring. To explore the influence of increased oxygen on digit regeneration in vivo daily treatments of hyperbaric oxygen were administered to mice during all phases of the entire regenerative process. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT and histological analysis showed that the daily application of hyperbaric oxygen elicited the same enhanced bone degradation response as two individual pulses of oxygen applied during the blastema phase. We expand past these findings to show histologically that the continuous application of hyperbaric oxygen during digit regeneration results in delayed blastema formation at a much more proximal location after amputation, and the deposition of better organized collagen fibers during bone formation. The application of sustained hyperbaric oxygen also delays wound closure and enhances bone degradation after digit amputation. Thus, hyperbaric oxygen shows the potential for positive influential control on the various phases of an epimorphic regenerative response.

  1. Regeneration-associated macrophages: a novel approach to boost intrinsic regenerative capacity for axon regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min Jung; Yoon, Hyuk Jun; Kim, Byung Gon

    2016-09-01

    Axons in central nervous system (CNS) do not regenerate spontaneously after injuries such as stroke and traumatic spinal cord injury. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for the regeneration failure. Although intensive research efforts have been invested on extrinsic regeneration inhibitors, the extent to which glial inhibitors contribute to the regeneration failure in vivo still remains elusive. Recent experimental evidence has rekindled interests in intrinsic factors for the regulation of regeneration capacity in adult mammals. In this review, we propose that activating macrophages with pro-regenerative molecular signatures could be a novel approach for boosting intrinsic regenerative capacity of CNS neurons. Using a conditioning injury model in which regeneration of central branches of dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons is enhanced by a preceding injury to the peripheral branches, we have demonstrated that perineuronal macrophages surrounding dorsal root ganglia neurons are critically involved in the maintenance of enhanced regeneration capacity. Neuron-derived chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) seems to mediate neuron-macrophage interactions conveying injury signals to perineuronal macrophages taking on a soley pro-regenerative phenotype, which we designate as regeneration-associated macrophages (RAMs). Manipulation of the CCL2 signaling could boost regeneration potential mimicking the conditioning injury, suggesting that the chemokine-mediated RAM activation could be utilized as a regenerative therapeutic strategy for CNS injuries.

  2. Regeneration-associated macrophages: a novel approach to boost intrinsic regenerative capacity for axon regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Axons in central nervous system (CNS do not regenerate spontaneously after injuries such as stroke and traumatic spinal cord injury. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors are responsible for the regeneration failure. Although intensive research efforts have been invested on extrinsic regeneration inhibitors, the extent to which glial inhibitors contribute to the regeneration failure in vivo still remains elusive. Recent experimental evidence has rekindled interests in intrinsic factors for the regulation of regeneration capacity in adult mammals. In this review, we propose that activating macrophages with pro-regenerative molecular signatures could be a novel approach for boosting intrinsic regenerative capacity of CNS neurons. Using a conditioning injury model in which regeneration of central branches of dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons is enhanced by a preceding injury to the peripheral branches, we have demonstrated that perineuronal macrophages surrounding dorsal root ganglia neurons are critically involved in the maintenance of enhanced regeneration capacity. Neuron-derived chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2 seems to mediate neuron-macrophage interactions conveying injury signals to perineuronal macrophages taking on a soley pro-regenerative phenotype, which we designate as regeneration-associated macrophages (RAMs. Manipulation of the CCL2 signaling could boost regeneration potential mimicking the conditioning injury, suggesting that the chemokine-mediated RAM activation could be utilized as a regenerative therapeutic strategy for CNS injuries.

  3. Adult stem cells underlying lung regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Wa; McKeon, Frank

    2012-03-01

    Despite the massive toll in human suffering imparted by degenerative lung disease, including COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and ARDS, the scientific community has been surprisingly agnostic regarding the potential of lung tissue, and in particular the alveoli, to regenerate. However, there is circumstantial evidence in humans and direct evidence in mice that ARDS triggers robust regeneration of lung tissue rather than irreversible fibrosis. The stem cells responsible for this remarkable regenerative process has garnered tremendous attention, most recently yielding a defined set of cloned human airway stem cells marked by p63 expression but with distinct commitment to differentiated cell types typical of the upper or lower airways, the latter of which include alveoli-like structures in vitro and in vivo. These recent advances in lung regeneration and distal airway stem cells and the potential of associated soluble factors in regeneration must be harnessed for therapeutic options in chronic lung disease.

  4. An experimental study of passive regenerator geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini

    2011-01-01

    Active magnetic regenerative (AMR) systems are being investigated because they represent a potentially attractive alternative to vapor compression technology. The performance of these systems is dependent on the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of the regenerator geometry. Therefore...

  5. Chronological protein synthesis in regenerating rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinjun; Hao, Shuai; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Fuzheng; Huang, Lingyun; Xiao, Xueyuan; He, Dacheng

    2015-07-01

    Liver regeneration has been studied for decades; however, its regulation remains unclear. In this study, we report a dynamic tracing of protein synthesis in rat regenerating liver with a new proteomic technique, (35) S in vivo labeling analysis for dynamic proteomics (SiLAD). Conventional proteomic techniques typically measure protein alteration in accumulated amounts. The SiLAD technique specifically detects protein synthesis velocity instead of accumulated amounts of protein through (35) S pulse labeling of newly synthesized proteins, providing a direct way for analyzing protein synthesis variations. Consequently, protein synthesis within short as 30 min was visualized and protein regulations in the first 8 h of regenerating liver were dynamically traced. Further, the 3.5-5 h post partial hepatectomy (PHx) was shown to be an important regulatory turning point by acute regulation of many proteins in the initiation of liver regeneration.

  6. Advanced Engineering Strategies for Periodontal Complex Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Ho Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration and integration of multiple tissue types is critical for efforts to restore the function of musculoskeletal complex. In particular, the neogenesis of periodontal constructs for systematic tooth-supporting functions is a current challenge due to micron-scaled tissue compartmentalization, oblique/perpendicular orientations of fibrous connective tissues to the tooth root surface and the orchestration of multiple regenerated tissues. Although there have been various biological and biochemical achievements, periodontal tissue regeneration remains limited and unpredictable. The purpose of this paper is to discuss current advanced engineering approaches for periodontal complex formations; computer-designed, customized scaffolding architectures; cell sheet technology-based multi-phasic approaches; and patient-specific constructs using bioresorbable polymeric material and 3-D printing technology for clinical application. The review covers various advanced technologies for periodontal complex regeneration and state-of-the-art therapeutic avenues in periodontal tissue engineering.

  7. Molecular mechanism of bone formation and regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira Yamaguchi

    2008-01-01

    @@ Bone formation and regeneration are mediated by the coordinate action of various factors. Among these, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) play crucial roles in bone formation.

  8. Skeletal muscle dedifferentiation during salamander limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heng; Simon, András

    2016-10-01

    Salamanders can regenerate entire limbs throughout their life. A critical step during limb regeneration is formation of a blastema, which gives rise to the new extremity. Salamander limb regeneration has historically been tightly linked to the term dedifferentiation, however, with refined research tools it is important to revisit the definition of dedifferentiation in the context. To what extent do differentiated cells revert their differentiated phenotypes? To what extent do progeny from differentiated cells cross lineage boundaries during regeneration? How do cell cycle plasticity and lineage plasticity relate to each other? What is the relationship between dedifferentiation of specialized cells and activation of tissue resident stem cells in terms of their contribution to the new limb? Here we highlight these problems through the case of skeletal muscle.

  9. De Novo Kidney Regeneration with Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yokote

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported on techniques to mobilize and activate endogenous stem-cells in injured kidneys or to introduce exogenous stem cells for tissue repair. Despite many recent advantages in renal regenerative therapy, chronic kidney disease (CKD remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality and the number of CKD patients has been increasing. When the sophisticated structure of the kidneys is totally disrupted by end stage renal disease (ESRD, traditional stem cell-based therapy is unable to completely regenerate the damaged tissue. This suggests that whole organ regeneration may be a promising therapeutic approach to alleviate patients with uncured CKD. We summarize here the potential of stem-cell-based therapy for injured tissue repair and de novo whole kidney regeneration. In addition, we describe the hurdles that must be overcome and possible applications of this approach in kidney regeneration.

  10. The Microtubule Minus-End-Binding Protein Patronin/PTRN-1 Is Required for Axon Regeneration in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Chuang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Precise regulation of microtubule (MT dynamics is increasingly recognized as a critical determinant of axon regeneration. In contrast to developing neurons, mature axons exhibit noncentrosomal microtubule nucleation. The factors regulating noncentrosomal MT architecture in axon regeneration remain poorly understood. We report that PTRN-1, the C. elegans member of the Patronin/Nezha/calmodulin- and spectrin-associated protein (CAMSAP family of microtubule minus-end-binding proteins, is critical for efficient axon regeneration in vivo. ptrn-1-null mutants display generally normal developmental axon outgrowth but significantly impaired regenerative regrowth after laser axotomy. Unexpectedly, mature axons in ptrn-1 mutants display elevated numbers of dynamic axonal MTs before and after injury, suggesting that PTRN-1 inhibits MT dynamics. The CKK domain of PTRN-1 is necessary and sufficient for its functions in axon regeneration and MT dynamics and appears to stabilize MTs independent of minus-end localization. Whereas in developing neurons, PTRN-1 inhibits activity of the DLK-1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade, we find that, in regeneration, PTRN-1 and DLK-1 function together to promote axonal regrowth.

  11. Harnessing wound healing and regeneration for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, A D; Ferguson, M W J

    2005-04-01

    Biomedical science has made major advances in understanding how cells grow into functioning tissue and the signalling mechanisms used to achieve this are slowly being dissected. Tissue engineering is the application of that knowledge to the building or repairing of organs, including skin, the largest organ in the body. Generally, engineered tissue is a combination of living cells and a supporting matrix. Besides serving as burn coverings, engineered skin substitutes can help patients with diabetic foot ulcers. Today, most of these ulcers are treated with an approach that includes antibiotics, glucose control, special shoes and frequent cleaning and bandaging. The results of such treatments are often disappointing and ineffectual, and scarring remains a major problem, mechanically, cosmetically and psychologically. Within our group we are attempting to address this by investigating novel approaches to skin tissue engineering. We are identifying novel therapeutic manipulations to improve the degree of integration between a tissue engineered dermal construct and the host by both molecular manipulation of growth factors but also by understanding and harnessing mechanisms of regenerative biology. For the purpose of this summary, we will concentrate primarily on the latter of these two approaches in that we have identified a novel mouse mutant that completely and perfectly regenerates skin and cartilaginous components following ear injury. This experimental animal will allow us to characterize not only novel genes involved in the regeneration process but also to utilize cells from such animals in artificial skin equivalents to assess their behaviour compared with normal cells. This approach should allow us to create a tissue-engineered substitute, which more closely resembles the normal regional microanatomy and physiology of the skin, allowing better integration to the host with minimal or no scarring.

  12. Missing Concepts in De Novo Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, G.T.-J.; Garcia-Godoy, F.

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics has gained much attention in the past decade because it offers an alternative approach in treating endodontically involved teeth. Instead of filling the canal space with artificial materials, it attempts to fill the canal with vital tissues. The objective of regeneration is to regain the tissue and restore its function to the original state. In terms of pulp regeneration, a clinical protocol that intends to reestablish pulp/dentin tissues in the canal space has been d...

  13. DIAGNOSTICS AND REGENERATION OF COMMON RAIL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  14. Continuous microwave regeneration apparatus for absorption media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for continuously drying and regenerating ceramic beads for use in process gas moisture drying operations such as glove boxes. A microwave energy source is coupled to a process chamber to internally heat the ceramic beads and vaporize moisture contained therein. In a preferred embodiment, the moisture laden ceramic beads are conveyed toward the microwave source by a screw mechanism. The regenerated beads flow down outside of the screw mechanism and are available to absorb additional moisture.

  15. Erythropoietin stimulates hepatocyte regeneration after liver resection

    OpenAIRE

    Schön, Michael R.; Hogrebe, Esther; Hengstler, Jan Georg; Donaubauer, Bernd; Faber, Sonya C.; Bauer, Alexander; Pietsch, Uta-Carolin; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Thiery, Joachim; Hauss, Johann Peter; Tannapfel, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The increased relevance of liver surgery and transplantation as a therapeutic modality over the last two decades mandates the development of novel strategies to improve liver regeneration. Here we studied whether erythropoietin (EPO) improves liver regeneration after hepatectomy in pigs. Eighteen female pigs underwent laparoscopic left lateral liver resection and were allocated randomly into three groups. No EPO was administered to the control group (group 1, n=6). Group 2 (...

  16. On-line regeneration of hydrodesulfurization catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jr., John L.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is regenerated as it concurrently hydrotreats a hydrocarbon fuel by introducing a low concentration of oxygen into the catalyst bed either continuously or periodically. At low oxygen concentrations the carbon deposits on the catalyst are burned off without harming the catalyst and without significantly affecting the hydrotreating process. In a preferred embodiment the hydrotreating process is hydrodesulfurization, and regenerating is done periodically with oxygen concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 volume percent.

  17. Advanced tissue engineering in periodontal Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ali Banihashemrad

    2014-01-01

    The old wishes of people were to regenerate lost tissues of periodontium that this fact is achieved by gen and cell therapy .Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammation around the tooth by microbes that causes destruction of supporting structure of tissue of tooth such as alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament. For treatment of periodontal diseases we can use the biomaterials which help to regenerate the periodontal tissues like; autogenous bone grafts, allograft, guided tissue re...

  18. Ear wound regeneration in the African spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus

    OpenAIRE

    Matias Santos, Dino; Rita, Ana Martins; Casanellas, Ignasi; Brito Ova, Adélia; Araújo, Inês Maria; Power, Deborah; Tiscornia, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract While regeneration occurs in a number of taxonomic groups across the Metazoa, there are very few reports of regeneration in mammals, which generally respond to wounding with fibrotic scarring rather than regeneration. A recent report described skin shedding, skin regeneration and extensive ear punch closure in two rodent species, Acomys kempi and Acomys percivali. We examined these striking results by testing the capacity for regeneration of a third species, Acomys cahirinus, and fou...

  19. Guided tissue regeneration in periapical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis; Chen, Melody Y-H; Ricucci, Domenico; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2010-04-01

    Tissue regeneration by using membrane barriers and bone grafting materials in periapical surgery is an example of tissue engineering technology. Membrane barriers and/or bone grafts are often used to enhance periapical new bone formation. However, the periapical tissues also consist of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and cementum. For regeneration of the periapical tissues after periapical surgery, one of the important requirements is recruitment and differentiation of progenitor/stem cells into committed pre-osteoblasts, pre-PDL cells, and pre-cementoblasts. Homing of progenitor/stem cells into the wounded periapical tissues is regulated by factors such as stromal cell-derived factor 1, growth factors/cytokines, and by microenvironmental cues such as adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix and associated noncollagenous molecules. Tissue regeneration after injury appears to recapitulate the pathway of normal embryonic tissue development. Multiple tissue regeneration involves a complex interaction between different cells, extracellular matrix, growth/differentiation factors, and microenvironmental cues. Little is known concerning the biologic mechanisms that regulate temporal and spatial relationship between alveolar bone, PDL, and cementum regeneration during periapical wound healing. Simply applying a membrane barrier and/or bone graft during periapical surgery might not result in complete regeneration of the periapical tissues. It has not been clearly demonstrated that these biomaterials are capable of recruiting progenitor/stem cells and inducing these undifferentiated mesenchymal cells to differentiate into PDL cells and cementoblasts after periapical surgery.

  20. The art of fin regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferli, Catherine; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The zebrafish fin provides a valuable model to study the epimorphic type of regeneration, whereby the amputated part of the appendage is nearly perfectly replaced. To accomplish fin regeneration, two reciprocally interacting domains need to be established at the injury site, namely a wound epithelium and a blastema. The wound epithelium provides a supporting niche for the blastema, which contains mesenchyme-derived progenitor cells for the regenerate. The fate of blastemal daughter cells depends on their relative position with respect to the fin margin. The apical compartment of the outgrowth maintains its undifferentiated character, whereas the proximal descendants of the blastema progressively switch from the proliferation program to the morphogenesis program. A delicate balance between self-renewal and differentiation has to be continuously adjusted during the course of regeneration. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of blastema formation, and discusses several studies related to the regulation of growth and morphogenesis during fin regeneration. A wide range of canonical signaling pathways has been implicated during the establishment and maintenance of the blastema. Epigenetic mechanisms play a crucial role in the regulation of cellular plasticity during the transition between differentiation states. Ion fluxes, gap-junctional communication and protein phosphatase activity have been shown to coordinate proliferation and tissue patterning in the caudal fin. The identification of the downstream targets of the fin regeneration signals and the discovery of mechanisms integrating the variety of input pathways represent exciting future aims in this fascinating field of research.

  1. Limb Regeneration in Axolotl: Is It Superhealing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Roy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of axolotls to regenerate their limbs is almost legendary. In fact, urodeles such as the axolotl are the only vertebrates that can regenerate multiple structures like their limbs, jaws, tail, spinal cord, and skin (the list goes on throughout their lives. It is therefore surprising to realize, although we have known of their regenerative potential for over 200 years, how little we understand the mechanisms behind this achievement of adult tissue morphogenesis. Many observations can be drawn between regeneration and other disciplines such as development and wound healing. In this review, we present new developments in functional analysis that will help to address the role of specific genes during the process of regeneration. We also present an analysis of the resemblance between wound healing and regeneration, and discuss whether axolotls are superhealers. A better understanding of these animals' regenerative capacity could lead to major benefits by providing regenerative medicine with directions on how to develop therapeutic approaches leading to regeneration in humans.

  2. Silymarin Accelerates Liver Regeneration after Partial Hepatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ping Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial hepatectomy (PHx is a liver regeneration physiological response induced to maintain homeostasis. Liver regeneration evolved presumably to protect wild animals from catastrophic liver loss caused by toxins or tissue injury. Silymarin (Sm ability to stimulate liver regeneration has been an object of curiosity for many years. Silymarin has been investigated for use as an antioxidant and anticarcinogen. However, its use as a supportive treatment for liver damage is elusive. In this study, we fed silymarin (Sm, 25 mg/kg to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 weeks. Surgical 2/3 PHx was then conducted on the rats at 6 hrs, 24 hrs, and 72 hrs. Western blot and RT-PCR were conducted to detect the cell cycle activities and silymarin effects on hepatic regeneration. The results showed that silymarin enhanced liver regeneration by accelerating the cell cycle in PHx liver. Silymarin led to increased G1 phase (cyclin D1/pRb, S phase (cyclin E/E2F, G2 phase (cyclin B, and M phase (cyclin A protein and mRNA at 6 hrs, 24 hrs, and 72 hrs PHx. HGF, TGFα, and TGFβ1 growth factor expressions were also enhanced. We suggest that silymarin plays a crucial role in accelerated liver regeneration after PHx.

  3. The Architectural Practice of Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Van Malderen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In form and in content, cities are the epitome of diversity. This state is the result of the accumulation of layers of history, of construction, of demolition and reconstruction cycles. These tensions are the catalyst for the emergence of new urban forms and participate in the construction of heritage. As such they should be encouraged. As important as the existing fabric of the city is, its evolution to accommodate the ever-changing needs and fashions of its inhabitants is paramount. For regeneration to be successful it must inscribe itself in this process and it must be driven by an understanding of the environment where it occurs. This paper explores, through the lens of an architectural practice, some design processes and architectural proposals that have been generated by working on the Valletta harbours. It also discusses the necessary dynamics required to accommodate stakeholder engagement and planning policy while ensuring design quality and the perpetuation of the creative process inherent to the city. Finally, the paper introduces, as a possible future, the experiments and studies of the practice on the wider Valletta, putting into perspective the benefits of theoretical research combined with formal and aesthetic explorations of the harbour region.

  4. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world’s best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration. PMID:27527229

  5. Tissue Regeneration: A Silk Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Dave; Mou, Xiaoyang; Hu, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Silk proteins are natural biopolymers that have extensive structural possibilities for chemical and mechanical modifications to facilitate novel properties, functions, and applications in the biomedical field. The versatile processability of silk fibroins (SF) into different forms such as gels, films, foams, membranes, scaffolds, and nanofibers makes it appealing in a variety of applications that require mechanically superior, biocompatible, biodegradable, and functionalizable biomaterials. There is no doubt that nature is the world's best biological engineer, with simple, exquisite but powerful designs that have inspired novel technologies. By understanding the surface interaction of silk materials with living cells, unique characteristics can be implemented through structural modifications, such as controllable wettability, high-strength adhesiveness, and reflectivity properties, suggesting its potential suitability for surgical, optical, and other biomedical applications. All of the interesting features of SF, such as tunable biodegradation, anti-bacterial properties, and mechanical properties combined with potential self-healing modifications, make it ideal for future tissue engineering applications. In this review, we first demonstrate the current understanding of the structures and mechanical properties of SF and the various functionalizations of SF matrices through chemical and physical manipulations. Then the diverse applications of SF architectures and scaffolds for different regenerative medicine will be discussed in detail, including their current applications in bone, eye, nerve, skin, tendon, ligament, and cartilage regeneration.

  6. Influencia de diferentes especies de fungo micorrizico arbuscular no desenvolvimento do crisântemo Influence of different species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on chrysanthemum growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Parada Dias da Silveira

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento e florescimento do crisântemo (Dendranthema grandiflora na presença de micorriza arbuscular, foi instalado, em casa de vegetação, um experimento, empregando-se os fungos Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama. Utilizou-se terra roxa estruturada, da Série Luiz de Queiroz, esterilizada (por autoclavagem e não esterilizada. No florescimento, colheram-se as plantas e determinaram-se a altura, a matéria seca da parte aérea, a matéria fresca da raiz, o teor de P e K na parte aérea, a colonização micorrízica e o número de esporos do fungo micorrízico. O desenvolvimento e o florescimento foram favorecidos pela inoculação de G. leptotichum e G.macrocarpum, quando as plantas foram cultivadas em solo esterilizado, superando o efeito dos fungos micorrízicos nativos. Entretanto, no solo não esterilizado, a inoculação dessas espécies de fungo não promoveu aumento no desenvolvimento da planta.A greenhouse experiment was conducted to verify the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on growth and flowering of chrysanthemum. Rooted plants were inoculated with Gigaspora margarita, Glomus leptotichum, Glomus macrocarpum e Scutellospora heterogama or non-inoculated. Plants were grown in a autoclave sterilized, and non-sterilized soil of the type "Terra Roxa Estruturada". At the flowering stage, plants were harvested and measured for plant height, shoot dry matter, root fresh matter, shoot P and K content, mycorrhizal root colonization and number of mycorrhizal fungi spores. Plants colonized with G.leptotichum and G. macrocarpum presented higher growth and flowering than control plants, in sterilized soil, overcoming the effect of native mycorrhizal fungi. However, there was no effect of introduced mycorrhizal fungi on non-sterilized soil.

  7. Determination of chlorogenic acid in tea(medicine)chrysanthemum samples by HPLC and ultraviolet detector%高效液相色谱紫外检测法测定茶(药)用菊花的绿原酸含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小秋; 韩磊; 傅厚暾; 蒋细旺

    2013-01-01

    To identify the chlorogenic acid in chrysanthemum sample, a method of high performance liquid chromatography and four wavelengths ultraviolet detector was developed. The chrologenici acid was carried out from chrysanthemum samples with soxhlet extraction, then was separated in HPLC with the mobile phase of methanol-0. lmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer, the proportion of the solute is 40:60 and the buffer pH was 2. 7. The signals of chlorogenic acid in the wavelength of 230nm,254nm,275nm,327nm were compared, and the comparison results and the retention time were similar basically, so the chlorogenic acid was identified effectively and the best detect wavelength was chosen. The method was used in the detection of chlorogenic acid of chrysanthemum samples, the detection limit was 0. 085 mg/L and the RSD was lower than 5 %, and the added recovery was satisfactory.%建立了高效液相色谱分离以及四波长紫外检测测定菊花中绿原酸的方法.以甲醇:磷酸二氢钠缓冲溶液(浓度为0.1mol/L)=40∶60(用磷酸调节pH值为2.7)为淋洗液进行分离,对230nm、254nm、275nm、327nm4个波长检测出的绿原酸信号加以比较进行定性定量.用该方法对菊花样品中的绿原酸进行测定,检出限为0.085mg/L,精密度低于5%,结果令人满意.实验证明,该方法准确、可行,可以很好地对菊花中的绿原酸进行定性定量研究.

  8. 杭白菊挥发油口含片中有效成分樟脑、龙脑的含量测定%Determination of Camphor and Borneol in Oral Tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium Essential Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 王建平; 殷红; 王玮; 陶锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective :To establish an GC method for the determination of camphor and borneol in oral tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil in p - cyclodextrin inclusion. Methods: The camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets were extracted by refluxed. The contents of two effective components were analyzed by gas chromatography with CBP20 -M25 -025 capillary column. N - octanol was used as internal standard substance for camphor and borneol. Results; A good separation was obtained. The standard curves for camphor and bomeol were linear over the range of 14.00~224.0 μg · mL-1 and 19.69 ~ 315. Oμg · mL-1 Respectively. The average recovery for camphor and borneol was higher than 94.2%. The precisions for them were both less than 0.77%. Conclusion: The method is accurate and sensitive for the determination of camphor and borneol in inclusion tablets of Chrysanthemum morifolium essential oil with good quality controlling of oral tablet product,providing scientific evidence for the development of Chrysanthemum morifolium and reasonable clinical application of essential oil.%目的:建立杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的浓度测定的GC方法并测定含量.方法:用加热回流法提取片剂包合物中的有效成分,采用毛细管气相色谱法,以正辛醇为内标,测定其中樟脑与龙脑的含量.结果:该方法樟脑、龙脑分离良好,线性范围分别为14.00~ 224.0μg·mL-1及19.69 ~ 315.0μg·mE-1,加样回收率均高94.2%,精密度RSD小于0.77%.结论:本法能准确、灵敏地同时测定杭白菊挥发油β-环糊精包合物口含片中樟脑、龙脑的含量,可以作为口含片的产品质量控制方法,为杭白菊产品的深度开发与挥发油制剂的质量标准制定提供科学依据.

  9. Effect of mouth gargle with compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup in patients with oral ulcer%复方杞菊汤漱口治疗化疗所致口腔溃疡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春玲; 戴正香; 戴新娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of mouth gargle with compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup on chemotherapy-induced oral ulcer in patients with multiple myeloma. Methods Totally, 60 multiple myeloma patients complicated with chemotherapy-induced oral ulcer were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, with 30 cases in each group. The observation group took compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup as mouth gargle, while their counterparts in the control group gargled their mouth with cetylpyridinium chloride. The treatment effects of oral ulcers in both groups were compared. Results The severity of pain was significantly lower, and the sizes of the ulcers were significantly smaller in the observation group at different time points than those in the control group; the healing length was significantly shorter and the treatment effect was significantly better in the observation group than those in the control group (P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusion Compound goji berry and chrysanthemum soup has very significant effect on patients with oral ulcer. It eases the pain, boosts healing of ulcers, shortens healing length, and improves the effect.%目的 探讨复方杞菊汤漱口治疗多发性骨髓瘤患者化疗所致口腔溃疡的效果.方法 将住院化疗并发口腔溃疡的多发性骨髓瘤患者60例,随机分为观察组和对照组各30例.观察组给予复方杞菊汤漱口,对照组给予西吡氯胺漱口,观察两组治疗口腔溃疡疗效.结果 观察组不同时间口腔溃疡疼痛评分、口腔溃疡面积显著低于或小于对照组,愈合时间显著短于对照组,治疗效果显著优于对照组(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 复方杞菊汤漱口治疗多发性骨髓瘤患者化疗所致口腔溃疡可行且效果显著,能有效减轻患者疼痛,加快创面愈合,缩短口腔溃疡的愈合时间,提高疗效.

  10. A numerical analysis of a reciprocating Active Magnetic Regenerator with a parallel-plate regenerator geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional model of a reciprocating Active Magnetic Regenerator(AMR) with a regenerator made of parallel plates arranged in a stack configuration. The time dependent,two-dimensional model solves the Navier-Stokes equations for the heat transfer fluid and the coupled heat...

  11. Regeneration in natural and logged tropical rain forest : modelling seed dispersal and regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulft, Lambertus Henricus van

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration and disturbance are thought to play key roles in the maintenance of the high tree species diversity in tropical rain forests. Nevertheless, the earliest stages in the regeneration of tropical rain forest trees, from seed production to established seedlings, have received little attenti

  12. Unified description of regeneration by coupled dynamical systems theory: intercalary/segmented regeneration in insect legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2009-08-01

    Regeneration phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and are studied in a variety of experiments. Positional information and feedback-loop hierarchy are theories that have been proposed to explain ordering rules in regeneration; however, some regeneration phenomena violate the rules derived from them. In particular, grafted junction stumps with the same value/hierarchy sometimes lead to one extra segmented portion, termed segmented regeneration. To present a unified description of all insect leg regeneration phenomena, we propose a theoretical mechanism for regeneration without postulating positional information, by using a model that consists of intracellular reaction dynamics of chemical concentrations, cell-to-cell interactions, and an increase in cell number. As a normal developmental process, successive differentiation from pluripotent cells appears, as described by transition from cells with intracellular chaotic dynamics to those with oscillatory or fixed-point dynamics. By assigning chaotic and nonchaotic cell types to corresponding positions instead of positional information, intercalary, segmented, and tarsus regeneration are explained coherently. With this assignment of pluripotency to chaotic dynamics, a unified description of regeneration is obtained with some predictive value for new experiments.

  13. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  14. Mechanisms of lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Yan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lymphedema is the chronic swelling of an extremity that occurs commonly after lymph node resection for cancer treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that transfer of healthy tissues can be used as a means of bypassing damaged lymphatics and ameliorating lymphedema. The purpose of these studies was to investigate the mechanisms that regulate lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer. METHODS: Nude mice (recipients underwent 2-mm tail skin excisions that were either left open or repaired with full-thickness skin grafts harvested from donor transgenic mice that expressed green fluorescent protein in all tissues or from LYVE-1 knockout mice. Lymphatic regeneration, expression of VEGF-C, macrophage infiltration, and potential for skin grafting to bypass damaged lymphatics were assessed. RESULTS: Skin grafts healed rapidly and restored lymphatic flow. Lymphatic regeneration occurred beginning at the peripheral edges of the graft, primarily from ingrowth of new lymphatic vessels originating from the recipient mouse. In addition, donor lymphatic vessels appeared to spontaneously re-anastomose with recipient vessels. Patterns of VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration were temporally and spatially associated with lymphatic regeneration. When compared to mice treated with excision only, there was a 4-fold decrease in tail volumes, 2.5-fold increase in lymphatic transport by lymphoscintigraphy, 40% decrease in dermal thickness, and 54% decrease in scar index in skin-grafted animals, indicating that tissue transfer could bypass damaged lymphatics and promote rapid lymphatic regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest that lymphatic regeneration after tissue transfer occurs by ingrowth of lymphatic vessels and spontaneous re-connection of existing lymphatics. This process is temporally and spatially associated with VEGF-C expression and macrophage infiltration. Finally, tissue transfer can be used to bypass damaged lymphatics

  15. Lens regeneration in axolotl: new evidence of developmental plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetsugu-Maki Rinako

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among vertebrates lens regeneration is most pronounced in newts, which have the ability to regenerate the entire lens throughout their lives. Regeneration occurs from the dorsal iris by transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelial cells. Interestingly, the ventral iris never contributes to regeneration. Frogs have limited lens regeneration capacity elicited from the cornea during pre-metamorphic stages. The axolotl is another salamander which, like the newt, regenerates its limbs or its tail with the spinal cord, but up until now all reports have shown that it does not regenerate the lens. Results Here we present a detailed analysis during different stages of axolotl development, and we show that despite previous beliefs the axolotl does regenerate the lens, however, only during a limited time after hatching. We have found that starting at stage 44 (forelimb bud stage lens regeneration is possible for nearly two weeks. Regeneration occurs from the iris but, in contrast to the newt, regeneration can be elicited from either the dorsal or the ventral iris and, occasionally, even from both in the same eye. Similar studies in the zebra fish concluded that lens regeneration is not possible. Conclusions Regeneration of the lens is possible in the axolotl, but differs from both frogs and newts. Thus the axolotl iris provides a novel and more plastic strategy for lens regeneration.

  16. Gene expression profile of the regeneration epithelium during axolotl limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Leah J; Suárez-Castillo, Edna C; Ortiz-Zuazaga, Humberto; Knapp, Dunja; Tanaka, Elly M; Crews, Craig M

    2011-07-01

    Urodele amphibians are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate missing limbs. The process of limb regeneration requires several key tissues including a regeneration-competent wound epidermis called the regeneration epithelium (RE). We used microarray analysis to profile gene expression of the RE in the axolotl, a Mexican salamander. A list of 125 genes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) showed a ≥1.5-fold expression in the RE than in a wound epidermis covering a lateral cuff wound. A subset of the RE ESTs and genes were further characterized for expression level changes over the time-course of regeneration. This study provides the first large scale identification of specific gene expression in the RE.

  17. TISSUE REGENERATION. Inhibition of the prostaglandin-degrading enzyme 15-PGDH potentiates tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyou; Desai, Amar; Yang, Sung Yeun; Bae, Ki Beom; Antczak, Monika I; Fink, Stephen P; Tiwari, Shruti; Willis, Joseph E; Williams, Noelle S; Dawson, Dawn M; Wald, David; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Zhenghe; Kasturi, Lakshmi; Larusch, Gretchen A; He, Lucy; Cominelli, Fabio; Di Martino, Luca; Djuric, Zora; Milne, Ginger L; Chance, Mark; Sanabria, Juan; Dealwis, Chris; Mikkola, Debra; Naidoo, Jacinth; Wei, Shuguang; Tai, Hsin-Hsiung; Gerson, Stanton L; Ready, Joseph M; Posner, Bruce; Willson, James K V; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2015-06-12

    Agents that promote tissue regeneration could be beneficial in a variety of clinical settings, such as stimulating recovery of the hematopoietic system after bone marrow transplantation. Prostaglandin PGE2, a lipid signaling molecule that supports expansion of several types of tissue stem cells, is a candidate therapeutic target for promoting tissue regeneration in vivo. Here, we show that inhibition of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a prostaglandin-degrading enzyme, potentiates tissue regeneration in multiple organs in mice. In a chemical screen, we identify a small-molecule inhibitor of 15-PGDH (SW033291) that increases prostaglandin PGE2 levels in bone marrow and other tissues. SW033291 accelerates hematopoietic recovery in mice receiving a bone marrow transplant. The same compound also promotes tissue regeneration in mouse models of colon and liver injury. Tissues from 15-PGDH knockout mice demonstrate similar increased regenerative capacity. Thus, 15-PGDH inhibition may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for tissue regeneration in diverse clinical contexts.

  18. Enhanced cellulase production in mutants of Thermomonospora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fennington, G.; Lupo, D.; Stutzenberger, F.

    1982-01-01

    Thermomonospora curvata, a thermophilic actinomycete, secretes multiple forms of endo-beta, 1-4-glucanase (EG) when grown on cellulose-mineral salts liquid medium. The EG activity (measured as carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysis) was separated by ion exchange chromatography into three distinct components which differed in their kinetic properties. Exposure of T. curvata to ultraviolet light, N-nitrosoguanidine, or ethane methyl sulfonate produced mutants with enhanced EG production. Selection of colonies which cleared cellulose agar plants containing 2-deoxyglucose or glycerol yielded mutants having 1.5 to 2.6 times the extracellular EG and saccharifying activity (measured by filter-paper and cotton-fiber hydrolysis). The secretion of extracellular protein was increased proportionally in mutant cultures. (Refs. 40).

  19. 转AtDREB1A基因菊花杂交后代优株水分胁迫耐性分析%Drought Stress Tolerance of the Hybrid Offspring Produced by AtDREB1A Transgenic Chrysanthemum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨英杰; 李春水; 张晓娇; 魏倩; 高俊平; 洪波

    2013-01-01

    过量表达拟南芥(A rab idopsis thaliana)逆境诱导转录因子DREB1A基因(AtDREB1A)能提高菊花的干旱胁迫耐性.以具有干旱胁迫耐性的转AtDREB1A基因菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium)株系与广泛应用的非转基因菊花品种进行常规杂交获得的后代优株A-121、A-128、A-136为实验材料,进行了RT-PCR检测、水分胁迫下的萎蔫指数和成活率统计以及脯氨酸(Pro)含量和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性测定.结果显示,外源A tDREB1A基因能够在有性繁殖过程中遗传给后代,且在水分胁迫下能在杂交后代植株中表达;与对照相比,水分胁迫条件下,转基因植株杂交后代Pro含量和SOD活性明显升高,且具有较强的水分胁迫耐性.研究结果表明,转基因菊花所携带的A tDREB1A基因可以在常规杂交中稳定遗传并发挥功能,提高了植株对水分胁迫的耐性.本研究为通过基因工程和传统育种结合方式选育具有干旱耐性的菊花新品种提供了技术平台.%Overexpression of the stress-inducible transcription factor gene A tDREB1A in Chrysanthemum conferred strong drought stress tolerance. Taking A-112, A-128 and A-136 as experimental materials, which are the three excellent hybrid offspring plants of the ground cover Chrysanthemum fall color transgenic line 1805 with drought stress tolerance harboring Arabidopsis thaliana dehydration response element-binding protein 1A (AtDREB1A) and the Asia Winter Light with better phenotype, we analyzed the stability and expression of AtDREB1A under water stress condition by RT-PCR, and determined the wilting index, survival rate, proline(Pro) content and superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity under drought stress condition. The results demonstrated that the exogenous gene AtDREB1A A was transferred into the hybrid offspring plants by sexual propagation and it could be expressed in offspring plants under drought condition. Compared with the control plants, the hybrid offspring plants

  20. The Association Analysis of Phenotypic Traits with SRAP Markers in Chrysanthemum%菊花品种表型性状与SRAP分子标记的关联分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁伟; 王晨; 戴思兰; 雒新艳; 李宝琴; 朱珺; 卢洁; 刘倩倩

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In order to provide a genetic basis for studies on complex quantitive traits and for molecular assisted breeding of chrysanthemum, the SRAP markers associated with important chrysanthemum horticulture traits were screened. [Method] The genomic regions with selection sweep were detected through scanning 58 representative chrysanthemum cultivars using 19 SRAP markers. Population structure was firstly analyzed, then association analysis between SRAP markers and 18 important phenotypic traits were performed using TASSEL GLM. [Result] Genetic structure analysis showed that the selected cultivar population was composed of 5 subpopulations, namely flat type subgroup, tube type subgroup, irregular type subgroup, anemone type subgroup and Japanese subgroup. There were 6 SRAP loci associated with 5 quantitative characters (/J<0.01), among which 3 flower traits were associated with 5 loci, while 1 stem and 1 leaf traits were associated with 1 locus, respectively. The rate of explanation on the phenotype of related locus ranged from 0.0738 to 0.4791. [Conclusion] It is feasible to estimate and differentiate chrysanthemum population's structure effectively using SRAP markers, and the markers obtained in this study are promising in molecular assisted breeding.%[目的]寻找与菊花重要园艺性状相关联的分子标记,为菊花复杂数量性状的研究以及分子标记辅助育种奠定遗传学基础.[方法]利用筛选出的19对SRAP引物组合对58个典型大菊品种进行多位点扫描分析.在对供试材料进行群体结构分析的基础上,利用TASSEL软件,对获得的分子标记与这些品种的18个重要表型性状进行关联分析.[结果]群体遗传结构分析将58个大菊品种划分为5个亚群结构:平瓣类、管瓣类、畸瓣类、桂瓣类和日本品种亚群;通过关联分析,发现有6个标记位点与5个性状关联(P< 0.01),其中与花部性状(花梗粗度、花瓣宽度、筒

  1. Espectroscopía NIR como Técnica Exploratoria Rápida para Detección de Amarillamiento Hojas Crisantemo (Dendranthema grandiflora var. Zembla / NIR Spectroscopy as Quick Exploratory Technique for Detection of Chrysanthemum Leaf Yellowing (Dendranthema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pérez Naranjo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. El diagnóstico seguro de enfermedades en lasplantas depende de técnicas costosas, que requieren de tiempo y entrenamiento especializado. Esta investigación evaluó el uso de espectroscopia infrarroja cercana NIR (por sus siglas en ingles near-infrared para la detección rápida del “amarillamiento de hojas de crisantemo”, una enfermedad de etiología incierta que genera pérdidas económicas importantes. En este experimento se tomaron espectros infrarrojos en hojas con niveles de amarillamiento diferentes según la clasificación empleada por los agricultores (asintomáticas, síntomas intermedios y hojasdeformadas con síntomas avanzados. Mediante un análisis de componentes principales y con los valores de los espectros de esas muestras, se desarrolló un modelo de clasificación de hojas. Ese modelo aplicado en espectros de hojas tomados al azar separó adecuadamente el grupo de espectros NIR de hojas asintomáticas de un grupo indiferenciado de espectros obtenidos de hojas consíntomas intermedios o avanzados. Los resultados sugieren que para esta enfermedad es posible desarrollar un modelo de detección en muestras problema. Para ello, se requerirá incorporar al modelo un mayor número de muestras en rangos de enfermedad bien definidos. Estos resultados permiten vislumbrar las posibilidades del uso de esta técnica no destructiva, para detección temprana de los síntomas del amarillamiento foliar en crisantemo y como herramienta para el diseño de estrategias oportunas y efectivas demanejo de esta y otras enfermedades en las plantas. / Abstract. The safe diagnostic of plant diseases depends on expensive techniques which require time and specialized training. This study evaluated the use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR for the rapid detection of “chrysanthemum leaf yellowing”, a disease of unknown etiology causing important economic losses in Antioquia’s chrysanthemum main producing areas

  2. Emerging rules for inducing organ regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannas, Ioannis V

    2013-01-01

    We review the available evidence for regeneration of adult organs of very diverse nature and examine the applicability of simple rules that can be used to summarize these treatments. In the field of regenerative medicine no widely accepted paradigm is currently available that can guide formulation of new theories on the mechanism of regeneration in adults and open new directions for improved regeneration outcomes. The four rules have emerged from multiyear quantitative studies with skin and peripheral nerve regeneration using scaffold libraries based on a simple, well-defined collagen scaffold. These largely quantitative rules distinguish sharply between spontaneously regenerative and nonregenerative tissues, select the two reactants that are required for regeneration, recognize the essential modification of the wound healing process that must be realized prior to regeneration, and identify three structural features of scaffolds that are required for regenerative activity. The combined evidence points at certain requirements for the structure of a collagen scaffold with regenerative activity. An active scaffold emerges as a temporarily insoluble collagen surface, equipped with sufficient ligands for integrins of contractile cells, that inhibits wound contraction while also serving as a topographic template for new stroma synthesis. The four rules, based on studies with just two organs (skin and peripheral nerves), are now viewed in the context of ongoing studies using scaffolds based on decellularized matrices, which are mostly based on collagen. Decellularized matrices have been used during the past few years to regenerate, in whole or in part, the urethra, the abdominal wall, the Achilles tendon, the bladder, the trachea and other organs in several animal models and occasionally in humans. Although these acellular matrices are distinctly different from simple collagen scaffolds, and the methods used by the investigators are still evolving, the results obtained

  3. Aging Kit mutant mice develop cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    Full Text Available Both bone marrow (BM and myocardium contain progenitor cells expressing the c-Kit tyrosine kinase. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of c-Kit mutations on: i. myocardial c-Kit(+ cells counts and ii. the stability of left ventricular (LV contractile function and structure during aging. LV structure and contractile function were evaluated (echocardiography in two groups of Kit mutant (W/Wv and W41/W42 and in wild type (WT mice at 4 and 12 months of age and the effects of the mutations on LV mass, vascular density and the numbers of proliferating cells were also determined. In 4 month old Kit mutant and WT mice, LV ejection fractions (EF and LV fractional shortening rates (FS were comparable. At 12 months of age EF and FS were significantly decreased and LV mass was significantly increased only in W41/W42 mice. Myocardial vascular densities and c-Kit(+ cell numbers were significantly reduced in both mutant groups when compared to WT hearts. Replacement of mutant BM with WT BM at 4 months of age did not prevent these abnormalities in either mutant group although they were somewhat attenuated in the W/Wv group. Notably BM transplantation did not prevent the development of cardiomyopathy in 12 month W41/W42 mice. The data suggest that decreased numbers and functional capacities of c-Kit(+ cardiac resident progenitor cells may be the basis of the cardiomyopathy in W41/W42 mice and although defects in mutant BM progenitor cells may prove to be contributory, they are not causal.

  4. Behavioral characterization of system xc- mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Elizabeth A; Featherstone, David E

    2014-05-15

    The slc7a11 gene encodes xCT, an essential component of 'system xc-', a plasma membrane exchanger that imports cystine and exports glutamate. Slc7a11 is expressed primarily in the brain, but its role there is not clear. We performed behavioral tests on two different strains of homozygous slc7a11 mutant mice ('sut' and 'xCT'), as well as heteroallelic offspring of these two strains ('xCT/sut') and their associated genetic backgrounds. Homozygous sut mutant males showed reduced spontaneous alternation in spontaneous alternation tasks as well as reduced movement in an open field maze, but xCT and xCT/sut strains did not show significant changes in these tasks compared to appropriate controls. Neither xCT nor sut mutants showed differences from controls in rotarod tests. Female behavioral phenotypes were independent of estrus cycle stage. To ensure that homozygous xCT, sut, and xCT/sut strains all represent protein null alleles, we measured whole brain xCT protein levels using immunoblots. xCT, sut and xCT/sut strains showed no detectable xCT protein expression, confirming them as null alleles. Previously published microdialysis experiments showed reduced striatal glutamate in xCT mutants. Using the same methods, we measured reduced interstitial glutamate levels in the striatum but not cerebellum of sut mutants. However, we detected no glutamate change in the striatum or cerebellum of sut/xCT mice. We detected no changes in whole brain EAAT-1, -2, or -3 expression. We conclude that the behavioral and chemical differences exist between slc7a11 mutant strains, but we were unable to definitively attribute any of these differences to loss of system xc-.

  5. Resin regeneration device for condensate desalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Yoshihiro [Toshiba Engineering Co. Ltd., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Hirose, Yuki

    1998-07-28

    The present invention provides a resin regeneration device for a condensate desalter of a nuclear power plant. Namely, both anionic and cationic exchange resins are supplied in a mixed state from a forwarding water desalting tower to an anionic resin regeneration tower. In the anionic resin generation tower, the resin is once separated to an anionic exchange region layer, a mixed resin layer and an cationic exchange resin layer in this order from the upper portion by water injected from a stirring water injection tube disposed at the bottom. Then, water is injected from a developing water injection tube disposed at the lower portion of the mixed resin layer to develop the cationic exchange resin layer and the mixed resin layer to the upper portion of the cationic resin regeneration tower. Subsequently, the amount of the injection of the developing water is reduced to such a flow rate that only the anionic exchange resin is precipitated. Then, a cationic exchange resin layer is formed at the upper portion and an anion exchange resin layer is formed at the lower portion of the developing water injection tube of the cationic resin regeneration tower. The anionic exchange resin is transferred to the anionic exchange resin regeneration tower in this state. According to the present invention, the mixed resin layer can be separated to anionic and cationic exchange resins easily and reliably. (I.S.)

  6. Apoptosis, stem cells, and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Andreas; Steller, Hermann

    2010-10-26

    Most metazoans have at least some ability to regenerate damaged cells and tissues, although the regenerative capacity varies depending on the species, organ, or developmental stage. Cell replacement and regeneration occur in two contexts: renewal of spent cells during tissue homeostasis (homeostatic growth), and in response to external injury, wounding, or amputation (epimorphic regeneration). Model organisms that display remarkable regenerative capacity include amphibians, planarians, Hydra, and the vertebrate liver. In addition, several mammalian organs--including the skin, gut, kidney, muscle, and even the human nervous system--have some ability to replace spent or damaged cells. Although the regenerative response is complex, it typically involves the induction of new cell proliferation through formation of a blastema, followed by cell specification, differentiation, and patterning. Stem cells and undifferentiated progenitor cells play an important role in both tissue homeostasis and tissue regeneration. Stem cells are typically quiescent or passing slowly through the cell cycle in adult tissues, but they can be activated in response to cell loss and wounding. A series of studies, mostly performed in Drosophila as well as in Hydra, Xenopus, and mouse, has revealed an unexpected role of apoptotic caspases in the production of mitogenic signals that stimulate the proliferation of stem and progenitor cells to aid in tissue regeneration. This Review summarizes some of the key findings and discusses links to stem cell biology and cancer.

  7. Unexpected regeneration in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Brandon; Cheng, Lily I; Matzinger, Polly

    2009-02-01

    Complete regeneration of damaged extremities, including both the epithelium and the underlying tissues, is thought to occur mainly in embryos, fetuses, and juvenile mammals, but only very rarely in adult mammals. Surprisingly, we found that common strains of mice are able to regenerate all of the tissues necessary to completely fill experimentally punched ear holes, but only if punched at middle age. Although young postweaning mice regrew the epithelium without typical pre-scar granulation tissue, they showed only minimal regeneration of connective tissues. In contrast, mice punched at 5-11 months of age showed true amphibian-like blastema formation and regrowth of cartilage, fat, and dermis, with blood vessels, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and, in black mice, melanocytes. These data suggest that at least partial appendage regeneration may be more common in adult mammals than previously thought and call into question the common view that regenerative ability is lost with age. The data suggest that the age at which various inbred mouse strains become capable of epimorphic regeneration may be correlated with adult body weight.

  8. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis promotes liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Chellappa, Karthikeyani; Moffitt, Andrea; Ndungu, Joan; Dellinger, Ryan W; Davis, James G; Agarwal, Beamon; Baur, Joseph A

    2017-02-01

    The regenerative capacity of the liver is essential for recovery from surgical resection or injuries induced by trauma or toxins. During liver regeneration, the concentration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) falls, at least in part due to metabolic competition for precursors. To test whether NAD availability restricts the rate of liver regeneration, we supplied nicotinamide riboside (NR), an NAD precursor, in the drinking water of mice subjected to partial hepatectomy. NR increased DNA synthesis, mitotic index, and mass restoration in the regenerating livers. Intriguingly, NR also ameliorated the steatosis that normally accompanies liver regeneration. To distinguish the role of hepatocyte NAD levels from any systemic effects of NR, we generated mice overexpressing nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme for NAD synthesis, specifically in the liver. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase overexpressing mice were mildly hyperglycemic at baseline and, similar to mice treated with NR, exhibited enhanced liver regeneration and reduced steatosis following partial hepatectomy. Conversely, mice lacking nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase in hepatocytes exhibited impaired regenerative capacity that was completely rescued by administering NR.

  9. Regeneration in Echinoderms: repair, regrowth, cloning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD Candia Carnevali

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative potential is expressed to a maximum extent in echinoderms. It is a commonphenomenon in all the classes, extensively employed to reconstruct external appendages and internalorgans often subjected to amputation, self-induced or traumatic, rapidly followed by completesuccessful re-growth of the lost parts. Regeneration has been studied in adult individuals as well as inlarvae. In armed echinoderms, regeneration of arms is obviously frequent: in many cases, thedetached body fragments can undergo phenomena of partial or total regeneration independently of thedonor animal, and, in a few cases (asteroids, the individual autotomised arms can even regenerate toproduce new complete adults, offering superb examples of cloning strategies. In the species examinedso far most results throw light on aspects related to wound healing, growth, morphogenesis anddifferentiation, even though in most cases many crucial questions remain unanswered. The presentpaper provides an overview of the current understanding of the phenomenon and covers the mainbiological aspects of regeneration giving an idea of the “state of the art” across the phylum in terms ofexperimental approaches and representative models.

  10. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Jiří

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  11. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A

    2015-08-01

    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  12. Telocytes in liver regeneration: possible roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Song, Yang; Bei, Yihua; Zhao, Yingying; Xiao, Junjie; Yang, Changqing

    2014-09-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are a novel type of interstitial cells which are potentially involved in tissue regeneration and repair (www.telocytes.com). Previously, we documented the presence of TCs in liver. However, the possible roles of TCs in liver regeneration remain unknown. In this study, a murine model of partial hepatectomy (PH) was used to induce liver regeneration. The number of TCs detected by double labelling immunofluorescence methods (CD34/PDGFR-α, CD34/PDGFR-ß and CD34/Vimentin) was significantly increased when a high level of hepatic cell proliferation rate (almost doubled) as shown by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) immunostaining and Western Blot of Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was found at 48 and 72 hrs post-PH. Meanwhile, the number of CK-19 positive-hepatic stem cells peaked at 72 hrs post-PH, co-ordinating with the same time-point, when the number of TCs was most significantly increased. Taken together, the results indicate a close relationship between TCs and the cells essentially involved in liver regeneration: hepatocytes and stem cells. It remains to be determined how TCs affect hepatocytes proliferation and/or hepatic stem cell differentiation in liver regeneration. Besides intercellular junctions, we may speculate a paracrine effect via ectovesicles.

  13. Orthopaedic tissue engineering and bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Glenn; Buchanan, Fraser; Marsh, David; Harkin-Jones, Eileen; Little, Uel; McCaigue, Mervyn

    2007-01-01

    Orthopaedic tissue engineering combines the application of scaffold materials, cells and the release of growth factors. It has been described as the science of persuading the body to reconstitute or repair tissues that have failed to regenerate or heal spontaneously. In the case of bone regeneration 3-D scaffolds are used as a framework to guide tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal cells obtained from the patient via biopsy are grown on biomaterials in vitro and then implanted at a desired site in the patient's body. Medical implants that encourage natural tissue regeneration are generally considered more desirable than metallic implants that may need to be removed by subsequent intervention. Numerous polymeric materials, from natural and artificial sources, are under investigation as substitutes for skeletal elements such as cartilage and bone. For bone regeneration, cells (obtained mainly from bone marrow aspirate or as primary cell outgrowths from bone biopsies) can be combined with biodegradable polymeric materials and/or ceramics and absorbed growth factors so that osteoinduction is facilitated together with osteoconduction; through the creation of bioactive rather than bioinert scaffold constructs. Relatively rapid biodegradation enables advantageous filling with natural tissue while loss of polymer strength before mass is disadvantageous. Innovative solutions are required to address this and other issues such as the biocompatibility of material surfaces and the use of appropriate scaffold topography and porosity to influence bone cell gene expression.

  14. The Molecular and Cellular Choreography of Appendage Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Elly M

    2016-06-16

    Recent advances in limb regeneration are revealing the molecular events that integrate growth control, cell fate programming, and positional information to yield the exquisite replacement of the amputated limb. Parallel progress in several invertebrate and vertebrate models has provided a broader context for understanding the mechanisms and the evolution of regeneration. Together, these discoveries provide a foundation for describing the principles underlying regeneration of complex, multi-tissue structures. As such these findings should provide a wealth of ideas for engineers seeking to reconstitute regeneration from constituent parts or to elicit full regeneration from partial regeneration events.

  15. Study on Regeneration of MDEA Solution Using Membrane Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Pei; Wang Shuli; Zhao Shuhua

    2008-01-01

    Treating acid gases contained in natural gas by MDEA is used widely.But the efficiency of regeneration of the MDEA solution limited the development of this technology.An optimal temperature is necessary for regeneration of the MDEA solution using membrane distillation.The experiment results showed that the regeneration rate of MDEA rose with an increasing temperature.But the rate increased slowly after the regeneration temperature arrived at a certain value.This study can confirm that regeneration of the MDEA solution using membrane distillation is feasible.This technology provides more advantages as compared to conventional regeneration process.

  16. Historical and Cultural Origin and Textual Research of Chrysanthemum morifolium Cultivated in Macheng%麻城福白菊的历史文化渊源及本草考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗光军; 陈科力

    2011-01-01

    麻城市种植的药用菊花(Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.)品质优良,产量在全国占有较大的份额,并以麻城福白菊(C.morifolium cv.Fubaiju)注册了国家地理标志证明商标,但该品牌还不为国人所熟知.笔者从历史文化渊源和本草考证的角度证实,湖北麻城大别山地区是具有悠久历史的传统菊花产地之一,关于麻城菊花食用和种植历史最明确的记载,可以在麻城县志中追溯到明末清初,而关于麻城菊花采收和食用的文化习俗,甚至可以追溯到更为久远的春秋战国时期.%The Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivated in Macheng region had excellent quality and contributed to a large proportion of total yield in China. The National Geographic Symbol Certification Mark, name of C. morifolium cv.Fubai-ju, had been registered. However, the C. morifolium cv. Fubaiju brand had not been well known. According to the historical and cultural origin and textual research on Chinese medicine, the presented paper verified that the Dabie Mountain area in Macheng city of Hubei was a traditional production area of C. morifolium with long history. The clear record about C. morifolium cultivated and used as food in Macheng could be traced back to Late Ming Dynasty to Early Qing Dynasty in Macheng local chronicles. And the cultural consuetude about C. morifolium collection and recipe in Macheng could even be traced back to old Spring and Autumn Period.

  17. Characterization of the domains of zRICH, a protein induced during optic nerve regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Madhavi; Chapa, Gloria R; Govindaraju, Suman; González-García, Maribel; Ballestero, Rafael P

    2006-07-19

    Teleost fish show a remarkable capability of nerve regeneration in their CNS, while injuries to axon fibers in the CNS of mammals result in degeneration and loss of function. Understanding this difference has biomedical consequences to humans. Both extrinsic factors from the neuronal environment and intrinsic neuronal factors seem to play a role in successful nerve regeneration. Among the intrinsic factors, a number of proteins termed axonal growth associated proteins (GAPs) are strongly induced during axon regeneration. RICH proteins are axonal GAPs that show homology to mammalian myelin marker proteins termed CNPases. Sequence analysis distinguishes three domains in these proteins. In this report, mutant versions of zebrafish RICH proteins were generated to study the roles of the domains of the protein at biochemical and cellular levels. The central CNPase homology domain was sufficient for catalytic activity. The amino terminal acidic domain causes the anomalous electrophoretic migration observed for RICH proteins. The small C-terminal domain bears an isoprenylation motif and is necessary for the interaction of zRICH with cellular membranes. At the cellular level, expression of wild-type zRICH protein in PC12 cells did not induce neurite generation. Additionally, neither the expression of wild-type zRICH nor the expression of mutant versions of the protein interfered with the levels of differentiation of PC12 cells induced by nerve growth factor, suggesting that, at least in this model of neuronal differentiation, zRICH proteins do not participate in the process of generation of neurites.

  18. Bone marrow cells and myocardial regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fu-Sheng; Trester, Cathy

    2004-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) plasticity and its clinical application have been studied profoundly in the past few years. Recent investigations indicate that HSC and other bone marrow stem cells can develop into other tissues. Because of the high morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and other heart disorders, myocardial regeneration is a good example of the clinical application of HSC plasticity in regenerative medicine. Preclinical studies in animals suggest that the use of this kind of treatment can reconstruct heart blood vessels, muscle, and function. Some clinical study results have been reported in the past 2 years. In 2003, reports of myocardial regeneration treatment increased significantly. Other studies include observations on the cell surface markers of transplanted cells and treatment efficacy. Some investigations, such as HSC testing, have focused on clinical applications using HSC plasticity and bone marrow transplantation to treat different types of disorders. In this review, we focus on the clinical application of bone marrow cells for myocardial regeneration.

  19. Evolution and developmental diversity of tooth regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Abigail S; Fraser, Gareth J

    2014-01-01

    This review considers the diversity observed during both the development and evolution of tooth replacement throughout the vertebrates in a phylogenetic framework from basal extant chondrichthyan fish and more derived teleost fish to mammals. We illustrate the conservation of the tooth regeneration process among vertebrate clades, where tooth regeneration refers to multiple tooth successors formed de novo for each tooth position in the jaws from a common set of retained dental progenitor cells. We discuss the conserved genetic mechanisms that might be modified to promote morphological diversity in replacement dentitions. We review current research and recent progress in this field during the last decade that have promoted our understanding of tooth diversity in an evolutionary developmental context, and show how tooth replacement and dental regeneration have impacted the evolution of the tooth-jaw module in vertebrates.

  20. Medicinal Chemistry Approaches to Heart Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Dennis; Plowright, Alleyn T

    2015-12-24

    Because of the minimal and clearly insufficient ability of the adult heart to regenerate after ischemic injury, there is a great opportunity to identify biological mechanisms, substances, and factors that enhance this process. Hence, innovative therapeutic management of heart failure following infarction requires a paradigm shift in pharmacotherapy. Spurred by tremendous progress in the field of stem cell and cardiac biology, several attractive approaches for regeneration of lost cardiomyocytes and supporting vasculature have emerged. Research in this area focuses on restoring the hearts' original function via proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells, proliferation of pre-existing cardiomyocytes, and reprogramming of cardiac fibroblasts. In this review, we outline these principal strategies, putative biological targets or signaling pathways and chemical agents, with a focus on small molecules, to achieve therapeutic heart regeneration. We also point out the many remaining questions and challenges, particularly for translating in vitro discoveries to in vivo application.

  1. Guided Bone Regeneration with Novel Bioabsorbable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yoshihisa; Kikuchi, Masanori; Yamada, Takeki; Kanaya, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Hiroko N.; Takakuda, Kazuo; Miyairi, Hiroo; Tanaka, Junzo

    Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) is a method for bone tissue regeneration. In this method, membranes are used to cover bone defects and to block the invasion of the surrounding soft tissues. It would provide sufficient time for the osteogenic cells from bone marrow to proliferate and form new bony tissues. In spite of the potential usefulness of this method, no appropriate materials for the GBR membrane have been developed. Here we design the ideal mechanical properties of the GBR membranes and created novel materials, which is the composite of β-tricalcium phosphate and block copolymer of L-lactide, glycolide and ɛ-caplolactone. In the animal experiments with the use of the trial products, we observed significant enhancement in the bone regeneration and proved the effectiveness of the materials.

  2. Skeletal muscle regeneration in cancer cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossola, Maurizio; Marzetti, Emanuele; Rosa, Fausto; Pacelli, Fabio

    2016-05-01

    Muscle wasting is the most important phenotypic and clinical feature of cancer cachexia, and the principal cause of impaired physical function, fatigue, and respiratory complications. Muscle loss has been attributed to a variable combination of reduced nutritional intake and an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes. It has been suggested that defective skeletal muscle regeneration may also contribute to muscle wasting in cancer patients. However, there is little in vitro or in vivo data available, in either animals or in humans, regarding skeletal muscle regeneration in cancer wasting. The aim of the present review is to define the role of skeletal muscle regeneration in the muscle wasting of cancer patients and to determine possible therapeutic implications.

  3. [Regeneration of the gastric and intestinal mucosas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrup, H J

    1979-05-10

    The physiological cell renewal of gastrointestinal mucosa is regulated in man as in animal through certain mechanisms with measurable kinetic data. Pathologic mucosal alterations, metabolic disorders, pharmacological agents etc. clearly affect the regenerative processes of the gastrointestinal epithelium. Gastrin and pentagastrin stimulate the growth not only of the parietal cells, but also of the superficial epithelium of the gastric mucosa, whereas secretin does not change cell growth. Glucocorticoid steroids inhibit epithelial regeneration in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. 5-fluorouracil has a similar effect but acts at a different site in the regeneration cycle. Epithelial cell proliferation of the gastric and intestinal mucosa is likewise inhibited in an uremic condition. In inflammatory changes in the human gastric mucosa epithelial cell hyperproliferation relative to the severity of gastritis and anomalous proliferation within regions of dysplasia can be demonstrated. Foveolary hyperplasia in Ménétrier's disease occurs on the basis of excessive hyperproliferation with displacement of regeneration zones.

  4. [Regeneration and fibrosis of corneal tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simirskiĭ, V N

    2014-01-01

    In this review, the features of the regeneration of corneal tissue and its disorders leading to the development of fibrosis are considered. The data on the presence of stem (clonogenic) cell pool in the corneal tissues (epithelium, endothelium, stroma) are given; these cells can serve as a source for regeneration of the tissues at injury or various diseases. The main steps of regeneration of corneal tissues and their disorders that lead to outstripping proliferation of myofibroblasts and secretion of extracellular matrix in the wound area and eventually cause the formation of connective tissue scar and corneal opacity are considered. Particular attention is given to the successes of translational medicine in the treatment of corneal tissue fibrosis. The methods of cell therapy aimed at the restoration of stem cell pool of corneal tissues are the most promising. Gene therapy provides more opportunities; one of its main objectives is the suppression of the myofibroblast proliferation responsible for the development of fibrosis.

  5. Heat engine regenerators: Research status and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1987-08-01

    The rapidly oscillating, variable density flows of regenerative heat engines provide a class of poorly understood unsteady flow and heat transfer problems. These problems are not currently amenable to direct experimental resolution. Experiences in engine development and test programs and efforts to develop analysis tools point to the regenerator as a key area of insufficient understanding. Focusing on flow and heat transfer in regenerators, this report discusses similarity parameters for the flows and reviews the experimental data currently available for Stirling analysis. Then a number of experimental results are presented from recent fundamental fluid mechanical and thermal investigations that shed additional light on the functioning of heat engine regenerators. Suggestions are made for approaches for further measurement and analysis efforts.

  6. Microwave-Regenerated Diesel Exhaust Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, Richard D. (Industrial Ceramic Solution, LLC); Green, Johney Boyd; Story, John M.; Wagner, Robert M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2001-03-05

    Development of a microwave-regenerated particulate filter system has evolved from bench scale work to actual diesel engine experimentation. The filter system was initially evaluated on a stationary mounted 1.2-L diesel engine and was able to remove a significant amount of carbon particles from the exhaust. The ability of the microwave energy to regenerate or clean the filter was also demonstrated on this engine under idle conditions. Based on the 1.2-L experiments, improvements to the filter design and materials were implemented and the system was re-evaluated on a vehicle equipped with a 7.3-L diesel engine. The 7.3-L engine was selected to achieve heavy filter loading in a relatively short period of time. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate filter-loading capacity, power requirements for regeneration, and filter regeneration efficiency. A more detailed evaluation of the filter was performed on a stationary mounted 1.9-L diesel engine. The effect of exhaust flow rate, loading, transients, and regeneration on filter efficiency was evaluated with this setup. In addition, gaseous exhaust emissions were investigated with and without an oxidation catalyst on the filter cartridge during loading and regeneration. (SAE Paper SAE-2001-01-0903 © 2001 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.)

  7. A dominant semi dwarf mutant in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In the winter of 1997, a semi dwarf mutant was found in the F6 population of M9056/ R8018 xuan in Hainan Province. In the spring of 1998, the seeds were sown in Hefei, Anhui Province and the plant height of the population was measured at maturity.

  8. Nicotinamide ribosyl uptake mutants in Haemophilus influenzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Mark; Sauer, Elizabeta; Smethurst, Graeme; Kraiss, Anita; Hilpert, Anna-Karina; Reidl, Joachim

    2003-09-01

    The gene for the nicotinamide riboside (NR) transporter (pnuC) was identified in Haemophilus influenzae. A pnuC mutant had only residual NR uptake and could survive in vitro with high concentrations of NR, but could not survive in vivo. PnuC may represent a target for the development of inhibitors for preventing H. influenzae disease.

  9. Colored HOMFLY polynomials can distinguish mutant knots

    CERN Document Server

    Nawata, Satoshi; Singh, Vivek Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We illustrate from the viewpoint of braiding operations on WZNW conformal blocks how colored HOMFLY polynomials with multiplicity structure can detect mutations. As an example, we explicitly evaluate the (2,1)-colored HOMFLY polynomials that distinguish a famous mutant pair, Kinoshita-Terasaka and Conway knot.

  10. Hydride heat pump with heat regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A regenerative hydride heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system. A series of at least four canisters containing a lower temperature performing hydride and a series of at least four canisters containing a higher temperature performing hydride is provided. Each canister contains a heat conductive passageway through which a heat transfer fluid is circulated so that sensible heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  11. BMP signaling induces digit regeneration in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ling; Han, Manjong; Yan, Mingquan; Lee, Eun-Chee; Lee, Jangwoo; Muneoka, Ken

    2010-02-01

    The regenerating digit tip of mice is a novel epimorphic response in mammals that is similar to fingertip regeneration in humans. Both display restricted regenerative capabilities that are amputation-level dependent. Using this endogenous regeneration model in neonatal mice, we have found that noggin treatment inhibits regeneration, thus suggesting a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) requirement. Using non-regenerating amputation wounds, we show that BMP7 or BMP2 can induce a regenerative response. BMP-induced regeneration involves the formation of a mammalian digit blastema. Unlike the endogenous regeneration response that involves redifferentiation by direct ossification (evolved regeneration), the BMP-induced response involves endochondral ossification (redevelopment). Our evidence suggests that BMP treatment triggers a reprogramming event that re-initiates digit tip development at the amputation wound. These studies demonstrate for the first time that the postnatal mammalian digit has latent regenerative capabilities that can be induced by growth factor treatment.

  12. Sustainable Regeneration of Nanoparticle Enhanced Activated Carbon in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The regeneration and reuse of exhausted granular activated carbon (GAC) is an appropriate method for lowering operational and environmental costs. Advanced oxidation is a promising environmental friendly technique for GAC regeneration. The main objective of this research was to ...

  13. The Application of TDZ in Enhancing Regeneration of Transgenic Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Y. Jia; B. Zhao; X.D. Wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ At present, transgenic plants are globally grown. Availability of a reliable regeneration system predominantly from a single transformed cell is the prerequisites for gene transfer, but regeneration is still a key problem (Wenzel, 2006).

  14. Improved modelling of a parallel plate active magnetic regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Tušek, J.; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein;

    2013-01-01

    flow maldistribution in the regenerator. This paper studies the effects of these loss mechanisms and compares theoretical results with experimental results obtained on an experimental AMR device. Three parallel plate regenerators were tested, each having different demagnetizing field characteristics...

  15. Why would firms engage in urban regeneration projects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    Urban regeneration that combines integrated and place-based approaches increasingly aims at including public-private partnerships and the active involvement of companies in neighbourhood revitalisation. This is expected to contribute to regeneration in various valuable and sustainable ways...

  16. GAMPMS: Genetic algorithm managed peptide mutant screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Thomas; McDougal, Owen M; Andersen, Tim

    2015-06-30

    The prominence of endogenous peptide ligands targeted to receptors makes peptides with the desired binding activity good molecular scaffolds for drug development. Minor modifications to a peptide's primary sequence can significantly alter its binding properties with a receptor, and screening collections of peptide mutants is a useful technique for probing the receptor-ligand binding domain. Unfortunately, the combinatorial growth of such collections can limit the number of mutations which can be explored using structure-based molecular docking techniques. Genetic algorithm managed peptide mutant screening (GAMPMS) uses a genetic algorithm to conduct a heuristic search of the peptide's mutation space for peptides with optimal binding activity, significantly reducing the computational requirements of the virtual screening. The GAMPMS procedure was implemented and used to explore the binding domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α3β2-isoform with a library of 64,000 α-conotoxin (α-CTx) MII peptide mutants. To assess GAMPMS's performance, it was compared with a virtual screening procedure that used AutoDock to predict the binding affinity of each of the α-CTx MII peptide mutants with the α3β2-nAChR. The GAMPMS implementation performed AutoDock simulations for as few as 1140 of the 64,000 α-CTx MII peptide mutants and could consistently identify a set of 10 peptides with an aggregated binding energy that was at least 98% of the aggregated binding energy of the 10 top peptides from the exhaustive AutoDock screening.

  17. Observation on therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of mother chrysanthemum in treatment of acute pharyngitis and nursing care of it%野菊花超声雾化吸入治疗急性咽炎的疗效观察及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高影儿

    2014-01-01

    [目的]观察野菊花针剂雾化吸入治疗急性咽炎的疗效。[方法]将200例病人随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组100例,治疗组使用野菊花针剂雾化吸入,对照组使用庆大霉素+地塞米松雾化吸入,比较两组病人的治疗效果。[结果]治疗组疗效明显优于对照组(P<0.01)。[结论]野菊花针剂雾化吸入对急性咽炎有良好的效果。%Obj ective:To observe the therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection in treating acute pharyngitis. Methods:A total of 200 patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,200 cases in each.The patients in treatment group were giv-en ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection,while the patients in control group were given ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with gentamicin and dexamethasone.Results:The therapeutic effect in treatment group was significantly better than that in control group(P<0.01).Conclu-sion:The therapeutic effect of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation with mother chrysanthemum inj ection for acute plmryngitis is good.

  18. Compounds from fraction with cardiovascular activity of Chrysanthemum indicum%野菊花心血管活性部位化学成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昱; 马晓斌; 刘建勋

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the chemical constituents from the fraction with cardiovascular activtiy of Chrysanthemum indicum , the isolation and purification of compounds from this active fraction were performed, and the chemical structures were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison of the spectral data with those reported in the literature. As a result, twelve compounds were obtained and identified as (2S)-eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (1), (2.S)-eriodictyol-7-O-β-D-glucoside (2), (2S)-hesperetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (3), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (4), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (5), diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (6), quercetin -7-O-β-D-glucoside (7), (2S)-eriodict-dicaffeoylquinate(8), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(9), 3, 5-cis-dieaffeoylquinic acid (10), 1, 5-dioaffeoylquinic acid( 11), and 1, 3-dicaffeoylquinic acid( 12). The above result indicated that flavonoids were the ma-di-caffeoylquinate(8), 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(9), 3, 5-cis-dieaffeoylquinic acid(10), 1, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid(11), and 1, 3-di-caffcoylquinic acid (12). The above result indicated that flavonoids were the major components of the active fraction. Compounds 2,3, 7, 8 and 10 were obtained from this genus for the first time, and compounds 5, 6, 9, 11, and 12 were first isolated from C. indicum.%目的:研究菊科植物野菊花心血管活性部位中的主要化学成分.方法:采用多种色谱方法进行分离纯化,通过波谱方法结合文献对照鉴定化合物结构.结果:从野菊花心血管活性部位中分离并鉴定了12个化合物,包括7个黄酮类化合物(1~7),5个苯丙素类化合物(8~12),分别鉴定为(2S)-圣草酚-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(1),(2S)-圣草酚-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(2),(2S)-橙皮素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(3),木犀草素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖苷(4),木犀草素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(5),香叶木素-7-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖醛酸苷(6),槲皮素-7-O-β-D-呲喃葡萄糖苷(7),3,5-

  19. Advanced regenerator testing in the Raytheon dual-use cryocoolerr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T. J. [Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems 2000 E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Significant progress has been made on the Raytheon low cost space cryocooler called the Dual-Use Cryocooler (DUC). Most notably, the DUC has been integrated and tested with an advanced regenerator. The advanced regenerator is a drop-in replacement for stainless steel screens and has shown significant thermodynamic performance improvements. This paper will compare the performance of two different regenerators and explain the benefits of the advanced regenerator.

  20. A regulatory program for excretory system regeneration in planarians

    OpenAIRE

    Scimone, M Lucila; Srivastava, Mansi; Bell, George W.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2011-01-01

    Planarians can regenerate any missing body part, requiring mechanisms for the production of organ systems in the adult, including their prominent tubule-based filtration excretory system called protonephridia. Here, we identify a set of genes, Six1/2-2, POU2/3, hunchback, Eya and Sall, that encode transcription regulatory proteins that are required for planarian protonephridia regeneration. During regeneration, planarian stem cells are induced to form a cell population in regeneration blastem...

  1. Establishment of multiple shoot clumps from maize(Zea mays L.) and regeneration of herbicide-resistant transgenic plantlets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国圣; 张卿伟; 张举仁; 毕玉平; 单雷

    2002-01-01

    A kind of quick, efficient and season-free inducing embryoid and multiple shoot clumps system from shoot tip meristems that derived from elite inbreds of maize was established. The herbicide-resistant gene als(coding Acetolactate synthase) isolated from a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was transferred to tissue pieces of maize multiple shoot clumps by microprojectile bombardment. Herbicide-resistant tissue and regenerants were obtained through selections with herbicide chlorsulfuron. PCR analysis and Southern blot hybridization indicated that gene als has been transferred to some regenerants. The test of spraying chlorsulfuron displayed that the transgenic plantlets and R1 plants had favorable herbicide-resistant trait. We have established a new genotype-free system of maize which could rapidly and efficiently produce large quantities of transgenic plantlets.

  2. Human stem cells and articular cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Atsuyuki; Iwakura, Takashi; Reddi, A Hari

    2012-11-05

    The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES) cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  3. Demagnetizing fields in active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic material in an externally applied magnetic field will in general experience a spatially varying internal magnetic field due to demagnetizing effects. When the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMRs) is evaluated using numerical models the internal field is often assumed to b...

  4. Bone regeneration: current concepts and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGonagle Dennis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bone regeneration is a complex, well-orchestrated physiological process of bone formation, which can be seen during normal fracture healing, and is involved in continuous remodelling throughout adult life. However, there are complex clinical conditions in which bone regeneration is required in large quantity, such as for skeletal reconstruction of large bone defects created by trauma, infection, tumour resection and skeletal abnormalities, or cases in which the regenerative process is compromised, including avascular necrosis, atrophic non-unions and osteoporosis. Currently, there is a plethora of different strategies to augment the impaired or 'insufficient' bone-regeneration process, including the 'gold standard' autologous bone graft, free fibula vascularised graft, allograft implantation, and use of growth factors, osteoconductive scaffolds, osteoprogenitor cells and distraction osteogenesis. Improved 'local' strategies in terms of tissue engineering and gene therapy, or even 'systemic' enhancement of bone repair, are under intense investigation, in an effort to overcome the limitations of the current methods, to produce bone-graft substitutes with biomechanical properties that are as identical to normal bone as possible, to accelerate the overall regeneration process, or even to address systemic conditions, such as skeletal disorders and osteoporosis.

  5. Cellular and genetic approaches to myocardial regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyn, John van

    2008-01-01

    Injection of (stem) cells into the damaged heart has a positive effect on cardiac function. In this thesis two strategies for improving myocardial regeneration over classical cell therapy were investigated. The first is to induce cardiomyogenic differentiation by genetically engineering cells to ex

  6. Immunobiology of Facial Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Shi-ming; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Immunobiological study is a key to revealing the important basis of facial nerve repair and regeneration for both research and development of clinic treatments. The microenvironmental changes around an injuried facial motoneuron, i.e., the aggregation and expression of various types of immune cells and molecules in a dynamic equilibrium, impenetrate from the start to the end of the repair of an injured facial nerve. The concept of "immune microenvironment for facial nerve repair and regeneration", mainly concerns with the dynamic exchange between expression and regulation networks and a variaty of immune cells and immune molecules in the process of facial nerve repair and regeneration for the maintenance of a immune microenvironment favorable for nerve repair.Investigation on microglial activation and recruitment, T cell behavior, cytokine networks, and immunological cellular and molecular signaling pathways in facial nerve repair and regeneration are the current hot spots in the research on immunobiology of facial nerve injury. The current paper provides a comprehensive review of the above mentioned issues. Research of these issues will eventually make immunological interventions practicable treatments for facial nerve injury in the clinic.

  7. Stem cells to regenerate the newborn brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velthoven, C.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a frequent cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality with limited therapeutic options. In this thesis we investigate whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) regenerate the neonatal brain after HI injury. We show that transplantation of MSC after neonatal brain injury

  8. Calcium phosphate coatings for bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Liang

    2010-01-01

    As a novel approach to repair and regenerate damaged and degraded bone tissue, tissue engineering has recorded tremendous growth for the last thirty years. This is an emerging interdisciplinary field applying the principles of biology and engineering to the development of viable substitutes that res

  9. Kidney regeneration and repair after transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Franquesa (Marcella); M. Flaquer (Maria); J.M. Cruzado; J. Grinyo (Josep)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE OF REVIEW: To briefly show which are the mechanisms and cell types involved in kidney regeneration and describe some of the therapies currently under study in regenerative medicine for kidney transplantation. RECENT FINDINGS: The kidney contains cell progenitors that under specif

  10. Planning and Implementation of Urban Regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsborg, Christian; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2008-01-01

    the regeneration challenge became an issue in the professional debate. The urban, economic and spatial problematics rising from structural development trends of society were subject to a committee work from 1999 through 2001. The work resulted in a number of recommendations comprising i.a. suggestions concerning...

  11. Thymus: the next (re)generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Mohammed S; Velardi, Enrico; Dudakov, Jarrod A; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2016-05-01

    As the primary site of T-cell development, the thymus plays a key role in the generation of a strong yet self-tolerant adaptive immune response, essential in the face of the potential threat from pathogens or neoplasia. As the importance of the role of the thymus has grown, so too has the understanding that it is extremely sensitive to both acute and chronic injury. The thymus undergoes rapid degeneration following a range of toxic insults, and also involutes as part of the aging process, albeit at a faster rate than many other tissues. The thymus is, however, capable of regenerating, restoring its function to a degree. Potential mechanisms for this endogenous thymic regeneration include keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) signaling, and a more recently described pathway in which innate lymphoid cells produce interleukin-22 (IL-22) in response to loss of double positive thymocytes and upregulation of IL-23 by dendritic cells. Endogenous repair is unable to fully restore the thymus, particularly in the aged population, and this paves the way toward the need for exogenous strategies to help regenerate or even replace thymic function. Therapies currently in clinical trials include KGF, use of the cytokines IL-7 and IL-22, and hormonal modulation including growth hormone administration and sex steroid inhibition. Further novel strategies are emerging in the preclinical setting, including the use of precursor T cells and thymus bioengineering. The use of such strategies offers hope that for many patients, the next regeneration of their thymus is a step closer.

  12. Fingernails Yield Clues to Limb Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases has uncovered chemical signals that drive the regeneration of lost digit tips in mice. The findings, published in the journal Nature, could eventually lead to the development of novel treatments for amputees. While salamanders and newts are well known for their ability ...

  13. Reparative inflammation takes charge of tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin, Michael; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation underlies many chronic and degenerative diseases, but it also mitigates infections, clears damaged cells and initiates tissue repair. Many of the mechanisms that link inflammation to damage repair and regeneration in mammals are conserved in lower organisms, indicating that it is an evo

  14. Growth factor interactions in bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, D.H.R.; Creemers, L.B.; Alblas, J.; Lu, L.; Verbout, A.J.; Yaszemski, M.J.; Dhert, W.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Growth factor interactions in bone regeneration. Diederik H R Kempen, Laura B Creemers, Jacqueline Alblas, Lichun Lu, Abraham J Verbout, Michael J Yaszemski and Wouter J A Dhert 1 Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center , Utrecht, The Netherlands . AbstractBuy the PDF Pubmed abstract Ge

  15. Human Stem Cells and Articular Cartilage Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hari Reddi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  The regeneration of articular cartilage damaged due to trauma and posttraumatic osteoarthritis is an unmet medical need. Current approaches to regeneration and tissue engineering of articular cartilage include the use of chondrocytes, stem cells, scaffolds and signals, including morphogens and growth factors. Stem cells, as a source of cells for articular cartilage regeneration, are a critical factor for articular cartilage regeneration. This is because articular cartilage tissue has a low cell turnover and does not heal spontaneously. Adult stem cells have been isolated from various tissues, such as bone marrow, adipose, synovial tissue, muscle and periosteum. Signals of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily play critical roles in chondrogenesis. However, adult stem cells derived from various tissues tend to differ in their chondrogenic potential. Pluripotent stem cells have unlimited proliferative capacity compared to adult stem cells. Chondrogenesis from embryonic stem (ES cells has been studied for more than a decade. However, establishment of ES cells requires embryos and leads to ethical issues for clinical applications. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are generated by cellular reprogramming of adult cells by transcription factors. Although iPS cells have chondrogenic potential, optimization, generation and differentiation toward articular chondrocytes are currently under intense investigation.

  16. Bioinorganics: synthetic growth factors for bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahmasebi Birgani, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue is naturally able to regenerate when damaged. However, in many large defects caused by fractures due to aging or osteoporosis, trauma, tumor removal, etc., the natural regenerative ability of bone is not sufficient to fully heal the defect. In such cases, a graft is required to support t

  17. Heterogeneous scaffold designs for selective neural regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 5 decades, there has been a drive to apply technology to enhance neural regeneration in order to improve patient recovery after disease or injury. This has evolved into the field of Neural Engineering, with the aim to understand, control and exploit the development and function of neur

  18. Economic analysis of replacement regeneration and coppice regeneration in eucalyptus stands under risk conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Carolina de Lima Guedes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Projects are by their very nature subject to conditions of uncertainty that obstruct the decision-making process. Uncertainties involving forestry projects are even greater, as they are combined with time of return on capital invested, being medium to long term. For successful forest planning, it is necessary to quantify uncertainties by converting them into risks. The decision on whether to adopt replacement regeneration or coppice regeneration in a forest stand is influenced by several factors, which include land availability for new forest crops, changes in project end use, oscillations in demand and technological advancement. This study analyzed the economic feasibility of replacement regeneration and coppice regeneration of eucalyptus stands, under deterministic and under risk conditions. Information was gathered about costs and revenues for charcoal production in order to structure the cash flow used in the economic analysis, adopting the Net Present Value method (VPL. Risk assessment was based on simulations running the Monte Carlo method. Results led to the following conclusions: replacement regeneration is economically viable, even if the future stand has the same productivity as the original stand; coppice regeneration is an economically viable option even if productivity is a mere 70% of the original stand (high-tree planted stand, the best risk-return ratio option is restocking the stand (replacement regeneration by one that is 20% more productive; the probabilistic analysis running the Monte Carlo method revealed that invariably there is economic viability for the various replacement and coppice regeneration options being studied, minimizing uncertainties and consequently increasing confidence in decision-making.

  19. Modeling of active magnetic regenerators and experimental investigation of passive regenerators with oscillating flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian

    loss mechanisms and optimizing AMRs. The impacts of the heat loss through the regenerator housing and the dead volume are also quantified. A multiparameter optimization reveals the optimal dimensions and operating parameters for different regenerator geometries. In order to evaluate different...... and deduced indicators, including the pressure drop, friction factor, effectiveness, heating power and overall Nusselt number. Finally, based on the research in this thesis, the perspectives and some suggestions for the future work are given....

  20. Using absorbable collagen membranes for guided tissue regeneration, guided bone regeneration, and to treat gingival recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H L; Carroll, W J

    2000-05-01

    This article reviews the role of barrier membranes in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR), including the advantages of using absorbable barrier membranes in GTR and GBR and the unique properties of collagen membranes. The indications and contraindications for using collagen membranes for these procedures are examined, and successful cases are presented. Finally, the role of collagen membranes in the future of regenerative therapy is considered.

  1. Amuvatinib has cytotoxic effects against NRAS-mutant melanoma but not BRAF-mutant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, Inna V; Fang, Bin; Koomen, John M; Gibney, Geoffrey T; Smalley, Keiran S M

    2014-10-01

    Effective targeted therapy strategies are still lacking for the 15-20% of melanoma patients whose melanomas are driven by oncogenic NRAS. Here, we report on the NRAS-specific behavior of amuvatinib, a kinase inhibitor with activity against c-KIT, Axl, PDGFRα, and Rad51. An analysis of BRAF-mutant and NRAS-mutant melanoma cell lines showed the NRAS-mutant cohort to be enriched for targets of amuvatinib, including Axl, c-KIT, and the Axl ligand Gas6. Increasing concentrations of amuvatinib selectively inhibited the growth of NRAS-mutant, but not BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines, an effect associated with induction of S-phase and G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Mechanistically, amuvatinib was noted to either inhibit Axl, AKT, and MAPK signaling or Axl and AKT signaling and to induce a DNA damage response. In three-dimensional cell culture experiments, amuvatinib was cytotoxic against NRAS-mutant melanoma cell lines. Thus, we show for the first time that amuvatinib has proapoptotic activity against melanoma cell lines, with selectivity observed for those harboring oncogenic NRAS.

  2. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayse; Alikamanoglu, Sema

    2012-01-01

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0-75Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M(1)V(1)-M(1)V(3) generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20gl(-1) PEG6000. Of the M(1)V(3) plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10gl(-1) PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters.

  3. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ayse, E-mail: senayse@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Alikamanoglu, Sema [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-10-15

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0-75 Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20 Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20 Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M{sub 1}V{sub 1}-M{sub 1}V{sub 3} generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20 gl{sup -1} PEG6000. Of the M{sub 1}V{sub 3} plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20 Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10 g l{sup -1} PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters.

  4. Targeting ESR1-Mutant Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    disease-free survival, the majority of breast cancer patients will present recurrent antiestrogen resistant metastatic lesions following prolonged...exposure to these therapies. By investigating how these lesions become resistant to antiestrogen while maintaining expression of ERα, we found...Retreat. Invited oral presentation. C) Other products Nothing to report. Targeting  ESR1-­‐Mutant  Breast  Cancer   W81XWH-­‐14-­‐1-­‐0360

  5. Characterization of a Legionella micdadei mip mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, W A; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Cianciotto, N P

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Legionella micdadei is dependent upon its ability to infect alveolar phagocytes. To better understand the basis of intracellular infection by this organism, we examined the importance of its Mip surface protein. In Legionella pneumophila, Mip promotes infection of both human m...... into the phagocyte. Similarly, the mutant was less able to parasitize Hartmannella amoebae. Taken together, these data argue that Mip specifically potentiates intracellular growth by L. micdadei....

  6. Regeneration of spines and pedicellariae in echinoderms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, P; Ameye, L

    2001-12-15

    Morphogenesis of tissues during regeneration of echinoderm spines and pedicellariae is reviewed. Regeneration of the skeleton is rather well documented while that of associated soft tissues is poorly investigated. In particular, little information is available on the early regeneration stages which follow wound healing. From the available information, it is suggested that regeneration of broken spines proceeds through a morphallactic process of which the organizational information, as well as the involved cells, lies in the stump. In contrast, regeneration of removed spines and pedicellariae may depend on an epimorphic process whose organizational information could be located in the mutable connective tissue that joins the appendage to the main body wall.

  7. Mammalian Cochlear Hair Cell Regeneration and Ribbon Synapse Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells (HCs are the sensory preceptor cells in the inner ear, which play an important role in hearing and balance. The HCs of organ of Corti are susceptible to noise, ototoxic drugs, and infections, thus resulting in permanent hearing loss. Recent approaches of HCs regeneration provide new directions for finding the treatment of sensor neural deafness. To have normal hearing function, the regenerated HCs must be reinnervated by nerve fibers and reform ribbon synapse with the dendrite of spiral ganglion neuron through nerve regeneration. In this review, we discuss the research progress in HC regeneration, the synaptic plasticity, and the reinnervation of new regenerated HCs in mammalian inner ear.

  8. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of Cdc42 results in delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Haixin; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Xunwei

    2009-01-01

    . Consistent with this, expression of cyclins D1, A, and E was markedly delayed or reduced in Cdc42LK livers during regeneration. As a potential effector of Cdc42, Rac1 activation was dramatically attenuated in Cdc42LK livers after partial hepatectomy, suggesting it is regulated in a Cdc42-dependent manner....... Activation of certain proliferative signaling pathways, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p70S6 kinase pathways, was delayed in Cdc42LK livers. In addition, dilated bile canaliculi and excessive lipid accumulation were observed in mutant livers during liver...

  9. Perkembangan Terkini Membran Guided Tissue Regeneration/Guided Bone Regeneration sebagai Terapi Regenerasi Jaringan Periodontal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Cahaya

    2015-06-01

    kombinasi prosedur-prosedur di atas, termasuk prosedur bedah restoratif yang berhubungan dengan rehabilitasi oral dengan penempatan dental implan. Pada tingkat selular, regenerasi periodontal adalah proses kompleks yang membutuhkan proliferasi yang terorganisasi, differensiasi dan pengembangan berbagai tipe sel untuk membentuk perlekatan periodontal. Rasionalisasi penggunaan guided tissue regeneration sebagai membran pembatas adalah menahan epitel dan gingiva jaringan pendukung, sebagai barrier membrane mempertahankan ruang dan gigi serta menstabilkan bekuan darah. Pada makalah ini akan dibahas sekilas mengenai 1. Proses penyembuhan terapi periodontal meliputi regenerasi, repair ataupun pembentukan perlekatan baru. 2. Periodontal spesific tissue engineering. 3. Berbagai jenis membran/guided tissue regeneration yang beredar di pasaran dengan keuntungan dan kerugian sekaligus karakteristik masing-masing membran. 4. Perkembangan membran terbaru sebagai terapi regenerasi penyakit periodontal. Tujuan penulisan untuk memberi gambaran masa depan mengenai terapi regenerasi yang menjanjikan sebagai perkembangan terapi penyakit periodontal.   Latest Development of Guided Tissue Regeneration and Guided Bone Regeneration Membrane as Regenerative Therapy on Periodontal Tissue. Periodontitis is a patological state which influences the integrity of periodontal system that could lead to the destruction of the periodontal tissue and end up with tooth loss. Currently, there are so many researches and efforts to regenerate periodontal tissue, not only to stop the process of the disease but also to reconstruct the periodontal tissue. Periodontal regenerative therapy aims at directing the growth of new bone, cementum and periodontal ligament on the affected teeth. Regenerative procedures consist of soft tissue graft, bone graft, roots biomodification, guided tissue regeneration and combination of the procedures, including restorative surgical procedure that is

  10. Regeneration of limb joints in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangwoo Lee

    Full Text Available In spite of numerous investigations of regenerating salamander limbs, little attention has been paid to the details of how joints are reformed. An understanding of the process and mechanisms of joint regeneration in this model system for tetrapod limb regeneration would provide insights into developing novel therapies for inducing joint regeneration in humans. To this end, we have used the axolotl (Mexican Salamander model of limb regeneration to describe the morphology and the expression patterns of marker genes during joint regeneration in response to limb amputation. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanisms of joint formation whether it be development or regeneration are conserved. We also have determined that defects in the epiphyseal region of both forelimbs and hind limbs in the axolotl are regenerated only when the defect is small. As is the case with defects in the diaphysis, there is a critical size above which the endogenous regenerative response is not sufficient to regenerate the joint. This non-regenerative response in an animal that has the ability to regenerate perfectly provides the opportunity to screen for the signaling pathways to induce regeneration of articular cartilage and joints.

  11. Regeneration of limb joints in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangwoo; Gardiner, David M

    2012-01-01

    In spite of numerous investigations of regenerating salamander limbs, little attention has been paid to the details of how joints are reformed. An understanding of the process and mechanisms of joint regeneration in this model system for tetrapod limb regeneration would provide insights into developing novel therapies for inducing joint regeneration in humans. To this end, we have used the axolotl (Mexican Salamander) model of limb regeneration to describe the morphology and the expression patterns of marker genes during joint regeneration in response to limb amputation. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the mechanisms of joint formation whether it be development or regeneration are conserved. We also have determined that defects in the epiphyseal region of both forelimbs and hind limbs in the axolotl are regenerated only when the defect is small. As is the case with defects in the diaphysis, there is a critical size above which the endogenous regenerative response is not sufficient to regenerate the joint. This non-regenerative response in an animal that has the ability to regenerate perfectly provides the opportunity to screen for the signaling pathways to induce regeneration of articular cartilage and joints.

  12. A histone demethylase is necessary for regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Scott; Tsun, Zhi-Yang; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2009-11-24

    Urodele amphibians and teleost fish regenerate amputated body parts via a process called epimorphic regeneration. A hallmark of this phenomenon is the reactivation of silenced developmental regulatory genes that previously functioned during embryonic patterning. We demonstrate that histone modifications silence promoters of numerous genes involved in zebrafish caudal fin regeneration. Silenced developmental regulatory genes contain bivalent me(3)K4/me(3)K27 H3 histone modifications created by the concerted action of Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax histone methyltransferases. During regeneration, this silent, bivalent chromatin is converted to an active state by loss of repressive me(3)K27 H3 modifications, occurring at numerous genes that appear to function during regeneration. Loss-of-function studies demonstrate a requirement for a me(3)K27 H3 demethylase during fin regeneration. These results indicate that histone modifications at discreet genomic positions may serve as a crucial regulatory event in the initiation of fin regeneration.

  13. Non-Uniform Heat Transfer in Thermal Regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Buch

    This thesis presents investigations on the heat transfer in complex heat ex- changers in general and in regenerative heat exchangers (regenerators) in par- ticular. The motivation for this work is a result of inconsistencies obeserved in the results from a series of experiments on active magnetic...... regenerators (AMRs) with parallel plates. The results suggest that random variations in the regenerator geometries causes maldistributed fluid flow inside the regener- ators, which affects the regenerator performance. In order to study the heat transfer processes in regenerators with non-uniform geometries......, a numerical model, which simulates a single-blow operation in a parallel-plate regenerator, was developed and used to model the heat transfer under various conditions. In addition to the modeling of the heat transfer, a series of experiments on passive regenerators with non-uniform, but precisely controlled...

  14. Vertebrate-like regeneration in the invertebrate chordate amphioxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorjai, Ildikó M L; Somorjai, Rajmund L; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Escrivà, Hector

    2012-01-10

    An important question in biology is why some animals are able to regenerate, whereas others are not. The basal chordate amphioxus is uniquely positioned to address the evolution of regeneration. We report here the high regeneration potential of the European amphioxus Branchiostoma lanceolatum. Adults regenerate both anterior and posterior structures, including neural tube, notochord, fin, and muscle. Development of a classifier based on tail regeneration profiles predicts the assignment of young and old adults to their own class with >94% accuracy. The process involves loss of differentiated characteristics, formation of an msx-expressing blastema, and neurogenesis. Moreover, regeneration is linked to the activation of satellite-like Pax3/7 progenitor cells, the extent of which declines with size and age. Our results provide a framework for understanding the evolution and diversity of regeneration mechanisms in vertebrates.

  15. Modulation of tissue repair by regeneration enhancer elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Junsu; Hu, Jianxin; Karra, Ravi; Dickson, Amy L; Tornini, Valerie A; Nachtrab, Gregory; Gemberling, Matthew; Goldman, Joseph A; Black, Brian L; Poss, Kenneth D

    2016-04-14

    How tissue regeneration programs are triggered by injury has received limited research attention. Here we investigate the existence of enhancer regulatory elements that are activated in regenerating tissue. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that leptin b (lepb) is highly induced in regenerating hearts and fins of zebrafish. Epigenetic profiling identified a short DNA sequence element upstream and distal to lepb that acquires open chromatin marks during regeneration and enables injury-dependent expression from minimal promoters. This element could activate expression in injured neonatal mouse tissues and was divisible into tissue-specific modules sufficient for expression in regenerating zebrafish fins or hearts. Simple enhancer-effector transgenes employing lepb-linked sequences upstream of pro- or anti-regenerative factors controlled the efficacy of regeneration in zebrafish. Our findings provide evidence for 'tissue regeneration enhancer elements' (TREEs) that trigger gene expression in injury sites and can be engineered to modulate the regenerative potential of vertebrate organs.

  16. Enhanced cell-specific ablation in zebrafish using a triple mutant of Escherichia coli nitroreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Jonathan R; Zhang, Zhanying; Saxena, Meera T; Mumm, Jeff S

    2014-04-01

    Transgenic expression of bacterial nitroreductase (NTR) facilitates chemically-inducible targeted cell ablation. In zebrafish, the NTR system enables studies of cell function and cellular regeneration. Metronidazole (MTZ) has become the most commonly used prodrug substrate for eliciting cell loss in NTR-expressing transgenic zebrafish due to the cell-specific nature of its cytotoxic derivatives. Unfortunately, MTZ treatments required for effective cell ablation border toxic effects, and, thus, likely incur undesirable nonspecific effects. Here, we tested whether a triple mutant variant of NTR, previously shown to display improved activity in bacterial assays, can solve this issue by promoting cell ablation in zebrafish using reduced prodrug treatment regimens. We generated several complementary transgenic zebrafish lines expressing either wild-type or mutant NTR (mutNTR) in specific neural cell types, and assayed prodrug-induced cell ablation kinetics using confocal time series imaging and plate reader-based quantification of fluorescent reporters expressed in targeted cell types. The results show that cell ablation can be achieved in mutNTR expressing transgenic lines with markedly shortened prodrug exposure times and/or at lower prodrug concentrations. The mutNTR variant characterized here can circumvent problematic nonspecific/toxic effects arising from low prodrug conversion efficiency, thus increasing the effectiveness and versatility of this selective cell ablation methodology.

  17. Anomalies of autogamy in Paramecium tetraurelia temperature sensitive mutant induced by heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajer, M; Iftode, F

    2001-01-01

    The run of autogamy in temperature sensitive mutant ts401, carrying also the mutation of trichocysts nd3a, at permissive (26 degrees C) and non-permissive temperature (35 degrees C) was studied and compared with this process in wild d4-2 stock of Paramecium tetraurelia. The effect of heat treatment on programmed nuclear and cortical events was investigated using cytological silver impregnation Fernandez-Galiano method and immunofluorescence technique with the application of two anti-alpha-tubulin antibodies. The appearance of cells with some large macronuclear fragments and an excess number of micronuclei suggests that nuclear differentiation is inhibited at restrictive temperature and that macronuclear regeneration takes place in this thermosensitive mutant. In such cells impaired oral reorganization was observed. After slight refeeding at the late autogamy, cells stopped at first postautogamous division were induced by heat treatment. The most striking feature of these abnormal divisions was the lack of a basal body duplication wave, which suggests that production of gamma-tubulin, structural protein being the essential component of the microtubule organizing centres, is disturbed at high temperature.

  18. EVALUATING THE CULTURE-LED REGENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Angelo Francesca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a new approach to urban planning, evaluating the culture-led regeneration processes. In the last few years, the cultural turn in urban planning played a central role in the urban studies. In this way we try to elaborate a more robust perspective interpreting the complex phenomenology emerging from the culture-led regeneration processes. Within the concept of complexity we discuss about the metabolic process that are the processes necessary to transform energy, material and information in goods and service functional to the complex urban system life. The approach that will be employed is the MuSIASEM that is based on several novel concept and an innovative methods never applied in this research field.

  19. Heterogeneous Catalyst Deactivation and Regeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris D. Argyle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Deactivation of heterogeneous catalysts is a ubiquitous problem that causes loss of catalytic rate with time. This review on deactivation and regeneration of heterogeneous catalysts classifies deactivation by type (chemical, thermal, and mechanical and by mechanism (poisoning, fouling, thermal degradation, vapor formation, vapor-solid and solid-solid reactions, and attrition/crushing. The key features and considerations for each of these deactivation types is reviewed in detail with reference to the latest literature reports in these areas. Two case studies on the deactivation mechanisms of catalysts used for cobalt Fischer-Tropsch and selective catalytic reduction are considered to provide additional depth in the topics of sintering, coking, poisoning, and fouling. Regeneration considerations and options are also briefly discussed for each deactivation mechanism.

  20. Moral regeneration: Seedbeds for civic virtue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet G.J. Meiring

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Taking his cue from a recent report by the US National Council on Civil Society, the author discusses a number of “seedbeds of civic virtue” that may play a role in the much needed moral regeneration of South African society. The “seedbeds” are (1 family, (2 the local community, (3 faith communities, (4 voluntary civil organizations, (5 arts and art institutions, (6 education, (7 business, labour and economic institu-tions, (8 the media, (9 government, (10 the nation. The “rainbow nation”, the author contends, has in recent times lost some of its colour, but if the different partners in the quest for moral regeneration take hands, the colours of the rainbow may return.

  1. Gene transfer to promote cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collesi, Chiara; Giacca, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    There is an impelling need to develop new therapeutic strategies for patients with myocardial infarction and heart failure. Leading from the large quantity of new information gathered over the last few years on the mechanisms controlling cardiomyocyte proliferation during embryonic and fetal life, it is now possible to devise innovative therapies based on cardiac gene transfer. Different protein-coding genes controlling cell cycle progression or cardiomyocyte specification and differentiation, along with microRNA mimics and inhibitors regulating pre-natal and early post-natal cell proliferation, are amenable to transformation in potential therapeutics for cardiac regeneration. These gene therapy approaches are conceptually revolutionary, since they are aimed at stimulating the intrinsic potential of differentiated cardiac cells to proliferate, rather than relying on the implantation of exogenously expanded cells to achieve tissue regeneration. For efficient and prolonged cardiac gene transfer, vectors based on the Adeno-Associated Virus stand as safe, efficient and reliable tools for cardiac gene therapy applications.

  2. BIODEGRADATION OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE FILMS BY FUNGI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lina; LIU Haiqing; ZHENG Lianshuang; ZHANG Jiayao; DU Yumin; LIU Weili

    1996-01-01

    The biodegradability of Aspergillus niger (A. niger), Mucor (M-305) and Trichoderma (T-311) strains on regenerated cellulose films in media was investigated. The results showed that T-311 strain isolated from soil adhered on the cellulose film fragments has stronger degradation effect on the cellulose film than A. niger strain. The weights, molecular weights and tensile strengths of the cellulose films in both shake culture and solid media decreased with incubation time, accompanied by producing CO2 and saccharides. HPLC, IR and released CO2 analysis indicated that the biodegradation products of the regenerated cellulose films mainly contain oligosaccharides, cellobiose, glucose, arabinose, erythrose, glycerose,glycerol, ethanal, formaldehyde and organic acid, the end products were CO2 and water.After a month, the films were completely decomposed by fungi in the media at 30℃.

  3. Regenerating a kidney in a lymph node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francipane, Maria Giovanna; Lagasse, Eric

    2016-10-01

    The ultimate treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is orthotopic transplantation. However, the demand for kidney transplantation far exceeds the number of available donor organs. While more than 100,000 Americans need a kidney, only 17,000 people receive a kidney transplant each year (National Kidney Foundation's estimations). In recent years, several regenerative medicine/tissue engineering approaches have been exploited to alleviate the kidney shortage crisis. Although these approaches have yielded promising results in experimental animal models, the kidney is a complex organ and translation into the clinical realm has been challenging to date. In this review, we will discuss cell therapy-based approaches for kidney regeneration and whole-kidney tissue engineering strategies, including our innovative approach to regenerate a functional kidney using the lymph node as an in vivo bioreactor.

  4. Acellular nerve allograft promotes selective regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haili Xin; Guanjun Wang; Xinrong He; Jiang Peng; Quanyi Guo; Wenjing Xu

    2011-01-01

    Acellular nerve allograft preserves the basilar membrane tube and extracellular matrix, which pro-motes selective regeneration of neural defects via bridging. In the present study, a Sprague Dawley rat sciatic nerve was utilized to prepare acellular nerve allografts through the use of the chemical extraction method. Subsequently, the allograft was transplanted into a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect in Wistar rats, while autologous nerve grafts from Wistar rats served as controls. Compared with autologous nerve grafts, the acellular nerve allografts induced a greater number of degenerated nerve fibers from sural nerves, as well as a reduced misconnect rate in motor fibers, fewer acetyl-choline esterase-positive sural nerves, and a greater number of carbonic anhydrase-positive senso-ry nerve fibers. Results demonstrated that the acellular nerve allograft exhibited significant neural selective regeneration in the process of bridging nerve defects.

  5. How x rays inhibit amphibian limb regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maden, M.; Wallace, H.

    1976-07-01

    The effects of an inhibiting dose of 2,000 rad of x-rays on the regenerating limbs of axolotl larvae have been examined in a histological and cytological study. Particular attention was paid to the mitotic indices of normal and irradiated epidermal and blastemal cells. Both the characteristic pattern of epidermal mitotic stimulation which normally follows amputation and the later increase in blastemal mitoses are suppressed by irradiation. In most cells the effects are permanent, but in a small proportion a mitotic delay is induced and upon subsequent division chromosome damage in the form of micronuclei is revealed. Thus irradiated cells which do divide almost certainly die. These results are discussed in relation to other theories of x-ray inhibition of regeneration with particular reference to the view that irradiated cells can be reactivated.

  6. Auxin level and regeneration of Begonia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, O M

    1968-06-01

    As previously found, both the level of ether-extractable auxin (presumably indole-3-acetic acid) and the root-forming ability of B.xcheimantha leaves are increased under long-day conditions by high temperature, whereas the capacity for adventitious bud formation is reduced. However, this relation is present under relatively high light intensity only. Under the low light intensities in late fall neither auxin level nor regeneration ability were significantly affected by temperature.Dark treatment of detached leaves for 2 to 16 days greatly counteracted the inhibitory effect of high temperature on bud formation and reduced both the auxin level and the root-forming ability of the leaves.The great seasonal changes in the regeneration ability of Begonia leaves seem to be the result of a complex interaction of temperature, day-length, and daily light energy on the level of endogenous auxin and other growth regulators.

  7. Macrophages in Tissue Repair, Regeneration, and Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas A; Vannella, Kevin M

    2016-03-15

    Inflammatory monocytes and tissue-resident macrophages are key regulators of tissue repair, regeneration, and fibrosis. After tissue injury, monocytes and macrophages undergo marked phenotypic and functional changes to play critical roles during the initiation, maintenance, and resolution phases of tissue repair. Disturbances in macrophage function can lead to aberrant repair, such that uncontrolled production of inflammatory mediators and growth factors, deficient generation of anti-inflammatory macrophages, or failed communication between macrophages and epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stem or tissue progenitor cells all contribute to a state of persistent injury, and this could lead to the development of pathological fibrosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that instruct macrophages to adopt pro-inflammatory, pro-wound-healing, pro-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, pro-resolving, and tissue-regenerating phenotypes after injury, and we highlight how some of these mechanisms and macrophage activation states could be exploited therapeutically.

  8. Transcriptional profiling of regenerating embryonic mouse hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Magarin; Herbert Schulz; Ludwig Thierfelder; Jörg-Detlef Drenckhahn

    2016-01-01

    The postnatal mammalian heart is considered a terminally differentiated organ unable to efficiently regenerate after injury. In contrast, we have recently shown a remarkable regenerative capacity of the prenatal heart using myocardial tissue mosaicism for mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. This model is based on inactivation of the X-linked gene encoding holocytochrome c synthase (Hccs) specifically in the developing heart. Loss of HCCS activity results in respiratory chain dysfunction, distu...

  9. Analysing bone regeneration using topological optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alexander Garzón Alvarado

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article's object is to present the mathematical foundations of topological optimisation aimed at carrying out a study of bone regeneration. Bone structure can be economically adopted to different mechanical demands responding to topological optimisation models (having "minimum" mass and "high" resistance. Such analysis is essential for formulating physical therapy in patients needing partial or total strengthening of a particular bone's tissue structure. A mathematical model is formulated, as are the methods for resolving it.

  10. Resolving of deficit regeneration - case report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to show illustrative, indication of alveolar augmentation before insertion of endoosseous dental implants. In our case report we have shown the indication for ridge augmentation prior to the placement of endoosseous dental implant. The local process of bone regeneration was thus stimulated and the chances of a good clinical output were increased. Case report: Female patient (27 years old) visited our clinic. Diagnosis was periodontitis of 46 and indication to remove the tooth, ...

  11. Harnessing Biomechanics to Develop Cartilage Regeneration Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasiou, KA; Responte, DJ; Brown, WE; Hu, JC

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 by ASME. As this review was prepared specifically for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers H.R. Lissner Medal, it primarily discusses work toward cartilage regeneration performed in Dr. Kyriacos A. Athanasiou's laboratory over the past 25 years. The prevalence and severity of degeneration of articular cartilage, a tissue whose main function is largely biomechanical, have motivated the development of cartilage tissue engineering approaches informed by biomechanics. Thi...

  12. Regeneration of ZVS converter with Resonant inductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Sivavara Prasad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the regeneration of zero-voltage-switching converter with resonant inductor, quasi-resonant converters, and full-bridge zero-voltage-switched PWM Converter. The design of a clamping circuit considering a saturable resonant inductor is presented and compared with the design of a clamping circuit with a linear resonant inductor. A diode model with reverse recovery is employed to simulate the effects.

  13. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Periodontal Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Mi; Duan, Xuejing; Yang, Pishan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which leads to destruction of both the soft and hard tissues of the periodontium. Tissue engineering is a therapeutic approach in regenerative medicine that aims to induce new functional tissue regeneration via the synergistic combination of cells, biomaterials, and/or growth factors. Advances in our understanding of the biology of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, have provided opportunities for periodontal ...

  14. Regeneration of begonia plantlets by direct organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Mendi, Yalçın Y.; Mendi, Yalcin Y.; Curuk, P.; Kocaman, E.; Unek, C.; Eldoğan, S.; Eldogan, S.; Gencel, G.; Çetiner, Selim; Cetiner, Selim

    2009-01-01

    The economic importance of ornamentals worldwide suggests a bright future for ornamental breeding. Rapid progress in plant molecular biology has great potentials to contribute to the breeding of novel ornamental plants utilizing recombinant DNA technology. The plant cell, tissue or organ culture of many ornamental species and their regeneration are essential for providing the material and systems for their genetic manipulation, and this is therefore the first requirement of genetic engineerin...

  15. Towards a comprehensive model of feather regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderson, Paul F A; Hillenius, Willem J; Hiller, Uwe; Dove, Carla C

    2009-10-01

    Understanding of the regeneration of feathers, despite a 140 year tradition of study, has remained substantially incomplete. Moreover, accumulated errors and mis-statements in the literature have confounded the intrinsic difficulties in describing feather regeneration. Lack of allusion to Rudall's (Rudall [1947] Biochem Biophys Acta 1:549-562) seminal X-ray diffraction study that revealed two distinct keratins, beta- and alpha-, in a mature feather, is one of the several examples where lack of citation long inhibited progress in understanding. This article reviews and reevaluates the available literature and provides a synthetic, comprehensive, morphological model for the regeneration of a generalized, adult contour feather. Particular attention is paid to several features that have previously been largely ignored. Some of these, such as the beta-keratogenic sheath and the alpha-keratogenic, supra-umbilical, pulp caps, are missing from mature, functional feathers sensu stricto because they are lost through preening, but these structures nevertheless play a critical role in development. A new developmental role for a tissue unique to feathers, the medullary pith of the rachis and barb rami, and especially its importance in the genesis of the superior umbilical region (SUR) that forms the transition from the spathe (rachis and vanes) to the calamus, is described. It is postulated that feathers form through an intricate interplay between cyto- and histodifferentiative processes, determined by patterning signals that emanate from the dermal core, and a suite of interacting biomechanical forces. Precisely regulated patterns of loss of intercellular adhesivity appear to be the most fundamental aspect of feather morphogenesis and regeneration: rather than a hierarchically branched structure, it appears more appropriate to conceive of feathers as a sheet of mature keratinocytes that is "full of holes.

  16. Heartbreak hotel: a convergence in cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael D

    2016-05-01

    In February 2016, The Company of Biologists hosted an intimate gathering of leading international researchers at the forefront of experimental cardiovascular regeneration, with its emphasis on 'Transdifferentiation and Tissue Plasticity in Cardiovascular Rejuvenation'. As I review here, participants at the workshop revealed how understanding cardiac growth and lineage decisions at their most fundamental level has transformed the strategies in hand that presently energize the prospects for human heart repair.

  17. Decellularized Tooth Bud Scaffolds for Tooth Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Vazquez, B; Oreadi, D; Yelick, P C

    2017-01-01

    Whole tooth regeneration approaches currently are limited by our inability to bioengineer full-sized, living replacement teeth. Recently, decellularized organ scaffolds have shown promise for applications in regenerative medicine by providing a natural extracellular matrix environment that promotes cell attachment and tissue-specific differentiation leading to full-sized organ regeneration. We hypothesize that decellularized tooth buds (dTBs) created from unerupted porcine tooth buds (TBs) can be used to guide reseeded dental cell differentiation to form whole bioengineered teeth, thereby providing a potential off-the-shelf scaffold for whole tooth regeneration. Porcine TBs were harvested from discarded 6-mo-old pig jaws, and decellularized by successive sodium dodecyl sulfate/Triton-X cycles. Four types of replicate implants were used in this study: 1) acellular dTBs; 2) recellularized dTBs seeded with porcine dental epithelial cells, human dental pulp cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (recell-dTBs); 3) dTBs seeded with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (dTB-BMPs); and 4) freshly isolated nondecellularized natural TBs (nTBs). Replicate samples were implanted into the mandibles of host Yucatan mini-pigs and grown for 3 or 6 mo. Harvested mandibles with implanted TB constructs were fixed in formalin, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and analyzed via histological methods. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis was performed on harvested 6-mo samples prior to decalcification. All harvested constructs exhibited a high degree of cellularity. Significant production of organized dentin and enamel-like tissues was observed in dTB-recell and nTB implants, but not in dTB or dTB-BMP implants. Micro-CT analyses of 6-mo implants showed the formation of organized, bioengineered teeth of comparable size to natural teeth. To our knowledge, these results are the first to describe the potential use of dTBs for functional whole tooth regeneration.

  18. Preparation of A Compound Beverage with Inulin of Jerusalem Artichok, Hawthorn and Chrysanthemum%菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 朱畅

    2016-01-01

    The hot water was used to extract inulin. Through orthogonal test the optimal conditions of extract in-ulin were:the ratio of sample to water was 1∶25 (g/g),temperature 90℃,time 60 min. Under these conditions, the extract ratio was 79.98 %. Inulin of jerusalem artichoke ,hawthorn and chrysanthemum were used as the main materials,added white granulate sugar,honey and other accessories. A discussion was carried out on the key technologies,through single factor and orthogonal experimental design ,the sensory score was investigated an indicator to determine the optimum formula of the compound beverage. The results showed that the mixing proportion of hawthorn extract and chrysanthemum extract was 2∶3(mL/mL),inulin 2%,white granulate sugar 4%,honey 3%,the best stabilizer was sodium alginate 0.05%and CMC-Na 0.1%. The compound beverage is nutritions and good for health,can be developed with good color, flavor and taste.%采用热水浸提法对菊糖进行提取,通过正交试验确定了提取菊糖的最佳条件为:料水比1∶25(g/g),温度90℃,提取时间60 min,菊糖提取率为79.98%。以菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花为主要原料,添加白砂糖、蜂蜜等辅料。针对其关键技术进行了探讨,采用单因素和正交试验设计,以产品感官评价为指标,确定菊芋菊糖、山楂、菊花复合饮料的最佳工艺配方。结果表明:山楂和菊花提取液比为2∶3(mL/mL)、菊芋菊糖2%、白砂糖4%、蜂蜜3%、最佳稳定剂为0.05%海藻酸钠和0.1%CMC-Na。该复合饮料具有营养、保健的功能,色泽、香味、口感俱佳。

  19. EVALUACIÓN DE DOS TRATAMIENTOS FOTOPERIÓDICOS EN CRISANTEMO (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., BAJO CONDICIONES DEL INTERTRÓPICO ANDINO ALTO EVALUATION OF TWO PHOTOPERIOD TREATMENTS IN CHRYSANTHEMUM (Dendranthema grandiflorum ((Ramat. Kitam., UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH ANDEAN INTERTROPIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fáber de Jesús Chica Toro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En la floricultura colombiana, cerca del 14 % de los costos de producción del crisantemo o pompón (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam., está representado por la luz complementaria requerida para controlar su floración. Con el fin de encontrar un protocolo que hiciera uso de un menor suministro de luz, en este trabajo se compararon los efectos de dos esquemas de complemento lumínico nocturno sobre algunas características precosecha y poscosecha en dos variedades comerciales tipo spider de crisantemo: Super White y Super Yellow. El esquema testigo de suplemento lumínico nocturno consistió en aportar la adición durante 28 días para la variedad Super Yellow, y 26 para la variedad Super White. La propuesta alternativa de adición lumínica nocturna consistió en interrumpir el estímulo durante una noche completa cada dos días. Tal disminución del estímulo lumínico, en aproximadamente un 30 %, no afectó el crecimiento ni las características poscosecha de las variedades evaluadas.In Colombian floriculture, nearly 14% of the production costs of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat. Kitam. consists of the additional lighting required to control its flowering. In order to find a protocol that consumes a lower amount of electricity, this study compared the effects of two supplementary noctural lighting schemes on several preharvest and postharvest characteristics in two commercial varieties of chrysanthemum: Super White and Super Yellow. The control nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of providing the supplemental lighting during 28 days for the Super Yellow variety and during 26 days for the Super White variety. The alternative nocturnal lighting scheme consisted of interrupting the stimulus during one complete night every two days. This approximately 30% reduction in light stimulation did not affect either growth or postharvest characteristics of the varieties evaluated.

  20. Effects of Different Concentrations of Gibberellin on the Flowering of Ground-cover Chrysanthemum 'Zichonglou'%不同浓度赤霉素对地被菊‘紫重楼’开花特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王媛; 崔雁汇; 孔一昌; 张强; 吕晋慧

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of gibberellin on plant height, crown breadth, flowering characteristic (flowering season, flower number, petals number, flower diameter) and the pollen germination viability of ground-cover Chrysanthemum ' Zichonglou' were studied, which could provided substantial base for the hybrid breeding and regulating flower season of ground-cover Chrysanthemum. The results showed that 100-500 mg/L of gibberellin might cause the dewing color season 6-10 days ahead of time, the starting flower season 7-12 days ahead of time, and the abundant flowering season 2-7 days ahead of time. With the increase of gibberellin concentration ranging from 0 to 500 mg/L, internode and plant height were increased, but the flower number, petals number, crown breadth, and flower diameter were inhibited. The longest internode and plant height occurred with 500 mg/L gibberellin treatment. The pollen germination viability were improved by 100-300 mg/L of gibberellin, and impressed by 500 mg/L gibberellin.%笔者探讨不同浓度赤霉素(GA3)对地被菊‘紫重楼’株高、冠幅、开花特性(花期、开花量、花朵重瓣性、花径)和花粉生活力的影响,旨在为地被菊杂交育种、花期调控提供参考依据.试验结果表明,喷施100~500 mg/L GA3后,‘紫重楼’露色期、始花期及盛花期分别提前6~10天、7~12天和2~7天;GA3有利于节间伸长和株高增加,但植株开花量和花瓣重瓣性降低,冠幅、花径减小.其中,500 mg/L GA3处理下的地被菊节间长度与株高显著高于其他水平;100~300 mg/L GA3处理可促进花粉生活力,500 mg/L对花粉生活力有抑制作用.

  1. Characteristics of Seed Germination and Regularities of Growth and Development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium in Natural Conditions%甘菊种子萌发特性及自然条件下生长发育规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁焱; 付建新; 戴思兰

    2012-01-01

    对甘菊[ Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium(Fisch.ex Trautv.)Makino]种子萌发特性和自然条件下生长发育规律进行了试验观察,发现不同栽培基质及不同储藏时间对甘菊种子萌发率均有影响,在MS培养基上播种甘菊种子萌发率最高,可达90%左右.甘菊种子无休眠现象,采收后立即播种和次年春季播种萌发率均可达90%左右.甘菊种子不耐储藏,储藏至第3年秋季播种,萌发率仅为30%.自然条件下,5月至8月底是甘菊植株的营养生长时期,在此期间,甘菊株高、茎粗、冠幅、叶片数及分枝数一直处于增长状态;9月份当日照长度缩短至13 h时,甘菊开始现蕾,这表明13h光照/11h黑暗可能为甘菊现蕾的临界日长.%An experiment was conducted to study the seed germination characteristics and the regularities of growth and development of Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium (Fisch. ex Trautv. ) Makino in natural conditions. Results indicate that different culture media and different storage times have some effects on the germination rate of C. lavandulifolium. The seeds on the MS medium showed the highest germination rate (about 90% ). The seeds of C. lavandulifolium have no dormancy phenomenon. The germination rate of the seeds sowed immediately after harvest or the next spring could reach almost 90%. The germination rate of the seeds decreased with storage time. The germination rate of the seeds sowed in the fall of the third year was only 30%. May to late August is the period of vegetative growth when the plant height, stem thickness, the number of leaves, crown size and the number of branches of C. lavandulifolium are in a rapid growth stage. The buds start appeared when the duration of day decreased to thirteen hours, which indicates that 13 hours of light and 11 hours of darkness may be the critical period for the buds of C. lavandulifolium, but it still need to be demonstrated by extensive experiments.

  2. Tissue Engineering Strategies in Ligament Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caglar Yilgor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ligaments are dense fibrous connective tissues that connect bones to other bones and their injuries are frequently encountered in the clinic. The current clinical approaches in ligament repair and regeneration are limited to autografts, as the gold standard, and allografts. Both of these techniques have their own drawbacks that limit the success in clinical setting; therefore, new strategies are being developed in order to be able to solve the current problems of ligament grafting. Tissue engineering is a novel promising technique that aims to solve these problems, by producing viable artificial ligament substitutes in the laboratory conditions with the potential of transplantation to the patients with a high success rate. Direct cell and/or growth factor injection to the defect site is another current approach aiming to enhance the repair process of the native tissue. This review summarizes the current approaches in ligament tissue engineering strategies including the use of scaffolds, their modification techniques, as well as the use of bioreactors to achieve enhanced regeneration rates, while also discussing the advances in growth factor and cell therapy applications towards obtaining enhanced ligament regeneration.

  3. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca; Vadalà; Fabrizio; Russo; Luca; Ambrosio; Mattia; Loppini; Vincenzo; Denaro

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments.Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers(e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration.

  4. Electrospun scaffold development for periodontal ligament regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourattar, Parisa

    Periodontitis is a major chronic inflammatory disorder that can lead to the destruction of the periodontal tissues and, ultimately, tooth loss. It is a major cause of tooth loss in adults and a substantial public-health burden worldwide. There is thus a significant need for periodontal ligament (PDL) regeneration to enable functional mechanical support of tooth prostheses and prevent occlusal overloading. The goal of stem cell-based dental tissue engineering, is to create tooth-like structures using scaffold materials to guide the dental stem cells. Current resorbable membranes act as an epithelial tissue down-growth into the defect, favoring the regeneration of periodontal tissues. In order to develop synthetic grafts for these applications, different biocompatible materials have been used to fabricate fibers with different structures and morphologies. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a composite material that combines the advantage of multiple materials to synthesize polyvinyl alcohol/ chitosan blend fiber scaffolds to promote PDL regeneration and to achieve a synthetic composite that match the native PDL modulus. Morphology, dispersibility, and mechanical properties of blend nanofibrous mats were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and tensile test.

  5. Enamel Regeneration in Making a Bioengineered Tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruoshi; Zhou, Yachuan; Zhang, Binpeng; Shen, Jiefei; Gao, Bo; Xu, Xin; Ye, Ling; Zheng, Liwei; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-01-01

    Overall enamel is the hard tissue overlying teeth that is vulnerable to caries, congenital defects, and damage due to trauma. Not only is enamel incapable of self-repair in most species, but it is also subject to attrition. Besides the use of artificial materials to restore enamel, enamel regeneration is a promising approach to repair enamel damage. In order to comprehend the progression and challenges in tissue-engineered enamel, this article elaborates alternative stem cells potential for enamel secretion and expounds fined strategies for enamel regeneration in bioengineered teeth. Consequently, more and more cell types have been induced to differentiate into ameloblasts and to secrete enamel, and an increasing number of reports have emerged to provide various potential approaches to induce cells to secrete enamel based on recombination experiments, artificial bioactive nano-materials, or gene manipulation. Accordingly, it is expected to further project more optimal conditions for enamel formation in bioengineering based on a more thorough knowledge of reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, by which the procedures of enamel regeneration are able to be practically recapitulated and widely spread for the potential clinical value of enamel repair.

  6. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadalà, Gianluca; Russo, Fabrizio; Ambrosio, Luca; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-05-26

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments. Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers (e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration.

  7. Regenerating articular tissue by converging technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Moroni

    Full Text Available Scaffolds for osteochondral tissue engineering should provide mechanical stability, while offering specific signals for chondral and bone regeneration with a completely interconnected porous network for cell migration, attachment, and proliferation. Composites of polymers and ceramics are often considered to satisfy these requirements. As such methods largely rely on interfacial bonding between the ceramic and polymer phase, they may often compromise the use of the interface as an instrument to direct cell fate. Alternatively, here, we have designed hybrid 3D scaffolds using a novel concept based on biomaterial assembly, thereby omitting the drawbacks of interfacial bonding. Rapid prototyped ceramic particles were integrated into the pores of polymeric 3D fiber-deposited (3DF matrices and infused with demineralized bone matrix (DBM to obtain constructs that display the mechanical robustness of ceramics and the flexibility of polymers, mimicking bone tissue properties. Ostechondral scaffolds were then fabricated by directly depositing a 3DF structure optimized for cartilage regeneration adjacent to the bone scaffold. Stem cell seeded scaffolds regenerated both cartilage and bone in vivo.

  8. Retinal synaptic regeneration via microfluidic guiding channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping-Jung; Liu, Zongbin; Zhang, Kai; Han, Xin; Saito, Yuki; Xia, Xiaojun; Yokoi, Kenji; Shen, Haifa; Qin, Lidong

    2015-08-28

    In vitro culture of dissociated retinal neurons is an important model for investigating retinal synaptic regeneration (RSR) and exploring potentials in artificial retina. Here, retinal precursor cells were cultured in a microfluidic chip with multiple arrays of microchannels in order to reconstruct the retinal neuronal synapse. The cultured retinal cells were physically connected through microchannels. Activation of electric signal transduction by the cells through the microchannels was demonstrated by administration of glycinergic factors. In addition, an image-based analytical method was used to quantify the synaptic connections and to assess the kinetics of synaptic regeneration. The rate of RSR decreased significantly below 100 μM of inhibitor glycine and then approached to a relatively constant level at higher concentrations. Furthermore, RSR was enhanced by chemical stimulation with potassium chloride. Collectively, the microfluidic synaptic regeneration chip provides a novel tool for high-throughput investigation of RSR at the cellular level and may be useful in quality control of retinal precursor cell transplantation.

  9. Germ cell specification and regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, P A; Wang, Y; Chong, T

    2008-01-01

    In metazoans, two apparently distinct mechanisms specify germ cell fate: Determinate specification (observed in animals including Drosophila, Caenorhabditis elegans, zebra fish, and Xenopus) uses cytoplasmic factors localized to specific regions of the egg, whereas epigenetic specification (observed in many basal metazoans, urodeles, and mammals) involves inductive interactions between cells. Much of our understanding of germ cell specification has emerged from studies of model organisms displaying determinate specification. In contrast, our understanding of epigenetic/inductive specification is less advanced and would benefit from studies of additional organisms. Freshwater planarians--widely known for their remarkable powers of regeneration--are well suited for studying the mechanisms by which germ cells can be induced. Classic experiments showed that planarians can regenerate germ cells from body fragments entirely lacking reproductive structures, suggesting that planarian germ cells could be specified by inductive signals. Furthermore, the availability of the genome sequence of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, coupled with the animal's susceptibility to systemic RNA interference (RNAi), facilitates functional genomic analyses of germ cell development and regeneration. Here, we describe recent progress in studies of planarian germ cells and frame some of the critical unresolved questions for future work.

  10. Protein phosphorylation: Localization in regenerating optic axons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrivee, D. (Cornell Univ. Medical College, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A number of axonal proteins display changes in phosphorylation during goldfish optic nerve regeneration. (1) To determine whether the phosphorylation of these proteins was closely linked to their synthesis in the retinal ganglion cell body, cycloheximide was injected intraocularly into goldfish whose optic nerves had been regenerating for 3 weeks. Cycloheximide reduced the incorporation of (3H)proline and 32P orthophosphate into total nerve protein by 84% and 46%, respectively. Of the 20 individual proteins examined, 17 contained less than 15% of the (3H)proline label measured in corresponding controls, whereas 18 proteins contained 50% or more of the 32P label, suggesting that phosphorylation was largely independent of synthesis. (2) To determine whether the proteins were phosphorylated in the ganglion cell axons, axonal transport of proteins was blocked by intraocular injection of vincristine. Vincristine reduced (3H)proline labeling of total protein by 88% and 32P labeling by 49%. Among the individual proteins (3H)proline labeling was reduced by 90% or more in 18 cases but 32P labeling was reduced only by 50% or less. (3) When 32P was injected into the cranial cavity near the ends of the optic axons, all of the phosphoproteins were labeled more intensely in the optic tract than in the optic nerve. These results suggest that most of the major phosphoproteins that undergo changes in phosphorylation in the course of regeneration are phosphorylated in the optic axons.

  11. Effects of thermal water on skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faga, Angela; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Gregotti, Cesarina; Finotti, Valentina; Nitto, Agnese; Gioglio, Luciana

    2012-05-01

    An experimental study was carried out in an animal (New Zealand white rabbit) wound model to evaluate any effects of a hypotonic, bicarbonate-calcium-magnesium mineral water (Comano thermal water) on skin regeneration, comparing the healing rate of split-thickness skin graft donor sites treated with the thermal water wet dressing versus a standard petrolatum gauze dressing versus a saline solution wet dressing. The study was performed in two steps; an overall of 22 animals were enrolled in the study. The wound healing progress was evaluated both by the surgeons and by the histologists. Sixty-four punch biopsies were examined in all. The histological samples were examined after staining with haematoxylin and eosin, Masson's and orcein staining and under a transmission electron microscope. The data were statistically analysed. The Comano thermal water proved to improve skin regeneration, not only by increasing keratinocyte proliferation and migration but also favourably modulating the regenerated collagen and elastic fibres in the dermis. We propose that the results of the topical treatment with the thermal water could be due to the favourable combination of a local wet environment with an anti-inflammatory action and that the regenerative properties of Comano thermal water observed in rabbits could also be applied for human use.

  12. Extracellular matrix components in peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Perez, Francisco; Udina, Esther; Navarro, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Injured axons of the peripheral nerve are able to regenerate and, eventually, reinnervate target organs. However, functional recovery is usually poor after severe nerve injuries. The switch of Schwann cells to a proliferative state, secretion of trophic factors, and the presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules (such as collagen, laminin, or fibronectin) in the distal stump are key elements to create a permissive environment for axons to grow. In this review, we focus attention on the ECM components and their tropic role in axonal regeneration. These components can also be used as molecular cues to guide the axons through artificial nerve guides in attempts to better mimic the natural environment found in a degenerating nerve. Most used scaffolds tested are based on natural molecules that form the ECM, but use of synthetic polymers and functionalization of hydrogels are bringing new options. Progress in tissue engineering will eventually lead to the design of composite artificial nerve grafts that may replace the use of autologous nerve grafts to sustain regeneration over long gaps.

  13. Fgf regulates dedifferentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saera-Vila, Alfonso; Kish, Phillip E; Kahana, Alon

    2016-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) regulate critical biological processes such as embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. In zebrafish, Fgf signaling plays an important role in the regeneration of the spinal cord, liver, heart, fin, and photoreceptors, although its exact mechanism of action is not fully understood. Utilizing an adult zebrafish extraocular muscle (EOM) regeneration model, we demonstrate that blocking Fgf receptor function using either a chemical inhibitor (SU5402) or a dominant-negative transgenic construct (dnFGFR1a:EGFP) impairs muscle regeneration. Adult zebrafish EOMs regenerate through a myocyte dedifferentiation process, which involves a muscle-to-mesenchyme transition and cell cycle reentry by differentiated myocytes. Blocking Fgf signaling reduced cell proliferation and active caspase 3 levels in the regenerating muscle with no detectable levels of apoptosis, supporting the hypothesis that Fgf signaling is involved in the early steps of dedifferentiation. Fgf signaling in regenerating myocytes involves the MAPK/ERK pathway: inhibition of MEK activity with U0126 mimicked the phenotype of the Fgf receptor inhibition on both muscle regeneration and cell proliferation, and activated ERK (p-ERK) was detected in injured muscles by immunofluorescence and western blot. Interestingly, following injury, ERK2 expression is specifically induced and activated by phosphorylation, suggesting a key role in muscle regeneration. We conclude that the critical early steps of myocyte dedifferentiation in EOM regeneration are dependent on Fgf signaling.

  14. Jet Penetration into a Scaled Microfabricated Stirling Cycle Regenerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liyong; Simon, Terrence W.; Mantell, Susan; Ibrahim, Mournir; Gedeon, David; Tew, Roy

    2008-01-01

    The cooler and heater adjacent to the regenerator of a Stirling cycle engine have tubes or channels which form jets that pass into the regenerator while diffusing within the matrix. An inactive part of the matrix, beyond the cores of these jets, does not participate fully in the heat transfer between the flow of working fluid and the regenerator matrix material, weakening the regenerator s ability to exchange heat with the working fluid. The objective of the present program is to document this effect on the performance of the regenerator and to develop a model for generalizing the results. However, the small scales of actual Stirling regenerator matrices (on the order of tens of microns) make direct measurements of this effect very difficult. As a result, jet spreading within a regenerator matrix has not been characterized well and is poorly understood. Also, modeling is lacking experimental verification. To address this, a large-scale mockup of thirty times actual scale was constructed and operated under conditions that are dynamically similar to the engine operation. Jet penetration with round jets and slot jets into the microfabricated regenerator geometry are then measured by conventional means. The results are compared with those from a study of spreading of round jets within woven screen regenerator for further documentation of the comparative performance of the microfabricated regenerator geometry.

  15. Transcriptional Profiling of Caudal Fin Regeneration in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schebesta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration of severed limbs in adult animals is restricted to urodele amphibians. Mammals, including humans, have very limited regenerative capabilities and even with proper treatment, only the tips of our digits can grow back. Teleost fish can regenerate amputated fins, the evolutionary ancestors of limbs. To elucidate the principles of limb-fin regeneration, we performed an Affymetrix microarray screen on regenerating caudal fins 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post amputation. Approximately 15,000 zebrafish transcripts were analyzed, identifying 829 transcripts as differentially expressed during regeneration. Of those, 563 were up-regulated and 266 were down-regulated. We constructed a comprehensive database containing expression data, functional assignment, and background information from the literature for each differentially expressed transcript. In order to validate our findings, we employed three approaches: (1 microarray expression analysis of genes previously implicated in fin regeneration, (2 RT-PCR analysis of genes newly identified as differentially expressed during regeneration, and (3 in situ hybridization of the up-regulated genes bambi, dlx5A, and her6. Moreover, we show that Smad 1/5/8 proteins, effector molecules of Bmp signaling, are phosphorylated during fin regeneration. Taken together, we provide a comprehensive database of fin regeneration that will serve as an important tool for understanding the molecular mechanisms of regeneration.

  16. Refining the Ciona intestinalis model of central nervous system regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Dahlberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New, practical models of central nervous system regeneration are required and should provide molecular tools and resources. We focus here on the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, which has the capacity to regenerate nerves and a complete adult central nervous system, a capacity unusual in the chordate phylum. We investigated the timing and sequence of events during nervous system regeneration in this organism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed techniques for reproducible ablations and for imaging live cellular events in tissue explants. Based on live observations of more than 100 regenerating animals, we subdivided the regeneration process into four stages. Regeneration was functional, as shown by the sequential recovery of reflexes that established new criteria for defining regeneration rates. We used transgenic animals and labeled nucleotide analogs to describe in detail the early cellular events at the tip of the regenerating nerves and the first appearance of the new adult ganglion anlage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rate of regeneration was found to be negatively correlated with adult size. New neural structures were derived from the anterior and posterior nerve endings. A blastemal structure was implicated in the formation of new neural cells. This work demonstrates that Ciona intestinalis is as a useful system for studies on regeneration of the brain, brain-associated organs and nerves.

  17. Morphological observation of antler regeneration in red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyi; Suttie, James M; Clark, Dawn E

    2004-12-01

    Deer antler offers a unique opportunity to explore how nature solves the problem of mammalian appendage regeneration. Annual antler renewal is an example of epimorphic regeneration, which is known to take place through initial blastema formation. Detailed examination of the early process of antler regeneration, however, has thus far been lacking. Therefore, we conducted morphological observations on antler regeneration from naturally cast and artificially created pedicle/antler stumps. On the naturally cast pedicle stumps, early antler regeneration underwent four distinguishable stages (with the Chinese equivalent names): casting of previous hard antlers (oil lamp bowl), early wound healing (tiger eye), late wound healing and early regeneration (millstone), and formation of main beam and brown tine (small saddle). Overall, no cone-shaped regenerate, a common feature to blastema-based regeneration, was observed. Taken together with the examination on the sagittal plane of each regenerating stage sample, we found that there are considerable overlaps between late-stage wound healing and the establishment of posterior and anterior growth centers. Observation of antler regeneration from the artificially created stumps showed that the regeneration potential of antler remnants was significantly reduced compared with that of pedicle tissue. Interestingly, the distal portion of a pedicle stump had greater regeneration potential than the proximal region, although this differential potential may not be constitutive, but rather caused by whether or not pedicle antlerogenic tissue becomes closely associated with the enveloping skin at the cut plane. Antler formation could take place from the distal peripheral tissues of an antler/pedicle stump, without the obvious participation of the entire central bony portion. Overall, our morphological results do not support the notion that antler regeneration takes place through the initial formation of a blastema; rather, it may be a stem

  18. Characterisation of cuticular mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Faust, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Plants are protected by the extracellular cuticle, which is made up of cutin, cutan and waxes. The cutin composition of a variety of plants has been known and models of the biosynthesis of cutin monomers exist but not many enzymes have been identified. It is generally accepted that a defect in the cuticle leads to an organ fusion phenotype. In the model plant A. thaliana many fusion mutants have been identified but the identification of genes involved have not lead to a complete picture of th...

  19. Using of AFLP to evaluate gamma-irradiated amaranth mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labajová Mária

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine which of several gamma-irradiated mutants of amaranth Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid are most genetically similar to their non-irradiated control genotypes, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP based analysis. A total of 40 selective primer combinations were used in reported analyses. First analyses of gamma-irradiated amaranth mutant lines were done used the AFLP. In the study, primers with the differentiation ability for all analysed mutant lines are reported. The very specific changes in the mutant lines´ non-coding regions based on AFLP length polymorphism were analysed. Mutant lines of the Ficha cultivar (C15, C26, C27, C82, C236 shared a genetic dissimilarity of 0,11 and their ISSR profiles are more similar to the Ficha than those of K-433 hybrid mutant lines. The K-433 mutant lines (D54, D279, D282 shared genetic dissimilarity of 0,534 but are more distinct to their control plant as a whole, as those of the Ficha mutant lines. Different AFLP fingerprints patters of the mutant lines when compared to the Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid AFLP profiles may be a consequence of the complex response of the intergenic space of mutant lines to the gamma-radiance. Although a genetic polymorphism was detected within accessions, the AFLP markers successfully identified all the accessions. The AFLP results are discussed by a combination of biochemical characteristics of mutant lines and their control genotypes.

  20. Distribution of soluble amino acids in maize endosperm mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toro Alejandro Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For human nutrition the main source of vegetable proteins are cereal and legume seeds. The content of total soluble amino acids in mature endosperm of wild-type, opaque and floury maize (Zea mays L. mutants were determined by HPLC. The total absolute concentration of soluble amino acids among the mutants varied depending on the mutant. The o11 and o13 mutants exhibited the highest average content, whereas o10, fl3 and fl1 exhibited the lowest average content. In general, the mutants exhibited similar concentrations of total soluble amino acids when compared to the wild-type lines, with the clear exception of mutants o11 and fl1, with the o11 mutant exhibiting a higher concentration of total soluble amino acids when compared to its wild-type counterpart W22 and the fl1 mutant a lower concentration when compared to its wild-type counterpart Oh43. For methionine, the mutants o2 and o11 and wild-type Oh43 exhibited the highest concentrations of this amino acid. Significant differences were not observed between mutants for other amino acids such as lysine and threonine. The high lysine concentrations obtained originally for these mutants may be due to the amino acids incorporated into storage proteins, but not those present in the soluble form.

  1. Tissue engineering and peripheral nerve regeneration (III) -- Sciatic nerve regeneration with PDLLA nerve guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The biodegradation rate and biocompatibility of poly(d, l -lactide) (PDLLA) in vivo were evaluated. The aim of this study was to establish a nerve guide constructed by the PDLLA with 3-D microenvironment and to repair a 10 mm of sciatic nerve gap in rats. The process of the nerve regeneration was investigated by histological assessment, electrophysiological examination, and determination of wet weight recovery rate of the gastrocnemius muscle. After 3 weeks, the nerve guide had changed from a transparent to an opaque status. The conduit was degraded and absorbed partly and had lost their strength with breakage at the 9th week of postoperation. At the conclusion of 12 weeks, proximal and distal end of nerves were anastomosed by nerve regeneration and the conduit vanished completely. The results suggest that PDLLA conduits may serve for peripheral nerve regeneration and PDLLA is a sort of hopeful candidate for tissue engineering.

  2. Indy mutants: live long and prosper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart eFrankel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Indy encodes the fly homologue of a mammalian transporter of di and tricarboxylatecomponents of the Krebs cycle. Reduced expression of fly Indy or two of the C. elegansIndy homologs leads to an increase in life span. Fly and worm tissues that play key roles inintermediary metabolism are also the places where Indy genes are expressed. One of themouse homologs of Indy (mIndy is mainly expressed in the liver. It has been hypothesizedthat decreased INDY activity creates a state similar to caloric restriction (CR. Thishypothesis is supported by the physiological similarities between Indy mutant flies on highcalorie food and control flies on CR, such as increased physical activity and decreases inweight, egg production, triglyceride levels, starvation resistance, and insulin signaling. Inaddition, Indy mutant flies undergo changes in mitochondrial biogenesis also observed inCR animals. Recent findings with mIndy knockout mice support and extend the findingsfrom flies. mIndy-/- mice display an increase in hepatic mitochondrial biogenesis, lipidoxidation and decreased hepatic lipogenesis. When mIndy-/- mice are fed high calorie foodthey are protected from adiposity and insulin resistance. These findings point to INDY as apotential drug target for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  3. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, S. G.; Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  4. Retinoid induction of alveolar regeneration: from mice to man?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, M; Gilthorpe, A; Stinchcombe, S; Maden, M

    2009-05-01

    The use of retinoids to induce human lung regeneration is under investigation in a number of studies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Retinoic acid (RA) has complex pleiotropic functions during vertebrate patterning and development and can induce regeneration in a number of different organ systems. Studies of retinoid signalling during lung development might provide a molecular basis to explain pharmacological induction of alveolar regeneration in adult models of lung disease. In this review the role of endogenous RA signalling during alveologenesis is explored and data suggesting that a number of exogenous retinoids can induce regeneration in the adult lung are discussed. Current controversies in this area are highlighted and a hypothesis of lung regeneration is put forward. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of induction of regeneration will be central for effective translation into patients with lung disease and may reveal novel insights into the pathogenesis of alveolar disease and senescence.

  5. Role of microRNA in liver regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Sheng Yi; Ming Zhang; Ming-Qing Xu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Liver regeneration is a complex process. mi-croRNAs (miRNAs) are short, single-stranded RNAs that mod-ify gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recent investigations have revealed that miRNAs are closely linked to liver regeneration. DATA SOURCES: All included studies were obtained from PubMed, Embase, the ScienceDirect databases and Web of Science, with no limitation on publication year. Only studies published in English were considered. RESULTS: We grouped studies that involved miRNA and liver regeneration into two groups: miRNAs as promoters and as inhibitors of liver regeneration. We summarized the relevant miRNAs separately from the related pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Blocking or stimulating the pathways of miRNAs in liver regeneration may be novel therapeutic strat-egies in future regeneration-related liver managements. We may discover additional chemotherapy targets of miRNA.

  6. Influence of input acoustic power on regenerator's performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Performance of a pulse tube cooler significantly depends on the efficient operation of its regenerator. Influence of input acoustic power on regenerator's performance is simulated and analyzed with simple harmonic analysis method. Given regenerator's dimensions and pressure ratio, there is an optimal input acoustic power for achieving a highest coefficient of performance, due to a compromise between relative time-averaged total energy flux in regenerator and relative acoustic power at regenerator's cold end. Additionally, optimal dimensions of regenerator are also estimated and presented for different input acoustic powers. The computed optimal diameter obviously increases with increase of input acoustic power, while the optimal length decreases slightly,and as a result, a larger input acoustic power requires a smaller aspect ratio (length over diameter).

  7. Internodal function in normal and regenerated mammalian axons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, M; Krarup, C

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Following Wallerian degeneration, peripheral myelinated axons have the ability to regenerate and, given a proper pathway, establish functional connections with targets. In spite of this capacity, the clinical outcome of nerve regeneration remains unsatisfactory. Early studies have found...... that regenerated internodes remain persistently short though this abnormality did not seem to influence recovery in conduction. It remains unclear to which extent abnormalities in axonal function itself may contribute to the poor outcome of nerve regeneration. METHODS: We review experimental evidence indicating...... that internodes play an active role in axonal function. RESULTS: By investigating internodal contribution to axonal excitability we have found evidence that axonal function may be permanently compromised in regenerated nerves. Furthermore, we illustrate that internodal function is also abnormal in regenerated...

  8. Growth and respiration of regenerating tissues of the axolotl tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the weight and oxygen consumption were studied during regeneration of the tail in adult axolotls and larvae. The curve of the increase in weight of the regenerating tail in both age groups is S-shaped. The intensity of respiration of the regenerating tail increases in adult axolotls and in larvae at the blastema stage; in adult axolotls there is also a second increase in the intensity of respiration of the regenerating tail during differentiation of the muscles. The relationship between weight and the rate of respiration was compared during regeneration of the tail in axolotl and the normal growth of the animals. Whereas growth of the animals was characterized by the relationship QO2 equals aPk with a constant value of k, during regeneration the various stages of this process have their own corresponding values of k.

  9. Progressive specification rather than intercalation of segments during limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roensch, Kathleen; Tazaki, Akira; Chara, Osvaldo; Tanaka, Elly M

    2013-12-13

    An amputated salamander limb regenerates the correct number of segments. Models explaining limb regeneration were largely distinct from those for limb development, despite the presence of common patterning molecules. Intercalation has been an important concept to explain salamander limb regeneration, but clear evidence supporting or refuting this model was lacking. In the intercalation model, the first blastema cells acquire fingertip identity, creating a gap in positional identity that triggers regeneration of the intervening region from the stump. We used HOXA protein analysis and transplantation assays to show that axolotl limb blastema cells acquire positional identity in a proximal-to-distal sequence. Therefore, intercalation is not the primary mechanism for segment formation during limb regeneration in this animal. Patterning in development and regeneration uses similar mechanisms.

  10. Seasonal patterns of ammonium regeneration from size-fractionated microheterotrophs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguer, Jean-François; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Madec, Christian; Le Corre, Pierre

    1999-11-01

    Ammonium regeneration by size-fractionated plankton was measured for 1 year at a coastal station in the shallow well-mixed waters of the western English Channel. Rates of ammonium regeneration in the Journal of Plankton Research, 18, 355-370). Total ammonium regenerated in a year by the microheterotrophs was 15 g N m -2, equivalent to about 60% of the total nitrogen uptake. Microplankton (200-15 μm) accounted for about 50% of the regeneration measured between early spring and late summer. Percent contribution of nanoplankton to total ammonium regeneration varied considerably between the seasons, from very high (83-88%) levels in winter to very low (2-13%) levels in summer. Contribution by picoplankton (nano- and picoplankton fractions, appears to be different from that in deep well-mixed waters. Here, the relative contribution of ciliates and bacteria to ammonium regeneration shows little variation with an increase in macrozooplankton biomass.

  11. Defects in ErbB-dependent establishment of adult melanocyte stem cells reveal independent origins for embryonic and regeneration melanocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith A Hultman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells are responsible for maintaining and repairing tissues during the life of an organism. Tissue repair in humans, however, is limited compared to the regenerative capabilities of other vertebrates, such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio. An understanding of stem cell mechanisms, such as how they are established, their self-renewal properties, and their recruitment to produce new cells is therefore important for the application of regenerative medicine. We use larval melanocyte regeneration following treatment with the melanocytotoxic drug MoTP to investigate these mechanisms in Melanocyte Stem Cell (MSC regulation. In this paper, we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase, erbb3b, is required for establishing the adult MSC responsible for regenerating the larval melanocyte population. Both the erbb3b mutant and wild-type fish treated with the ErbB inhibitor, AG1478, develop normal embryonic melanocytes but fail to regenerate melanocytes after MoTP-induced melanocyte ablation. By administering AG1478 at different time points, we show that ErbB signaling is only required for regeneration prior to MoTP treatment and before 48 hours of development, consistent with a role in establishing MSCs. We then show that overexpression of kitla, the Kit ligand, in transgenic larvae leads to recruitment of MSCs, resulting in overproliferation of melanocytes. Furthermore, kitla overexpression can rescue AG1478-blocked regeneration, suggesting that ErbB signaling is required to promote the progression and specification of the MSC from a pre-MSC state. This study provides evidence that ErbB signaling is required for the establishment of adult MSCs during embryonic development. That this requirement is not shared with the embryonic melanocytes suggests that embryonic melanocytes develop directly, without proceeding through the ErbB-dependent MSC. Moreover, the shared requirement of larval melanocyte regeneration and metamorphic melanocytes that develops at

  12. Role of nuclear factor kappa B in central nervous system regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Engelmann; Falk Weih; Ronny Haenold

    2014-01-01

    Activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a hallmark of various central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Neuron-speciifc inhibition of its transcriptional activator subunit RelA, also referred to as p65, promotes neuronal survival under a range of conditions, i.e., for ischemic or excitotoxic insults. In macro-and microglial cells, post-lesional activation of NF-κB triggers a growth-permissive program which contributes to neural tissue inlfammation, scar formation, and the expression of axonal growth inhibitors. Intriguingly, inhibition of such inducible NF-κB in the neuro-glial compartment, i.e., by genetic ablation of RelA or overexpression of a trans-dominant negative mutant of its upstream regulator IκBα, significantly enhances functional recovery and promotes axonal regeneration in the mature CNS. By contrast, depletion of the NF-κB subunit p50, which lacks transcriptional activator function and acts as a transcriptional repressor on its own, causes precocious neuronal loss and exacerbates axonal degeneration in the lesioned brain. Collectively, the data imply that NF-κB orchestrates a multicellular pro-gram in whichκB-dependent gene expression establishes a growth-repulsive terrain within the post-lesioned brain that limits structural regeneration of neuronal circuits. Considering these subunit-speciifc functions, interference with the NF-κB pathway might hold clinical potentials to improve functional restoration following traumatic CNS injury.

  13. Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defects in acetate metabolism: isolation and characterization of Acn- mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, M T

    1996-09-01

    The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn- ("ACetate Nonutilizing") mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism.

  14. The circadian clock in skin: implications for adult stem cells, tissue regeneration, cancer, aging, and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikus, Maksim V; Van Spyk, Elyse N; Pham, Kim; Geyfman, Mikhail; Kumar, Vivek; Takahashi, Joseph S; Andersen, Bogi

    2015-06-01

    Historically, work on peripheral circadian clocks has been focused on organs and tissues that have prominent metabolic functions, such as the liver, fat, and muscle. In recent years, skin has emerged as a model for studying circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, stem cell functions, tissue regeneration, aging, and carcinogenesis. Morphologically, skin is complex, containing multiple cell types and structures, and there is evidence for a functional circadian clock in most, if not all, of its cell types. Despite the complexity, skin stem cell populations are well defined, experimentally tractable, and exhibit prominent daily cell proliferation cycles. Hair follicle stem cells also participate in recurrent, long-lasting cycles of regeneration: the hair growth cycles. Among other advantages of skin is a broad repertoire of available genetic tools enabling the creation of cell type-specific circadian mutants. Also, due to the accessibility of skin, in vivo imaging techniques can be readily applied to study the circadian clock and its outputs in real time, even at the single-cell level. Skin provides the first line of defense against many environmental and stress factors that exhibit dramatic diurnal variations such as solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation and temperature. Studies have already linked the circadian clock to the control of UVB-induced DNA damage and skin cancers. Due to the important role that skin plays in the defense against microorganisms, it also represents a promising model system to further explore the role of the clock in the regulation of the body's immune functions. To that end, recent studies have already linked the circadian clock to psoriasis, one of the most common immune-mediated skin disorders. Skin also provides opportunities to interrogate the clock regulation of tissue metabolism in the context of stem cells and regeneration. Furthermore, many animal species feature prominent seasonal hair molt cycles, offering an attractive model

  15. Research of Energy Regeneration Technology in Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈家新; 江建中; 汪信尧

    2003-01-01

    The theory of energy regeneration in electric vehicle (EV) has been introduced in most papers, but the mathematic model of EV energy regeneration system was little studied. In this paper the mathematic model of EV energy regeneration system is studied,and then the system ability under four control strategies is analyzed. In the end the system reliability is researched, and the calcula-tion model of system reliability is proposed.

  16. Proteomic analysis of regenerating mouse liver following 50% partial hepatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hongcui; Yu, Jiong; Xu, Wei; Jia, Xiaofei; Yang, Jinfeng; Pan, Qiaoling; Zhang, Qiyi; Sheng, Guoping; Li, Jun; Pan, Xiaoping; Wang, Yingjie; Li, Lanjuan

    2009-01-01

    Background Although 70% (or 2/3) partial hepatectomy (PH) is the most studied model for liver regeneration, the hepatic protein expression profile associated with lower volume liver resection (such as 50% PH) has not yet been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the global protein expression profile of the regenerating mouse liver following 50% PH by differential proteomics, and thereby gaining some insights into the hepatic regeneration mechanism(s) under this milder b...

  17. Applicability of tooth derived stem cells in neural regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Within the nervous system, regeneration is limited, and this is due to the small amount of neural stem cells, the inhibitory origin of the stem cell niche and often to the development of a scar which constitutes a mechanical barrier for the regeneration. Regarding these aspects, many efforts have been done in the research of a cell component that combined with scaffolds and growth factors could be suitable for nervous regeneration in regenerative medicine approaches. Autologous mesenchymal st...

  18. The Protective Effects of the Supercritical-Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Modulating Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Li Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical-carbon dioxide fluid extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné. (CFE has been demonstrated to be effective in suppressing inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the preventive action and underlying mechanisms of CFE on acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS into lung, and dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Results revealed that pretreatment with CFE abated LPS-induced lung histopathologic changes, reduced the wet/dry ratio and proinflammatory cytokines productions (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the levels of MPO and MDA, and upregulated the abilities of antioxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GPx. Furthermore, the pretreatment with CFE downregulated the activations of NF-κB and the expressions of TLR4/MyD88. These results suggested that CFE exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI. Its mechanisms were at least partially associated with the modulations of TLR4 signaling pathways.

  19. Neurobehavioral Mutants Identified in an ENU Mutagenesis Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Dunning, Jonathan P [University of Memphis; Wiley, Ronald G [Vanderbilt University and Veterans Administration, Nashville, TN; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Johnson, Dabney K [ORNL; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis

    2007-01-01

    We report on a behavioral screening test battery that successfully identified several neurobehavioral mutants among a large-scale ENU-mutagenized mouse population. Large numbers of ENU mutagenized mice were screened for abnormalities in central nervous system function based on abnormal performance in a series of behavior tasks. We developed and employed a high-throughput screen of behavioral tasks to detect behavioral outliers. Twelve mutant pedigrees, representing a broad range of behavioral phenotypes, have been identified. Specifically, we have identified two open field mutants (one displaying hyper-locomotion, the other hypo-locomotion), four tail suspension mutants (all displaying increased immobility), one nociception mutant (displaying abnormal responsiveness to thermal pain), two prepulse inhibition mutants (displaying poor inhibition of the startle response), one anxiety-related mutant (displaying decreased anxiety in the light/dark test), and one learning and memory mutant (displaying reduced response to the conditioned stimulus) These findings highlight the utility of a set of behavioral tasks used in a high throughput screen to identify neurobehavioral mutants. Further analysis (i.e., behavioral and genetic mapping studies) of mutants is in progress with the ultimate goal of identification of novel genes and mouse models relevant to human disorders as well as the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  20. Mutants of downy mildew resistance in Lactuca sativa (lettuce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubara, P A; Anderson, P A; Ochoa, O E; Michelmore, R W

    1994-07-01

    As part of our investigation of disease resistance in lettuce, we generated mutants that have lost resistance to Bremia lactucae, the casual fungus of downy mildew. Using a rapid and reliable screen, we identified 16 distinct mutants of Latuca sativa that have lost activity of one of four different downy mildew resistance genes (Dm). In all mutants, only a single Dm specificity was affected. Genetic analysis indicated that the lesions segregated as single, recessive mutations at the Dm loci. Dm3 was inactivated in nine of the mutants. One of five Dm 1 mutants was selected from a population of untreated seeds and therefore carried a spontaneous mutation. All other Dm1, Dm3, Dm5/8 and Dm7 mutants were derived from gamma- or fast neutron-irradiated seed. In two separate Dm 1 mutants and in each of the eight Dm3 mutants analyzed, at least one closely linked molecular marker was absent. Also, high molecular weight genomic DNA fragments that hybridized to a tightly linked molecular marker in wild type were either missing entirely or were truncated in two of the Dm3 mutants, providing additional evidence that deletions had occurred in these mutants. Absence of mutations at loci epistatic to the Dm genes suggested that such loci were either members of multigene families, were critical for plant survival, or encoded components of duplicated pathways for resistance; alternatively, the genes determining downy mildew resistance might be limited to the Dm loci.